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Sample records for thiocyanate ions implications

  1. Coordination of thiocyanate ions to rare earth ions in concentrated aqueous rare earth thiocyanate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kanno, H.; Oikawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In the previous Raman spectroscopic and DTA study of aqueous rare earth thiocyanate [Ln(SCN) 3 ; Ln=La 3+ ∼ Lu 3+ ] solutions at R=20 (R is moles of water per moles of salt), it was shown that a thiocyanate ion binds to a rare earth ion only at the N end and the coordination number change takes place in the middle of the series. As an extension of the previous work, Raman spectroscopic measurements were carried out for aqueous Ln(SCN) 3 solutions (R=10-50) at room temperature to investigate the concentration dependence of the formation of the thiocyanate- rare earth complex ions and determine the average numbers of the thiocyanate ions coordinating to a rare earth ion. Although the Raman band area ratio (υ lb /υ lf ) (υ lb ; the Raman band due to the coordinated thiocyanate ions, υ lf ; the one due to the solvated free thiocyanate ions) of the C-S stretching vibrational bands increases with decreasing ionic radius, the quantitative intensity analysis of the Raman bands was made by following the internal intensity method reported by Irish et al. and showed that the average number of thiocyanate ions bound to a rare earth ion is almost the same throughout the series (about 2.7 at R=20) within the experimental uncertainty. This finding indicates that the coordination number change in the middle of the series takes place by ejecting one water molecule from the inner-coordination sphere

  2. Raman Spectra and Dynamics of Thiocyanate Ion in Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)-KSCN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, M. M.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Shabanov, N. S.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Amirov, A. M.; Gadjimagomedov, S. Kh.

    2017-11-01

    Raman spectra of poly(vinyl alcohol)-potassium-thiocyanate films are studied. Parameters of vibrational and orientational relaxation of thiocyanate ion in the polymer matrix are determined. The character and rate of vibrational dephasing become identical to SCN- vibrations in aqueous solution at salt concentrations ≥0.3 M.

  3. Investigation of concentration of thiocyanate ion in raw cow's milk from China, New Zealand and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ling; Wang, Yibaina; Yang, Dajin; Liu, Zhaoping; Abernethy, Grant; Li, Jianwen

    2017-01-15

    Thiocyanate ion is a natural component of cow's milk (hereinafter as milk) which may be artificially augmented to activate the lactoperoxidase milk preservation system. This study presents a survey of thiocyanate levels in raw milk and proposes a naturally occurring baseline concentration of thiocyanate in milk, which is the basis for market supervision. 1669 raw milk samples from China, 270 samples from New Zealand and 120 from the Netherlands were collected in the survey. 65% of the samples contained thiocyanate above the detection limit. The average concentration of thiocyanate was 2.11mg/kg (0.10-16.20mg/kg). Differences in the concentrations of thiocyanate were found among three countries, the 12 selected provinces in China, and between summer and winter. The baseline concentration of thiocyanate found in raw cow's milk was statistically calculated and rounded to 9.0mg/kg. Thiocyanate in milk at this level does not present a food safety concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Speciation and stability of methylene blue-metal-thiocyanate ion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative stabilities indicate that cobalt is preferred to other two metals in the speciation of ternary complexes comparable with similar complexes in biosystems. This study also provides a method for the spectrophotometric determination of Co(II) and Zn(II) ions at nanogram levels at 25 oC and an ionic strength of 0.15 M.

  5. Application of ion chromatography for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkowska, Ilona; Polkowska, Żaneta; Kiełbratowska, Bogumiła; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-11-01

    Tobacco smoking constitutes a significant source of indoor air pollution. Various chemical compounds that are emitted during tobacco smoking can have a direct cytotoxic effect on spermatozoa by damaging DNA. There is some evidence that tobacco smoking in men could affect male fertility. The goals of this study were to find relationships between thiocyanates (as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure) and other inorganic ions in human semen samples and present the effectiveness of the proposed sample preparation procedure combined with ion chromatography technique for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples collected from heavy, moderate, and passive smokers, as well as nonsmoking individuals.

  6. Thiocyanate ion-selective PVC membrane electrode based on N,N'-ethylene-bis(4-methylsalicylidineiminato)nickel(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum Ardakani, M; Jamshidpour, M; Naeimi, H; Moradi, L

    2006-09-01

    A highly selective poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrode based on an N,N'-ethylene-bis(4-methyl-salicylidineiminato) nickel(II) [Ni(EBMSI)] complex as a carrier for a thiocyanate-selective electrode is reported. The influences of the membrane composition, pH and possible interfering anions were investigated based on the response properties of the electrode. The electrode exhibited a good Nernstian slope of -58.9 +/- 0.7 mV decade(-1), over a wide pH range of 3.5 - 8.5 and a linear range of 1.0 x 10(-6) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M for thiocyanate. The detection limit of electrode was 3.1 x 10(-7) M SCN(-). The selectivity coefficients determined by a fixed interference method (FIM) indicate that a good discriminating ability towards the SCN- ion compared to other anions. The proposed sensor had a fast response time of about 5 - 15 s and could be used for at least 3 months without any considerable divergence in the potential. It was applied as an indicator electrode in the titration of thiocyanate with Ag+ and in the potentiometric determination of thiocyanate in saliva and urine samples.

  7. Application of ion chromatography for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates in human saliva samples as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkowska, Ilona; Polkowska, Zaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2008-11-15

    Environmental tobacco smoke is a major factor influencing the indoor air quality. Various toxic compounds emitted during tobacco smoking into the environment have a significant influence on the chemical composition of human biological fluids. The thiocyanate concentration in saliva is a biochemical measure, frequently used as an objective indicator of tobacco consumption. The goal of this study was to find significant relationships between salivary thiocyanates and other inorganic ions, which are constituents of natural saliva (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), PO(4)(3-)) and to present the effectiveness of the proposed sample preparation procedure combined with ion chromatography technique for the determination of inorganic ions in human saliva samples collected from passive, moderate and heavy smokers.

  8. Enhanced Fe dispersion via "pinning" effect of thiocyanate ion on ferric ion in Fe-N-S-doped catalyst as an excellent oxygen reduction reaction electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chengyong; Chen, Yuanzhen; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Yan; Chong, Shaokun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Yongning; Yang, Wei-Hua

    2018-02-01

    In this study, by using thiocyanate as an iron ion dispersing agent, the pinning effect of thiocyanate ion (SCN-) enables the high dispersion of Fe3+ in a nitrogen-doped carbon polymer and significantly promotes ORR catalysis in both acidic and alkaline media. It shows 47.3 A g-1 kinetic ORR current density in 0.1 M H2SO4 solution at 0.8 V vs. RHE. In addition, SCN- can dope into the base material and modify the surface of catalysts, which generates strong cyanide N functional groups. Additionally, it also has a higher BET surface area and more uniform granularity, which accounts for the enhancement in mass transport.

  9. Analysis of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide in human amniotic fluid using ion chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blount, Benjamin C.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza

    2006-01-01

    Because of health concerns surrounding in utero exposure to perchlorate, we developed a sensitive and selective method for quantifying iodide, as well as perchlorate and other sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors in human amniotic fluid using ion chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Iodide and NIS inhibitors were quantified using a stable isotope-labeled internal standards (Cl 18 O 4 - , S 13 CN - and 15 NO 3 - with excellent assay accuracy of 100%, 98%, 99%, 95% for perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide, respectively, in triplicate analysis of spiked amniotic fluid sample). Excellent analytical precision (<5.2% RSD for all analytes) was found when amniotic fluid quality control pools were repetitively analyzed for iodide and NIS-inhibitors. Selective chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry reduced the need for sample cleanup, resulting in a rugged and rapid method capable of routinely analyzing 75 samples/day. Analytical response was linear across the physiologically relevant concentration range for the analytes. Analysis of a set of 48 amniotic fluid samples identified the range and median levels for perchlorate (0.057-0.71, 0.18 μg/L), thiocyanate (<10-5860, 89 μg/L), nitrate (650-8900, 1620 μg/L) and iodide (1.7-170, 8.1 μg/L). This selective, sensitive, and rapid method will help assess exposure of the developing fetus to low levels of NIS-inhibitors and their potential to inhibit thyroid function

  10. The elution of metal cyanocomplexes from polyacrylic - and polystyrene- based ion exchange resins using nitrate and thiocyanate eluants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Riani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion exchange resins can potentially be applied in cyanide recycling to address growing environmental concerns over the use of cyanide during gold extraction. In the present work the elution of copper-, iron-, and zinc-cyanocomplexes from polyacrylic- and polystyrene-based resins was studied. It was found that iron and copper cyanides are easily eluted from polyacrylic- and polystyrene-based ion exchange resins using either SCN- or NO3-. However, elution of the zinc cyanide complex from polystyrene-based resins was poor when using nitrate solution as eluant. Besides, an increase in elution temperature from 25 °C to 50 °C improved the elution of iron and zinc cyanides from polystyrene-based resins using a nitrate eluant; however temperature did not have any significant effect on other metal cyanocomplexes or for elution using thiocyanate. It was therefore proposed that the optimal combination of resin-eluant was site-specific, and depends on the features of the effluent, processing temperature, eluant concentration, and ion exchange resin under consideration.

  11. by thiocyanates in liquid ammonia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy techniques have been used to study the ionic interactions of strontium(II) and barium(II) with thiocyanate ion in liquid ammonia. A number of bands were observed in both ν(CN) and ν(CS) regions of infrared and Raman spectra and these were assigned to 1:1 contact ion pair, ...

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of thiocyanate ion by di-m ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phenanthroline)dimanganese(III,IV) perchlorate in acid medium has been investigated. The reaction follows first order in both the oxidant and the reductant. The reaction is catalysed by hydrogen ion and the rate dependence given as k2 = a + b[H+].

  13. A conductance study of guanidinium chloride, thiocyanate, sulfate, and carbonate in dilute aqueous solutions: ion-association and carbonate hydrolysis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Neueder, Roland; Buchner, Richard; Apelblat, Alexander

    2013-01-17

    We study the conductance of dilute aqueous solutions for a series of guandinium salts at 298.15 K. The experimental molar conductivities were analyzed within the framework of the Quint-Viallard theory in combination with Debye-Hückel activity coefficients. From this analysis, we find no evidence for significant ion association in aqueous solutions of guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) and guanidinium thiocyanate (GdmSCN), and the molar conductivity of these electrolytes can be modeled assuming a complete dissociation. The limiting ionic conductivity of the guanidinium ion (Gdm(+)) is accurately determined to λ(Gdm(+)) = 51.45 ± 0.10 S cm(2) mol(-1). For the bivalent salts guanidinium sulfate (Gdm(2)SO(4)) and guanidinium carbonate (Gdm(2)CO(3)), the molar conductivities show small deviations from ideal (fully dissociated electrolyte) behavior, which are related to weak ion association in solution. Furthermore, for solutions of Gdm(2)CO(3), the hydrolysis of the carbonate anion leads to distinctively increased molar conductivities at high dilutions. The observed ion association is rather weak for all studied electrolytes and cannot explain the different protein denaturing activities of the studied guanidinium salts, as has been proposed previously.

  14. Phonon dispersion relations for caesium thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, M.A.; Smith, T.F.; Elcombe, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Room temperature phonon dispersion relations for frequencies below 2 THz have been measured, along the three orthorhombic axes and selected diagonal directions by neutron inelastic scattering, for caesium thiocyanate. These curves, which represent 13 acoustic modes and 11 optic modes of vibration, do not agree with the dispersion behaviour calculated from the rigid-ion model developed by Ti and Ra to describe their Raman scattering observations

  15. Quantification of methyl thiocyanate in the headspace of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures and in the breath of cystic fibrosis patients by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shestivska, Violetta; Němec, A.; Dřevínek, P.; Sovová, Kristýna; Dryahina, Kseniya; Španěl, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 18 (2011), s. 2459-2467 ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256; GA ČR GP203/09/P172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures * flow tube mass spectrometry * methyl thiocyanate Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.790, year: 2011

  16. Transfer of thiocyanate into chicken eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, S.N.; Davis, R.H.; Sykes, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Laying hens were fed thiocyanate (SCN) as a solution of potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) in their drinking water to determine whether dietary SCN was transferred into eggs. The thiocyanate content of their eggs was measured before and during thiocyanate administration. Egg thiocyanate content increased from 6 ..mu..g SCN/g albumen to 31 ..mu..g SCN/g (a 400% increase) in the period immediately following thiocyanate administration and then fell progressively, seeming to stabilize much closer to but still well above control levels.

  17. Extraction of zirconium and hafnium thiocyanates by CH3COCH2CH.(CH3)2-HSCN solvent from chloride medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    A zirconium-hafnium separation process for application in nuclear industry is presented. The extraction of zirconium and hafnium thiocyanates in chloride medium by hexone-HSCN solvent was studied. The extraction process was developed, varying the parameters, such as, concentrations of the metals, the thiocyanate ion, the sulphate ion and free acidity in aqueous phase. (Author) [pt

  18. Ethylenediaminium hemioxalate thiocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohari M. Yamin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C2H10N22+·0.5(C2O42−·NCS−, the ethylenediaminium dication adopts a (+-synclinal conformation with an N—C—C—N torsion angle of 62.64 (15°. The oxalate dianion lies across an inversion centre. In the crystal structure, the ions are linked through N—H...N, N—H...O and C—H...S hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  19. Coordination Chemistry of Homoleptic Actinide(IV)-Thiocyanate Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tyler J; Wilson, Richard E

    2015-10-26

    The synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, vibrational and optical spectroscopy for the eight-coordinate thiocyanate compounds, [Et4 N]4 [Pu(IV) (NCS)8 ], [Et4 N]4 [Th(IV) (NCS)8 ], and [Et4 N]4 [Ce(III) (NCS)7 (H2 O)] are reported. Thiocyanate was found to rapidly reduce plutonium to Pu(III) in acidic solutions (pHcoordination in acetonitrile based on the observation of intense ligand-to-metal charge-transfer bands. Spectroscopic and crystallographic data do not support the interaction of the metal orbitals with the ligand π system, but support an enhanced An(IV) -NCS interaction, as the Lewis acidity of the metal ion increases from Th to Pu. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Highly selective thiocyanate optochemical sensor based on manganese(III)-salophen ionophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Haleem, Fatehy M.; Rizk, Mahmoud S.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the development of optochemical sensor based on Mn(III)-salophen ionophore. The sensor was prepared by embedding the ionophore in a plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) impregnated with the chromoionophore ETH7075. Optical response to thiocyanate occurred due to thiocyanate extraction into the polymer via formation of strong complex with the ionophore and simultaneous protonation of the indicator dye yielding the optical response at 545 nm. The developed optochemical sensor exhibited high selectivity for thiocyanate over other anions including the most lipophilic species such as salicylate and perchlorate. For instance, the optical selectivity coefficients, logK SCN,anion opt , were as follow: ClO 4 − = − 5.8; Sal − = − 4.0; NO 3 − ˂ − 6. Further, the thiocyanate optical selectivity obtained using the present optochemical sensor was greatly enhanced in comparison with that obtained using an anion-exchanger based sensor. Also, the optimized optochemical sensor exhibited micro-molar detection limit with 2 min response time at pH 4.5 using acetate buffer. The reversibility of the optimized sensor was poor due to strong ligation of the thiocyanate to the central Metal ion, log K = 14.1, which can be overcome by soaking the optode in sodium hydroxide followed by soaking in buffer solution. The developed sensor was utilized successfully for the determination of thiocyanate in human saliva and in spiked saliva samples. - Highlights: • Preparation of different optodes using different compositions • Mechanism depends on co-extraction of thiocyanate and protons to membrane. • Sensor showed excellent selectivity. • Sensor could be applied for thiocyanate determination in real saliva.

  1. Accelerated corrosion of stainless steel in thiocyanate-containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistorius, P Chris; Li, Wen

    2012-09-19

    (visible as a black corrosion product) forms during anodic dissolution. The sulfide is electronically conductive, and gives an increase of several orders of magnitude in the electrode capacitance; the sulfide also causes anodic activation to persist after the pure metals and steels were removed from the thiocyanate-containing electrolyte and transferred to a thiocyanate-free electrolyte. The main practical implications of this work are that low concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds strongly affect anodic dissolution of stainless steels, and that selecting steels with elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel or molybdenum would serve to limit the anodic dissolution rate in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds.

  2. Coordination chemistry of homoleptic actinide(IV)-thiocyanate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Tyler J.; Wilson, Richard E. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, vibrational and optical spectroscopy for the eight-coordinate thiocyanate compounds, [Et{sub 4}N]{sub 4}[Pu{sup IV}(NCS){sub 8}], [Et{sub 4}N]{sub 4}[Th{sup IV}(NCS){sub 8}], and [Et{sub 4}N]{sub 4}[Ce{sup III}(NCS){sub 7}(H{sub 2}O)] are reported. Thiocyanate was found to rapidly reduce plutonium to Pu{sup III} in acidic solutions (pH<1) in the presence of NCS{sup -}. The optical spectrum of [Et{sub 4}N][SCN] containing Pu{sup III} solution was indistinguishable from that of aquated Pu{sup III} suggesting that inner-sphere complexation with [Et{sub 4}N][SCN] does not occur in water. However, upon concentration, the homoleptic thiocyanate complex [Et{sub 4}N]{sub 4}[Pu{sup IV}(NCS){sub 8}] was crystallized when a large excess of [Et{sub 4}N][NCS] was present. This compound, along with its U{sup IV} analogue, maintains inner-sphere thiocyanate coordination in acetonitrile based on the observation of intense ligand-to-metal charge-transfer bands. Spectroscopic and crystallographic data do not support the interaction of the metal orbitals with the ligand π system, but support an enhanced An{sup IV}-NCS interaction, as the Lewis acidity of the metal ion increases from Th to Pu. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Growth performance, serum thiocyanate and haematological indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, serum thiocyanate and haematological indices of pigs fed Whole Cassava Chips (WCC) supplemented with brewer's yeast as substitute to maize in a twelve weeks feeding trial. Forty-eight crossbred growing pigs of Landrace and Hampshire breeds ...

  4. Conductivity Measurements of Alkali Metal Thiocyanates in Water-Methanol Mixtures; Mizu-metanoru kongoyoubai ni okeru arukari kinzoku chioshiansan`en no denki dendodo sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Eiji.; Horimoto, Sanaki. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1999-03-10

    The counductivity of several alkali nmetal thiocyanates in water-methanol mixtures was measured at 25degreeC. the data were analyzed using Lee-Wheaton theory for symmetrical electroyers to cbtain ion association constant, K{sub A}, limiting molar sonductivity, {Lambda}{sub 0}, and limiting ionic molar conductivity, lamnda{sub 0}{+-}. In all the solvent systems, calculated{lambda}{sub 0}{sup +} values of the alkali metal ions increase in the order L{sub i}{sup +}ions and thiocyanate ion showed a minimum when the molar fraction of methanol was ca.0.4. The changes in {lambda}{sub 0}{+-} of these alkali metal ions and thiocyanate ion with the molar fraction of methanol agree with change in the viscosity of the solvent or the heat of mixing of wateer-methanol mixtures. These alkali metal thiocyanates from little or no ion aggregated in water and water-methanol mixtures. These alkali metal thiocyanates K{sub A}=15-24 dm{sup 3} mol{sub -1} in methanol. (author)

  5. Corrosion under stress of AISI 304 steel in thiocyanate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Duffo, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Corrosion susceptibility under stress of AISI 304 steel sensitized in a sodium thiocyanate solution has been studied and results were compared with those obtained with solutions of thiosulfate and tetrathionate. Sensitized steel type 304 is highly susceptible to corrosion when under intergranular stress (IGSCC) in thiocyanate solutions but the aggressiveness of this anion is less than that of the other sulphur anions studied (thiosulfate and tetrathionate). This work has been partly carried out in the Chemistry Department. (Author) [es

  6. Extraction of bivalent vanadium as its pyridine thiocyanate complex and separation from uranium, titanium, chromium and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatirajam, V.; Arya, S.P.

    1975-01-01

    A simple method is described for the extraction of V(II) as its pyridine thiocyanate complex. Vanadate is reduced to V(II) in 1 to 2 N sulphuric acid by zinc amalgam. Thiocyanate and pyridine are added, the solution is adjusted to pH 5.2 to 5.5 and the complex extracted with chloroform. The vanadium is back-extracted with peroxide solution. Zinc from the reductant accompanies the vanadium but alkali and alkaline earth metal ions, titanium, uranium, chromium and aluminium are separated, besides those ions reduced to the elements by zinc amalgam. The method takes about 20 min and is applicable to microgram as well as milligram amounts of vanadium. (author)

  7. High plasma thiocyanate levels are associated with enhanced myeloperoxidase-induced thiol oxidation and long-term survival in subjects following a first myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedoboy, P E; Morgan, P E; Mocatta, T J

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) are associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. MPO uses H2O2 to generate oxidants including HOCl and HOSCN, from chloride and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) ions, respectively. SCN(-) is the preferred substrate. Elevation of this anion decreases HOCl generation...

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum with non-ionic surfactant and thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Atsuo; Fujimura, Yasue; Ito, Saburo.

    1980-01-01

    Although the molybdenum (V)-thiocyanate complex is quite stable in non-aqueous solvent such as ether, the complex in dilute acidic solution is unstable. However, this unstable complex was stabilized remarkably by addition of some non-ionic surfactant such as Triton X-100 (alkylphenolpolyoxyethylene ether). The application of this stabilizing effect of the surfactant to the photometric determination of trace amounts of molybdenum with thiocyanate resulted in an increase in the sensitivity. The rate of formation of the Mo(V)-SCN complex was affected by the presence of ferrous ion and its rate constant was proportional to the concentration of Fe(II). The stabilizing effect of the surfactant on the yellowish orange coloration can be understood if we assume that the Mo(V)-SCN complex is incorporated into the micelles of Triton X-100 as [H 2 + , MoO(CNS) 5 2- ]. The optimum condition for the determination of molybdenum is as follows: concentration of sulfuric acid, 0.22 mol dm -3 ; Triton X-100, 0.8%; ascorbic acid, 0.32 mol dm -3 ; thiocyanate, 0.30 mol dm -3 ; iron, 40 mg dm -3 ; standing time for coloration, 10 min and more. Beer's law was obeyed over the range (1 -- 233) μg/50 cm 3 . The molar absorption coefficient at 468 nm was 1.7 2 x 10 4 cm -1 mol -1 dm 3 . The maximum permissible limits of foreign ions (mg/50 cm 3 ) were as follows: Ni(30); Co(12); W(VI) (2); Cu, Zn, V(V) (3); Cr(VI) (5). Large amounts of iron interfered, but this interference was removed by addition of the same amount of iron to the reagent blank. Trace amounts of molybdenum in steel was determined by this method with satisfactory results. (author)

  9. Study on mechanism of isomerization between ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Niu, Meng-Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Application of ammonium thiocyanate that can be separated from wastewater in coking plant is limited. It may isomerize to thiourea which has widely applied in industry. However, the isomerization yield is low. Moreover, the isomerization temperature is more than 145 °C. In this paper, the isomerization was investigated. The mechanism of the isomerization was supposed based on quantum chemistry calculations. Ammonia was employed as a catalyst to lower isomerization temperature and improved the yield of thiourea in the isomerization reaction. Results of quantum chemical calculation and experiments support the supposed mechanism. The mechanism can be applied in production of thiourea from isomerization of ammonium thiocyanate. The paper suggests a useful way of resourcizing ammonium thiocyanate in wastewater.

  10. Complexes of Th(IV) perchlorates, nitrates and thiocyanates with some heterocyclic bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.K.; Srivastava, A.K.; Srivastava, M.; Bhakru, N.; Srivastava, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Some Th(IV) perchlorate complexes of heterocyclic bases have been reported previously. Adducts of Th(IV) nitrates and thiocyanates with some heterocyclic N-oxides have been prepared and physico-chemical properties investigated. Comparatively little is known about the complexes of Th(IV) ion with the ligands containing nitrogen atom acting as electron donating centres. In view of this, the adducts of Th(IV) ion with certain nitrogen heterocyclic bases such as pyridine (Py), α-picoline (Pic), 2-amino pyridine (NH 2 Py), 2:4-lutidine (2,4LN), 2:6-lutidine, (2,6LN), quinoline (Q), isoquinoline (Isoq), 2,2'-bipyridine (Bipy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) were synthesised and characterised by analysis and IR absorption spectra. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  11. Indirect Voltammetric Determination of Thiocyanate Ions in Electroplating Solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Kopanica, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2003), s. 127-138 ISSN 0009-2223 Grant - others:GIT(AR) 101/02/U111/CZ Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : voltammetry * tensammetry * electroplating Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2003

  12. Cytotoxic potentials of thiocyanate administration on the liver of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence this study was performed to elucidate the consequence(s)of thiocyanate administration on the liver of adult male wistar rats. Twenty adult male wistar rats with an average weight of 234.5g were used. The rats were grouped into four (A, B, C & D) with five animals in each group. Group A represented the control and ...

  13. Determination of heavy metals at sub-ppm levels in seawater and dialysis solutions by FAAS after tetrakis(pyridine)-nickel(II)bis(thiocyanate) coprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Uğur; Kartal, Senol; Ulgen, Ahmet

    2008-06-01

    A coprecipitation method has been developed for the determination of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) with the combination of pyridine, nickel(II) as a carrier element and potassium thiocyanate as an auxiliary complexing agent. The obtained coprecipitates were dissolved with nitric acid and measured by FAAS. The coprecipitation conditions, such as the effect of the pH, amounts of nickel, pyridine and potassium thiocyanate, sample volume, and the standing time of the precipitate formation were examined in detail. It was found that the metal ions studied were quantitatively coprecipitated with tetrakis(pyridine)-nickel(II)bis(thiocyanate) precipitate (TP-Ni-BT) in the pH range of 9.0 - 10.5. The reliability of the results was evaluated by recovery tests, using synthetic seawater solutions spiked with the analyte metal ions. The obtained recoveries ranged from 96 to 101% for all of the metal ions investigated. The proposed method was validated by analyses of two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 2711 Montana soil and HPS Certified Waste Water Trace Metals Lot #D532205). It was also successfully applied to seawater and dialysis solution samples. The detection limits (n = 25, 3s) were in the range of 0.01-2.44 microg l(-1) for the studied elements and the relative standard deviations were seawater and dialysis solution having high salt contents.

  14. Melatonin attenuates thiocyanate-induced vasoconstriction in aortic rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Prusa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking not only has a carcinogenic effect but also leads to an increase in arterial blood pressure. Besides its main components, i.e. nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke also contains thiocyanate. Thiocyanate anions (SCN− arise from the detoxification of hydrogen cyanide and its plasma concentrations were found to correlate significantly with cigarette consumption. There is also evidence that atherosclerotic disease progression is much more rapid when serum SCN− levels are increased. Melatonin, a non-toxic indolamine with various physiologic functions, is believed to protect against inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated that melatonin serves as free radical scavenger and represents a potent antioxidant. Therefore, it is believed that melatonin with its atheroprotective effects may be useful either as a sole therapy or in conjunction with others. The aim of this study was to quantify the thiocyanate-induced vasomotor response in aortic tissue and further to examine the potential of melatonin in affecting the generated vasoreactivity. Aortic rings of adult male normotensive Wistar rats were cut into 4-mm rings. Following the administration of thiocyanate in various concentrations, vasomotor response of aortic vessel segments was measured. To assess the effect of melatonin on vasomotor activity, organ bath concentrations were modulated from 60 to 360 pM, which corresponds to physiologic plasma up to the levels of patients with regular oral intake of 3 mg of melatonin as a supplement. Thirty-six rat aortic rings were studied. When exposed to thiocyanate, vessel segments revealed vasoconstriction in a concentration-dependent manner. In rings which were preincubated with melatonin at a concentration of 360 pM, a 56.5% reduction of effect size could be achieved (4.09 ± 1.22 mN versus 9.41 ± 1.74 mN, P < 0.0001. Additionally, administration of 360 pM melatonin at a

  15. 2-(4-Bromophenyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2-ium thiocyanate hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Zhou

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title hemihydrated salt, C15H13BrN+·NCS−·0.5H2O, the two benzene rings are aligned at a dihedral angle of 46.9 (1°. The six-membered heterocycle of the dihydroisoquinoline unit adopts a half-chair conformation. The water molecule and thiocyanate ion are linked by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, generating a four-membered ring motif. In addition, C—H...O and C—H...S interactions link the components into a chain along the c axis. π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.974 (2 Å] link the chains into sheets and further π—π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.746 (2 Å] and C—H...π interactions give rise to a three-dimensional nework.

  16. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical bimetallic thiocyanate complex of MCCTC crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, S. M.; Melikechi, N.; Selvakumar, S.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2009-04-01

    An organometallic material of mercury cadmium chloride thiocyanate (MCCTC) was synthesized in water-methanol mixed solvent. Optically good grade crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique under optimized conditions. MCCTC belongs to rhombohedral system with R3c space group. The metal coordinations with (S with Hg and N with Cd) SCN - ion were confirmed in the sample by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic investigations. The transmission spectrum recorded from 200 to 2500 nm showed the UV transparency cutoff at 300 nm. MCCTC crystal exhibits a second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency which is nearly 17 times more than that of KDP. The microhardness study indicates the hard nature of the grown sample with a work hardening coefficient of 1.73. The thermal decomposition process was investigated by thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses.

  17. Vibrational dynamics of thiocyanate and selenocyanate bound to horse heart myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, Michał; Oh, Younjun; Park, Kwanghee; Lee, Jooyong; Cho, Minhaeng, E-mail: mcho@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Kyung-Won [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, SouthKorea (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-21

    The structure and vibrational dynamics of SCN- and SeCN-bound myoglobin have been investigated using polarization-controlled IR pump-probe measurements and quantum chemistry calculations. The complexes are found to be in low and high spin states, with the dominant contribution from the latter. In addition, the Mb:SCN high spin complex exhibits a doublet feature in the thiocyanate stretch IR absorption spectra, indicating two distinct molecular conformations around the heme pocket. The binding mode of the high spin complexes was assigned to occur through the nitrogen atom, contrary to the binding through the sulfur atom that was observed in myoglobin derived from Aplysia Limacina. The vibrational energy relaxation process has been found to occur substantially faster than those of free SCN{sup −} and SeCN{sup −} ions and neutral SCN- and SeCN-derivatized molecules reported previously. This supports the N-bound configurations of MbNCS and MbNCSe, because S- and Se-bound configurations are expected to have significantly long lifetimes due to the insulation effect by heavy bridge atom like S and Se in such IR probes. Nonetheless, even though their lifetimes are much shorter than those of corresponding free ions in water, the vibrational lifetimes determined for MbNCS and MbNCSe are still fairly long compared to those of azide and cyanide myoglobin systems studied before. Thus, thiocyanate and selenocyanate can be good local probes of local electrostatic environment in the heme pocket. The globin dependence on binding mode and vibrational dynamics is also discussed.

  18. Vibrational dynamics of thiocyanate and selenocyanate bound to horse heart myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Michał; Oh, Younjun; Park, Kwanghee; Lee, Jooyong; Kwak, Kyung-Won; Cho, Minhaeng

    2014-06-21

    The structure and vibrational dynamics of SCN- and SeCN-bound myoglobin have been investigated using polarization-controlled IR pump-probe measurements and quantum chemistry calculations. The complexes are found to be in low and high spin states, with the dominant contribution from the latter. In addition, the Mb:SCN high spin complex exhibits a doublet feature in the thiocyanate stretch IR absorption spectra, indicating two distinct molecular conformations around the heme pocket. The binding mode of the high spin complexes was assigned to occur through the nitrogen atom, contrary to the binding through the sulfur atom that was observed in myoglobin derived from Aplysia Limacina. The vibrational energy relaxation process has been found to occur substantially faster than those of free SCN(-) and SeCN(-) ions and neutral SCN- and SeCN-derivatized molecules reported previously. This supports the N-bound configurations of MbNCS and MbNCSe, because S- and Se-bound configurations are expected to have significantly long lifetimes due to the insulation effect by heavy bridge atom like S and Se in such IR probes. Nonetheless, even though their lifetimes are much shorter than those of corresponding free ions in water, the vibrational lifetimes determined for MbNCS and MbNCSe are still fairly long compared to those of azide and cyanide myoglobin systems studied before. Thus, thiocyanate and selenocyanate can be good local probes of local electrostatic environment in the heme pocket. The globin dependence on binding mode and vibrational dynamics is also discussed.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF FLOW INJECTION METHOD FOR ONLINE DETERMINATION OF THIOCYANATE BASED ON OXIDATION BY PERMANGANATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermin Sulistyarti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of developing method for thiocyanate becomes obvious, because thiocyanate can inhibit iodine uptake of thyroid gland leading to mumps disease. In this work, thiocyanate is oxidized by permanganate in the acid donor stream to cyanide, which is directly converted to hydrogen cyanide. Then, hydrogen cyanide diffuses through a Teflon membrane into acceptor stream containing nickel(II in ammoniacal buffer to form tetracyanonickelate(II which is detected spectrophotometrically at 267 nm. Analytical figures of merit were linear up to 50 mg L-1 for thiocyanate, with RSD of 1.34%, and detection limit of 0.07 mg L-1, respectively. Interfering anions were eliminated under stoichiometric amount of permanganate and sample throughput was 20 h-1. The method was validated for determining thiocyanate samples from synthetic and gold process waters with satisfactory results.   Keywords: Thiocyanate, flow injection, permanganate, spectrophotometry

  20. Recent advances in the chemistry of organic thiocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheiro, Thomas; Suffert, Jean; Donnard, Morgan; Gulea, Mihaela

    2016-02-07

    Organic thiocyanates are important synthetic intermediates to access valuable sulfur-containing compounds. In this review the different methods for their preparation and their synthetic applications will be presented. The literature of the last 15 years will be covered, highlighting selected recent advances in the chemistry of this class of compounds. We hope to offer chemists the tools to have a good grasp of this singular functionality and open the door to further progress in this chemistry.

  1. Extraction of zirconium(IV) and separation of 95Zr-95Nb from acidic thiocyanate media by LIX 54 and its mixtures with TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P.K.; Chakravortty, V.; Dash, K.C.; Das, N.R.; Bhattacharyya, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    Appreciable extraction of 95 Zr- 95 Nb by LIX 54 from aqueous HCl alone is not observed in the concentration range from 0.1 to 2 M HCl. Presence of thiocyanate ions results in appreciable extraction of this pair from such acid medium. Synergism has been observed in the extraction of zirconium(IV) by mixtures of LIX 54 and TBP from thiocyanate media, whereas there has been no appreciable synergism in case of niobium(V) under identical conditions. Slope analyses indicate the species extracted by pure TBP to be disolvate whereas for extraction by the mixtures of LIX 54 and TBP it is found to be monosolvate with respect to TBP. The extraction of both the metal ions have been found to depend on the concentration of acid as well as that of thiocyanate ions. Extraction increases with increase in percentage of either of the extractants. Effective separation of these congeneric pairs has been achieved by suitable choice of above system. Extraction is independent of aq. zirconium concentration up to 0.01 M above which it decreases. (orig.)

  2. Comparative genome analysis of three thiocyanate oxidizing Thioalkalivibrio species isolated from soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berben, Tom; Overmars, Lex; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thiocyanate is a C1 compound containing carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. It is a (by)product in a number of natural and industrial processes. Because thiocyanate is toxic to many organisms, including humans, its removal from industrial waste streams is an important problem. Although a number of

  3. Comparative Genome Analysis of Three Thiocyanate Oxidizing Thioalkalivibrio Species Isolated from Soda Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berben, T.; Overmars, L.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Muyzer, G.

    2017-01-01

    Thiocyanate is a C1 compound containing carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. It is a (by)product in a number of natural and industrial processes. Because thiocyanate is toxic to many organisms, including humans, its removal from industrial waste streams is an important problem. Although a number of

  4. Electrical properties of biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone): lithium thiocyanate complexed polymer electrolyte films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, M. [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Song, Shenhua, E-mail: shsonguk@aliyun.com [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Gu, Kunming; Tang, Jiaoning [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zhang, Zhongyi [Advanced Polymer and Composites (APC) Research Group, School of Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3DJ, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The minimum T{sub m} and χ{sub c} values are observed in 15 wt% LiSCN complexed film. • The conductivity of PCL:LiSCN complexed films follows Johnscher's power law. • Conductivity and dielectric constant follows the same trend. • The charge carriers responsible for both conduction and relaxation are the same. - Abstract: Lithium ion conducting polymer electrolyte films based on biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) complexed with lithium thiocyanate (LiSCN) salt were prepared by solution cast technique. Thermal and electrical properties of the polymer electrolyte films were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ac impedance spectroscopy. In order to investigate the ion conduction mechanism and relaxation behavior of complex polymer electrolyte films, the conductivity, dielectric constant, loss tangent and electric modulus were analyzed as a function of frequency and temperature. The variation of conductivity with frequency obeyed the Johnscher's power law. The dielectric constant exhibited a higher value at a lower frequency and increased with rising temperature due to the polar nature of host polymer. The activation energies for both dc conductivity and relaxation had the same value (∼0.87 eV), implying that the charge carriers responsible for both conduction and relaxation were the same.

  5. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.

    1982-06-01

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al 3+ , Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Hg 2+ , Ni 2+ , Th 4+ , or UO 2 2+ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 μmoles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy can be judged from the agreement of the Nernst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5%. The report includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which the method was evolved. Also included is a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure

  6. Electrical properties of biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone): lithium thiocyanate complexed polymer electrolyte films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, M.; Song, Shenhua; Gu, Kunming; Tang, Jiaoning; Zhang, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The minimum T m and χ c values are observed in 15 wt% LiSCN complexed film. • The conductivity of PCL:LiSCN complexed films follows Johnscher's power law. • Conductivity and dielectric constant follows the same trend. • The charge carriers responsible for both conduction and relaxation are the same. - Abstract: Lithium ion conducting polymer electrolyte films based on biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) complexed with lithium thiocyanate (LiSCN) salt were prepared by solution cast technique. Thermal and electrical properties of the polymer electrolyte films were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ac impedance spectroscopy. In order to investigate the ion conduction mechanism and relaxation behavior of complex polymer electrolyte films, the conductivity, dielectric constant, loss tangent and electric modulus were analyzed as a function of frequency and temperature. The variation of conductivity with frequency obeyed the Johnscher's power law. The dielectric constant exhibited a higher value at a lower frequency and increased with rising temperature due to the polar nature of host polymer. The activation energies for both dc conductivity and relaxation had the same value (∼0.87 eV), implying that the charge carriers responsible for both conduction and relaxation were the same

  7. Titrimetric determination of thiocyanate in solutions of the hafnium-zirconium separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Botbol, Moises; Hernandez, M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The control of the thiocyanate concentration is necessary during the process of separating hafnium from zirconium by the hexone-thiocyanate method. Said control is carried out by titrimetric determination of thiocyanate in aqueous and organic solutions containing hydrochloric acid and ammonium thiocyanate in presence or absence of zirconium and/or hafnium. The method consists in a redox volumetric analysis using a cerium (IV) salt as titrating agent, and ferroine as the final point indicator. Owing to the instability of thiocyanate in an acid medium it is necessary to know previously if the decomposition of solutions with different concentration of ammonium thiocyanate and hydrochloric acid may have an influence upon the analytic results or may even invalidate them. In order to obtain reliable results, it must be taken into account that the stability of the solutions depends on the thiocyanate concentration, the acidity and the time elapsed from the moment the sample is taken until the test is performed. The decomposition process can be slowed down by cooling the solutions. This method allows to control the plant and does not require any special equipment. (M.E.L) [es

  8. Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.; Knudsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter...... the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake...

  9. INFRARED AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF ION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infrared and Raman spectroscopy techniques have been used to study the ionic interactions of strontium(II) and barium(II) with thiocyanate ion in liquid ammonia. A number of bands were observed in both n (CN) and n (CS) regions of infrared and Raman spectra and these were assigned to 1:1 contact ion pair, ...

  10. Metagenomic data of free cyanide and thiocyanate degrading bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukhanyo Mekuto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article contains the bacterial community structure of the free cyanide (CN- and thiocyanate (SCN- degrading organisms that were isolated from electroplating wastewater and synthetic SCN- containing wastewater. PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA V1-V3 regions was undertaken using the 27F and 518R oligonucleotide primers following the metacommunity DNA extraction procedure. The PCR amplicons were processed using the illumina® reaction kits as per manufacturer׳s instruction and sequenced using the illumina® MiSeq-2000, using the MiSeq V3 kit. The data was processed using bioinformatics tools such as QIIME and the raw sequence files are available via NCBI׳s Sequence Read Archive (SRA database.

  11. Thiocyanate use as radioactive tracer in a petroleum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Elaine Henriques Teixeira; Souza, Fabiane Ferreira de; Pinto, Amenonia Maria Ferreira; Moreira, Rubens Martins

    2002-01-01

    Currently, most of the oil exploration in reservoirs is made out if the assistance of the injection of different fluids, waters in particular, to increase production. For this reason it has been largely spread the application of chemical and/or radioactive tracers in the study of the characteristics of transport of the injected fluid between injection and production wells. K 35 SCN is considered a good tracer due to its higher solubility in water and low adsorption. This work presents a brief review of the methods described in literature for obtain S-35. It was found out to be the most appropriate method the synthesis of thiocyanate starting from the reaction of KCN and S-35. It was also investigated the efficiency of the reaction for the obtention of KSCN. (author)

  12. Biodegradation of thiocyanate in mining-contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurr, L. P.; Watts, M. P.; Moreau, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ SCN- biodegradation as a strategy for remediating contaminated groundwater remains largely unproven. This study aimed to culture and characterise a community of SCN--degrading microbes from mining-contaminated groundwater, and to optimize the efficiency of this process under varied geochemical conditions. A gold ore processing plant in Victoria, Australia, has generated high amounts of thiocyanate (SCN-)-contaminated waste effluent. This effluent collects in a tailings storage facility (TSF) on site and seepage has contaminated local groundwater. This SCN- plume recently escaped the mine lease in a plume flowing partly through a confined aquifer and partly along buried paleochannel gravels. Groundwater samples were collected using a low-flow pump from two bores near the TSF. The pH of the SCN- contaminated groundwater typically varies between 4 and 6, and dissolved O2 varies between 1 and 40 ppm. SCN- concentrations in off-lease groundwater have increased from 10 ppm in 2010 to over 150 ppm in 2015. Cultures were inoculated directly from the groundwater, and filtered groundwater was used with amendments as the basal growth medium Cultures were subjected to geochemical amendments including changes in dissolved O2, pH, SCN- concentration and additions of organic carbon, phosphate or both. The enriched microbial consortia could not degrade thiocyanate under anoxic conditions, but some could completely degrade high concentrations of SCN- (>800mg L-1) under oxic conditions. Biodegradation accelerated with the addition of phosphate, while the addition of organic carbon actually limited the rate. SCN- degrading cultures are undergoing DNA sequencing for species identification and comparison to SCN--degrading cultures inoculated from surface waters in the TSF.

  13. REVISITING NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF AZIDES, THIOCYANATES AND SULFONES IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A practical, rapid and efficient microwave (MW) promoted synthesis of various azides, thiocyanates and sulfones, is described in aqueous medium. This general and expeditious MW-enhanced nucleophilic substitution approach uses easily accessible starting materials such as halides o...

  14. Comparative Genome Analysis of Three Thiocyanate Oxidizing Thioalkalivibrio Species Isolated from Soda Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berben, Tom; Overmars, Lex; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thiocyanate is a C1 compound containing carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. It is a (by)product in a number of natural and industrial processes. Because thiocyanate is toxic to many organisms, including humans, its removal from industrial waste streams is an important problem. Although a number of bacteria can use thiocyanate as a nitrogen source, only a few can use it as an electron donor. There are two distinct pathways to use thiocyanate: (i) the “carbonyl sulfide pathway,” which has been extensively studied, and (ii) the “cyanate pathway,” whose key enzyme, thiocyanate dehydrogenase, was recently purified and studied. Three species of Thioalkalivibrio, a group of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from soda lakes, have been described as thiocyanate oxidizers: (i) Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus (“cyanate pathway”), (ii) Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanoxidans (“cyanate pathway”) and (iii) Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanodenitrificans (“carbonyl sulfide pathway”). In this study we provide a comparative genome analysis of these described thiocyanate oxidizers, with genomes ranging in size from 2.5 to 3.8 million base pairs. While focusing on thiocyanate degradation, we also analyzed the differences in sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen metabolism. We found that the thiocyanate dehydrogenase gene is present in 10 different Thioalkalivibrio strains, in two distinct genomic contexts/genotypes. The first genotype is defined by having genes for flavocytochrome c sulfide dehydrogenase upstream from the thiocyanate dehydrogenase operon (present in two strains including the type strain of Tv. paradoxus), whereas in the second genotype these genes are located downstream, together with two additional genes of unknown function (present in eight strains, including the type strains of Tv. thiocyanoxidans). Additionally, we found differences in the presence/absence of genes for various sulfur oxidation pathways, such as sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, dissimilatory

  15. Cysteine, thiourea and thiocyanate interactions with clays: FT-IR, Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Henrique; Paesano, Andrea; da Costa, Antonio C S; di Mauro, Eduardo; de Souza, Ivan G; Ivashita, Flávio F; de Souza, Cláudio M D; Zaia, Cássia T B V; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the adsorption of cysteine, thiourea and thiocyanate on bentonite and montmorillonite at two different pHs (3.00, 8.00). The conditions used here are closer to those of prebiotic earth. As shown by FT-IR, Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, the most important finding of this work is that cysteine and thiourea penetrate into the interlayer of the clays and reduce Fe(3+) to Fe(2+), and as consequence, cystine and c,c'-dithiodiformamidinium ion are formed. This mechanism resembles that which occurs with aconitase. This is a very important result for prebiotic chemistry; we should think about clays not just sink of molecules, but as primitive vessels of production of biomolecules. At pH 8.00, an increasing expansion was observed in the following order for both minerals: thiourea > thiocyanate > cysteine. At pH 3.00, the same order was not observed and thiourea had an opposite behavior, being the compound producing the lowest expansion. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that at pH 8.00, the proportion of Fe(2+) ions in bentonite increased, doubling for thiourea, or more than doubling for cysteine, in both clays. However, at pH 3.00, cysteine and thiourea did not change significantly the relative amount of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions, when compared to clays without adsorption. For thiocyanate, the amount of Fe(2+) produced was independent of the pH or clay used, probably because the interlayers of clays are very acidic and HSCN formed does not reduce Fe(3+) to Fe(2+). For the interaction of thiocyanate with the clays, it was not possible to identify any potential compound formed. For the samples of bentonite and montmorillonite at pH 8.00 with cysteine, EPR spectroscopy showed that intensity of the lines due to Fe(3+) decreased because the reaction of Fe(3+)/cysteine. Intensity of EPR lines did not change when the samples of bentonite at pH 3.00 with and without cysteine were compared. These results are in accordance with those

  16. Probing the early stages of salt nucleation—experimental and theoretical investigations of sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Shihu; Kong, Xiangyu; Wang, Xue B.

    2015-01-14

    Due to fast solvent evaporation in electrospray ionization (ESI), the concentration of initially dilute electrolyte solutions rapidly increases to afford formation of supersaturated droplets and generating various pristine anhydrous salt clusters in the gas phase. The size, composition, and charge distributions of these clusters, in principle witness the nucleation evolution in solutions. Herein, we report a microscopic study on the initial stage of nucleation and crystallization of sodium/potassium thiocyanate salt solutions simulated in the ESI process. Singly charged Mx(SCN)⁻x+1, doubly charged My(SCN)²⁻y+2 (M = Na, K), and triply charged Kz(SCN)³⁻z+3 anion clusters were produced via electrospray of the corresponding salt solutions, and were characterized by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES). The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of these sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions were obtained, and theoretical calculations were carried out for sodium thiocyanate clusters in assisting spectral identification. The measured VDEs of singly charged anions Mx(SCN)⁻x+1 (M = Na and K) demonstrate they are superhalogen anions. The existence of doubly charged anions My (SCN)²⁻y+2 (y = 2x, x ≥ 4 and 3 for M = Na and K, respectively) and triply charged anions Kz(SCN)³⁻z+3 (z = 3x, x ≥ 6) were initially discovered from the photoelectron spectra for those singly charged anions of Msub>x(SCN)⁻x+1 with the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and later independently confirmed by observation of their distinct mass spectral distributions and by taking their NIPE spectra for those pure multiply charged anions with their m/z different from the singly charged species. For large clusters, multiply charged clusters are found to become preferred, but at higher temperatures those multiply charged clusters

  17. Probing the early stages of salt nucleation—Experimental and theoretical investigations of sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, S. H. M.; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Xue-Bin, E-mail: xuebin.wang@pnnl.gov [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P. O. Box 999, MS K8-88, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Due to the fast solvent evaporation in electrospray ionization (ESI), the concentration of initially dilute electrolyte solutions rapidly increases to afford the formation of supersaturated droplets and generation of various pristine anhydrous salt clusters in the gas phase. The size, composition, and charge distributions of these clusters, in principle, witness the nucleation evolution in solutions. Herein, we report a microscopic study on the initial stage of nucleation and crystallization of sodium/potassium thiocyanate salt solutions simulated in the ESI process. Singly charged M{sub x}(SCN){sub x+1}{sup −}, doubly charged M{sub y}(SCN){sub y+2}{sup 2−} (M = Na, K), and triply charged K{sub z}(SCN){sub z+3}{sup 3−} anion clusters (x, y, and z stand for the number of alkali atoms in the singly, doubly, and triply charged clusters, respectively) were produced via electrospray of the corresponding salt solutions and were characterized by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES). The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of these sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions were obtained, and theoretical calculations were carried out for the sodium thiocyanate clusters in assisting spectral identification. The measured VDEs of singly charged anions M{sub x}(SCN){sub x+1}{sup −} (M = Na and K) demonstrate that they are superhalogen anions. The existence of doubly charged anions M{sub y}(SCN){sub y+2}{sup 2−} (y = 2x, x ≥ 4 and 3 for M = Na and K, respectively) and triply charged anions K{sub z}(SCN){sub z+3}{sup 3−} (z = 3x, x ≥ 6) was initially discovered from the photoelectron spectra for those singly charged anions of M{sub x}(SCN){sub x+1}{sup −} with the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and later independently confirmed by the observation of their distinct mass spectral distributions and by taking their NIPE spectra for those pure multiply charged anions with their m/z different from the singly charged species. For large clusters, multiply

  18. Probing the early stages of salt nucleation—Experimental and theoretical investigations of sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S. H. M.; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the fast solvent evaporation in electrospray ionization (ESI), the concentration of initially dilute electrolyte solutions rapidly increases to afford the formation of supersaturated droplets and generation of various pristine anhydrous salt clusters in the gas phase. The size, composition, and charge distributions of these clusters, in principle, witness the nucleation evolution in solutions. Herein, we report a microscopic study on the initial stage of nucleation and crystallization of sodium/potassium thiocyanate salt solutions simulated in the ESI process. Singly charged M x (SCN)x + 1 - , doubly charged M y (SCN)y + 2 2 - (M = Na, K), and triply charged K z (SCN)z + 3 3 - anion clusters (x, y, and z stand for the number of alkali atoms in the singly, doubly, and triply charged clusters, respectively) were produced via electrospray of the corresponding salt solutions and were characterized by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES). The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of these sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions were obtained, and theoretical calculations were carried out for the sodium thiocyanate clusters in assisting spectral identification. The measured VDEs of singly charged anions M x (SCN)x + 1 - (M = Na and K) demonstrate that they are superhalogen anions. The existence of doubly charged anions M y (SCN)y + 2 2 - (y = 2x, x ≥ 4 and 3 for M = Na and K, respectively) and triply charged anions K z (SCN)z + 3 3 - (z = 3x, x ≥ 6) was initially discovered from the photoelectron spectra for those singly charged anions of M x (SCN)x + 1 - with the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and later independently confirmed by the observation of their distinct mass spectral distributions and by taking their NIPE spectra for those pure multiply charged anions with their m/z different from the singly charged species. For large clusters, multiply charged clusters were found to become preferred, but at higher temperatures, those multiply charged

  19. Characterization of an autotrophic bioreactor microbial consortium degrading thiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mathew Paul; Spurr, Liam Patrick; Gan, Han Ming; Moreau, John William

    2017-07-01

    Thiocyanate (SCN - ) forms as a by-product of cyanidation during gold ore processing and can be degraded by a variety of microorganisms utilizing it as an energy, nitrogen, sulphur and/or carbon source. In complex consortia inhabiting bioreactor systems, a range of metabolisms are sustained by SCN - degradation; however, despite the addition or presence of labile carbon sources in most bioreactor designs to date, autotrophic bacteria have been found to dominate key metabolic functions. In this study, we cultured an autotrophic SCN - -degrading consortium directly from gold mine tailings. In a batch-mode bioreactor experiment, this consortium degraded 22 mM SCN - , accumulating ammonium (NH 4 + ) and sulphate (SO 4 2- ) as the major end products. The consortium consisted of a diverse microbial community comprised of chemolithoautotrophic members, and despite the absence of an added organic carbon substrate, a significant population of heterotrophic bacteria. The role of eukaryotes in bioreactor systems is often poorly understood; however, we found their 18S rRNA genes to be most closely related to sequences from bacterivorous Amoebozoa. Through combined chemical and phylogenetic analyses, we were able to infer roles for key microbial consortium members during SCN - biodegradation. This study provides a basis for understanding the behaviour of a SCN - degrading bioreactor under autotrophic conditions, an anticipated approach to remediating SCN - at contemporary gold mines.

  20. Aggregation of Heteropolyanions Implicates the Presence of Zundel Ions Near Air-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Mrinal K. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439 United States; DUBBLE-CRG, ESRF-The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility CS40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 France; Antonio, Mark R. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439 United States

    2016-07-01

    Protons play crucial roles in the interactions between hetero-polyanions (HPAs) in aqueous solutions and solid acid salts. We report the aggregation behaviours of Keggin HPAs near the surfaces of heteropolyacid solutions. The structure of the aggregated HPA layer near the solution-vapour phase boundary closely resembles the solid-state crystal structure of the hetero-polyacids in which the HPAs are connected by Zundel ions. The resemblance not only implicates the presence of protons in the form of planar Zundel ions near the air-water interface but, also, suggests that these align parallel to the interface. This study demonstrates an indirect means of assessing the impact of protons on HPA interactions near air-water interfaces and, in general, provides new insights about interfacial proton chemistry of heteropolyacids.

  1. Effect of thyroid status and thiocyanate on absorption and excretion of iodine by cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Moss, B.R.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of thyroidectomy or iodine-131, thyroprotein feeding, and thiocyanate dosing on radioiodine metabolism in the bovine were studied in 34 animals. Two thyroidectomized calves excreted 44 percent more radioiodine in urine and 38 percent less in feces than two thyroid-intact calves. Oral thiocyanate increased urinary radioiodine 32 percent in thyroidectomized and 46 percent in intact calves while reducing fecal radioiodine 48 percent in thyroidectomized and 11 percent in intact calves. Urinary radioiodine clearance of two heifers was increased 52 percent by thiocyanate, but urine flow was not affected. Percentages of radioiodine doses cycled through the abomasum daily and recovered from digestive tracts at slaughter, respectively, were 12 thyroid-intact cows, 468 and 77; two intact cows fed 10 g sodium thiocyanate daily, 64 and 41; 10 thyroid-damaged cows, 506 and 149; and four thyroid-damaged cows fed 8 g thyroprotein daily, 372 and 93. Thyroid damage had little effect on gastric radioiodine secretion but increased total digestive tract radioiodine because of greater volume of tract contents. Inhibition of gastric radioiodine secretion by thiocyanate reduced the digestive tract radioiodine pool. The digestive tract iodine pool may conserve iodine by reducing loss in urine. (U.S.)

  2. Benzoylphenyl thiocyanates are new, effective inhibitors of the mycobacterial resuscitation promoting factor B protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina R. Demina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs are the proteins involved in the process of reactivation of the dormant cells of mycobacteria. Recently a new class of nitrophenylthiocyanates (NPTs, capable of inhibiting the biological and enzymatic activities of Rpfs has been discovered. In the current study the inhibitory properties of the compounds containing both nitro and thiocyanate groups alongside with the compounds with the modified number and different spatial location of the substituents are compared. Methods New benzoylphenyl thiocyanates alongside with nitrophenylthiocyanates were tested in the enzymatic assay of bacterial peptidoglycan hydrolysis as well as against strains of several actinobacteria (Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis on in-lab developed models of resuscitation of the dormant forms. Results Introduction of the additional nitro and thiocyanate groups to the benzophenone scaffold did not influence the inhibitory activity of the compounds. Removal of the nitro groups analogously did not impair the functional properties of the molecules. Among the tested compounds two molecules without nitro group: 3-benzoylphenyl thiocyanate and 4-benzoylphenyl thiocyanate demonstrated the maximum activity in both enzymatic assay (inhibition of the Rpf-mediated peptidoglycan hydrolysis and in the resuscitation assay of the dormant M. tuberculosis cells. Conclusions The current study demonstrates dispensability of the nitro group in the NPT’s structure for inhibition of the enzymatic and biological activities of the Rpf protein molecules. These findings provide new prospects in anti-TB drug discovery especially in finding of molecular scaffolds effective for the latent infection treatment.

  3. Benzene and cyclohexane separation using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonfa, Girma; Ismail, Marhaina; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi

    2017-09-01

    Cyclohexane is mainly produced by catalytic hydrogenation of benzene. Removal of unreacted benzene from the product stream is very important in this process. However, due to their close boiling points and azeotrope formation, it is very difficult to separate cyclohexane and benzene by conventional distillation. Currently, special separation processes such as processes extractive distillation is commercially used for this separation. However, this extractive distillation suffers from process complexity and higher energy consumption due to their low extractive selectivity of molecular entrainers used. The aim of the present work is to investigate the applicability of ionic liquids as entrainer in extractive distillation of benzene and cyclohexane mixture. In this study, we investigated 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([BMIM][SCN]) ionic liquid for separation of benzene and cyclohexane by measuring the Vapor Liquid Equilibrium data of the two components in the presence of the ionic liquid. As green and potential environmentally friendly solvents, ionic liquids have attracted increasing attention as alternative conventional entrainers in extractive distillation. Isothermal Vapor Liquid Equilibrium for the benzene + cyclohexane + [BMIM][SCN] ternary system was obtained at 353.15 K using a Head Space Gas Chromatography. The addition of [BMIM][SCN] breaks the benzene-cyclohexane azeotrope and increased the relative volatility cyclohexane to benzene in the mixture. The effect of [BMIM][SCN] on the relative volatility cyclohexane to benzene was studied at various benzene and cyclohexane compositions and solvent to feed ratios. The performance of [BMIM][SCN] was compared with typical conventional solvents, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The results show that the relative volatility of cyclohexane to benzene in the presence of [BMIM][SCN] is higher compared that of DMSO and DMF.

  4. Structural, spectral and mechanical studies of bimetallic crystal: cadmium manganese thiocyanate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, M.; Vijaya Prasath, G.; Mahalingam, T.; Ravi, G. [Alagappa University, Department of Physics, Karaikudi (India); Bhagavannarayan, G.; Vijayan, N. [National Physical Laboratory, Materials Characterization Division, New Delhi (India)

    2012-09-15

    A nonlinear optical bimetallic thiocyanate complex crystal, cadmium manganese thiocyanate (CMTC) has been successfully synthesized. The growth of single crystals of cadmium manganese thiocyanate has been accomplished from aqueous solution using slow evaporation method. The presence of manganese and cadmium in the synthesized material was confirmed through energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis. Structural analysis was carried out using powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD) and crystalline perfection of the grown crystals was ascertained by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum was taken to confirm the functional groups. The transmittance spectrum of the crystal in the UV-visible region has been recorded and the cutoff wavelength has been determined. The dielectric measurements for the crystals were performed for various frequencies and temperatures. The mechanical properties were evaluated by Vickers microhardness testing, which reveals hardness and stiffness constant of the crystals. (orig.)

  5. Antimicrobial activity of allylic thiocyanates derived from the Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Mandolesi Sá

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics has been recognized as a significant global health issue. In this study, we carried out the screening of a family of allylic thiocyanates for their action against a diversity of bacteria and fungi with a view to developing new antimicrobial agents. Allylic thiocyanates bearing halogenated aryl groups, which were readily obtained in two steps from the Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts, showed moderate-to-high activity against selective pathogens, including a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strain. In particular cases, methyl (Z-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl-2-(thiocyanomethyl-2-propenoate exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to the reference antibiotic Imipenem.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of allylic thiocyanates derived from the Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Marcus Mandolesi; Ferreira, Misael; Lima, Emerson Silva; dos Santos, Ivanildes; Orlandi, Patrícia Puccinelli; Fernandes, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics has been recognized as a significant global health issue. In this study, we carried out the screening of a family of allylic thiocyanates for their action against a diversity of bacteria and fungi with a view to developing new antimicrobial agents. Allylic thiocyanates bearing halogenated aryl groups, which were readily obtained in two steps from the Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts, showed moderate-to-high activity against selective pathogens, including a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain. In particular cases, methyl (Z)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(thiocyanomethyl)-2-propenoate exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to the reference antibiotic Imipenem.

  7. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomczynski, P; Sacchi, N

    1987-04-01

    A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.

  8. Is Cytox 3522 (10% methylene-bis-thiocyanate) a human skin sensitizer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Methylene-bis-thiocyanate is an antimicrobial agent in Cytox 3522 (American Cyanamid Corporation) and Nalco 206 (Nalco Chemical Company). Both are wide-spectrum industrial biocides. Cytox 3522 showed a strong sensitization potential in guineau pigs using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test and the O...

  9. Simultaneous oxidation of cyanide and thiocyanate at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario, E-mail: mariodiaz@uniovi.es

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The oxidation rate of SCN{sup −} was greatly enhanced by the presence of CN{sup −}. • The degradation of mixtures was significantly affected by temperature and pressure. • A free-radical pathway was proposed, CN{sup −} and CNO{sup −} being the reaction intermediates. • The principal reaction products were found to be HCOO{sup −}, NH{sub 3} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. • One of the parallel routes gives the found products and the other N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. - Abstract: Thiocyanate and cyanide are important contaminants that frequently appear mixed in industrial effluents. In this work the wet oxidation of mixtures of both compounds, simulating real compositions, was carried out in a semi-batch reactor at temperature between 393 K and 483 K and pressure in the range of 2.0–8.0 MPa. The presence of cyanide (3.85 mM) increased the kinetic constant of thiocyanate degradation by a factor of 1.6, in comparison to the value obtained for the individual degradation of thiocyanate, (5.95 ± 0.05) × 10{sup −5} s{sup −1}. On the other hand, the addition of thiocyanate (0.98 mM) decreased the degradation rate of cyanide by 16%. This revealed the existence of synergistic and inhibitory phenomena between these two species. Additionally, cyanide was identified as an intermediate in the oxidation of thiocyanate, and formate, ammonia and sulfate were found to be the main reaction products. Taking into account the experimental data, a reaction pathway for the simultaneous wet oxidation of both pollutants was proposed. Two parallel reactions beginning from cyanate as intermediate were considered, one yielding ammonia and formate and the other giving carbon dioxide and nitrogen as final products.

  10. CO-occurring exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate alters thyroid function in healthy pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, Megan K.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Wapner, Ronald; Whyatt, Robin; Gennings, Chris; Factor-Litvak, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is necessary for normal fetal brain development, making pregnancy a critical window of vulnerability to thyroid disrupting insults. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors, namely perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, have been shown individually to competitively inhibit uptake of iodine by the thyroid. Several epidemiologic studies examined the association between these individual exposures and thyroid function. Few studies have examined the effect of this chemical mixture on thyroid function during pregnancy Objectives: We examined the cross sectional association between urinary perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate concentrations and thyroid function among healthy pregnant women living in New York City using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression. Methods: We measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FreeT4) in blood samples; perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide in urine samples collected from 284 pregnant women at 12 (±2.8) weeks gestation. We examined associations between urinary analyte concentrations and TSH or FreeT4 using linear regression or WQS adjusting for gestational age, urinary iodide and creatinine. Results: Individual analyte concentrations in urine were significantly correlated (Spearman's r 0.4–0.5, p<0.001). Linear regression analyses did not suggest associations between individual concentrations and thyroid function. The WQS revealed a significant positive association between the weighted sum of urinary concentrations of the three analytes and increased TSH. Perchlorate had the largest weight in the index, indicating the largest contribution to the WQS. Conclusions: Co-exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate may alter maternal thyroid function, specifically TSH, during pregnancy. - Highlights: • Perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate and iodide measured in maternal urine. • Thyroid function (TSH and Free T4) measured in maternal blood.

  11. Flow-through Bulk Optode for Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiocyanate and Its Application to Water and Saliva Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A flow-through spectrophotometric bulk optode for the flow-injectiondetermination of thiocyanate is described. As active constituents, the optode incorporatesthe lipophilized pH indicator 5-octadecanoyloxy-2-(4-nitrophenylazophenol andmethyltridodecyl ammonium chloride, dissolved in a plasticized poly(vinylchloridemembrane entrapped in a cellulose support. The optode is applied, in conjunction with theflow injection technique, to the determination of thiocyanate at pH 7.5 (TRIS/H2SO4. Thesensor is readily regenerated with a 10-2 M NaOH carrier solution. The analyticalcharacteristics of this optode with respect to thiocyanate response time, dynamicmeasurement range, reproducibility and selectivity are discussed. The proposed FI methodis applied to the determination of thiocyanate in waters from different sources and in humansaliva samples in order to distinguish between smokers and non-smokers.

  12. 3,4,7-Trimethyl-2-(4-methylphenyl-2H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazin-5-ium thiocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 1,1′-[5-Methyl-1-(4-methylphenyl-1H-pyrazole-3,4-diyldiethanone condenses with thiosemicarbazide in the presence of acetic acid to form the title salt, C15H17N4+·NCS−. The fused-ring system of the cation is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.020 Å and the aromatic substituent is aligned at an angle of 48.2 (1° with respect to the mean plane of the fused-ring system. The N atom at the 5-position is protonated and forms a N—H...N hydrogen bond to the thiocyanate cointer-ion.

  13. The role of ion channelopathies in sudden cardiac death: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Claire A; Huang, Christopher L-H; Matthews, Gareth D K

    2013-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) following ventricular tachyarrhythmias constitutes an important clinical cause of mortality; 4% of cases may involve ion channel-mediated cellular excitation in structurally normal hearts. Alterations in such processes could disturb action potential conduction, depolarization/ repolarization gradients, or Ca(2+) homeostasis with potential arrhythmogenic consequences. Although SCD may be the first presentation of arrhythmic syndromes, patients may present to the general physician with symptoms of palpitations or hemodynamic compromise, including dizziness, seizure, or syncope, particularly following exertion. In all inherited cardiac death syndromes, first-degree relatives should be referred to a cardiologist and should undergo testing appropriate for the condition. While management of patients at risk of SCD largely centers on risk stratification and, if necessary, insertion of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, there are a number of other, pharmacological, treatments being developed. Furthermore, as the genetic basis of these diseases becomes established, genetic testing will form an increasingly important part of diagnosis, and gene-specific therapy is an area under investigation. This article bridges the gap between molecular medicine and clinical practice by reviewing recent developments in the pathophysiological understanding of SCD, and their implications for the management of patients with these complex diseases.

  14. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic study of ion pairing of strontium(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy techniques have been used to study the ionic interactions of strontium(II) and barium(II) with thiocyanate ion in liquid ammonia. A number of bands were observed in both ν(CN) and ν(CS) regions of infrared and Raman spectra and these were assigned to 1:1 contact ion pair, ...

  15. A solvent extraction study of molybdenum chloride and molybdenum thiocyanate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, L.P.; Lillie, E.G.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of reducing agents on molybdenum(VI) solutions in hydrochloric acid was studied by a solvent extraction technique to elucidate the composition of the colored molybdenum thiocyanate complex. Neither copper(I) chloride nor ascorbic acid have any effect on the extraction of MoO2Cl2; it is inferred that tin(II) chloride reduces Mo(VI) stepwise to a polynuclear Mo(V)??Mo(VI) complex and then to Mo(V). The colored thiocyanate complex produced by copper(I) and by ascorbic acid differs only slightly in extraction characteristics from the uncolored Mo(VI) complex. It is suggested that the color may be produced by an isomerization reaction of MoO2(SCN)2, and thus that the colored species may be a hexavalent rather than pentavalent molybdenum complex. ?? 1974.

  16. Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.; Knudsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    Transport of iodine in the mammary gland into breast milk plays a central role in various fields of prevention of thyroid diseases. First, a sufficient content of iodine in the mother's milk is necessary for normal brain development in the breastfed child. This is attained by expression during...... lactation in the mammary gland of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), also responsible for iodine transport in the thyroid. Milk iodine content varies with the iodine intake of the mother, and urinary iodine excretion in groups of mothers seems to be a valuable indicator of the iodine status...... the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake...

  17. Essentially Trap-Free CsPbBr3 Colloidal Nanocrystals by Postsynthetic Thiocyanate Surface Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscher, Brent A; Swabeck, Joseph K; Bronstein, Noah D; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2017-05-17

    We demonstrate postsynthetic modification of CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals by a thiocyanate salt treatment. This treatment improves the quantum yield of both freshly synthesized (PLQY ≈ 90%) and aged nanocrystals (PLQY ≈ 70%) to within measurement error (2-3%) of unity, while simultaneously maintaining the shape, size, and colloidal stability. Additionally, the luminescence decay kinetics transform from multiexponential decays typical of nanocrystalline semiconductors with a distribution of trap sites, to a monoexponential decay, typical of single energy level emitters. Thiocyanate only needs to access a limited number of CsPbBr 3 nanocrystal surface sites, likely representing under-coordinated lead atoms on the surface, in order to have this effect.

  18. Determination of molybdenum by extraction of its thiocyanate into ethyl methyl ketone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, U.; Kakkar, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for determination of molybdenum is described. A solution containing 100 μg of Mo in 2.5 M hydrochloric acid is treated with ascorbic acid and ammonium thiocyanate and after standing for 8 min is shaken with an equal volume of ethyl methyl ketone for 30 sec. The absorbance of the complex is measured at 465 nm against a reagent blank. The complex is stable for 1 hour. Interference studies are reported. (author)

  19. Oxidation of ferrocene by thiocyanic acid in the presence of ammonium oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruslin, Farah bt; Yamin, Bohari M. [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    A flake-like crystalline salt was obtained from the reaction of ferrocene, oxalic acid and ammonium thiocyanate in ethanol The elemental analysis and spectroscopic data were in agreement with the preliminary X-ray molecular structure. The compound consists of four ferrocenium moieties and a counter anion consisting of two (tetraisothiocyanato)iron(III) linked by an oxalato bridging group in such a way that both iron central atoms adopt octahedral geometries.

  20. Study of the reaction between ammonium thiocyanate and Fe (II or Fe (III using infrared spectroscopy: an experiment of prebiotic chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic chemistry studies the reactions that could be played an important role on origins of life on Earth. However, these reactions should be carried out under conditions that existed on the prebiotic Earth. The laboratory experiments of heating substances in solid state could be corresponding to the following prebiotic environments: cooling lava from volcanoes on the ground and impact of meteorites or comets on the earth. The present study examined the reaction in solid state between ammonium thiocyanate and Fe (II or Fe (III. The samples were heated at 220 ºC in several different times (6 hours, 24 hours, 7 days. The most important finding of this work is that a reaction of oxidation-reduction is occurring between Fe (II and ammonium thiocyanate, the infrared spectrum of the reaction product ammonium thiocyanate/Fe (II showed a band that it is characteristic of ferricyanate. The infrared spectra also showed bands that they are characteristics of guanidine thiocyanate. Thus, the heating of ammonium thiocyanate with Fe (II in solid state is synthesizing guanidine thiocyanate and at the same time oxidizing Fe (II to Fe (III. The product of reaction between Fe (III and ammonium thiocyanate is guanidine thiocyanate. Fe (II and Fe (III are reacting with ammonium thiocyanate in different way.

  1. ions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (MP2 B2). In order to draw the final conclusion about the content of the isomers of pentaatomic ions in saturated vapor over cesium chloride, we have taken into account the entropy factor. We considered the isomerization reactions which are given below: Cs3Cl2. + (V-shaped) = Cs3Cl2. + (cyclic or bipyramidal). (1). Cs2Cl3.

  2. Modelling carcinogenesis after radiotherapy using Poisson statistics: implications for IMRT, protons and ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bleddyn

    2009-06-01

    relative changes in carcinogenesis that incorporate fractionation and relative biological effects (RBE). This alternative modelling approach allows absolute and relative risk estimations per cell and can be extended to tissues. The classical turnover point in carcinogenesis occurring after a single exposure is a feature of the model; also, the dose-response relationship becomes pseudo-linear with extended fractionation and when heterogeneity of the radiosensitivity parameters is introduced; there is also an inverse relationship between dose per fraction and cancer induction. In principle, this new approach might influence the conduct of proton and ion beam therapy, particularly beam placements and fractionation policies. The theoretical implications for future radiotherapy are considerable, but these predictions should be subjected to cellular and tissue experiments that simulate these forms of treatment, including any secondary neutron production in some cases depending on the beam delivery technique, e.g. in tissue equivalent humanoid phantoms using cell transformation techniques. Since the UK has no working high energy particle beam facility over 100 MeV, British scientists would require use of particle beam facilities in Europe, USA or Japan to perform experiments.

  3. Contact ion pair formation between hard acids and soft bases in aqueous solutions observed with 2DIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Zhang, Wenkai; Ji, Minbiao; Hartsock, Robert; Gaffney, Kelly J

    2013-12-12

    The interaction of charged species in aqueous solution has important implications for chemical, biological, and environmental processes. We have used 2DIR spectroscopy to study the equilibrium dynamics of thiocyanate chemical exchange between free ion (NCS(-)) and contact ion pair configurations (MNCS(+)), where M(2+) = Mg(2+) or Ca(2+). Detailed studies of the influence of anion concentration and anion speciation show that the chemical exchange observed with the 2DIR measurements results from NCS(-) exchanging with other anion species in the first solvation shell surrounding Mg(2+) or Ca(2+). The presence of chemical exchange in the 2DIR spectra provides an indirect, but robust, determinant of contact ion pair formation. We observe preferential contact ion pair formation between soft Lewis base anions and hard Lewis acid cations. This observation cannot be easily reconciled with Pearson's acid-base concept or Collins' Law of Matching Water Affinities. The anions that form contact ion pairs also correspond to the ions with an affinity for water and protein surfaces, so similar physical and chemical properties may control these distinct phenomena.

  4. Implications of surface noise for the motional coherence of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, I.; Gorman, D. J.; Daniilidis, N.; Schindler, P.; Ebadi, S.; Kaufmann, H.; Zhang, T.; Häffner, H.

    2016-04-01

    Electric noise from metallic surfaces is a major obstacle towards quantum applications with trapped ions due to motional heating of the ions. Here, we discuss how the same noise source can also lead to pure dephasing of motional quantum states. The mechanism is particularly relevant at small ion-surface distances, thus imposing a constraint on trap miniaturization. By means of a free induction decay experiment, we measure the dephasing time of the motion of a single ion trapped 50 μ m above a Cu-Al surface. From the dephasing times we extract the integrated noise below the secular frequency of the ion. We find that none of the most commonly discussed surface noise models for ion traps describes both the observed heating as well as the measured dephasing satisfactorily. Thus, our measurements provide a benchmark for future models for the electric noise emitted by metallic surfaces.

  5. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Calculated distortions induced by metal-ion binding to simple oligonucleotide systems: Implications for toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.E.; Hingerty, B.E.; England, M.W.; Jacobson, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    We have previously published detailed results of calculations of the binding of the metal ions, Cd{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}, to the dinucleoside monophosphate GpC in water. These ions, which have the same charge and radius, differ enormously in their toxicity to man and other biological systems. Our calculations showed contrasting behavior in the binding of these two metal ions to GpC. We suggest the hypothesis that structural distortions calculated for metal ions binding to simple nucleic-acid systems might serve as a indicator of an ion's potential ability to alter molecular activity and hence to be toxic to an organism. Furthermore, the degree of distortion might be correlated with the degree of toxicity as measured by some suitable criteria. The present paper reports the results of binding calculations for a number of other metal ions, of different valence states, with several dinucleoside monophosphates in water. A general trend of distortion with the type of binding of the metal ions is found. We are seeking quantitative measures of distortion to correlate with indicators of acute toxicity that we have measured for 24 metal ions using mice, Drosophila, and CHO cells. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Analysis of the genes involved in thiocyanate oxidation during growth in continuous culture of the haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanoxidans ARh 2T using transcriptomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berben, Tom; Balkema, Cherel; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thiocyanate (N=C-S-) is a moderately toxic, inorganic sulfur compound. It occurs naturally as a by-product of the degradation of glucosinolatecontaining plants and is produced industrially in a number of mining processes. Currently, two pathways for the primary degradation of thiocyanate in

  8. Analysis of the Genes Involved in Thiocyanate Oxidation during Growth in Continuous Culture of the Haloalkaliphilic Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacterium Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanoxidans ARh 2T Using Transcriptomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berben, T.; Balkema, C.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Muyzer, G.

    2017-01-01

    Thiocyanate (N=C−S−) is a moderately toxic, inorganic sulfur compound. It occurs naturally as a by-product of the degradation of glucosinolate-containing plants and is produced industrially in a number of mining processes. Currently, two pathways for the primary degradation of thiocyanate in

  9. Biodegradation Of Thiocyanate Using Microbial Consortia Cultured From Gold Mine Tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J. W.; Watts, M. P.; Spurr, L. P.; Vu, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Some bacteria possess the capability to degrade SCN-; therefore, harnessing this metabolic trait offers a biotechnological remediation strategy for SCN- produced in gold ore processing. A tailings storage facility (TSF) at a gold mine in Victoria, Australia holds large quantities of thiocyanate (SCN-) contaminated mine waste. The surface water in the TSF typically contains SCN- concentrations of >800 mg L-1, and seepage from the facility has contaminated the groundwater at the site. This study aimed to culture SCN-degrading microbes from the TSF, characterize the microbial consortia and test its operational parameters for use in a thiocyanate-degrading bioreactor. Surface samples were obtained from several locations around the TSF facility and used to inoculate medium reflective of the moderately saline and alkaline tailings water at the TSF, in the absence of organic carbon but subject to additions of phosphate and trace metals. Four microbial consortia capable of rapid SCN- degradation were successfully cultured. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes found that the consortia were dominated by Thiobacillus species, a genus of known SCN- degraders. Lower abundances of other SCN- degraders; Sphingopyxis and Rhodobacter, were also identified. The impact of a number of geochemical conditions, including pH, temperature and SCN- concentration, upon the growth and SCN- degrading capacity of these consortia was determined. These results informed the optimization of a lab-scale thiocyanate degrading bioreactor. In summary, the cultured bacterial consortia proved effective towards SCN- degradation at the prevailing geochemical conditions of the TSF, requiring minimal nutrient additions. These consortia were dominated by genera of known autotrophic SCN- degraders. The comprehensive characterisation of these SCN- degrading consortia will provide the fundamental operational parameters required for deployment of this technique at the field scale.

  10. Electroanalysis of thiocyanate using a novel glassy carbon electrode modified by aryl radicals and cobalt tetracarboxyphthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matemadombo, Fungisai; Nyokong, Tebello [Rhodes University, Grahamstown (South Africa). Department of Chemistry; Westbroek, Philippe [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium). Department of Textiles

    2007-12-01

    Electrochemical grafting of 4-nitrobenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) results in the formation of a nitrophenyl radical, which reacts with the surface to form a covalent bond (grafting) and results in a nitrophenyl modified electrode. The nitro group is electrochemically reduced to a NH{sub 2} group. Cobalt tetracarboxyphthalocyanine (CoTCPc) complex is then attached to the NH{sub 2} group using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as coupling agents. The new CoTCPc modified electrode was characterized using cyclic voltammetry and then employed for the catalytic oxidation of thiocyanate. (author)

  11. Determination of TBP, HDEHP and TOPO complexed with ferrous thiocyanate by reversed phase liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akliouant, Z.; Meddour, L.; Azzouz, A.

    1992-02-01

    The present work deals with the analysis of some organophosphorus extracting agents, e.g. TBP, HDEHP and TOPO by reversed phase liquid chromatography via previous complexation with ferrous thiocyanate. The absorbance wavelengths of the resulting complexes, i.e. TBP:FeSCNK, HDEHP:FeSCNK and TOPO:FeSCNK are respectively 427, 446 and 487nm. Thus, an improvement of such a technique consists in the organophosphorus compounds detection by colorimetry. Subsequently all products and intermediates present in synthesis media can be easily analysed in the same wavelengths range without previous separation or purification

  12. Ion implantation: [fundamental factors which affect accelerator performance and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The use of ion implantation to modify the composition of the near surface layers of solid materials has been widely exploited in the semiconductor industry and is finding increasing application in the treatment of metals, ceramics and polymers. The bombardment of a solid with energetic ions inevitably involves the deposition of energy as well as material and this effect, which results in unwanted effects such as radiation damage in conventional implantation situations, is also being utilized to assist in the deposition of highly adherent or epitaxial layers. The increasing range of applications of ion implantation and ion assisted processing of materials has placed increasingly stringent demands on machine performance; in the present paper implantation techniques and their applications will be discussed. (author)

  13. Gene expression profiling of macrophages: implications for an immunosuppressive effect of dissolucytotic gold ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifert Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold salts has previously been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but have been replaced by biologicals such as TNF-α inhibitors. The mechanisms behind the anti-inflammatory effect of metallic gold ions are still unknown, however, recent data showed that charged gold atoms are released from pure metallic gold implants by macrophages via a dissolucytosis membrane, and that gold ions are taken up by local macrophages, mast cells and to some extent fibroblasts. These findings open the question of possible immunomodulatory effects of metallic gold and motivate efforts on a deeper understanding of the effect of metallic gold on key inflammatory cells as macrophages. Methods Human macrophage cells (cell line THP-1 were grown on gold foils and intracellular uptake was analysed by autometallography. The impact of phagocytised gold ions on viability of THP-1 cells was investigated by trypan blue staining and TUNEL assay. The global gene expression profile of THP-1 cells after incorporation of gold ions was studied using microarray analysis comprising approximately 20,000 genes. The gene expression data was confirmed by measurement of secreted proteins. Results Autometallography showed intracellular uptake of gold ions into THP-1 cells. No significant effect on viability of THP-1 cells was demonstrated. Our data revealed a unique gene expression signature of dissolucytotic THP-1 cells that had taken up gold ions. A large number of regulated genes were functionally related to immunomodulation. Gold ion uptake induced downregulation of genes involved in rheumatoid arthritis such as hepatocyte growth factor, tenascin-C, inhibitor of DNA binding 1 and 3 and matrix metalloproteinase 13. Conclusion The data obtained in this study offer new insights into the mode of action of gold ions and suggest for the investigation of effects on other key cells and a possible future role of metallic gold as implants in rheumatoid arthritis or

  14. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract. These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation.

  15. Characterization and electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol based polymer electrolyte films doped with ammonium thiocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulshrestha, N., E-mail: niharikakul@gmail.com; Chatterjee, B.; Gupta, P.N., E-mail: guptapn07@yahoo.co.in

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). • Ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}SCN). • Electrical conductivity. • Fractals. - Abstract: In this communication, films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer complexed with ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}SCN) salt were studied. XRD (X-ray diffraction) was used to study the complexation of salt with the polymer matrix and amorphicity in the films. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) studies showed that the glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) of the PVA:NH{sub 4}SCN complexed films were less than pristine PVA. Raman analysis was analyzed in order to study the change in the vibrational bands due to the complexation of salt with PVA. Optical micrographs confirm the fractal formation in 75:25 and 70:30 PVA:NH{sub 4}SCN films. Ionic transference number was estimated by Wagner's polarization method and its large value indicates that conduction takes place mainly due to mobile ionic species. Maximum conductivity ∼10{sup −3} S/cm at room temperature was obtained for 70:30 ratio of PVA: NH{sub 4}SCN polymer electrolyte films.

  16. Characterization and electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol based polymer electrolyte films doped with ammonium thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshrestha, N.; Chatterjee, B.; Gupta, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). • Ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4 SCN). • Electrical conductivity. • Fractals. - Abstract: In this communication, films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer complexed with ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4 SCN) salt were studied. XRD (X-ray diffraction) was used to study the complexation of salt with the polymer matrix and amorphicity in the films. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) studies showed that the glass transition temperatures (T g ) of the PVA:NH 4 SCN complexed films were less than pristine PVA. Raman analysis was analyzed in order to study the change in the vibrational bands due to the complexation of salt with PVA. Optical micrographs confirm the fractal formation in 75:25 and 70:30 PVA:NH 4 SCN films. Ionic transference number was estimated by Wagner's polarization method and its large value indicates that conduction takes place mainly due to mobile ionic species. Maximum conductivity ∼10 −3 S/cm at room temperature was obtained for 70:30 ratio of PVA: NH 4 SCN polymer electrolyte films

  17. Simultaneous removal of phenol, ammonium and thiocyanate from coke wastewater by aerobic biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, I.; Rodriguez, J.; Maranon, E.; Castrillon, L.; Fernandez, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory-scale activated sludge plant composed of a 20 L volume aerobic reactor followed by a 12 L volume settling tank and operating at 35 deg. C was used to study the biodegradation of coke wastewater. The concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and thiocyanate (SCN - ) in the wastewater ranged between 504 and 2340, 110 and 350, 807 and 3275 and 185 and 370 mg/L, respectively. The study was undertaken with and without the addition of bicarbonate. The addition of this inorganic carbon source was necessary to favour nitrification, as the alkalinity of the wastewater was very low. Maximum removal efficiencies of 75%, 98% and 90% were obtained for COD, phenols and thyocianates, respectively, without the addition of bicarbonate. The concentration of ammonia increased in the effluent due to both the formation of NH 4 + as a result of SCN - biodegradation and to organic nitrogen oxidation. A maximum nitrification efficiency of 71% was achieved when bicarbonate was added, the removals of COD and phenols being almost similar to those obtained in the absence of nitrification. Batch experiments were performed to study the influence of pH and alkalinity on the biodegradation of phenols and thiocyanate

  18. Synthesis and implication of novel poly(acrylic acid)/nanosorbent embedded hydrogel composite for lead ion removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Mayuri; Rajulapati, Satish Babu; Sonawane, Shirish; Girdhar, Amandeep

    2017-11-27

    Lead stands second among the deadly heavy metal pollutants owing to the incompetent mechanism possessed by the human body for its removal. A polymeric hydrogel in the form of composite was prepared using acrylic acid (monomer) and novel nanofiller that possess super adsorbent properties with restricted gel seepage into flowing ionic liquid. The filler used is an adsorbent which is biocompatible, biodegradable, economical, abundant, non-hazardous and easy to synthesize. The invariably porous nanofiller, the Nanobentonite(clay), was synthesized using ion exchange reaction by creating acidic environment for accelerated dispersion with exfoliation by CTAB to enhance cation exchange capacity. NanobentoFnite was capable of removing >97% lead ion in batch adsorption study and followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. Freundlich isotherm suggested a removal capacity of ~20 mg/g. Thus, the successfully experimented adsorbent was implicated as filler to form polyacrylic acid nanoclay hydrogel polymerized in ultrasonic bath. The amount of filler was varied from 0.25 to 2 wt% to get 94% removal, analyzed using ICP-OES. The prepared adsorbents were characterized before and after adsorption using TEM, FESEM, XRD, FTIR and DSC to understand the structural changes and metal-sorbent interaction. Thus, the novel nanosorbent/composite are promiscuous and competent in terms of availability, reusability and longevity to remove heavy metal ions.

  19. Ion velocity distributions within the LLBL and their possible implication to multiple reconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Vaisberg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze two LLBL crossings made by the Interball-Tail satellite under a southward or variable magnetosheath magnetic field: one crossing on the flank of the magnetosphere, and another one closer to the subsolar point. Three different types of ion velocity distributions within the LLBL are observed: (a D-shaped distributions, (b ion velocity distributions consisting of two counter-streaming components of magnetosheath-type, and (c distributions with three components, one of which has nearly zero parallel velocity and two counter-streaming components. Only the (a type fits to the single magnetic flux tube formed by reconnection between the magnetospheric and magnetosheath magnetic fields. We argue that two counter-streaming magnetosheath-like ion components observed by Interball within the LLBL cannot be explained by the reflection of the ions from the magnetic mirror deeper within the magnetosphere. Types (b and (c ion velocity distributions would form within spiral magnetic flux tubes consisting of a mixture of alternating segments originating from the magnetosheath and from magnetospheric plasma. The shapes of ion velocity distributions and their evolution with decreasing number density in the LLBL indicate that a significant part of the LLBL is located on magnetic field lines of long spiral flux tube islands at the magnetopause, as has been proposed and found to occur in magnetopause simulations. We consider these observations as evidence for multiple reconnection Χ-lines between magnetosheath and magnetospheric flux tubes. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  20. Surface Electrical Potentials of Root Cell Plasma Membranes: Implications for Ion Interactions, Rhizotoxicity, and Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Min Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many crop plants are exposed to heavy metals and other metals that may intoxicate the crop plants themselves or consumers of the plants. The rhizotoxicity of heavy metals is influenced strongly by the root cell plasma membrane (PM surface’s electrical potential (ψ0. The usually negative ψ0 is created by negatively charged constituents of the PM. Cations in the rooting medium are attracted to the PM surface and anions are repelled. Addition of ameliorating cations (e.g., Ca2+ and Mg2+ to the rooting medium reduces the effectiveness of cationic toxicants (e.g., Cu2+ and Pb2+ and increases the effectiveness of anionic toxicants (e.g., SeO42− and H2AsO4−. Root growth responses to ions are better correlated with ion activities at PM surfaces ({IZ}0 than with activities in the bulk-phase medium ({IZ}b (IZ denotes an ion with charge Z. Therefore, electrostatic effects play a role in heavy metal toxicity that may exceed the role of site-specific competition between toxicants and ameliorants. Furthermore, ψ0 controls the transport of ions across the PM by influencing both {IZ}0 and the electrical potential difference across the PM from the outer surface to the inner surface (Em,surf. Em,surf is a component of the driving force for ion fluxes across the PM and controls ion-channel voltage gating. Incorporation of {IZ}0 and Em,surf into quantitative models for root metal toxicity and uptake improves risk assessments of toxic metals in the environment. These risk assessments will improve further with future research on the application of electrostatic theory to heavy metal phytotoxicity in natural soils and aquatic environments.

  1. Cellular Mechanisms Regulating Ciliary Disassembly and EMT: Roles of Ion Transport and Implications for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinda, Raj Rajeshwar

    presented in paper I of this thesis provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of ciliary disassembly by demonstrating a critical role for PDGFRmediated PLCγ- and Ca2+ signaling in this process. Findings presented in paper II show that acid extruding ion transporters are upregulated, while merlin...

  2. Employing Lead Thiocyanate Additive to Reduce the Hysteresis and Boost the Fill Factor of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Weijun [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 China; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Xiao, Chuanxiao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Wang, Changlei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Saparov, Bayrammurad [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Duan, Hsin-Sheng [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Zhao, Dewei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Xiao, Zewen [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Schulz, Philip [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Harvey, Steven P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Liao, Weiqiang [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Meng, Weiwei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Yu, Yue [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Cimaroli, Alexander J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Jiang, Chun-Sheng [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Zhu, Kai [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Al-Jassim, Mowafak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Fang, Guojia [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 China; Mitzi, David B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Yan, Yanfa [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA

    2016-05-04

    Lead thiocyanate in the perovskite precursor can increase the grain size of a perovskite thin film and reduce the conductivity of the grain boundaries, leading to perovskite solar cells with reduced hysteresis and enhanced fill factor. A planar perovskite solar cell with grain boundary and interface passivation achieves a steady-state efficiency of 18.42%.

  3. Copper-Catalyzed Intermolecular Trifluoromethylazidation and Trifluoromethylthiocyanation of Allenes: Efficient Access to CF3-Containing Allyl Azides and Thiocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na; Wang, Fei; Chen, Pinhong; Ye, Jinxing; Liu, Guosheng

    2015-07-17

    A mild and efficient method for copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylazidation and trifluoromethylthiocyanation of allenes was explored. A series of CF3-containing allyl azides and thiocyanates were obtained with high yields and good stereoselectivities, which can be used for further transformation to some valuable compounds.

  4. Effect of maternal nicotine/thiocyanate exposure during gestational period upon pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid function/morphology of 1-month-old rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafez, A M; Eltony, S A; Abdelhameed, S Y; Elgayar, S A

    2014-05-01

    Impact of in utero exposure to nicotine, on the structure of the thyroid-pituitary axis and the parathyroid glands have been examined in 1-month-old rats and compared with that of thiocyanate. Three pregnant female groups were used; control, nicotine and thiocyanate. Treatment started from gestation day (4-20) and the specimens were harvested from the male offspring of all groups at the age of 1 month and processed for light, electronmicroscopic and immunohistochemical examination. Total triiodothyronine (tT3), total thyroxine (tT4) and total thyrotropin (TSH) were quantitatively determined in serum. Both nicotine and thiocyanate activated the thyroid follicular cells, with an increase in height (about 30 %) and a negative feedback on the pituitary thyrotrophs which revealed a reduction in the number of cytoplasmic secretory granules, particularly the thiocyanate group. However, in thiocyanate group there was signs of impaired secretory activity of the thyroid gland. The arbitrary area of parathyroid chief cells, increased (about 45 %) particularly in nicotine group, with signs of reduced activity and a positive feedback on the parafollicular cells which revealed hypertrophy, proliferation (25 %) and increased intensity of positive immunohistochemical reaction for calcitonin. Nicotine impaired chief parathyroid cells activity and consequently activated parafollicular cells. Thiocyanate reduced pituitary thyrotrophs activity, whereas both nicotine and thiocyanate increased thyroid follicular cells activity. This impact of in utero exposure persisted for 1-month postnatal.

  5. Novel Insights into Acid-Sensing Ion Channels: Implications for Degenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ren-Peng; Wu, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Zhi-Sen; Xie, Ya-Ya; Ge, Jin-Fang; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2016-08-01

    Degenerative diseases often strike older adults and are characterized by progressive deterioration of cells, eventually leading to tissue and organ degeneration for which limited effective treatment options are currently available. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), a family of extracellular H(+)-activated ligand-gated ion channels, play critical roles in physiological and pathological conditions. Aberrant activation of ASICs is reported to regulate cell apoptosis, differentiation and autophagy. Accumulating evidence has highlighted a dramatic increase and activation of ASICs in degenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, intervertebral disc degeneration and arthritis. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the critical roles of ASICs and their potential utility as therapeutic targets in degenerative diseases.

  6. Copper thiocyanate: An attractive hole transport/extraction layer for use in organic photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treat, Neil D., E-mail: neil.treat@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: t.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk; Stingelin, Natalie [Department of Materials and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Yaacobi-Gross, Nir; Faber, Hendrik; Perumal, Ajay K.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: neil.treat@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: t.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-06

    We report the advantageous properties of the inorganic molecular semiconductor copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) for use as a hole collection/transport layer (HTL) in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. CuSCN possesses desirable HTL energy levels [i.e., valence band at −5.35 eV, 0.35 eV deeper than poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)], which produces a 17% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) relative to PEDOT:PSS-based devices. In addition, a two-fold increase in shunt resistance for the solar cells measured in dark conditions is achieved. Ultimately, CuSCN enables polymer:fullerene based OPV cells to achieve PCE > 8%. CuSCN continues to offer promise as a chemically stable and straightforward replacement for the commonly used PEDOT:PSS.

  7. Life-threatening intoxication with methylene bis(thiocyanate: clinical picture and pitfalls. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnuelle Peter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylene bis(thiocyanate (MBT is a microbiocidal agent mainly used in industrial water cooling systems and paper mills as an inhibitor of algae, fungi, and bacteria. Case presentation We describe the first case of severe intoxication following inhalation of powder in an industrial worker. Profound cyanosis and respiratory failure caused by severe methemoglobinemia developed within several minutes. Despite immediate admission to the intensive care unit, where mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis for toxin elimination were initiated, multi-organ failure involving liver, kidneys, and lungs developed. While liver failure was leading, the patient was successfully treated with the MARS (molecular adsorbent recirculating system procedure. Conclusion Intoxication with MBT is a potentially life-threatening intoxication causing severe methemoglobinemia and multi-organ failure. Extracorporeal liver albumin dialysis (MARS appears to be an effective treatment to allow recovery of hepatic function.

  8. AMPA receptor flip/flop mutants affecting deactivation, desensitization, and modulation by cyclothiazide, aniracetam, and thiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, K M; Fleck, M W; Mayer, M L

    1996-11-01

    AMPA receptor GluRA subunits with mutations at position 750, a residue shown previously to control allosteric regulation by cyclothiazide, were analyzed for modulation of deactivation and desensitization by cyclothiazide, aniracetam, and thiocyanate. Point mutations from Ser to Asn, Ala, Asp, Gly, Gln, Met, Cys, Thr, Leu, Val, and Tyr were constructed in GluRAflip. The last four of these mutants were not functional; S750D was active only in the presence of cyclothiazide, and the remaining mutants exhibited altered rates of deactivation and desensitization for control responses to glutamate, and showed differential modulation by cyclothiazide and aniracetam. Results from kinetic analysis are consistent with aniracetam and cyclothiazide acting via distinct mechanisms. Our experiments demonstrate for the first time the functional importance of residue 750 in regulating intrinsic channel-gating kinetics and emphasize the biological significance of alternative splicing in the M3-M4 extracellular loop.

  9. Halogen bond preferences of thiocyanate ligand coordinated to Ru(II) via sulphur atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin; Tuikka, Matti; Hirva, Pipsa; Haukka, Matti

    2017-09-01

    Halogen bonding between [Ru(bpy)(CO)2(S-SCN)2] (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), I2 was studied by co-crystallising the metal compound and diiodine from dichloromethane. The only observed crystalline product was found to be [Ru(bpy)(CO)2(S-SCN)2]ṡI2 with only one NCSṡṡṡI2 halogen bond between I2 and the metal coordinated S atom of one of the thiocyanate ligand. The dangling nitrogen atoms were not involved in halogen bonding. However, computational analysis suggests that there are no major energetic differences between the NCSṡṡṡI2 and SCNṡṡṡI2 bonding modes. The reason for the observed NCSṡṡṡI2 mode lies most probably in the more favourable packing effects rather than energetic preferences between NCSṡṡṡI2 and SCNṡṡṡI2 contacts.

  10. The Global Implications and Grand Challenge of Neutral-Ion Interactions in the Polar Regions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    That the smallest of interactions occurring between neutrals and ions in the polar thermosphere can impact the largest of scales in thermosphere response is a testament to the primary importance of the Joule heating rate as an energy source for the thermosphere. Yet, our understanding/quantification of this primary energy source is woefully represented by numerical models and poorly sampled by measurement. For numerical models, the Joule heating rate requires parameterizations to account for the presumed “missing” energy in the simulations, while, for measurements, numerous approximations abound. In addition to being a primary thermosphere energy source, the Joule heating rate also represents a collective of neutral and ion interactions that result from solar wind and solar processes and exchange processes among the thermosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere. Thus, to properly simulate the Joule heating rate requires a system perspective. Furthermore, to properly observe the Joule heating rate requires measurements of the ionosphere-thermosphere system at high temporal and spatial scales. This remains a very difficult task. The estimation and modeling of the Joule heating rate represents a grand challenge that involves the entire sun-earth system. This talk will put into perspective the current state in addressing the challenge of capturing this illusive source of energy.

  11. Binary and ternary LLE data of the system (ethylbenzene + styrene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate) and binary VLE data of the system (styrene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongmans, Mark T.G.; Schuur, Boelo; Haan, André B. de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► LLE data have been measured for the system {ethylbenzene + styrene + [EMIM][SCN]}. ► VLE was determined for the system {styrene + [EMIM][SCN]} at vacuum conditions. ► All experimental data were correlated well with the NRTL model. ► [EMIM][SCN] has a much larger selectivity than the benchmark solvent sulfolane. - Abstract: The distillation of close boiling mixtures may be improved by adding a proper affinity solvent, and thereby creating an extractive distillation process. An example of a close boiling mixture that may be separated by extractive distillation is the mixture ethylbenzene/styrene. The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([EMIM][SCN]) is a promising solvent to separate ethylbenzene and styrene by extractive distillation. In this study, (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data have been measured for the binary system (styrene + [EMIM][SCN]) over the pressure range of (3 to 20) kPa and binary and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data of the system (ethylbenzene + styrene + [EMIM][SCN]) at temperatures (313.2, 333.2 and 353.2) K. Due to the low solubility of ethylbenzene in [EMIM][SCN], it was not possible to measure accurately VLE data of the binary system (ethylbenzene + [EMIM][SCN]) and of the ternary system (ethylbenzene + styrene + [EMIM][SCN]) using the ebulliometer. Because previous work showed that the LLE selectivity is a good measure for the selectivity in VLE, we determined the selectivity with LLE. The selectivity of [EMIM][SCN] to styrene in LLE measurements ranges from 2.1 at high styrene raffinate purity to 2.6 at high ethylbenzene raffinate purity. The NRTL model can properly describe the experimental results. The rRMSD in temperature, pressure and mole fraction for the binary VLE data are respectively (0.1, 0.12 and 0.13)%. The rRMSD is only 0.7% in mole fraction for the LLE data.

  12. Selective extraction by dissolvable (nitriloacetic acid-nickel)-layered double hydroxide coupled with reaction with potassium thiocyanate for sensitive detection of iron(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sheng; Chang, Yuepeng; Shen, Wei; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-07-01

    A highly selective method has been proposed for the determination of iron cation (Fe(3+)). (Nitriloacetic acid-nickel)-layered double hydroxide ((NTA-Ni)-LDH) was successfully synthesized and used as dissolvable sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction to pre-concentrate and separate Fe(3+) from aqueous phase. Since Fe(3+) has a larger formation constant with NTA compared to Ni(2+), subsequently ion exchange occurred when (NTA-Ni)-LDH was added to the sample solution. The resultant (NTA-Fe)-LDH sol was isolated and transferred in an acidic medium containing potassium thiocyanate (KSCN). Since (NTA-Fe)-LDH could be dissolved in acidic conditions, Fe(3+)was released and reacted with SCN(-) to form an Fe-SCN complex. The resulting product was measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry for quantitative detection of Fe(3+). Extraction factors, including sample pH, reaction pH, extraction temperature, extraction time, reaction time and concentration of KSCN were optimized. This method achieved a low limit of detection of 15.2nM and a good linear range from 0.05 to 50μM (r(2)=0.9937). A nearly 18-fold enhancement of signal intensity was achieved after selective extraction. The optimized conditions were validated by applying the method to determine Fe(3+) in seawater samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Glass transition dynamics and conductivity scaling in ionic deep eutectic solvents: The case of (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Satya N., E-mail: satyanarayantripathy@gmail.com; Wojnarowska, Zaneta; Knapik, Justyna; Paluch, Marian [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pulku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Shirota, Hideaki [Department of Nanomaterial Science and Department of Chemistry, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Biswas, Ranjit [Department of Chemical, Biological and Macromolecular Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2015-05-14

    A detailed investigation on the molecular dynamics of ionic deep eutectic solvents (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) is reported. The study was carried out employing dielectric relaxation spectroscopy covering seven decades in frequency (10{sup −1}-10{sup 6} Hz) and in a wide temperature range from 373 K down to 173 K, accessing the dynamic observables both in liquid and glassy state. The dielectric response of the ionic system has been presented in the dynamic window of modulus formalism to understand the conductivity relaxation and its possible connection to the origin of localized motion. Two secondary relaxation processes appear below glass transition temperature. Our findings provide suitable interpretation on the nature of secondary Johari-Goldstein process describing the ion translation and orientation of dipoles in a combined approach using Ngai’s coupling model. A nearly constant loss feature is witnessed at shorter times/lower temperatures. We also discuss the ac conductivity scaling behavior using Summerfield approach and random free energy barrier model which establish the time-temperature superposition principle. These experimental observations have fundamental importance on theoretical elucidation of the conductivity relaxation and glass transition phenomena in molten ionic conductors.

  14. Electrochemical thiocyanation of dodecahydro-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate and 7,8-dimethyldecahydro-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate monoanions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D.A.; Shirokij, V.L.; Potkin, V.I.; Majer, N.A.; Bragin, D.I.; Petrovskij, P.V.; Sivaev, I.B.; Bregadze, V.I.; Kisin, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical thiocyanation of the dodecahydro-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate and 7,8-dimethyldecahydro-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate monoanions afforded thiocyanate derivatives of these compounds, which were isolated as alkylammonium salts. The structures of the synthesized compounds were determined by the data from IR, 1 H and 11 B NMR, and 11 B- 11 B NMR COSY spectroscopy [ru

  15. Differential distribution of voltage-gated ion channels in cortical neurons: implications for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Nicholas D; Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2014-03-18

    Neurons contain different functional somatodendritic and axonal domains, each with a characteristic distribution of voltage-gated ion channels, synaptic inputs, and function. The dendritic tree of a cortical pyramidal neuron has 2 distinct domains, the basal and the apical dendrites, both containing dendritic spines; the different domains of the axon are the axonal initial segment (AIS), axon proper (which in myelinated axons includes the node of Ranvier, paranodes, juxtaparanodes, and internodes), and the axon terminals. In the cerebral cortex, the dendritic spines of the pyramidal neurons receive most of the excitatory synapses; distinct populations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons target specific cellular domains and thus exert different influences on pyramidal neurons. The multiple synaptic inputs reaching the somatodendritic region and generating excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) sum and elicit changes in membrane potential at the AIS, the site of initiation of the action potential.

  16. RADIOLYSIS OF NITROGEN AND WATER-ICE MIXTURE BY FAST IONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A. L. F. de [Departamento de Física, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Av. Maracanã 229, 20271-110 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silveira, E. F da [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bergantini, A. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911 Urbanova, São José do Campos, SP (Brazil); Rothard, H.; Boduch, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP-GANIL (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France)

    2015-09-10

    The participation of condensed nitrogen in the surface chemistry of some objects in the outer solar system, such as Pluto and Triton, is very important. The remote observation of this species using absorption spectroscopy is a difficult task because N{sub 2} is not IR active in the gas phase. Water is also among the most abundant molecules in the surface of these objects; chemical reactions between N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O induced by cosmic rays are therefore expected. Although pure N{sub 2} ice is hardly identified by IR spectroscopy, the species produced through the processing of the surface ice by cosmic rays may give relevant clues indicating how abundant the N{sub 2} is in the outside layers of the surface of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of nitrogenated species induced by cosmic-ray analogs in an ice mixture containing nitrogen and water. Experiments were performed in the GANIL Laboratory by bombarding N{sub 2}:H{sub 2}O (10:1) ice at 15 K with 40 MeV {sup 58}Ni{sup 11+} ions. Evolution of precursor and daughter species was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The main produced species are the nitrogen oxides NO{sub k} (k = 1–3), N{sub 2}O{sub j} (j = 1–5), N{sub 3}, and O{sub 3}. Among them, the N{sub 2}O and N{sub 3} are the most abundant, representing ∼61% of the total column density of the daughter molecules at 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2} fluence; the current results indicate that the yield of daughter species from this mixture is low, and this may be one of the reasons why N{sub i}O{sub j} molecules are not usually observed in TNOs.

  17. RADIOLYSIS OF NITROGEN AND WATER-ICE MIXTURE BY FAST IONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, A. L. F. de; Silveira, E. F da; Bergantini, A.; Rothard, H.; Boduch, P.

    2015-01-01

    The participation of condensed nitrogen in the surface chemistry of some objects in the outer solar system, such as Pluto and Triton, is very important. The remote observation of this species using absorption spectroscopy is a difficult task because N 2 is not IR active in the gas phase. Water is also among the most abundant molecules in the surface of these objects; chemical reactions between N 2 and H 2 O induced by cosmic rays are therefore expected. Although pure N 2 ice is hardly identified by IR spectroscopy, the species produced through the processing of the surface ice by cosmic rays may give relevant clues indicating how abundant the N 2 is in the outside layers of the surface of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of nitrogenated species induced by cosmic-ray analogs in an ice mixture containing nitrogen and water. Experiments were performed in the GANIL Laboratory by bombarding N 2 :H 2 O (10:1) ice at 15 K with 40 MeV 58 Ni 11+ ions. Evolution of precursor and daughter species was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The main produced species are the nitrogen oxides NO k (k = 1–3), N 2 O j (j = 1–5), N 3 , and O 3 . Among them, the N 2 O and N 3 are the most abundant, representing ∼61% of the total column density of the daughter molecules at 10 13 ions cm −2 fluence; the current results indicate that the yield of daughter species from this mixture is low, and this may be one of the reasons why N i O j molecules are not usually observed in TNOs

  18. The use of a polymer inclusion membrane as a sorbent for online preconcentration in the flow injection determination of thiocyanate impurity in ammonium sulfate fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Takumi; Kagaya, Shigehiro; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2014-11-01

    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) is used for the first time as a sorbent in the construction of a preconcentration column to enhance the sensitivity in flow injection analysis (FIA). The PIM-coated column is readily prepared by coating the PIM containing poly(vinyl chloride), Aliquat 336, and 1-tetradecanol onto glass beads packed in a glass tube. The determination of trace amounts of thiocyanate in ammonium sulfate fertilizer demonstrates the potential of the proposed PIM-coated column in FIA. Thiocyanate standards or samples of relatively large volume (e.g. up to 2000 µL) are injected into a nitrate carrier stream. The sample zone passes through the proposed preconcentration column where thiocyanate is concentrated in a smaller volume of a carrier solution thus resulting in up to 7.4 fold increase in sensitivity. Thiocyanate is detected spectrophotometrically after its reaction with Fe(III) downstream of the preconcentration column. The limits of detection of thiocyanate in the absence and presence of 20 g L(-1) ammonium sulfate (S/N=2) are 0.014 and 0.024 mg L(-1), respectively. Thiocyanate was successfully determined in several samples of ammonium sulfate fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Directed Flow in Heavy-Ion Collisions and Its Implications for Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri B. Ivanov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of directed flow ( v 1 of protons, antiprotons and pions in heavy-ion collisions is performed in the range of collision energies s N N = 2.7–39 GeV. Simulations have been done within a three-fluid model employing a purely hadronic equation of state (EoS and two versions of the EoS with deconfinement transitions: a first-order phase transition and a smooth crossover transition. The crossover EoS is unambiguously preferable for the description of experimental data at lower collision energies s N N ≲ 20 Gev. However, at higher collision energies s N N ≳ 20 Gev. the purely hadronic EoS again becomes advantageous. This indicates that the deconfinement EoS in the quark-gluon sector should be stiffer at high baryon densities than those used in the calculation. The latter finding is in agreement with that discussed in astrophysics in connection with existence of hybrid stars with masses up to about two solar masses.

  20. Physical interaction and functional coupling between ACDP4 and the intracellular ion chaperone COX11, an implication of the role of ACDP4 in essential metal ion transport and homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Jianguo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Divalent metal ions such as copper, manganese, and cobalt are essential for cell development, differentiation, function and survival. These essential metal ions are delivered into intracellular domains as cofactors for enzymes involved in neuropeptide and neurotransmitter synthesis, superoxide metabolism, and other biological functions in a target specific fashion. Altering the homeostasis of these essential metal ions is known to connect to a number of human diseases including Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and pain. It remains unclear how these essential metal ions are delivered to intracellular targets in mammalian cells. Here we report that rat spinal cord dorsal horn neurons express ACDP4, a member of Ancient Conserved Domain Protein family. By screening a pretransformed human fetal brain cDNA library in a yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified that ACDP4 specifically interacts with COX11, an intracellular metal ion chaperone. Ectopic expression of ACDP4 in HEK293 cells resulted in enhanced toxicity to metal ions including copper, manganese, and cobalt. The metal ion toxicity became more pronounced when ACDP4 and COX11 were co-expressed ectopically in HEK293 cells, suggesting a functional coupling between them. Our results indicate a role of ACDP4 in metal ion homeostasis and toxicity. This is the first report revealing a functional aspect of this ancient conserved domain protein family. We propose that ACDP is a family of transporter protein or chaperone proteins for delivering essential metal ions in different mammalian tissues. The expression of ACDP4 on spinal cord dorsal horn neurons may have implications in sensory neuron functions under physiological and pathological conditions.

  1. Liquid-liquid extraction of ruthenium(III) thiocyanate with hexamethylphosphoramide: direct spectrophotometric determination in the organic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, B.K.; Pal, B.K.; Chowdhury, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Ru(III) thiocyanate has been extracted with hexamethylphosphoramide(HMPA) in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Thus the extractability, sensitivity and selectivity are improved over the simple binary Ru(III) thiocyanate system in spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium in the organic phase. The maximum colour develops on the steam bath, at the acidity range of 1.5 - 2.5 M with HCl and ammonium thiocyanate concentration range of 0.25 - O.5 M. The colour is completely extractable in MIBK when 1.5 - 3.0 ml HMPA is used and show maximum absorbance at 570 nm. The colour system obeys Beer's law for 0.7 - 13 μg Ru/ml and the optimum concentration range is 2 - 13 μg/ml. The molar absorptivity and sensitivity are 6940 l . mole -1 cm -1 and 0.0145 μg/cm 2 respectively. The percent relative error is 2.72%. The method is very simple and does not require oxidation and subsequent distillation. The method can be applied in the presence of osmium. (Author)

  2. A comparative study on the aggregating effects of guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea on lysozyme aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emadi, Saeed, E-mail: emadi@iasbs.ac.ir; Behzadi, Maliheh

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M). • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M). • Lysozyme did not aggregated at any concentration (0.5–5 M) of urea. • Unfolding pathway is more important than unfolding per se in aggregation. - Abstract: Protein aggregation and its subsequent deposition in different tissues culminate in a diverse range of diseases collectively known as amyloidoses. Aggregation of hen or human lysozyme depends on certain conditions, namely acidic pH or the presence of additives. In the present study, the effects on the aggregation of hen egg-white lysozyme via incubation in concentrated solutions of three different chaotropic agents namely guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea were investigated. Here we used three different methods for the detection of the aggregates, thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Our results showed that upon incubation with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 M) of the chemical denaturants, lysozyme was aggregated at low concentrations of guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M) and at high concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M), although no fibril formation was detected. In the case of urea, no aggregation was observed at any concentration.

  3. A comparative study on the aggregating effects of guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea on lysozyme aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emadi, Saeed; Behzadi, Maliheh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M). • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M). • Lysozyme did not aggregated at any concentration (0.5–5 M) of urea. • Unfolding pathway is more important than unfolding per se in aggregation. - Abstract: Protein aggregation and its subsequent deposition in different tissues culminate in a diverse range of diseases collectively known as amyloidoses. Aggregation of hen or human lysozyme depends on certain conditions, namely acidic pH or the presence of additives. In the present study, the effects on the aggregation of hen egg-white lysozyme via incubation in concentrated solutions of three different chaotropic agents namely guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea were investigated. Here we used three different methods for the detection of the aggregates, thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Our results showed that upon incubation with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 M) of the chemical denaturants, lysozyme was aggregated at low concentrations of guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M) and at high concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M), although no fibril formation was detected. In the case of urea, no aggregation was observed at any concentration

  4. Defect interactions with stepped CeO₂/SrTiO₃ interfaces: implications for radiation damage evolution and fast ion conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholabhai, Pratik P; Aguiar, Jeffery A; Misra, Amit; Uberuaga, Blas P

    2014-05-21

    Due to reduced dimensions and increased interfacial content, nanocomposite oxides offer improved functionalities in a wide variety of advanced technological applications, including their potential use as radiation tolerant materials. To better understand the role of interface structures in influencing the radiation damage tolerance of oxides, we have conducted atomistic calculations to elucidate the behavior of radiation-induced point defects (vacancies and interstitials) at interface steps in a model CeO2/SrTiO3 system. We find that atomic-scale steps at the interface have substantial influence on the defect behavior, which ultimately dictate the material performance in hostile irradiation environments. Distinctive steps react dissimilarly to cation and anion defects, effectively becoming biased sinks for different types of defects. Steps also attract cation interstitials, leaving behind an excess of immobile vacancies. Further, defects introduce significant structural and chemical distortions primarily at the steps. These two factors are plausible origins for the enhanced amorphization at steps seen in our recent experiments. The present work indicates that comprehensive examination of the interaction of radiation-induced point defects with the atomic-scale topology and defect structure of heterointerfaces is essential to evaluate the radiation tolerance of nanocomposites. Finally, our results have implications for other applications, such as fast ion conduction.

  5. An assessment of ion temperature measurements in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and implications for ion fluid heat flux limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, D; LaBombard, B; Churchill, R M; Hughes, J; Lipschultz, B; Ochoukov, R; Theiler, C; Walk, J; Rognlien, T D; Umansky, M V; Whyte, D

    2013-01-01

    The ion temperature is not frequently measured in the boundary of magnetic fusion devices. Comparisons among different ion temperature techniques and simulations are even rarer. Here we present a comparison of ion temperature measurements in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak from three different diagnostics: charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS), an ion sensitive probe (ISP), and a retarding field analyzer (RFA). Comparison between CXRS and the ISP along with close examination of the ISP measurements reveals that the ISP is space charge limited. It is thus unable to measure ion temperature in the high density (>10 19 m −3 ) boundary plasma of C-Mod with its present geometry. Comparison of ion temperatures measured by CXRS and the RFA shows fair agreement. Ion and electron parallel heat flow is analyzed with a simple 1D fluid code. The code takes divertor measurements as input and results are compared to the measured ratios of upstream ion to electron temperature, as inferred respectively by CXRS and a Langmuir probe. The analysis reveals the limits of the fluid model at high Knudsen number. The upstream temperature ratio is under predicted by a factor of 2. Heat flux limiters (kinetic corrections) to the fluid model are necessary to match experimental data. The values required are found to be close to those reported in kinetic simulations. The 1D code is benchmarked against the 2D plasma fluid code UEDGE with good agreement. (paper)

  6. An assessment of ion temperature measurements in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and implications for ion fluid heat flux limiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Churchill, R. M.; Hughes, J.; Lipschultz, B.; Ochoukov, R.; Rognlien, T. D.; Theiler, C.; Walk, J.; Umansky, M. V.; Whyte, D.

    2013-09-01

    The ion temperature is not frequently measured in the boundary of magnetic fusion devices. Comparisons among different ion temperature techniques and simulations are even rarer. Here we present a comparison of ion temperature measurements in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak from three different diagnostics: charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS), an ion sensitive probe (ISP), and a retarding field analyzer (RFA). Comparison between CXRS and the ISP along with close examination of the ISP measurements reveals that the ISP is space charge limited. It is thus unable to measure ion temperature in the high density (>1019 m-3) boundary plasma of C-Mod with its present geometry. Comparison of ion temperatures measured by CXRS and the RFA shows fair agreement. Ion and electron parallel heat flow is analyzed with a simple 1D fluid code. The code takes divertor measurements as input and results are compared to the measured ratios of upstream ion to electron temperature, as inferred respectively by CXRS and a Langmuir probe. The analysis reveals the limits of the fluid model at high Knudsen number. The upstream temperature ratio is under predicted by a factor of 2. Heat flux limiters (kinetic corrections) to the fluid model are necessary to match experimental data. The values required are found to be close to those reported in kinetic simulations. The 1D code is benchmarked against the 2D plasma fluid code UEDGE with good agreement.

  7. Low-Pressure Vapor-Assisted Solution Process for Thiocyanate-Based Pseudohalide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Cheng, Hsin-Min; Li, Ming-Hsien; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2016-09-22

    In this report, we fabricated thiocyanate-based perovskite solar cells with low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process (LP-VASP) method. Photovoltaic performances are evaluated with detailed materials characterizations. Scanning electron microscopy images show that SCN-based perovskite films fabricated using LP-VASP have long-range uniform morphology and large grain sizes up to 1 μm. The XRD and Raman spectra were employed to observe the characteristic peaks for both SCN-based and pure CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite. We observed that the Pb(SCN) 2 film transformed to PbI 2 before the formation of perovskite film. X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS) show that only a small amount of S remained in the film. Using LP-VASP method, we fabricated SCN-based perovskite solar cells and achieved a power conversion efficiency of 12.72 %. It is worth noting that the price of Pb(SCN) 2 is only 4 % of PbI 2 . These results demonstrate that pseudo-halide perovskites are promising materials for fabricating low-cost perovskite solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of cyanide, thiocyanate, and copper(I) cyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Virender K. [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)], E-mail: vsharma@fit.edu; Yngard, Ria A. [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Cabelli, Diane E. [Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Clayton Baum, J. [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Cyanide (CN{sup -}), thiocyanate (SCN{sup -}), and copper(I) cyanide (Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3-}) are common constituents in the wastes of many industrial processes such as metal finishing and gold mining, and their treatment is required before the safe discharge of effluent. The oxidation of CN{sup -}, SCN{sup -}, and Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3-} by ferrate(VI) (Fe{sup VI}O{sub 4}{sup 2-}; Fe(VI)) and ferrate(V) (Fe{sup V}O{sub 4}{sup 3-}; Fe(V)) has been studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis techniques. The rate laws for the oxidation of cyanides were found to be first-order with respect to each reactant. The second-order rate constants decreased with increasing pH because the deprotonated species, FeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, is less reactive than the protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO{sub 4}{sup -}. Cyanides react 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} times faster with Fe(V) than with Fe(VI). The Fe(V) reaction with CN{sup -} proceeds by sequential one-electron reductions from Fe(V) to Fe(IV) to Fe(III). However, a two-electron transfer process from Fe(V) to Fe(III) occurs in the reaction of Fe(V) with SCN{sup -} and Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3-}. The toxic CN{sup -} species of cyanide wastes is converted into relatively non-toxic cyanate (NCO{sup -}). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is highly efficient in removing cyanides from electroplating rinse water and gold mill effluent.

  9. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An analytical method for determination of free acidity in all SRP process solutions has been developed. Free acidity was successfully determined in solutions of nitric acid and the nitrates of aluminum, chromium(III), iron(III), mercury(II), nickel(II), thorium, and uranium(VI), at metal-to-acid ratios <2.5. Sample requirements, instrumentation, and mode of operation are similar to those currently used in the Laboratories Department free acid procedures. The simple procedure would be suitable for automation and microprocessor control. The method consists of two additions of known increments of acid into a solution containing the sample aliquot (10 μmoles free acid) and 10 mL 1M potassium thiocyanate. The potential is determined in the initial solution and after each addition with a glass electrode and pH meter. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. Two programs for this iterative computation are available: one written for the PDP-15 computer and another for a Hewlett-Packard 67 (or 97) programmable calculator. The accuracy of the result is verified by a slope that approximates the theoretical Nernst value. The relative standard deviation is <2.5%. This memorandum includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which this particular system and technique logically evolved. The appendix includes a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure. The final step for completion of this RTA is training and consultation at the convenience of the Laboratories Department for demonstration of the method with process samples

  10. Simultaneous determination of the tobacco smoke uptake parameters nicotine, cotinine and thiocyanate in urine, saliva and hair, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for characterisation of smoking status of recently exposed subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toraño, Javier Sastre; van Kan, Hendrikus J. M.

    2003-01-01

    A method using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry ( MS) for the simultaneous determination of the smoke uptake parameters thiocyanate, nicotine and cotinine in human tissues is reported. Nicotine, cotinine and thiocyanate, in combination with a phase-transfer catalyst, were extracted from

  11. Extraction of high-quality epidermal RNA after ammonium thiocyanate-induced dermo-epidermal separation of 4 mm human skin biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Anders; Thomassen, Mads; Clemmensen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    To obtain a separation of the epidermal and dermal compartments to examine compartment specific biological mechanisms in the skin, we incubated 4 mm human skin punch biopsies in ammonium thiocyanate. We wanted to test (i) the histological quality of the dermo-epidermal separation obtained......, and satisfactory amounts of high-quality RNA were obtained. Hybridization to Affymetrix HG_U133A 2.0 GeneChips showed that ammonium thiocyanate incubation had a minute effect on gene expression resulting in only one significantly downregulated gene (cystatin E/M). We conclude that epidermis can be reproducibly...... and almost completely separated from the dermis of 4 mm skin biopsies by 30 min incubation in 3.8% ammonium thiocyanate combined with curettage of the dermal surface, producing high-quality RNA suitable for transcriptional analysis. Our refined method of dermo-epidermal separation will undoubtedly prove...

  12. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Miller, Mark D., E-mail: ucsfpehsumiller@gmail.com [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Cushing, Lara, E-mail: lara.cushing@berkeley.edu [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 93720-3050 (United States); Blount, Benjamin C., E-mail: bkb3@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mail Stop F47, Atlanta, GA (United States); Smith, Allan H., E-mail: ahsmith@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, 1950 Addison St., Suite 204, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference=0.40 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference=1.07 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55–1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. -- Highlights: ► Recent data suggest that essentially everyone in the US is exposed to perchlorate. ► Perchlorate exposure may be associated with lower thyroid hormone levels. ► Some groups may be more susceptible to

  13. Occurrence of perchlorate and thiocyanate in human serum from e-waste recycling and reference sites in Vietnam: association with thyroid hormone and iodide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu, Qian; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-07-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4 (-)) and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) interfere with iodide (I(-)) uptake by the sodium/iodide symporter, and thereby these anions may affect the production of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid gland. Although human exposure to perchlorate and thiocyanate has been studied in the United States and Europe, few investigations have been performed in Asian countries. In this study, we determined concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide in 131 serum samples collected from 2 locations in Northern Vietnam, Bui Dau (BD; electrical and electronic waste [e-waste] recycling site) and Doung Quang (DQ; rural site) and examined the association between serum levels of these anions with levels of THs. The median concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide detected in the serum of Vietnamese subjects were 0.104, 2020, and 3.11 ng mL(-1), respectively. Perchlorate levels were significantly greater in serum of the BD population (median 0.116 ng mL(-1)) than those in the DQ population (median 0.086 ng mL(-1)), which indicated greater exposure from e-waste recycling operations by the former. Serum concentrations of thiocyanate were not significantly different between the BD and DQ populations, but increased levels of this anion were observed among smokers. Iodide was a significant positive predictor of serum levels of FT3 and TT3 and a significant negative predictor of thyroid-stimulating hormone in males. When the association between serum levels of perchlorate or thiocyanate and THs was assessed using a stepwise multiple linear regression model, no significant correlations were found. In addition to greater concentrations of perchlorate detected in the e-waste recycling population, however, given that lower concentrations of iodide were observed in the serum of Vietnamese females, detailed risk assessments on TH homeostasis for females inhabiting e-waste recycling sites, especially for pregnant women and their neonates, are required.

  14. Functional implications of species differences in the size and morphology of the isthmo optic nucleus (ION in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Gutiérrez-Ibáñez

    Full Text Available In birds, there is a retinofugal projection from the brain to the retina originating from the isthmo optic nucleus (ION in the midbrain. Despite a large number of anatomical, physiological and histochemical studies, the function of this retinofugal system remains unclear. Several functions have been proposed including: gaze stabilization, pecking behavior, dark adaptation, shifting attention, and detection of aerial predators. This nucleus varies in size and organization among some species, but the relative size and morphology of the ION has not been systematically studied. Here, we present a comparison of the relative size and morphology of the ION in 81 species of birds, representing 17 different orders. Our results show that several orders of birds, besides those previously reported, have a large, well-organized ION, including: hummingbirds, woodpeckers, coots and allies, and kingfishers. At the other end of the spectrum, parrots, herons, waterfowl, owls and diurnal raptors have relatively small ION volumes. ION also appears to be absent or unrecognizable is several taxa, including one of the basal avian groups, the tinamous, which suggests that the ION may have evolved only in the more modern group of birds, Neognathae. Finally, we demonstrate that evolutionary changes in the relative size and the cytoarchitectonic organization of ION have occurred largely independent of phylogeny. The large relative size of the ION in orders with very different lifestyles and feeding behaviors suggest there is no clear association with pecking behavior or predator detection. Instead, our results suggest that the ION is more complex and enlarged in birds that have eyes that are emmetropic in some parts of the visual field and myopic in others. We therefore posit that the ION is involved in switching attention between two parts of the retina i.e. from an emmetropic to a myopic part of the retina.

  15. Kinetic analysis of phenol, thiocyanate and ammonia-nitrogen removals in an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic moving bed bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahariah, Biju Prava; Chakraborty, Saswati

    2011-06-15

    A simulated wastewater containing phenol (2500 mg/L), thiocyanate and ammonia-nitrogen (500 mg/L) was treated in an anaerobic (R1)-anoxic (R2)-aerobic (R3) moving bed biofilm reactor system at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) intervals (total HRT 3-8 days, R1: 1.5-4 days; R2: 0.75-2 days and R3: 0.75-2 days) and feed thiocyanate (SCN(-)) concentrations (110-600 mg/L) to determine substrate removal kinetics. In R1, phenol and COD reduction and specific methanogenic activity were inhibited due to the increase of SCN(-) in feed. Bhatia et al. model having inbuilt provision of process inhibition described the kinetics of COD and phenol utilization with maximum utilization rates of 0.398 day(-1) and 0.486 day(-1), respectively. In R2 and R3 modified Stover-Kincannon model was suitable to describe substrate utilization. In R2 respective maximum SCN(-), phenol, COD and NO(3)(-)-N utilization rates were 0.23, 5.28, 37.7 and 11.82 g/L day, respectively. In aerobic reactor R3, COD, SCN(-) and NH(4)(+)-N removal rates were, respectively, 10.53, 1.89, and 2.17 g/L day. The minimum total HRT of three-stage system was recommended as 4 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    2007-01-01

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials. (author)

  17. Thermal Thiocyanate Ligand Substitution Kinetics of the Solar Cell Dye N719 by Acetonitrile, 3-Methoxypropionitrile, and 4-tert-Butylpyridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thai Hoang; Minh, Ha; Lund, Torben

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of the thiocyanate substitution of the solar cell sensitizer [Ru(Hdcbpy)B2B(NCS)B2B]P2-P, 2 (n-CB4BHB9B)B4BNP+)P, (HB2Bdcbpy = L = 2,2´-bipyridine-4,4´-dicarboxylic acid), known as N719, by acetonitrile, 3-methoxypropionitrile, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP) have been determined in...... by a factor of 2-10; it thus may be used as an additive to prevent the thermal degradation of thiocyanate-based ruthenium complexes in DSSC solar cells.......The kinetics of the thiocyanate substitution of the solar cell sensitizer [Ru(Hdcbpy)B2B(NCS)B2B]P2-P, 2 (n-CB4BHB9B)B4BNP+)P, (HB2Bdcbpy = L = 2,2´-bipyridine-4,4´-dicarboxylic acid), known as N719, by acetonitrile, 3-methoxypropionitrile, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP) have been determined...... with acetonitrile and 4-TBP as solvent and additive are therefore not expected to be able to pass a 1000-h thermal stress test in the dark at 85°C due to thermal degradation of the N719 dye. Adding guanidine thiocyanate to the colloidal solutions, however, decreased the rate of [RuL2(NCS)(4-TBP)]+ formation...

  18. Microbial Growth in the Magnesium- Chloride - Sodium- Sulphate Ion System: Implications for Habitability in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, C. M.; Aka, S.; Cockell, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Icy moons in the outer solar system are key targets in the search for extra-terrestrial life as there is evidence that they harbour subsurface oceans. Observational evidence of icy moons such as Europa suggest that these likely brine oceans should be composed of chloride and sulphate salts. The effects of the ions that compose these salts on biology and how the interactions between them can create geochemical and geophysical barriers to life are poorly understood. Here we present an in depth study of four microorganisms grown in solutions with varying combinations of the magnesium- chloride- sodium- sulphate ions. We find that the ion composition of the brine solution can have a large effect on growth. Whilst the water activity must be permissible for growth we found that this alone could not predict the effects of the ions on growth, chaotropic effects and ion specific effects influenced by the specific physiology of organisms are also evident. For this reason we conclude that simply knowing which salts are present on icy moons is not sufficient information to determine their potential habitibility. A full sample of any brine ocean would need to be studied to fully determine the potential for biology on these outer solar system satellites.

  19. Aerosol charging state at an urban site: new analytical approach and implications for ion-induced nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gagné

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The charging state of aerosol populations was determined using an Ion-DMPS in Helsinki, Finland between December 2008 and February 2010. We extrapolated the charging state and calculated the ion-induced nucleation fraction to be around 1.3 % ± 0.4 % at 2 nm and 1.3 % ± 0.5 % at 1.5 nm, on average. We present a new method to retrieve the average charging state for a new particle formation event, at a given size and polarity. We improve the uncertainty assessment and fitting technique used previously with an Ion-DMPS. We also use a new theoretical framework that allows for different concentrations of small ions for different polarities (polarity asymmetry. We extrapolate the ion-induced fraction using polarity symmetry and asymmetry. Finally, a method to calculate the growth rates from the behaviour of the charging state as a function of the particle diameter using polarity symmetry and asymmetry is presented and used on a selection of new particle formation events.

  20. Ion colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions (77Asb1, 81Bou1). The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  1. Ion colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  2. Chronic toxicity of erythromycin thiocyanate to Daphnia magna in a flow-through, continuous exposure test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Bernardy, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Approval of a new animal drug application for AQUAMYCIN 100?? (erythromycin thiocyanate; ET) to treat freshwater salmonid species with bacterial kidney disease is being pursued in the US. As part of the approval process, ETs impact on an aquatic environment had to be described in an environmental assessment. The environmental assessment was lacking data to characterize the effect ET would have on a chronically exposed aquatic invertebrate organism. A major step to fulfilling the environmental assessment was completed after conducting a comprehensive study continuously exposing Daphnia magna to ET for 21 days. Results indicated that the no observable effect concentration for ET was 179 ??g/L. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  3. Chronic toxicity of diphenhydramine hydrochloride and erythromycin thiocyanate to Daphnia, Daphnia magna, in a continuous exposure test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Franz, Jeanne L.

    2011-01-01

    Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DH; Benadryl(TM), an over-the-counter antihistamine) and erythromycin thiocyanate (ET; a commonly used macrolide antibiotic) are pharmaceutical compounds whose chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna had not been characterized. Continuous exposure to DH concentrations about 5 times greater than the maximum reported environmental concentration of 0.023 μg/L for 21 days or to ET concentrations about 40 times the maximum reported environmental concentration of 6 μg/L for 21 days did not significantly impact D. magna survival and production. In this study the no observable effect concentration for DH was 0.12 μg/L and for ET was 248 μg/L.

  4. Growth, optical, electrical and photoconductivity studies of a novel nonlinear optical single crystal: Mercury cadmium chloride thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. M. Ravi; Selvakumar, S.; Sagayaraj, P.; Anbarasi, A.

    2015-02-01

    SCN- ligand based organometallic non-linear optical mercury cadmium chloride thiocyanate (MCCTC) crystals are grown from water plus methanol mixed solvent by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which reveals that the MCCTC belongs to rhombohedral system with R3c space group. MCCTC exhibits a SHG efficiency which is nearly 17 times more than that of KDP. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss measurements of the sample have been carried out for different frequencies (100 Hz to 5 MHz) and, temperatures (308 to 388 K) and the results are discussed. Photoconductivity study confirms that the title compound possesses negative photoconducting nature. The surface morphology of MCCTC was also investigated

  5. A kinetic study of Ca-containing ions reacting with O, O2, CO2 and H2O: implications for calcium ion chemistry in the upper atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Sarah; Vondrak, Tomas; Wright, Timothy G; Plane, John M C

    2008-09-14

    A series of gas-phase reactions involving molecular Ca-containing ions was studied by the pulsed laser ablation of a calcite target to produce Ca+ in a fast flow of He, followed by the addition of reagents downstream and detection of ions by quadrupole mass spectrometry. Most of the reactions that were studied are important for describing the chemistry of meteor-ablated calcium in the earth's upper atmosphere. The following rate coefficients were measured: k(CaO+ + O --> Ca+ + O2) = (4.2 +/- 2.8) x 10(-11) at 197 K and (6.3 +/- 3.0) x 10(-11) at 294 K; k(CaO+ + CO --> Ca+ + CO2, 294 K) = (2.8 +/- 1.5) x 10(-10); k(Ca+.CO2 + O2 --> CaO2+ + CO2, 294 K) = (1.2 +/- 0.5) x10(-10); k(Ca+.CO2 + H2O --> Ca+.H2O + CO2) = (13.0 +/- 4.0) x 10(-10); and k(Ca+.H2O + O2 --> CaO2+ + H2O, 294 K) = (4.0 +/- 2.5) x 10(-10) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The quoted uncertainties are a combination of the 1 sigma standard errors in the kinetic data and the systematic errors in the models used to extract the rate coefficients. Rate coefficients were also obtained for the following recombination (also termed association) reactions in He bath gas: k(Ca+.CO2 + CO2 --> Ca+.(CO2)2, 294 K) = (2.6 +/- 1.0) x 10(-29); k(Ca+.H2O + H2O --> Ca+.(H2O)2) = (1.6 +/- 1.1) x 10(-27); and k(CaO2+ + O2 --> CaO2+.O2) high level quantum chemistry calculations and RRKM theory using an inverse Laplace transform solution of the master equation. The surprisingly slow reaction between CaO+ and O was explained using quantum chemistry calculations on the lowest 2A', 2A'' and 4A'' potential energy surfaces. These calculations indicate that reaction mostly occurs on the 2A' surface, leading to production of Ca+ (2S) + O2(1 Delta g). The importance of this reaction for controlling the lifetime of Ca+ in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere is then discussed.

  6. Simulation of a relativistic heavy ions beam transport in the matter: contribution of the fragmentation process and biological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibnouzahir, M.

    1995-03-01

    The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions permit an approach of the properties of dense and not hadronic matter, and an analysis of the reaction mechanisms. Such studies are also interesting on the biological point of view, since there exist now well defined projects concerning the radiotherapy with high LET particles as neutrons, protons, heavy ions. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the processes which occur in the propagation of a relativistic heavy ion beam (E≥ 100 A.MeV) in matter. We have elaborated a three dimensional transport code, using a Monte Carlo method, in order to describe the propagation of Ne and Ar ions in water. Violent nuclear collisions giving fragmentation process have been taken into account by use of the FREESCO program. We have tested the validity of our transport model and we show an important change of the energy deposition at the vicinity of the Bragg peak; such a distortion, due mainly to fragmentation reactions, is of a great interest for biological applications. (author)

  7. Conductivity through Polymer Electrolytes and Its Implications in Lithium-Ion Batteries: Real-World Application of Periodic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Owen C.; Egan, Martin; Kanakaraj, Rupa; Higgins, Thomas B.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2012-01-01

    Periodic conductivity trends are placed in the scope of lithium-ion batteries, where increases in the ionic radii of salt components affect the conductivity of a poly(ethyleneoxide)-based polymer electrolyte. Numerous electrolytes containing varying concentrations and types of metal salts are prepared and evaluated in either one or two laboratory…

  8. Cyanide toxicokinetics: the behavior of cyanide, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in multiple animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-05-01

    Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250-300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5-4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47-54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN(-). Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN(-) t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN(-) concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN(-) in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant.

  9. Intrinsically incompatible crystal (ligand) field parameter sets for transition ions at orthorhombic and lower symmetry sites in crystals and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudowicz, C.; Gnutek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Central quantities in spectroscopy and magnetism of transition ions in crystals are crystal (ligand) field parameters (CFPs). For orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic site symmetry CF analysis is prone to misinterpretations due to large number of CFPs and existence of correlated sets of alternative CFPs. In this review, we elucidate the intrinsic features of orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFPs and their implications. The alternative CFP sets, which yield identical energy levels, belong to different regions of CF parameter space and hence are intrinsically incompatible. Only their ‘images’ representing CFP sets expressed in the same region of CF parameter space may be directly compared. Implications of these features for fitting procedures and meaning of fitted CFPs are categorized into negative: pitfalls and positive: blessings. As a case study, the CFP sets for Tm 3+ ions in KLu(WO 4) 2 are analysed and shown to be intrinsically incompatible. Inadvertent, so meaningless, comparisons of incompatible CFP sets result in various pitfalls, e.g., controversial claims about the values of CFPs obtained by other researchers as well as incorrect structural conclusions or faulty systematics of CF parameters across rare-earth ion series based on relative magnitudes of incompatible CFPs. Such pitfalls bear on interpretation of, e.g., optical spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering, and magnetic susceptibility data. An extensive survey of pertinent literature was carried out to assess recognition of compatibility problems. Great portion of available orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFP sets are found intrinsically incompatible, yet these problems and their implications appear barely recognized. The considerable extent and consequences of pitfalls revealed by our survey call for concerted remedial actions of researchers. A general approach based on the rhombicity ratio standardization may solve compatibility problems. Wider utilization of alternative CFP sets in the

  10. Intrinsically incompatible crystal (ligand) field parameter sets for transition ions at orthorhombic and lower symmetry sites in crystals and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudowicz, C.; Gnutek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Central quantities in spectroscopy and magnetism of transition ions in crystals are crystal (ligand) field parameters (CFPs). For orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic site symmetry CF analysis is prone to misinterpretations due to large number of CFPs and existence of correlated sets of alternative CFPs. In this review, we elucidate the intrinsic features of orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFPs and their implications. The alternative CFP sets, which yield identical energy levels, belong to different regions of CF parameter space and hence are intrinsically incompatible. Only their 'images' representing CFP sets expressed in the same region of CF parameter space may be directly compared. Implications of these features for fitting procedures and meaning of fitted CFPs are categorized into negative: pitfalls and positive: blessings. As a case study, the CFP sets for Tm 3+ ions in KLu(WO 4 ) 2 are analysed and shown to be intrinsically incompatible. Inadvertent, so meaningless, comparisons of incompatible CFP sets result in various pitfalls, e.g., controversial claims about the values of CFPs obtained by other researchers as well as incorrect structural conclusions or faulty systematics of CF parameters across rare-earth ion series based on relative magnitudes of incompatible CFPs. Such pitfalls bear on interpretation of, e.g., optical spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering, and magnetic susceptibility data. An extensive survey of pertinent literature was carried out to assess recognition of compatibility problems. Great portion of available orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFP sets are found intrinsically incompatible, yet these problems and their implications appear barely recognized. The considerable extent and consequences of pitfalls revealed by our survey call for concerted remedial actions of researchers. A general approach based on the rhombicity ratio standardization may solve compatibility problems. Wider utilization of alternative CFP sets in the

  11. Reactivity of C2H5+ with Benzene: Formation of Ethylbenzenium Ions and Implications for Titan's Ionospheric Chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žabka, Ján; Polášek, Miroslav; Ascenzi, D.; Tosi, P.; Roithová, Jana; Schröder, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 42 (2009), s. 11153-11160 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400702; GA ČR GA203/09/1223 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : gas phase * alkylbenzenium ions * molecule reactions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2009

  12. DNA degradation by water extract of green tea in the presence of copper ions: implications for anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arshi; Azam, Sonish; Hadi, Naghma; Hadi, S M

    2003-04-01

    In recent years a number of reports have documented the chemopreventive effect of green tea consumption on various types of cancers such as those of bladder, prostate, esophagus and stomach. This property is attributed to the presence in green tea of polyphenols known as catechins. These include epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin. In addition to their antioxidant properties plant derived polyphenolics are also capable of oxidative DNA damage particularly in the presence of transition metal ions. We have recently proposed a mechanism for cytotoxic action of plant-derived polyphenols against cancer cells that involves mobilization of endogenous copper and consequent prooxidant action. In partial support of the idea, in the present paper we show that water extract of green tea is considerably more efficient than black tea extract in DNA cleavage in the presence of copper ions. Green tea extract also shows a higher rate of Cu(II) reduction and consequent hydroxyl radical formation. Cu(II) reduction is presumably accompanied by the formation of 'oxidized species' of tea polyphenols, which in turn also appear to catalyze the reduction of Cu(II) leading to redox cycling of copper ions. The results are discussed in relation to the structural differences between polyphenols of green and black tea. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Increasing RO efficiency by chemical-free ion-exchange and Donnan dialysis: Principles and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoppen, Marjolein; Stoffels, Griet; Demuytere, Célestin; Bleyaert, Wouter; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2015-09-01

    Ion-exchange (IEX) and Donnan dialysis (DD) are techniques which can selectively remove cations, limiting scaling in reverse osmosis (RO). If the RO concentrate could be recycled for regeneration of these pre-treatment techniques, RO recovery could be largely increased without the need for chemical addition or additional technologies. In this study, two different RO feed streams (treated industrial waste water and simple tap water) were tested in the envisioned IEX-RO and DD-RO hybrids including RO concentrate recycling. The efficiency of multivalent cation removal depends mainly on the ratio of monovalent to multivalent cations in the feed stream, influencing the ion-exchange efficiency in both IEX and DD. Since the mono-to-multivalent ratio was very high in the waste water, the RO recovery could potentially be increased to 92%. For the tap water, these high RO recoveries could only be reached by adding additional NaCl, because of the low initial monovalent to multivalent ratio in the feed. In both cases, the IEX-RO hybrid proved to be most cost-efficient, due to the high current cost of the membranes used in DD. The membrane cost would have to decrease from ±300 €/m² to 10-30 €/m² - comparable to current reverse osmosis membranes - to achieve a comparable cost. In conclusion, the recycling of RO concentrate to regenerate ion exchange pre-treatment techniques for RO is an interesting option to increase RO recovery without addition of chemicals, but only at high monovalent/multivalent cation-ratios in the feed stream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiolysis of N2-rich astrophysical ice by swift oxygen ions: implication for space weathering of outer solar system bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, F A; Pilling, S; Rocha, W R M; Rothard, H; Boduch, P

    2017-09-13

    In order to investigate the role of medium mass cosmic rays and energetic solar particles in the processing of N 2 -rich ice on frozen moons and cold objects in the outer solar system, the bombardment of an N 2  : H 2 O : NH 3  : CO 2 (98.2 : 1.5 : 0.2 : 0.1) ice mixture at 16 K employing 15.7 MeV 16 O 5+ was performed. The changes in the ice chemistry were monitored and quantified by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate the formation of azide radicals (N 3 ), and nitrogen oxides, such as NO, NO 2 , and N 2 O, as well as the production of CO, HNCO, and OCN - . The effective formation and destruction cross-sections are roughly on the order of 10 -12 cm 2 and 10 -13 cm 2 , respectively. From laboratory molecular analyses, we estimated the destruction yields for the parent species and the formation yields for the daughter species. For N 2 , this value was 9.8 × 10 5 molecules per impact of ions, and for the most abundant new species (N 3 ), it was 1.1 × 10 5 molecules per impact of ions. From these yields, an estimation of how many species are destroyed or formed in a given timescale (10 8 years) in icy bodies in the outer solar system was calculated. This work reinforces the idea that such physicochemical processes triggered by cosmic rays, solar wind, and magnetospheric particles (medium-mass ions) in nitrogen-rich ices may play an important role in the formation of molecules (including pre-biotic species precursors such as amino acids and other "CHON" molecules) in very cold astrophysical environments, such as those in the outer region of the solar system (e.g. Titan, Triton, Pluto, and other KBOs).

  15. Facile synthesis of carbon dot and residual carbon nanobeads: Implications for ion sensing, medicinal and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan; Mukherjee, Sudip; Punugupati, Neelambaram; Vasudevan, D; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Narayan, Ramanuj; Vsn Kothapalli, Raju

    2017-04-01

    Synthesis of carbon dots (Cdots) via chemical route involves disintegration of carbon materials into nano-domains, wherein, after extraction of Cdots, the remaining carbon material is discarded. The present work focuses on studying even the leftover carbon residue namely, carbon nanobeads (CNBs) as an equally important material for applications on par with that of carbon dot. It employs oxidative treatment of carbonised gum olibanum resin (GOR) to produce the carbons namely Cdots and CNBs (as the residue). The Cdots (~5-10nm) exhibit blue-green fluorescence with an optical absorption at ~300nm unlike the CNBs (40-50nm) which fail to exhibit fluorescence. The fluorescence behaviour exhibited by Cdots were utilized for heavy metal ion sensing of Pb 2+ , Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ ions in aqueous media. Interestingly, both Cdots and CNBs are biocompatible to normal cell lines but cytotoxic to cancer cell lines, observed during several in vitro experiments (cell viability assay, cell cycle assay, apoptosis assay, ROS determination assay, caspase-9 activity assay). Additionally, Cdots exhibit bright green fluorescence in B16F10 cells. The Cdots and CNB's demonstrate multifunctional activities (sensor, cellular imaging and cancer therapy) in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electric field-induced hole transport in copper(i) thiocyanate (CuSCN) thin-films processed from solution at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pattanasattayavong, Pichaya

    2013-01-01

    The optical, structural and charge transport properties of solution-processed films of copper(i) thiocyanate (CuSCN) are investigated in this work. As-processed CuSCN films of ∼20 nm in thickness are found to be nano-crystalline, highly transparent and exhibit intrinsic hole transporting characteristics with a maximum field-effect mobility in the range of 0.01-0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. An unprecedented tetranuclear niobium aqua ion with a capping μ4-sulfido ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Bee Lean; Søtofte, Inger

    2005-01-01

    A new niobium aqua ion, with an unprecedented metal-metal bonded tetranuclear Nb4(μ4-S)(μ2-O)54+ core, is obtained upon treatment of Zn-reduced ethanolic solutions of NbCl5 with HCl in the presence of a sulfide source. The red aqua ion, obtained upon cation-exchange chromatography, forms readily ...... the thiocyanate complex which have been crystallized as Cs4.67Na1.33[¬Nb4SO5(NCS)10]∙2.33H2O and structurally characterized....

  18. Novel bimetallic thiocyanate-bridged Cu(II)-Hg(II) compounds-synthesis, X-Ray studies and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machura, B., E-mail: basia@ich.us.edu.pl [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9th Szkolna St., 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Switlicka, A.; Zwolinski, P. [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9th Szkolna St., 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Mrozinski, J., E-mail: jmroz@wchuwr.chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, F. Joliot-Curie 14 St., 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Kalinska, B. [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, F. Joliot-Curie 14 St., 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Kruszynski, R., E-mail: rafal.kruszynski@p.lodz.pl [Department of X-Ray Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry, Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, 116 Zeromski St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    Seven novel heterobimetallic Cu/Hg polymers based on thiocyanate bridges have been synthesised and characterised by means of IR, EPR, magnetic measurements and single crystal X-Ray. Three of them, [Cu(pzH){sub 4}Hg(SCN){sub 4}]{sub n} (1) [Cu(indH){sub 4}Hg(SCN){sub 4}]{sub n} (2) and [Cu(ampy){sub 2}Hg(SCN){sub 4}]{sub n} (3), have one-dimensional coordination structure. Two compounds [Cu(pzH){sub 2}Hg(SCN){sub 4}]{sub n} (4) and [Cu(abzimH)Hg(SCN){sub 4}]{sub n} (5) form two-dimensional nets, whereas the complexes [Cu(pyCN){sub 2}Hg(SCN){sub 4}]{sub n} (6) and [Cu(pyCH(OH)(OMe)){sub 2}Hg(SCN){sub 4}]{sub n} (7) are three-dimensional coordination polymers. The chains of 1 are connected by the intermolecular N-H Bullet Bullet Bullet N hydrogen bonds to the three dimensional net. In 2 the N-H Bullet Bullet Bullet S hydrogen bonds link the polymeric chains to the two dimensional layer extending along crystallographic (0 0 1) plane. The polymeric chains of compound 3 are joined by the intermolecular N-H Bullet Bullet Bullet N and N-H Bullet Bullet Bullet S hydrogen bonds to the three dimensional net. The polymeric layers of 4 are connected by the intermolecular N-H Bullet Bullet Bullet N hydrogen bonds to the three dimensional net. - Graphical abstract: Novel bimetallic thiocyanate-bridged Cu(II)-Hg(II) compound-synthesis,X-Ray studies and magnetic properties. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel heterobimetallic Cu/Hg coordination polymers were synthesised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multidimensional structures have been proved by single X-ray analysIs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A variation in the crystalline architectures was observed depending on auxiliary ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measurements indicate weak exchange interaction between Cu(II) in the crystal lattices below 10 K.

  19. ION IRRADIATION OF ETHANE AND WATER MIXTURE ICE AT 15 K: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND THE ISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A. L. F. de [Departamento de Física, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Av. Maracanã 229, 20271-110 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silveira, E. F da; Fulvio, D. [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rothard, H.; Boduch, P., E-mail: ana.barros@cefet-rj.br [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP-GANIL (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN), BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-06-20

    Solid water has been observed on the surface of many different astronomical objects and is the dominant ice present in the universe, from the solar system (detected on the surface of some asteroids, planets and their satellites, trans-Neptunian objects [TNOs], comets, etc.) to dense cold interstellar clouds (where interstellar dust grains are covered with water-rich ices). Ethane has been detected across the solar system, from the atmosphere of the giant planets and the surface of Saturn’s satellite Titan to various comets and TNOs. To date, there were no experiments focused on icy mixtures of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and H{sub 2}O exposed to ion irradiation simulating cosmic rays, a case study for many astronomical environments in which C{sub 2}H{sub 6} has been detected. In this work, the radiolysis of a C{sub 2}H{sub 6}:H{sub 2}O (2:3) ice mixture bombarded by a 40 MeV{sup 58}Ni{sup 11+} ion beam is studied. The chemical evolution of the molecular species existing in the sample is monitored by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The analysis of ethane, water, and molecular products in solid phase was performed. Induced chemical reactions in C{sub 2}H{sub 6}:H{sub 2}O ice produce 13 daughter molecular species. Their formation and dissociation cross sections are determined. Furthermore, atomic carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen budgets are determined and used to verify the stoichiometry of the most abundantly formed molecular species. The results are discussed in the view of solar system and interstellar medium chemistry. The study presented here should be regarded as a first step in laboratory works dedicated to simulate the effect of cosmic radiation on multicomponent mixtures involving C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and H{sub 2}O.

  20. Negative association between serum parathyroid hormone levels and urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentrations in U.S. adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Ko

    Full Text Available Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are well-known inhibitors of the sodium-iodide symporter and may disrupt thyroid function. This exploratory study investigated the association among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentrations and parathyroid hormone (PTH levels in the general U.S. population.We analyzed data on 4265 adults (aged 20 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005 through 2006 to evaluate the relationship among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentration and PTH levels and the presence of hyperparathyroidism cross-sectionally.The geometric means and 95% confidence interval (95% CI concentrations of urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were 3.38 (3.15-3.62, 40363 (37512-43431, and 1129 (1029-1239 ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables and sample weights, creatinine-corrected urinary perchlorate was negatively associated with serum PTH levels in women (P = 0.001, and creatinine-corrected urinary nitrate and thiocyanate were negatively associated with serum PTH levels in both sex groups (P = 0.001 and P<0.001 for men, P = 0.018 and P<0.001 for women, respectively. Similar results were obtained from sensitivity analyses performed for exposure variables unadjusted for creatinine with urinary creatinine added as a separate covariate. There was a negative relationship between hyperparathyroidism and urinary nitrate and thiocyanate [odds ratio (95% CI = 0.77 (0.60-0.98 and 0.69 (0.61-0.79, respectively].A higher urinary concentration of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate is associated with lower serum PTH levels. Future studies are needed to determine the pathophysiological background of the observation.

  1. Deep Ultraviolet Copper(I) Thiocyanate (CuSCN) Photodetectors Based on Coplanar Nanogap Electrodes Fabricated via Adhesion Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir

    2017-11-28

    Adhesion lithography (a-Lith) is a versatile fabrication technique used to produce asymmetric coplanar electrodes separated by a <15 nm nanogap. Here, we use a-Lith to fabricate deep ultraviolet (DUV) photodetectors by combining coplanar asymmetric nanogap electrode architectures (Au/Al) with solution-processable wide-band-gap (3.5–3.9 eV) p-type semiconductor copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN). Because of the device’s unique architecture, the detectors exhibit high responsivity (≈79 A W–1) and photosensitivity (≈720) when illuminated with a DUV-range (λpeak = 280 nm) light-emitting diode at 220 μW cm–2. Interestingly, the photosensitivity of the photodetectors remains fairly high (≈7) even at illuminating intensities down to 0.2 μW cm–2. The scalability of the a-Lith process combined with the unique properties of CuSCN paves the way to new forms of inexpensive, yet high-performance, photodetectors that can be manufactured on arbitrary substrate materials including plastic.

  2. Polyphasic bacterial community analysis of an aerobic activated sludge removing phenols and thiocyanate from coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfoldi, T.; Szekely, A.J.; Goral, R.; Barkacs, K.; Scheirich, G.; Andras, J.; Racz, A.; Marialigeti, K. [Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Microbiology

    2010-05-15

    Biological purification processes are effective tools in the treatment of hazardous wastes such as toxic compounds produced in coal coking. In this study, the microbial community of a lab-scale activated sludge system treating coking effluent was assessed by cultivation-based (strain isolation and identification, biodegradation tests) and culture-independent techniques (sequence-aided T-RFLP, taxon-specific PCR). The results of the applied polyphasic approach showed a simple microbial community dominated by easily culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Comamonas badia was identified as the key microbe of the system, since it was the predominant member of the bacterial community, and its phenol degradation capacity was also proved. Metabolism of phenol, even at elevated concentrations (up to 1500 mg/L), was also presented for many other dominant (Pseudomonas, Rhodanobacter, Oligella) and minor (Alcaligenes, Castellaniella, Microbacterium) groups, while some activated sludge bacteria (Sphingomonas, Rhodopseudomonas) did not tolerate it even in lower concentrations (250 mg/L). In some cases, closely related strains showed different tolerance and degradation properties. Members of the genus Thiobacillus were detected in the activated sludge, and were supposedly responsible for the intensive thiocyanate biodegradation observed in the system. Additionally, some identified bacteria (e.g. C. badia and the Ottowia-related strains) might also have had a significant impact on the structure of the activated sludge due to their floc-forming abilities.

  3. Preparation and properties of titania based ionogels synthesized using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium thiocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Y.L.; Tripathi, A.K.; Shalu; Singh, V.K.; Balo, L.; Gupta, H.; Singh, S.K.; Singh, R.K., E-mail: rajendrasingh.bhu@gmail.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of titania based ionogels using non-aqueous sol-gel process. • Ionogels are found to be mesoporous structure with uniform pore size distribution. • Ionic liquid extracted TiO{sub 2} matrix reveals the anatase phase of TiO{sub 2}. • Properties of ionic liquid are found to change in TiO{sub 2} matrix. - Abstract: Present study reports the synthesis of titania (TiO{sub 2}) based ionogels using ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium thiocyanate ([EMIM][SCN]) by non-aqueous sol-gel process. Ionogels are characterized using N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, TGA, DSC, SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR. N{sub 2}-sorption results show that TiO{sub 2} matrices have meso-pores with uniform pore size distribution. Thermal studies reveal that thermal stability of confined IL decreases while the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) is found to increase. XRD patterns show that IL containing TiO{sub 2} matrices exhibit amorphous (weak crystalline peaks) nature however after extraction of IL from ionogel, it shows the crystalline (anatase) phase of TiO{sub 2} which has also been found from SAED pattern. SEM micrographs reveal that as the amount of IL is increased, TiO{sub 2} particles are found to agglomerate. FTIR results indicate that the vibrational frequencies of confined IL are found to shift due to interaction of IL molecules with titania pore wall surface.

  4. Copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) as a hole-transport material for large-area opto/electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyasinghe, Nilushi; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in large-area optoelectronics research have demonstrated the tremendous potential of copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) as a universal hole-transport interlayer material for numerous applications, including transparent thin-film transistors, high-efficiency organic and hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic cells, and organic light-emitting diodes. CuSCN combines intrinsic hole-transport (p-type) characteristics with a large bandgap (>3.5 eV) which facilitates optical transparency across the visible to near infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, CuSCN is readily available from commercial sources while it is inexpensive and can be processed at low-temperatures using solution-based techniques. This unique combination of desirable characteristics makes CuSCN a promising material for application in emerging large-area optoelectronics. In this review article, we outline some important properties of CuSCN and examine its use in the fabrication of potentially low-cost optoelectronic devices. The merits of using CuSCN in numerous emerging applications as an alternative to conventional hole-transport materials are also discussed.

  5. Analysis of inorganic sulphur compounds by means of ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, J.; Goebl, M.

    1985-03-01

    Ionic inorganic sulphur compounds can be separated and determined by ion-chromatographic techniques. In aqueous solution the species of interest mostly exist as anions. Separation techniques include both ion exchange and ion-pair chromatography. The stationary phases are latexed anion exchangers based on polystyrene/divinylbenzene as well as neutral resins of an unpolar character. The most widely used detection system is the conductometric detector. The high background conductivity of the eluent is eliminated by the use of a suppressor device. Sulphide is detected by amperometry due to the high pK-value of the corresponding acid formed in the suppressor. Amperometric detection can also be employed for detection of other sulphur containing species like thiocyanate and thiosulphate in a complex matrix. Detection limits for the species investigated are in the lowest ppb region.

  6. Ni(ii) ions cleave and inactivate human alpha-1 antitrypsin hydrolytically, implicating nickel exposure as a contributing factor in pathologies related to antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezynfeld, Nina Ewa; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Bal, Wojciech; Frączyk, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    Human alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an abundant serum protein present at a concentration of 1.0-1.5 g L(-1). AAT deficiency is a genetic disease that manifests with emphysema and liver cirrhosis due to the accumulation of a misfolded AAT mutant in hepatocytes. Lung AAT amount is inversely correlated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a serious and often deadly condition, with increasing frequency in the aging population. Exposure to cigarette smoke and products of fossil fuel combustion aggravates AAT deficiency and COPD according to mechanisms that are not fully understood. Taking into account that these fumes contain particles that can release nickel to human airways and skin, we decided to investigate interactions of AAT with Ni(ii) ions within the paradigm of Ni(ii)-dependent peptide bond hydrolysis. We studied AAT protein derived from human blood using HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry. These studies were aided by spectroscopic experiments on model peptides. As a result, we identified three hydrolysis sites in AAT. Two of them are present in the N-terminal part of the molecule next to each other (before Thr-13 and Ser-14 residues) and effectively form one N-terminal cleavage site. The single C-terminal cleavage site is located before Ser-285. The N-terminal hydrolysis was more efficient than the C-terminal one, but both abolished the ability of AAT to inhibit trypsin in an additive manner. Nickel ions bound to hydrolysis products demonstrated an ability to generate ROS. These results implicate Ni(ii) exposure as a contributing factor in AAT-related pathologies.

  7. Effects of antioxidant components of AREDS vitamins and zinc ions on endothelial cell activation: implications for macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shemin; Hernández, Jasmine; Mullins, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether the benefit of Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formula multivitamins and zinc in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may occur through inhibiting inflammatory events in the choroid. Mouse C166 endothelial cells (ECs) and, for some experiments, human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid organ cultures were treated with AREDS multivitamin solution (MVS) or ZnCl(2). The cytotoxicity of MVS was evaluated using a lactate dehydrogenase colorimetric assay. Cell motility was assessed using a scratch assay. Macrophage adhesion to EC monolayers or ICAM-1 protein was determined after MVS and zinc treatment and with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine the effects of MVS on the expression of proinflammatory molecules in treated and untreated cells. AREDS MVS and zinc did not affect C166 EC viability until the 56th hour after treatment. Scratch assays showed partial inhibition of MVS and zinc on EC migration. In cell adhesion assays, MVS and zinc decreased the number of macrophages bound to EC and to ICAM-1 protein. Quantitative PCR showed that LPS increased the expression of ICAM-1 in both C166 and human RPE-choroid cultures, which was partially offset by MVS and zinc. MVS and zinc also mitigated LPS-induced ICAM-1 protein expression on Western blot analysis. Treatment with AREDS MVS and zinc may affect both angiogenesis and endothelial-macrophage interactions. These results suggest that AREDS vitamins and zinc ions may slow the progression of AMD, in part through the attenuation of EC activation.

  8. Corrosion behavior of prestressing steel in a solution of 20% ammonium thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiba, Mikiyuki; Abe, Keisuke; Sakai, Jun'ichi

    2015-01-01

    1400-MPa class high-strength PC wires are used for pre-stressed concrete structures. One of trusted hydrogen embrittlement tests for steel is a testing method that is provided in the FIP Report and defined in JSCE S 1201 for a test procedure. This test includes a constant load test in a 20% NH 4 SCN at 50degC for up to 200 hours to measure the rupture time. The test examined corrosion behavior in the early stage of the test when hydrogen concentration in steel would show a rapid increase. It was recognized that dissolved oxygen accelerated a corrosion reaction in pure oxygen atmosphere, but a 6-hour immersion test showed no notable difference in corrosion rate and corrosion potential in air and deaerated atmosphere. Polarization measurements suggested that a cathodic reaction independent of dissolved oxygen exerted a profound effect on a corrosion reaction. The analysis of corrosion products and iron ion led to a presumption that the iron-sulfide and iron oxide would precipitate concurrently in the early stage of immersion in 20% NH 4 SCN. (author)

  9. Ion Microprobe Measurements of Comet Dust and Implications for Models of Oxygen Isotope Heterogeneity in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, C. J.; McKeegan, K. D.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2017-01-01

    ]. These studies have been largely focused on the coarse-grained terminal particles extracted from aerogel collectors; hypervelocity capture into aerogel resulted in fine-grained material that was melted and intimately mixed with the SiO2 capture medium. Hypervelocity impacts into Al foils surrounding the aerogel tiles produced impact craters that captured material from the impactor without significant oxygen contamination, allowing for analysis of both the coarse and fine-grained components of the Wild 2 dust. To date, no particles with definitive hydrated mineralogy have been observed in Stardust samples, though this may be a result of alteration due to hypervelocity capture. High-carbon hydrated CS-IDPs have been suggested as resulting from the aqueous alteration of CP-IDPs [7], and may retain evidence for interaction with O-17, O-18-enriched "cometary" water predicted by CO self-shielding. Here we present results of oxygen isotope measurements of twelve Stardust foil craters and four C-rich hydrated IDPs [8, 9], and discuss implications for models of oxygen isotope heterogeneity in the early solar system.

  10. Mononuclear mercury(II) complexes containing bipyridine derivatives and thiocyanate ligands: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure determination, and luminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Vahid; Alizadeh, Robabeh; Alavije, Hanieh Soleimani; Heydari, Samira Fadaei; Abafat, Marzieh

    2017-08-01

    A series of mercury(II) complexes, [Hg(Nsbnd N)(SCN)2] (Nsbnd N is 4,4‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine in 1, 5,5‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine in 2, 6,6‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine in 3 and 6-methyl-2,2‧-bipyridine in 4), were prepared from the reactions of Hg(SCN)2 with mentioned ligands in methanol. Suitable crystals of these complexes were obtained for X-ray diffraction measurement by methanol diffusion into a DMSO solution. The four complexes were thoroughly characterized by spectral methods (IR, UV-Vis, 13C{1H}NMR, 1H NMR and luminescence), elemental analysis (CHNS) and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The X-ray structural analysis indicated that in the structures of these complexes, the mercury(II) cation is four-coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral configuration by two S atoms from two thiocyanate anions and two N atoms from one chelating 2,2‧-bipyridine derivative ligand. Also, in these complexes intermolecular interactions, for example Csbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds (in 1-4), Csbnd H⋯S hydrogen bonds (in 1, 2 and 4), π … π interactions (in 2-4), Hg⋯N interactions (in 2) and S⋯S interactions (in 4), are effective in the stabilization of the crystal structures and the formation of the 3D supramolecular complexes. Furthermore, the luminescence spectra of the title complexes show that the intensity of their emission bands are stronger than the emission bands for the free bipyridine derivative ligands.

  11. Hypertonic saline increases lung epithelial lining fluid glutathione and thiocyanate: two protective CFTR-dependent thiols against oxidative injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gould Neal S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis is a debilitating lung disease due to mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR and is associated with chronic infections resulting in elevated myeloperoxidase activity and generation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl. CFTR mutations lead to decreased levels of glutathione (GSH and thiocyanate (SCN in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF. Hypertonic saline is used to improve lung function however the mechanism is uncertain. Methods In the present study, the effect of GSH and SCN on HOCl-mediated cell injury and their changes in the ELF after hypertonic saline nebulization in wild type (WT and CFTR KO mice was examined. CFTR sufficient and deficient lung cells were assessed for GSH, SCN and corresponding sensitivity towards HOCl-mediated injury, in vitro. Results CFTR (- cells had lower extracellular levels of both GSH and SCN and were more sensitive to HOCl-mediated injury. In vivo, hypertonic saline increased ELF GSH in the WT and to a lesser extent in the CFTR KO mice but only SCN in the WT ELF. Finally, potential protective effects of GSH and SCN at concentrations found in the ELF against HOCl toxicity were examined in vitro. Conclusions While the concentrations of GSH and SCN associated with the WT ELF protect against HOCl toxicity, those found in the CFTR KO mice were less sufficient to inhibit cell injury. These data suggests that CFTR has important roles in exporting GSH and SCN which are protective against oxidants and that hypertonic saline treatment may have beneficial effects by increasing their levels in the lung.

  12. Thiocyanate potentiates antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: In situ generation of the sulfur trioxide radical anion by singlet oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Tyler G.; Vecchio, Daniela; Zadlo, Andrzej; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sadasivam, Magesh; Avci, Pinar; Huang, Liyi; Kozinska, Anna; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for the eradication of pathogenic microbial cells and involves the light excitation of dyes in the presence of O2, yielding reactive oxygen species including the hydroxyl radical (•OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2). In order to chemically enhance PDT by the formation of longer-lived radical species, we asked whether thiocyanate (SCN−) could potentiate the methylene blue (MB) and light-mediated killing of the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the gram-negative Escherichia coli. SCN− enhanced PDT (10 μM MB, 5J/cm2 660 nm hv) killing in a concentration-dependent manner of S. aureus by 2.5 log10 to a maximum of 4.2 log10 at 10 mM (P < 0.001) and increased killing of E. coli by 3.6 log10 to a maximum of 5.0 log10 at 10 mM (P < 0.01). We determined that SCN− rapidly depleted O2 from an irradiated MB system, reacting exclusively with 1O2, without quenching the MB excited triplet state. SCN− reacted with 1O2, producing a sulfur trioxide radical anion (a sulfur-centered radical demonstrated by EPR spin trapping). We found that MB-PDT of SCN− in solution produced both sulfite and cyanide anions, and that addition of each of these salts separately enhanced MB-PDT killing of bacteria. We were unable to detect EPR signals of •OH, which, together with kinetic data, strongly suggests that MB, known to produce •OH and 1O2, may, under the conditions used, preferentially form 1O2. PMID:23969112

  13. Hole-transporting transistors and circuits based on the transparent inorganic semiconductor copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) processed from solution at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pattanasattayavong, Pichaya

    2012-12-27

    The wide bandgap and highly transparent inorganic compound copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) is used for the first time to fabricate p-type thin-film transistors processed from solution at room temperature. By combining CuSCN with the high-k relaxor ferroelectric polymeric dielectric P(VDF-TrFE-CFE), we demonstrate low-voltage transistors with hole mobilities on the order of 0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1. By integrating two CuSCN transistors, unipolar logic NOT gates are also demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Reduction of tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphinecobalt(III) by hexaammineruthenium(II). [Spectral studies of effects of pH and added ions on reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternack, R.F.

    1976-03-01

    The reduction of tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphinecobalt(III) (Co/sup III/TMpyP) by Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ has been studied as a function of pH and added anions. In the range 2 x 10/sup -5/ < or = (H/sup +/) < or = 0.50 M, the reactions are pH independent and the catalytic effects of chloride and thiocyanate ions are quite modest; rate constants (M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, 25/sup 0/C) in sulfonate media containing chloride and thiocyanate are given by 1.2 x 10/sup 5/ + 3.3 x 10/sup 5/(Cl/sup -/) + 6.6 x 10/sup 5/(SCN/sup -/). A more pronounced influence on rate occurs when thiocyanate or azide ions are bonded directly to the cobalt site. The rate constants for the Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ reduction of CoP(H/sub 2/O)(SCN)/sup 4 +/ is 10 times larger and that for CoP(H/sub 2/O)(N/sub 3/)/sup 4 +/ is 20 times smaller than that for CoP(H/sub 2/O)/sub 2//sup 5 +/ in a similar medium. (auth)

  15. Thiocyanate cadmium(II) complexes of 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine – Synthesis, structure and luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrot, I. [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Machura, B., E-mail: basia@ich.us.edu.pl [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Kruszynski, R., E-mail: rafal.kruszynski@p.lodz.pl [Department of X-ray Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry, Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, ul. Żeromskiego 116, 90-924 Łódź (Poland)

    2014-12-15

    Two new thiocyanate cadmium(II) complexes of 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine were synthesized and characterized. The resulted complexes [Cd(SCN)(NO{sub 3})(tptz)(H{sub 2}O)] (1) and [Cd(SCN){sub 2}(tptz)(MeOH)] (2) were studied by IR, UV–vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray analysis. The luminescent properties of 1 and 2 were studied in solution and solid state and compared with the free ligand. To get detailed insight into the electronic structure and spectroscopic properties of [Cd(SCN)(NO{sub 3})(tptz)(H{sub 2}O)] and [Cd(SCN){sub 2}(tptz)(MeOH)], the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were performed. - Highlights: • Two novel thiocyanate cadmium(II) compounds of 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine were synthesized. • The compounds were identified by IR, UV–vis spectroscopy and X-ray analysis. • The fluorescence properties of the complexes were examined and compared with the free ligand. • The electronic spectra were investigated at the TD-DFT level employing B3LYP/LANL2DZ.

  16. Low-Temperature and High-Pressure p-rho-T Relation for 1-(2-Methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and 1-C-n-3-methylimidazolium Thiocyanate with n=2 and 4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2015), s. 1855-1867 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ionic liquid * 1-(2-Methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide * thiocyanate anion * experimental pvT data Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.835, year: 2015

  17. Analysis of O-glycan heterogeneity in IgA1 myeloma proteins by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: implications for IgA nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renfrow, MB; Mackay, CL; Chalmers, MJ

    2007-01-01

    deficiency in IgA1 proteins occurs randomly or preferentially at specific sites. We have previously demonstrated the first direct localization of multiple O-glycosylation sites on a single IgA1 myeloma protein by use of activated ion-electron capture dissociation (AI-ECD) Fourier transform ion cyclotron...

  18. Proteomic Analysis Implicates Dominant Alterations of RNA Metabolism and the Proteasome Pathway in the Cellular Response to Carbon-Ion Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy with heavy ions is considered advantageous compared to irradiation with photons due to the characteristics of the Braggs peak and the high linear energy transfer (LET value. To understand the mechanisms of cellular responses to different LET values and dosages of heavy ion radiation, we analyzed the proteomic profiles of mouse embryo fibroblast MEF cells exposed to two doses from different LET values of heavy ion 12C. Total proteins were extracted from these cells and examined by Q Exactive with Liquid Chromatography (LC-Electrospray Ionization (ESI Tandem MS (MS/MS. Using bioinformatics approaches, differentially expressed proteins with 1.5 or 2.0-fold changes between different dosages of exposure were compared. With the higher the dosage and/or LET of ion irradiation, the worse response the cells were in terms of protein expression. For instance, compared to the control (0 Gy, 771 (20.2% proteins in cells irradiated at 0.2 Gy of carbon-ion radiation with 12.6 keV/μm, 313 proteins (8.2% in cells irradiated at 2 Gy of carbon-ion radiation with 12.6 keV/μm, and 243 proteins (6.4% in cells irradiated at 2 Gy of carbon-ion radiation with 31.5 keV/μm exhibited changes of 1.5-fold or greater. Gene ontology (GO analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis, Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS analysis, and BioCarta analysis all indicated that RNA metabolic processes (RNA splicing, destabilization and deadenylation and proteasome pathways may play key roles in the cellular response to heavy-ion irradiation. Proteasome pathways ranked highest among all biological processes associated with heavy carbon-ion irradiation. In addition, network analysis revealed that cellular pathways involving proteins such as Col1a1 and Fn1 continued to respond to high dosages of heavy-ion irradiation, suggesting that these pathways still protect cells against damage. However, pathways such as those involving Ikbkg1

  19. Controlling hydrogen scrambling in multiply charged protein ions during collisional activation: implications for top-down hydrogen/deuterium exchange MS utilizing collisional activation in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzalimov, Rinat R; Kaltashov, Igor A

    2010-02-01

    Hydrogen exchange in solution combined with ion fragmentation in the gas phase followed by MS detection emerged in recent years as a powerful tool to study higher order protein structure and dynamics. However, a certain type of ion chemistry in the gas phase, namely, internal rearrangement of labile hydrogen atoms (the so-called hydrogen scrambling), is often cited as a factor limiting the utility of this experimental technique. Although several studies have been carried out to elucidate the roles played by various factors in the occurrence and the extent of hydrogen scrambling, there is still no consensus as to what experimental protocol should be followed to avoid or minimize it. In this study we employ fragmentation of mass-selected subpopulations of protein ions to assess the extent of internal proton mobility prior to dissociation. A unique advantage of tandem MS is that it not only provides a means to map the deuterium content of protein ions whose overall levels of isotope incorporation can be precisely defined by controlling the mass selection window, but also correlates this spatial isotope distribution with such global characteristic as the protein ion charge state. Hydrogen scrambling does not occur when the charge state of the precursor protein ions selected for fragmentation is high. Fragment ions derived from both N- and C-terminal parts of the protein are equally unaffected by scrambling. However, spatial distribution of deuterium atoms obtained by fragmenting low-charge-density protein ions is consistent with a very high degree of scrambling prior to the dissociation events. The extent of hydrogen scrambling is also high when multistage fragmentation is used to probe deuterium incorporation locally. Taken together, the experimental results provide a coherent picture of intramolecular processes occurring prior to the dissociation event and provide guidance for the design of experiments whose outcome is unaffected by hydrogen scrambling.

  20. Kinetic studies of the impact of thiocyanate moiety on the catalytic properties of Cu(II) and Fe(III) complexes of a new Mannich base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Ayowole O.; Watkins, Gareth M.

    2018-04-01

    Four new metal complexes of a novel Mannich base 5-methyl-2-((4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)phenol (HL) have been prepared. The compounds were characterized by an array of analytical and spectroscopic methods including Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Infra-red and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Compounds 1-4 behaved as effective catalysts towards the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) to its corresponding quinone in the presence of molecular oxygen in DMF solution while compound 4 proved to be the best catalyst with a turnover rate of 17.93 ± 1.10 h-1 as other complexes showed lower rates of oxidation. Also with the exception of dinuclear iron complex (4); thiocyanate containing Cu(II) complex exhibited lower catecholase activity compared to the Cu(II) complex without it.

  1. The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction, the 'single-step' method has become widely used for isolating total RNA from biological samples of different sources. The principle at the basis of the method is that RNA is separated from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation. Under acidic conditions, total RNA remains in the upper aqueous phase, while most of DNA and proteins remain either in the interphase or in the lower organic phase. Total RNA is then recovered by precipitation with isopropanol and can be used for several applications. The original protocol, enabling the isolation of RNA from cells and tissues in less than 4 hours, greatly advanced the analysis of gene expression in plant and animal models as well as in pathological samples, as demonstrated by the overwhelming number of citations the paper gained over 20 years.

  2. Synthesis, DNA binding and cleavage activities of copper (II) thiocyanate complex with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine and N,N-dimethylformamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-juan; Xu, Min; Xi, Pin-xian; Liu, Hong-yang; Zeng, Zheng-zhi

    2011-10-15

    Two novel copper(II) thiocyanate complexes with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino) pyridine and N,N-dimethylformamide (1) and with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino) pyridine (2) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal and molecular structures of complexes 1 and 2 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Antioxidative activity tests in vitro showed that complex 1 has significant antioxidative activity against hydroxyl free radicals from the Fenton reaction and also oxygen free radicals, which is better than standard antioxidants like vitamin C and mannitol. The interaction of complex 1 with calf thymus DNA was investigated by spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry, and viscosity measurements. Results suggest that complex 1 can bind to DNA via partial intercalation mode. Moreover, complex 1 has been found to cleavage of plasmid DNA pBR322. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Urinary heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, thiocyanate, parabens, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not arsenic or polyfluorinated compounds are associated with adult oral health: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-10-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects on oral health have been less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary chemical concentrations and adult oral health conditions in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012 including demographics, self-reported oral health conditions and urinary environmental chemical concentrations (one third representative sample of the study population). Chi-square test, t test, and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal regression modeling were performed. Of 4566 American adults aged 30-80, 541 adults (11.9 %) reported poor teeth health while 1020 adults (22.4 %) reported fair teeth. Eight hundred fifty-five people (19.1 %) claimed to have gum disease, presented with higher levels of urinary cadmium, cobalt and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Six hundred three adults (13.3 %) had bone loss around the mouth, presented with higher levels of cadmium, nitrate, thiocyanate, propyl paraben and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Eight hundred forty-five adults (18.5 %) had tooth loose not due to injury, presented with higher level of cadmium, thiocyanate and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Eight hundred forty-five adults (18.5 %) with higher levels of lead, uranium, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but lower level of triclosan noticed their teeth did not look right. Three hundred fifty-one adults (7.7 %) often had aching in the mouth and 650 (14.3 %) had it occasionally, presented with higher levels of phthalates, pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Benzophenone-3 and triclosan elicited protective effects. Regulation of environmental chemicals in prevention of adult oral health might need to be considered in future health and environmental policies.

  4. Ion channelopathies in functional GI disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2016-01-01

    In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, abnormalities in secretion, absorption, motility, and sensation have been implicated in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Ion channels play important roles in all these GI functions. Disruptions of ion channels' ability to conduct ions can lead to diseases called ion channelopathies. Channelopathies can result from changes in ion channel biophysical function or expression due to mutations, posttranslational modification, and accessory protein m...

  5. Enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations and ion outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. E. Forme

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of observations showing enhanced ion acoustic echoes observed by means of incoherent scatter radars have been reported in the literature. The received power is extremely enhanced by up to 1 or 2 orders of magnitude above usual values, and it is mostly contained in one of the two ion acoustic lines. This spectral asymmetry and the intensity of the received signal cannot be resolved by the standard analysis procedure and often causes its failure. As a result, and in spite of a very clear spectral signature, the analysis is unable to fit the plasma parameters inside the regions of ion acoustic turbulence. We present European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT observations of large ion outflows associated with the simultaneous occurrence of enhanced ion acoustic echoes. The ion fluxes can reach 1014 m-2 s-1 at 800 km altitude. From the very clear spectral signatures of these echoes, a method is presented to extract estimates of the electron temperature and the ion drift within the turbulent regions. It is shown that the electron gas is strongly heated up to 11 000 K. Also electron temperature gradients of about 0.02 K/m exist. Finally, the estimates of the electron temperature and of the ion drift are used to study the possible implications for the plasma transport inside turbulent regions. It is shown that strong electron temperature gradients cause enhancement of the ambipolar electric field and can account for the observed ion outflows.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; plasma waves and instabilities.

  6. Colorimetric Determination of the Iron(III)-Thiocyanate Reaction Equilibrium Constant with Calibration and Equilibrium Solutions Prepared in a Cuvette by Sequential Additions of One Reagent to the Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; Barlag, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The well-known colorimetric determination of the equilibrium constant of the iron(III-thiocyanate complex is simplified by preparing solutions in a cuvette. For the calibration plot, 0.10 mL increments of 0.00100 M KSCN are added to 4.00 mL of 0.200 M Fe(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 3], and for the equilibrium solutions, 0.50 mL increments of…

  7. Effects of Select Anions from the Hofmeister Series on the Gas-Phase Conformations of Protein Ions Measured with Traveling-Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenbloom, Samuel I.; Flick, Tawnya G.; Daly, Michael P.; Williams, Evan R.

    2011-11-01

    The gas-phase conformations of ubiquitin, cytochrome c, lysozyme, and α-lactalbumin ions, formed by electrospray ionization (ESI) from aqueous solutions containing 5 mM ammonium perchlorate, ammonium iodide, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ammonium thiocyanate, or guanidinium chloride, are examined using traveling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) coupled to time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). For ubiquitin, cytochrome c, and α-lactalbumin, adduction of multiple acid molecules results in no significant conformational changes to the highest and lowest charge states formed from aqueous solutions, whereas the intermediate charge states become more compact. The transition to more compact conformers for the intermediate charge states occurs with fewer bound H2SO4 molecules than HClO4 or HI molecules, suggesting ion-ion or salt-bridge interactions are stabilizing more compact forms of the gaseous protein. However, the drift time distributions for protein ions of the same net charge with the highest levels of adduction of each acid are comparable, indicating that these protein ions all adopt similarly compact conformations or families of conformers. No significant change in conformation is observed upon the adduction of multiple acid molecules to charge states of lysozyme. These results show that the attachment of HClO4, HI, or H2SO4 to multiply protonated proteins can induce compact conformations in the resulting gas-phase protein ions. In contrast, differing Hofmeister effects are observed for the corresponding anions in solution at higher concentrations.

  8. Ion microprobe zircon geochronology of the Uivak Gneisses: Implications for the evolution of early terrestrial crust in the North Atlantic Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collerson, K. D.

    1983-01-01

    Ion microprobe U-Pb results for zircons from three Uivak I gneisses and one specimen of Uivak II gneiss, from the Saglek-Hebron area of Northern Labrador are reported. These results are compared with interpretations based on published conventional U-Pb zircon results and with conclusions about crustal evolution in the NAC derived from Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Pb-Pb isotopic studies.

  9. Energetic Processing of N2:CH4 Ices Employing X-Rays and Swift Ions: Implications for Icy Bodies in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Fredson de A.; Pilling, Sergio; Rocha, Will R. M.; Rothard, Hermann; Boduch, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally address in this paper the physicochemical effects induced by ionizing photons (energies from 6 to 2000 eV) and swift heavy ions (15.7 MeV 16O5+) in the icy mixture containing N2:CH4 (19:1) at 12 K and 19 K, respectively. The experiments simulate the effect of solar photons and X-rays, cosmic rays, and solar energetic particles (medium-mass ions) on the surface of icy bodies in the outer solar system, such as Triton, Titan, Pluto, and several other Kuiper Belt objects. The ice samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at different fluences. From the energetic processing, the production of new molecules was observed. Among them, HCN, C2H4, C2H6, and N3 have the highest production yield. Molecular half-lives of the species of interest were calculated and extrapolated to the astrophysical environment. The effective destruction yield (in molecules/impact) of the parental species processed by the swift ions is up to six orders of magnitude higher than the value determined by employing X-rays. However, due to the differences between the fluxes of both ionizing radiation types in space, the half-lives of nitrogen and methane in the astrophysical scenarios addressed may have a huge variation. Photons dominate the chemical transformations at shorter distances from the Sun. Our results are a step toward a compilation of photochemical and radiolysis data that should allow the modeling of the abundance of astrophysical ices over long periods of time.

  10. Utility of Charge Transfer and Ion-Pair Complexation for Spectrophotometric Determination of Eletriptan Hydrobromide in Pure and Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Gouda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, sensitive, and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of eletriptan hydrobromide (ELT in pure and dosage forms. The first two methods are based on charge transfer complex formation between ELT and chromogenic reagents quinalizarin (Quinz and alizarin red S (ARS producing charge transfer complexes which showed an absorption maximum at 569 and 533 nm for Quinz and ARS, respectively. The third method is based on the formation of ion-pair complex between ELT with molybdenum(V-thiocyanate inorganic complex in hydrochloric acid medium followed by extraction of the colored ion-pair with dichloromethane and measured at 470 nm. Different variables affecting the reactions were studied and optimized. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 2.0–18, 1.0–8.0, and 2.0–32 μg mL−1 for Quinz, ARS, and Mo(V-thiocyanate, respectively. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection, and quantification limits are also calculated. The correlation coefficients were ≥0.9994 with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D%. of ≤0.925. The proposed methods were successfully applied for simultaneous determination of ELT in tablets with good accuracy and precision and without interferences from common additives, and the validity is assessed by applying the standard addition technique, which is compared with those obtained using the reported method.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Different Anions in Milk Samples Using Ion Chromatography with Conductivity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Gümüş Yılmaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of a simple method for simultaneous determination of chloride, nitrate, sulfate, iodide, phosphate, thiocyanate, perchlorate, and orotic acid in milk samples was outlined. The method involves the use of dialysis cassettes for matrix elimination, followed by ion chromatography on a high capacity anion exchange column with suppressed conductivity detection. The novelty of dialysis process was that it did not need any chemical and organic solvent for elimination of macromolecules such as fat, carbohydrates and proteins from milk samples. External standard calibration curves for these analytes were linear with great correlation coefficients. The relative standard deviations of analyte concentrations were acceptable both inter-day and intra-day evaluations. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (Signal-to-Noise ratio = 3 for chloride, phosphate, thiocyanate, perchlorate, iodide, nitrate, sulfate, and orotate was found to be 0.012, 0.112, 0.140, 0.280, 0.312, 0.516, 0.520, and 0.840 mg L−1, respectively. Significant results were obtained for various spiked milk samples with % recovery in the range of 93.88 - 109.75 %. The proposed method was successfully applied to milk samples collected from Istanbul markets. The advantages of the method described herein are reagent-free, simple, and reliable.

  12. Phase Behaviour of 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Thiocyanate Ionic Liquid with Catalytic Deactivated Compounds and Water at Several Temperatures: Experiments and Theoretical Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Anantharaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Density, surface tension and refractive index were determined for the binary mixture of catalytic deactivated compounds with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate {[EMIM][SCN]} at temperature of (298.15 to 323.15 K. For all the compounds with ILs, the densities varied linearly in the entire mole fraction with increasing temperature. From the obtained data, the excess molar volume and deviation of surface tension and refractive index have been calculated. A strong interaction was found between similar (cation-thiophene or cation-pyrrole compounds. The interaction of IL with dissimilar compounds such as indoline and quinoline and other multiple ring compounds was found to strongly depend on the composition of IL at any temperatures. For the mixtures, the surface tension decreases in the order of: thiophene > quinoline > pyridine > indoline > pyrrole > water. In general from the excess volume studies, the IL-sulphur/nitrogen mixture has stronger interaction as compared to IL-IL, thiophene-thiophene or pyrrole-pyrrole interaction. The deviation of surface tension was found to be inversely proportional to deviation of refractive index. The quantum chemical based COSMO-RS was used to predict the non-ideal liquid phase activity coefficient for all mixtures. It indicated an inverse relation between activity coefficient and excess molar volumes.

  13. Solution-processed inorganic copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) hole transporting layers for efficient p–i–n perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2015-08-27

    CuSCN is a highly transparent, highly stable, low cost and easy to solution process HTL that is proposed as a low cost replacement to existing organic and inorganic metal oxide hole transporting materials. Here, we demonstrate hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite-based p-i-n planar heterojunction solar cells using a solution-processed copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) bottom hole transporting layer (HTL). CuSCN, with its high workfunction, increases the open circuit voltage (Voc) by 0.23 V to 1.06 V as compared with devices based on the well-known poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) (0.83 V), resulting in a superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.8% without any notable hysteresis. Photoluminescence measurements suggest a similar efficiency of charge transfer at HTL/perovskite interface as PEDOT:PSS. However, we observe more efficient light harvesting in the presence of CuSCN at shorter wavelengths despite PEDOT:PSS being more transparent. Further investigation of the microstructure and morphology reveals differences in the crystallographic texture of the polycrystalline perovskite film, suggesting somewhat modified perovskite growth on the surface of CuSCN. The successful demonstration of the solution-processed inorganic HTL using simple and low temperature processing routes bodes well for the development of reliable and efficient flexible p-i-n perovskite modules or for integration as a front cell in hybrid tandem solar cells.

  14. Spectrophotometric and atomic absorption determination of ramipril, enalapril maleate and fosinopril through ternary complex formation with molybdenum (V)-thiocyanate (Mo(V)-SCN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Mohamed Mohamed; El-Sadek, Mohamed; Moussa, Ewais Moussa Mohamed; Abd-Alaty, Nashat Mohamed Alanowar

    2008-11-01

    Three different sensitive and accurate spectroscopic procedures were developed for the determination of three angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, namely, ramipril, enalapril maleate and fosinopril. The first two spectrophotometric (extractive and non-extractive) procedures were based on ternary complex formation with molybdenum(V) thiocyanate. The formed complex can be determined by extraction with chloroform measured at lambdamax 517 nm Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range from (10--90 microg ml(-1)) for ramipril and fosinopril and (4--36 microg ml(-1)) for enalapril maleate with molar absorptivity 1.2x10(4), 2x10(4) and 3.4x10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1), respectively, or by direct measurement after addition of benzalkonium chloride as surfactant and measuring the formed ternary complex at lambdamax 545 nm with a linear relationship in the concentration range from (8-7-2 microg ml(-1)), (3--27 microg ml(-1)) and (8--72 microg ml(-1)) for ramipril, enalapril maleate and fosinopril with molar absorptivity 1.5x10(4), 5x10(4) and 2.1x10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The third procedure is atomic absorption measurement through the quantitative determination of molybdenum content of the complex. These methods hold their accuracy and precision well when applied to the determination of ramipril, enalapril maleate and fosinopril in their dosage forms.

  15. Molecular structure of mercury(II) thiocyanate complexes based on DFT calculations and experimental UV-electron spectroscopy and Raman studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elijošiutė, Erika; Eicher-Lorka, Olegas; Griškonis, Egidijus; Matulaitienė, Ieva; Jankūnaitė, Dalia; Denafas, Gintaras

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational and electronic spectra of [Hg(SCN)n](2-)(n) complexes (where n=2, 3, 4) in the aqueous solution. Molecular modeling of the mercury(II) complexes were done by the density functional theory (DFT) method using B3LYP functional with Stuttgart relativistic ECP 78MWB basis set for Hg and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for all other atoms. The effect of different solvation models with explicit (ligand) and/or implicit water environment upon its geometry, vibrational frequencies and UV spectrum have been studied. The influence of H2O/D2O exchange on the experimental and calculated vibrational frequencies of studied complexes has been established. The double-peak character of the νHgS vibrational mode of the all analyzed mercury complexes and νCN mode of [Hg(SCN)3H2O](-) complex, respectively, were proposed here for the first time. The formation of four-coordinated Hg(II) complexes with thiocyanate and (or) water ligands was verified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Solution-processed p-type copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) for low-voltage flexible thin-film transistors and integrated inverter circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Petti, Luisa

    2017-03-17

    We report on low operating voltage thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated inverters based on copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) layers processed from solution at low temperature on free-standing plastic foils. As-fabricated coplanar bottom-gate and staggered top-gate TFTs exhibit hole-transporting characteristics with average mobility values of 0.0016 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 0.013 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively, current on/off ratio in the range 102–104, and maximum operating voltages between −3.5 and −10 V, depending on the gate dielectric employed. The promising TFT characteristics enable fabrication of unipolar NOT gates on flexible free-standing plastic substrates with voltage gain of 3.4 at voltages as low as −3.5 V. Importantly, discrete CuSCN transistors and integrated logic inverters remain fully functional even when mechanically bent to a tensile radius of 4 mm, demonstrating the potential of the technology for flexible electronics.

  17. Molecular imaging of in vivo calcium ion expression in area postrema of total sleep deprived rats: Implications for cardiovascular regulation by TOF-SIMS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Li-You; Ling, Yong-Chien; Chen, Bo-Jung; Wu, Un-In; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Excessive calcium influx in chemosensitive neurons of area postrema (AP) is detrimental for sympathetic activation and participates in the disruption of cardiovascular activities. Since total sleep deprivation (TSD) is a stressful condition known to harm the cardiovascular function, the present study is aimed to determine whether the in vivo calcium expression in AP would significantly alter following TSD by the use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and calretinin (a specific calcium sensor protein in AP neurons) immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that in normal rats, the calcium intensity was estimated to be 0.5 × 10 5 at m/ z 40.08. However, following TSD, the intensity for calcium ions was greatly increased to 1.2 × 10 5. Molecular imaging revealed that after TSD, various strongly expressed calcium signals were distributed throughout AP with clear identified profiles instead of randomly scattered within this region in normal rats. Immunohistochemical staining corresponded well with ionic image in which a majority of calcium-enriched gathering co-localized with calretinin positive neurons. The functional significance of TSD-induced calcium augmentation was demonstrated by increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, clinical markers for cardiovascular dysfunction. Considering AP-mediated sympathetic activation is important for cardiovascular regulation, exaggerated calcium influx in AP would render this neurocircuitry more vulnerable to over-excitation, which might serve as the underlying mechanism for the development of TSD-relevant cardiovascular deficiency.

  18. Implantation of energetic D+ ions into carbon dioxide ices and implications for our solar system: formation of D2O and D2CO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Chris J.; Ennis, Courtney P.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) ices were irradiated with energetic D + ions to simulate the exposure of oxygen-bearing solar system ices to energetic protons from the solar wind and magnetospheric sources. The formation of species was observed online and in situ by exploiting FTIR spectroscopy. Molecular products include ozone (O 3 ), carbon oxides (CO 3 (C 2v , D 3h ), CO 4 , CO 5 , CO 6 ), D2-water (D 2 O), and D2-carbonic acid (D 2 CO 3 ). Species released into the gas phase were sampled via a quadrupole mass spectrometer, and possible minor contributions from D2-formaldehyde (D 2 CO), D4-methanol (CD 3 OD), and D2-formic acid (DCOOD) were additionally identified. The feasibility of several reaction networks was investigated by determining their ability to fit the observed temporal column densities of 10 key species that were quantified during the irradiation period. Directly relevant to the CO 2 -bearing ices of comets, icy satellites in the outer solar system, and the ice caps on Mars, this work illustrates for the first time that D2-water is formed as a product of the exposure of CO 2 ices to D + ions. These findings provide strong support for water formation from oxygen-bearing materials via non-thermal hydrogen atoms, and predict reaction pathways that are likely to be unfolding on the surfaces of asteroids and the Moon.

  19. Nonlinear dust-ion-acoustic waves in a multi-ion plasma with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The basic features of such dust-ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves have been identified. The implications of our ... ion plasmas because of its vital role in understanding different types of collective processes in space ... cannot support the usual ion-acoustic waves, but can support the DIA waves of Shukla and. Silin [15].

  20. Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W

    2014-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  1. Simulation of a relativistic heavy ions beam transport in the matter: contribution of the fragmentation process and biological implications; Simulation du transport d`un faisceau d`ions lourds relativistes dans la matiere: contribution du processus de fragmentation et implication sur le plan biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibnouzahir, M.

    1995-03-01

    The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions permit an approach of the properties of dense and not hadronic matter, and an analysis of the reaction mechanisms. Such studies are also interesting on the biological point of view, since there exist now well defined projects concerning the radiotherapy with high LET particles as neutrons, protons, heavy ions. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the processes which occur in the propagation of a relativistic heavy ion beam (E{>=} 100 A.MeV) in matter. We have elaborated a three dimensional transport code, using a Monte Carlo method, in order to describe the propagation of Ne and Ar ions in water. Violent nuclear collisions giving fragmentation process have been taken into account by use of the FREESCO program. We have tested the validity of our transport model and we show an important change of the energy deposition at the vicinity of the Bragg peak; such a distortion, due mainly to fragmentation reactions, is of a great interest for biological applications. (author).

  2. Estimation and correlation of salivary thiocyanate levels in healthy and different forms of tobacco users having chronic periodontitis: A cross-sectional biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Veena Kalburgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease with complex and multi-factorial origin. Tobacco usage has shown its adverse effect on periodontal health. Various components within saliva not only protect the integrity of oral tissues, but also provide clues to local and systemic diseases and conditions. Salivary thiocyanate (SCN has been shown to be a chemical indicator in smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Noninvasive nature of salivary testing has made it an attractive and effective alternative to blood and urine testing. Limited studies are there comparing and correlating the salivary SCN levels in smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP. However, no studies show correlation of salivary SCN among gutka chewers with CP. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate, compare, and correlate the SCN levels in periodontally healthy, CP, smokers with CP and gutka chewers with CP subjects. Materials and Methods: Study includes 120 subjects with age 18-55 years, categorized as periodonally healthy (n = 30, CP (n = 30, smokers (n = 30, and gutka chewers (n = 30 with CP. Required clinical parameters such as gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss were recorded and salivary SCN levels were estimated through ultraviolet-spectrophotometer. Results: Mean salivary SCN level were shown to be higher among smokers and gutka chewers with CP as compared to healthy and CP alone. Conclusion: The present study exhibited the significant increase in salivary SCN levels among smokers and gutka chewers when compared to others, concluding that the analysis of salivary SCN levels could be used as an adjunctive means of diagnosis.

  3. The Role of Pickup Ion Dynamics Outside of the Heliopause in the Limit of Weak Pitch Angle Scattering: Implications for the Source of the IBEX Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Dayeh, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a new model of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) ribbon based on the secondary energetic neutral atom (ENA) mechanism, under the assumption that there is negligible pitch angle scattering of pickup ions (PUIs) outside the heliopause. Using the results of an MHD-plasma/kinetic-neutral simulation of the heliosphere, we generate PUIs in the outer heliosheath, solve their transport using guiding center theory, and compute ribbon ENA fluxes at 1 au. We implement several aspects of the PUI dynamics, including (1) parallel motion along the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF), (2) advective transport with the interstellar plasma, (3) the mirror force acting on PUIs propagating along the ISMF, and (4) betatron acceleration of PUIs as they are advected within an increasing magnetic field toward the heliopause. We find that ENA fluxes at 1 au are reduced when PUIs are allowed to move along the ISMF, and ENA fluxes are reduced even more by the inclusion of the mirror force, which pushes particles away from IBEX lines of sight. Inclusion of advection and betatron acceleration do not result in any significant change in the ribbon. Interestingly, the mirror force reduces the ENA fluxes from the inner edge of the ribbon more than those from its outer edge, effectively reducing the ribbon’s width by ∼6° and increasing its radius projected on the sky. This is caused by the asymmetric draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, such that ENAs from the ribbon’s inner edge originate closer to the heliopause, where the mirror force is strongest.

  4. Aberrant over-expression of TRPM7 ion channels in pancreatic cancer: required for cancer cell invasion and implicated in tumor growth and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson S. Yee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies in zebrafish development have led to identification of the novel roles of the transient receptor potential melastatin-subfamily member 7 (TRPM7 ion channels in human pancreatic cancer. However, the biological significance of TRPM7 channels in pancreatic neoplasms was mostly unexplored. In this study, we determined the expression levels of TRPM7 in pancreatic tissue microarrays and correlated these measurements in pancreatic adenocarcinoma with the clinicopathological features. We also investigated the role of TRPM7 channels in pancreatic cancer cell invasion using the MatrigelTM-coated transwell assay. In normal pancreas, TRPM7 is expressed at a discernable level in the ductal cells and centroacinar cells and at a relatively high level in the islet endocrine cells. In chronic pancreatitis, pre-malignant tissues, and malignant neoplasms, there is variable expression of TRPM7. In the majority of pancreatic adenocarcinoma specimens examined, TRPM7 is expressed at either moderate-level or high-level. Anti-TRPM7 immunoreactivity in pancreatic adenocarcinoma significantly correlates with the size and stages of tumors. In human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells in which TRPM7 is highly expressed, short hairpin RNA-mediated suppression of TRPM7 impairs cell invasion. The results demonstrate that TRPM7 channels are over-expressed in a proportion of the pre-malignant lesions and malignant tumors of the pancreas, and they are necessary for invasion by pancreatic cancer cells. We propose that TRPM7 channels play important roles in development and progression of pancreatic neoplasm, and they may be explored as clinical biomarkers and targets for its prevention and treatment.

  5. Sour ageusia in two individuals implicates ion channels of the ASIC and PKD families in human sour taste perception at the anterior tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huque, Taufiqul; Cowart, Beverly J; Dankulich-Nagrudny, Luba; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Bayley, Douglas L; Spielman, Andrew I; Feldman, Roy S; Mackler, Scott A; Brand, Joseph G

    2009-10-08

    The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli. Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) 1a, 1beta, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-beta2, the delta-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as beta-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1beta, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-beta2, and delta-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells. These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals ("natural knockouts") suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities.

  6. Structure of the Heliotail from Interstellar Boundary Explorer Observations: Implications for the 11-year Solar Cycle and Pickup Ions in the Heliosheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; McComas, D. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Heerikhuisen, J.; Zank, G. P.; Pogorelov, N. V. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Funsten, H. O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Reisenfeld, D. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Schwadron, N. A., E-mail: ejz@princeton.edu [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    Interstellar Boundary Explorer ( IBEX ) measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliotail show a multi-lobe structure of ENA fluxes as a function of energy between ∼0.71 and 4.29 keV. Below ∼2 keV, there is a single structure of enhanced ENA fluxes centered near the downwind direction. Above ∼2 keV, this structure separates into two lobes, one north and one south of the solar equatorial plane. ENA flux from these two lobes can be interpreted as originating from the fast solar wind (SW) propagating through the inner heliosheath (IHS). Alternatively, a recently published model of the heliosphere suggests that the heliotail may split into a “croissant-like” shape, and that such a geometry could be responsible for the heliotail ENA feature. Here we present results from a time-dependent simulation of the heliosphere that produces a comet-like heliotail, and show that the 11-year solar cycle leads to the formation of ENA lobes with properties remarkably similar to those observed by IBEX . The ENA energy at which the north and south lobes appear suggests that the pickup ion (PUI) temperature in the slow SW of the IHS is ∼10{sup 7} K. Moreover, we demonstrate that the extinction of PUIs by charge-exchange is an essential process required to create the observed global ENA structure. While the shape and locations of the ENA lobes as a function of energy are well reproduced by PUIs that cross the termination shock, the results appear to be sensitive to the form of the distribution of PUIs injected in the IHS.

  7. Carbonaceous components, levoglucosan and inorganic ions in tropical aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa: implication for biomass burning contribution to organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoma, S. L.; Kawamura, K.; Fu, P.

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected at a rural site in Tanzania in 2011 during wet and dry seasons and they were analysed for carbonaceous components, levoglucosan and water-soluble inorganic ions. The mean mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were 28.2±6.4 μg m-3 and 47±8.2 μg m-3 in wet season, and 39.1±9.8 μg m-3 and 61.4±19.2 μg m-3 in dry season, respectively. Total carbon (TC) accounted for 16-19% of the PM2.5 mass and 13-15% of the PM10 mass. On average, 85.9 to 88.7% of TC in PM2.5 and 87.2 to 90.1% in PM10 was organic carbon (OC), of which 67-72% and 63% was found to be water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Water-soluble potassium (K+) and sulphate (SO42-) in PM2.5 and, sodium (Na+) and SO42- in PM10 were the dominant ionic species. We found, that concentrations of biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and mannosan) well correlated with non-sea-salt-K+, WSOC and OC in the aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa. Mean contributions of levoglucosan to OC ranged between 3.9-4.2% for PM2.5 and 3.5-3.8% for PM10. This study demonstrates that emissions from biomass- and biofuel-burning activities followed by atmospheric photochemical processes mainly control the air quality in Tanzania.

  8. Ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dating of detrital zircon grains from quartzites of the Eckergneiss Complex, Harz Mountains (Germany): implications for the provenance and the geological history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Thorsten; Vinx, Roland; Martin-Gombojav, Nergui; Pidgeon, Robert T.

    2005-07-01

    The Eckergneiss Complex (EGC) is a geologically unique medium- to high-grade metamorphic unit within the Rhenohercynian domain of the Mid-European Variscides. A previously, poorly defined conventional lower U Pb intercept age of about 560 Ma from detrital zircons of metasedimentary rocks has led to speculations about an East Avalonian affinity of the EGC. In order to unravel the provenance and to constrain the age of the sediment protolith, we carried out sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U Pb analyses on detrital zircons from five different EGC quartzite occurrences. The obtained age spectrum indicates a SW Baltica provenance of the detritus. Sveconorwegian ages between 0.9 1.2 Ga are particularly well represented by analyses from metamorphic recrystallization/alteration zones penetrating into igneous zircon. Cadomian (Pan-African) ages, which might reflect a metamorphic event, could not be substantiated. Instead, zircons of igneous origin yielded concordant Lower Devonian and Silurian ages of 410±10, 419±10, and 436±6 Ma (1σ), implying that sedimentation of the EG protolith must have taken place after 410±10 Ma. The lower age limit of the EGC metamorphism is constrained by 295 Ma intrusion ages of the adjacent, nonmetamorphosed Harzburg Gabbronorite and Brocken Granite. Sedimentation and metamorphism must thus have taken place between about 410 Ma and 295 Ma. Given that this time span coincides with most of the sedimentation within the virtually nonmetamorphosed (lowest grade) Rhenohercynian in the Harz Mountains, including the direct vicinity of the EGC, along with the high-grade metamorphism, the EGC can hardly be seen as uplifted local basement. A possible candidate for the root region is an easterly, concealed marginal segment of the Rhenohercynian domain of the Variscides, which is tectonically overridden and suppressed by the Mid-German Crystalline Rise during continent collision. However, based on the concept of strike-slip movement of Variscan

  9. Binding of ligands to the catalytic zinc ion in horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, C; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1984-01-01

    The affinity of nitrogen and sulfur ligands for the catalytic zinc ion in horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase has been investigated by their influence on the affinity labeling reaction with iodoacetate. All the nitrogen compounds including ammonia, a primary and a secondary amine, and heterocycles containing a pyridine-type nitrogen with the exception of 2,2-dipyridyl were found to activate the affinity labeling reaction. Activation results from inner-sphere ligand coordination to the catalytic zinc ion. Closely related pyridine compounds gave a regular increase in affinity for the enzyme with increasing basicity, as expected for coordination to a metal ion. The sulfur compounds penicillamine and mercaptoethanol also activated the affinity labeling reaction, but dimercaptopropanol bound very tightly as a bidentate inhibited the reaction. The anions hydrosulfide, diethyldithiocarbamate, and cyanide coordinated to the catalytic zinc ion, whereas azide, thiocyanate, tetrazole, and iodide complexed the anion-binding site. The anionic metal ligands increased the rate of inactivation of the enzyme with iodoacetamide by binding to the catalytic zinc ion, while the binding of iodoacetate to the anion-binding site was prevented.

  10. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  11. Beam divergence and ion current in multiaperture ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Penningsfeld, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    Two different measurements of the divergence of high-current ion beams formed in a multiaperture ion source have been made. The current dependence of both measurements shows characteristic differences which are explained as a result of an inhomogeneity of the current density across the emission area. The model of Coupland et al. with a spherical beam geometry in the acceleration gap is reexamined. It is shown that a rigorous application of this model gives a beamlet defocusing in the decel electrode which is stronger by a factor of 1.35 than assumed hitherto. The implications on offset steering are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The ion source comprises a cylindrically shaped chamber with a longitudinal outlet slot formed therein and two uniform anode wires which extend along the length of the chamber in the middle region thereof and which are symmetrically introduced with respect to the length axis of the chamber and the outlet groove, characterised in that at each outer end of the outlet groove at a nearly null potential or direct potential is introduced a mask, whereby the lowest distance between the inner and outer ends of the mask is equivalent to the breadth of the ion beam emitted from the source. (G.C.)

  13. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  14. Determination of sulfur anions in spent oil shale leachates by ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niss, N.D.

    1989-07-01

    The leaching and transport of chemical constituents from spent oil shale disposal areas is an area of environmental concern at the present time. Sulfur-containing compounds are prevalent in spent oil shales and have the potential to leach into aqueous systems surrounding disposal sites. Computer modeling has been used in recent years to predict the transport of species in an aqueous environment. The quality of model predictions, however, depends on the validation steps taken in comparing model predictions with laboratory data on ion speciation. Further, the quality of the validation step depends on the reliability of laboratory methods in generating ion speciation data. The purpose of this study was to develop methods to separate and quantify sulfur-containing anions in spent oil shale leachates by suppressed ion chromatography. The anions studied were S{sup 2{minus}} (sulfide), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (sulfite), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 4} (sulfate), SCN{sup {minus}} (thiocyanate), S{sub 2}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (thiosulfate), and S{sub 4}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 6} (tetrathionate). After the separations were developed, a series of method-challenging experiments were performed to test the reliability of the methods and assure the development of an analytically sound product. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. ION VATAMANU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l. Povar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ion Vatamanu was a chemist, writer and public figure. He was equally passionate about both his chosen fields of activity: chemistry and poetry. Chemistry, with its perfect equilibrium of logic and precision, provided inspiration for lyrical creativity, whereas poetry writing enlivened his imagination and passion for chemistry. He loved his parents. He adored his wife Elena, whom he often gifted a sea of flowers. He loved his daughters Mihaela, Mariana, and Leontina. He loved life, and he loved people.

  16. Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Fusao; Okuyama, Toshihisa; Suzuki, Yasuo.

    1996-01-01

    In a negative ion source having magnetic filters, bisecting magnetic fields are formed using electromagnets disposed at the outside of a plasma source. The position of the electromagnets is made adjustable and removable to optimize a negative ion generation efficiency. Further, a plurality of electromagnets are disposed in longitudinal direction of the plasma source, and the intensity of the magnetic fields of the filters in the longitudinal direction is made adjustable to control a beam distribution. Since uniform magnetic fields which bisect the plasma source can be formed by the electromagnets, and magnetomotive force of the electromagnets can be increased easily compared with that of permanent magnets, the magnetomotive force is changed to obtain appropriate filter magnetic fields easily. Then, optimum magnetic fields corresponding to the state of source plasmas can be generated by the control of the power source of the electromagnets, which also increases the negative ion drawing current density, thereby enabling to reduce the drawing area and size of the plasma source. (N.H.)

  17. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    of a reactor-scale FRC, and the FIREX program was intended to test the ideas behind this approach. We will describe in this report the technological development path and advances in physics understanding that allowed FIREX to reach a regime in which ion rings were reproducibly created with up to about half the current necessary to produce field reversal. Unfortunately, the experiments were limited to this level by a fundamental, unanticipated aspect of the physics of strong ion rings in plasma. The FIREX ring is a strongly anisotropic, current-carrying population of ions moving faster than the Alfven speed in the background plasma. The rapidly changing ring current excites very large-amplitude Alfven waves in the plasma, and these waves strongly affect the ring, causing rapid energy loss in a way that is not compatible with the success of the ring trapping scenario around which FIREX was designed. The result was that FIREX rings were always very short-lived. We will discuss the implication of these results for possible future use of large-orbit ions in FRCs. In short, it appears that a certain range of the parameters characterizing the ring Alfven mach number and distribution function must be avoided to allow the existence of a long-lived energetic ion component in an FRC. This report will explain why FIREX experimental results cannot be directly scaled to quantitatively predict this range for a particular FRC configuration. This will require accurate, three-dimensional simulations. FIREX results do constitute a very good dataset for validating such a code, and simulations already carried out during this program provide a guide to the important physics involved.

  18. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fraction...... of the generated ions. The ion extractor is surrounded by a space charge (810) formed at least in part by the extracted ions. The ion extractor includes a biased electrode (806) forming an interface with an insulator (808). The interface is customized to form a strongly curved potential distribution (812......) in the space-charge surrounding the ion extractor. The strongly curved potential distribution focuses the extracted ions towards an opening (814) on a surface of the biased electrode thereby resulting in an ion beam....

  19. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  20. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Antinori, Federico

    2001-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  1. ION GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  2. Heavy-ion cooling and radiative recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.

    1988-09-01

    There is presently a large number of ion storage rings under construction which will use electron cooling for increasing the phase-space density of the stored ions in order to gain luminosity and resolution advantages for a variety of experiments. In this review a more general introduction to the electron-cooling technique is given. The atomic-physics aspects of electron-ion interactions at low relative velocity are identified. One of the most important processes is electron-ion radiative recombination because it can have strong implications on the operation of a storage ring employing electron cooling. Estimates are given of the ion-beam lifetime, as limited by recombination losses, as a function of electron density and temperature and for all values of the atomic number Z of the ions. The use of recombination processes in the electron cooler for atomic spectroscopy of few-electron heavy ions is discussed along with their implication on diagnostics of electron cooling. (orig.)

  3. The effect of lattice and grain boundary diffusion on the redistribution of Xe in metallic nuclear fuels: Implications for the use of ion implantation to study fission-gas-bubble nucleation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Wayne E.; Tumey, Scott J.; Rest, Jeffrey; Gilmer, George H.

    2011-01-01

    A multi-atom gas bubble-nucleation mechanism has been proposed as part of a predictive fission-gas release model for metallic nuclear fuels. Validation of this mechanism requires experimental measurement of fission-gas bubble-size distributions at well-controlled gas concentrations and temperatures. There are advantages to carrying out such a study using ion implantation as the source of gas atoms compared with neutron irradiations. In spite of previous successes using ion implantation to study fission-gas behavior in oxide fuels, there is significant uncertainty about the efficacy of using ion beams for metallic fuel studies. To address the question of the applicability of ion beams in experiments designed to study fission-gas behavior in metallic fuels, we developed and applied an exact model for the redistribution of implanted ions under annealing conditions. The conclusion is that, given the assumptions, the results from implantations at 1 MeV or less may be overwhelmed by the surface effects at all relevant temperatures. Implanting at 10 or 80 MeV can significantly diminish the influence of the surfaces and the steep concentration gradients. At 80 MeV, the location of the peak concentration profile remains stable with annealing time. Thus, it appears that ion implantation can be an appropriate tool to study the size distribution of Xe bubbles in metallic fuels. Of the conditions investigated, the best for the study are to implant at 80 MeV and carry out anneals at 773 K, 873 K, and 973 K for times less than 10,000 s.

  4. Spectrochemistry of Solutions: A Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ion pairing and upper stage transition of magnesium (II) and calcium (II) with thiocyanate ion has been studied by Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. A complete picture of species present in thiocyanate solutions has been established. The spectral profile consists of five thiocyanate species namely; a triple-ion, [SCN - M ...

  5. Ion beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    An ion beam analyzer is specified, having an ion source for generating ions of a sample to be analyzed, means for extracting the sample ions, means for focusing the sample ions into a beam, separation means positioned along the ion beam for selectively deflecting species of ions, and means for detecting the selected species of ions. According to the specification, the analyzer further comprises (a) means for disabling at least a portion of the separation means, such that the ion beam from the source remains undeflected; (b) means located along the path of the undeflected ion beam for sensing the sample ions; and (c) enabling means responsive to the sensing means for automatically re-enabling the separation means when the sample ions reach a predetermined intensity level. (author)

  6. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  7. Headspace sorptive solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with a spectrophotometry system: A simple glass devise for extraction and simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in environmental and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saidi, H M; Al-Harbi, Sami A; Aljuhani, E H; El-Shahawi, M S

    2016-10-01

    A simple, low cost and efficient headspace sorptive solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method for determination of cyanide has been developed. The system comprises of a glass tube with two valves and a moveable glass slide fixed at its centre. It includes an acceptor phase polyurethane foam treated mercury (II) dithizonate [Hg(HDz)2-PUF] complex fixed inside by a septum cap in a cylindrical configuration (5.0cm length and 1.0cm diameter). The extraction is based upon the contact of the acceptor phase to the headspace and subsequently measuring the absorbance of the recovered mercury (II) dithizonate from PUFs sorbent. Unlike other HSSE, extraction and back - extractions was carried out in a closed system, thereby improving the analytical performance by preventing the analyte loss. Under the optimized conditions, a linear calibration plot in the range of 1.0-50.0µmolL(-1) was achieved with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.34, 1.2µmolL(-1) CN(-), respectively. Simultaneous analysis of cyanide and thiocyanate in saliva was also performed with satisfactory recoveries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Planar perovskite solar cells employing copper(I) thiocyanate/N,N‧-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N‧-diphenyl-(1,1‧-biphenyl)-4,4‧-diamine bilayer structure as hole transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Zong-Liang; Chen, Lung-Chien

    2018-02-01

    Organic hole transport materials, such as N 2,N 2,N 2‧,N 2‧,N 7,N 7,N 7‧,N 7‧-octakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9‧-spirobi[9H-fluorene]-2,2‧,7,7‧-tetramine (Spiro-OMeTAD), are commonly used as the hole transport materials in efficient perovskite solar cells, but the chemical synthetic procedure may increase the cost of the photovoltaic devices. On the other hand, inorganic hole transport materials, such as copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) or copper(I) iodide (CuI), have potential for the manufacture of efficient and low-cost perovskite solar cells, but the performance of these devices is still imperfect. In this study, we demonstrate the use of an inorganic CuSCN and organic N,N‧-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N‧-diphenyl-(1,1‧-biphenyl)-4,4‧-diamine (NPB) hybrid bilayer as an alternative hole transport layer for planar CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. The electronic behavior of the bilayer and the performance of the corresponding devices were discussed. As a result, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) for the best cells at AM1.5G illumination with a shadow mask was 12.3%.

  9. Synthesis, Spectroscopy, Theoretical, and Electrochemical Studies of Zn(II, Cd(II, and Hg(II Azide and Thiocyanate Complexes of a New Symmetric Schiff-Base Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Montazerozohori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of zinc(II/cadmium(II/mercury(II thiocyanate and azide complexes of a new bidentate Schiff-base ligand (L with general formula of MLX2 (M = Zn(II, Cd(II, and Hg(II in ethanol solution at room temperature is reported. The ligand and metal complexes were characterized by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and physical characterization, CHN analysis, and molar conductivity. 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra have been studied in DMSO-d6. The reasonable shifts of FT-IR and NMR spectral signals of the complexes with respect to the free ligand confirm well coordination of Schiff-base ligand and anions in an inner sphere coordination space. The conductivity measurements as well as spectral data indicated that the complexes are nonelectrolyte. Theoretical optimization on the structure of ligand and its complexes was performed at the Becke’s three-parameter hybrid functional (B3 with the nonlocal correlation of Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP level of theory with double-zeta valence (LANL2DZ basis set using GAUSSIAN 03 suite of program, and then some theoretical structural parameters such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles were obtained. Finally, electrochemical behavior of ligand and its complexes was investigated. Cyclic voltammograms of metal complexes showed considerable changes with respect to free ligand.

  10. Ion channelopathies in functional GI disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2016-10-01

    In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, abnormalities in secretion, absorption, motility, and sensation have been implicated in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Ion channels play important roles in all these GI functions. Disruptions of ion channels' ability to conduct ions can lead to diseases called ion channelopathies. Channelopathies can result from changes in ion channel biophysical function or expression due to mutations, posttranslational modification, and accessory protein malfunction. Channelopathies are strongly established in the fields of cardiology and neurology, but ion channelopathies are only beginning to be recognized in gastroenterology. In this review, we describe the state of the emerging field of GI ion channelopathies. Several recent discoveries show that channelopathies result in alterations in GI motility, secretion, and sensation. In the epithelium, mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) or CFTR-associating proteins result in channelopathies with constipation or diarrhea as phenotypes. In the muscle, mutations in the SCN5A-encoded voltage-gated sodium channel Na V 1.5 are associated with irritable bowel syndrome. In the sensory nerves, channelopathies of voltage-gated sodium channels Na V 1.7 and Na V 1.9 (encoded by SCN9A, SCN11A, respectively) manifest by either GI hyper- or hyposensation. Recent advances in structural biology and ion channel biophysics, coupled with personalized medicine, have fueled rapid discoveries of novel channelopathies and direct drug targeting of specific channelopathies. In summary, the emerging field of GI ion channelopathies has significant implications for functional GI disease stratification, diagnosis, and treatment. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Ion channelopathies and migraine pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Cassie L; Stuart, Shani; Haupt, Larisa M; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-08-01

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder that affects approximately 12-20% of the general adult population. Migraine pathogenesis is complex and not wholly understood. Molecular genetic investigations, imaging and biochemical studies, have unveiled a number of interconnected neurological pathways which seem to have a cause and effect component integral to its cause. Much weight of migraine attack initiation can be placed on the initial trigger and the pathways involved in its neuronal counter reaction. Ion channels play a large role in the generation, portrayal and mitigation of the brains response to external triggers. Several genetic studies have identified and implicated a number of ion channelopathy genes which may contribute to this generalised process. This review will focus on the genetics of migraine with particular emphasis placed on the potentially important role genes HEPH (responsible for iron transport and homeostasis) and KCNK18 (important for the transport and homeostasis of potassium) play in migraine cause.

  12. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Addis Ababa. University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia(*drkvenkateswarlu@gmail.com, **berhanufk@yahoo.co.uk). ABSTRACT. In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra ...

  13. Superconducting heavy-ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of plans developed by four different groups for the construction of small superconducting linacs to boost the energy of heavy ions from existing tandem electrostatic accelerators. The projects considered are the linac under construction at Argonne and the design efforts at Karlsruhe, at Stanford, and by a Cal Tech-Stony Brook collaboration. The intended uses of the accelerator systems are stated. Beam dynamics of linacs formed of short independently-phased resonators are reviewed, and the implications for performance are discussed. The main parameters of the four linacs are compared, and a brief analysis of accelerating structures is given

  14. Enhanced Salt Removal by Unipolar Ion Conduction in Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Bumjoo; Chen, Lan; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    Chloride ion, the majority salt in nature, is ∼52% faster than sodium ion (DNa+ = 1.33, DCl− = 2.03[10−9m2s−1]). Yet, current electrochemical desalination technologies (e.g. electrodialysis) rely on bipolar ion conduction, removing one pair of the cation and the anion simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate that novel ion concentration polarization desalination can enhance salt removal under a given current by implementing unipolar ion conduction: conducting only cations (or anions) with the unipolar ion exchange membrane stack. Combining theoretical analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we elucidate that this enhanced salt removal can shift current utilization (ratio between desalted ions and ions conducted through electrodes) and corresponding energy efficiency by the factor ∼(D− − D+)/(D− + D+). Specifically for desalting NaCl, this enhancement of unipolar cation conduction saves power consumption by ∼50% in overlimiting regime, compared with conventional electrodialysis. Recognizing and utilizing differences between unipolar and bipolar ion conductions have significant implications not only on electromembrane desalination, but also energy harvesting applications (e.g. reverse electrodialysis). PMID:27158057

  15. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  16. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  17. Structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin, two snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins that target cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels: implications for movement of the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Yasuo; Brown, R. Lane; Fujimoto, Zui; Morita, Takashi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin suggest that both proteins bind to cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in a manner in which the concave surface occludes the pore entrance. Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels play pivotal roles in sensory transduction by retinal photoreceptors and olfactory neurons. The elapid snake toxins pseudechetoxin (PsTx) and pseudecin (Pdc) are the only known protein blockers of CNG channels. These toxins belong to a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family containing an N-terminal pathogenesis-related proteins of group 1 (PR-1) domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD). PsTx and Pdc are highly homologous proteins, but their blocking affinities on CNG channels are different: PsTx blocks both the olfactory and retinal channels with ∼15–30-fold higher affinity than Pdc. To gain further insights into their structure and function, the crystal structures of PsTx, Pdc and Zn 2+ -bound Pdc were determined. The structures revealed that most of the amino-acid-residue differences between PsTx and Pdc are located around the concave surface formed between the PR-1 domain and the CRD, suggesting that the concave surface is functionally important for CNG-channel binding and inhibition. A structural comparison in the presence and absence of Zn 2+ ion demonstrated that the concave surface can open and close owing to movement of the CRD upon Zn 2+ binding. The data suggest that PsTx and Pdc occlude the pore entrance and that the dynamic motion of the concave surface facilitates interaction with the CNG channels

  18. Structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin, two snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins that target cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels: implications for movement of the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Department of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Yamazaki, Yasuo [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Brown, R. Lane [Neurological Science Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006 (United States); Fujimoto, Zui [Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Morita, Takashi, E-mail: tmorita@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Mizuno, Hiroshi, E-mail: tmorita@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); VALWAY Technology Center, NEC Soft Ltd, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8627 (Japan); Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 6, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Department of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2008-10-01

    The structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin suggest that both proteins bind to cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in a manner in which the concave surface occludes the pore entrance. Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels play pivotal roles in sensory transduction by retinal photoreceptors and olfactory neurons. The elapid snake toxins pseudechetoxin (PsTx) and pseudecin (Pdc) are the only known protein blockers of CNG channels. These toxins belong to a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family containing an N-terminal pathogenesis-related proteins of group 1 (PR-1) domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD). PsTx and Pdc are highly homologous proteins, but their blocking affinities on CNG channels are different: PsTx blocks both the olfactory and retinal channels with ∼15–30-fold higher affinity than Pdc. To gain further insights into their structure and function, the crystal structures of PsTx, Pdc and Zn{sup 2+}-bound Pdc were determined. The structures revealed that most of the amino-acid-residue differences between PsTx and Pdc are located around the concave surface formed between the PR-1 domain and the CRD, suggesting that the concave surface is functionally important for CNG-channel binding and inhibition. A structural comparison in the presence and absence of Zn{sup 2+} ion demonstrated that the concave surface can open and close owing to movement of the CRD upon Zn{sup 2+} binding. The data suggest that PsTx and Pdc occlude the pore entrance and that the dynamic motion of the concave surface facilitates interaction with the CNG channels.

  19. Synthesis, spectral analysis, stability constants, antioxidant and biological activities of Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) mixed ligand complexes of nicotinamide, theophylline and thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Özlen; Şuözer, Mehtap

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, transition metal complexes or coordination entities with metal precursors such as Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) of mixed ligands namely, nicotinamide (NA), theophylline (TP) and KSCN in water were synthesized under refluxing conditions. The optimization of the reactions to obtain the composition of complexes was performed. The structural elucidation of the complexes was undertaken by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV/Vis, FT-IR, Mass and XRD) and thermal analysis. The spectral measurements of mixed ligands with the Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) complexes are compared with each other in determining which atoms of the ligand are coordinated to the metal ion. Based on spectral and magnetic moment measurements, all the coordination entities were identified as in distorted octahedral structure and have the form [M(NA)2 (TP)2(SCN)2]·xH2O. In addition, K (stability constant) and ΔG (Gibbs free energy) values were calculated by using the Babko and Stanley & Turner's methods. Antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the complexes were studied.

  20. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Effect of temperature on the physical properties of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids with thiocyanate and tetrafluoroborate anions, and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium with tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakili-Nezhaad, Gholamreza; Vatani, Mostafa; Asghari, Morteza; Ashour, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Four ionic liquids named: [BMIM][SCN], [BMIM][BF 4 ], [HMIM][BF 4 ], and [HMIM][PF 6 ] are investigated. ► Density, refractive index, surface tension, dynamic viscosity, and kinematic viscosity of the ionic liquids are measured. ► The measured data was correlated with temperature finding their decrease with rising temperature. ► The volumetric properties of the ionic liquids are calculated from the experimental values of density at T = 298.15 K. ► Correlation between the properties was carried out by the least square method using several empirical equations. - Abstract: The effect of temperature on the physical properties of some ionic liquids was investigated. Density, refractive index, surface tension, dynamic and kinematic viscosities of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids with thiocyanate and tetrafluoroborate, and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium with tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate anions were measured at various temperatures (density from T = (278.15 to 363.15) K, refractive index from (293.15 to 343.15) K, surface tension from (283.15 to 333.15) K, dynamic viscosity from (283.15 to 368.15) K, and kinematic viscosity from (298.15 to 363.15) K). The volumetric properties for the ionic liquids were also calculated from the experimental values of the density at T = 298.15 K. The Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann (VFT) equation was applied to correlate experimental values of dynamic and kinematic viscosities as a function of temperature. As well, the relation between density and refractive index was correlated satisfactorily with several empirical equations such as Lorentz–Lorenz, Dale–Gladstone, Eykman, Oster, Arago–Biot, Newton and Modified–Eykman. Finally, the relation between surface tension and viscosity was investigated and the parachor method was used to predict density, refractive index and surface tension of the ionic liquids.

  2. Bis[N-(2-aminoethylethane-1,2-diamine-κ3N,N′,N′′]copper(II tris[diamminetetrakis(thiocyanato-κNchromate(III] thiocyanate dimethyl sulfoxide tetradecasolvate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalina M. Nikitina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ionic title complex, [Cu(C4H13N32]2[Cr(NCS4(NH32]3(NCS·14C2H6OS·H2O, consists of complex [Cu(dien2]2+ cations [dien is N-(2-aminoethylethane-1,2-diamine], complex [Cr(NCS4(NH32]− anions, an NCS− counter-anion and uncoordinated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and water solvent molecules. One of the Cr atoms lies on an inversion center, while the second Cr atom and the Cu atom lie in general positions. The thiocyanate counter-anion and water molecule are disordered over two positions close to an inversion center. There are several types of hydrogen-bond interactions present in the title compound, which connect the complex cations and anions into bulky [Cu2Cr3] polynuclear species. The four NH3 groups of the complex anions and six bridging DMSO O atoms link the three complex anions via hydrogen bonding into the anionic polynuclear species [Cr(NCS4(NH32]3·6DMSO. The last one is connected by four bridging DMSO O atoms with the two complex copper cations through N—H... O hydrogen bonds between the terminal NH3 groups of the anionic polynuclear species and the NH and NH2 groups of the dien ligand. One additional DMSO molecule is connected via hydrogen bonding to one of the terminal NH3 groups of the anionic polynuclear species. Another DMSO molecule is connected via hydrogen bonding to each Cu(dien2]2+ cation.

  3. Copper(I) Thiocyanate (CuSCN) Hole-Transport Layers Processed from Aqueous Precursor Solutions and Their Application in Thin-Film Transistors and Highly Efficient Organic and Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wijeyasinghe, Nilushi

    2017-07-28

    This study reports the development of copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) hole-transport layers (HTLs) processed from aqueous ammonia as a novel alternative to conventional n-alkyl sulfide solvents. Wide bandgap (3.4–3.9 eV) and ultrathin (3–5 nm) layers of CuSCN are formed when the aqueous CuSCN–ammine complex solution is spin-cast in air and annealed at 100 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the high compositional purity of the formed CuSCN layers, while the high-resolution valence band spectra agree with first-principles calculations. Study of the hole-transport properties using field-effect transistor measurements reveals that the aqueous-processed CuSCN layers exhibit a fivefold higher hole mobility than films processed from diethyl sulfide solutions with the maximum values approaching 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1. A further interesting characteristic is the low surface roughness of the resulting CuSCN layers, which in the case of solar cells helps to planarize the indium tin oxide anode. Organic bulk heterojunction and planar organometal halide perovskite solar cells based on aqueous-processed CuSCN HTLs yield power conversion efficiency of 10.7% and 17.5%, respectively. Importantly, aqueous-processed CuSCN-based cells consistently outperform devices based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate HTLs. This is the first report on CuSCN films and devices processed via an aqueous-based synthetic route that is compatible with high-throughput manufacturing and paves the way for further developments.

  4. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  5. Radioactive Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequency-heated plasma-type ion sources.

  6. Ions and light

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 3: Ions and Light discusses how ions are formed by electron impact, ion-molecule reactions, or electrical discharge. This book discusses the use of light emitted by excited molecules to characterize either the chemistry that formed the excited ion, the structure of the excited ion, or both.Organized into 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the extension of the classical flowing afterglow technique to include infrared and chemiluminescence and laser-induced fluorescence detection. This text then examines the experiments involving molecules that ar

  7. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François, E-mail: francois.marceau@crchul.ulaval.ca

    2013-07-15

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K{sub M} 1.1 vs. 6.3 μM, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ≥ 2.5 μM, ≥ 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V{sub max}. PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion

  8. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François

    2013-01-01

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K M 1.1 vs. 6.3 μM, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ≥ 2.5 μM, ≥ 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V max . PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion trapping

  9. Single Cathode Ion Thruster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Objective is to design an electrostatic ion thruster that is more efficient, simpler, and lower cost than the current gridded ion thruster. Initial objective is to...

  10. Applications of decelerated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1985-03-01

    Many facilities whose sole purpose had been to accelerate ion beams are now becoming decelerators as well. The development and current status of accel-decel operations is reviewed here. Applications of decelerated ions in atomic physics experiments are discussed

  11. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  12. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  13. Introduction: Applying Chemical Biology to Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Stephan A; Ahern, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane-spanning proteins that control the flow of ions across biological membranes through an aqueous pathway. The opening or closing of this pore can be controlled by a myriad of physiological inputs (voltage, ligands, temperature, metabolites, pH), which in turn allow for the controlled flux of ions across membranes, resulting in the generation of minute electrical signals. The functional implications of ion channel function on physiological processes are vast. Electrical impulses, in the form of action potentials or diverse chemo-electrical signals, coordinate the syncytium of the heart beat, support a myriad of neuronal communication pathways, insulin secretion, and are central to the immune response, with more roles being discovered virtually everyday. Thus, ion channel function is a biophysical process that is central to biological life at many levels. And with over 500 channel-forming subunits known today in humans, this large class of proteins is also increasingly recognised as important drug targets, as inherited or acquired ion channel dysfunction are known causes of disease.

  14. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  15. Targets for laser and ion beam drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    At the two previous heavy ion fusion symposia, researchers from Livermore presented their best estimates of target energy gain. The results presented at Tokyo differed significantly from those presented at Darmstadt. The Livermore estimates were again revised for this symposium. The new estimates are given in an accompanying paper by Lindl et al. and in additional detail in this paper. The new estimates are similar to the results presented at Darmstadt. The implications of the new results are discussed

  16. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    metric space. Also we prove that every implicative algebra can be made into a regular. Autometrized Algebra of Swamy (1964) (see theorem 2.9). We recall the definition of Xu (1993). Defintion [2]: Let (L,∨,∧,0,1) be a bounded lattice with order reversing involution. “ ' ”and a binary operation → satisfying the following ...

  17. Multicharged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venikov, N.I.

    1979-01-01

    The main principles of action, beam parameters, basic problems and prospects for development of the available multicharged ion sources for various types of accelerators are considered. Descriptions of three types of Penneng sources (a source with coid cathodes, direct-heated source, and a source with a heated cathode), duoplasmatron, SHP source using electron-cyclotron resonance, electron-ray and laser sources are given. The problems productions for solid substance ions, lithium and beryllium ions in Penning sources, are considered as well as the problem of ion charge growth on passage of accelerated ion/or atom beam through a stripping target [ru

  18. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I.

    2013-12-16

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  19. The B vitamins nicotinamide (B3) and riboflavin (B2) stimulate metamorphosis in larvae of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta: implications for a sensory ligand-gated ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert T; Pechenik, Jan A; Biggers, William J; Scavo, Gia; Lehman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Marine sediments can contain B vitamins, presumably incorporated from settled, decaying phytoplankton and microorganisms associated with decomposition. Because B vitamins may be advantageous for the energetically intensive processes of metamorphosis, post-metamorphic growth, and reproduction, we tested several B vitamins to determine if they would stimulate larvae of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta to settle and metamorphose. Nicotinamide and riboflavin individually stimulated larvae of C. teleta to settle and metamorphose, generally within 1-2 hours at nicotinamide concentrations as low as 3 µM and riboflavin concentrations as low as 50 µM. More than 80% of the larvae metamorphosed within 30 minutes at a nicotinamide concentration of 7 µM. The pyridine channel agonist pyrazinecarboxamide also stimulated metamorphosis at very low concentrations. In contrast, neither lumichrome, thiamine HCl, pyridoxine HCl, nor vitamin B12 stimulated larvae of C. teleta to metamorphose at concentrations as high as 500 µM. Larvae also did not metamorphose in response to either nicotinamide or pyrazinecarboxamide in calcium-free seawater or with the addition of 4-acetylpyridine, a competitive inhibitor of the pyridine receptor. Together, these results suggest that larvae of C. teleta are responding to nicotinamide and riboflavin via a chemosensory pyridine receptor similar to that previously reported to be present on crayfish chela and involved with food recognition. Our data are the first to implicate B vitamins as possible natural chemical settlement cues for marine invertebrate larvae.

  20. Structural information on the coordination compounds formed by manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) thiocyanates with 4-cyanopyridine N-oxide from their magnetic moments, electronic and infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, I. S.; Yadava, C. L.; Singh, Raghuvir

    1982-05-01

    Coordination compounds formed by the interaction of 4-cyanopyridine. N-oxide (4-CPO), a potentially bidentate ligand, with manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and rnercury(II) thiocyanates have been prepared and characterized from their elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibilities, electronic and infrared spectral studies down to 200 cm -1 in the solid state. The compounds isolated are: Mn(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2, Co(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2,Ni(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2,Zn(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2, Cd(4-CPO)(NCS) 2 and Hg(4-CPO) 2(SCN) 2. It is shown that 4-CPO acts as a terminal N-oxide oxygen bonded monodentate ligand in all the metal(II) thiocyanate complexes studied. Tentative stereochemistries of the complexes in the solid state are discussed. The ligand field parameters 10 Dq, B, β and λ calculated for the manganese(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes are consistent with their proposed stereochemistries.

  1. Fe- and Cu-complex formation with artificial ligands investigated by ultra-high resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS: Implications for natural metal-organic complex studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Waska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS has been increasingly used to complement the bulk determination of metal-ligand equilibria, for example via competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV. However, ESI-MS speciation analyses may be impacted by instrumental artefacts such as reduction reactions, fragmentation, and adduct formation at the ESI source, changes in the ionization efficiencies of the detected species in relation to sample matrix, and peak overlaps in response to increasing sample complexity. In our study, equilibria of the known artificial ligands citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (NN, and salicylaldoxime (SA with iron (Fe and copper (Cu were investigated by ultra-high resolution ESI-MS, Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS, under a variety of sample matrix and ionization settings. The acquired mass spectra were compared with metal-ligand equilibrium data from the literature as well as an adapted speciation model. Overall, the mass spectra produced representative species mentioned in previous reports and predicted by the speciation calculations, such as Fe(Cit, Cu(Cit2, Fe(EDTA, Cu(EDTA, Fe(NN3, and Cu(SA2. The analyses furthermore revealed new species which had been hypothesized but not measured directly using other methods, for example ternary complexes of citrate with Fe and Cu, Cu(SA monomers, and the dimer Fe(SA2. Finally, parallel measurements of a Cu+SA calibration series and a Cu+SA+EDTA competition series indicated that FT-ICR-MS can produce linear responses and low detection limits analogous to those of ACSV. We propose that ultra-high resolution FT-ICR-MS can be used as a representative tool to study interactions of trace metals with artificial as well as natural, unknown ligands at the molecular level.

  2. Implications of heavy-ion-induced satellite x-ray emission. II. Production of K and L x rays by 0. 9 to 2. 6 MeV/u Ar ions in thick targets of V, Cu, Nb, Ta, and Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kelley, G.D.; Auble, R.L.; Hulett, L.D.; Kim, H.J.; Milner, W.T.; Raman, S.; Shaha, O.; Vane, C.R.; Young, J.P.; Lapicki, G.

    1983-01-01

    Cross sections are reported for x-ray production in targets of /sup 23/V, /sup 29/Cu, /sup 41/Nb, /sup 73/Ta, and /sup 78/Pt by /sup 40/Ar ions of 36.0, 56.4, 76.6, and 103 MeV. Because the targets were relatively thick, approx. 1 mg/cm/sup 2/, the data were corrected, using a novel approach, for projectile energy loss and x-ray attenuation in the targets. The cross sections so analyzed are compared with the predictions of the first Born approximation as well as with those of a more extensive treatment which includes energy loss, Coulomb deflection, perturbed stationary-state, and relativistic effects. The significant discrepancies between the data and this latter theory are atrributed primarily to the influence of multiple ionization on the x-ray emission probabilities.

  3. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy enables multiscale spatial visualization of ions involved in fungal lignocellulose deconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant T. Kirker; Samuel Zelinka; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; David Vine; Lydia Finney; Si Chen; Young Pyo Hong; Omar Uyarte; Stefan Vogt; Jody Jellison; Barry Goodell; Joseph E. Jakes

    2017-01-01

    The role of ions in the fungal decay process of lignocellulose biomaterials, and more broadly fungal metabolism, has implications for diverse research disciplines ranging from plant pathology and forest ecology, to carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of ions in fungal decay mechanisms, the spatial distribution and quantification of ions in lignocellulosic cell...

  4. Quantitative ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.

    1976-06-01

    This is a report of the study of the implantation of heavy ions at medium keV-energies into electrically conducting mono-elemental solids, at ion doses too small to cause significant loss of the implanted ions by resputtering. The study has been undertaken to investigate the possibility of accurate portioning of matter in submicrogram quantities, with some specific applications in mind. The problem is extensively investigated both on a theoretical level and in practice. A mathematical model is developed for calculating the loss of implanted ions by resputtering as a function of the implanted ion dose and the sputtering yield. Numerical data are produced therefrom which permit a good order-of-magnitude estimate of the loss for any ion/solid combination in which the ions are heavier than the solid atoms, and for any ion energy from 10 to 300 keV. The implanted ion dose is measured by integration of the ion beam current, and equipment and techniques are described which make possible the accurate integration of an ion current in an electromagnetic isotope separator. The methods are applied to two sample cases, one being a stable isotope, the other a radioisotope. In both cases independent methods are used to show that the implantation is indeed quantitative, as predicted. At the same time the sample cases are used to demonstrate two possible applications for quantitative ion implantation, viz. firstly for the manufacture of calibration standards for instrumental micromethods of elemental trace analysis in metals, and secondly for the determination of the half-lives of long-lived radioisotopes by a specific activity method. It is concluded that the present study has advanced quantitative ion implantation to the state where it can be successfully applied to the solution of problems in other fields

  5. Atomic ion clock with two ion traps, and method to transfer ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D. (Inventor); Chung, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An atomic ion clock with a first ion trap and a second ion trap, where the second ion trap is of higher order than the first ion trap. In one embodiment, ions may be shuttled back and forth from one ion trap to the other by application of voltage ramps to the electrodes in the ion traps, where microwave interrogation takes place when the ions are in the second ion trap, and fluorescence is induced and measured when the ions are in the first ion trap. In one embodiment, the RF voltages applied to the second ion trap to contain the ions are at a higher frequency than that applied to the first ion trap. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  6. Ion photon emission microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  7. Turning a Poor Ion Channel into a Good Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astumian, Dean

    2003-05-01

    We consider a membrane protein that can exist in two configurations, either one of which acts as a poor ion channel, allowing ions to slowly leak across the membrane from high to low elctrochemical potential. We show that random external fluctuations can provide the energy to turn this poor channel into a good pump that drives ion transport from low to high electrochemical potential. We discuss this result in terms of a gambling analogy, and point to possible implications for fields as far ranging as population biology, economics, and actuarial science.

  8. Dating Archean zircon by ion microprobe: New light on an old problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I. S.; Kinny, P. D.; Black, L. P.; Compston, W.; Froude, D. O.; Ireland, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    Ion microprobe analysis of zircons from three sites (Watersmeet Dome in northern Michigan, Mount Sones in eastern Antarctica, and Mount Narryer in western Australia) is discussed. Implications of the results to Archean geochronology and early Earth crust composition are addressed.

  9. Ion implantation in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vook, F.L.

    1977-02-01

    The application of ion beams to metals is rapidly emerging as a promising area of research and technology. This report briefly describes some of the recent advances in the modification and study of the basic properties of metals by ion implantation techniques. Most of the research discussed illustrates some of the new and exciting applications of ion beams to metals which are under active investigation at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque

  10. Ion Trap Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    stored ions,” Adv. Atom Mol. Phys., vol. Volume 3, pp. 53–72 1968. [48] P. H. Dawson, Quadrupole Mass Spectometry and Its Applications, Melville, NY... DATE December 2011 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ion trap Quantum Computing 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...researcher [30] that introduced the concept of ion traps in the 1950s. His experiments focused on separating atoms with different masses in order to

  11. Neutron ion temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-11-01

    One important use of fusion product diagnostics is in the determination of the deuterium ion temperature from the magnitude of the 2.5 MeV d(d,n) 3 He neutron emission. The detectors, calibration methods, and limitations of this technique are reviewed here with emphasis on procedures used at PPPL. In most tokamaks, the ion temperature deduced from neutrons is in reasonable agreement with the ion temperature deduced by other techniques

  12. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  13. Dynamic ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, I.F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Dynamic Ion Implantation Technique consists of ion implantation of a film during the film-deposition process. This technique was investigated theoretically and experimentally with ions whose incident energy is of the order of a few times 100 keV. It was found to be a viable alternative low-temperature method for the preparation of thick zirconium nitride films (∼1 μm) with good mechanical properties. Theoretical modeling of the processes involved during dynamic ion implantation lead to analytical expressions for the ions' depth-profile distributions. Numerical evaluations of these equations indicated that the depth distributions of dynamically implanted ions are in general more uniform than those predicted by the model for ions implanted by more conventional techniques. Mechanical properties of stoichiometric RF sputter-deposited zirconium nitride films post implanted with krypton and rubidium ions were investigated. Scratch-adhesion critical load and Vickers microhardness of samples implanted with doses varying from 1 x 10 15 to 5 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 and energies ranging from 300 to 500 keV were studied. In general, best mechanical properties were observed for 300- keV krypton implantations

  14. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  15. Doppler ion program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henline, P.

    1980-12-01

    The Doppler spectrometer is a conventional Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer with a 1024 channel multiple detector. Light is dispersed across the detector, and its output yields a spectrum covering approximately 200 A. The width of the spectral peak is directly proportional to the temperature of the emitting ions, and determination of the impurity ion temperature allows one to infer the plasma ion temperature. The Doppler ion software system developed at General Atomic uses a TRACOR Northern 1710-31 and an LSI-11/2. The exact configuration of Doublet III is different from TRACOR Northern systems at other facilities

  16. High current ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.

    1989-06-01

    The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be 'high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could 'low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper

  17. Where do ions solvate?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study a simple model of ionic solvation inside a water cluster. The cluster is modeled as a spherical dielectric continuum. It is found that unpolarizable ions always prefer the bulk solvation. On the other hand, for polarizable ions, there exists a critical value of polarization above which surface solvation becomes ...

  18. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  19. Quadrupole Ion Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elimination of transit-time broadening making it possible to do precision spectroscopic measurements on these ions. Several important experiments with single electron or ion have been undertaken to address problems related to basic physics, such as the measurement of the electron radius, precision measurements of ...

  20. Ion implantation in ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazzulla, G.; Baratta, G.A.; Palumbo, M.E.; Satorre, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied, by in situ infrared spectroscopy, some effects due to ion implantation in frozen ices. In particular mixtures containing C, N and O atoms (e.g., N 2 :H 2 O:CH 4 ) have been irradiated with unreactive (noble gases) ions: the resulting alteration of the frozen sample induces the formation of other molecules (e.g., CO 2 , R- - -OCN, CO and HCN) and of a refractory organic residue. Similar products are formed when mixtures containing only C and O atoms (e.g., H 2 O:CH 4 ) are irradiated with N ions, i.e. molecular species that include the projectile are formed. These results are important, in particular for their applications to planetary physics. In planetary environments ice thickness is usually much larger than the penetration depth of the relevant ion populations (solar wind ions, magnetospheric particles, etc.) and ion implantation phenomena are expected. Our results indicate that some molecular species observed on icy planetary surfaces could not be native of that object but formed by ion irradiation and/or by implantation of reactive ions

  1. Accelerators for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The use of heavy ion accelerators in nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, atomic physics, and in material sciences studies is rapidly increasing. A review is given of the present and developing scene in heavy ion accelerator concepts and technology. The area of applicability of various methods, likely avenues of future development, and the trends of future requirements are discussed. (auth)

  2. Ion beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.H.; Chivers, D.J.; Gard, G.A.; Temple, W.

    1977-04-01

    A description of techniques for the production of intense beams of heavy ions is given. A table of recommended operational procedures for most elements is included. The ionisation of boron is considered in some detail because of its particular importance as a dopant for ion implantation. (author)

  3. Cooperativity in ion hydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielrooij, K.J.; Garcia-Araez, N.; Bonn, M.; Bakker, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite prolonged scientific efforts to unravel the effects of ions on the structure and dynamics of water, many open questions remain, in particular concerning the spatial extent of this effect (i.e., the number of water molecules affected) and the origin of ion-specific effects. A combined

  4. Future of ion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, A.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of a systematic arrangement of various types of ion machines according to their purpose, the corresponding characteristic functional parameters of the individual machines are derived. Atomic and nuclear ion machines are not dealt with. The common characteristics of this new type of machines are derived, namely the velocity of the beam, its formation capacity and interaction

  5. Quadrupole Ion Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron bound to the gravitational field, the 'geonium atom'. The first atomic hyperfine structure experiment on trapped ions was performed by Dehmelt's group using the stored-ion exchange-collision technique in a Paul trap which paved the way for some of the subsequent experiment for atomic frequency. A single atom at.

  6. Where do ions solvate?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study a simple model of ionic solvation inside a water cluster. The cluster is modeled as a spherical dielectric continuum. It is found that unpolarizable ions always prefer the bulk solvation. On the other hand, for polarizable ions, there exists a critical value of polarization above which surface solvation becomes ...

  7. Ion mobilities and ion-atom interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatland, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    The techniques for measuring the mobilities of ions in gases, relating interaction potentials to mobilities, and determining potentials from experimental mobilities are reviewed. Applications are presented for positive alkali ions and negative halogen ions in inert gases. (Auth.)

  8. Anomalous diffusion and ion heating in the presence of electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Cheng, C.Z.; Lee, W.W.

    1980-11-01

    One- and two-dimensional simulations have been carried out to study electrostatic ion cyclotron instabilities for a hydrogen plasma in a strong magnetic field. It is found that strong ion heating and anomalous cross-field diffusion comparable to Bohm diffusion take place associated with the instability. Implications of the instability to the recent observations in fusion devices and space plasmas are discussed

  9. Microchemical determination of nine rare earth elements in silicate rocks by cation-exchange preconcentration - ion-interaction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, K.; Sato, K.; Kuroda, R.

    1993-01-01

    A method of applying ion-interaction chromatography to the determination of the rare earth elements in silicate rocks on a 100 to 200 mg sample basis has been developed. The rare earths are first separated as a group from matrices by cation-exchange chromatography in hydrochloric acid-thiocyanate media and isolated in a small, defined volume (3.00 ml). Using fractions of this, on-column concentration of the rare earths on a C-18 bonded phase silica coated with 1-octanesulfonate and a subsequent concentration gradient elution with glycolate (0.05 to 0.35 M) at pH 3.5 allows the respective separation of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Y (100 μl aliquot used) and of Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu (2.00 ml aliquot used). Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy elute together, and Ho is not sufficiently well resolved from these middle rare earth elements. The eluted rare earth elements are detected and quantified by post-column reaction with Arsenazo III photometrically, using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 650 nm. The method is shown to be capable of determining nine of the rare earth elements in a variety of international reference rock samples with good precision and accuracy. (orig.)

  10. Selective alkaline stripping of metal ions after solvent extraction by base-stable 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiguel, Stijn; Depuydt, Daphne; Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Thomas, Joice; Dehaen, Wim; Binnemans, Koen

    2017-04-19

    Novel 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids with a high base stability were synthesized for use in solvent extraction of first-row transition elements and rare earths from chloride media. The synthesis of these ionic liquids makes use of a recently reported, metal-free multicomponent reaction that allows full substitution of the 1,2,3-triazolium skeleton. The physical and chemical properties of these ionic liquids are compared with those of a trisubstituted analog. Peralkylation of the 1,2,3-triazolium skeleton leads to ionic liquids with superior properties, such as low viscosity, low solubility in water and higher thermal and base stability. Iodide and thiocyanate ionic liquids with peralkylated cations were applied to the solvent extraction of metal ions, and their stability in alkaline media was exploited in the selective stripping of the metals from the loaded ionic liquid phase by alkaline solutions. EXAFS and Raman spectroscopy were performed to gain insight into the extraction mechanism. The applicability of these extraction systems was demonstrated in separations relevant for the recovery of metals from ores and end-of-life products: Fe(iii)/Cu(ii)/Zn(ii) (copper ores, brass scraps) and Fe(iii)/Nd(iii) (rare earth magnets).

  11. Cryogenic surface ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayr, M.

    2015-01-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are a promising architecture to realize a scalable quantum computer based on trapped ions. In principle, hundreds or thousands of surface traps can be located on a single substrate in order to provide large arrays of interacting ions. To this end, trap designs and fabrication methods are required that provide scalable, stable and reproducible ion traps. This work presents a novel surface-trap design developed for cryogenic applications. Intrinsic silicon is used as the substrate material of the traps. The well-developed microfabrication and structuring methods of silicon are utilized to create simple and reproducible traps. The traps were tested and characterized in a cryogenic setup. Ions could be trapped and their life time and motional heating were investigated. Long ion lifetimes of several hours were observed and the measured heating rates were reproducibly low at around 1 phonon per second at a trap frequency of 1 MHz. (author) [de

  12. Molecular ion photofragment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamente, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    A new molecular ion photofragment spectrometer is described which features a supersonic molecular beam ion source and a radio frequency octapole ion trap interaction region. This unique combination allows several techniques to be applied to the problem of detecting a photon absorption event of a molecular ion. In particular, it may be possible to obtain low resolution survey spectra of exotic molecular ions by using a direct vibrational predissociation process, or by using other more indirect detection methods. The use of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measuring the lifetime of the O 2 + ( 4 π/sub u/) metastable state which is found to consist of two main components: the 4 π/sub 5/2/ and 4 π/sub -1/2/ spin components having a long lifetime (approx. 129 ms) and the 4 π/sub 3/2/ and 4 π/sub 1/2/ spin components having a short lifetime (approx. 6 ms)

  13. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  14. Plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.R.; Forest, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors' technique allows the ion implantation to be performed directly within the ion source at higher currents without ion beam extraction and transport. The potential benefits include greatly increased production rates (factors of 10-1000) and the ability to implant non-planar targets without rastering or shadowing. The technique eliminates the ion extractor grid set, beam raster equipment, drift space and target manipulator equipment. The target to be implanted is placed directly within the plasma source and is biased to a large negative potential so that plasma ions gain energy as they accelerate through the potential drop across the sheath that forms at the plasma boundary. Because the sheath surrounds the target on all sides, all surfaces of the target are implanted without the necessity to raster the beam or to rotate the target. The authors have succeeded in implanting nitrogen ions in a silicon target to the depths and concentrations required for surface treatment of materials like stainless steel and titanium alloys. They have performed ESCA measurements of the penetration depth profile of a silicon target that was biased to 30 kV in a nitrogen discharge plasma. Nitrogen ions were implanted to a depth of 700A at a peak concentration of 30% atomic. The measured profile is quite similar to a previously obtained profile in titanium targets with conventional techniques

  15. Jet laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dem'yanov, A.V.; Sidorov, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    External laser injector of multicharged ions (MCI) is developed in which wide-aperture aberration-free wire gauze spherical shape electrodes are applied for effective MCI extraction from laser plasma and beam focusing. Axial plasma compression by solenoid magnetic field is used to reduce ion losses due to transverse movement of the scattering laser plasma. Transverse magnetic field created by another solenoid facilitates the effective laser plasma braking and consequently, leads to the narrowing of energy spectrum of plasma ions and its shift towards lower energies. 2 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained

  17. IN MEMORIAM ION VATAMANU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Palii

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A dreamer in his creative solitude, an objective and lucid analyst of history and contemporaneity, an energetic and decisive leader with an uncanny ability for crisis management – all these describe Ion Vatamanu. His wife Elena and daughters Mihaela, Mariana, Leontina treasure a personal universe in which the magical spark of Ion Vatamanu’s love and joy of life meld the everyday in and out of poetry. Ion Vatamanu’s instantaneous connection to the audiences and deeply felt words still touch the hearts of his many colleagues and friends. Downloads: 2

  18. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  20. Characterization of carbon ion-induced mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikazono, N.; Suzuki, C.; Kitamura, S.; Watanabe, H.; Tano, S.; Tanaka, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana by carbon ions was carried out to investigate the mutational effect of ion particles in higher plants. The averaged mutation rate of carbon ions was 2.0 X 10 -6 / Gy, which was 18-fold higher than that of electrons. PCR analysis of the carbon ion-induced mutants showed that, out of 28 mutant alleles, 14 had point-like mutations within the gene, while 14 contained large structural alterations. In the case of 12 electron-induced mutants, 9 had point-like mutations within the gene, while 3 contained large structural alterations. These results suggest that carbon ions are more likely to induce large structural alterations compared with electrons. Further sequence analysis revealed that most of the point-like mutations induced by carbon ions were short deletions. In the case of rearrangements, DNA strand breaks were found to be rejoined using, if present, short homologous sequences for both types of radiation. After carbon ion-irradiation, small deletions were frequently observed around the breakpoints, whereas duplications of terminal sequence were found after electron-irradiation. These results suggest that non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway operates after plant cells are exposed to both ion particles and electrons but that different mode of rejoining deals with the broken ends produced by each radiation. From the present results, it seems reasonable to assume that carbon ions could predominantly induce null mutations in Arabidopsis. The fact that the molecular nature of carbon ion-induced mutation was different from that of electrons and that the molecular mechanisms of cells to induce mutations appeared to be also different implicates that ion particle is not only valuable as a new mutagen but also useful as a new tool to study repair mechanisms of certain types of DNA damage

  1. Ion channel regulation by protein S-acylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Protein S-acylation, the reversible covalent fatty-acid modification of cysteine residues, has emerged as a dynamic posttranslational modification (PTM) that controls the diversity, life cycle, and physiological function of numerous ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels. S-acylation is enzymatically mediated by a diverse family of acyltransferases (zDHHCs) and is reversed by acylthioesterases. However, for most ion channels, the dynamics and subcellular localization at which S-acylation and deacylation cycles occur are not known. S-acylation can control the two fundamental determinants of ion channel function: (1) the number of channels resident in a membrane and (2) the activity of the channel at the membrane. It controls the former by regulating channel trafficking and the latter by controlling channel kinetics and modulation by other PTMs. Ion channel function may be modulated by S-acylation of both pore-forming and regulatory subunits as well as through control of adapter, signaling, and scaffolding proteins in ion channel complexes. Importantly, cross-talk of S-acylation with other PTMs of both cysteine residues by themselves and neighboring sites of phosphorylation is an emerging concept in the control of ion channel physiology. In this review, I discuss the fundamentals of protein S-acylation and the tools available to investigate ion channel S-acylation. The mechanisms and role of S-acylation in controlling diverse stages of the ion channel life cycle and its effect on ion channel function are highlighted. Finally, I discuss future goals and challenges for the field to understand both the mechanistic basis for S-acylation control of ion channels and the functional consequence and implications for understanding the physiological function of ion channel S-acylation in health and disease. PMID:24821965

  2. Orthogonal time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometric analysis of peptides using large gold clusters as primary ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempez, Agnès; Schultz, J A; Della-Negra, S; Depauw, J; Jacquet, D; Novikov, A; Lebeyec, Y; Pautrat, M; Caroff, M; Ugarov, M; Bensaoula, H; Gonin, M; Fuhrer, K; Woods, Amina

    2004-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for biomolecular analysis is greatly enhanced by the instrumental combination of orthogonal extraction time-of-flight mass spectrometry with massive gold cluster primary ion bombardment. Precursor peptide molecular ion yield enhancements of 1000, and signal-to-noise improvements of up to 20, were measured by comparing SIMS spectra obtained using Au(+) and massive Au(400) (4+) cluster primary ion bombardment of neat films of the neuropeptide fragment dynorphin 1-7. Remarkably low damage cross-sections were also measured from dynorphin 1-7 and gramicidin S during prolonged bombardment with 40 keV Au(400) (4+). For gramicidin S, the molecular ion yield increases slightly as a function of Au(400) (4+) beam fluence up to at least 2 x 10(13) Au(400) (4+)/cm(2). This is in marked contrast to the rapid decrease observed when bombarding with ions such as Au(5) (+) and Au(9) (+). When gramicidin S is impinged with Au(5) (+), the molecular ion yield decreases by a factor of 10 after a fluence of only 8 x 10(12) ions/cm(2). Comparison of these damage cross-sections implies that minimal surface damage occurs during prolonged Au(400) (4+) bombardment. Several practical analytical implications are drawn from these observations. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ion mobility studies of carbohydrates as group I adducts: isomer specific collisional cross section dependence on metal ion radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuting; Dodds, Eric D

    2013-10-15

    Carbohydrates play numerous critical roles in biological systems. Characterization of oligosaccharide structures is essential to a complete understanding of their functions in biological processes; nevertheless, their structural determination remains challenging in part due to isomerism. Ion mobility spectrometry provides the means to resolve gas phase ions on the basis of their shape-to-charge ratios, thus providing significant potential for separation and differentiation of carbohydrate isomers. Here, we report on the determination of collisional cross sections for four groups of isomeric carbohydrates (including five isomeric disaccharides, four isomeric trisaccharides, two isomeric pentasaccharides, and two isomeric hexasaccharides) as their group I metal ion adducts (i.e., [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), [M + K](+), [M + Rb](+), and [M + Cs](+)). In all, 65 collisional cross sections were measured, the great majority of which have not been previously reported. As anticipated, the collisional cross sections of the carbohydrate metal ion adducts generally increase with increasing metal ion radius; however, the collisional cross sections were found to scale with the group I cation size in isomer specific manners. Such measurements are of substantial analytical value, as they illustrate how the selection of charge carrier influences carbohydrate ion mobility determinations. For example, certain pairs of isomeric carbohydrates assume unique collisional cross sections upon binding one metal ion, but not another. On the whole, these data suggest a role for the charge carrier as a probe of carbohydrate structure and thus have significant implications for the continued development and application of ion mobility spectrometry for the distinction and resolution of isomeric carbohydrates.

  4. EPR of uranium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, I.; Lupei, V.

    1984-02-01

    A review of the electron paramagnetic resonance data on the uranium ions is given. After a general account of the electronic structure of the uranium free atoms and ions, the influence of the external fields (magnetic field, crystal fields) is discussed. The main information obtained from EPR studies on the uranium ions in crystals are emphasized: identification of the valence and of the ground electronic state, determination of the structure of the centers, crystal field effects, role of the intermediate coupling and of the J-mixing, role of the covalency, determination of the nuclear spin, maqnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment of the odd isotopes of uranium. These data emphasize the fact that the actinide group has its own identity and this is accutely manifested at the beginning of the 5fsup(n) series encompassed by the uranium ions. (authors)

  5. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  6. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  7. Ion sensing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian

    2004-05-18

    The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.

  8. How to run ions in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Küchler, D; Manglunki, D; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    In the light of different running scenarios potential source improvements will be discussed (e.g. one month every year versus two month every other year and impact of the different running options [e.g. an extended ion run] on the source). As the oven refills cause most of the down time the oven design and refilling strategies will be presented. A test stand for off-line developments will be taken into account. Also the implications on the necessary manpower for extended runs will be discussed

  9. Modification and characterization of PET fibers for fast removal of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monier, M., E-mail: monierchem@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Abdel-Latif, D.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► PET fibers were graft copolymerized with acrylonitrile. ► Further modification was carried out through the reaction with hydrazine hydrate and then potassium thiocyanate. ► The resulted chelating fibers were characterized by various instrumental methods. ► The fibers were applied to remove Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions. -- Abstract: A new chelating fiber (PET-TSC) was prepared with PET for fast removal of Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} from water. Elemental analysis, SEM, BET surface area, {sup 13}C NMR, FTIR and X-ray diffraction spectra were used to characterize PET-TSC. The higher uptake capacity of the studied metal ions was observed at higher pH values. Kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} followed the pseudo-second-order equation, suggesting chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step of the adsorption process. The best interpretation for the equilibrium data was given by Langmuir isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 120.02, 96.81 and 78.08 mg/g for Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} ions, respectively. 1 M HCl or 0.1 M EDTA could be used as effective eluant to desorb the Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} adsorbed by PET-TSC, and the adsorption capacity of PET-TSC for the three heavy metal ions could still be maintained at about 90% level at the 5th cycle. Accordingly, it is expected that PET-TSC could be used as a promising adsorbent for fast removal of heavy metal ions from water, and the present work also might provide a simple and effective method to reuse the waste PET fibers.

  10. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strehl, P.

    1994-04-01

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  11. Radio frequency ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Shen Guan Ren; Gao Fu; LiuNaiYi

    2001-01-01

    The study on Radio Frequency Ion Source is mainly introduced, which is used for CIAE 600kV ns Pulse Neutron Generator; and obtained result is also presented. The RF ion source consists of a diameter phi 25 mm, length 200 mm, coefficient of expansion =3.5 mA, beam current on target >=1.5 mA, beam spot =100 h.

  12. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  13. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, William J (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250 degrees Centigrade, and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  14. Ion implantation - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ion implantation is a widely used technique with a literature that covers semiconductor production, surface treatments of steels, corrosion resistance, catalysis and integrated optics. This brief introduction outlines advantages of the technique, some aspects of the underlying physics and examples of current applications. Ion implantation is already an essential part of semiconductor technology while in many other areas it is still in an early stage of development. The future scope of the subject is discussed. (author)

  15. Improving Ion Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    løsninger i stedet sat bruge ion CT, hvor patienten skannes med de samme partikler, der også bruges til selve strålebehandlingen. Med ion CT kan man beregne partiklernes rækkevidde med en præcision, der erbedre end 1.0%, men ion CT har også visse begrænsninger. Blandt andet gør den begrænsede rækkevidde af...... ionerne, at man ikke kan skanne områder tykkere end 30 − 37cm, alt afhængig af acceleratoren på behandlingsstedet. I denne ph.d afhandling undersøges flere af disse begrænsninger. Her præsenteres en ny algoritme, som kombinere ion CT med de røntgenbilleder, der laves i behandlingsrummet. Dermed kan man...... rekonstruere ion CT billeder, selvom partiklerne kun kan nå igennem patienten i halvdelen af de vinkler, man normalt ville skanne fra. Simulationer af ion CT er i høj grad afhængige af de fysiske modeller, der bruges til kerne-spaltning. Modellerne blev i denne afhandling undersøgt i Monte Carlo koden SHIELD...

  16. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  17. 2010 ion run: completed!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After a very fast switchover from protons to lead ions, the LHC has achieved performances that allowed the machine to exceed both peak and integrated luminosity by a factor of three. Thanks to this, experiments have been able to produce high-profile results on ion physics almost immediately, confirming that the LHC was able to keep its promises for ions as well as for protons.   First direct observation of jet quenching. A seminar on 2 December was the opportunity for the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS collaborations to present their first results on ion physics in front of a packed auditorium. These results are important and are already having a major impact on the understanding of the physics processes that involve the basic constituents of matter at high energies. In the ion-ion collisions, the temperature is so high that partons (quarks and gluons), which are usually constrained inside the nucleons, are deconfined to form a highly dense and hot soup known as quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The existence of ...

  18. Present status of NIRS ECR ion sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Ogawa, H.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Honma, T.; Takasugi, W.; Wakaisami, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Kubo, T.; Kato, Y.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    Four ECR ion sources have been operated in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Two ECR ion sources supply various ion species for the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The 10GHz NIRS-ECR ion source mainly produces C2+ ions for the heavy-ion therapy. Ions of Si, Ar, Fe,

  19. Ion mixing and numerical simulation of different ions produced in the ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is to continue theoretical investigations and numerical simulations in the physics of ECR ion sources within the CERN program on heavy ion acceleration. The gas (ion) mixing effect in ECR sources is considered here. It is shown that the addition of light ions to the ECR plasma has three different mechanisms to improve highly charged ion production: the increase of confinement time and charge state of highly ions as the result of ion cooling; the concentration of highly charged ions in the central region of the source with high energy and density of electrons; the increase of electron production rate and density of plasma. The numerical simulations of lead ion production in the mixture with different light ions and different heavy and intermediate ions in the mixture with oxygen, are carried out to predict the principal ECR source possibilities for LHC applications. 18 refs., 23 refs

  20. Role of Ions in a Crossed-Field Diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y. Y.; Luginsland, J. W.; Cartwright, K. L.; Haworth, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ions in a magnetically insulated crossed-field gap is studied using a single particle orbit model, shear flow model, and particle-in-cell simulation. It is found that, in general, the presence of ions in a crossed-field gap always increases the electrons' excursion toward the anode region, regardless of the location of the ions. Thus, the rate at which the electrons migrate toward the anode, which is a measure of the diode closure rate, is related to the rate at which ions are introduced into the crossed-field gap. This anode migration of electrons is unrelated to crossed-field ambipolar diffusion. The implications of these findings are explored, such as pulse shortening in relativistic magnetrons and bipolar flows in pulsed-power systems

  1. Ion implantation for materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book reviews current research on ion implantation for materials processing as a viable technique for improving surface properties of metals and alloys-wear, fatigue, and corrosion. An introductory section on new potential applications of ion beam technology is provided. Contents: New potential applications of ion beam technology; ion implantation science and technology; wear and fatigue; corrosion; other research areas

  2. The biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    The solution and complexation chemistry of zinc ions is the basis for zinc biology. In living organisms, zinc is redox-inert and has only one valence state: Zn(II). Its coordination environment in proteins is limited by oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur donors from the side chains of a few amino acids. In an estimated 10% of all human proteins, zinc has a catalytic or structural function and remains bound during the lifetime of the protein. However, in other proteins zinc ions bind reversibly with dissociation and association rates commensurate with the requirements in regulation, transport, transfer, sensing, signalling, and storage. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about zinc proteins, the coordination chemistry of the "mobile" zinc ions in these processes, i.e. when not bound to proteins, is virtually unexplored and the mechanisms of ligand exchange are poorly understood. Knowledge of the biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions is essential for understanding its cellular biology and for designing complexes that deliver zinc to proteins and chelating agents that remove zinc from proteins, for detecting zinc ion species by qualitative and quantitative analysis, and for proper planning and execution of experiments involving zinc ions and nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO). In most investigations, reference is made to zinc or Zn 2+ without full appreciation of how biological zinc ions are buffered and how the d-block cation Zn 2+ differs from s-block cations such as Ca 2+ with regard to significantly higher affinity for ligands, preference for the donor atoms of ligands, and coordination dynamics. Zinc needs to be tightly controlled. The interaction with low molecular weight ligands such as water and inorganic and organic anions is highly relevant to its biology but in contrast to its coordination in proteins has not been discussed in the biochemical literature. From the discussion in this article, it is becoming evident that zinc ion speciation is

  3. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  4. Ion optics of RHIC EBIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y.; Kuznetsov, G.

    2011-09-10

    RHIC EBIS has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  5. Ion pairing as a strategy for extraction by modified supercritical carbon dioxide: extraction of radioactive metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawenis, J A; Kauffman, J F; Jurisson, S S

    2001-05-01

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide was investigated for its potential to extract perrhenate ion pairs. This has implications for radioactive waste processing because Tc-99, the second row congener of Re, is produced in approximately 6% fission yield from nuclear fuel and pertechnetate is its most common chemical form in aqueous environments. The variables examined to maximize extraction of the perrhenate ion pair were temperature, pressure, solvent modification, and ion-pairing agents. The tetrabutyl-ammonium cation was found to form the most efficient ion pair for extracting perrhenate using methanol-modified (approximately 10%) SFCO2 at 70 degrees C and 477 atm, with 0.083 mg of Re/g of SFCO2 extracted.

  6. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  7. Beyond ion-conduction: Channel-dependent and -independent roles of TRP channels during development and tissue homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrenken, K.S.; Jalink, K.; Leeuwen, F.N. van; Middelbeek, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels comprise a family of cation channels implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. As a consequence, members of this ion family play prominent roles during embryonic development, tissue

  8. Ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with strong trapped ion resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuga, Y., E-mail: kosuga@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Advanced Study, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, S.-I. [Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Diamond, P. H. [CASS and CMTFO, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Itoh, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Gifu (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Lesur, M. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    A theory to describe basic characterization of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with strong trapped ion resonance is presented. The role of trapped ion granulations, clusters of trapped ions correlated by precession resonance, is the focus. Microscopically, the presence of trapped ion granulations leads to a sharp (logarithmic) divergence of two point phase space density correlation at small scales. Macroscopically, trapped ion granulations excite potential fluctuations that do not satisfy dispersion relation and so broaden frequency spectrum. The line width from emission due only to trapped ion granulations is calculated. The result shows that the line width depends on ion free energy and electron dissipation, which implies that non-adiabatic electrons are essential to recover non-trivial dynamics of trapped ion granulations. Relevant testable predictions are summarized.

  9. Inverted magnetron ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Boyarsky, D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention provides, in a preferred embodiment, a cylindrical stainless steel cathode with end pieces thereon to form a cathode chamber within. In addition, in a preferred embodiment, there is a stainless steel rod which passes axially through the cathode chamber and which is electrically insulated therefrom at the end pieces. The stainless steel cathode has first and second apertures formed therein with the first to be connected to a source of ionizable gas and the second to act as the opening through which there passes a stream of ions to an ion beam target. A magnetic flux source is coupled to the cathode chamber to pass magnetic flux therethrough and a voltage source is connected between the anode and the cathode to provide an electrostatic field therebetween whereby when ionizable gas is fed into the cathode chamber, it is ionized and a stream of ions emanates from the second aperture. In a preferred embodiment there is further provided an electrostatic ion focusing means to focus the ion stream emanating from the second aperture

  10. Ion transport in pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.

  11. Ion nitriding of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, T.

    2002-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the investigation of the mechanism of aluminium nitriding by a technique that employs implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions and diffusional transport of atoms. The nitriding of aluminium is investigated, because this is a method for surface modification of aluminium and has a potential for application in a broad spectrum of fields such as automobile, marine, aviation, space technologies, etc. However, at present nitriding of aluminium does not find any large scale industrial application, due to problems in the formation of stoichiometric aluminium nitride layers with a sufficient thickness and good quality. For the purposes of this study, ion nitriding is chosen, as an ion beam method with the advantage of good and independent control over the process parameters, which thus can be related uniquely to the physical properties of the resulting layers. Moreover, ion nitriding has a close similarity to plasma nitriding and plasma immersion ion implantation, which are methods with a potential for industrial application. (orig.)

  12. Collisionless ion acoustic shocks in a negative-ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Plasmas containing positive ions and electrons together with an additional negative component (e.g. negative ions or particulates) are of interest in subfields of plasma physics ranging from basic plasma physics (solitons and shocks, dusty plasmas) to ionospheric and space plasmas to plasma processing (electronegative discharges and particulate contamination). Such plasmas support two modes of the ion acoustic wave, a 'slow' mode where positive ions, negative ions and electrons oscillate in phase, and a 'fast' mode where negative ions oscillate out of phase with the other two components. When nonlinear steepening is considered, the fast wave may form a negative-potential solitary wave (NPSW), which, with the addition of dissipation (e.g. ion reflection, collisions, turbulence, electron Landau damping), will either disperse, or, more interestingly, form a shock. Recently, two experiments on the formation of shocks in a Q-machine plasma with negative ions have been reported. A low-temperature, negative-ion component was created when electrons attached to added SF 6 molecules. In such a plasma, the electron and positive ion temperatures are comparable (∼ 0.2 eV), so that when the negative ion concentration is small (< 50%), ion waves are strongly Landau damped since their phase velocity is comparable to the positive ion thermal velocity. However, a large negative ion concentration increases the phase velocity to a point where damping is weak. Conditions are then right for the formation of a shock. We have simulated shock formation in such a plasma

  13. Dynamics of the ion-ion acoustic instability in the thermalization of ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J.H.; Horton, W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies); Leboeuf, J.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Particle simulation using a nonlinear adiabatic electron response with two streaming ion species and nonlinear theory are used to study the collisionless thermalization of ion beams in a hot electron plasma. The slow beam or subsonic regime is investigated and the criterion for the transition from predominantly light ion to predominantly heavy ion heating is developed. Long-lived ion hole structures a-re observed in the final state.

  14. Acceleration of radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    There is an intense interest world-wide in the use of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for experiment. In many existing or proposed facilities ions are produced or collected at source potential, ionized and re-accelerated. Within the past year three new ISOL based facilities have added dedicated post-accelerators to deliver accelerated RIBs to experiment. The paper gives an overview of RIB accelerators present and future, and explores the inherent features in the various acceleration methods with an emphasis on heavy ion linacs. The ISAC-I and ISAC-II post-accelerators are discussed as examples. Commissioning results and initial operating experience with ISAC-I will be presented

  15. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  16. Multicomponent ion exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D.; Byers, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    The optimization of ion-exchange column design becomes increasingly important in applications where high efficiency is required to remove trace components in wastewater to very low discharge requirements and for treating hazardous wastewaters where the disposal costs for secondary waste is extremely high. A predictive mathematical model is being developed for improved design of ion-exchange columns for treatment of wastewaters which are contaminated with trace quantities of Sr-90 and Cs-137. Equilibria isotherms and mass transfer mechanisms are being experimentally determined for isothermal multicomponent ion exchange of Ca, Mg, Na, Ca, and Sr with Ionsive IE-95 chabazite zeolite. These equations are being included in a mathematical model to determine the cation breakthrough curves for different column configurations and operating conditions

  17. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy-particle radiography has clinical potential as a newly developed noninvasive low-dose imaging procedure that provides increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high-energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program for medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low-dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures, brain and spinal neoplasms, and the heart. The potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, is now proving to be an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, and for the early detection of small soft-tissue tumors at low radiation dose

  18. Microwave ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  19. Magnetic ions in crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, K W

    2014-01-01

    There have been many demonstrations, particularly for magnetic impurity ions in crystals, that spin-Hamiltonians are able to account for a wide range of experimental results in terms of much smaller numbers of parameters. Yet they were originally derived from crystal field theory, which contains a logical flaw; electrons on the magnetic ions are distinguished from those on the ligands. Thus there is a challenge: to replace crystal field theory with one of equal or greater predictive power that is based on a surer footing. The theory developed in this book begins with a generic Hamiltonian, on

  20. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  1. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  2. Intense negative heavy ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    1990-08-01

    Negative ion sources based on plasma-surface interactions (BLAKE ion source) have been developed at KEK for producing negative heavy ions. The first negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-II) was developed by modifying the ordinary negative hydrogen ion source with converter (BLAKE-I) placed into the plasma. It generates various species of negative heavy ions with intense beam currents. For example, a more than 10 mA Au- ion beam was obtained from the ion source. Recently, the large scaled negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-III) has been developed and in the preliminary test experiment, more than 100 mA Cu- ion beam has been stably obtained with a 10% duty factor in pulsed operation. The BLAKE-II ion source was attached to the BNL 15 MV and Tsukuba University TANDEM accelerators and large current negative heavy ion beams were successfully accelerated in pulsed mode operation. Also, it was found that the space charge effect should be carefully considered for such a large current acceleration in a tandem accelerator, especially at the injection beam line and low energy end. In order to examine the negative ion formation process fundamentally, negative ion production probability related on sputtered particle velocity was measured and the results showed exponential dependence of the production probability on particle velocity as Norskov and Lindquist's theory predicted.

  3. Systematics of quasi-elastic processes induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltz, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt is made to delineate the areas in the systematics of quasi-elastic processes induced by heavy ions that are well described theoretically from the specific features that seem not to be understood. One- and two-particle transfer reactions are considered. A general systematic seen in transfer angular distribution data and theory, some successes and failures of the DWBA and coupled-channels theories in describing heavy-ion-reaction data, and the specific example 232 Th( 40 Ar,K) and implications for deep inelastic reactions with even heavier projectiles such as Kr and Xe are considered

  4. Phenomenology of anomalous chiral transports in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2018-01-01

    High-energy Heavy-ion collisions can generate extremely hot quark-gluon matter and also extremely strong magnetic fields and fluid vorticity. Once coupled to chiral anomaly, the magnetic fields and fluid vorticity can induce a variety of novel transport phenomena, including the chiral magnetic effect, chiral vortical effect, etc. Some of them require the environmental violation of parity and thus provide a means to test the possible parity violation in hot strongly interacting matter. We will discuss the underlying mechanism and implications of these anomalous chiral transports in heavy-ion collisions.

  5. Progress in jet reconstruction and heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Rojo, Juan

    2010-01-01

    We review recent developments related to jet clustering algorithms and jet reconstruction, with particular emphasis on their implications in heavy ion collisions. These developments include fast implementations of sequential recombination algorithms, new IRC safe algorithms, quantitative determination of jet areas and quality measures for jet finding, among many others. We also show how jet reconstruction provides a useful tool to probe the characteristics of the hot and dense medium created in heavy ion collisions, which allows one to distinguish between different models of parton-medium interaction.

  6. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  7. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  8. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  9. Polyatomic ions from a high current ion implanter driven by a liquid metal ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, W.; Laufer, P.; Tajmar, M.; Böttger, R.; Bischoff, L.

    2017-12-01

    High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements. To overcome the lack of only very small treated areas by applying a focused ion beam equipped with such sources, the technology taken from space propulsion systems was transferred into a large single-end ion implanter. The main component is an ion beam injector based on high current LMAISs combined with suited ion optics allocating ion currents in the μA range in a nearly parallel beam of a few mm in diameter. Different types of LMAIS (needle, porous emitter, and capillary) are presented and characterized. The ion beam injector design is specified as well as the implementation of this module into a 200 kV high current ion implanter operating at the HZDR Ion Beam Center. Finally, the obtained results of large area surface modification of Ge using polyatomic Bi2+ ions at room temperature from a GaBi capillary LMAIS will be presented and discussed.

  10. Ion implantation into diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    The graphitization and the change to amorphous state of diamond surface layer by ion implantation and its characteristics are reported. In the diamond surface, into which more than 10 16 ions/cm 2 was implanted, the diamond crystals are broken, and the structure changes to other carbon structure such as amorphous state or graphite. Accompanying this change of structure, the electric conductivity of the implanted layer shows two discontinuous values due to high resistance and low resistance. This control of structure can be done by the temperature of the base during the ion implantation into diamond. Also it is referred to that by the base temperature during implantation, the mutual change of the structure between amorphous state and graphite can be controlled. The change of the electric resistance and the optical characteristics by the ion implantation into diamond surface, the structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, and the control of the structure of the implanted layer by the base temperature during implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Ion Mass Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (100) is described for determining the mass of ions, the apparatus configured to hold a plasma (101 ) having a plasma potential. The apparatus (100) comprises an electrode (102) having a surface extending in a surface plane and an insulator (104) interfacing with the electrode (102...

  12. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  13. CLASSICS The Ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solution is called electrolytic dissociation, and this process is a chemical reaction coming under the general laws already discussed. A salt solution gives back the original salt unchanged when it is evaporated, and this proves clearly that the dissociation into ions is reversed when the salt separates. The question arises ...

  14. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    With controlled thermonuclear fusion holding out the possibility of a prolific and clean new source of energy, the goal remains elusive after many years of continual effort. While the conventional Tokamak route with magnetic confinement continues to hit the headlines, other alternatives are now becoming competitive. One possible solution is to confine the thermonuclear fuel pellet by high power beams. Current research and perspectives for future work in such inertial confinement was the subject of the 'Prospects for Heavy Ion Fusion' European Research Conference held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, last year. Its main focus was on the potential of heavy ion accelerators as well as recent advances in target physics with high power lasers and light ion beams. Carlo Rubbia declared that high energy accelerators, with their high efficiency, are the most promising approach to economical fusion energy production. However the need for cost saving in the driver accelerator requires new ideas in target design tailored to the particularities of heavy ion beams, which need to be pushed to the limits of high current and phase space density at the same time

  15. Field ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, D.

    1975-01-01

    The basic features of the Field-Ion Microscope (FIM) and the theory of image formation are explained. Design parameters of the FIM, factors limiting its resolution, interpretation of the image, etc are briefly outlined. Relative merits of the various imaging gases and the applications of the FIM are also covered. (K.B.)

  16. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  17. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2016-02-01

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described.

  18. Ion transport from plasma ion source at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Steinsberger, Timo Pascal

    2017-01-01

    In this report, my work as CERN Summer Student at the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE is described. A new plasma ion source used as oine source for calibration and implemented before my arrival was commissioned and transportation settings for the produced ions to the ion traps were found. The cyclotron frequencies of 40Ar and the xenon isotopes 129-132Xe were measured using time-of-flight and phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance mass spectroscopy.

  19. Unstable Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves Exited by an Ion Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in a quiescent cesium plasma into which a low‐energy beam of sodium ions was injected. The instability appeared when the beam velocity was above 12 times the ion thermal velocity. The waves propagated along the magnetic field with a velocity somewhat...

  20. Cs+ ion source for secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, B.L.; Weiss, H.; Liebl, H.

    1981-12-01

    Various types of cesium ionization sources currently used in secondary ion mass spectrometry are briefly reviewed, followed by a description of the design and performance of a novel, thermal surface ionization Cs + source developed in this laboratory. The source was evaluated for secondary ion mass spectrometry applications using the COALA ion microprobe mass analyzer. (orig.)

  1. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion ...

  2. Using Ion Exchange Chromatography to Separate and Quantify Complex Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is an important technique in the separation of charged species, particularly in biological, inorganic, and environmental samples. In this experiment, students are supplied with a mixture of two substitution-inert complex ions. They separate the complexes by ion exchange chromatography using a "flash"…

  3. Heavy-ion radiography and heavy-ion computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; McFarland, E.W.; Tobias, C.a.

    1982-02-01

    Heavy-ion projection and CT radiography is being developed into a safe, low-dose, noninvasive radiological procedure that can quantitate and image small density differences in human tissues. The applications to heavy-ion mammography and heavy-ion CT imaging of the brain in clinical patients suggest their potential value in cancer diagnosis

  4. Heavy-ion radiography and heavy-ion computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; McFarland, E.W.; Tobias, C.a.

    1982-02-01

    Heavy-ion projection and CT radiography is being developed into a safe, low-dose, noninvasive radiological procedure that can quantitate and image small density differences in human tissues. The applications to heavy-ion mammography and heavy-ion CT imaging of the brain in clinical patients suggest their potential value in cancer diagnosis.

  5. Radioactive ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    A novel approach has been studied for the characterization of specimens with a spatial resolution at the micron level. The technique dubbed Radioactive Ion Microscopy, (RIM) uses a beam of radioactive ions, specifically tritium ions, of sufficient energy to pass through a thick specimen (e.g. greater than or equal to 10 μm). After passage through the object, the ions are implanted in a stack of thin mylar sheets (1.5 microns thick). Their rest position is proportional to the thickness and the density of the sample transversed. The location of the radioactive species can be pinpointed by autoradiographing the successive mylar foils. The radiographs are photographed and converted into digital data which is used to generate a density map of the object. From these plots, physical and chemical features may be deduced. The feasibility of RIM has been demonstrated with specimen images obtained from different objects exposed to a 3 MeV 3 H + beam. The specimens used included metal grids to examine spatial resolution and a series of biological samples (cork, wood, mosquito wing) to explore the performance and applicability of RIM. On these samples, which were 10 to 30 microns thick with surface areas of up to 1 cm 2 , a lateral resolution of approx. 1.5 microns was achieved. A depth resolution or sensitivity to density gradients of 0.2 mg/cm 2 was obtained. These detailed specimen images can be obtained with low beam exposures, e.g., in the case of tritium approx. 6 x 10 10 ions/cm 2 must be implanted, which corresponds to an irradiation of approx. 10 pA/cm 2 for 1000 s. The corresponding low radiation doses and minimal heat dissipation render RIM well suited for biological specimens. In comparison to light microscopy, RIM features enhanced microscopic capabilities as it can handle objects that are at the same time opaque to light, thick (up to tens of microns), and fragile

  6. Hidden ion population: Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.C.; Chappell, C.R.; Gallagher, D.L.; Green, J.L.; Gurnett, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Satellite potentials in the outer plasmasphere range from near zero to +5 to +10 V. Under such conditions ion measurements may not include the low energy core of the plasma population. In eclipse, the photoelectron current drops to zero, and the spacecraft potential can drop to near zero volts. In regions where the ambient plasma density is below 100 cm -3 , previously unobserved portions of the ambient plasma distribution function can become visible in eclipse. A survey of the data obtained from the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) on Dynamics Explorer 1 shows that the RIMS detector generally measured the isotropic background in both sunlight and eclipse in the plasma-sphere. Absolute density measurements for the ''hidden'' ion population are obtained for the first time using the plasma wave instrument observations of the upper hybrid resonance. Agreement in total density is found in sunlight and eclipse measurements at densities above 80 cm -3 . In eclipse, agreement is found at densities as low as 20 cm -3 . The isotropic plasma composition is primarily H + , with approx.10% He + , and 0.1 to 1.0% O + . A low energy field-aligned ion population appears in eclipse measurements outside the plasmasphere, which is obscured in sunlight. These field-aligned ions can be interpreted as field-aligned flows with densities of a few particles per cubic centimeter, flowing at 5-20 km/s. The problem in measuring these field-aligned flows in sunlight is the masking of the high energy tail of the field-aligned distribution by the isotropic background. Effective measurement of the core of the magnetospheric plasma distribution awaits satellites with active means of controlling the satellite potential

  7. Negative ion sources for tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    1980-08-01

    Four kinds of negative ion sources (direct extraction Duoplasmatron ion source, radial extraction Penniing ion source, lithium charge exchange ion source and Middleton-type sputter ion source) have been installed in the JAERI tandem accelerator. The ion sources can generate many negative ions ranging from Hydrogen to Uranium with the exception of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Discussions presented in this report include mechanisms of negative ion formation, electron affinity and stability of negative ions, performance of the ion sources and materials used for negative ion production. Finally, the author will discuss difficult problems to be overcome in order to get any negative ion sufficiently. (author)

  8. Low-altitude ion heating with downflowing and upflowing ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.; James, G.; Miles, D.; Cogger, L. L.; Perry, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanisms that energize ions at the initial stage of ion upflow are still not well understood. We statistically investigate ionospheric ion energization and field-aligned motion at very low altitudes (330-730 km) using simultaneous plasma, magnetic field, wave electric field and optical data from the e-POP satellite. The high-time-resolution (10 ms) dataset enables us to study the micro-structures of ion heating and field-aligned ion motion. The ion temperature and field-aligned bulk flow velocity are derived from 2-D ion distribution functions measured by the SEI instrument. From March 2015 to March 2016, we've found 17 orbits (in total 24 ion heating periods) with clear ion heating signatures passing across the dayside cleft or the nightside auroral regions. Most of these events have consistent ion heating and flow velocity characteristics observed from both the SEI and IRM instruments. The perpendicular ion temperature goes up to 4.5 eV within a 2 km-wide region in some cases, in which the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) sees broadband extremely low frequency (BBELF) waves, demonstrating significant wave-ion heating down to as low as 350 km. The e-POP Fast Auroral Imager (FAI) and Magnetic Field (MGF) instruments show that many events are associated with active aurora and are within downward current regions. Contrary to what would be expected from mirror-force acceleration of heated ions, the majority of these heating events (17 out of 24) are associated with the core ion downflow rather than upflow. These statistical results provide us with new sights into ion heating and field-aligned flow processes at very low altitudes.

  9. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter is reported. The aim of the symposium is to evidence another aspect of heavy ions research at the interplay between atomic and solid state physics. The scope of the Symposium includes the fundamental aspects of heavy ion excitation, ionization, charge exchange, energy loss, energy dissipation and relaxation in solids, channeling and coherent effects in crystals and ion induced modifications of materials

  10. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  11. Nanopatterning by Swift Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Skupinski, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Today, the dominating way of patterning nanosystems is by irradiation-based lithography (e-beam, DUV, EUV, and ions). Compared to the other irradiations, ion tracks created by swift heavy ions in matter give the highest contrast, and its inelastic scattering facilitate minute widening and high aspect ratios (up to several thousands). Combining this with high resolution masks it may have potential as lithography technology for nanotechnology. Even if this ‘ion track lithography’ would not give...

  12. Numerical simulation of ion temperature gradient driven modes in the presence of ion-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.

    1990-08-01

    Ion temperature gradient driven modes in the presence of ion-ion collisions in a toroidal geometry with trapped ions have been studied by using a 1 2/2 d linearized gyro-kinetic particle simulation code in the electrostatic limit. The purpose of the investigation is to try to understand the physics of flat density discharges, in order to test the marginal stability hypothesis. Results giving threshold conditions of L Ti /R 0 , an upper bound on k χ , and linear growth rates and mode frequencies over all wavelengths for the collisionless ion temperature gradient driven modes are obtained. The behavior of ion temperature gradient driven instabilities in the transition from slab to toroidal geometry, with trapped ions, is shown. A Monte Carlo scheme for the inclusion of ion-ion collisions, in which ions can undergo Coulomb collisional dynamical friction, velocity space diffusion and random walk of guiding centers, has been constructed. The effects of ion-ion collisions on the long wave length limit of the ion modes is discussed. 44 refs., 12 figs

  13. Ion temperature via laser scattering on ion Bernstein waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurden, G.A.; Ono, M.; Wong, K.L.

    1981-10-01

    Hydrogen ion temperature has been measured in a warm toroidal plasma with externally launched ion Bernstein waves detected by heterodyne CO 2 laser scattering. Radial scanning of the laser beam allows precise determination of k/sub perpendicular to/ for the finite ion Larmor radius wave (ω approx. less than or equal to 2Ω/sub i/). Knowledge of the magnetic field strength and ion concentration then give a radially resolved ion temperature from the dispersion relation. Probe measurements and Doppler broadening of ArII 4806A give excellent agreement

  14. Ion Accelerator Merges Several Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.

    1984-01-01

    Intense ion beam formed by merging multiple ion beamlets into one concentrated beam. Beamlet holes in graphite screen and focusing grids arranged in hexagonal pattern. Merged beam passes through single hole in each of aluminum accelerator and decelerator grids. Ion extraction efficiency, beam intensity, and focusing improved.

  15. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  16. Production of highly ionized recoil ions in heavy ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Be, S.H.; Shibata, H.; Kase, M.; Kambara, T.; Kumagai, H.; Kohno, I.

    1985-01-01

    The production mechanisms of highly ionized recoil ions in energetic, highly charged heavy ion impact are compared with those in photon and electron impact. In addition to the innershell ionization processes which are important in photon and electron impact, the electron transfer processes are found to play a key role in heavy ion impact. In molecular targets are also observed highly ionized monoatomic ions which are believed to be produced through production of highly ionized molecular ions followed by prompt dissociation. The observed N 6+ ions produced in 1.05MeV/amu Ar 12+ ions on N 2 molecules are produced through, for example, N 2 12+ *→N 6+ +N 6+ process. (author)

  17. Tissue molecular ion imaging by gold cluster ion bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, David; Halgand, Fréderic; Brunelle, Alain; Kersting, Reinhard; Tallarek, Elke; Hagenhoff, Birgit; Laprévote, Olivier

    2004-03-15

    The use of gold cluster focused ion beams produced by a liquid metal ion gun in a TOF-SIMS mass spectrometer is shown to dramatically enhance secondary ion emission of phospholipids and peptides. The method has been successfully tested with cells grown onto plastic slips and with mouse brain slices, without any treatment of the samples. Very reliable time-of-flight mass spectra are acquired with a low primary ion dose of a few 10(7) ions, and high lateral resolution molecular ion images are obtained for heavy ions of great biological interest. This approach offers new opportunities in pharmacological and biological research fields by localizing compounds of interest such as drugs or metabolites in tissues.

  18. A laser ablation ion source for the FRS ion catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Ebert, Jens; Petrick, Martin; Reiter, Pascal [Justus Liebig Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Dickel, Timo; Geissel, Hans; Plass, Wolfgang; Scheidenberger, Christoph [Justus Liebig Universitaet Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Purushothamen, Sivaji [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The FRS Ion Catcher was developed to serve as test bench for the low energy branch of the Super FRS to slow down exotic nuclei and prepare them for further measurements/ experiments. It consists of a cryogenic stopping cell to thermalise the ions, a diagnostic unit for stopping cell characterisation and various radiofrequency quadrupole structures to guide the ions to the Multiple-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for mass measurements, α spectroscopy and isobar separation. To characterise the extraction times of the stopping cell, which is one of the main performance parameters of such a cell, a laser ablation ion source has been develped and tested. This ion source provides a sharply defined starting point of the ions for the extraction time measurement. In the future this source will provide reference ions to calibrate the mass spectrometer for accurate mass measurements.

  19. Ion microtomography using ion time-of-flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.L.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Proctor, I.D.; Pontau, A.E.; Olona, G.T.; Felter, T.E.; Morse, D.H.; Hess, B.V.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed and are in the process of testing an ion time-of-flight (TOF) detector system for use in our ion microtomography measurements. Using TOF, ion energy is determined by measurement of the ion's flight time over a certain path length. For ion microtomography, the principle advantage of TOF analysis is that ion count rates of several hundred thousand counts per second can be achieved as compared to a limit of about ten thousand ions per second when using a solid-state silicon surface barrier detector and associated electronics. This greater than 10 fold increase in count rate correspondingly shortens sample analysis time or increases the amount of data that can be collected on a given sample. Details of the system and progress to date are described

  20. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  1. Ion bipolar junction transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated.

  2. Trapped Ion Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    Qubits can be encoded in clock states of trapped ions. These states are well isolated from the environment resulting in long coherence times [1] while enabling efficient high-fidelity qubit interactions mediated by the Coulomb coupled motion of the ions in the trap. Quantum states can be prepared with high fidelity and measured efficiently using fluorescence detection. State preparation and detection with 99.93% fidelity have been realized in multiple systems [1,2]. Single qubit gates have been demonstrated below rigorous fault-tolerance thresholds [1,3]. Two qubit gates have been realized with more than 99.9% fidelity [4,5]. Quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on systems of 5 to 15 qubits [6–8].

  3. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  4. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

    2004-06-16

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  5. Ion funnel device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Harrer, Marques B.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-11-21

    An ion funnel device is disclosed. A first pair of electrodes is positioned in a first direction. A second pair of electrodes is positioned in a second direction. The device includes an RF voltage source and a DC voltage source. A RF voltage with a superimposed DC voltage gradient is applied to the first pair of electrodes, and a DC voltage gradient is applied to the second pair of electrodes.

  6. Ion optics for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, H.A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is given of ion-optic devices used in particle accelerators, including electrostatic lenses, magnetic quadrupoles, and deflecting magnets. Tube focusing in dc accelerators is also treated, and a novel scheme for shaping the electrodes to produce strong focusing is described. The concepts of emittance (phase space) and emittance conservation are briefly discussed. Chromatic and spatial aberrations are introduced, and it is shown how they can be calculated and sometimes substantially reduced. Some examples are given

  7. Heavy ion fusion III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.; Max, C.; Perkins, F.; Rosenbluth, M.

    1987-03-01

    This report updates Heavy Ion Fusion, JSR-82-302, dated January, 1983. During the last four years, program management and direction has been changed and the overall Inertial Confinement Program has been reviewed. This report therefore concentrates on accelerator physics issues, how the program has addressed those issues during the last four years, and how it will be addressing them in the future. 8 refs., 3 figs

  8. Collective Ion Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    flash x- _ ray sources may require, for maximum x-ray yield. t Pulsed-power systems using Van de Graaff generators are also in use. They are less common... generation and collective ion acceleration. A more recent effort has been initi- II ated to investigate proton acceleration in Induction Linacs. The...original contract supported the study of microwave generation using slow wave structures and study of a free electron laser configuration. About 1 alfway

  9. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  10. Cancer therapy with ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1993-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (Carbon, Oxygen, Neon) has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. The rationale for this new radiotherapy, the accelerators and the beam delivery systems needed are presented in this paper. (orig.)

  11. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroubek, Z.; Zavadil, J.; Kubec, F.

    1977-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy is one of the modern methods suitable for the analysis of thin films and solid state surfaces. The method is capable of providing the compositional information with a depth resolution below 0.1 μm and a sensitivity of the order of 10 -3 ppm for some impurities. The review article contains a description of the method, a list of typical applications and a short account of relevant theories. (author)

  12. Small size ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyranski, R.; Kiliszek, Cz.R.; Marks, J.; Sobolewski, A.; Magielko, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some designs of the two versions ion pumps and their range operation for various magnetic fields. The first version is made with different cell size in the anode element and titanium cathode operating in magnetic field from 600 to 650 Gs and the second version with the same anode element but differential Ti/Ta cathode working in magnetic field above 1200 Gs

  13. Fluorine negative ion detachment kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R. R.; Miller, W. J.; Gould, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    A study of the rate of F(-) detachment by O and H atoms via the reactions F(-) + O yields FO + e and F(-) + H yields FH+ e was undertaken using a drift tube to produce F(-) ions at various drift velocities and therefore different ion temperatures. Preliminary mobility measurements of F(-) ions in Ar were made, indicating that ion temperatures in the 300 K to 5000 K range could be achieved; however due to numerous difficulties experienced in obtaining a reliable F(-) ion source, the study could not be completed.

  14. Ion sources for medical accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, W. A.; Chu, W. T.; Leung, K. N.

    1998-02-01

    Advanced injector systems for proton synchrotrons and accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy systems are being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Multicusp ion sources, particularly those driven by radio frequency, have been tested for these applications. The use of a radio frequency induction discharge provides clean, reliable, and long-life source operation. It has been demonstrated that the multicusp ion source can provide good-quality positive hydrogen ion beams with a monatomic ion fraction higher than 90%. The extractable ion current densities from this type of source can meet the injector requirements for both proton synchrotron and accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy projects.

  15. Recent progress in ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osher, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is intended to survey recent developments in ion sources, particularly work reported at the ''Symposium on Ion Sources and the Formation of Ion Beams'' held in Berkeley in October 1974. The approach here will be to subdivide this topic into three main areas; briefly list and discuss notable progress in each; and finally add some additional detail through a few specific, selected examples. The major items of progress discussed include development of large-area plasma surfaces for multiple- aperture ion sources, a significant increase in available negative-ion current densities, and improved general agreement between extraction electrode design and performance. (U.S.)

  16. High energy ion microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobiling, R.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis with high energy ion beams can be applied to microscopic samples or substructures of complex specimens by using nuclear or proton microprobes. Focusing of high energy ion beams requires specially designed collimators and lens systems. At present, beam diameters of 1 μm are obtained. The lateral resolution of the instruments, however, is not limited to this 1 μm. Consequently microprobe analysis with ion beams in favourable cases can provide better analytical possibilities and lateral resolution as compared with electron microprobes. Due to aberrations an improvement of beam diameters to less than 0.5-1 μm requires compensation of at least the chromatic aberration. The most important fields of application are mineralogy, materials science and biology. With nuclear reactions and PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) the whole periodic table can be measured with detection limits down to the ppm level (weight fraction). The virtual lack of beam broadening by scattering in samples of a few μm thickness makes a kind of microscopic chemical tomography possible. (orig.)

  17. Novel laser ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, P; Kugler, H; Lisi, N; Scrivens, R; Rodríguez, F V; Düsterer, S; Sauerbrey, R; Schillinger, H; Theobald, W; Veisz, L; Tisch, J W G; Smith, R A

    2000-01-01

    Development in the field of high-power laser systems with repetition rates of several Hz and energies of few joules is highly active and opening, giving new possibilities for the design of laser ions sources. Preliminary investigations on the use of four different laser and target configurations are presented: (1) A small CO/sub 2/ laser (100 mJ, 10.6 mu m) focused onto a polyethylene target to produce C ions at 1 Hz repetition rate (CERN). (2) An excimer XeCl laser (6 J, 308 nm) focused onto solid targets (Frascati). (3) A femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser (250 mJ, 800 nm) directed onto a solid targets (Jena). (4) A picosecond Nd: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (0.3 J, 532 nm) focused into a dense medium of atomic clusters and onto solid targets (London). The preliminary experimental results and the most promising schemes will be discussed with respect to the scaling of the production of high numbers of highly charged ions. Different lasers are compared in terms of current density at 1 m distance for each charge state...

  18. Ion channeling revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corona, Aldo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nguyen, Anh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  19. Adiabatic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of the compression of collisionless ion rings in an increasing external magnetic field, B/sub e/ = zB/sub e/(t), by numerically implementing a previously developed kinetic theory of ring compression. The theory is general in that there is no limitation on the ring geometry or the compression ratio, lambdaequivalentB/sub e/ (final)/B/sub e/ (initial)> or =1. However, the motion of a single particle in an equilibrium is assumed to be completely characterized by its energy H and canonical angular momentum P/sub theta/ with the absence of a third constant of the motion. The present computational work assumes that plasma currents are negligible, as is appropriate for a low-temperature collisional plasma. For a variety of initial ring geometries and initial distribution functions (having a single value of P/sub theta/), it is found that the parameters for ''fat'', small aspect ratio rings follow general scaling laws over a large range of compression ratios, 1 3 : The ring radius varies as lambda/sup -1/2/; the average single particle energy as lambda/sup 0.72/; the root mean square energy spread as lambda/sup 1.1/; and the total current as lambda/sup 0.79/. The field reversal parameter is found to saturate at values typically between 2 and 3. For large compression ratios the current density is found to ''hollow out''. This hollowing tends to improve the interchange stability of an embedded low β plasma. The implications of these scaling laws for fusion reactor systems are discussed

  20. Ion Acceleration Inside Foreshock Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Terry Z.; Lu, San; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Lin, Yu; Wang, X. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Recent observations upstream of Earth's bow shock have revealed that foreshock transients can not only accelerate solar wind ions by reflection at their upstream boundaries but may also accelerate ions inside them. Evidence for the latter comes from comparisons of ion spectra inside and outside the cores, and from evidence of leakage of suprathermal ions from the cores. However, definite evidence for, and the physics of, ion acceleration in the foreshock transients are still open questions. Using case studies of foreshock transients from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations, we reveal an ion acceleration mechanism in foreshock transients that is applicable to 25% of the transients. The ion energy flux is enhanced between several keV to tens of keV in the cores. We show that these energetic ions are reflected at the earthward moving boundary of foreshock transients, are accelerated through partial gyration along the convection electric field, and can leak out both upstream and downstream of the foreshock transients. Using ions moving self-consistently with a generic 3-D global hybrid simulation of a foreshock transient, we confirm this physical picture of ion acceleration and leakage. These accelerated ions could be further accelerated at the local bow shock and repopulate the foreshock, increasing the efficacy of solar wind-magnetosphere interactions.

  1. Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, B

    2013-01-01

    The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

  2. Experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation reports an experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection, which is the annihilation and topological rearrangement of magnetic flux in a conductive plasma. Reconnection is invoked often to explain particle heating and acceleration in both laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. However, a simultaneous account of reconnection and its associated energy conversion has been elusive due to the extreme inaccessibility of reconnection events, e.g. in the solar corona, the Earth's magnetosphere, or in fusion research plasmas. Experiments for this work were conducted on MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), which creates a plasma environment allowing the reconnection process to be isolated, reproduced, and diagnosed in detail. Key findings of this work are the identification of local ion heating during magnetic reconnection and the determination that non-classical effects must provide the heating mechanism. Measured ion flows are sub-Alfvenic and can provide only slight viscous heating, and classical ion-electron interactions can be neglected due to the very long energy equipartition time. The plasma resistivity in the reconnection layer is seen to be enhanced over the classical value, and the ion heating is observed to scale with the enhancement factor, suggesting a relationship between the magnetic energy dissipation mechanism and the ion heating mechanism. The observation of non-classical ion heating during reconnection has significant implications for understanding the role played by non-classical dissipation mechanisms in generating fast reconnection. The findings are relevant for many areas of space and laboratory plasma research, a prime example being the currently unsolved problem of solar coronal heating. In the process of performing this work, local measurements of ion temperature and flows in a well-characterized reconnection layer were obtained for the first time in either laboratory or observational

  3. Experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.C.

    2000-01-28

    This dissertation reports an experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection, which is the annihilation and topological rearrangement of magnetic flux in a conductive plasma. Reconnection is invoked often to explain particle heating and acceleration in both laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. However, a simultaneous account of reconnection and its associated energy conversion has been elusive due to the extreme inaccessibility of reconnection events, e.g. in the solar corona, the Earth's magnetosphere, or in fusion research plasmas. Experiments for this work were conducted on MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), which creates a plasma environment allowing the reconnection process to be isolated, reproduced, and diagnosed in detail. Key findings of this work are the identification of local ion heating during magnetic reconnection and the determination that non-classical effects must provide the heating mechanism. Measured ion flows are sub-Alfvenic and can provide only slight viscous heating, and classical ion-electron interactions can be neglected due to the very long energy equipartition time. The plasma resistivity in the reconnection layer is seen to be enhanced over the classical value, and the ion heating is observed to scale with the enhancement factor, suggesting a relationship between the magnetic energy dissipation mechanism and the ion heating mechanism. The observation of non-classical ion heating during reconnection has significant implications for understanding the role played by non-classical dissipation mechanisms in generating fast reconnection. The findings are relevant for many areas of space and laboratory plasma research, a prime example being the currently unsolved problem of solar coronal heating. In the process of performing this work, local measurements of ion temperature and flows in a well-characterized reconnection layer were obtained for the first time in either laboratory or observational

  4. A review of polarized ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmor, P.W.

    1995-06-01

    The two main types of polarized ion sources in use on accelerators today are the Atomic Beam Polarized Ion Source (ABIS) source and the Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS). Both types can provide beams of nuclearly polarized light ions which are either positively or negatively charged. Heavy ion polarized ion sources for accelerators are being developed. (author). 35 refs., 1 tab

  5. ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

    2007-08-26

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  6. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  7. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  8. Positive ion irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Many questions about the mechanisms of the response of cells to ionizing radiation can best be investigated using monoenergetic heavy charged particle beams. Questions of the role of different types of damage in the LET effect, for example, are being answered by comparing repair kinetics for damage induced by electrons with that produced by helium ions. However, as the models become more sophicated, the differences between models can be detected only with more precise measurements, or by combining high- and low-LET irradiations in split-dose experiments. The design of the authors present cell irradiation beam line has limited the authors to irradiating cells in a partial vacuum. A new way to mount the dishes and bring the beam to the cells was required. Several means of irradiating cells in mylar-bottom dishes have been used at other laboratories. For example at the RARAF Facility, the dual ion experiments are done with the dish bottom serving as the beam exit window but the cells are in a partial vacuum to prevent breaking the window. These researchers have chosen instead to use the dish bottom as the beam window and to irradiate the entire dish in a single exposure. A special, very fast pumping system will be installed at the end of the beam line. This system will make it possible to irradiate cells within two minutes of installing them in the irradiation chamber. In this way, the interaction of electron and ion-induced damage in Chlamydomonas can be studied with time between doses as short as 5 minutes

  9. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  10. Nanostructuring by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valbusa, U.; Boragno, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.

    2003-01-01

    In metals, the surface curvature dependence of the sputtering yield and the presence of an extra energy barrier whenever diffusing adatoms try to descend step edges, produce a similar surface instability, which builds up regular patterns. By tuning the competition between these two mechanisms, it is possible to create self-organized structures of the size of few nanometers. Height, lateral distance and order of the structures change with the deposition parameters like ion energy, dose, incident angle and substrate temperature. The paper offers an overview of the experiments carried out and foresees possible applications of these results in the area of material science

  11. Ion implantation for semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey-Morgan, T.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Over the past two decades, thousands of particle accelerators have been used to implant foreign atoms like boron, phosphorus and arsenic into silicon crystal wafers to produce special embedded layers for manufacturing semiconductor devices. Depending on the device required, the atomic species, the depth of implant and doping levels are the main parameters for the implantation process; the selection and parameter control is totally automated. The depth of the implant, usually less than 1 micron, is determined by the ion energy, which can be varied between 2 and 600 keV. The ion beam is extracted from a Freeman or Bernas type ion source and accelerated to 60 keV before mass analysis. For higher beam energies postacceleration is applied up to 200 keV and even higher energies can be achieved by mass selecting multiplycharged ions, but with a corresponding reduction in beam output. Depending on the device to be manufactured, doping levels can range from 10 10 to 10 15 atoms/cm 2 and are controlled by implanter beam currents in the range up to 30mA; continuous process monitoring ensures uniformity across the wafer of better than 1 % . As semiconductor devices get smaller, additional sophistication is required in the design of the implanter. The silicon wafers charge electrically during implantation and this charge must be dissipated continuously to reduce the electrical stress in the device and avoid destructive electrical breakdown. Electron flood guns produce low energy electrons (below 10 electronvolts) to neutralize positive charge buildup and implanter design must ensure minimum contamination by other isotopic species and ensure low internal sputter rates. The pace of technology in the semiconductor industry is such that implanters are being built now for 256 Megabit circuits but which are only likely to be widely available five years from now. Several specialist companies manufacture implanter systems, each costing around US$5 million, depending on the

  12. Heavy ion beams from the new Hungarian ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biri, S.; Valek, A.; Ditroi, F.; Koivisto, H.; Arje, J.; Stiebing, K.; Schmidt, L.

    1998-01-01

    The first beams of highly charged ions in Hungary were obtained in fall of 1996. The new 14.5 GHz ECR ion source of ATOMKI produced beams of multiply charged ions with remarkable intensities at first experiments. Since then, numerous further developments were carried out. An external electrondonor electrode drastically increased the plasma density and, consequently, the intensity of highly charged ions. These upgrades concentrated mainly on beams from gaseous elements and were carried out by the ECRIS team of ATOMKI. Another series of experiments - ionising from solids - however, was done in the framework of an international collaboration. The first metal ion beam has been extracted from the ECRIS in November 1997 using the known method of Metal Ions from Volatile Compounds (MIVOC). The possibility to put the MIVOC chamber inside the ion source was also tested and the dosing regulation problem of metal vapours inside the ion source was solved. As a result, beams of more than 10 μA of highly charged Fe and Ni ions were produced. (author)

  13. Sympathetic cooling of ions in a hybrid atom ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeltkemeier, Bastian

    2016-10-27

    In this thesis the dynamics of a trapped ion immersed in a spatially localized buffer gas is investigated. For a homogeneous buffer gas, the ion's energy distribution reaches a stable equilibrium only if the mass of the buffer gas atoms is below a critical value. This limitation can be overcome by using multipole traps in combination and/or a spatially confined buffer gas. Using a generalized model for elastic collisions of the ion with the buffer gas atoms, the ion's energy distribution is numerically determined for arbitrary buffer gas distributions and trap parameters. Three regimes characterized by the respective analytic form of the ion's equilibrium energy distribution are found. One of these is a novel regime at large atom-to-ion mass ratios where the final ion temperature can tuned by adiabatically decreasing the spatial extension of the buffer gas and the effective ion trap depth (forced sympathetic cooling). The second part of the thesis presents a hybrid atom ion trap designed for sympathetic cooling of hydroxide anions. In this hybrid trap the anions are immersed in a cloud of laser cooled rubidium atoms. The translational and rovibrational temperatures of the anions is probed by photodetachment tomography and spectroscopy which shows the first ever indication of sympathetic cooling of anions by laser cooled atoms.

  14. Production of negative hydrogen ions from accelerated cluster ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.W.; Falter, H.D.; Hagena, O.F.; Henkes, W.; Klingelhoefer, R.; Moser, H.O.; Obert, W.; Poth, I.

    1976-11-01

    Cluster ion acceleration is a method particularly well suited to produce neutral beams of high particle current density at energies of the order of 1 keV/atom. Since this is the energy required for converting hydrogen atoms or molecules into negative ions in a cesium vapour cell, it is proposed to use cluster ions for the production of negative ion beams of high current density. The system is envisaged as a tandem accelerator with a terminal voltage of 1 MV. (orig.) [de

  15. A novel planar ion funnel design for miniature ion optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, A.; Amerom, Friso H. W. van; Short, R. T.

    2014-01-01

    The novel planar ion funnel (PIF) design presented in this article emphasizes simple fabrication, assembly, and operation, making it amenable to extreme miniaturization. Simulations performed in SIMION 8.0 indicate that ion focusing can be achieved by using a gradient of electrostatic potentials on concentric metal rings in a plane. A prototype was fabricated on a 35 × 35 mm custom-designed printed circuit board (PCB) with a center hole for ions to pass through and a series of concentric circular metal rings of increasing diameter on the front side of the PCB. Metal vias on the PCB electrically connected each metal ring to a resistive potential divider that was soldered on the back of the PCB. The PIF was tested at 5.5 × 10 −6 Torr in a vacuum test setup that was equipped with a broad-beam ion source on the front and a micro channel plate (MCP) ion detector on the back of the PIF. The ion current recorded on the MCP anode during testing indicated a 23× increase in the ion transmission through the PIF when electric potentials were applied to the rings. These preliminary results demonstrate the functionality of a 2D ion funnel design with a much smaller footprint and simpler driving electronics than conventional 3D ion funnels. Future directions to improve the design and a possible micromachining approach to fabrication are discussed in the conclusions

  16. Note: Ion source design for ion trap systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, J. R.; Quevedo, M.; Gnade, B.; Vasselli, J.

    2013-06-01

    A small plasma (glow discharge) based ion source and circuit are described in this work. The ion source works by producing a high voltage pulsed discharge between two electrodes in a pressure range of 50-100 mTorr. A third mesh electrode is used for ion extraction. The electrodes are small stainless steel screws mounted in a MACOR ionization chamber in a linear arrangement. The electrode arrangement is driven by a circuit, design for low power operation. This design is a proof of concept intended for applications on small cylindrical ion traps.

  17. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 5 applications of ion trapping devices

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    Examines ion/neutral and ion/ion reactions, ion spectroscopy, and the structural characterization of proteins and peptides using quadropole ion trap mass spectrometry, Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

  18. The Novel SCN''- Ion-selective Electrode Based on the 1-Benzyl-3-(4-nitrophenyl) thio-urea Ionophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kang, Dong Hyeon; Choe, Ju Eun; You, Jung Min; Go, Min Jeong; Lee, Jung Seong; Jeon, Seung Won [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    A potentiometric sensor based on the 1-benzyl-3-(4-nitrophenyl) thio-urea was synthesized and tested as an ionophore in PVC based membrane sensor towards SCN - ions. This membrane exhibits a linear stable response over a wide concentration range (1.0 × 10''-5 to 1.0 × 10''-2 M) with a slope of -59.2 mV/dec., a detection limit of log[SCN''- ] = -5.05, and a selectivity coefficient for thiocyanate against perchlorate anion of logK{sub s}cn''pot = -0.133. The selectivity series of the membrane is as follows: SCN''- > ClO{sub 4}''- > I''- >NO{sub 3}''- >HSO{sub 3}''- > Cl''-HSO{sub '}'-''4 > F''- > CH{sub 3}COO''- > HCO''-''3 > Br''- > H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}''- > SO{sub 3}''-''2 > SO{sub 4}''-''2 > CO{sub 3}''-''2. The proposed electrode showed good selectivity and a good response for the SCN''- ion over a wide variety of other anions in pH 6.0 buffer solutions and has a fast response time of about < 5s.. The influences of the membrane by pH, ionophore, and plasticizer were studied.

  19. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  20. Air ions and aerosol science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammet, H.

    1996-01-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4 endash 1.8 nm. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Ion climate and radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busbarna, L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristic values of radon concentration in natural ion climate and in open air were compared and the effect of artificially produced negative ion excess on the radon concentration of air was studied. The results show that the radon concentration measurable at the rise of negative ion excess is smaller than that in the case of natural equilibrium. This effect can be utilized lowering the background of the scintillation chambers, thus increasing their sensitivity. The negative ions of the artificial ion climate lower radon concentration in closed space. The question arises whether only the ion climate is responsible for the effects on the organism and on the nervous system or the radon concentration of the air also contributes to them. (author)

  2. Ion implantation: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, R.N.; Subramanyam, K.

    1975-10-01

    Ion implantation is a technique for introducing controlled amounts of dopants into target substrates, and has been successfully used for the manufacture of silicon semiconductor devices. Ion implantation is superior to other methods of doping such as thermal diffusion and epitaxy, in view of its advantages such as high degree of control, flexibility, and amenability to automation. This annotated bibliography of 416 references consists of journal articles, books, and conference papers in English and foreign languages published during 1973-74, on all aspects of ion implantation including range distribution and concentration profile, channeling, radiation damage and annealing, compound semiconductors, structural and electrical characterization, applications, equipment and ion sources. Earlier bibliographies on ion implantation, and national and international conferences in which papers on ion implantation were presented have also been listed separately

  3. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  4. Measurement of asymmetric optical pumping of ions accelerating in a magnetic-field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuan; Scime, Earl; Miah, Mahmood; Cohen, Samuel; Skiff, Frederick

    2004-01-01

    We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic-field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities

  5. Measurement of Asymmetric Optical Pumping of Ions Accelerating in a Magnetic-field Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuan Sun; Earl Scime; Mahmood Miah; Samuel Cohen; Frederick Skiff

    2004-10-28

    We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities.

  6. Change in stoichiometry of thin films of palladium chloride during ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.; Soerensen, G.; Williams, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of palladium chloride thin films to the metallic state by Ne + ion bombardment has been observed and investigated by 2 MeV He + backscattering. Substantial, but not complete, loss of chlorine has been observed from 50 keV to 2 MeV. Possible explanations for this behaviour are examined in terms of ion-beam-induced lattice dissociation and gas outdiffusion and trapping. The important implications of such processes for near-surface analysis by ion beam techniques are emphasized. (Auth.)

  7. Rectangular ion funnel: a new ion funnel interface for structures for lossless ion manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Webb, Ian K; Prost, Spencer A; Harrer, Marques B; Norheim, Randolph V; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D

    2015-01-06

    Structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) have recently demonstrated the ability for near lossless ion focusing, transfer, and trapping in subatmospheric pressure regions. While lossless ion manipulations are advantageously applied to the applications of ion mobility separations and gas phase reactions, ion introduction through ring electrode ion funnels or more conventional ion optics to SLIM can involve discontinuities in electric fields or other perturbations that result in ion losses. In this work, we developed and investigated a new funnel design that aims to seamlessly couple to SLIM at the funnel exit. This rectangular ion funnel (RIF) was initially evaluated by ion simulations, fabricated utilizing printed circuit board technology, and tested experimentally. The RIF was integrated to a SLIM-time of flight (TOF) MS system, and the operating parameters, including RF, DC bias of the RIF electrodes, and electric fields for effectively interfacing with a SLIM, were characterized. The RIF provided a 2-fold sensitivity increase without significant discrimination over a wide m/z range and well matched to that of SLIM, along with greatly improved SLIM operational stability.

  8. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the(sup 7)Be((gamma))(sup 8)B experiment. Most of the runs used(sup 1)H(sup+) at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used(sup 2)H(sup+) at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used(sup 4)He(sup+) at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  9. SUERC AMS ion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, C.; Anastasi, P. A. F.; Dougans, A.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.; Kitchen, R.; Klody, G.; Schnabel, C.; Sundquist, M.; Vanner, K.; Xu, S.

    2007-06-01

    In a short time Be, C, Al, Cl, Ca and I accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) have been established on the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) 5 MV pelletron system at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC). While summarising the present performance of the system, this report will focus on the details of ion detection, which sample materials are used and the analytical procedures employed for each individual species during routine analysis. All rare isotope detection is with a single flexible detector and ion event analysis system, but switching of analysed species typically requires a detector reconfiguration. Configurations for routine 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca and 129I detection have been established and will be presented here. Notably, there has proven to be sufficient suppression of the isobaric interferences of 36Cl and 41Ca in the 5+ charge state using an argon gas stripper at a terminal voltage of 5.0 MV to allow for routine analysis of these isotopes.

  10. Binding energy of protonium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad Abdel-Raouf, Mohamed

    2009-11-01

    The goal of the present work is to calculate the binding energy of the protonium ions bar PPe+ and bar PPe- using Rayleigh- Ritz variational method. It is indicated that an employment of 21 components of the trial wavefunction yields -0.08793 eV as the ground state energy of these ions. Our result agrees quite well with recently obtained results based on elaborate Monte Carlo approximations. It confirms the possible formation of these ions in laboratory.

  11. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  12. Multi-ion Multi-fluid Simulations of the Effects of Pick-up Ions on the Global Structure of the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambic, C. J.; Opher, M.; Zieger, B.; Michael, A.; Kornbleuth, M. Z.; Toth, G.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first 3D MHD multi-ion, multi-fluid simulations including pick-up ions as a separate fluid on the global structure of the heliosphere. Pick-up ions, formed by charge exchange between the solar wind and local interstellar medium, are thought to account for the missing thermal energy measured by Voyager 2 at the crossing of the Termination Shock. By treating the pick-up ions as a separate fluid (with an isotropic distribution) from the solar wind thermal plasma, we are able to isolate the properties of the suprathermal pick-up ion plasma from that of the thermal solar wind. In addition to the two charged ion fluids, we include four neutral fluids which interact via charge exchange with the pick-up ion plasma. We show that pick-up ions are dynamically important in the outer heliosphere, thinning and heating the heliosheath. Since the neutral fluids are imprinted with the properties of the plasma they are born from, this work has implications for the Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) maps of the global heliosphere. We discuss briefly the effects on the global ENA maps of the heliosphere in addition to measurements along the Voyager 1 and 2 trajectories.

  13. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, LG.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules are discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to hot molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules (electron affinity), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies

  14. Ion injector for electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, M.T.; Tsygikalo, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Basing on the analysis of formulae connecting beam parameters at the input and output of an electrostatic accelerator, a design of an ion injector for a charge-exchange accelerator is suggested. The distinguishing injector feature is that it contains a preaccelerator with autofocusing of the beam at its output, which provides better matching of ion source and accelerator operating conditions when preserving the conditions of beam autofocusing in the accelerator. Such an injector is a self-contained instrument. It allows control, within certain limits, of ion optics of inlet lenses of the accelerator and preaccelerator during operation when preserving better matching of ion source operation with the accelerator [ru

  15. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  16. Kinetic studies of ion - recombination in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, K.J.; Bhave, R.N.; Cooper, R. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Full text: Subsequent to primary ionisation/excitation and dissociation events in irradiated systems, the medium relaxes by various secondary processes which may also be precursors to lasting chemical and physical changes in the system. Pulse radiolysis techniques can be successfully utilised to directly observe such processes so that kinetic parameters may be determined to subsequently accurately model these processes in irradiated systems. Time resolved microwave absorption techniques on a Febetron 706 pulsed electron beam system have been used to study ion recombination in simple gas systems. The microwave absorption method relies on the mobility of charged species within the system and effectively measures an ac-conductivity of the irradiated medium. The technique has a time resolution of about one nanosecond. The decay of conductivity in irradiated gases over the pressure range 50 to 1500 torr has been measured on time scales from 10 nanoseconds to 10 microseconds. Bulk gas pressure and ion densities were such that measurements yielded recombination coefficients for dimeric rare gas cations with thermal electrons. The recombination rate constant, {alpha}{sub T}, is shown to be both independent and dependent on the total pressure in the system ({alpha}{sub T} = {alpha}{sub 2} + {alpha}{sub 3} [M]; {alpha}{sub T} has values up to approx 10{sup +14} L. M{sup -1} s{sup -1} ). Total recombination coefficients {alpha}{sub T} have been measured for the noble gases helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon. Measurements have also been made for the simple diatomic molecules nitrogen and hydrogen. All the systems studied, except for argon, show both two and three body processes occurring. The three body or assisted process requires the thermalisation of electrons in the neighborhood of the positive ion prior capture. The two body effect is thought to be a radiative or dissociative process. The mechanistic implications of the pulse radiolysis results will be discussed in

  17. Differential subcellular distribution of ion channels and the diversity of neuronal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, Zoltan

    2012-06-01

    Following the astonishing molecular diversity of voltage-gated ion channels that was revealed in the past few decades, the ion channel repertoire expressed by neurons has been implicated as the major factor governing their functional heterogeneity. Although the molecular structure of ion channels is a key determinant of their biophysical properties, their subcellular distribution and densities on the surface of nerve cells are just as important for fulfilling functional requirements. Recent results obtained with high resolution quantitative localization techniques revealed complex, subcellular compartment-specific distribution patterns of distinct ion channels. Here I suggest that within a given neuron type every ion channel has a unique cell surface distribution pattern, with the functional consequence that this dramatically increases the computational power of nerve cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy and system-size dependence of two- and four-particle nu(2) measurements in heavy-ion collisions at root S-NN=62.4 and 200 GeV and their implications on flow fluctuations and nonflow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alakhverdyants, A. V.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anderson, B. D.; Anson, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, Petr; Chung, Paul; Hajková, O.; Kapitán, Jan; Kushpil, Vasilij; Krus, M.; Pachr, M.; Rusňák, Jan; Šumbera, Michal; Tlustý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2012), s. 014904 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : heavy ion collision * particle production * flow measurement Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.715, year: 2012

  19. Ion-Bombardment of X-Ray Multilayer Coatings - Comparison of Ion Etching and Ion Assisted Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puik, E. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Zeijlemaker, H.; Verhoeven, J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of two forms of ion bombardment treatment on the reflectivity of multilayer X-ray coatings were compared: ion etching of the metal layers, taking place after deposition, and ion bombardment during deposition, the so-called ion assisted deposition. The ion beam was an Ar+ beam of 200 eV,

  20. Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane injury and sugar contents in salt-sensitive rice ( Oryza sativa L. spp. indica ) roots under isoosmotic conditions. ... The accumulation of sugars in PT1 roots may be a primary salt-defense mechanism and may function as an osmotic control. Key words: ...

  1. Adsorption of Acetic Acid, Cadmium ions, Lead ions and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Adsorption of Acetic Acid, Cadmium ions, Lead ions and Iodine Using Activated. Carbon from Waste Wood and Rice Husks. GOODHEAD, T O; DAGDE, K K. Department of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering, Rivers State university of Science and Technology. Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: This paper presents the ...

  2. Ion implantation in Thailand (I) - development of ion implantation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaithong, T.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yotsombat, B.; Boonyawan, D.; Charoennugul, R.; Vichaisirimongkol, P.; Aumkaew, S.; A-No, V.

    1997-01-01

    Ion implantation with its many advantages has been widely and rapidly developed in the world to be a novel material treatment technique, which holds significance in both academic research and technical application. In order to develop and apply the ion implantation technique in the country, Thailand has launched a program to establish an ion beam center at Chiang Mai University. By efforts made during the past six years, the University has completed construction and installation of a 150-kV, research-purpose ion implantation facility, which consists of two beam lines - a 00 non-analyzed line and a 450 analyzed line, and which is being put into regular operation, and a 20-kV, high-current ion implanter based on a duoplasmatron ion source for non-analyzed N-ion beam implantation, and a high-intensity, multi cusp ion source for special implantation purposes. The facilities have formed powerful tools for research, teaching and engineering application, and have played an indispensable role in promoting development of novel techniques in the country

  3. Energy landscapes for mobile ions in ion conducting solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    demonstrated here for a range of metaphosphate and diborate glasses, the complete description of the energy landscape for mobile ions also provides an effective tool for achieving a more detailed understanding of ion transport in glasses. The investigation of time evolutions can be included, if the bond valence analysis is ...

  4. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few. MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply ...

  5. Ion trajectories in atom probe field ion microscopy and gas field ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Castilho, C M C

    1999-01-01

    Trajectories of positive ions produced in a region close to a structured surface, modelled by spherical or spheroidal protrusions and kept at a positive electric potential with respect to a distant screen or detector are calculated. The results are discussed in comparison with similar practical situations produced by field ionization and field evaporation or desorption, such as those occurring in gas field ion sources, field ion microscopy and field desorption spectroscopy. (author)

  6. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed ''Mevva,'' for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes.

  7. Ion energy distributions and sidewall profiles in reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, P.W.; Field, D.; Klemperer, D.F.; Song, Y.P.

    1993-01-01

    We present a brief resume of modelling of ion trajectories in radio frequency discharges of interest in reactive ion etching of semiconductors. The procedures for calculating the energies and angles at which ions strike the substrate surface are described. Examples of ion energy distributions (IEDs) and angular distributions (IADs) are given both for low pressure, collisionless-sheath plasmas, and for higher pressure conditions, where collisions significantly modify ion trajectories. Fast neutral particles formed in the sheath by collision processes are also considered. Computer modelling of the evolution of sidewall profiles during etch processes is discussed, and examples are given of profiles calculated using IED and IAD data both at low and high pressures. (orig.)

  8. Negative ion adsorption by the ion source surface as a factor influencing ion lifetime measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. G.; Khvostenko, O. G.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that negative ions formed in the gas phase through low-energy electron capture by molecules show a scatter in the measured lifetimes of their autodetachment states. In considering this question, it was found that, when using a static sector magnetic mass spectrometer, some of the ions formed on the ionization chamber walls are adsorbed and stabilized there, then joining the registered ion flux and thereby distorting their measured lifetime. Because the number of the adsorbed ions depends on the experimental conditions, their contribution to the total flux is to some extent uncontrollable—hence, the scatter.

  9. Heavy ion beam probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  10. Fast ion atomic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, H.G.; Young, L.; Goodman, L.S.; Somerville, L.P.; Hardis, J.; Neek, D.

    1984-01-01

    We have set up two collinear fast beam/laser excitation systems, one at the Argonne Dynamitron Accelerator (0.5 to 5.0 MeV beam energy) and another at a small electrostatic accelerator (20 to 130 keV). Our objective is to study fine structure, hyperfine structure and QED effects in ions of a few electrons. Initial projects underway include studies of multi-excited transitions in Li/sup -/ and Li/sup 0/, and transitions to high Rydberg states in H/sup 0/ and He/sup 0/. We have simultaneously excited a sodium jet with a laser at the resonance wavelength (D/sub 1/ or D/sub 2/ lines) and a 1-MeV He/sup +/ beam to produce excitation to autoionizing Na and Na/sup +/ states. The Auger electron spectra are compared to spectra obtained without laser excitation, and indicate strong variations in final state populations. 17 references.

  11. Miniature Lightweight Ion Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.

    2010-01-01

    This design offers a larger surface area for pumping of active gases and reduces the mass of the pump by eliminating the additional vacuum enclosure. There are three main components to this ion pump: the cathode and anode pumping elements assembly, the vacuum enclosure (made completely of titanium and used as the cathode and maintained at ground potential) containing the assembly, and the external magnet. These components are generally put in a noble diode (or differential) configuration of the ion pump technology. In the present state of the art, there are two cathodes, one made of titanium and the other of tantalum. The anodes are made up of an array of stainless steel cylinders positioned between the two cathodes. All the elements of the pump are in a vacuum enclosure. After the reduction of pressure in this enclosure to a few microns, a voltage is applied between the cathode and the anode elements. Electrons generated by the ionization are accelerated toward the anodes that are confined in the anode space by the axial magnetic field. For the generation of the axial field along the anode elements, the magnet is designed in a C-configuration and is fabricated from rare earth magnetic materials (Nd-B-Fe or Sm-Co) possessing high energy product values, and the yoke is fabricated from the high permeability material (Hiperco-50A composed of Fe-Co-V). The electrons in this region collide with the gas molecules and generate their positive ions. These ions are accelerated into the cathode and eject cathode material (Ti). The neutral atoms deposit on the anode surfaces. Because of the chemical activity of Ti, the atoms combine with chemically active gas molecules (e.g. N2, O2, etc.) and remove them. New layers of Ti are continually deposited, and the pumping of active gases is thus accomplished. Pumping of the inert gases is accomplished by their burial several atomic layers deep into the cathode. However, they tend to re-emit if the entrapping lattice atoms are

  12. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  13. Review of ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.

    1990-06-01

    The field of ion acceleration to higher energies has grown rapidly in the last years. Many new facilities as well as substantial upgrades of existing facilities have extended the mass and energy range of available beams. Perhaps more significant for the long-term development of the field has been the expansion in the applications of these beams, and the building of facilities dedicated to areas outside of nuclear physics. This review will cover many of these new developments. Emphasis will be placed on accelerators with final energies above 50 MeV/amu. Facilities such as superconducting cyclotrons and storage rings are adequately covered in other review papers, and so will not be covered here

  14. Focused ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamo, K.

    1993-01-01

    Focussed ion beam (FIB) technology has the advantage of being a maskless process compatible with UHV processing. This makes it attractive for use in in situ processing and has been applied to the fabrication of various mesoscopic structures. The present paper reviews these results whilst putting emphasis on in situ processing by a combined FIB and molecular beam epitaxy system. The typical performance of present FIB systems is also presented. In order to utilize the potential advantages of FIB processing, reduction of damage and improvement of throughput are important, and much effort has been devoted to developing processing techniques which require a reduced dose. The importance of low-energy FIB is discussed. (author)

  15. LEXUS heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Sang Yong Jeon

    1997-01-01

    We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus- nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: all the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: Linear EXtrapolation of Ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon Scattering to heavy ion collisions. (11 refs).

  16. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ''Physics Research Progress'', is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given

  17. Photo ion spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  18. Review of ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.

    1990-06-01

    The field of ion acceleration to higher energies has grown rapidly in the last years. Many new facilities as well as substantial upgrades of existing facilities have extended the mass and energy range of available beams. Perhaps more significant for the long-term development of the field has been the expansion in the applications of these beams, and the building of facilities dedicated to areas outside of nuclear physics. This review will cover many of these new developments. Emphasis will be placed on accelerators with final energies above 50 MeV/amu. Facilities such as superconducting cyclotrons and storage rings are adequately covered in other review papers, and so will not be covered here.

  19. Heavy ion driver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  20. Formation of Ion Phase-Space Vortexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.; Armstrong, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of ion phase space vortexes in the ion two stream region behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks are observed in a laboratory experiment. A detailed analysis demonstrates that the evolution of such vortexes is associated with ion-ion beam instabilities and a nonlinear equation for ...

  1. Ion beams in materials processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    This book covers ion beam application in modern materials research, offering the basics of ion beam physics and technology and a detailed account of the physics of ion-solid interactions for ion implantation, ion beam synthesis, sputtering and nano-patterning.

  2. Ion-exchanger ultraviolet spectrophotometry for uranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, H.; Korkisch, J.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive method based on solid-phase spectrophotometry has been developed for the microdetermination of uranium(VI) in water samples. Uranium is sorbed on the anion-exchanger QAE-Sephadex from thiocyanate solution and the absorbance of the exchanger is measured at 300 nm. This method is about 30 times more sensitive than solution spectrophotometry. Absorption spectra of various metals in the anion-exchanger phase are presented and their interferences discussed. A procedure for the cation-exchange separation of uranium from accompanying elements before spectral measurement of uranium is proposed. (author)

  3. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  4. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  5. Spacecraft ion beam noise effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    An estimate of the antenna noise temperature and the uplink signal-to-noise ratio has been made for Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted by a spacecraft ion beam; a worst-case situation in which the spacecraft antenna is located in the exit plane of the ion beam and directed at varying angles into the ion beam is assumed. Numerical results of the antenna noise temperature versus antenna pointing angle are given for a typical set of ion beam and antenna pattern parameters. The uplink signal-to-noise ratio due to the ion beam noise alone is given in terms of a critical range in AU at which a typical ranging transmission is received with S/N = 0 db. The effects of the ion beam divergence angle and antenna distance on the ion beam are also presented. Results of the study show typical increases in the antenna noise temperature of about 0.2 K and critical ranges of the order of 3-5 AU. An ion engine thus generally introduces an undetectable level of noise into a spacecraft receiver.

  6. SPS Ion Induced Desorption Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will give a study about the induced desorption from heavy ion (Indium ion run from week 45 in SPS T4-H8 area) impacting LHC type graphite collimator. 4 different samples are located in the 4 chambers 90° one to each other: pure graphite, graphite with copper coating, graphite with NEG coating, 316LN stainless steal (reference).

  7. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  8. High Resolution Scanning Ion Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the thesis is the following. The first chapter is an introduction to scanning microscopy, where the path that led to the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is described and the main differences between electrons and ion beams are highlighted. Chapter 2 is what is normally referred to (which I

  9. Hooded arc ion-source

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    The positioning system for the hooded arc ion-source, shown prior to mounting, consists of four excentric shafts to locate the ion-source and central electrodes. It will be placed on the axis of the SC and introduced into the vacuum tank via the air locks visible in the foreground.

  10. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs

  11. Targets for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes some of the basic principles of fusion target implosions, using some simple targets designed for irradiation by ion beams. Present estimates are that ion beams with 1-5 MJ, and 100-500 TW will be required to ignite high gain targets. (orig.) [de

  12. in heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... the 'Big Bang', and has now been (re-)created as the hottest matter ever in laboratory by heavy-ion collisions ('Little Bang') at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as well as at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). To experimentally measure and theoretically understand the various properties of the QGP ...

  13. Project of an ion thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perche, G.E.

    1983-07-01

    The mercury bombardment electrostatic ion thruster is the most successful electric thruster available today. This work describes a 5 cm diameter ion thruster with 3.000 s specific impulse and 5 mN thrust. The advantages of electric propulsion and the tests that will be performed are also presented. (Author) [pt

  14. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  15. Ion-Molecule Reaction Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jennifer; Wester, Roland

    2017-05-05

    We review the recent advances in the investigation of the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. During the past decade, the combination of single-collision experiments in crossed ion and neutral beams with the velocity map ion imaging detection technique has enabled a wealth of studies on ion-molecule reactions. These methods, in combination with chemical dynamics simulations, have uncovered new and unexpected reaction mechanisms, such as the roundabout mechanism and the subtle influence of the leaving group in anion-molecule nucleophilic substitution reactions. For this important class of reactions, as well as for many fundamental cation-molecule reactions, the information obtained with crossed-beam imaging is discussed. The first steps toward understanding micro-solvation of ion-molecule reaction dynamics are presented. We conclude with the presentation of several interesting directions for future research.

  16. RHIC heavy ion operations performance

    CERN Document Server

    Satogata, T; Ferrone, R; Pilat, F

    2006-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) completed its fifth year of operation in 2005, colliding copper ion beams with ps=200 GeV/u and 62.4 GeV/u[1]. Previous heavy ion runs have collided gold ions at ps=130 GeV/u, 200 GeV/u, and 62.4 GeV/u[2], and deuterons and gold ions at ps=200 GeV/u[3]. This paper discusses operational performance statistics of this facility, including Cu- Cu delivered luminosity, availability, calendar time spent in physics stores, and time between physics stores. We summarize the major factors affecting operations efficiency, and characterize machine activities between physics stores.

  17. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    An historical overview of the main advances in the understanding of bombardment-induced surface topography is presented. The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment modification of surfaces and consequent structural, electronic and compositional changes are described. Descriptions of plasma and ion-beam sputtering-induced film formation, primary ion-beam deposition, dual beam techniques, cluster of molecule ion-beam deposition, and modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition are presented. A detailed account is given of the analytical and computational modelling of topography from the viewpoint of first erosion theory. Finally, an account of the possible application and/or importance of textured surfaces in technologies and/or experimental techniques not considered in previous chapters is presented. refs.; figs.; tabs

  18. Ion sources for electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, R.

    1998-01-01

    Maybe the most important part of an electrostatic accelerator system, and also often the most tricky part is the ion source. There has been a rapid growth in activity in ion-source research and development during the last two to three decades. Some of these developments have also been of benefit to electrostatic accelerator users. In this report some of the different types of ion sources used in electrostatic accelerators are described. The list is not complete but more an overview of some of the more commonly used sources. The description is divided into two groups; positive ion sources for single stage electrostatic accelerators and negative ion sources for two stages (i.e. tandem) accelerators

  19. Isochronous cyclotrons. Multicharged ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelaev, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    Isochronous cyclotrons for heavy ions are considered. A development of the heavy ion acceleration technique is discussed. The advantages of heavy ion acceleration by means of the isochronous cyclotron in the energy range up to 10 MeV/nucleon are shown. The requirements to an increase of the beam intensity and decrease of the accelerator dimensions are determined. A considerable increase in the beam intensity is achieved in cascade accelerators of heavy ions. Various schemes of such accelerators are considered, and their parameters are given. To obtain the nuclei with energy of 10 GeV/nucleon and higher, some accelerating complexes are projected, e.g. nuclotrons, where the superconducting magnets are supposed to be used. New methods for heavy ion acceleration are worked out, especially, the collective methods of acceleration

  20. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs.

  1. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs

  2. Generalized variational principles for ion acoustic plasma waves by He's semi-inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongmei

    2005-01-01

    Some generalized variational principles are obtained for ion-acoustic plasma waves by He's semi-inverse method. The obtained variational principle has profound implications in physical understandings, explaining the interaction between various variables in an energy view and the existence of conservation law

  3. Do the recent heavy-ion collisions indicate a baryonic dictatorship in the cosmic world?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Chakravorty, S. [Indian Statistical Inst., Calcutta (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements). Physics and Applies Mathematics Unit, Physical and Earth Sciences Division

    1996-03-01

    The recent AGS experiments at BNL involving the heavy ions have reported some e experimental measurements on production cross-sections of anti-protons. The brief communication presented here attempts at dealing with the relevance and reflections of these findings on the cosmic measurements of anti-protons flux, and their final cosmological implications.

  4. Do the recent heavy-ion collisions indicate a baryonic dictatorship in the cosmic world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Chakravorty, S.

    1996-04-01

    The recent AGS experiments at BNL involving the heavy ions have reported some experimental measurements on production cross-sections of antiprotons. The brief communication presented attempts at dealing with the relevance and reflections of these findings on the cosmic measurements of antiproton flux, and their final cosmological implications.

  5. Do the recent heavy-ion collisions indicate a baryonic dictatorship in the cosmic world?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Chakravorty, S.

    1996-01-01

    The recent AGS experiments at BNL involving the heavy ions have reported some e experimental measurements on production cross-sections of anti-protons. The brief communication presented here attempts at dealing with the relevance and reflections of these findings on the cosmic measurements of anti-protons flux, and their final cosmological implications

  6. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  7. Ions kinematics in an electrostatic ion beam trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, D

    2004-06-01

    In this study, I have tried to provide a better understanding of the dynamics of ions inside an electrostatic ion beam trap. The electrostatic ion trap allows to store ions moving between two electrostatic mirrors. Although the trap has been developed already seven years ago, no direct measurement of the transversal velocity distribution of the ions has been performed. Such quantity is central for understanding the conditions under which a beam should be produced (mainly emittance) in order to be trapped by such a device. The data I have obtained during the course of this work are based on an experimental technique which relies on the direct imaging of the particles exiting the trap, as well as on numerical simulations of the ion trajectories inside the trap. I have personally been involved in the hardware development of the imaging system, the data acquisition and analysis of the data as well as il all numerical calculations presented here. These results allow us to obtain, for the first time, experimental information on the transverse phase space of the trap, and contribute to the overall understanding of the ion motion in this system. (author)

  8. Three-dimensional simulations of ion dynamics in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, J. P. M.; Mironov, V.

    We present a three-dimensional simulation of the ion dynamics in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Ion trajectories in the min-B field of the source are calculated taking ion-ion and electron-ion collisions into account. The electrons are not tracked but considered as a neutralizing

  9. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  10. Data acquisition for the HILI [Heavy Ion Light Ion] detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, K.M.; Shapira, D.; McConnell, J.W.; Kim, H.; Novotny, R.

    1987-01-01

    A large acceptance, multi-segmented detector system capable of the simultaneous detection of heavy and light ions has been constructed. The heavy ions are detected with a segmented gas ionization chamber and a multiwire proportional counter while the light ions are detected with a 192 element plastic phoswich hodoscope. Processing the large number of signals is accomplished through a combination of CAMAC and FASTBUS modules and preprocessors, and a Host minicomputer. Details of the data acquisition system and the reasons for adopting a dual standards system are discussed. In addition, a technique for processing signals from an individual hodoscope detector is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. Ion ring compressor as a high-current ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The acceleration of large amounts of protons to several hundred MeV by adiabatic magnetic compression of low-energy ion rings are discussed. This method is to be used in the Ion Ring Compressor approach to thermonuclear fusion. Results from present experimental and theoretical investigations and estimates indicate good overall chances for a technical and economic feasibility of such a system. The method of acceleration might be used to generate efficiently the rather large amounts of several hundred MeV hydrogen ions that will be needed in any economically significant electronuclear breeding scheme

  12. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N., E-mail: Nbk-Takahashi@shi.co.jp; Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T. [Technology Research Center, Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P{sup +} beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P{sup +} beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH{sub 3} gas.

  14. The Ion Funnel: Theory, Implementations, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Page, Jason S.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The electrodynamic ion funnel has enabled the manipulation and focusing of ions in a pressure regime (0.1 to 30 Torr) that has challenged traditional approaches, providing the basis for much greater mass spectrometer ion transmission efficiencies. The initial ion funnel implementations aimed to efficiently capture ions in the expanding gas jet of an electrospray ionization source and radially focus them for efficient transfer through a conductance limiting orifice. We review the improvements in fundamental understanding of ion motion in ion funnels, the evolution in its implementations that have brought the ion funnel to its current state of refinement, as well as applications of the ion funnel for purposes such as ion trapping, ion cooling, low pressure electrospray, and ion mobility spectrometry. PMID:19391099

  15. Triplemafios: a multicharged heavy ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, P.; Geller, R.; Jacquot, B.

    1976-01-01

    The principle and the characteristics of the ion source 'Triplemafios' are described. We also furnish the upto date performances concerning the ion charge states, ion currents and globale emittances of the beam [fr

  16. Ion-ion interaction and energy transfer of 4+ transuranium ions in cerium tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, G.K.; Beitz, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamics of excited 5f electron states of the transuranium ions Cm{sup 4+} and Bk{sup 4+} in CeF{sub 4} are compared. Based on time- and wavelength-resolved laser-induced fluorescence, excitation energy transfer processes have been probed. Depending on concentration and electronic energy level structure of the studied 4+ transuranium ion, the dominant energy transfer mechanisms were identified as cross relaxation, exciton-exciton annihilation, and trapping. Energy transfer rates derived from the fitting of the observed fluorescence decays to theoretical models, based on electric multipolar ion-ion interactions, are contrasted with prior studies of 4f states of 3+ lanthanide and 3d states of transition metal ions. 16 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Unlimited ion acceleration by radiation pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S V; Echkina, E Yu; Esirkepov, T Zh; Inovenkov, I N; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Korn, G

    2010-04-02

    The energy of ions accelerated by an intense electromagnetic wave in the radiation pressure dominated regime can be greatly enhanced due to a transverse expansion of a thin target. The expansion decreases the number of accelerated ions in the irradiated region resulting in an increase in the ion energy and in the ion longitudinal velocity. In the relativistic limit, the ions become phase locked with respect to the electromagnetic wave resulting in unlimited ion energy gain.

  18. Materials research with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This report gives a series of helpful programs which are used in materials research with ion beams. In this context algorithms which can substitute table books are dealt with. This is true for the programs DEDX and PRAL; they are used in order to determine the energy loss of ions in solid bodies, their working range and straggling. Furthermore, simulator routines and analyzers are described. The program TRIM simulates the physical phenomena which occur with the penetration of high-energy ions into solid bodies. In this context electronic excitations, phonons and lattice distortions which are caused by the ions are dealt with. For the experimental ion implantation it is interesting to know the final distribution of the simulated ions in the solid body. The program RBS simulates the Rutherford spectrum of ions which are scattered from a solid body which may consist of up to nine elements and up to one hundred layers. The unknown composition of a solid body can be determined in direct comparison with the experimental spectrum. The program NRA determines concentration and penetrative distribution of an impurity by means of the experimental nuclear reaction spectrum of this impurity. All programs are written in FORTRAN 77. (orig./MM) [de

  19. Multi-source ion funnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Keqi; Belov, Mikhail B.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-12-27

    A method for introducing ions generated in a region of relatively high pressure into a region of relatively low pressure by providing at least two electrospray ion sources, providing at least two capillary inlets configured to direct ions generated by the electrospray sources into and through each of the capillary inlets, providing at least two sets of primary elements having apertures, each set of elements having a receiving end and an emitting end, the primary sets of elements configured to receive a ions from the capillary inlets at the receiving ends, and providing a secondary set of elements having apertures having a receiving end and an emitting end, the secondary set of elements configured to receive said ions from the emitting end of the primary sets of elements and emit said ions from said emitting end of the secondary set of elements. The method may further include the step of providing at least one jet disturber positioned within at least one of the sets of primary elements, providing a voltage, such as a dc voltage, in the jet disturber, thereby adjusting the transmission of ions through at least one of the sets of primary elements.

  20. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. A case study for the KE Basin on the Hanford Site was conducted based on the results of the development testing. Engineering design baseline parameters for film deposition, film regeneration, cesium loading, and cesium elution were used for developing a conceptual system. Order of magnitude cost estimates were developed to compare with conventional ion exchange. This case study demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal secondary waste and reduced associated disposal costs, as well as lower capital and labor expenditures