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Sample records for thin-film multilayer structures

  1. Neutron diffraction studies of thin film multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkrzak, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    The application of neutron diffraction methods to the study of the microscopic chemical and magnetic structures of thin film multilayers is reviewed. Multilayer diffraction phenomena are described in general and in particular for the case in which one of the materials of a bilayer is ferromagnetic and the neutron beam polarized. Recent neutron diffraction measurements performed on some interesting multilayer systems are discussed. 70 refs., 5 figs

  2. Highly stable thin film transistors using multilayer channel structure

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Wang, Zhenwei; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    We report highly stable gate-bias stress performance of thin film transistors (TFTs) using zinc oxide (ZnO)/hafnium oxide (HfO2) multilayer structure as the channel layer. Positive and negative gate-bias stress stability of the TFTs was measured

  3. Highly stable thin film transistors using multilayer channel structure

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2015-03-09

    We report highly stable gate-bias stress performance of thin film transistors (TFTs) using zinc oxide (ZnO)/hafnium oxide (HfO2) multilayer structure as the channel layer. Positive and negative gate-bias stress stability of the TFTs was measured at room temperature and at 60°C. A tremendous improvement in gate-bias stress stability was obtained in case of the TFT with multiple layers of ZnO embedded between HfO2 layers compared to the TFT with a single layer of ZnO as the semiconductor. The ultra-thin HfO2 layers act as passivation layers, which prevent the adsorption of oxygen and water molecules in the ZnO layer and hence significantly improve the gate-bias stress stability of ZnO TFTs.

  4. Nanomechanical characterization of multilayered thin film structures for digital micromirror devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Guohua; Bhushan, Bharat; Joshua Jacobs, S.

    2004-01-01

    The digital micromirror device (DMD), used for digital projection displays, comprises a surface-micromachined array of up to 2.07 million aluminum micromirrors (14 μm square and 15 μm pitch), which switch forward and backward thousands of times per second using electrostatic attraction. The nanomechanical properties of the thin-film structures used are important to the performance of the DMD. In this paper, the nanomechanical characterization of the single and multilayered thin film structures, which are of interest in DMDs, is carried out. The hardness, Young's modulus and scratch resistance of TiN/Si, SiO 2 /Si, Al alloy/Si, TiN/Al alloy/Si and SiO 2 /TiN/Al alloy/Si thin-film structures were measured using nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques, respectively. The residual (internal) stresses developed during the thin film growth were estimated by measuring the radius of curvature of the sample before and after deposition. To better understand the nanomechanical properties of these thin film materials, the surface and interface analysis of the samples were conducted using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The nanomechanical properties of these materials are analyzed and the impact of these properties on micromirror performance is discussed

  5. Properties of Exchange Coupled All-garnet Magneto-Optic Thin Film Multilayer Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nur-E-Alam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exchange coupling on magnetic switching properties of all-garnet multilayer thin film structures are investigated. All-garnet structures are fabricated by sandwiching a magneto-soft material of composition type Bi1.8Lu1.2Fe3.6Al1.4O12 or Bi3Fe5O12:Dy2O3 in between two magneto-hard garnet material layers of composition type Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12 or Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12:Bi2O3. The fabricated RF magnetron sputtered exchange-coupled all-garnet multilayers demonstrate a very attractive combination of magnetic properties, and are of interest for emerging applications in optical sensors and isolators, ultrafast nanophotonics and magneto-plasmonics. An unconventional type of magnetic hysteresis behavior not observed previously in magnetic garnet thin films is reported and discussed.

  6. Properties of Exchange Coupled All-garnet Magneto-Optic Thin Film Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Kotov, Viacheslav A.; Balabanov, Dmitry; Akimov, Ilya; Alameh, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exchange coupling on magnetic switching properties of all-garnet multilayer thin film structures are investigated. All-garnet structures are fabricated by sandwiching a magneto-soft material of composition type Bi1.8Lu1.2Fe3.6Al1.4O12 or Bi3Fe5O12:Dy2O3 in between two magneto-hard garnet material layers of composition type Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12 or Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12:Bi2O3. The fabricated RF magnetron sputtered exchange-coupled all-garnet multilayers demonstrate a very attractive combination of magnetic properties, and are of interest for emerging applications in optical sensors and isolators, ultrafast nanophotonics and magneto-plasmonics. An unconventional type of magnetic hysteresis behavior not observed previously in magnetic garnet thin films is reported and discussed. PMID:28788043

  7. Structure and morphology of pentacene thin films - from sub-monolayers to application relevant multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resel, R.; Werzer, O.; Nabok, D.; Puschnig, P.; Ambrosch-Draxl, C.; Smilgies, D.; Haase, A.; Stadlober, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The conjugated molecule pentacene is one of the most prominent material for application in organic thin film transistors. Charge carrier mobilities of about 1 cm 2 /Vs are realized in different device geometries which are used in integrated circuits. The device performance depends on the detailed structure and morphology of the pentacene thin films. This work presents an combined atomic force microscopy / x-ray scattering study on the formation of pentacene thin films starting from sub-monolayer coverage to the first closed monolayer to finally multilayer structures as they are used in device structures. Thin films of pentacene are prepared on oxidized silicon wafer with nominal thicknesses between 0.2 nm up to 180 nm. The films are investigated ex-situ by x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction. In the sub-monolayer regime the formation of separated islands with up-right standing molecules are observed. The islands show typically dendritic shape with a separation of 2 μm from each other. With increasing coverage the dendritic islands coalescent until the first monolayer closes. Fitting of the x-ray reflectivity reveals that an additional layer between the substrate and the up-right standing pentacene molecules is present. During the formation of the second monolayer crystalline islands are formed. The crystallites grow in lateral and vertical size with increasing film thickness. The crystal structure of pentacene within the films is a surface induced phase. The crystal structure of this metastable phase could be solved by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. At a nominal film thickness of about 40 nm the equilibrium bulk structure of pentacene appears; both phases remain existent up the thickest films investigated in this study. (author)

  8. Photoluminescence properties of perovskite multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, Leilane Roberta; Longo, Elson, E-mail: leilanemacario@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Mazzo, Tatiana Martelli [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Bouquet, Valerie; Deputier, Stephanie; Ollivier, Sophie; Guilloux-Viry, Maryline [Universite de Rennes (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the optical properties of thin films is important in many scientific, technological and industrial applications of thin films such as photoconductivity, solar energy, photography, and numerous other applications [1]. In this study, perovskite type oxides were grown by pulsed laser deposition [2] in order to obtain thin films with applicable optical properties. The LaNiO{sub 3} (LN), BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) and KNbO{sub 3} (KNb) targets were prepared by solid-state reaction. The X-ray Diffraction revealed the presence of the desired phases, containing the elements of interest in the targets and in the thin films that were produced. The LN, BT and KNb thin films were polycrystalline and the corresponding diffraction peaks were indexed in the with JCPDS cards n. 00-033-0711, n. 00-005-0626, and n. 00-009-0156, respectively. The multilayers films were polycrystalline. The majority of the micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy presented films with a thickness from 100 to 400 nm. The photoluminescent (PL) emission spectra of thin films show different broad bands that occupies large region of the visible spectrum, ranging from about 300-350 to 600-650 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The PL emission is associated with the order-disorder structural, even small structural changes can modify the interactions between electronic states. The structural disorder results in formation of new energy levels in the forbidden region. The proximity or distance of these new energy levels formed in relation to valence band and to the conduction band results in PL spectra located at higher or lower energies. These interactions change the electronic states which can be influenced by defects, particularly the interface defects between the layers of the thin films. The presence of defects results in changes in the broad band matrix intensity and in displacement of the PL emission maximum. (author)

  9. Magnetic surfaces, thin films, and multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, S.S.P.; Renard, J.P.; Shinjo, T.; Zinn, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper details recent developments in the magnetism of surfaces, thin films and multilayers. More than 20 invited contributions and more than 60 contributed papers attest to the great interest and vitality of this subject. In recent years the study of magnetic surfaces, thin films and multilayers has undergone a renaissance, partly motivated by the development of new growth and characterization techniques, but perhaps more so by the discovery of many exciting new properties, some quite unanticipated. These include, most recently, the discovery of enormous values of magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers far exceeding those found in magnetic single layer films and the discovery of oscillatory interlayer coupling in transition metal multilayers. These experimental studies have motivated much theoretical work. However these developments are to a large extent powered by materials engineering and our ability to control and understand the growth of thin layers just a few atoms thick. The preparation of single crystal thin film layers and multilayers remains important for many studies, in particular, for properties dependent. These studies obviously require engineering not just a layer thicknesses but of lateral dimensions as well. The properties of such structures are already proving to be a great interest

  10. Design of a wideband multilayer grating spectrometer for the study of electronic structure of thin-film CIS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imazono, Takashi; Koike, Masato; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Nagano, Tetsuya; Koeda, Masaru; Moriya, Naoji

    2014-01-01

    A soft x-ray emission spectrometer equipped with a wideband Ni/C multilayer-coated laminar-type varied-line-spacing holographic grating is designed to analyze the electronic structure in thin-film copper indium selenide (CIS) solar cells nondestructively by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. The spectrometer equipped with the multilayer grating thus designed allows us to detect the L emission lines of Cu, In, and Se simultaneously from a CIS absorber layer in the 1–3.5 keV range at a constant angle of incidence. (author)

  11. Extraction of optical parameters of thin films from spectral measurements for design and optical performance of multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, J.; Jurecka, S.; Kucerova, A.

    2003-01-01

    Optical parameters of a-Si:H and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on glass substrates are determined from spectral measurements of reflectance and/or transmittance. It is shown how important the exact knowledge of optical parameters as well as thicknesses of the layers for the design and the optical performance of multilayer structures is. The model of the p-i-n based a:Si-H solar cell with ITO as transparent conductive oxide layer is used for illustrating. The modeling of the solar cell integral reflectance in the spectral region of (650-830) nm is used as a criterion to reverse engineering of a multilayer structure with suppressed reflectance losses. The reflectance of a solar cell is modelled and the simulation of the varying optical parameters of individual layers including their thicknesses is discussed. Besides this,the advantage of using an antireflective layer under ITO is discussed (Authors)

  12. Improving the surface structure of high quality Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} thin films for multilayer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angervo, I., E-mail: ijange@utu.fi [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FI-20014 University of Turku (Finland); University of Turku Graduate School (UTUGS), University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Saloaro, M. [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FI-20014 University of Turku (Finland); Tikkanen, J. [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FI-20014 University of Turku (Finland); University of Turku Graduate School (UTUGS), University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P. [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FI-20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The effects of PLD laser fluence and deposition temperature are investigated on SFMO thin films. • We focus on improving the surface structure of the SFMO thin films. • Both the surface structure and the Curie temperature can be improved by fabricating the films at 900 °C. - Abstract: Two sets of Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} thin films were prepared with pulsed laser deposition and the effect of the laser fluence and the deposition temperature was investigated. The Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} thin films showed clear evidence of impurity phases when the laser fluence was altered. Phase pure films resulted through the whole temperature range between 900 °C and 1050 °C when a proper laser fluence was used. Films fabricated at lower deposition temperatures resulted with smaller surface roughnesses around 5 nm, higher Curie temperatures and with relatively high saturation magnetization values. The Curie temperature was determined from the minimum of the first order derivative and results showed the highest values of 350 K and above. The films with the highest Curie temperature reached zero magnetization above 400 K. The results indicate that both high microstructural and high magnetic quality Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} thin films can be obtained with a deposition temperature between 900 °C and 950 °C. This provides better fabrication parameters for the upcoming SFMO multilayer structures.

  13. Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films and their multilayered structures for photonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Němec, P. [Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Charrier, J. [FOTON, UMR CNRS 6082, Enssat, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 80518, 22305 Lannion (France); Cathelinaud, M. [Missions des Ressources et Compétences Technologiques, UPS CNRS 2274, 92195 Meudon (France); Allix, M. [CEMHTI-CNRS, Site Haute Température, Orléans (France); Adam, J.-L.; Zhang, S. [Equipe Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Nazabal, V., E-mail: virginie.nazabal@univ-rennes1.fr [Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Equipe Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2013-07-31

    Amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films were fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Prepared films were characterized in terms of their morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties. Multilayered thin film stacks for reflectors and vertical microcavities were designed for telecommunication wavelength and the window of atmosphere transparency (band II) at 1.54 μm and 4.65 μm, respectively. Bearing in mind the benefit coming from the opportunity of an efficient wavelength tuning or, conversely, to stabilize the photoinduced effects in chalcogenide films as well as to improve their mechanical properties and/or their chemical durability, several pairs of materials from pure chalcogenide layers to chalcogenide/oxide layers were investigated. Different layer stacks were fabricated in order to check the compatibility between dissimilar materials which can have a strong influence on the interface roughness, adhesion, density, and homogeneity, for instance. Three different reflector designs were formulated and tested including all-chalcogenide layers (As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/Ge{sub 25}Sb{sub 5}S{sub 70}) and mixed chalcogenide-oxide layers (As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/alumino-silicate and Ga{sub 10}Ge{sub 15}Te{sub 75}/alumino-silicate). Prepared multilayers showed good compatibility between different material pairs deposited by laser ablation despite the diversity of chemical compositions. As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/alumino-silicate reflector showed the best parameters; its stop band (R > 97% at 8° off-normal incidence) has a bandwidth of ∼ 100 nm and it is centered at 1490 nm. The quality of the different mirrors developed was good enough to try to obtain a microcavity structure for the 1.5 μm telecommunication wavelength made of chalcogenide layers. The microcavity structure consists of Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 20}Sb{sub 10}S{sub 65} (doped with 5000 ppm of Er{sup 3+}) spacer surrounded by two 10-layer As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/Ge{sub 25}Sb{sub 5}S{sub 70

  14. Interface alloying in multilayer thin films using polarized neutron reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    Polarized Neutron Reflectometry (PNR) is an excellent tool to probe magnetic depth profile in multilayer thin film samples. In case of multilayer films with alternating magnetic and non-magnetic layers, PNR can provide magnetic depth profile at the interfaces with better than nanometer resolution. Using PNR and Xray Reflectometry (XRR) together one can obtain chemical composition and magnetic structure, viz. magnetic moment density at interfaces in multilayer films. We have used these two techniques to obtain kinetics of alloy formation at the interfaces and the magnetic nature of the alloy at the interfaces in several important thin films with magnetic/non-magnetic bilayers. These include Ni/Ti, Ni/Al and Si/Ni pairs. Results obtained from these studies will be presented in this talk. (author)

  15. Impact of deposition rate on the structural and magnetic properties of sputtered Ni/Cu multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpuz, Ali [Karamanoglu Mehmetbey Univ., Karaman (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Colmekci, Salih; Kockar, Hakan; Kuru, Hilal; Uckun, Mehmet [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2018-04-01

    The structural and corresponding magnetic properties of Ni/Cu films sputtered at low and high deposition rates were investigated as there is a limited number of related studies in this field. 5[Ni(10 nm)/Cu(30 nm)] multilayer thin films were deposited using two DC sputtering sources at low (0.02 nm/s) and high (0.10 nm/s) deposition rates of Ni layers. A face centered cubic phase was detected for both films. The surface of the film sputtered at the low deposition rate has a lot of micro-grains distributed uniformly and with sizes from 0.1 to 0.4 μm. Also, it has a vertical acicular morphology. At high deposition rate, the number of micro-grains considerably decreased, and some of their sizes increased up to 1 μm. The surface of the Ni/Cu multilayer deposited at the low rate has a relatively more grainy and rugged structure, whereas the surface of the film deposited at the high rate has a relatively larger lateral size of surface grains with a relatively fine morphology. Saturation magnetisation, M{sub s}, values were 90 and 138 emu/cm{sup 3} for deposition rates of 0.02 and 0.10 nm/s, respectively. Remanence, M{sub r}, values were also found to be 48 and 71 emu/cm{sup 3} for the low and high deposition rates, respectively. The coercivity, H{sub c}, values were 46 and 65 Oe for the low and high Ni deposition rates, respectively. The changes in the film surfaces provoked the changes in the H{sub c} values. The M{sub s}, M{sub r}, and H{sub c} values of the 5[Ni(10 nm)/Cu(30 nm)] films can be adjusted considering the surface morphologies and film contents caused by the different Ni deposition rates.

  16. Magnetic damping phenomena in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzawi, S.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Atkinson, D.

    2017-11-01

    Damped ferromagnetic precession is an important mechanism underpinning the magnetisation processes in ferromagnetic materials. In thin-film ferromagnets and ferromagnetic/non-magnetic multilayers, the role of precession and damping can be critical for spintronic device functionality and as a consequence there has been significant research activity. This paper presents a review of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers and collates the results of many experimental studies to present a coherent synthesis of the field. The terms that are used to define damping are discussed with the aim of providing consistent definitions for damping phenomena. A description of the theoretical basis of damping is presented from early developments to the latest discussions of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers. An overview of the time and frequency domain methods used to study precessional magnetisation behaviour and damping in thin-films and multilayers is also presented. Finally, a review of the experimental observations of magnetic damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers is presented with the most recent explanations. This brings together the results from many studies and includes the effects of ferromagnetic film thickness, the effects of composition on damping in thin-film ferromagnetic alloys, the influence of non-magnetic dopants in ferromagnetic films and the effects of combining thin-film ferromagnets with various non-magnetic layers in multilayered configurations.

  17. Nanomechanical Behavior of High Gas Barrier Multilayer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humood, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Shahla; Song, Yixuan; Tzeng, Ping; Grunlan, Jaime C; Polycarpou, Andreas A

    2016-05-04

    Nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were performed on thin multilayer films manufactured using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. These films are known to exhibit high gas barrier, but little is known about their durability, which is an important feature for various packaging applications (e.g., food and electronics). Films were prepared from bilayer and quadlayer sequences, with varying thickness and composition. In an effort to evaluate multilayer thin film surface and mechanical properties, and their resistance to failure and wear, a comprehensive range of experiments were conducted: low and high load indentation, low and high load scratch. Some of the thin films were found to have exceptional mechanical behavior and exhibit excellent scratch resistance. Specifically, nanobrick wall structures, comprising montmorillonite (MMT) clay and polyethylenimine (PEI) bilayers, are the most durable coatings. PEI/MMT films exhibit high hardness, large elastic modulus, high elastic recovery, low friction, low scratch depth, and a smooth surface. When combined with the low oxygen permeability and high optical transmission of these thin films, these excellent mechanical properties make them good candidates for hard coating surface-sensitive substrates, where polymers are required to sustain long-term surface aesthetics and quality.

  18. Epitaxial growth of "infinite layer” thin films and multilayers by rf magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Fàbrega, L.; Koller, E.; Triscone, J. M.; Fischer, Ø.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of epitaxial ACuO2 (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) thin films and multilayers with the so- called infinite layer (IL) structure, by rf magnetron sputtering. Films and multilayers without Ba have a remarkable crystal quality, whereas those containing this large ion are often multiphased and unstable. In spite of the excellent crystalline quality of these samples, obtaining thin films having both IL structure and displaying superconducting properties has not s...

  19. Fabrication of ATO/Graphene Multi-layered Transparent Conducting Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Chuanbin; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2013-03-01

    A novel transparent conducting oxide based on the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films has been developed to satisfy the application of transparent conductive electrode in solar cells. The ATO thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition method with high quality, namely the sheet resistance of 49.5 Ω/sq and average transmittance of 81.9 %. The prepared graphene sheet is well reduced and shows atomically thin, spotty distributed appearance on the top of the ATO thin films. The XRD and optical micrographs are used to confirm the successfully preparation of the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films. The Hall measurements and UV-Vis spectrophotometer are conducted to evaluate the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the innovative structure. It is found that graphene can improve the electrical properties of the ATO thin films with little influence on the optical transmittance.

  20. Fabrication of ATO/Graphene Multi-layered Transparent Conducting Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Na; Chen Fei; Shen Qiang; Wang Chuanbin; Zhang Lianmeng

    2013-01-01

    A novel transparent conducting oxide based on the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films has been developed to satisfy the application of transparent conductive electrode in solar cells. The ATO thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition method with high quality, namely the sheet resistance of 49.5 Ω/sq and average transmittance of 81.9 %. The prepared graphene sheet is well reduced and shows atomically thin, spotty distributed appearance on the top of the ATO thin films. The XRD and optical micrographs are used to confirm the successfully preparation of the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films. The Hall measurements and UV-Vis spectrophotometer are conducted to evaluate the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the innovative structure. It is found that graphene can improve the electrical properties of the ATO thin films with little influence on the optical transmittance.

  1. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  2. Development of neutron diffuse scattering analysis code by thin film and multilayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering by thin film, roughness of surface of thin film, correlation function, neutron propagation by thin film, diffuse scattering by DWBA theory, measurement model, SDIFFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by thin film) and simulation results are explained. On neutron diffuse scattering by multilayer film, roughness of multilayer film, principle of diffuse scattering, measurement method and simulation examples by MDIFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by multilayer film) are explained. (S.Y.)To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering

  3. Analysis of the influence of structure on mechanical properties of multilayer Ni/Cu thin films for use in microelectronic technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamovec Jelena S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer Ni/Cu thin films were produced by dual-bath electrodeposition technique (DBT on polycrystalline cold-rolled Cu substrate. Different Ni/Cu multilayer structures were realized by changing of process parameters such as total film thickness, sublayer thickness and Ni/Cu sublayer thickness ratio. The mechanical properties of Vickers microhardness and interfacial adhesion in the films were investigated. Decreasing of sublayer thickness down to 300 nm and increasing of Ni:Cu sublayer thickness ratio to 1:4, lead to higher values of Vickers microhardness compared to monolayer metal films. Thin films with sublayer thicknesses from 75 nm to 5 μm show strong interfacial adhesion. A weak adhesion and sublayer exfoliation for the films with sublayer thickness greater than 5μm were found. Three-dimensional Ni microstructures can be fabricated using multilayer Ni/Cu film by selective etching of Cu layers in an acidic thiourea solution ('surface micromachining' technique.

  4. Residual stress analysis of a multi-layer thin film structure by destructive (curvature) and non-destructive (x-ray) methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.C.; Oshida, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Multi-layer thin film which has structure of Cu/Cr/K/Cr/Cu prepared by sputtering process was analyzed for interfacial stresses for as-deposited conditions. This structure was also annealed at 150 degrees C, and 350 degrees C for around 15 min. in a vacuum and cooled slowly down for stress analyses. Equations for residual stress estimations for homogeneous material system using layer removal technique (stress relief) is now applied for inhomogeneous system (multi-layer structure). The results are compared with the data obtained from x-ray diffraction technique by using sin 2 Ψ - 2 θ method, for Cu layer. From the present analyses, the data obtained using layer removal seem to be qualitatively consistent with but not quantitatively in agreement with x-ray method

  5. Ferroelectric properties of PZT/BFO multilayer thin films prepared using the sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2012-01-05

    In this study, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/BiFeO3 [PZT/BFO] multilayer thin films were fabricated using the spin-coating method on a Pt(200 nm)/Ti(10 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/p-Si(100) substrate alternately using BFO and PZT metal alkoxide solutions. The coating-and-heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All PZT/BFO multilayer thin films show a void-free, uniform grain structure without the presence of rosette structures. The relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the six-coated PZT/BFO [PZT/BFO-6] thin film were approximately 405 and 0.03%, respectively. As the number of coatings increased, the remanent polarization and coercive field increased. The values for the BFO-6 multilayer thin film were 41.3 C/cm2 and 15.1 MV/cm, respectively. The leakage current density of the BFO-6 multilayer thin film at 5 V was 2.52 × 10-7 A/cm2.

  6. Soft Magnetic Multilayered Thin Films for HF Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizos, George; Giannopoulos, George; Serletis, Christos; Maity, Tuhin; Roy, Saibal; Lupu, Nicoleta; Kijima, Hanae; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Niarchos, Dimitris

    Multilayered thin films from various soft magnetic materials were successfully prepared by magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere. The magnetic properties and microstructure were investigated. It is found that the films show good soft magnetic properties: magnetic coercivity of 1-10 Oe and saturation magnetization higher than 1T. The initial permeability of the films is greater than 300 and flattens up to 600 MHz. The multilayer thin film properties in combination with their easy, fast and reproducible fabrication indicate that they are potential candidates for high frequency applications.

  7. Thin film structures and phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, B.M.; Johnson, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    This was a two day symposium, with invited and contributed papers as well as an evening poster session. The first day concentrated on solid state reactions with invited talks by Lindsay Greer from the University of Cambridge, King Tu from IBM Yorktown Heights, and Carl Thompson from MIT. Professor Greer observed that the diffusion of Zr is 10 6 times slower than that of Ni in amorphous NiZr, confirming that Ni is the mobile species in solid state amorphization. King Tu explained the formation of metastable phases in this film diffusion couples by the concept of maximum rate of free energy change. Carl Thompson discussed the formation of amorphous phases in metal silicon systems, and discussed a two stage nucleation and growth process. The contributed papers also generated discussion on topics such as phase segregation, amorphous silicide formation, room temperature oxidation of silicon, and nucleation during ion beam irradiation. There was a lively poster session on Monday evening with papers on a wide variety of topics covering the general area of thin film science. The second day had sessions Epitaxy and Multilayer Structure I and II, with the morning focussing on epitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth of thin films. Robin Farrow of IBM Almaden led off with an invited talk where he reported on some remarkable success he and his co-workers have had in growing single crystal epitaxial thin films and superlattices of silver, iron, cobalt and platinum on GaAs. This was followed by several talks on epitaxial growth and characterization. The afternoon focused on interfaces and structure of multilayered materials. A session on possible stress origins of the supermodulus effect was highlighted by lively interaction from the audience. Most of the papers presented at the symposium are presented in this book

  8. An Observation of Diamond-Shaped Particle Structure in a Soya Phosphatidylcohline and Bacteriorhodopsin Composite Langmuir Blodgett Film Fabricated by Multilayer Molecular Thin Film Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiuchi, Y.; Makino, Y.

    A composite film of soya phosphatidylcohline (soya PC) and bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was fabricated by the multilayer molecular thin film method using fatty acid and lipid on a quartz substrate. Direct Force Microscopy (DFM), UV absorption spectra and IR absorption spectra of the film were characterized on the detail of surface structure of the film. The DFM data revealed that many rhombus (diamond-shaped) particles were observed in the film. The spectroscopic data exhibited the yield of M-intermediate of BR in the film. On our modelling of molecular configuration indicate that the coexistence of the strong inter-molecular interaction and the strong inter-molecular interaction between BR trimmers attributed to form the particles.

  9. Determination of magnetic properties of multilayer metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birlikseven, C.

    2000-01-01

    In recent year, Giant Magnetoresistance Effect has been attracting an increasingly high interest. High sensitivity magnetic field detectors and high sensitivity read heads of magnetic media can be named as important applications of these films. In this work, magnetic and electrical properties of single layer and thin films were investigated. Multilayer thin films were supplied by Prof. Dr. A. Riza Koeymen from Texas University. Multilayer magnetic thin films are used especially for magnetic reading and magnetic writing. storing of large amount of information into small areas become possible with this technology. Single layer films were prepared using the electron beam evaporation technique. For the exact determination of film thicknesses, a careful calibration of the thicknesses was made. Magnetic properties of the multilayer films were studied using the magnetization, magnetoresistance measurements and ferromagnetic resonance technique. Besides, by fitting the experimental results to the theoretical models, effective magnetization and angles between the ferromagnetic layers were calculated. The correspondence between magnetization and magnetoresistance was evaluated. To see the effect of anisotropic magnetoresistance in the magnetoresistance measurements, a new experimental set-up was build and measurements were taken in this set-up. A series of soft permalloy thin films were made, and temperature dependent resistivity, magnetoresistance, anisotropic magnetoresistance and magnetization measurements were taken

  10. Irradiation Effect of Argon Ion on Interfacial Structure Fe(2nm/Si(tsi=0.5-2 nm Multilayer thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Purwanto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation includes formation of interfacial structure of Fe(2nm/Si(tSi= 0.5-2 nm multilayer thin film and the behavior of antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe layers due to Argon ion irradiation was investigated. [Fe(2nm/Si]30 multilayers (MLs with a thickness of Si spacer 0.5 - 2 nanometer were prepared on n-type (100 Si substrate by the helicon plasma sputtering method. Irradiation were performed using 400keV Ar ion to investigate the behavior of magnetic properties of the Fe/Si MLs. The magnetization measurements of Fe/Si MLs after 400keV Ar ion irradiation show the degradation of antiferromagnetic behavior of Fe layers depend on the ion doses. The Magnetoresistance (MR measurements using by Four Point Probe (FPP method also confirm that MR ratio decrease after ion irradiation. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns indicate that the intensity of a satellite peak induced by a superlattice structure does not change within the range of ion dose. These results imply that the surface of interface structures after ion irradiation become rough although the layer structures are maintained. Therefore, it is considered that the MR properties of Fe/Si MLs also are due to the metallic superlattice structures such as Fe/Cr and Co/Cu MLs.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of multilayered BaTiO3/NiFe2O4 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Bajac

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented research was focused on the fabrication of multiferroic thin film structures, composed of ferrielectric barium titanate perovskite phase and magnetostrictive nickel ferrite spinel phase. The applicability of different, solution based, deposition techniques (film growth from solution, dip coating and spin coating for thefabrication of multilayered BaTiO3 /NiFe2O4 thin films was investigated. It was shown that only spin coating produces films of desired nanostructure, thickness and smooth and crackfree surfaces.

  12. Photolithographically patterened thin-film multilayer devices of YBa2Cu3O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, J.J.; Wellstood, F.C.; Quan, D.; Clarke, J.

    1990-09-01

    We have fabricated thin-film YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x -SrTiO 3 -YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x multilayer interconnect structures in which each in situ laser-deposited film is independently patterned by photolithography. In particular, we have constructed the two key components necessary for a superconducting multilayer interconnect technology, crossovers and window contacts. As a further demonstration of the technology, we have fabricated a thin-film flux transformer, suitable for use with a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID), that includes a ten-turn input coil with 6μm linewidth. Transport measurements showed that the critical temperature was 87K and the critical current was 135 μA at 82K. 7 refs., 6 figs

  13. Niobium Nitride Thin Films and Multilayers for Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, William; Beringer, Douglas; Li, Zhaozhu; Clavero, Cesar; Lukaszew, Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Niobium nitride in thin film form has been considered for a number of applications including multi-layered coatings onto superconducting radio frequency cavities which have been proposed to overcome the fundamental accelerating gradient limit of ~50 MV/m in niobium based accelerators. In order to fulfill the latter application, the selected superconductor's thermodynamic critical field, HC, must be larger than that of niobium and separated from the Nb surface by an insulating layer in order to shield the Nb cavity from field penetration and thus allow higher field gradients. Thus, for the successful implementation of such multilayered stack it is important to consider not just the materials inherent properties but also how these properties may be affected in thin film geometry and also by the specific deposition techniques used. Here, we show the results of our correlated study of structure and superconducting properties in niobium nitride thin films and discuss the shielding exhibited in NbN/MgO/Nb multilayer samples beyond the lower critical field of Nb for the first time. This work was funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (HDTRA-10-1-0072).

  14. Characterizations of multilayer ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO multilayer thin films are deposited on glass substrate using sol-gel spin coating technique and the effect of these multilayer films on optical, electrical and structural properties are investigated. It is observed that these multilayer films have great impact on the properties of ZnO. X-ray Diffraction (XRD confirms that ZnO has hexagonal wurtzite structure. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM showed the crack-free films which have uniformly distributed grains structures. Both micro and nano particles of ZnO are present on thin films. Four point probe measured the electrical properties showed the decreasing trend between the average resistivity and the number of layers. The optical absorption spectra measured using UV–Vis. showed the average transmittance in the visible region of all films is 80% which is good for solar spectra. The performance of the multilayer as transparent conducting material is better than the single layer of ZnO. This work provides a low cost, environment friendly and well abandoned material for solar cells applications. Keywords: Multilayer films, Semiconductor, ZnO, XRD, SEM, Optoelectronic properties

  15. Dual-bath electrodeposition of n-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Ken; Okuhata, Mitsuaki; Takashiri, Masayuki, E-mail: takashiri@tokai-u.jp

    2015-11-15

    N-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films were prepared by dual-bath electrodeposition. We varied the number of layers from 2 to 10 while the total film thickness was maintained at approximately 1 μm. All the multilayer films displayed the X-ray diffraction peaks normally observed from individual Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystal structures, indicating that both phases coexist in the multilayer. The cross-section of the 10-layer Bi–Te/Bi–Se film was composed of stacked layers with nano-sized grains but the boundaries between the layers were not planar. The Seebeck coefficient was almost constant throughout the entire range of our experiment, but the electrical conductivity of the multilayer thin films increased significantly as the number of layers was increased. This may be because the electron mobility increases as the thickness of each layer is decreased. As a result of the increased electrical conductivity, the power factor also increased with the number of layers. The maximum power factor was 1.44 μW/(cm K{sup 2}) for the 10-layer Bi–Te/Bi–Se film, this was approximately 3 times higher than that of the 2-layer sample. - Highlights: • N-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films were deposited by electrodeposition. • We employed a dual-bath electrodeposition process for preparing the multilayers. • The Bi–Te/Bi–Se film was composed of stacked layers with nano-sized grains. • The electrical conductivity increased as the number of layers was increased. • The power factor improved by 3 times as the number of layers was increased.

  16. Oxygen barrier of multilayer thin films comprised of polysaccharides and clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Galina; Kirkland, Christopher; Cain, Amanda A; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2013-06-05

    Multilayered thin films of chitosan (CH), carrageenan (CR) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay, deposited using the layer-by-layer technique, were studied in an effort to produce fully renewable polysaccharide-based thin films with low oxygen permeability. Ten 'trilayers' of CH/MMT/CR (film reduced its oxygen permeability (1.76×10(-15) cm(3) cm/cm(2) s Pa) by an order of magnitude under dry conditions. By adding an additional layer of CH to the trilayer sequence, a 'quadlayer' film of CH/CR/CH/MMT (barrier is believed to be due to the unique nanostructure of these films, often referred to as a "nanobrick wall" structure, as well as a strong association amongst the oppositely charged polysaccharides. Combining fully renewable and food contact approved ingredients with high gas barrier and optical transparency makes this technology promising as a foil replacement for food packaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural and optical properties of electrodeposited molybdenum oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R.S.; Uplane, M.D.; Patil, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Electrosynthesis of Mo(IV) oxide thin films on F-doped SnO 2 conducting glass (10-20/Ω/□) substrates were carried from aqueous alkaline solution of ammonium molybdate at room temperature. The physical characterization of as-deposited films carried by thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA), infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of hydrous and amorphous MoO 2 . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a smooth but cracked surface with multi-layered growth. Annealing of these films in dry argon at 450 deg. C for 1 h resulted into polycrystalline MoO 2 with crystallites aligned perpendicular to the substrate. Optical absorption study indicated a direct band gap of 2.83 eV. The band gap variation consistent with Moss rule and band gap narrowing upon crystallization was observed. Structure tailoring of as-deposited thin films by thermal oxidation in ambient air to obtain electrochromic Mo(VI) oxide thin films was exploited for the first time by this novel route. The results of this study will be reported elsewhere

  18. Magnetoelectric properties of magnetic/ferroelectric multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung-Ok; Eum, You-Jeong; Koo, Chang-Young; Lee, Hee-Young [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung-Min [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Ryu, Jung-Ho [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic/ferroelectric multilayer thin films using PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) and two different magnetic materials, i.e., Terfenol-D and CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CuFO) layers, were fabricated, and their magnetoelectric (ME) coupling behavior was investigated. The PZT layer was first coated onto Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by sol-gel spin coating method. Pt layer, which served as an electrode and a diffusion barrier, was grown on the PZT layer by using the ion-beam sputtering method. The ME voltage coefficients were calculated from the ME voltage data measured utilizing a magnetoelectric test system. The Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT films were found to show a higher in-plane ME voltage coefficient than that the CuFO/Pt/PZT films due primarily to the higher magnetostriction coefficient of Terfenol-D.

  19. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloy multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cortés, J.F.; San Juan, J.; López, G.A.; Nó, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Among active materials, shape memory alloys are well recognized for their work output density. Because of that, these alloys have attracted much attention to be used in micro/nano electromechanical systems. In the present work, the electron beam evaporation technique has been used to growth, by a multilayer method, two shape memory alloy thin films with different Cu–Al–Ni composition. Multilayers have been further thermally treated to produce the alloys by solid solution diffusion. The produced multilayers have been characterized and the presence of the martensite phase in the obtained thin films was studied. Furthermore, the influence of two different coatings onto the Si substrates, namely Si/SiO 2 and Si/Si 3 N 4 , was investigated. Mechanically stable, not detaching from the substrates, Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloy thin films, about 1 micrometre thick, showing a martensitic transformation have been produced. - Highlights: ► Multilayer thin films of Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloys produced by e-beam evaporation. ► SiN X 200 nm thick coating is good for high quality Cu–Al–Ni shape memory thin films. ► Thermal treatment renders Cu–Al–Ni multilayer in homogeneous martensite thin film

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloy multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Cortés, J.F. [Dpt. Física Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); San Juan, J., E-mail: jose.sanjuan@ehu.es [Dpt. Física Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); López, G.A.; Nó, M.L. [Dpt. Física Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    Among active materials, shape memory alloys are well recognized for their work output density. Because of that, these alloys have attracted much attention to be used in micro/nano electromechanical systems. In the present work, the electron beam evaporation technique has been used to growth, by a multilayer method, two shape memory alloy thin films with different Cu–Al–Ni composition. Multilayers have been further thermally treated to produce the alloys by solid solution diffusion. The produced multilayers have been characterized and the presence of the martensite phase in the obtained thin films was studied. Furthermore, the influence of two different coatings onto the Si substrates, namely Si/SiO{sub 2} and Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, was investigated. Mechanically stable, not detaching from the substrates, Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloy thin films, about 1 micrometre thick, showing a martensitic transformation have been produced. - Highlights: ► Multilayer thin films of Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloys produced by e-beam evaporation. ► SiN{sub X} 200 nm thick coating is good for high quality Cu–Al–Ni shape memory thin films. ► Thermal treatment renders Cu–Al–Ni multilayer in homogeneous martensite thin film.

  2. Electro-Caloric Properties of BT/PZT Multilayer Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Su; Lee, Sung-Gap; Kim, Kyeong-Min

    2018-09-01

    In this study, Barium Titanate (BT)/Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) multilayer thin films were fabricated by the spin-coating method on Pt (200 nm)/Ti (10 nm) SiO2 (100 nm)/P-Si (100) substrates using BaTiO3 and Pb(Zr0.90Ti0.10)O3 metal alkoxide solutions. The coating and heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All of BT/PZT multilayer thin films show X-ray diffraction patterns typical to a polycrystalline perovskite structure and a uniform and void free grain microstructure. The thickness of the BT and PZT film by one-cycle of drying/sintering was approximately 50 nm and all of the films consisted of fine grains with a flat surface morphology. The electrocaloric properties of BT/PZT thin films were investigated by indirect estimation. The results showed that the temperature change ΔT can be calculated as a function of temperature using Maxwell's relation; the temperature change reaches a maximum value of ~1.85 °C at 135 °C under an applied electric field of 260 kV/cm.

  3. Magnesium Diboride thin Films, multilayers, and coatings for SRF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xiaoxing [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities currently use low-temperature superconductor niobium, and the Nb SRF cavities have approached the performance levels predicted theoretically. Compared to Nb, MgB2 becomes superconducting at a much higher temperature and promises a better RF performance in terms of higher quality factor Q and higher acceleration capability. An MgB2 SRF technology can significantly reduce the operating costs of particle accelerators when these potentials are realized. This project aimed to advance the development of an MgB2 SRF technology. It had two main objectives: (1) materials issues of MgB2 thin films and multilayers related to their applications in SRF cavities; and (2) coating single-cell cavities for testing at RF frequencies. The key technical thrust of the project is the deposition of high quality clean MgB2 films and coatings by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique, which was developed in my group. We have achieved technical progress in each of the two areas. For the first objective, we have confirmed that MgB2 thin film coatings can be used to effectively enhance the vortex penetration field of an SRF cavity. A vortex is a normal region in the shape of spaghetti that threads through a superconductor. Its existence is due to an applied magnetic field that is greater than a so-called lower critical field, Hc1. Once a vortex enters the superconductor, its movement leads to loss. This has been shown to be the reason for an SRF cavity to break down. Thus, enhancing the magnetic field for a vortex to enter the superconductor that forms the SRF cavity has be a goal of intense research. To this end, Gurevich proposed that a coating of thin superconductor layer can impede the vortex entrance. In this project, we have done two important experiment to test this concept. One, we showed that the enhancement of Hc1 can be

  4. Preparation of multilayered nanocrystalline thin films with composition-modulated interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, D.; Barna, P.B.; Szekely, L.; Geszti, O.; Hattori, T.; Devenyi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The properties of multilayer thin film structures depend on the morphology and structure of interfaces. A broad interface, in which the composition is varying, can enhance, e.g., the hardness of multilayer thin films. In the present experiments multilayers of TiAlN and CrN as well as TiAlN, CrN and MoS 2 were studied by using unbalanced magnetron sputter sources. The sputter sources were arranged side by side on an arc. This arrangement permits development of a transition zone between the layers, where the composition changes continuously. The multilayer system was deposited by one-fold oscillating movement of substrates in front of sputter sources. Thicknesses of layers could be changed both by oscillation frequency and by the power applied to sputter sources. Ti/Al: 50/50 at%, pure chromium and MoS 2 targets were used in the sputter sources. The depositions were performed in an Ar-N 2 mixture at 0.22 Pa working pressure. The sputtering power of the TiAl source was feed-back adjusted in fuzzy-logic mode in order to avoid fluctuation of the TiAl target sputter rate due to poisoning of the target surface. Structure characterization of films deposited on Si wafers covered by thermally grown SiO 2 was performed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. At first a 100 nm thick Cr base layer was deposited on the substrate to improve adhesion, which was followed by a CrN transition layer. The CrN transition layer was followed by a 100 nm thick TiAlN/CrN multilayer system. The TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system was deposited on the surface of this underlayer system. The underlayer systems Cr, CrN and TiAlN/CrN were crystalline with columnar structure according to the morphology of zone T of the structure zone models. The column boundaries contained segregated phases showing up in the under-focused TEM images. The surface of the underlayer system was wavy due to dome-shaped columns. The nanometer-scaled TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system followed this waviness

  5. Multi-layer thin-film electrolytes for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Markus; Ortner, Kai; Franco, Thomas; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Menzler, Norbert H.; Stöver, Detlev; Bräuer, Günter; Venskutonis, Andreas; Sigl, Lorenz S.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter; Vaßen, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A key to the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MSCs) is the manufacturing of gas-tight thin-film electrolytes, which separate the cathode from the anode. This paper focuses the electrolyte manufacturing on the basis of 8YSZ (8 mol.-% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2). The electrolyte layers are applied by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) gas flow sputtering (GFS) process. The gas-tightness of the electrolyte is significantly improved when sequential oxidic and metallic thin-film multi-layers are deposited, which interrupt the columnar grain structure of single-layer electrolytes. Such electrolytes with two or eight oxide/metal layers and a total thickness of about 4 μm obtain leakage rates of less than 3 × 10-4 hPa dm3 s-1 cm-2 (Δp: 100 hPa) at room temperature and therefore fulfill the gas tightness requirements. They are also highly tolerant with respect to surface flaws and particulate impurities which can be present on the graded anode underground. MSC cell tests with double-layer and multilayer electrolytes feature high power densities more than 1.4 W cm-2 at 850 °C and underline the high potential of MSC cells.

  6. Nanomechanical investigation of thin-film electroceramic/metal-organic framework multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, James P.; Michler, Johann; Liu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhengbang; Tsotsalas, Manuel; Maeder, Xavier; Röse, Silvana; Oberst, Vanessa; Liu, Jinxuan; Walheim, Stefan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Weidler, Peter G.; Redel, Engelbert; Wöll, Christof

    2015-09-01

    Thin-film multilayer stacks of mechanically hard magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) and mechanically soft highly porous surface anchored metal-organic framework (SURMOF) HKUST-1 were studied using nanoindentation. Crystalline, continuous, and monolithic surface anchored MOF thin films were fabricated using a liquid-phase epitaxial growth method. Control over respective fabrication processes allowed for tuning of the thickness of the thin film systems with a high degree of precision. It was found that the mechanical indentation of such thin films is significantly affected by the substrate properties; however, elastic parameters were able to be decoupled for constituent thin-film materials (EITO ≈ 96.7 GPa, EHKUST-1 ≈ 22.0 GPa). For indentation of multilayer stacks, it was found that as the layer thicknesses were increased, while holding the relative thickness of ITO and HKUST-1 constant, the resistance to deformation was significantly altered. Such an observation is likely due to small, albeit significant, changes in film texture, interfacial roughness, size effects, and controlling deformation mechanism as a result of increasing material deposition during processing. Such effects may have consequences regarding the rational mechanical design and utilization of MOF-based hybrid thin-film devices.

  7. Nanomechanical investigation of thin-film electroceramic/metal-organic framework multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, James P., E-mail: james.best@empa.ch, E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu, E-mail: christof.woell@kit.edu; Michler, Johann; Maeder, Xavier [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Liu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhengbang; Tsotsalas, Manuel; Liu, Jinxuan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Weidler, Peter G.; Redel, Engelbert, E-mail: james.best@empa.ch, E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu, E-mail: christof.woell@kit.edu; Wöll, Christof, E-mail: james.best@empa.ch, E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu, E-mail: christof.woell@kit.edu [Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Röse, Silvana [Preparative Macromolecular Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ICTP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engesserstrasse 18, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Biological Interfaces (IBG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Oberst, Vanessa [Institute of Applied Materials (IAM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Walheim, Stefan [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-09-07

    Thin-film multilayer stacks of mechanically hard magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) and mechanically soft highly porous surface anchored metal-organic framework (SURMOF) HKUST-1 were studied using nanoindentation. Crystalline, continuous, and monolithic surface anchored MOF thin films were fabricated using a liquid-phase epitaxial growth method. Control over respective fabrication processes allowed for tuning of the thickness of the thin film systems with a high degree of precision. It was found that the mechanical indentation of such thin films is significantly affected by the substrate properties; however, elastic parameters were able to be decoupled for constituent thin-film materials (E{sub ITO} ≈ 96.7 GPa, E{sub HKUST−1} ≈ 22.0 GPa). For indentation of multilayer stacks, it was found that as the layer thicknesses were increased, while holding the relative thickness of ITO and HKUST-1 constant, the resistance to deformation was significantly altered. Such an observation is likely due to small, albeit significant, changes in film texture, interfacial roughness, size effects, and controlling deformation mechanism as a result of increasing material deposition during processing. Such effects may have consequences regarding the rational mechanical design and utilization of MOF-based hybrid thin-film devices.

  8. Nanomechanical investigation of thin-film electroceramic/metal-organic framework multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, James P.; Michler, Johann; Maeder, Xavier; Liu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhengbang; Tsotsalas, Manuel; Liu, Jinxuan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Weidler, Peter G.; Redel, Engelbert; Wöll, Christof; Röse, Silvana; Oberst, Vanessa; Walheim, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film multilayer stacks of mechanically hard magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) and mechanically soft highly porous surface anchored metal-organic framework (SURMOF) HKUST-1 were studied using nanoindentation. Crystalline, continuous, and monolithic surface anchored MOF thin films were fabricated using a liquid-phase epitaxial growth method. Control over respective fabrication processes allowed for tuning of the thickness of the thin film systems with a high degree of precision. It was found that the mechanical indentation of such thin films is significantly affected by the substrate properties; however, elastic parameters were able to be decoupled for constituent thin-film materials (E ITO  ≈ 96.7 GPa, E HKUST−1  ≈ 22.0 GPa). For indentation of multilayer stacks, it was found that as the layer thicknesses were increased, while holding the relative thickness of ITO and HKUST-1 constant, the resistance to deformation was significantly altered. Such an observation is likely due to small, albeit significant, changes in film texture, interfacial roughness, size effects, and controlling deformation mechanism as a result of increasing material deposition during processing. Such effects may have consequences regarding the rational mechanical design and utilization of MOF-based hybrid thin-film devices

  9. Sol-gel deposition and electrical properties of laser irradiated Cu doped TiO2 multilayer thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available Multilayer thin films (3, 5 and 7 of 20% copper doped titanium dioxide (Cu:TiO2 have been deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. After deposition, films have been irradiated by a beam of continuous wave diode laser (532 nm for two minutes at the angle of 45°. Structural, surface morphology and electrical properties of films have been investigated by X-rays diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and four point probe technique respectively. XRD shows the formation of titanium copper oxide. Surface morphology of thin films indicated that the average grain size is increased by increasing the number of layers. The average sheet resistivity of 3, 5 and 7 layers of thin films measured by four point probe technique is 2.2 × 104, 1.2 × 104 and 1.0 × 104 (Ohm-cm respectively. The present study will facilitate a cost effective and environmental friendly study for several properties of materials. Keywords: Cu:TiO2, Multilayer thin films, Diode laser

  10. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S

    2015-05-27

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly characterized and their spectral properties well established. We report the successful growth of a three- dimensional, vitreous silicon dioxide thin film on the Pt(111) surface and reproduce the closed bilayer structure previously reported. The confirmation of the three dimensional nature of the film is unequivocally shown by the infrared absorption band at 1252 cm−1. Temperature programmed desorption was used to show that this three-dimensional thin film covers the Pt(111) surface to such an extent that its application as a catalyst support for clusters/nanoparticles is possible. The growth of a three-dimensional film was seen to be directly correlated with the amount of oxygen present on the surface after the silicon evaporation process. This excess of oxygen is tentatively attributed to atomic oxygen being generated in the evaporator. The identification of atomic oxygen as a necessary building block for the formation of a three-dimensional thin film opens up new possibilities for thin film growth on metal supports, whereby simply changing the type of oxygen enables thin films with different atomic structures to be synthesized. This is a novel approach to tune the synthesis parameters of thin films to grow a specific structure and expands the options for modeling common amorphous silica supports under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  11. Multilayered metal oxide thin film gas sensors obtained by conventional and RF plasma-assisted laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitu, B.; Marotta, V.; Orlando, S.

    2006-01-01

    Multilayered thin films of In 2 O 3 and SnO 2 have been deposited by conventional and RF plasma-assisted reactive pulsed laser ablation, with the aim to evaluate their behaviour as toxic gas sensors. The depositions have been carried out by a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ = 532 nm, τ = 7 ns) on Si(1 0 0) substrates, in O 2 atmosphere. The thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical resistance measurements. A comparison of the electrical response of the simple (indium oxide, tin oxide) and multilayered oxides to toxic gas (nitric oxide, NO) has been performed. The influence on the structural and electrical properties of the deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature and RF power is reported

  12. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S; Ridge, Claron J.; Rö tzer, Marian David; Zwaschka, Gregor; Braun, Thomas; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie; Schweinberger, Florian Frank; Gü nther, Sebastian; Heiz, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly

  13. Development of an ion-beam sputtering system for depositing thin films and multilayers of alloys and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, Ajay; Phase, D.M.; Chaudhari, S.M.; Dasannacharya, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    An ion-beam sputtering (IBS) system has been designed and developed for preparing thin films and multilayers of various elements, alloys and compounds. The ion source used is a 3 cm diameter, hot-cathode Kaufman type 1.5 kV ion source. The system has been successfully tested with the deposition of various materials, and the deposition parameters were optimised for achieving good quality of thin films and multilayers. A systematic illustration of the versatility of the system to produce a variety of structures is done by depositing thin film of pure iron, an alloy film of Fe-Zr, a compound thin film of FeN, a multilayer of Fe-Ag and an isotopic multilayer of 57 FeZr/FeZr. Microstructural measurements on these films using X-ray and neutron reflectivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction are presented and discussed to reveal the quality of the microstructures obtained with the system. It is found that in general, the surface roughnesses of the film deposited by IBS are significantly smaller as compared to those for films deposited by e-beam evaporation. Further, the grain size of the IBS crystalline films is significantly refined as compared to the films deposited by e-beam evaporation. Grain refinement may be one of the reasons for reduced surface roughness. In the case of amorphous films, the roughness of the films does not increase appreciably beyond that of the substrate even after depositing thicknesses of several hundred angstroms

  14. Multilayer Thin Films Sequential Assembly of Nanocomposite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Decher, Gero

    2012-01-01

    This second, comprehensive edition of the pioneering book in this field has been completely revised and extended, now stretching to two volumes. The result is a comprehensive summary of layer-by-layer assembled, truly hybrid nanomaterials and thin films, covering organic, inorganic, colloidal, macromolecular and biological components, plus the assembly of nanoscale films derived from them on surfaces. Praise for the first edition: "... highly recommended to anyone interested in the field... and to scientists and researchers active in materials development..." –Polymer News With contri

  15. Preparation and electrochemical properties of gold nanoparticles containing carbon nanotubes-polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aimin; Zhang Xing; Zhang Haili; Han, Deyan; Knight, Allan R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Gold nanoparticles containing carbon nanotubes-polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films were prepared via layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. → The electron transfer behaviour of the hybrid thin films were investigated using an electrochemical probe. → The resulting thin films exhibited an electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of nitric oxide. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/polyelectrolyte (PE) hybrid thin films were fabricated by alternatively depositing negatively charged MWCNT and positively charged (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The stepwise growth of the multilayer films of MWCNT and PDDA was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that the MWCNT were uniformly embedded in the film to form a network and the coverage density of MWCNT increased with layer number. Au nanoparticles (NPs) could be further adsorbed onto the film to form PE/MWCNT/Au NPs composite films. The electron transfer behaviour of multilayer films with different compositions were studied by cyclic voltammetry using [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- as an electrochemical probe. The results indicated that the incorporation of MWCNT and Au NPs not only greatly improved the electronic conductivity of pure polyelectrolyte films, but also provided excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of nitric oxide (NO).

  16. Characterization of amorphous multilayered ZnO-SnO2 heterostructure thin films and their field effect electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Su-Jae; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Pi, Jae-Eun; Yang, Jong-Heon; Oh, Himchan; Cho, Sung Haeng; Cho, Kyoung-Ik; Chu, Hye Yong

    2014-01-01

    Multilayered ZnO-SnO 2 heterostructure thin films were produced using pulsed laser ablation of pie-shaped ZnO-SnO 2 oxides target, and their structural and field effect electronic transport properties were investigated as a function of the thickness of the ZnO and SnO 2 layers. The films have an amorphous multilayered heterostructure composed of the periodic stacking of the ZnO and SnO 2 layers. The field effect electronic properties of amorphous multilayered ZnO-SnO 2 heterostructure thin film transistors (TFTs) are highly dependent on the thickness of the ZnO and SnO 2 layers. The highest electron mobility of 37 cm 2 /V s, a low subthreshold swing of a 0.19 V/decade, a threshold voltage of 0.13 V, and a high drain current on-to-off ratio of ∼10 10 obtained for the amorphous multilayered ZnO(1.5 nm)-SnO 2 (1.5 nm) heterostructure TFTs. These results are presumed to be due to the unique electronic structure of an amorphous multilayered ZnO-SnO 2 heterostructure film consisting of ZnO, SnO 2 , and ZnO-SnO 2 interface layers

  17. Tailoring electronic structure of polyazomethines thin films

    OpenAIRE

    J. Weszka; B. Hajduk; M. Domański; M. Chwastek; J. Jurusik; B. Jarząbek; H. Bednarski; P. Jarka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to show how electronic properties of polyazomethine thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) can be tailored by manipulating technological parameters of pristine films preparation as well as modifying them while the as-prepared films put into iodine atmosphere.Design/methodology/approach: The recent achievements in the field of designing and preparation methods to be used while preparing polymer photovoltaic solar cells or optoelectronic ...

  18. Acoustically Triggered Disassembly of Multilayered Polyelectrolyte Thin Films through Gigahertz Resonators for Controlled Drug Release Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlled drug release has a high priority for the development of modern medicine and biochemistry. To develop a versatile method for controlled release, a miniaturized acoustic gigahertz (GHz resonator is designed and fabricated which can transfer electric supply to mechanical vibrations. By contacting with liquid, the GHz resonator directly excites streaming flows and induces physical shear stress to tear the multilayered polyelectrolyte (PET thin films. Due to the ultra-high working frequency, the shear stress is greatly intensified, which results in a controlled disassembling of the PET thin films. This technique is demonstrated as an effective method to trigger and control the drug release. Both theory analysis and controlled release experiments prove the thin film destruction and the drug release.

  19. Multilayer thin films: sequential assembly of nanocomposite materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Decher, Gero; Schlenoff, Joseph B

    2003-01-01

    ... polymeric or nanoparticulate building blocks, understanding the polymer physical chemistry of multilayers, or characterizing their optical, electrical or biological activities. The reasons for the intense interest in the field are also clearly evident: multilayers bridge the gap between monolayers and spun-on or dip-coated films, ...

  20. Atomic structures of Ruddlesden-Popper faults in LaCoO3/SrRuO3 multilayer thin films induced by epitaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Shen, Xi; Guan, Xiangxiang; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Yanguo; Sun, Jirong; Yu, Richeng

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to study the microstructures of the defects in LaCoO3/SrRuO3 multilayer films grown on the SrTiO3 substrates, and these films have different thickness of SrRuO3 (SRO) layers. Several types of Ruddlesden-Popper (R.P.) faults at an atomic level are found, and these chemical composition fluctuations in the growth process are induced by strain fields originating from the film-film and film-substrate lattice mismatches. Furthermore, we propose four types of structural models based on the atomic arrangements of the R.P. planar faults, which severely affect the functional properties of the films.

  1. Mechanics of evolving thin film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jim

    In the Stranski-Krastanov system, the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate causes the film to break into islands. During annealing, both the surface energy and the elastic energy drive the islands to coarsen. Motivated by several related studies, we suggest that stable islands should form when a stiff ceiling is placed at a small gap above the film. We show that the role of elasticity is reversed: with the ceiling, the total elastic energy stored in the system increases as the islands coarsen laterally. Consequently, the islands select an equilibrium size to minimize the combined elastic energy and surface energy. In lithographically-induced self-assembly, when a two-phase fluid confined between parallel substrates is subjected to an electric field, one phase can self-assemble into a triangular lattice of islands in another phase. We describe a theory of the stability of the island lattice. The islands select the equilibrium diameter to minimize the combined interface energy and electrostatic energy. Furthermore, we study compressed SiGe thin film islands fabricated on a glass layer, which itself lies on a silicon wafer. Upon annealing, the glass flows, and the islands relax. A small island relaxes by in-plane expansion. A large island, however, wrinkles at the center before the in-plane relaxation arrives. The wrinkles may cause significant tensile stress in the island, leading to fracture. We model the island by the von Karman plate theory and the glass layer by the Reynolds lubrication theory. Numerical simulations evolve the in-plane expansion and the wrinkles simultaneously. We determine the critical island size, below which in-plane expansion prevails over wrinkling. Finally, in devices that integrate dissimilar materials in small dimensions, crack extension in one material often accompanies inelastic deformation in another. We analyze a channel crack advancing in an elastic film under tension, while an underlayer creeps. We use a two

  2. Sensitivity versus polarisation in multilayer optical thin film design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrem K. Ejigu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a polarised optical filter is more complicated than that of a filter where the polarisation effect does not exist (at a normal angle of incidence. An error in the optical parameters, such as the physical thickness or refractive index of a layer, results in a change in the spectral performance of the multilayer structure. The correlation between error sensitivity and the polarisation effect of light in structures designed at an oblique angle was investigated. To illustrate the correlation, a perpendicular (S and parallel (P polarised beam splitter, at 0.9818 µm central wavelength, designed by genetic algorithm, was used. The beam splitter changes its state of polarisation according to the error in thickness simultaneously induced in each of the layers. The error was calculated by optimising the original design. The observation of the change of the state of polarisation as a result of error sensitivity leads to a different method of designing pure S-polarised or P-polarised optical filters.

  3. Temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers in multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Hsu, Jen-Hwa; Perumal, Alagarsamy

    2016-01-01

    We report systematic investigations on temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers and resulting magnetic properties of multilayer structured [FeTaC (~67 nm)/Ta(x nm)] 2 /FeTaC(~67 nm)] thin films, which are fabricated directly on thermally oxidized Si substrate. As-deposited amorphous films are post annealed at different annealing temperatures (T A =200, 300 and 400 °C). Structural analyzes reveal that the films annealed at T A ≤200 °C exhibit amorphous nature, while the films annealed above 200 °C show nucleation of nanocrystals at T A =300 °C and well-defined α-Fe nanocrystals with size of about 9 nm in amorphous matrix for 400 °C annealed films. Room temperature and temperature dependent magnetic hysteresis (M–H) loops reveal that magnetization reversal behaviors and magnetic properties are strongly depending on spacer layer thickness (x), T A and temperature. A large reduction in coercivity (H C ) was observed for the films annealed at 200 °C and correlated to relaxation of stress quenched in during the film deposition. On the other hand, the films annealed at 300 °C exhibit unusual variation of H C (T), i.e., a broad minimum in H C (T) vs T curve. This is caused by change in magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic layers having different microstructure. In addition, the broad minimum in the H C (T) curve shifts from 150 K for x=1 film to 80 K for x=4 film. High-temperature thermomagnetization data show a strong (significant) variation of Curie temperature (T C ) with T A (x). The multilayer films annealed at 200 °C exhibit low value of T C with a minimum of 350 K for x=4 film. But, the films annealed at 400 °C show largest T C with a maximum of 869 K for x=1 film. The observed results are discussed on the basis of variations in magnetic couplings between FeTaC layers, which are majorly driven by temperature, spacer layer thickness, annealing temperature and nature of interfaces. - Highlights: • Preparation and

  4. UV protection filters by dielectric multilayer thin films on Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, M.M.; Azim, Osama A.; Abdel-Wahab, L.A.; Seddik, Mohamed M.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing use of Ultraviolet (UV) light in medicine, industrial environments, for cosmetic use, and even in consumer products necessitates that greater attention be paid to the potential hazards of this type of electromagnetic radiation. To avoid any adverse effects of exposure to this type of radiation, four suitable protection filters were produced to block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters was done by optical thin film technology using the absorbing property of UV radiation for the substrates and dielectric materials. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Titanium dioxide (Ti 2 O 3 ), Hafnium dioxide (HfO 2 ), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 ); deposition being achieved using an electron beam gun. The output results of the theoretical and experimental transmittance values for spectral band from 200 nm to 800 nm were discussed in four processes. To analyze the suitability for use in 'real world' applications, the test pieces were subjected to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance, and humidity) according to Military Standard MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A

  5. UV protection filters by dielectric multilayer thin films on Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, M. M.; Azim, Osama A.; Abdel-Wahab, L. A.; Seddik, Mohamed M.

    2006-10-01

    The increasing use of Ultraviolet (UV) light in medicine, industrial environments, for cosmetic use, and even in consumer products necessitates that greater attention be paid to the potential hazards of this type of electromagnetic radiation. To avoid any adverse effects of exposure to this type of radiation, four suitable protection filters were produced to block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters was done by optical thin film technology using the absorbing property of UV radiation for the substrates and dielectric materials. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Titanium dioxide (Ti 2O 3), Hafnium dioxide (HfO 2), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO 2/Al 2O 3); deposition being achieved using an electron beam gun. The output results of the theoretical and experimental transmittance values for spectral band from 200 nm to 800 nm were discussed in four processes. To analyze the suitability for use in 'real world' applications, the test pieces were subjected to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance, and humidity) according to Military Standard MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

  6. P-type CuxS thin films: Integration in a thin film transistor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Parreira, P.; Lavareda, G.; Brogueira, P.; Amaral, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cu x S thin films, 80 nm thick, are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation of sulfur-rich powder mixture, Cu 2 S:S (50:50 wt.%) with no intentional heating of the substrate. The process of deposition occurs at very low deposition rates (0.1–0.3 nm/s) to avoid the formation of Cu or S-rich films. The evolution of Cu x S films surface properties (morphology/roughness) under post deposition mild annealing in air at 270 °C and their integration in a thin film transistor (TFT) are the main objectives of this study. Accordingly, Scanning Electron Microscopy studies show Cu x S films with different surface morphologies, depending on the post deposition annealing conditions. For the shortest annealing time, the Cu x S films look to be constructed of grains with large dimension at the surface (approximately 100 nm) and consequently, irregular shape. For the longest annealing time, films with a fine-grained surface are found, with some randomly distributed large particles bound to this fine-grained surface. Atomic Force Microscopy results indicate an increase of the root-mean-square roughness of Cu x S surface with annealing time, from 13.6 up to 37.4 nm, for 255 and 345 s, respectively. The preliminary integration of Cu x S films in a TFT bottom-gate type structure allowed the study of the feasibility and compatibility of this material with the remaining stages of a TFT fabrication as well as the determination of the p-type characteristic of the Cu x S material. - Highlights: • Surface properties of annealed Cu x S films. • Variation of conductivity with annealing temperatures of Cu x S films. • Application of evaporated Cu x S films in a thin film transistor (TFT) structure. • Determination of Cu x S p-type characteristic from TFT behaviour

  7. Multilayer bioactive glass/zirconium titanate thin films in bone tissue engineering and regenerative dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Salahinejad, Erfan; Shabafrooz, Vahid; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification, particularly coatings deposition, is beneficial to tissue-engineering applications. In this work, bioactive glass/zirconium titanate composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating method. The surface features of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and spectroscopic reflection analyses. The results show that uniform and sound multilayer thin films were successfully prepared through the optimization of the process variables and the application of carboxymethyl cellulose as a dispersing agent. Also, it was found that the thickness and roughness of the multilayer coatings increase nonlinearly with increasing the number of the layers. This new class of nanocomposite coatings, comprising the bioactive and inert components, is expected not only to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility, but also to protect the surface of metallic implants against wear and corrosion. PMID:23641155

  8. Angular dependencies of longitudinal magnetoresistivity and planar Hall effect of single and multilayered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, T.W.; Lee, J.H.; Park, B.K.; Rhie, K.; Jang, P.W.; Hwang, D.G.; Lee, S.S.; Kim, M.Y.; Rhee, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetoresistivity and planar Hall effect of a Glass/Fe70A/[Co21A/Cu25A] 20 multilayer coupled antiferromagnetically a single layer (Co81Nb19) thin film, and NiO based Glass/Ni350A/Py50A/Cu20A/Py50A (Py = Ni 83 Fe 17 ) spin value are studied. Planar Hall resistivity is analysed concurrently with the resistivity of the sample. With variation of direction and strength of the applied fields, we found that the magnetization process affects significantly the planar Hall effect. We developed a simple method to find the easy axis of single layer magnetic thin films. We also observed the variation of magnetization of each layer separately for an antiferromagnetically coupled multilayer, and a NiO-based spin value with the planar Hall effect. (author)

  9. Measuring sticking and stripping in muon catalyzed dt fusion with multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.C.; Bailey, J.M.; Beer, G.A.

    1995-12-01

    The authors propose a direct measurement of muon sticking to alpha particles in muon catalyzed dt fusion at a high density. Exploiting the features of a multilayer thin film target developed at TRIUMF, the sticking is determined directly by detection of charged fusion products. Experimental separation of initial ticking and stripping may become possible for the first time. Monte Carlo simulations, as well as preliminary results of test measurements are described

  10. Structural and electrical properties of CZTS thin films by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. C.; Basha, Sk. Shahenoor

    2018-06-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) thin films were coated on ITO glass substrates by single bath electrodeposition technique. The prepared films were subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy and Raman studies. The thickness of the thin films was measured by wedge method. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of polycrystalline phase. The morphological surface of the prepared thin films was examined by SEM and AFM and showed the presence of microcrystals on the surface of the samples. The elemental analysis and their compositional ratios present in the samples were confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Functional groups and the position of band structure involved in the materials were confirmed by FTIR. Optical absorption studies were performed on the prepared thin films in the wavelength ranging from 300 to 1000 nm and the energy bandgap values were found to be in the range from 1.39 to 1.60 eV. Raman spectral peak which was observed at 360 cm-1 correspond to kesterite phase, was formed due to the vibration of the molecules. Electrical measurements confirmed the nature of the thin film depending on the charge concentration present in the samples.

  11. Effect of Ti seed and spacer layers on structure and magnetic properties of FeNi thin films and FeNi-based multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalov, A.V., E-mail: andrey.svalov@ehu.es [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81} films and FeNi-based multilayers were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • The samples were deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature. • Ti/FeNi films exhibit good (1 1 1) texture and crystallinity. • The thick Cu seed increases the coercive force of the magnetic layer. • The thin Ti spacer restores the magnetic softness of the Cu/Ti/FeNi multilayers. - Abstract: The microstructure and magnetic properties of sputtered permalloy films and FeNi-based multilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering have been studied. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that Ti/FeNi films exhibit good (1 1 1) texture and crystallinity. Ti/FeNi bilayers with high crystallographic quality have relatively low resistivity. The Ti seed layer does not influence the magnetic properties of FeNi film in Ti/FeNi bilayers, but the thick Cu seed layer leads to an increase of the coercive force of the magnetic layer. For the FeNi films deposited on thick Cu seed layer, the (0 1 0) and (0 0 2) diffraction peaks of hcp nickel were clearly observed. The thin Ti spacer between Cu and FeNi layers prevents the formation of the nickel phase and restores the magnetic softness of the FeNi layer in the Cu/Ti/FeNi sample. Obtained results can be important for the development of multilayer sensitive elements for giant magnetoimpedance or magnetoresistance detectors.

  12. Domain structure and magnetotransport in epitaxial colossal magnetoresistance thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yuri; Wu, Yan; Yu, Jun; Rüdiger, Ulrich; Kent, Andrew D.; Nath, Tapan K.; Eom, Chang-Beom

    2000-01-01

    Our studies of compressively strained La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO7 (LSMO) thin films reveal the importance of domain structure and strain effects in the magnetization reversal and magnetotransport. Normal and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction indicate that the compressive strain on these LSMO thin films on (100) LaAlO3 is not completely relaxed up to thicknesses on the order of 1000 Å. The effect of the compressive strain is evident in the shape of the magnetization loops and the magnetotransport measu...

  13. AND/R: Advanced neutron diffractometer/reflectometer for investigation of thin films and multilayers for the life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dura, Joseph A.; Pierce, Donald J.; Majkrzak, Charles F.; Maliszewskyj, Nicholas C.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Loesche, Mathias; O'Donovan, Kevin V.; Mihailescu, Mihaela; Perez-Salas, Ursula; Worcester, David L.; White, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    An elastic neutron scattering instrument, the advanced neutron diffractometer/reflectometer (AND/R), has recently been commissioned at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. The AND/R is the centerpiece of the Cold Neutrons for Biology and Technology partnership, which is dedicated to the structural characterization of thin films and multilayers of biological interest. The instrument is capable of measuring both specular and nonspecular reflectivity, as well as crystalline or semicrystalline diffraction at wave-vector transfers up to approximately 2.20 A -1 . A detailed description of this flexible instrument and its performance characteristics in various operating modes are given

  14. Magnetoelastic coupling in multilayered ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin films: A quantitative evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiolerio, A., E-mail: alessandro.chiolerio@iit.it [Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Turin (Italy); Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, IT-10129 Turin (Italy); Quaglio, M. [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, IT-10129 Turin (Italy); Lamberti, A. [Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Turin (Italy); Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, IT-10129 Turin (Italy); Celegato, F. [Electromagnetism Division, INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, IT-10135 Turin (Italy); Balma, D.; Allia, P. [Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Turin (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    The electrical control of magnetization in a thin film, achieved by means of magnetoelastic coupling between a ferroelectric and a ferromagnetic layer represents an attractive way to implement magnetic information storage and processing within logical architectures known as Magnetic Quantum Cellular Automata (MQCA). Such systems have been addressed as multiferroics. We exploited cost-effective techniques to realize multi-layered multiferroic systems, such as sol-gel deposition and RF sputtering, introducing a specific technique to control the crystal structure and film roughness effect on the magnetic domain wall motion and reconfiguration, induced by magnetoelastic coupling, by evaluating the 2-dimensional statistical properties of enhanced MFM matrices. A RF sputtered 50-nm-thick Co layer on a Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ti/Pt/PbTiO{sub 3}/Pb(Zr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47})O{sub 3} substrate was realized, exploiting two differently engineered PZT nano-crystalline structures and the conditions leading to a favorable compromise in order to realize functional devices were elucidated.

  15. Cell surface engineering with polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John T; Cui, Wanxing; Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Kharlampieva, Eugenia; Pan, Di; Qu, Zheng; Krishnamurthy, Venkata R; Mets, Joseph; Kumar, Vivek; Wen, Jing; Song, Yuhua; Tsukruk, Vladimir V; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2011-05-11

    Layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films represents a bottom-up approach for re-engineering the molecular landscape of cell surfaces with spatially continuous and molecularly uniform ultrathin films. However, fabricating PEMs on viable cells has proven challenging owing to the high cytotoxicity of polycations. Here, we report the rational engineering of a new class of PEMs with modular biological functionality and tunable physicochemical properties which have been engineered to abrogate cytotoxicity. Specifically, we have discovered a subset of cationic copolymers that undergoes a conformational change, which mitigates membrane disruption and facilitates the deposition of PEMs on cell surfaces that are tailorable in composition, reactivity, thickness, and mechanical properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate the first successful in vivo application of PEM-engineered cells, which maintained viability and function upon transplantation and were used as carriers for in vivo delivery of PEMs containing biomolecular payloads. This new class of polymeric film and the design strategies developed herein establish an enabling technology for cell transplantation and other therapies based on engineered cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Synthesis, characterization and application of Co doped TiO2 multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.

    2018-06-01

    To use the visible portion of solar light, 2% cobalt doped TiO2 (Co: TiO2) multilayer thin films having 1, 2, 3 and 4 stacked layers have been deposited on FTO substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that 1 and 2 layers of films have anatase phase. Brookite phase has been appeared at the 3 and 4 layered films. The average grain size of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers of films are 14.4, 23.5, 29.7 and 33.6 nm respectively. UV-Vis results show that 4th layer film has high absorption in the visible region. The calculated Eg of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers is 3.54, 3.42, 3.30 and 3.03 eV respectively. The calculated average sheet resistivity of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers of films is 7.68 × 104, 4.54 × 104, 8.85 × 103 and 7.95 × 102 (ohm-m) respectively, according to four point probe technique. Solar simulator results show that highest solar conversion efficiency (5.6%) has been obtained by using 3 stacked layers photoanode. This new structure in the form of stack layers provides a way to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  17. Gamma Radiation Dosimetry Using Tellurium Dioxide Thin Film Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Korostynska

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Tellurium dioxide (TeO2 were investigated for γ-radiation dosimetry purposes. Samples were fabricated using thin film vapour deposition technique. Thin films of TeO2 were exposed to a 60Co γ-radiation source at a dose rate of 6 Gy/min at room temperature. Absorption spectra for TeO2 films were recorded and the values of the optical band gap and energies of the localized states for as-deposited and γ-irradiated samples were calculated. It was found that the optical band gap values were decreased as the radiation dose was increased. Samples with electrical contacts having a planar structure showed a linear increase in current values with the increase in radiation dose up to a certain dose level. The observed changes in both the optical and the electrical properties suggest that TeO2 thin film may be considered as an effective material for room temperature real time γ-radiation dosimetry.

  18. Recent Developments in the X-Ray Reflectivity Analysis for Rough Surfaces and Interfaces of Multilayered Thin Film Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Fujii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray reflectometry is a powerful tool for investigations on rough surface and interface structures of multilayered thin film materials. The X-ray reflectivity has been calculated based on the Parratt formalism, accounting for the effect of roughness by the theory of Nevot-Croce conventionally. However, in previous studies, the calculations of the X-ray reflectivity often show a strange effect where interference effects would increase at a rough surface. And estimated surface and interface roughnesses from the X-ray reflectivity measurements did not correspond to the TEM image observation results. The strange result had its origin in a used equation due to a serious mistake in which the Fresnel transmission coefficient in the reflectivity equation is increased at a rough interface because of a lack of consideration of diffuse scattering. In this review, a new accurate formalism that corrects this mistake is presented. The new accurate formalism derives an accurate analysis of the X-ray reflectivity from a multilayer surface of thin film materials, taking into account the effect of roughness-induced diffuse scattering. The calculated reflectivity by this accurate reflectivity equation should enable the structure of buried interfaces to be analyzed more accurately.

  19. Semiconductor/metal nanocomposites formed by in situ reduction method in multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yanli; Wang Enbo; Tian Chungui; Mao Baodong; Wang Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    A layer-by-layer adsorption and in situ reduction method was adopted for synthesizing semiconductor/metal nanocomposites in multilayer ultra-thin films. Alternate adsorption of ZnO nanoparticles modified with poly(ethyleneimine), hydrogentetrachloroaurate and poly(styrenesulfonate) sodium results in the formation of ZnO/AuCl 4 - -loaded multilayer films. In situ reduction of the incorporated metal ions by heating yields ZnO/Au nanocomposites in the films. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the components of the composite films. UV-vis spectra indicate regular growth of the films. The electrochemistry behavior of the multilayer films was studied in detail on indium tin oxide electrode. The combined results suggest that the layer-by-layer adsorption and subsequent reduction method used here provides an effective way to synthesize ZnO/Au nanocomposites in the polymer matrix

  20. Temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers in multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jen-Hwa [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Perumal, Alagarsamy, E-mail: perumal@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2016-11-15

    We report systematic investigations on temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers and resulting magnetic properties of multilayer structured [FeTaC (~67 nm)/Ta(x nm)]{sub 2}/FeTaC(~67 nm)] thin films, which are fabricated directly on thermally oxidized Si substrate. As-deposited amorphous films are post annealed at different annealing temperatures (T{sub A}=200, 300 and 400 °C). Structural analyzes reveal that the films annealed at T{sub A}≤200 °C exhibit amorphous nature, while the films annealed above 200 °C show nucleation of nanocrystals at T{sub A}=300 °C and well-defined α-Fe nanocrystals with size of about 9 nm in amorphous matrix for 400 °C annealed films. Room temperature and temperature dependent magnetic hysteresis (M–H) loops reveal that magnetization reversal behaviors and magnetic properties are strongly depending on spacer layer thickness (x), T{sub A} and temperature. A large reduction in coercivity (H{sub C}) was observed for the films annealed at 200 °C and correlated to relaxation of stress quenched in during the film deposition. On the other hand, the films annealed at 300 °C exhibit unusual variation of H{sub C}(T), i.e., a broad minimum in H{sub C}(T) vs T curve. This is caused by change in magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic layers having different microstructure. In addition, the broad minimum in the H{sub C}(T) curve shifts from 150 K for x=1 film to 80 K for x=4 film. High-temperature thermomagnetization data show a strong (significant) variation of Curie temperature (T{sub C}) with T{sub A} (x). The multilayer films annealed at 200 °C exhibit low value of T{sub C} with a minimum of 350 K for x=4 film. But, the films annealed at 400 °C show largest T{sub C} with a maximum of 869 K for x=1 film. The observed results are discussed on the basis of variations in magnetic couplings between FeTaC layers, which are majorly driven by temperature, spacer layer thickness, annealing temperature and

  1. Design refinement of multilayer optical thin film devices with two optimization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.V.S.R.

    1992-01-01

    The design efficiency of two different optimization techniques of designing multilayer optical thin film devices is compared. Ten different devices of varying complexities are chosen as design examples for the comparison. The design refinement efficiency and the design parameter characteristics of all the sample designs obtained with the two techniques are compared. The results of the comparison demonstrate that the new method of design developed using damped least squares technique with indirect derivatives give superior and efficient designs compared to the method developed with direct derivatives. (author). 23 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs

  2. Crystal structure of red lead titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng, J.L.; Jiang, B. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Li, X. [Jilin Univ., Changchun, JL (China). Dept of Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    Orange-red lead titanate thin films are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and diffraction. It is remarkable that the structure is based on that of tetragonal-tungsten-bronze (TTB) rather than perovskite-type. The chemical basis for this result is examined. It is deduced that the TTB structure is stabilized by inclusion of hydroxyl ions during synthesis by a sol-gel route involving hydrolysis of n-Butyl titanate 7 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Crystal structure of red lead titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng, J.L.; Jiang, B.; Li, X.

    1998-01-01

    Orange-red lead titanate thin films are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and diffraction. It is remarkable that the structure is based on that of tetragonal-tungsten-bronze (TTB) rather than perovskite-type. The chemical basis for this result is examined. It is deduced that the TTB structure is stabilized by inclusion of hydroxyl ions during synthesis by a sol-gel route involving hydrolysis of n-Butyl titanate

  4. Structures and Elastic Moduli of Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric thin films generally possess unique mechanical and thermal properties due to confinement. In this study we investigated structures and elastic moduli of polymer nanocomposite thin films, which can potentially find wide applications in diverse areas such as in coating, permeation and separation. Conventional thermoplastics (PS, PMMA) and biopolymers (PLA, PCL) were chosen as polymer matrices. Various types of nanoparticles were used including nanoclay, fullerene and functionalized inorganic particles. Samples were prepared by solvent-mixing followed by spin-coating or flow-coating. Film structures were characterized using X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Elastic moduli were measured by strain-induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM), and a strengthening effect was found in certain systems due to strong interaction between polymers and nanoparticles. The effects of polymer structure, nanoparticle addition and film thickness on elastic modulus will be discussed and compared with bulk materials.

  5. Materials science in microelectronics I the relationships between thin film processing and structure

    CERN Document Server

    Machlin, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Thin films play a key role in the material science of microelectronics, and the subject matter of thin-films divides naturally into two headings: processing / structure relationship, and structure / properties relationship.The first volume of Materials Science in Microelectronics focuses on the first relationship - that between processing and the structure of the thin-film. The state of the thin film's surface during the period that one monolayer exists - before being buried in the next layer - determines the ultimate structure of the thin film, and thus its properties. This

  6. Design and development of an in-line sputtering system and process development of thin film multilayer neutron supermirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A.; Sampathkumar, R.; Kumar, Ajaya; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Lagoo, K. D.; Veerapur, R. D.; Padmanabhan, M.; Puri, R. K. [Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Bhattacharya, Debarati; Singh, Surendra; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Neutron supermirrors and supermirror polarizers are thin film multilayer based devices which are used for reflecting and polarizing neutrons in various neutron based experiments. In the present communication, the in-house development of a 9 m long in-line dc sputtering system has been described which is suitable for deposition of neutron supermirrors on large size (1500 mm × 150 mm) substrates and in large numbers. The optimisation process of deposition of Co and Ti thin film, Co/Ti periodic multilayers, and a-periodic supermirrors have also been described. The system has been used to deposit thin film multilayer supermirror polarizers which show high reflectivity up to a reasonably large critical wavevector transfer of ∼0.06 Å{sup −1} (corresponding to m = 2.5, i.e., 2.5 times critical wavevector transfer of natural Ni). The computer code for designing these supermirrors has also been developed in-house.

  7. Transparent nanocellulosic multilayer thin films on polylactic acid with tunable gas barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulin, Christian; Karabulut, Erdem; Tran, Amy; Wågberg, Lars; Lindström, Tom

    2013-08-14

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method was used for the build-up of alternating layers of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with a branched, cationic polyelectrolyte, polyethyleneimine (PEI) on flexible poly (lactic acid) (PLA) substrates. With this procedure, optically transparent nanocellulosic films with tunable gas barrier properties were formed. 50 layer pairs of PEI/NFC and PEI/CMC deposited on PLA have oxygen permeabilities of 0.34 and 0.71 cm(3)·μm/m(2)·day·kPa at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity, respectively, which is in the same range as polyvinyl alcohol and ethylene vinyl alcohol. The oxygen permeability of these multilayer nanocomposites outperforms those of pure NFC films prepared by solvent-casting. The nanocellulosic LbL assemblies on PLA substrates was in detailed characterized using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals large structural differences between the PEI/NFC and the PEI/CMC assemblies, with the PEI/NFC assembly showing a highly entangled network of nanofibrils, whereas the PEI/CMC surfaces lacked structural features. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a nearly perfect uniformity of the nanocellulosic coatings on PLA, and light transmittance results revealed remarkable transparency of the LbL-coated PLA films. The present work demonstrates the first ever LbL films based on high aspect ratio, water-dispersible nanofibrillated cellulose, and water-soluble carboxymethyl cellulose polymers that can be used as multifunctional films and coatings with tailorable properties, such as gas barriers and transparency. Owing to its flexibility, transparency and high-performance gas barrier properties, these thin film assemblies are promising candidates for several large-scale applications, including flexible electronics and renewable packaging.

  8. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  9. TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

  10. Intrinsic and extrinsic permeability of ferromagnetic thin films and multilayers for frequency dependence: comparison between theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthault, A.; Durbin, F.; Russat, J.

    1992-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic thin films are attractive materials for read/write head applications because they exhibit a high magnetic permeability in the hundred MHz range. By contrast, due to their low electrical resistivity, their processability at higher frequency is somewhat limited. Using Maxwell equations and the geometry of the processed material, we have developed a theoretical model of the frequency-dependent magnetic permeability useful for multilayers design. We have distinguished different cases: - extrinsic (measured) vs intrinsic permeability in magnetic thin films and magnetic-insulator multilayers, - intrinsic vs extrinsic permeability in magnetic thin films, computes by the Newton iterative method. Using the well-know Landau-Lifshitz model for high frequency permeability, we have compared experimental and theoretical results. (orig.)

  11. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  12. Thin-film magneto-impedance structures with very large sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Arribas, A., E-mail: alf@we.lc.ehu.es [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Leioa (Spain); BCMaterials, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Leioa (Spain); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Leioa (Spain); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Svalov, A. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Leioa (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Barandiaran, J.M. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Leioa (Spain); BCMaterials, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Leioa (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Thin film-based Magneto-Impedance (MI) structures are well suited for developing highly sensitive magnetic microsensors, which can be directly integrated into microelectronic circuits. Permalloy (Py) based structures benefit from well-established preparation procedures and enhanced structural stability over amorphous based sensors. In this work we use Finite Element Method calculations to complement our previous studies on high permeability Py multilayers, in order to determine the combination of magnetic and non-magnetic layers that maximizes the MI performance in sandwiched structures. The results indicate that optimum behavior is expected when the thickness of the non-magnetic layer equals the magnetic ones. The study is performed with an open flux configuration (Py not enclosing the central non-magnetic conductor), which permits the fabrication of the complete stack of layers in a single deposition process. On the outcome of that analysis, samples with a sandwiched multilayer structure defined as [Py(100 nm)/Ti(6 nm)]{sub 4}/Cu(400 nm)/[Ti(6 nm)/Py(100 nm)]{sub 4} have been prepared by magnetron sputtering and photolithography, having different dimensions. They were magnetically characterized by magneto-optical Kerr effect, displaying a well-defined transversal anisotropy, and the MI was measured in a network analyzer using a microstrip test-fixture. The measured MI ratio, defined as (Z-Zmin)/Zmin×100, reaches extraordinary values of 350%, while the sensitivity, calculated as the field derivative of the MI ratio, goes up to 300%/Oe (27 kΩ/T in absolute units). The MI ratio is lower than the best reported previously for amorphous CoSiB/Ag/CoSiB thin-film samples with closed-flux structure, but the sensitivity, which is the key parameter for the performance of sensors, is six times larger. These figures can be compared favorably with the ones obtained in wire-based samples, and definitely opens the way to incorporate thin-film structures in low-field MI

  13. Alloying process of sputter-deposited Ti/Ni multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.; Kim, H.Y.; Miyazaki, S.

    2006-01-01

    Alloying process of a Ti/Ni multilayer thin film was investigated in detail by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Ti/Ni multilayer thin film was prepared by depositing Ti and Ni layers alternately on a SiO 2 /Si substrate. The number of each metal layer was 100, and the total thickness was 3 μm. The alloy composition was determined as Ti-51 at.%Ni by electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). The DSC curve exhibited three exothermic peaks at 621, 680 and 701 K during heating the as-sputtered multilayer thin film. In order to investigate the alloying process, XRD and TEM observation was carried out for the specimens heated up to various temperatures with the heating rate same as the DSC measurement. The XRD profile of the as-sputtered film revealed only diffraction peaks of Ti and Ni. But reaction layers of 3 nm in thickness were observed at the interfaces of Ti and Ni layers in cross-sectional TEM images. The reaction layer was confirmed as an amorphous phase by the nano beam diffraction analysis. The XRD profiles exhibited that the intensity of Ti diffraction peak decreased in the specimen heat-treated above 600 K. The peak from Ni became broad and shifted to lower diffraction angle. The amorphous layer thickened up to 6 nm in the specimen heated up to 640 K. The diffraction peak corresponding to Ti-Ni B2 phase appeared and the peak from Ni disappeared for the specimen heated up to 675 K. The Ti-Ni B2 crystallized from the amorphous reaction layer. After further heating above the third exothermic peak, the intensity of the peak from the Ti-Ni B2 phase increased, the peak from Ti disappeared and the peaks corresponding to Ti 2 Ni appeared. The Ti 2 Ni phase was formed by the reaction of the Ti-Ni B2 and Ti

  14. Development of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film composite membrane for water desalination application

    KAUST Repository

    Fadhillah, F.; Zaidi, S.M.J.; Khan, Z.; Khaled, M.M.; Rahman, F.; Hammond, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    Thin film composite membranes were fabricated via spin assisted layer by layer (SA-LbL) assembly by depositing alternate layers of poly(allyl amine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on a polysulfone (PSF) ultrafiltration membrane as support. The suitability of these membranes for potential water purification applications was explored by testing the stability of the deposited thin films and their permeation characteristic using cross-flow permeation cell. Permeation test conducted at a pressure of 40bar, temperature of 25°C, pH of 6 and feed water concentration of 2000ppm NaCl demonstrated that the PAH/PAA multilayer film deposited on polysulfone support remained stable and intact under long-term test conditions. The 120 bilayers of PAH/PAA membrane tested at the above condition showed flux of 15L/m2.h and salt rejection of 65%. The membrane performance evaluation also revealed that SA-LbL PAH/PAA membrane follows the characteristics of the solution diffusion membrane. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Development of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film composite membrane for water desalination application

    KAUST Repository

    Fadhillah, F.

    2013-06-01

    Thin film composite membranes were fabricated via spin assisted layer by layer (SA-LbL) assembly by depositing alternate layers of poly(allyl amine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on a polysulfone (PSF) ultrafiltration membrane as support. The suitability of these membranes for potential water purification applications was explored by testing the stability of the deposited thin films and their permeation characteristic using cross-flow permeation cell. Permeation test conducted at a pressure of 40bar, temperature of 25°C, pH of 6 and feed water concentration of 2000ppm NaCl demonstrated that the PAH/PAA multilayer film deposited on polysulfone support remained stable and intact under long-term test conditions. The 120 bilayers of PAH/PAA membrane tested at the above condition showed flux of 15L/m2.h and salt rejection of 65%. The membrane performance evaluation also revealed that SA-LbL PAH/PAA membrane follows the characteristics of the solution diffusion membrane. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. The structural and optical characterizations of tetraphenylporphyrin thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, M.M., E-mail: m_makhlof@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science at Turabah branch, Taif University, Turabah, 21995 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); El-Denglawey, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science at Turabah branch, Taif University, Turabah, 21995 (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Zeyada, H.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); El-Nahass, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-03-15

    X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the structural properties of tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP, which is polycrystalline in a synthesized condition. It turns to amorphous structure upon thermal deposition. Annealing temperature ranging from 295 to 473 K does not influence the amorphous structure of films. The optical properties of TPP were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence in the wavelength range of 200–2200 nm. The absorption spectra were recorded in UV–visible region of spectra for the as-deposited and annealed samples show different absorption bands, namely four bands labeled as Q-band in visible region of spectra and a more intense band termed as the Soret band in near UV region of spectra. The Soret band shows its splitting (Davydov splitting). Two other bands labeled N and M appear in UV region. The film thickness has no influence on optical properties of films while annealing temperatures have a slight influence on optical properties of TPP films. The type of optical transition in as deposited and annealed conditions of films was found to be indirect allowed band-gap. Both fundamental and onset energy gap decreases upon annealing. -- Highlights: • Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) is polycrystalline in powder form, while the as-deposited and annealed TPP thin films have amorphous structure. • The absorption spectra of TPP in UV–visible region consists of Q-bands, Soret band and two other bands labeled N and M. • The optical parameters of TPP thin film were measured. • Thermal annealing influences optical properties of TPP thin films.

  17. The structural and optical characterizations of tetraphenylporphyrin thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, M.M.; El-Denglawey, A.; Zeyada, H.M.; El-Nahass, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the structural properties of tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP, which is polycrystalline in a synthesized condition. It turns to amorphous structure upon thermal deposition. Annealing temperature ranging from 295 to 473 K does not influence the amorphous structure of films. The optical properties of TPP were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence in the wavelength range of 200–2200 nm. The absorption spectra were recorded in UV–visible region of spectra for the as-deposited and annealed samples show different absorption bands, namely four bands labeled as Q-band in visible region of spectra and a more intense band termed as the Soret band in near UV region of spectra. The Soret band shows its splitting (Davydov splitting). Two other bands labeled N and M appear in UV region. The film thickness has no influence on optical properties of films while annealing temperatures have a slight influence on optical properties of TPP films. The type of optical transition in as deposited and annealed conditions of films was found to be indirect allowed band-gap. Both fundamental and onset energy gap decreases upon annealing. -- Highlights: • Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) is polycrystalline in powder form, while the as-deposited and annealed TPP thin films have amorphous structure. • The absorption spectra of TPP in UV–visible region consists of Q-bands, Soret band and two other bands labeled N and M. • The optical parameters of TPP thin film were measured. • Thermal annealing influences optical properties of TPP thin films

  18. Piezoelectric coefficients of multilayer Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muensit, S. [Prince of Songkla University, Department of Physics, Songkhla (Thailand); NANOTEC Center of Excellence at Prince of Songkhla University, Songkhla (Thailand); Sukwisut, P.; Khaenamkeaw, P. [Prince of Songkla University, Department of Physics, Songkhla (Thailand); Lang, S.B. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Chemical Engineering, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2008-08-15

    Sol-gel techniques were used to prepare thin films of Pb(Zr{sub x},Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) with three different Zr/Ti ratios and a graded PZT film with three different compositional layers. A Michelson interferometer was used to measure the thickness strains due to an applied ac electric field. Effective d{sub 33} piezoelectric strain coefficients were computed from the experimental data. Interfacial pinning caused these coefficients to differ from the true ones. They were corrected for the pinning using both an analytical model and finite-element analysis. The corrected coefficients of the PZT(52/48) sample were in excellent agreement with values of bulk materials. The coefficients of the multilayer sample were very low, probably due to insufficient poling or domain switching. (orig.)

  19. Magneto-optical and magnetic properties in a Co/Pd multilayered thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwokoye, Chidubem A. [Institute for Magnetics Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, DC 20052 (United States); Naval Air Systems Command, Avionics, Sensors and E*Warfare Department, Patuxent River, MD 20670 (United States); Bennett, Lawrence H., E-mail: lbennett@gwu.edu [Institute for Magnetics Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, DC 20052 (United States); Della Torre, Edward, E-mail: edt@gwu.edu [Institute for Magnetics Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, DC 20052 (United States); Ghahremani, Mohammadreza [Institute for Magnetics Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, DC 20052 (United States); Narducci, Frank A. [Naval Air Systems Command, Avionics, Sensors and E*Warfare Department, Patuxent River, MD 20670 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes investigation of ferromagnetism at low temperatures. We explored the magneto-optical properties, influenced by photon–magnon interactions, of a ferromagnetic Co/Pd multilayered thin film below and above the magnon Bose–Einstein Condensation (BEC) temperature. Analyses of SQUID and MOKE low temperature experimental results reveal a noticeable phase transition in both magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the material at the BEC temperature. - Highlights: • The results show the effect of a non-zero chemical potential on the magnetization. • The MOKE and SQUID results show a phase transition point at the same temperature. • Magnon BEC is a major influence of the observed phase transition temperature.

  20. Multilayer bioactive glass/zirconium titanate thin films in bone tissue engineering and regenerative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafari M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Masoud Mozafari,1,2 Erfan Salahinejad,1,3 Vahid Shabafrooz,1 Mostafa Yazdimamaghani,1 Daryoosh Vashaee,4 Lobat Tayebi1,5 1Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK, USA; 2Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran; 4Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK, USA; 5School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK, USA Abstract: Surface modification, particularly coatings deposition, is beneficial to tissue-engineering applications. In this work, bioactive glass/zirconium titanate composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating method. The surface features of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and spectroscopic reflection analyses. The results show that uniform and sound multilayer thin films were successfully prepared through the optimization of the process variables and the application of carboxymethyl cellulose as a dispersing agent. Also, it was found that the thickness and roughness of the multilayer coatings increase nonlinearly with increasing the number of the layers. This new class of nanocomposite coatings, comprising the bioactive and inert components, is expected not only to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility, but also to protect the surface of metallic implants against wear and corrosion. Keywords: bioactive glass, zirconium titanate, spin-coating, microstructural properties, bone/dental applications, tissue engineering

  1. Preparation of Ferroelectric Thin Films of Bismuth Layer Structured Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Mihara, Takashi; Yoshimori, Hiroyuki; Araujo, Carlos

    1995-09-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of bismuth layer structured compounds, SrBi2Ta2O9, SrBi2Nb2O9, SrBi4Ti4O15 and their solid solutions, were formed onto a sputtered platinum layer on a silicon substrate using spin-on technique and metal-organic decomposition (MOD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and some electrical measurements were performed on the prepared thin films. XRD results of SrBi2(Ta1- x, Nb x)2O9 films (0≤x≤1) showed that niobium ions substitute for tantalum ions in an arbitrary ratio without any change of the layer structure and lattice constants. Furthermore, XRD results of SrBi2 xTa2O9 films (0≤x≤1.5) indicated that the formation of the bismuth layer structure does not always require an accurate bismuth content. The layer structure was formed above 50% of the stoichiometric bismuth content in the general formula. SrBi2(Ta1- x, Nb x)2O9 films with various Ta/Nb ratios have large enough remanent polarization for nonvolatile memory application and have shown high fatigue resistance against 1011 cycles of full switching of the remanent polarization. Mixture films of the three compounds were also investigated.

  2. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth and damping in perpendicular-anisotropy magnetic multilayers thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujour, Jean-Marc

    2010-03-01

    Transition metal ferromagnetic films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) have ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidths that are one order of magnitude larger than soft magnetic materials, such as pure iron (Fe) and permalloy (NiFe) thin films. We have conducted systematic studies of a variety of thin film materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy to investigate the origin of the enhanced FMR linewidths, including Ni/Co and CoFeB/Co/Ni multilayers. In Ni/Co multilayers the PMA was systematically reduced by irradiation with Helium ions, leading to a transition from out-of-plane to in-plane easy axis with increasing He ion fluence [1,2]. The FMR linewidth depends linearly on frequency for perpendicular applied fields and increases significantly when the magnetization is rotated into the film plane with an applied in-plane magnetic field. Irradiation of the film with Helium ions decreases the PMA and the distribution of PMA parameters, leading to a large reduction in the FMR linewidth for in-plane magnetization. These results suggest that fluctuations in the PMA lead to a large two magnon scattering contribution to the linewidth for in-plane magnetization and establish that the Gilbert damping is enhanced in such materials (α˜0.04, compared to α˜0.002 for pure Fe) [2]. We compare these results to those on CoFeB/Co/Ni and published results on other thin film materials with PMA [e.g., Ref. 3]. [1] D. Stanescu et al., J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07B529 (2008). [2] J-M. L. Beaujour, D. Ravelosona, I. Tudosa, E. Fullerton, and A. D. Kent, Phys. Rev. B RC 80, 180415 (2009). [3] N. Mo, J. Hohlfeld, M. ulIslam, C. S. Brown, E. Girt, P. Krivosik, W. Tong, A. Rebel, and C. E. Patton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 022506 (2008). *Research done in collaboration with: A. D. Kent, New York University, D. Ravelosona, Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Universit'e Paris Sud, E. E. Fullerton, Center for Magnetic Recording Research, UCSD, and supported by NSF

  3. Effects of thickness on the nanocrystalline structure and semiconductor-metal transition characteristics of vanadium dioxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Zhenfei, E-mail: zhfluo8@yahoo.com [Terahertz Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Zhou, Xun, E-mail: zx_zky@yahoo.com [Terahertz Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Yan, Dawei [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Wang, Du; Li, Zeyu [Terahertz Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Yang, Cunbang [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Jiang, Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films were grown on glass substrates by using reactive direct current magnetron sputtering and in situ thermal treatments at low preparation temperatures (≤ 350 °C). The VO{sub 2} thin films were characterized by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) characteristics of the films were investigated by four-point probe resistivity measurements and infrared spectrometer equipped with heating pads. The testing results showed that the crystal structure, morphology, grain size and semiconductor-metal transition temperature (T{sub SMT}) significantly changed as the film thickness decreased. Multilayer structures were observed in the particles of thinner films whose average particle size is much larger than the film thickness and average VO{sub 2} grain size. A competition mechanism between the suppression effect of decreased thickness and coalescence of nanograins was proposed to understand the film growth and the formation of multilayer structure. The value of T{sub SMT} was found to decrease as average VO{sub 2} grain size became smaller, and SE results showed that small nanograin size significantly affected the electronic structure of VO{sub 2} film. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide thin films were prepared. • Multilayer structures were observed in the films with large particles. • The transition temperature of the film is correlated with its electronic structure.

  4. Effects of thickness on the nanocrystalline structure and semiconductor-metal transition characteristics of vanadium dioxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zhenfei; Zhou, Xun; Yan, Dawei; Wang, Du; Li, Zeyu; Yang, Cunbang; Jiang, Yadong

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) thin films were grown on glass substrates by using reactive direct current magnetron sputtering and in situ thermal treatments at low preparation temperatures (≤ 350 °C). The VO 2 thin films were characterized by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) characteristics of the films were investigated by four-point probe resistivity measurements and infrared spectrometer equipped with heating pads. The testing results showed that the crystal structure, morphology, grain size and semiconductor-metal transition temperature (T SMT ) significantly changed as the film thickness decreased. Multilayer structures were observed in the particles of thinner films whose average particle size is much larger than the film thickness and average VO 2 grain size. A competition mechanism between the suppression effect of decreased thickness and coalescence of nanograins was proposed to understand the film growth and the formation of multilayer structure. The value of T SMT was found to decrease as average VO 2 grain size became smaller, and SE results showed that small nanograin size significantly affected the electronic structure of VO 2 film. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide thin films were prepared. • Multilayer structures were observed in the films with large particles. • The transition temperature of the film is correlated with its electronic structure

  5. Solution processed pentacene thin films and their structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Chunlan; Zhang Xuhui; Zhang Fujia; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Haoli

    2007-01-01

    The paper reported the solution process of pentacene thin films from organic solvent O-dichlorobenzene. The pentacene thin films obtained from different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The result shows that the pentacene solution was successfully obtained at a minimum temperature of 40 deg. C. The optimum temperature of forming pentacene thin films was 100 deg. C

  6. Structural and optical properties of electrodeposited culnSe2 thin films for photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.; Galiano, F.

    1990-01-01

    Optical an structural properties of electrodeposited copper indium diselenide, CulnSe2, thin films were studied for its application in photovoltaic devices. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that thin films were grown in chalcopyrite phase after suitable treatments. Values of Eg for the CulnSe2 thin films showed a dependence on the deposition potential as determined by optical measurements. (Author) 47 refs

  7. Crystal structure and thin film morphology of BBL ladder polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, H H [Department of Macromolecular Science, Han Nam University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Fratini, A V [Department of Chemistry, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Chabinyc, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Price, G E [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Agrawal, A K [Systran Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States); Wang, C S [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Burkette, J [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Dudis, D S [Materials Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Arnold, F E [Materials Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Crystal structure and morphology of poly[7-oxo-7H-benz(d,e)imidazo(4`,5`:5,6)-benzimidazo(2,1-a)isoquinoline-3,4:10,11-tetrayl-10-carbonyl] (BBL) ladder-like polymer were studied. The polymer forms a two-dimensional lattice of nematic liquid crystalline structure. An orthorhombic unit cell with cell parameters of a=7.87 b=3.37 c=11.97A was determined from the fiber diffraction pattern. In thin films, the rigid chains spontaneously form a layered structure across the film thickness, but in a very unusual manner, i.e. the very large molecular plane is standing perpendicularly to the film surface plane. The results are identical to our recent results of poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBT) film [7]. The polymer, however, lost its anisotropic order upon extrusion into a film and resulted in a fiber-like structure. (orig.)

  8. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, K., E-mail: ozeki@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, 162-1 Shirakata, Toukai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Hirakuri, K.K. [Applied Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Ishizaka, Hatoyama, Hiki, Saitama 350-0394 (Japan); Masuzawa, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO{sub 2} films and DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO{sub 2}-coated and the DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO{sub 2} coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO{sub 2} film was covered with the DLC film.

  9. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K.K.; Masuzawa, T.

    2011-01-01

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO 2 films and DLC/TiO 2 /DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO 2 -coated and the DLC/TiO 2 /DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO 2 coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO 2 /DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO 2 /DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO 2 film was covered with the DLC film.

  10. Layer-by-layer modification of thin-film metal-semiconductor multilayers with ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romashevskiy, S. A.; Tsygankov, P. A.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Agranat, M. B.

    2018-05-01

    The surface modifications in a multilayer thin-film structure (50-nm alternating layers of Si and Al) induced by a single Gaussian-shaped femtosecond laser pulse (350 fs, 1028 nm) in the air are investigated by means of atomic-force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy (OM). Depending on the laser fluence, various modifications of nanometer-scale metal and semiconductor layers, including localized formation of silicon/aluminum nanofoams and layer-by-layer removal, are found. While the nanofoams with cell sizes in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers are produced only in the two top layers, layer-by-layer removal is observed for the four top layers under single pulse irradiation. The 50-nm films of the multilayer structure are found to be separated at their interfaces, resulting in a selective removal of several top layers (up to 4) in the form of step-like (concentric) craters. The observed phenomenon is associated with a thermo-mechanical ablation mechanism that results in splitting off at film-film interface, where the adhesion force is less than the bulk strength of the used materials, revealing linear dependence of threshold fluences on the film thickness.

  11. Structure and magnetization of Co4N thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nidhi; Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, Rachana; Rajput, Parasmani; Stahn, Jochen

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we studied the local structure and the magnetization of Co4N thin films deposited by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering process. The interstitial incorporation of N atoms in a fcc Co lattice is expected to expand the structure. This expansion yields interesting magnetic properties e.g. a larger magnetic moment (than Co) and a very high value of spin polarization ratio in Co4N . By optimizing the growth conditions, we prepared Co4N film having lattice parameter close to its theoretically predicted value. The N concentration was measured using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Detailed magnetization measurements using bulk magnetization method and polarized neutron reflectivity confirm that the magnetic moment of Co in Co4N is higher than that of Co.

  12. Structural characterization of vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The lattice parameter, grain size, average internal stress, microstrain, dislocation density and degree of pre- ferred orientation in the film are calculated and correlated with Ts. Keywords. ZnSe thin films; X-ray diffraction; average internal stress; microstrain; dislocation density. 1. Introduction. Thin films of ZnSe has attracted ...

  13. Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M A; Stavenga, D G

    2016-05-01

    Butterflies belonging to the nymphalid subfamily, Morphinae, are famous for their brilliant blue wing coloration and iridescence. These striking optical phenomena are commonly explained as to originate from multilayer reflections by the ridges of the wing scales. Because the lower lamina of the scales of related nymphalid butterflies, the Nymphalinae, plays a dominant role in the wing coloration, by acting as a thin film reflector, we investigated single blue scales of three characteristic Morpho species: M. epistrophus, M. helenor and M. cypris. The experimental data obtained by spectrophotometry, scatterometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that also in the Morpho genus the lower lamina of both the cover and ground scales acts as an optical thin film reflector, contributing importantly to the blue structural coloration of the wings. Melanin pigment has a contrast-enhancing function in a sub-class of ground scales.

  14. Structural and optical properties of furfurylidenemalononitrile thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. A. M.

    2013-03-01

    Thin films of furfurylidenemalononitrile (FMN) were deposited on different substrates at room temperature by thermal evaporation technique under a high vacuum. The structure of the powder was confirmed by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) technique. The unit cell dimensions were determined from X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The optical properties were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range from 200 to 2500 nm. The refractive index (n), the absorption index (k) and the absorption coefficient (α) were calculated. The analysis of the spectral behavior of the absorption coefficient in the absorption region revealed an indirect allowed transition. The refractive index dispersion was analyzed using the single oscillator model. Some dispersion parameters were estimated. Complex dielectric function and optical conductivity were determined. The influence of the irradiation with high-energy X-rays (6 MeV) on the studied properties was also investigated.

  15. Interface Engineering for Precise Threshold Voltage Control in Multilayer-Channel Thin Film Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihoon

    2016-11-29

    Multilayer channel structure is used to effectively manipulate the threshold voltage of zinc oxide transistors without degrading its field-effect mobility. Transistors operating in enhancement mode with good mobility are fabricated by optimizing the structure of the multilayer channel. The optimization is attributed to the formation of additional channel and suppression of the diffusion of absorbed water molecules and oxygen vacancies.

  16. Interface Engineering for Precise Threshold Voltage Control in Multilayer-Channel Thin Film Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihoon; Alshammari, Fwzah Hamud; Wang, Zhenwei; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer channel structure is used to effectively manipulate the threshold voltage of zinc oxide transistors without degrading its field-effect mobility. Transistors operating in enhancement mode with good mobility are fabricated by optimizing the structure of the multilayer channel. The optimization is attributed to the formation of additional channel and suppression of the diffusion of absorbed water molecules and oxygen vacancies.

  17. Investigation of phase transformation for ferrite–austenite structure in stainless steel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merakeb, Noureddine [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy and Property of Materials (LM2PM), Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Badji Mokhtar University, P.O. Box 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria); Messai, Amel [Laboratoire d' Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux Avancés (ISMA), Institut des Sciences et Technologie, Abbès Laghrour University, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Ayesh, Ahmad I., E-mail: ayesh@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-05-01

    In this work we report on phase transformation of 304 stainless steel thin films due to heat treatment. Ex-situ annealing was applied for evaporated 304 stainless steel thin films inside an ultra-high vacuum chamber with a pressure of 3 × 10{sup −7} Pa at temperatures of 500 °C and 600 °C. The structure of thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) techniques. The results revealed a transformation from α-phase that exhibits a body-centered cubic structure (BCC) to γ-phase that exhibits a face-centered cubic (FCC) due to annealing. In addition, the percentage of γ-phase structure increased with the increase of annealing temperature. Annealing thin films increased the crystal size of both phases (α and γ), however, the increase was nonlinear. The results also showed that phase transformation was produced by recrystallization of α and γ crystals with a temporal evolution at each annealing temperature. The texture degree of thin films was investigated by XRD rocking curve method, while residual stress was evaluated using curvature method. - Highlights: • Stainless steel thin films were fabricated by thermal evaporation on quartz. • Alpha to gamma phase transformation of thin films was investigated. • Annealing of thin films reduces disruption in crystal lattice. • The stress of as-grown thin films was independent on the thin film thickness. • The stress of the thin films was reduced due to annealing.

  18. Heteroepitaxial growth of strained multilayer thin films of high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.; Gupta, A.; Olsson, E.; Segmueller, A.; Koren, G.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the heteroepitaxial growth of multilayer structures of different copper oxide superconductors has been reported by several groups. In general, two different types of multilayer structures should be distinguished. The first kind of mulitlayer is formed by high-T c materials having the same crystal structure and almost the same lattice constants, as for example ReBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (Re=rare earth) multilayers with alternating Re-elements. In these multilayers the two different rare earth copper oxides (Y/Dy, Y/Pr) have the same orthorhombic unit cell. Due to the very similar lattice constants, the misfit strain is easily accommodated without the formation of defects. The second kind of multilayer is formed by layers of materials having different crystal structure and lattice parameters. In these multilayers the misfit can be coherently accommodated below a critical modulation thickness as discussed below. This renders possible the heteroepitaxial growth of strained multilayer structures, both of two copper oxides of different crystal structure, as has been demonstrated recently for the system YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ /Nd 1.83 Ce 0.17 CuO x , and of superconducting copper oxides and insulating materials. For multilayers of different copper oxides, a combination of almost all high-Tc materials should be possible, since the presence of the CuO 2 sheets in these materials results in similar lattice constants in their basal planes ('a' and 'b'). (orig./BHO)

  19. Magnetic properties of amorphous Tb-Fe thin films with an artificially layered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, N.

    1986-01-01

    An alternating terbium-iron (Tb-Fe) multilayer structure artificially made in amorphous Tb-Fe thin films gives rise to excellent magnetic properties of large perpendicular uniaxial anisotropy, large saturation magnetization, and large coercivity over a wide range of Tb composition in the films. The films are superior to amorphous Tb-Fe alloy thin films, especially when they are piled up with a monatomic layer of Tb and several atomic layers of Fe in an alternating fashion. Small-angle x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the layering of monatomic layers of Tb and Fe, where the periodicity of the layers was found to be about 5.9 A. Direct evidence for an artificially layered structure was obtained by transmission electron microscopic and Auger electron spectroscopic observations. Together with magnetic measurements of hysteresis loops and torque curves, it has been concluded that the most important origin of the large magnetic uniaxial anisotropy can be attributed to the Tb-Fe pairs aligned perpendicular to the films

  20. Multi-layered zinc oxide-graphene composite thin films for selective nitrogen dioxide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Bhowmick, T.; Majumder, S. B.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, selective nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sensing characteristics of multi-layered graphene-zinc oxide (G-ZnO) thin films have been demonstrated at 150 °C. The response% of 5 ppm NO2 was measured to be 894% with response and recovery times estimated to be 150 s and 315 s, respectively. In these composite films, the interaction between graphene and zinc oxide is established through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with the analyses of photoluminescence spectra. Superior NO2 sensing of these films is due to simultaneous chemiadsorption of molecular oxygen and NO2 gases onto graphene and ZnO surfaces, resulting in an appreciable increase in the depletion layer width and thereby the sensor resistance. The sensor responses for other reducing gases (viz., CO, H2, and i-C4H10) are postulated to be due to their catalytic oxidation on the sensor surface, resulting in a decrease in the sensor resistance upon gas exposure. At lower operating temperature, due to the molecular nature of the chemiadsorbed oxygen, poor catalytic oxidation leads to a far lower sensor response for reducing gases as compared to NO2. For mixed NO2 and reducing gas sensing, we have reported that fast Fourier transformation of the resistance transients of all these gases in conjunction with principal component analyses forms a reasonably distinct cluster and, therefore, could easily be differentiated.

  1. High Thermoelectric Power Factor Organic Thin Films through Combination of Nanotube Multilayer Assembly and Electrochemical Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Cho, Chungyeon; Krecker, Michelle; Smith, Ryan; Song, Yixuan; Gómez, Clara M; Cantarero, Andrés; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2017-02-22

    In an effort to produce effective thermoelectric nanocomposites with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), layer-by-layer assembly was combined with electrochemical polymerization to create synergy that would produce a high power factor. Nanolayers of MWCNT stabilized with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or sodium deoxycholate were alternately deposited from water. Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) [PEDOT] was then synthesized electrochemically by using this MWCNT-based multilayer thin film as the working electrode. Microscopic images show a homogeneous distribution of PEDOT around the MWCNT. The electrical resistance, conductivity (σ) and Seebeck coefficient (S) were measured before and after the PEDOT polymerization. A 30 bilayer MWCNT film (<1 μm thick) infused with PEDOT is shown to achieve a power factor (PF = S 2 σ) of 155 μW/m K 2 , which is the highest value ever reported for a completely organic MWCNT-based material and competitive with lead telluride at room temperature. The ability of this MWCNT-PEDOT film to generate power was demonstrated with a cylindrical thermoelectric generator that produced 5.5 μW with a 30 K temperature differential. This unique nanocomposite, prepared from water with relatively inexpensive ingredients, should open up new opportunities to recycle waste heat in portable/wearable electronics and other applications where low weight and mechanical flexibility are needed.

  2. High color fidelity thin film multilayer systems for head-up display use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Yi-Jen D.; Ho, Fang C.

    1996-09-01

    Head-up display is gaining increasing access in automotive vehicles for indication and position/navigation purposes. An optical combiner, which allows the driver to receive image information from outside and inside of the automobile, is the essential part of this display device. Two multilayer thin film combiner coating systems with distinctive polarization selectivity and broad band spectral neutrality are discussed. One of the coating systems was designed to be located at the lower portion of the windshield. The coating reduced the exterior glare by approximately 45% and provided about 70% average see-through transmittance in addition to the interior information display. The other coating system was designed to be integrated with the sunshield located at the upper portion of the windshield. The coating reflected the interior information display while reducing direct sunlight penetration to 25%. Color fidelity for both interior and exterior images were maintained in both systems. This facilitated the display of full-color maps. Both coating systems were absorptionless and environmentally durable. Designs, fabrication, and performance of these coating systems are addressed.

  3. Magnetic properties of Co/Pt-Pd multilayer thin film media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, N.; Igarashi, S.; Fujita, F.; Koike, K.; Kato, H. [Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Kirino, F. [National University of Fine Arts and Music, Taitou-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2007-12-15

    We investigated the dependence of magnetic properties for Co/Pt{sub 100-x}Pd{sub x} multilayer thin films on the concentration in the Pt-Pd alloy layers. Perpendicular magneto anisotropy constant K {sub p} increases with increasing Pt concentration in the Pt-Pd layer, since the interface anisotropy between the Co and the Pt-Pd layers is enhanced by the increase of the Pt concentration. The Curie temperature and the temperature dependence of K{sub p} for the specimens increase with increasing the amount of Pt in the Pt-Pd layer. These results may indicate that the lattice distortion of the Co layer caused by the interface from the Pt-Pd layer becomes larger and the increase of the distortion enhances the interface anisotropy, since the lattice misfit between the Pt-Pd and the Co increases with increasing the Pt concentration. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Damping constant of Co/Pt multilayer thin-film media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, N. [Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Inaba, N. [Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: inaba@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp; Kirino, F. [National University of Fine Arts and Music, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8577 (Japan); Igarashi, S.; Koike, K.; Kato, H. [Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Gilbert's damping constants, {alpha}, of Co(t{sub Co})/Pt (1.4 nm) multilayer thin films are investigated by Q-band FMR analysis. {alpha} is calculated from the resonance width of the FMR spectrum. With decreasing t{sub Co}, the {alpha} value decreases from 0.034 (t{sub Co}=8.7 nm) to 0.023 (t{sub Co}=1.8 nm), and then increases to 0.037 (t{sub Co}=1.0 nm). The decrease of {alpha} with t{sub Co}>1.8 nm is probably due to the eddy current loss effects. The increase of {alpha} with t{sub Co}<1.8 nm would be caused by the increase of the distortion between the Co and the Pt layers at the interface. When the magnetic field direction was changed from {theta}=90 deg. (parallel to the specimen) to {theta}=0 deg. (perpendicular to the specimen), the {alpha} of all the specimens increased, and a sharp step in {alpha} was observed around {theta}=40 deg., where the {alpha} has the maximum value.

  5. Damping constant of Co/Pt multilayer thin-film media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, N.; Inaba, N.; Kirino, F.; Igarashi, S.; Koike, K.; Kato, H.

    2008-01-01

    Gilbert's damping constants, α, of Co(t Co )/Pt (1.4 nm) multilayer thin films are investigated by Q-band FMR analysis. α is calculated from the resonance width of the FMR spectrum. With decreasing t Co , the α value decreases from 0.034 (t Co =8.7 nm) to 0.023 (t Co =1.8 nm), and then increases to 0.037 (t Co =1.0 nm). The decrease of α with t Co >1.8 nm is probably due to the eddy current loss effects. The increase of α with t Co <1.8 nm would be caused by the increase of the distortion between the Co and the Pt layers at the interface. When the magnetic field direction was changed from θ=90 deg. (parallel to the specimen) to θ=0 deg. (perpendicular to the specimen), the α of all the specimens increased, and a sharp step in α was observed around θ=40 deg., where the α has the maximum value

  6. Ion irradiation-induced stress relaxation in thin films and multilayers deposited using energetic PVD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadias, Gregory; Michel, Anny; Debelle, Aurelien; Jaouen, Christiane; Djemia Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to understand the stress build-up during energetic PVD film growth and the stress relaxation during subsequent ion irradiation at low dose (typically in the range 0.1-1.0 displacement per atom). Monolithic Mo thin films and Mo/Ni multilayers were grown using Dual Ion Beam Sputtering and Magnetron Sputtering at room temperature. Due to the high energy of incoming species (sputtered atoms, backscattered Ar), growth defects of interstitial-type are created during growth. The defect density can reach up to 1.4 % (far from equilibrium) in these Mo refractory layers. These defects act as misfitting particles, inducing a hydrostatic stress component and an associated in-plane compressive stress component. However, after Ar ion irradiation at low dose (∼0.2 dpa), most of the stress is relieved, showing that the growth induced defects are highly unstable. For Ni layers, the compressive stress is much lower due to the higher bulk atom mobility in this metal, making annihilation of defects more effective. An intermixing occurring mainly at the Mo/Ni interfaces is revealed from a complete strain-stress analysis using X-ray Diffraction. The magnitude of this interfacial alloying is found to increase with the energetics of the PVD process and is at the origin of the huge softening of the C 4 4 elastic constant, as measured using Brillouin light scattering. (authors)

  7. The Structure and Stability of Molybdenum Ditelluride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-tellurium alloy thin films were fabricated by electron beam evaporation and the films were annealed in different conditions in N2 ambient. The hexagonal molybdenum ditelluride thin films with well crystallization annealed at 470°C or higher were obtained by solid state reactions. Thermal stability measurements indicate the formation of MoTe2 took place at about 350°C, and a subtle weight-loss was in the range between 30°C and 500°C. The evolution of the chemistry for Mo-Te thin films was performed to investigate the growth of the MoTe2 thin films free of any secondary phase. And the effect of other postdeposition treatments on the film characteristics was also investigated.

  8. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  9. Crystal structures of sol-gel deposited zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Cheary, R.W.; Rice, M.; Ben-Nissan, B.; Cocking, J.L.; Johnstone, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reports on the crystal structure of zirconia thin films by high temperature x-ray diffraction. The films were deposited by sol-gel processing onto polished stainless steel substrates, and dried at 200 deg C. X-ray diffraction at temperatures between 400 deg C and 800 deg C was carried out using an APEX diffractometer with a position sensitive detector. Previous results indicated that there was a transformation between the tetragonal phase and the monoclinic phase at approximately 770 deg C. Two experiments have been carried out: temperature runs, where the structure evolution is studied as a function of temperature; and time evolution of the structure at fixed temperatures. The results for both experiments, including structural analysis of the different phases found in the thin zirconia films and an analysis of the kinetics of the phase transformation(s) from the time evolution work are presented. This will include a comparison with theories of nucleation and crystallisation in single element films. Impurity phases introduced by interaction of the zirconia with the substrate have been observed, and the effect of increasing annealing time on the substrate-film interaction will also be discussed. 17 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  10. Imaging of current distributions in superconducting thin film structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doenitz, D.

    2006-01-01

    Local analysis plays an important role in many fields of scientific research. However, imaging methods are not very common in the investigation of superconductors. For more than 20 years, Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy (LTSEM) has been successfully used at the University of Tuebingen for studying of condensed matter phenomena, especially of superconductivity. In this thesis LTSEM was used for imaging current distributions in different superconducting thin film structures: - Imaging of current distributions in Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer, also known as SIFS junctions, showed inhomogeneous current transport over the junctions which directly led to an improvement in the fabrication process. An investigation of improved samples showed a very homogeneous current distribution without any trace of magnetic domains. Either such domains were not present or too small for imaging with the LTSEM. - An investigation of Nb/YBCO zigzag Josephson junctions yielded important information on signal formation in the LTSEM both for Josephson junctions in the short and in the long limit. Using a reference junction our signal formation model could be verified, thus confirming earlier results on short zigzag junctions. These results, which could be reproduced in this work, support the theory of d-wave symmetry in the superconducting order parameter of YBCO. Furthermore, investigations of the quasiparticle tunneling in the zigzag junctions showed the existence of Andreev bound states, which is another indication of the d-wave symmetry in YBCO. - The LTSEM study of Hot Electron Bolometers (HEB) allowed the first successful imaging of a stable 'Hot Spot', a self-heating region in HEB structures. Moreover, the electron beam was used to induce an - otherwise unstable - hot spot. Both investigations yielded information on the homogeneity of the samples. - An entirely new method of imaging the current distribution in superconducting interference devices

  11. Materials science in microelectronics II the effects of structure on properties in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Machlin, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The subject matter of thin-films - which play a key role in microelectronics - divides naturally into two headings: the processing / structure relationship, and the structure / properties relationship. Part II of 'Materials Science in Microelectronics' focuses on the latter of these relationships, examining the effect of structure on the following: Electrical properties Magnetic properties Optical properties Mechanical properties Mass transport properties Interface and junction properties Defects and properties Captures the importance of thin films to microelectronic development Examines the cause / effect relationship of structure on thin film properties.

  12. Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Lithium Nickel Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-bong Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LiNiO2 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were investigated with a battery cycler using coin-type half-cells. The LiNiO2 thin films annealed below 500°C had the surface carbonate. The results suggest that surface carbonate interrupted the Li intercalation and deintercalation during charge/discharge. Although the annealing process enhanced the crystallization of LiNiO2, the capacity did not increase. When the annealing temperature was increased to 600°C, the FeCrNiO4 oxide phase was generated and the discharge capacity decreased due to an oxygen deficiency in the LiNiO2 thin film. The ZrO2-coated LiNiO2 thin film provided an improved discharge capacity compared to bare LiNiO2 thin film suggesting that the improved electrochemical characteristic may be attributed to the inhibition of surface carbonate by ZrO2 coating layer.

  13. Structural colors of the SiO2/polyethyleneimine thin films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yanrong; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Qiubao; Fan, Qinguo; Shao, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The SiO 2 /polyethyleneimine (PEI) films with structural colors on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates were fabricated by an electrostatic self-assembly method. The morphology of the films was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that there was no distinguishable multilayered structure found of SiO 2 /PEI films. The optical behaviors of the films were investigated through the color photos captured by a digital camera and the color measurement by a multi-angle spectrophotometer. Different hue and brightness were observed at various viewing angles. The structural colors were dependent on the SiO 2 particle size and the number of assembly cycles. The mechanism of the structural colors generated from the assembled films was elucidated. The morphological structures and the optical properties proved that the SiO 2 /PEI film fabricated on PET substrate formed a homogeneous inorganic/organic SiO 2 /PEI composite layer, and the structural colors were originated from single thin film interference. - Highlights: • SiO 2 /PEI thin films were electrostatic self-assembled on PET substrates. • The surface morphology and optical behavior of the film were investigated. • The structural colors varied with various SiO 2 particle sizes and assembly cycles. • Different hue and lightness of SiO 2 /PEI film were observed at various viewing angles. • Structural color of the SiO 2 /PEI film originated from single thin film interference

  14. 12. International conference on thin films (ICTF 12). Book of Abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkova, E.

    2002-09-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with thin films production and study of their properties. The conference was focused on the following topics: (1) Advanced deposition techniques; (2) Thin Film Growth; (3) Diagnostics, Structure - Properties Relationship; (4) Mechanical Properties and Stress; (5) Protective and Functional Coatings; (6) Micropatterning and Nanostructures; (7) EUV and Soft X-Ray Multilayers; (8) Magnetic Thin Films and Multilayers; (9) Organic Thin Films; (10) Thin Films for Electronics and Optics. In this proceedings totally 157 abstracts are published of which 126 are interest for INIS

  15. Structural characterization of the nickel thin film deposited by glad technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočnik J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a columnar structure of nickel thin film has been obtained using an advanced deposition technique known as Glancing Angle Deposition. Nickel thin film was deposited on glass sample at the constant emission current of 100 mA. Glass sample was positioned 15 degrees with respect to the nickel vapor flux. The obtained nickel thin film was characterized by Force Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy and by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Analysis indicated that the formation of the columnar structure occurred at the film thickness of 1 μm, which was achieved for the deposition time of 3 hours. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45005

  16. HREELS to identify electronic structures of organic thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeter, D; Ziegler, C; Göpel, W

    1995-10-01

    The electronic structure of alpha-oligothiophene (alphanT) thin films has been investigated for increasing chain lengths of n= 4-8 thiophene units with high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) in the specular reflection geometry at a primary energy of 15 eV. The great advantage of this technique in contrast to UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy results from the fact, that the impact scattering mechanism of HREELS makes it possible to also detect optically forbidden electronic transitions. On the other hand, the electrons used as probes in HREELS have a wavelength which is two orders of magnitudes smaller if compared to those of photons used in UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy. Therefore individual molecules are excited by HREELS independent from each other and hence the excitation of collective excitons is not possible. As a result, information about the orientation of the molecules cannot be achieved with HREELS, which, however, is possible in polarization-dependent UV/VIS spectroscopy.

  17. Femtosecond laser surface structuring of molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsedi, L., E-mail: Kotsedi@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biophotonics Lab: National Laser Centre Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Eaton, S.M. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano, Itala (Italy); Sechoghela, P.; Mongwaketsi, N. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Ramponi, R. [Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN)–CNR, Piazza Leanardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Color change of the molybdenum thin film from shinny to violet–yellowish color after laser irradiation at various laser powers. • Formation of the molybdenum dioxide coating after laser exposure, as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction spectrometry. • Selective solar absorbing nature of the laser exposed films. • Study of the binding energies is presented in this contribution using the XPS spectrometry. - Abstract: This contribution reports on the femtosecond surface structuring of molybdenum thin coatings deposited by electron beam evaporation onto Corning glass substrates. The 1-D type periodic grating lines created by such an ablation showed that the widths of the shallow grooves followed a logarithmic dependence with the laser energy incident on the molybdenum film. The electronic valence “x” of the created oxide surface layer MoO{sub x} was found to be incident laser power dependent via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations. Such a photo-induced MoO{sub x}–Mo nanocomposite exhibited effective selective solar absorption in the UV–vis–IR spectral range.

  18. Influence of cellulose nanocrystals concentration and ionic strength on the elaboration of cellulose nanocrystals-xyloglucan multilayered thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Abir; Moreau, Céline; Azzam, Firas; Jean, Bruno; Cousin, Fabrice; Cathala, Bernard

    2015-12-15

    The effect of the variation of CNC concentration on the growth pattern of CNC-XG films is investigated. We found that a transition in the growth slope occurs at a CNC concentration of roughly 3-4gL(-1). A close effect can be obtained by the increase of the ionic strength of the CNC suspensions, suggesting that electrostatic interactions are involved. Static light scattering investigation of CNC dispersions at increasing concentrations demonstrated that the particle-particle interactions change as the CNC concentration increases. Neutron Reflectivity (NR) was used to probe the internal structure of the films. The increase of the CNC concentration as well as the increase of the ionic strength in the CNC suspension were found to induce a densification of the adsorbed CNC layers, even though the mechanisms are not strictly identical in both cases. Small changes in these parameters provide a straightforward way of controlling the architecture of CNC-based multilayered thin films and, as a result, their functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical synthesis of porous web-structured CdS thin films for photosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosavi, S.R., E-mail: srgosavi.taloda@gmail.com [C. H. C. Arts, S. G. P. Commerce, and B. B. J. P. Science College, Taloda, Dist., Nandurbar 425413, M. S. (India); Nikam, C.P. [B.S.S.P.M.S. Arts, Commerce and Science College, Songir, Dist., Dhule 424309, M. S. (India); Shelke, A.R.; Patil, A.M. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India); Ryu, S.-W. [Department of Physics, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Bhat, J.S. [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003 (India); Deshpande, N.G., E-mail: nicedeshpande@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India)

    2015-06-15

    The photo-activity of chemically deposited cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film has been studied. The simple chemical route nucleates the CdS films with size up to the mean free path of the electron. Growth Kinematics of crystalline hexagonal CdS phase in the thin film form was monitored using X-ray diffraction. The time limitation set for the formation of the amorphous/nano-crystalline material is 40 and 60 min. Thereafter enhancement of the crystalline orientation along the desired plane was identified. Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area is observed. With decrease in synthesis time, increase of band gap energy i.e., a blue spectral shift was seen. The activation energy of CdS thin film at low and high temperature region was examined. It is considered that this activation energy corresponds to the donor levels associated with shallow traps or surface states of CdS thin film. The photo-electrochemical performance of CdS thin films in polysulphide electrolyte showed diode-like characteristics. Exposure of light on the CdS electrode increases the photocurrent. This suggests the possibility of production of free carriers via excited ions and also the light harvesting mechanism due to porous web-structured morphology. These studies hint that the obtained CdS films can work as a photosensor. - Highlights: • Photoactivity of chemically synthesized cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films was studied. • Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area was observed. • Blue spectral shift with lowering of the synthesis time suggests films can act as a window layer over the absorber layer. • Porous web-structured CdS thin films can be useful in light harvesting.

  20. Chemical synthesis of porous web-structured CdS thin films for photosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosavi, S.R.; Nikam, C.P.; Shelke, A.R.; Patil, A.M.; Ryu, S.-W.; Bhat, J.S.; Deshpande, N.G.

    2015-01-01

    The photo-activity of chemically deposited cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film has been studied. The simple chemical route nucleates the CdS films with size up to the mean free path of the electron. Growth Kinematics of crystalline hexagonal CdS phase in the thin film form was monitored using X-ray diffraction. The time limitation set for the formation of the amorphous/nano-crystalline material is 40 and 60 min. Thereafter enhancement of the crystalline orientation along the desired plane was identified. Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area is observed. With decrease in synthesis time, increase of band gap energy i.e., a blue spectral shift was seen. The activation energy of CdS thin film at low and high temperature region was examined. It is considered that this activation energy corresponds to the donor levels associated with shallow traps or surface states of CdS thin film. The photo-electrochemical performance of CdS thin films in polysulphide electrolyte showed diode-like characteristics. Exposure of light on the CdS electrode increases the photocurrent. This suggests the possibility of production of free carriers via excited ions and also the light harvesting mechanism due to porous web-structured morphology. These studies hint that the obtained CdS films can work as a photosensor. - Highlights: • Photoactivity of chemically synthesized cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films was studied. • Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area was observed. • Blue spectral shift with lowering of the synthesis time suggests films can act as a window layer over the absorber layer. • Porous web-structured CdS thin films can be useful in light harvesting

  1. Feasibility of X-ray analysis of multi-layer thin films at a single beam voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statham, P J

    2010-01-01

    Multi-layer analysis using electron beam excitation and X-ray spectrometry is a powerful tool for characterising layers down to 1 nm thickness and with typically 1 μm lateral resolution but does not always work. Most published applications have used WDS with many measurements at different beam voltages and considerable experience has been needed to choose lines and voltages particularly for complex multi-layer problems. A new objective mathematical approach is described which demonstrates whether X-ray analysis can obtain reliable results for an arbitrary multi-layer problem. A new algorithm embodied in 'ThinFilmID' software produces a single plot that shows feasibility of achieving results with a single EDS spectrum and suggests the optimal beam voltage. Synthesis of EDS spectra allows the precision in results to be estimated and acquisition conditions modified before wasting valuable instrument time. Thus, practicality of multi-layer thin film analysis at a single beam voltage can now be established without the extensive experimentation that was previously required by a microanalysis expert. Examples are shown where the algorithm discovers viable single-voltage conditions for applications that experts previously thought could only be addressed using measurements at more than one beam voltage.

  2. Multiferroic properties of BiFeO3/BaTiO3 multilayered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Savita; Tomar, Monika; Kumar, Ashok; Puri, Nitin K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Multilayered structures of multiferroic BiFeO 3 (BFO) and ferroelectric BaTiO 3 (BTO) have been fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties of the multilayered system (BFO/BTO) have been investigated. It could be inferred that the magnetization increases with the incorporation of BTO buffer layer, which indicates a coupling between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic orders. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements performed on the prepared multiferroic samples show that the magnetization is significantly increased (M s =56.88 emu/cm 3 ) for the multilayer system with more number of layers (four) keeping the total thickness of the multilayered system constant (350 nm) meanwhile maintaining the sufficiently enhanced ferroelectric properties (P r =29.68 µC/cm 2 )

  3. Silicon-integrated thin-film structure for electro-optic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A crystalline thin-film structure suited for use in any of an number of electro-optic applications, such as a phase modulator or a component of an interferometer, includes a semiconductor substrate of silicon and a ferroelectric, optically-clear thin film of the perovskite BaTiO.sub.3 overlying the surface of the silicon substrate. The BaTiO.sub.3 thin film is characterized in that substantially all of the dipole moments associated with the ferroelectric film are arranged substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate to enhance the electro-optic qualities of the film.

  4. Structural and optical properties of cobalt doped multiferroics BiFeO3 nanostructure thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannakumara, R.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2018-05-01

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) and Cobalt doped BiFeO3 (BiFe1-XCoXO3) nanostructure thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating method. The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of the grown BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films showed distorted rhombohedral structure. The shifting of peaks to higher angles was observed in cobalt doped BiFeO3. The surface morphology of the BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films were studied using FESEM, an increase in grain size was observed as Co concentration increases. The thickness of the nanostructure thin films was examined using FESEM cross-section. The EDX studies confirmed the elemental composition of the grown BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films. The optical characterizations of the grown nanostructure thin films were carried out using FTIR, it confirms the existence of Fe-O and Bi-O bands and UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the increase in optical band gap of the BiFeO3 nanostructure thin films with Co doping by ploting Tauc plot.

  5. Study on effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of thin film structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Soo [Ahtti Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun Hyu [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Yup [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This paper describes the effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of structure made with thin film. It is well known that the mean stress influences fatigue life prediction of mechanical structure. We investigated a reasonable method for considering mean stress when fatigue strength assessment of micro structure of thin film should be performed. Fatigue tests of smooth specimen of beryllium-copper (BeCu) thin film were performed in ambient air at R = 0.1 with 5 Hz. A micro probe was designed and made with BeCu thin film by the precision press process. Fatigue tests of micro structure were performed with 5 Hz frequency, in ambient air to verify the fatigue life predicted by computer simulation through FE analysis. The fatigue life predicted by the Sa -N curve modified by Goodman method with principal stress through FE analysis shows a more reasonable result than other methods.

  6. Study on effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of thin film structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Myung Soo; Park, Jun Hyu; Kim, Jung Yup

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of structure made with thin film. It is well known that the mean stress influences fatigue life prediction of mechanical structure. We investigated a reasonable method for considering mean stress when fatigue strength assessment of micro structure of thin film should be performed. Fatigue tests of smooth specimen of beryllium-copper (BeCu) thin film were performed in ambient air at R = 0.1 with 5 Hz. A micro probe was designed and made with BeCu thin film by the precision press process. Fatigue tests of micro structure were performed with 5 Hz frequency, in ambient air to verify the fatigue life predicted by computer simulation through FE analysis. The fatigue life predicted by the Sa -N curve modified by Goodman method with principal stress through FE analysis shows a more reasonable result than other methods

  7. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Yip, Ngai Yin; Phillip, William A.; Schiffman, Jessica D.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide

  8. Structuring of thin-film polymer mixtures upon solvent evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, C.; Michels, J.J.; van der Schoot, P.P.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study the impact of solvent evaporation on the dynamics of isothermal phase separation of ternary polymer solutions in thin films. In the early stages we obtain a spinodal length scale that decreases with time under the influence of ongoing evaporation. After that rapid demixing

  9. Structuring of Thin-Film Polymer Mixtures upon Solvent Evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, C.; Michels, J. J.; van der Schoot, P.

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study the impact of solvent evaporation on the dynamics of isothermal phase separation of ternary polymer solutions in thin films. In the early stages we obtain a spinodal length scale that decreases with time under the influence of ongoing evaporation. After that rapid demixing

  10. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  11. Heteroepitaxial growth of strained multilayer superconducting thin films of Nd1.83Ce0.17CuOx/YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Gross, R.; Olsson, E.; Segmueller, A.; Koren, G.; Tsuei, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of strained multilayer thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ /Nd 1.83 Ce 0.17 CuO x by pulsed-laser deposition is reported. The coherency strain results in biaxial compression of the tetragonal Nd 1.83 Ce 0.17 CuO x layers, whereas the biaxial tension in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ layers removes the orthorhombic distortion and makes the unit cell isotropic in the basal plane (a=b). Depending on their oxygen content, either the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ or the Nd 1.83 Ce 0.17 CuO x layers are superconducting in these multilayers. The strain-induced structural modification has a significant influence on the superconducting transition temperature of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ layers

  12. Multilayer SnSb4-SbSe Thin Films for Phase Change Materials Possessing Ultrafast Phase Change Speed and Enhanced Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruirui; Zhou, Xiao; Zhai, Jiwei; Song, Jun; Wu, Pengzhi; Lai, Tianshu; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2017-08-16

    A multilayer thin film, comprising two different phase change material (PCM) components alternatively deposited, provides an effective means to tune and leverage good properties of its components, promising a new route toward high-performance PCMs. The present study systematically investigated the SnSb 4 -SbSe multilayer thin film as a potential PCM, combining experiments and first-principles calculations, and demonstrated that these multilayer thin films exhibit good electrical resistivity, robust thermal stability, and superior phase change speed. In particular, the potential operating temperature for 10 years is shown to be 122.0 °C and the phase change speed reaches 5 ns in the device test. The good thermal stability of the multilayer thin film is shown to come from the formation of the Sb 2 Se 3 phase, whereas the fast phase change speed can be attributed to the formation of vacancies and a SbSe metastable phase. It is also demonstrated that the SbSe metastable phase contributes to further enhancing the electrical resistivity of the crystalline state and the thermal stability of the amorphous state, being vital to determining the properties of the multilayer SnSb 4 -SbSe thin film.

  13. A statistical-thermodynamic model for ordering phenomena in thin film intermetallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, Olga; Krachler, Regina

    2008-01-01

    Ordering phenomena in bcc (110) binary thin film intermetallics are studied by a statistical-thermodynamic model. The system is modeled by an Ising approach that includes only nearest-neighbor chemical interactions and is solved in a mean-field approximation. Vacancies and anti-structure atoms are considered on both sublattices. The model describes long-range ordering and simultaneously short-range ordering in the thin film. It is applied to NiAl thin films with B2 structure. Vacancy concentrations, thermodynamic activity profiles and the virtual critical temperature of order-disorder as a function of film composition and thickness are presented. The results point to an important role of vacancies in near-stoichiometric and Ni-rich NiAl thin films

  14. The measuring technique developed to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of the multi-layered thin film specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tse-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the thermal diffusivities of the Al, Si and ITO films deposited on the SUS304 steel substrate are evaluated via the present technique. Before applying this technique, the temperature for the thin film of the multi-layered specimen is developed theoretically for the one- dimensional steady heat conduction in response to amplitude and frequency of the periodically oscillating temperature imposed by a peltier placed beneath the specimen's substrate. By the thermal-electrical data processing system excluding the lock-in amplifier, the temperature frequency a3 has been proved first to be independent of the electrical voltage applied to the peltier and the contact position of the thermocouples. The experimental data of phase difference for three kinds of specimen are regressed well by a straight line with a slope. Then, the thermal diffusivity of the thin film is thus determined if the slope value and the film- thickness are available. In the present arrangements for the thermocouples, two thermal diffusivity values are quite close each other and valid for every kind of specimen. This technique can provide an efficient, low-cost method for the thermal diffusivity measurements of thin films.

  15. Effect of multi-layered bottom electrodes on the orientation of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskaran, M. [Microelectronics and Materials Technology Centre, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)], E-mail: madhu.bhaskaran@gmail.com; Sriram, S. [Microelectronics and Materials Technology Centre, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Mitchell, D.R.G.; Short, K.T. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), PMB 1, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Holland, A.S. [Microelectronics and Materials Technology Centre, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)

    2008-09-30

    This article discusses the results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of piezoelectric strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) thin films deposited on multi-layer coatings on silicon. The films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on a metal coated substrate. The aim was to exploit the pronounced piezoelectric effect that is theoretically expected normal to the substrate. This work highlighted the influence that the bottom electrode architecture exerts on the final crystalline orientation of the deposited thin films. A number of bottom electrode architectures were used, with the uppermost metal layer on which PSZT was deposited being gold or platinum. The XRD analysis revealed that the unit cell of the PSZT thin films deposited on gold and on platinum were deformed, relative to expected unit cell dimensions. Experimental results have been used to estimate the unit cell parameters. The XRD results were then indexed based on these unit cell parameters. The choice and the thickness of the intermediate adhesion layers influenced the relative intensity, and in some cases, the presence of perovskite peaks. In some cases, undesirable reactions between the bottom electrode layers were observed, and layer architectures to overcome these reactions are also discussed.

  16. Anisotropy and vortex behaviour in BiSrCaCuO thin films and multilayers probed by columnar pinning centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffy, H.; Murrills, C.D.; Pomar, A.; Stiufiuc, G.; Stiufiuc, R.; Li, Z.Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we review typical mixed state transport results obtained on a variety of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O y thin films and artificial multilayers, which allowed us to cover the range from low to high anisotropy. The vortex behaviour, 2D or 3D, probed by the pinning properties of columnar defects, is shown to be highly dependant on the anisotropy, and therefore on the microstructure of the system. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Structural and optical properties of ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Deepannita; Kaleemulla, S.; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Subbaravamma, K.; Rao, G. Venugopal

    2018-04-01

    (In0.95Sn0.05)2O3 and (In0.90Cu0.05Sn0.05)2O3 thin films were coated onto glass substrate by electron beam evaporation technique. The structural and optical properties of ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The crystallite size obtained for ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films was in the range of 24 nm to 22 nm. The optical band gap of 4 eV for ITO thin film sample has been observed. The optical band gap decreases to 3.85 eV by doping Cu in ITO.

  18. Structure analysis of ultra-thin films. STM/AFM. Chousumaku no kozo kaiseki. STM/AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozoe, H; Yumura, M [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-03-30

    Fullerene (C60) and carbon nanotubes are expected as new carbon structures. This article describes the observation results of C60 and carbon nanotubes by means of STM (scanning tunnel microscope). The STM images of C60 thin films are illustrated, which have been obtained by annealing at 290 centigrade. It was confirmed that C60 monomolecular thin films are formed which conform to the substrate and have high regularity. The step height of C60 monomolecular thin films coincided with the step height of Cu (111) plane, which suggested that the step of films is reflected in that of Cu substrate. For the STM images under bias voltages, various images of C60 with three-fold axis of symmetry were observed. On the other hand, from STM observation of carbon nanotubes with diameter of about 30 nm which were separated and purified from the cathode deposits during the preparation process of C60, it was found that they have concentric multilayer structure. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Investigation of the optical property and structure of WO3 thin films with different sputtering depositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Jan, Der-Jun; Chen, Chien-Han; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Yen-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the optical properties and structure of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films that was deposited by different sputtering depositions. WO3 thin films deposited by two different depositions of direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and pulsed DC sputtering. A 99.95% WO3 target was used as the starting material for these depositions. These WO3 thin films were deposited on the ITO glass, PET and silicon substrate by different ratios of oxygen and argon. A shadow moiré interferometer would be introduced to measure the residual stress for PET substrate. RF magnetron sputtering had the large residual stress than the other's depositions. A Raman spectrum could exhibit the phase of oxidation of WO3 thin film by different depositions. At the ratio of oxygen and argon was about 1:1, and the WO3 thin films had the best oxidation. However, it was important at the change of the transmittance (ΔT = Tbleached - Tcolored) between the coloring and bleaching for the smart window. Therefore, we also found the WO3 thin films had the large variation of transmittance between the coloring and bleaching at the gas ratios of oxygen and argon of 1:1.

  20. Structure evolution of zinc oxide thin films deposited by unbalance DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryanto, Didik, E-mail: didi027@lipi.go.id [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong 15314, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia); Materials Research Group, Physics Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Marwoto, Putut; Sugianto [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Materials Research Group, Physics Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Sudiro, Toto [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong 15314, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia); Birowosuto, Muhammad D. [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong 15314, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia); CINTRA UMI CNRS/NTU/THALES 3288 Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, level 6, 637553 (Singapore); Sulhadi [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on corning glass substrates using unbalanced DC magnetron sputtering. The effect of growth temperature on surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film are transformed against the increasing of growth temperature. The mean grain size of film and the surface roughness are inversely and directly proportional towards the growth temperature from room temperature to 300 °C, respectively. The smaller grain size and finer roughness of ZnO thin film are obtained at growth temperature of 400 °C. The result of AFM analysis is in good agreement with the result of XRD analysis. ZnO thin films deposited in a series of growth temperatures have hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structures and they exhibit transformations in the crystallographic orientation. The results in this study reveal that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film.

  1. COVALENTLY ATTACHED MULTILAYER ULTRA-THIN FILMS FROM DIAZORESIN AND CALIXARENES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-hui Yang; Wei-xiao Cao

    2003-01-01

    A kind of photosensitive ultra-thin film was fabricated from diazoresin (DR) and various calixarenes by using the self-assembly technique. Under UV irradiation both the ionic- and hydrogen bonds between the layers of the film will convert into covalent bonds. As a result, the stability of the film toward polar solvents increases dramatically.

  2. Electronic structure of semiconductor thin films (chalcopyrites) as absorbermaterials for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine for the first time the band structure of CuInS 2 . For this purpose a new GSMBE process with TBDS as sulphur precursor was established to prevent the use of elemental sulphur in an UHV system. Additionally to the deposited films a cleave surface was prepared. The samples were characterized in situ by XPS/UPS and LEED. XRD and SEM were used for further ex situ investigations. The band structure was determined by ARUPS using synchrotron light. CuInS(001) and CuInS 2 (112) were deposited on Si and GaAs. The deposition of CuInS 2 on GaAs showed a strong dependence on the existing surface reconstruction. A 2 x 1 reconstruction of GaAs(001) yielded CuInS 2 (001) films featuring terraces. A deposition on 2 x 2 reconstructed GaAs(111)A surfaces led to a facetted CuInS 2 surface. On sulphur-passivated non-reconstructed GaAs(111)B a deposition of chalcopyrite ordered CuInS 2 free of facets was possible. On the surface of Cu-rich CuInS 2 films CuS crystallites formed. This yields ARUPS spectra showing the electronic stucture of CuInS 2 superimposed by non-dispergative states of the polycrystalline CuS segregations. The effective hole masses were derived from the k vertical stroke vertical stroke measurements. Finally the results of this work showed that the use of a (111) substrate leads to domain formation of the deposited CuInS 2 (112) films. Thus ARUPS spectra of such films show a superposition of the band structures along different directions. (orig.)

  3. Simultaneous ultra-long data retention and low power based on Ge10Sb90/SiO2 multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Haipeng; Hu, Yifeng; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zou, Hua; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2018-02-01

    In this article, Ge10Sb90/SiO2 multilayer thin films were prepared to improve thermal stability and data retention for phase change memory. Compared with Ge10Sb90 monolayer thin film, Ge10Sb90 (1 nm)/SiO2 (9 nm) multilayer thin film had higher crystallization temperature and resistance contrast between amorphous and crystalline states. Annealed Ge10Sb90 (1 nm)/SiO2 (9 nm) had uniform grain with the size of 15.71 nm. After annealing, the root-mean-square surface roughness for Ge10Sb90 (1 nm)/SiO2 (9 nm) thin film increased slightly from 0.45 to 0.53 nm. The amorphization time for Ge10Sb90 (1 nm)/SiO2 (9 nm) thin film (2.29 ns) is shorter than Ge2Sb2Te5 (3.56 ns). The threshold voltage of a cell based on Ge10Sb90 (1 nm)/SiO2 (9 nm) (3.57 V) was smaller than GST (4.18 V). The results indicated that Ge10Sb90/SiO2 was a promising phase change thin film with high thermal ability and low power consumption for phase change memory application.

  4. Roll-to-Roll sputtered ITO/Cu/ITO multilayer electrode for flexible, transparent thin film heaters and electrochromic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Mok; Ko, Eun-Hye; Kim, Tae-Ho; Nah, Yoon-Chae; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jae Heung; Kim, Han-Ki

    2016-09-22

    We fabricate high-performance, flexible, transparent electrochromic (EC) films and thin film heaters (TFHs) on an ITO/Cu/ITO (ICI) multilayer electrode prepared by continuous roll-to-roll (RTR) sputtering of ITO and Cu targets. The RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer on a 700 mm wide PET substrate at room temperature exhibits a sheet resistance of 11.8 Ω/square and optical transmittance of 73.9%, which are acceptable for the fabrication of flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs. The effect of the Cu interlayer thickness on the electrical and optical properties of the ICI multilayer was investigated in detail. The bending and cycling fatigue tests demonstrate that the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer was more flexible than a single ITO film because of high strain failure of the Cu interlayer. The flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs fabricated on the ICI electrode show better performances than reference EC films and TFHs with a single ITO electrode. Therefore, the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer is the best substitute for the conventional ITO film electrode in order to realize flexible, transparent, cost-effective and large-area EC devices and TFHs that can be used as flexible and smart windows.

  5. Fabrication of Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film and its tunable energetics and tailorable optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijin Hong; Jialin Ji; Chunxian Tao; Daohua Zhang; Dawei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film was fabricated. The effects of graphene oxide (GO) and bimetal on the structure and optical properties of metal silver films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, and Raman intensity measurements, respectively. Compared to silver thin film, Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure composite thin films were observed with wider optical absorption peak and enhanced absorption intensity. The Raman signal for Rhodamine B ...

  6. Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric characterization of PZT thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo E.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work ferroelectric thin films of PZT were prepared by the oxide precursor method, deposited on Pt/Si substrate. Films of 0.5 mm average thickness were obtained. Electrical and ferroelectric characterization were carried out in these films. The measured value of the dielectric constant for films was 455. Ferroelectricity was confirmed by Capacitance-Voltage (C-V characteristics and P-E hysteresis loops. Remanent polarization for films presented value around 5.0 µC/cm2 and a coercive field of 88.8 kV/cm.

  7. Ion assisted deposition of refractory oxide thin film coatings for improved optical and structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N.K.; Thakur, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Das, N.C.

    1999-03-01

    Ion assisted deposition technique (IAD) has emerged as a powerful tool to control the optical and structural properties of thin film coatings. Keeping in view the complexity of the interaction of ions with the films being deposited, sophisticated ion sources have been developed that cater to the need of modern optical coatings with stringent spectral and environmental specifications. In the present work, the results of ion assisted deposition (IAD) of two commonly used refractory oxides, namely TiO 2 and ZrO 2 , using cold cathode ion source (CC-102R) are presented. Through successive feedback and calibration techniques, various ion beams as well as deposition parameters have been optimized to achieve the best optical and structural film properties in the prevalent deposition geometry of the coating system. It has been possible to eliminate the unwanted optical and structural inhomogeneities from these films using and optimized set of process parameters. Interference modulated spectrophotometric and phase modulated ellipsometric techniques have been very successfully utilized to analyze the optical and structural parameters of the films. Several precision multilayer coatings have been developed and are being used for laser and spectroscopic applications. (author)

  8. Absence of morphotropic phase boundary effects in BiFeO3-PbTiO3 thin films grown via a chemical multilayer deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shashaank; Bhattacharjee, Shuvrajyoti; Pandey, Dhananjai; Bansal, Vipul; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Peng, Ju Lin; Garg, Ashish

    2011-07-01

    We report an unusual behavior observed in (BiFeO3)1- x -(PbTiO3) x (BF- xPT) thin films prepared using a multilayer chemical solution deposition method. Films of different compositions were grown by depositing several bilayers of BF and PT precursors of varying BF and PT layer thicknesses followed by heat treatment in air. X-ray diffraction showed that samples of all compositions show mixing of two compounds resulting in a single-phase mixture, also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to bulk compositions, samples show a monoclinic (MA-type) structure suggesting disappearance of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) at x=0.30 as observed in the bulk. This is accompanied by the lack of any enhancement of the remanent polarization at the MPB, as shown by the ferroelectric measurements. Magnetic measurements showed an increase in the magnetization of the samples with increasing BF content. Significant magnetization in the samples indicates melting of spin spirals in the BF- xPT films, arising from a random distribution of iron atoms. Absence of Fe2+ ions was corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The results illustrate that thin film processing methodology significantly changes the structural evolution, in contrast to predictions from the equilibrium phase diagram, besides modifying the functional characteristics of the BP- xPT system dramatically.

  9. Structure and mechanical properties of silica doped zirconia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, Ina, E-mail: uhlmann@ceramics.tu-darmstadt.de [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hawelka, Dominik [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Hildebrandt, Erwin [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Pradella, Jens [Merck KGaA Darmstadt, 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Rödel, Jürgen [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-01-01

    Sol–gel based wear resistant coatings are presented as an alternative to existing vapor deposition coatings. The films consist of zirconia which has been doped with 8 wt.% silica. Crack-free single as well as multilayer coatings with thicknesses of 80 and 150 nm, respectively, could be produced after sintering at 1000 °C. The evolution of layer thickness, optical, chemical and mechanical properties during film annealing was investigated by ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and micro-abrasion. Micro-abrasion has been established as an easy and powerful tool to achieve first comparative abrasion data which could be correlated to hardness, Young's modulus and structure of the films. Above 600 °C a tetragonal, oxide coating with a Young's modulus ranging from 80 to 90 GPa, a hardness from 7 to 8 GPa and an increased abrasion resistance was obtained. The film density reached 4.64 g/cm{sup 3} with the mean refractive index n{sub 550} {sub nm} lying between 1.88 and 1.93. - Highlights: ► Sol–gel zirconia–8 wt.% silica coatings with hardness up to 8 GPa achieved ► Layer thickness as compared by ellipsometry and scanning electron microscopy ► Crack-free multilayer coatings produced up to 150 nm.

  10. Structural and optical investigations of sol–gel derived lithium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łapiński, M.; Kościelska, B.; Sadowski, W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lithium titanate thin films were deposited on glass substrates by sol–gel method. ► After annealing at 550 °C samples had lithium titanate spinel structure. ► Above 80 h of annealing mixture of lithium titanate and titanium oxides was appeared. ► Optical transmittance decreased with increasing of annealing time. - Abstract: In this paper structural and optical studies of lithium titanate (LTO) thin films are presented. Nanocrystalline thin films with 800 nm thickness were prepared by sol–gel method. To examine the influence of the annealing time on as-prepared films crystallization, the coatings were heated at 550 °C for 10, 20 and 80 h. Structure of manufactured thin films was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The most visible lithium titanate phase was obtained after 20 h annealing. Increasing of annealing time over 20 h revealed appearance of titanium oxides phase. On the basis of transmission characteristic optical properties were calculated. It was found that transmission through the thin films was reduced and position of the fundamental absorption edge was shifted toward a longer wavelength with increasing of annealing time. The optical band gap was calculated for direct allowed and indirect allowed transitions from optical absorption spectra.

  11. Effect of oxygen deficiency on electronic properties and local structure of amorphous tantalum oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, Yus Rama [Department of Physics Education, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Banten 42435 (Indonesia); Firmansyah, Teguh [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Banten 42435 (Indonesia); Oh, Suhk Kun [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hee Jae, E-mail: hjkang@cbu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong-Seok [Department of Physics Education, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Sung; Chung, JaeGwan; Lee, Jae Cheol [Analytical Engineering Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon 16678 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The effect of oxygen flow rate on electronic properties and local structure of tantalum oxide thin films was studied. • The oxygen deficiency induced the nonstoichiometric state a-TaOx. • A small peak at 1.97 eV above the valence band side appeared on nonstoichiometric Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films. • The oxygen flow rate can change the local electronic structure of tantalum oxide thin films. - Abstract: The dependence of electronic properties and local structure of tantalum oxide thin film on oxygen deficiency have been investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (REELS), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The XPS results showed that the oxygen flow rate change results in the appearance of features in the Ta 4f at the binding energies of 23.2 eV, 24.4 eV, 25.8, and 27.3 eV whose peaks are attributed to Ta{sup 1+}, Ta{sup 2+}, Ta{sup 3+}/Ta{sup 4+}, and Ta{sup 5+}, respectively. The presence of nonstoichiometric state from tantalum oxide (TaOx) thin films could be generated by the oxygen vacancies. In addition, XAS spectra manifested both the increase of coordination number of the first Ta-O shell and a considerable reduction of the Ta-O bond distance with the decrease of oxygen deficiency.

  12. Structural, morphological and optical properties of Na and K dual doped CdS thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageswari, S.; Dhivya, L.; Palanivel, Balan; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of incorporation of Na, K and Na,K dual dopants into CdS thin film was investigated. ► Thin films were prepared by simple chemical bath deposition technique. ► The XRD analysis revealed cubic phase for all the investigated films. ► AFM analysis revealed uniform surface with crack free and densely packed morphology for CdS:Na,K film. ► The band gap value increases for CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films compared to CdS film. - Abstract: CdS, sodium doped CdS (CdS:Na), potassium doped CdS (CdS:K) and sodium and potassium dual doped CdS (CdS:Na,K) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the as-grown films were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis revealed cubic phase for ‘as-deposited’ CdS, CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K dual doped thin films. AFM analysis revealed uniform film surface with crack free and densely packed morphology for CdS:Na,K film. The absorption edge in the optical absorption spectra shifts towards the shorter wavelength for CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films compared to CdS film. The optical band gap of CdS, CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films was found to be 2.31, 2.35, 2.38 and 2.34 eV, respectively.

  13. Ion beams as a means of deposition and in-situ characterization of thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Lin, Y.P.; Schmidt, H.; Liu, Y.L.; Barr, T.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Ion beam-surface interactions produce many effects in thin film deposition which are similar to those encountered in plasma deposition processes. However, because of the lower pressures and higher directionality associated with the ion beam process, it is easier to avoid some sources of film contamination and to provide better control of ion energies and fluxes. Additional effects occur in the ion beam process because of the relatively small degree of thermalization resulting from gas phase collisions with both the ion beam and atoms sputtered from the target. These effects may be either beneficial or detrimental to the film properties, depending on the material and deposition conditions. Ion beam deposition is particularly suited to the deposition of multi-component films and layered structures, and can in principle be extended to a complete device fabrication process. However, complex phenomena occur in the deposition of many materials of high technical interest which make it desirable to monitor the film growth at the monolayer level. It is possible to make use of ion-surface interactions to provide a full suite of surface analytical capabilities in one instrument, and this data may be obtained at ambient pressures which are far too high for conventional surface analysis techniques. Such an instrument is under development and its current performance characteristics and anticipated capabilities are described

  14. Optical and structural properties of ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin films prepared by sol–gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linhua; Su, Jing; Chen, Yulin; Zheng, Gaige; Pei, Shixin; Sun, Tingting; Wang, Junfeng; Lai, Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnMgO thin film and ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin film have been prepared by sol–gel method. ► The intensity of ultraviolet emission of ZnMgO thin film is enhanced two times compared with that of pure ZnO thin film. ► Compared with ZnMgO thin film, ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin film shows better crystallization and optical properties. ► ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin films prepared by sol–gel method have potential applications in many optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: In this study, pure ZnO thin film, Mg-doped ZnO (ZnMgO) thin film, ZnO/ZnMgO and ZnMgO/ZnO composite thin films were prepared by sol–gel technique. The structural and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometer, ellipsometer and photoluminescence spectra, respectively. The results showed that the incorporation of Mg increased the strain, broadened the optical bandgap, and improved the intensity of ultraviolet emission of ZnO thin film. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ultraviolet emission peak was also increased due to Mg-doping at the same time. Compared with pure ZnO and ZnMgO thin films, the ZnO/ZnMgO thin film showed better crystalline quality and ultraviolet emission performance, smaller strains and higher transmittance in the visible range.

  15. Experimental and theoretical investigations of structural and optical properties of CIGS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramohan, M., E-mail: chandramohan59@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Park college of Engineering and Tecknology, Coimbatore-641 659 (India); Velumani, S., E-mail: vels64@yahoo.com [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N.(CINVESTAV), Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508 Col. San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Venkatachalam, T., E-mail: atvenkatachalam@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore-14. India (India)

    2010-10-25

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the structural and optical properties of Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide thin films have been performed. Thin films of CIGS were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. From the XRD results of the films, it is found that the films are of chalcopyrite type structure. The lattice parameter were determined as a = 5.72 A and c = 11.462 A. The optical properties of the thin films were carried out with the help of spectrophotometer. First principles density functional theory calculations of the band structure, density of states and effective masses of electrons and holes of the CIGS crystals have been done by computer simulations. The experimental data and theoretically calculated data have demonstrated good agreement.

  16. Optical and structural properties of natural MnSeO{sub 4} mineral thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariper, Ishak Afsin, E-mail: akariper@gmail.com [Erciyes University, Education Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Manganese selenite (MnSeO{sub 4}) crystalline thin film has been produced with chemical bath deposition on substrates (commercial glass). Properties of the thin film, such as transmittance, absorption, and optical band gap and refraction index have been investigated via UV/VIS Spectrum. The structural properties of orthorhombic form have been observed in XRD. The structural and optical properties of MnSeO{sub 4} thin films, deposited at different pH levels were analyzed. Some properties of the films have been changed with the change of pH level, which has been deeply investigated. The grain size of MnSeO{sub 4} thin film has reached its highest value at pH 9. The refraction index and extinction coefficient of MnSeO{sub 4} thin films were measured to be 1.53, 2.86, 2.07, 1.53 (refraction index) and 0.005, 0.029, 0.014, 0.005 (extinction coefficient) for grain sizes 21, 13, 26, and 5 nm respectively. The band gaps (Eg) of the films were measured to be 2.06, 2.57, 2.04, and 2.76 eV for the grain sizes mentioned above. The value of dielectric constant at pH 10 was calculated as 1.575. (author)

  17. Exploring the performance of thin-film superconducting multilayers as kinetic inductance detectors for low-frequency detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Songyuan; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S.; Thomas, C. N.

    2018-01-01

    We have solved numerically the diffusive Usadel equations that describe the spatially varying superconducting proximity effect in Ti-Al thin-film bi- and trilayers with thickness values that are suitable for kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) to operate as photon detectors with detection thresholds in the frequency range of 50-90 GHz. Using Nam’s extension of the Mattis-Bardeen calculation of the superconductor complex conductivity, we show how to calculate the surface impedance for the spatially varying case, and hence the surface impedance quality factor. In addition, we calculate energy-and spatially-averaged quasiparticle lifetimes at temperatures well-below the transition temperature and compare to calculation in Al. Our results for the pair-breaking threshold demonstrate differences between bilayers and trilayers with the same total film thicknesses. We also predict high quality factors and long multilayer-averaged quasiparticle recombination times compared to thin-film Al. Our calculations give a route for designing KIDs to operate in this scientifically-important frequency regime.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of DC magnetron sputtered nano structured molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondiya, S. R.; Rokade, A. V.; Jadhavar, A. A.; Pandharkar, S. M.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Karpe, S. D.; Diwate, K. D. [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Jadkar, S. R., E-mail: sandesh@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited on corning glass (#7059) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphology and topological properties have been investigated. Films were characterized by variety of techniques such as low angle x-ray diffraction (low angle XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM). The low angle XRD analysis revealed that the synthesized Mo films are nanocrystalline having cubic crystal structure with (110) preferential orientation. The microstructure of the deposited Mo thin films observed with FE-SEM images indicated that films are homogeneous and uniform with randomly oriented leaf shape morphology. The AFM analysis shows that with increase in substrate temperature the rms roughness of Mo films increases. The obtained results suggest that the synthesized nanostructured Mo thin films have potential application as a back contact material for high efficiency solar cells like CdTe, CIGS, CZTS etc.

  19. Rapid fabrication of hierarchically structured supramolecular nanocomposite thin films in one minute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Kao, Joseph

    2016-11-08

    Functional nanocomposites containing nanoparticles of different chemical compositions may exhibit new properties to meet demands for advanced technology. It is imperative to simultaneously achieve hierarchical structural control and to develop rapid, scalable fabrication to minimize degradation of nanoparticle properties and for compatibility with nanomanufacturing. The assembly kinetics of supramolecular nanocomposite in thin films is governed by the energetic cost arising from defects, the chain mobility, and the activation energy for inter-domain diffusion. By optimizing only one parameter, the solvent fraction in the film, the assembly kinetics can be precisely tailored to produce hierarchically structured thin films of supramolecular nanocomposites in approximately one minute. Moreover, the strong wavelength dependent optical anisotropy in the nanocomposite highlights their potential applications for light manipulation and information transmission. The present invention opens a new avenue in designing manufacture-friendly continuous processing for the fabrication of functional nanocomposite thin films.

  20. Implantable polymer/metal thin film structures for the localized treatment of cancer by Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Theriault, Christian; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an implantable polymer/metal alloy thin film structure for localized post-operative treatment of breast cancer. A combination of experiments and models is used to study the temperature changes due to Joule heating by patterned metallic thin films embedded in poly-dimethylsiloxane. The heat conduction within the device and the surrounding normal/cancerous breast tissue is modeled with three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). The FEM simulations are used to explore the potential effects of device geometry and Joule heating on the temperature distribution and lesion (thermal dose). The FEM model is validated using a gel model that mimics biological media. The predictions are also compared to prior results from in vitro studies and relevant in vivo studies in the literature. The implications of the results are discussed for the potential application of polymer/metal thin film structures in hyperthermic treatment of cancer.

  1. Structural, mechanical and magnetic study on galvanostatic electroplated nanocrystalline NiFeP thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, A.; Senguttuvan, G.; Kannan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Nickel based alloys has a huge applications in microelectronics and micro electromechanical systems owing to its superior soft magnetic properties. With the advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness and controllable patterning, electroplating processes has been chosen to fabricate thin films in our work. The soft magnetic NiFeP thin film was successfully deposited over the surface of copper plate through galvanostatic electroplating method by applying constant current density of 10 mA cm-2 for a deposition rate for half an hour. The properties of the deposited NiFeP thin films were analyzed by subjecting it into different physio-chemical characterization such as XRD, SEM, EDAX, AFM and VSM. XRD pattern confirms the formation of NiFeP particles and the structural analysis reveals that the NiFeP particles were uniformly deposited over the surface of copper substrate. The surface roughness analysis of the NiFeP films was done using AFM analysis. The magnetic studies and the hardness of the thin film were evaluated from the VSM and hardness test. The NiFeP thin films possess lower coercivity with higher magnetization value of 69. 36 × 10-3 and 431.92 Gauss.

  2. Structural phototransformation of WO{sub 3} thin films detected by photoacoustic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Argelia Perez, E-mail: ekargy@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Fotofisica y Peliculas Delgadas-CCADET, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Montes de Oca, C. Oliva; Castaneda-Guzman, R.; Garcia, A. Esparza [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Fotofisica y Peliculas Delgadas-CCADET, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phototransformation of WO{sub 3} thin films were studied by photoacoustic technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase transition in WO{sub 3} thin films was induced by laser irradiation fluence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The onset and end of the phototransformation in the thin films was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation threshold for each sample was identified. - Abstract: The photoacoustic technique (PA) was used to detect the phase transformation from amorphous to crystalline state of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films induced by UV pulsed laser radiation at low energy (<1.5 mJ). The evolution of photoacoustic signal was studied by a correlation analysis, comparing successive signals at fluences ranging from 0 to 20 mJ/cm{sup 2}. In this interval, it was possible to observe structural changes and the ablation threshold in films due to incident laser fluence effect. Thin films of WO{sub 3} were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering over glass substrates at different deposition times. The results obtained by correlation analysis were compared with Raman spectroscopy data.

  3. Structural characterization of chemically deposited PbS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lima, F.A.; Gonzalez-Alfaro, Y.; Larramendi, E.M.; Fonseca Filho, H.D.; Maia da Costa, M.E.H.; Freire, F.L.; Prioli, R.; Avillez, R.R. de; Silveira, E.F. da; Calzadilla, O.; Melo, O. de; Pedrero, E.; Hernandez, E.

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of lead sulfide (PbS) grown using substrate colloidal coating chemical bath depositions were characterized by RBS, XPS, AFM and GIXRD techniques. The films were grown on glass substrates previously coated with PbS colloidal particles in a polyvinyl alcohol solution. The PbS films obtained with the inclusion of the polymer showed non-oxygen-containing organic contamination. All samples maintained the Pb:S 1:1 stoichiometry throughout the film. The amount of effective nucleation centers and the mean grain size have being controlled by the substrate colloidal coating. The analysis of the polycrystalline PbS films showed that a preferable (1 0 0) lattice plane orientation parallel to the substrate surface can be obtained using a substrate colloidal coating chemical bath deposition, and the orientation increases when a layer of colloid is initially dried on the substrate

  4. Structural and optical properties of Sb65Se35-xGex thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, S. A.; Al-Hajry, A.; Ali, H. M.

    2011-07-01

    Sb65Se35-xGex (x=0-20 at.%) thin films, prepared by the electron beam evaporation technique on ultrasonically cleaned glass substrates at 300 K, were investigated. The amorphous structure of the thin films was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis. The structure was deduced from the Raman spectra measured for all germanium contents in the Sb-Se-Ge matrix. The absorption coefficient (α) of the films was determined by optical transmission measurements. The compositional dependence of the optical band gap is discussed in light of topological and chemical ordered network models.

  5. Structural transformation of CsI thin film photocathodes under exposure to air and UV irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, O H W

    2000-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been employed to study the structure of polycrystalline CsI thin films and its transformation under exposure to humid air and UV irradiation. The catastrophic degradation of CsI thin film photocathode performance is shown to be associated with the film dissolving followed by its re-crystallization. This results in the formation of large lumps of CsI crystal on the substrate surface, so that the film becomes discontinuous and its performance as a photocathode is permanently degraded. No change in the surface morphology and the film crystalline structure was observed after the samples were UV irradiated.

  6. High conductivity and transparent aluminum-based multi-layer source/drain electrodes for thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rihui; Zhang, Hongke; Fang, Zhiqiang; Ning, Honglong; Zheng, Zeke; Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaochen; Cai, Wei; Lu, Xubing; Peng, Junbiao

    2018-02-01

    In this study, high conductivity and transparent multi-layer (AZO/Al/AZO-/Al/AZO) source/drain (S/D) electrodes for thin film transistors were fabricated via conventional physical vapor deposition approaches, without toxic elements or further thermal annealing process. The 68 nm-thick multi-layer films with excellent optical properties (transparency: 82.64%), good electrical properties (resistivity: 6.64  ×  10-5 Ω m, work function: 3.95 eV), and superior surface roughness (R q   =  0.757 nm with scanning area of 5  ×  5 µm2) were fabricated as the S/D electrodes. Significantly, comprehensive performances of AZO films are enhanced by the insertion of ultra-thin Al layers. The optimal transparent TFT with this multi-layer S/D electrodes exhibited a decent electrical performance with a saturation mobility (µ sat) of 3.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, an I on/I off ratio of 1.59  ×  106, a subthreshold swing of 1.05 V/decade. The contact resistance of AZO/Al/AZO/Al/AZO multi-layer electrodes is as low as 0.29 MΩ. Moreover, the average visible light transmittance of the unpatterned multi-layers constituting a whole transparent TFT could reach 72.5%. The high conductivity and transparent multi-layer S/D electrodes for transparent TFTs possessed great potential for the applications of the green and transparent displays industry.

  7. Temperature-Dependent Electrical Properties of Al2O3-Passivated Multilayer MoS2 Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Hwan Jeong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming more important for electronic devices to operate stably and reproducibly under harsh environments, such as extremely low and/or high temperatures, for robust and practical applications. Here, we report on the effects of atomic-layer-deposited (ALD aluminum oxide (Al2O3 passivation on multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 thin-film transistors (TFTs and their temperature-dependent electrical properties, especially at a high temperature range from 293 K to 380 K. With the aid of ultraviolet-ozone treatment, an Al2O3 layer was uniformly applied to cover the entire surface of MoS2 TFTs. Our Al2O3-passivated MoS2 TFTs exhibited not only a dramatic reduction of hysteresis but also enhancement of current in output characteristics. In addition, we investigated the temperature-dependent behaviors of the TFT performance, including intrinsic carrier mobility based on the Y-function method.

  8. Characterization of thin-film multilayers using magnetization curves and modeling of low-angle X-ray diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, M. [Emory & Henry College, VA (United States); Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    We have characterized thin-film multilayers grown by ion-beam sputtering using magnetization curves and modeling of low-angle x-ray diffraction data. In our films, we use ferromagnetic layer = Co, Fe, and NiFe and spacer layer = Si, Ge, FeSi{sub 2}, and CoSi{sub 2}. We have studied the effects of (1) deposition conditions; (2) thickness of layers; (3) different layer materials; and (4) annealing. We find higher magnetization in films grown at 1000V rather than 500V and in films with spacer layers of 50{angstrom} rather than 100{angstrom}. We find higher coercivity in films with cobalt grown on germanium rather than silicon, metal grown on gold underlayers rather than on glass substrates, and when using thinner spacer layers. Finally, modeling reveals that films grown with disilicide layers are more thermally stable than films grown with silicon spacer layers.

  9. Structural characterization of thin films of titanium nitride deposited by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro C, M.A.; Escobar A, L.; Camps C, E.; Mejia H, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of titanium nitride were deposited using the technique of laser ablation. It was studied the effect of the density of laser energy used for ablation the target as well as of the pressure of the work gas about the structure and the hardness of the deposited thin films. Depending on the pressure of the work gas films was obtained with preferential orientation in the directions (200) and (111). At a pressure of 1 x 10 -2 Torr only the direction (200) was observed. On the other hand to the pressure of 5 x 10 -3 Torr the deposited material this formed by a mixture of the orientation (200) and (111), being the direction (111) the predominant one. Thin films of Ti N were obtained with hardness of up to 24.0 GPa that makes to these attractive materials for mechanical applications. The hardness showed an approximately linear dependence with the energy density. (Author)

  10. The Structural Changes of the Sn(y)OX Thin Films Under Influence of Heat Treament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, V.

    2001-04-01

    Composite oxide Sn(y) Ox made by thermal oxidation of the Sn(y)-bimetal thin films, in which y is the doped-materials as well as Sb, Ag or Pd. The Sn(y)-bimetal thin films have been made by evaporation in high vacuum onto NaCl-monocrystall and optical glass substrates. In the work the tin and the doped material (y) were put on two different boats and then both the boats were simultaniously heated to evaporate. The Sn(y)Ox thin films were annealed at the differential temperatures. The structural changes of its have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope.

  11. Structural properties of calcogenic thin films and alloys subjected to synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, P.R.; Almeida, D.P.; Lima, J.C. de; Campos, C.E.M.; Ponciano, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Results on structural characterization of Sb 50 Te 50 and Te 24 In 38 Sb 38 alloys prepared as powder and after deposited as a thin films are presented. For that x ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence were used. The nanocrystalline phases Sb 2 Te 2 and Sb 24 Te 9 were nucleated in both Sb 50 Te 50 and Te 24 In 38 Sb 38 alloys, respectively. The thin films of both binary and ternary alloys are mainly amorphous. According to X-ray fluorescence results the chemical composition inside the ultraviolet irradiated region on one of the binary thin film become different than that outside irradiation marks, suggesting Sb migration. (author)

  12. Effect of Substrate Roughness on Adhesion and Structural Properties of Ti-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Hyunsuk; Bae, Joohyeon; Jeong, Hyomin; Choi, Byeongkeun; Nam, Taehyun; Noh, Jungpil

    2018-09-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) thin films are very attractive material for industrial and medical applications such as micro-actuator, micro-sensors, and stents for blood vessels. An important property besides shape memory effect in the application of SMA thin films is the adhesion between the film and the substrate. When using thin films as micro-actuators or micro-sensors in MEMS, the film must be strongly adhered to the substrate. On the other hand, when using SMA thin films in medical devices such as stents, the deposited alloy thin film must be easily separable from the substrate for efficient processing. In this study, we investigated the effect of substrate roughness on the adhesion of Ti-Ni SMA thin films, as well as the structural properties and phase-transformation behavior of the fabricated films. Ti-Ni SMA thin films were deposited onto etched glass substrates with magnetron sputtering. Radio frequency plasma was used for etching the substrate. The adhesion properties were investigated through progressive scratch test. Structural properties of the films were determined via Feld emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Phase transformation behaviors were observed with differential scanning calorimetry and low temperature-XRD. Ti-Ni SMA thin film deposited onto rough substrate provides higher adhesive strength than smooth substrate. However the roughness of the substrate has no influence on the growth and crystallization of the Ti-Ni SMA thin films.

  13. Chemical bath deposited and dip coating deposited CuS thin films - Structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Jiten P.; Khimani, Ankurkumar J.; Chaki, Sunil H.

    2018-05-01

    The crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface microtopography study on as-deposited CuS thin films were carried out. Thin films deposited by two techniques of solution growth were studied. The thin films used in the present study were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and dip coating deposition techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of both the as-deposited thin films showed that both the films possess covellite phase of CuS and hexagonal unit cell structure. The determined lattice parameters of both the films are in agreement with the standard JCPDS as well as reported data. The crystallite size determined by Scherrer's equation and Hall-Williamsons relation using XRD data for both the as-deposited thin films showed that the respective values were in agreement with each other. The ambient Raman spectroscopy of both the as-deposited thin films showed major emission peaks at 474 cm-1 and a minor emmision peaks at 265 cm-1. The observed Raman peaks matched with the covellite phase of CuS. The atomic force microscopy of both the as-deposited thin films surfaces showed dip coating thin film to be less rough compared to CBD deposited thin film. All the obtained results are presented and deliberated in details.

  14. Collision-Free Structure Using Thin-Film Magnet For Electrostatic Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, S; Yamaguchi, K; Fujita, T; Kanda, K; Maenaka, K

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes collision-free structure using NdFeB thin-film magnet for vibration energy harvesters. By using stripe shaped NdFeB magnet array on the Si MEMS structure, we finally obtained 3 mN of magnetic repulsive force on 8 × 8 mm 2 specimen with 40 μm air-gap. (paper)

  15. Collision-Free Structure Using Thin-Film Magnet For Electrostatic Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, S.; Yamaguchi, K.; Fujita, T.; Kanda, K.; Maenaka, K.

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes collision-free structure using NdFeB thin-film magnet for vibration energy harvesters. By using stripe shaped NdFeB magnet array on the Si MEMS structure, we finally obtained 3 mN of magnetic repulsive force on 8 × 8 mm2 specimen with 40 μm air-gap.

  16. Structural, morphological and optical properties of thermal annealed TiO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zribi, M.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2008-01-01

    Structural, morphological and optical properties of TiO thin films grown by single source thermal evaporation method were studied. The films were annealed from 300 to 520 deg. C in air after evaporation. Qualitative film analysis was performed with X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and optical transmittance and reflectance spectra. A correlation was established between the optical properties, surface roughness and growth morphology of the evaporated TiO thin films. The X-ray diffraction spectra indicated the presence of the TiO 2 phase for the annealing temperature above 400 deg. C

  17. Formation and dielectric properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers studied by a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Petra A; Wunderlich, Bernhard K; Klitzing, Regine V; Bausch, Andreas R

    2007-03-27

    The formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) is investigated using a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor which is sensitive to variations of the surface potential. The buildup of the PEMs at the silicon oxide surface of the device can be observed in real time as defined potential shifts. The influence of polymer charge density is studied using the strong polyanion poly(styrene sulfonate), PSS, combined with the statistical copolymer poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride-stat-N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide), P(DADMAC-stat-NMVA), at various degrees of charge (DC). The multilayer formation stops after a few deposition steps for a DC below 75%. We show that the threshold of surface charge compensation corresponds to the threshold of multilayer formation. However, no reversion of the preceding surface charge was observed. Screening of polyelectrolyte charges by mobile ions within the polymer film leads to a decrease of the potential shifts with the number of layers deposited. This decrease is much slower for PEMs consisting of P(DADMAC-stat-NMVA) and PSS as compared to PEMs consisting of poly(allylamine-hydrochloride), PAH, and PSS. From this, significant differences in the dielectric constants of the polyelectrolyte films and in the concentration of mobile ions within the films can be derived.

  18. Photoluminescence, structural and electrical properties of passivated a-Si:H based thin films and corresponding solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincik, E.; Kobayashi, H.; Takahashi, M.; Fujiwara, N.; Brunner, R.; Gleskova, H.; Jergel, M.; Muellerova, J.; Kucera, M.; Falcony, C.; Ortega, L.; Rusnak, J.; Mikula, M.; Zahoran, M.; Jurani, R.; Kral, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the photoluminescence, structural and electrical properties of chemically passivated a-Si:H based thin films and corresponding thin film solar cells. The structures were chemically passivated in three types of KCN and HCN solutions containing MeOH and/or with water. The photoluminescence measurements were performed at 6 K using Ar laser and lock-in signal recording device containing Ge and Si photodetectors. Optically determined band gap related photoluminescence signals were observed between 1.1 and 1.7 eV. The electrical properties were measured by a high-sensitive charge version of deep level transient spectroscopy (Q-DLTS). The evolution of three basic groups of defects was observed. The structural studies were realized by the standard X-ray diffraction analysis. The cyanide treatment improved significantly the electrical characteristics of both corresponding MOS structures and solar cells due to the passivation of some parts of the dangling bonds by CN group. Particularly, the passivation of the defects at interfaces in MOS or solar cell multilayer structures was achieved which is of primary practical importance

  19. Thermoluminescent properties of LiF:NaF multilayers thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P.; Mauricio, Marcos H.P.; Nunes, Raul A.

    1996-01-01

    LiF and NaF and LiF:NaF multilayer films were grown by the assisted physical deposition method of beam evaporation. All films were grown by the assisted physical deposition method of e-beam evaporation. All films were made with a deposition rate of 10 A/s on aluminium and stainless steel substrates. Both substrates were kept at room temperature, 150 deg C and 300 deg C. The films were irradiated with 10 Gy in a 60 Co source. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves are similar for both substrates, with only a small dislocation in temperature of about 10 deg C. This dislocation in temperature are supposed to be related with its different thermal conductivity. The TL glow curves of films grown on aluminium substrates are more intense. TL of LiF films are similar of the TL of LiF crystals. The TL glow curves of multilayer LiF:NaF films can not be explained as a simple superposition of the glow curves of individual LiF and NaF layers. Thin layers of NaF seems not change very much the glow peaks structure of LiF films. (author)

  20. A new automatic design method to develop multilayer thin film devices for high power laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N.K.; Apparao, K.V.S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Optical thin film devices play a major role in many areas of frontier technology like development of various laser systems to the designing of complex and precision optical systems. Design and development of these devices are really challenging when they are meant for high power laser applications. In these cases besides desired optical characteristics, the devices are expected to satisfy a whole range of different needs like high damage threshold, durability etc. In the present work a novel completely automatic design method based on Modified Complex Method has been developed for designing of high power thin film devices. Unlike most of the other methods it does not need any suitable starting design. A quarterwave design is sufficient to start with. If required, it is capable of generating its own starting design. The computer code of the method is very simple to implement. This report discusses this novel automatic design method and presents various practicable output designs generated by it. The relative efficiency of the method along with other powerful methods has been presented while designing a broadband IR antireflection coating. The method is also incorporated with 2D and 3D electric field analysis programmes to produce high damage threshold designs. Some experimental devices developed using such designs are also presented in the report. (author). 36 refs., 41 figs

  1. Fabrication of semi-transparent superoleophobic thin film from fabrics and nanoparticle-based hierarchical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizawa S.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Superoleophobic thin films have many potential applications including fluid transfer, fluid power systems, stain resistant and antifouling materials, and microfluidics among others. Transparency is also desired with superhydrophobicity for their numerous applications; however transparency and oleophobicity are almost incompatible relationship with each other in the point of surface structure. Because oleophobicity required rougher structure at nano-micro scale than hydrophobicity, and these rough structure brings light scattering. So far, there is very few report of the compatible of transparency and superoleophobicity. In this report, we proposed the see-through type fabrics using the nanoparticle-based hierarchical structure thin film for improving both of oleophobicity and transparency. The vacant space between fibrils of fabrics has two important roles: the one is to through the light, another one is to introduce air layer to realize Cassie state of liquid droplet on thin film. To realize the low surface energy and nanoscale rough structure surface on fibrils, we used the spray method with perfluoroalkyl methacrylic copolymer (PMC, silica nano particles and volatile solvent. From the SEM image, the hierarchical structures of nanoparticle were formed uniformly on the fabrics. The transparency of thin film obtained was approximately 61% and the change of transparency between pre-coated fabrics and coated was 11%. From investigation of the surface wettability, the contact angles of oils (rapeseed oil and hexadecane and water droplet on the fabricated film were over 150 degree.

  2. Structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films prepared ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    of zinc acetate on glass substrates at 450 °C. Effect of precursor concentration on structural and optical pro- perties has ... dependence of photoresponse properties of sprayed ZnO thin films on ... randomly oriented flake-like grains. The grains ...

  3. Structural and electrical properties of Ta2O5 thin films prepared by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dielectric constant and leakage current density of the Ta2O5 thin films increase with increasing powers of the UV- lamps. Effects of UV- lamp powers on the structural and electrical properties were discussed. Keywords. Chemical vapour deposition processes; oxides; dielectric material; MOS capacitor. 1. Introduction.

  4. Solution processable semiconductor thin films: Correlation between morphological, structural, optical and charge transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Dilek

    This Ph.D. thesis is a result of multidisciplinary research bringing together fundamental concepts in thin film engineering, materials science, materials processing and characterization, electrochemistry, microfabrication, and device physics. Experiments were conducted by tackling scientific problems in the field of thin films and interfaces, with the aim to correlate the morphology, crystalline structure, electronic structure of thin films with the functional properties of the films and the performances of electronic devices based thereon. Furthermore, novel strategies based on interfacial phenomena at electrolyte/thin film interfaces were explored and exploited to control the electrical conductivity of the thin films. Three main chemical systems were the object of the studies performed during this Ph.D., two types of organic semiconductors (azomethine-based oligomers and polymers and soluble pentacene derivatives) and one metal oxide semiconductor (tungsten trioxide, WO3). To explore the morphological properties of the thin films, atomic force microscopy was employed. The morphological properties were further investigated by hyperspectral fluorescence microscopy and tentatively correlated to the charge transport properties of the films. X-ray diffraction (Grazing incidence XRD, GIXRD) was used to investigate the crystallinity of the film and the effect of the heat treatment on such crystallinity, as well as to understand the molecular arrangement of the organic molecules in the thin film. The charge transport properties of the films were evaluated in thin film transistor configuration. For electrolyte gated thin film transistors, time dependent transient measurements were conducted, in parallel to more conventional transistor characterizations, to explore the specific effects played on the gating by the anion and cation constituting the electrolyte. The capacitances of the electrical double layers at the electrolyte/WO3 interface were obtained from

  5. Epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of ultraviolet transparent Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daoyou; An, Yuehua; Cui, Wei; Zhi, Yusong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Tang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer thin films based on the ferromagnetic and ultraviolet transparent semiconductors may be interesting because their magnetic/electronic/photonic properties can be manipulated by the high energy photons. Herein, the Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films were obtained by alternating depositing of wide band gap Ga2O3 layer and Fe ultrathin layer due to inter diffusion between two layers at high temperature using the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The multilayer films exhibits a preferred growth orientation of crystal plane, and the crystal lattice expands as Fe replaces Ga site. Fe ions with a mixed valence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ are stratified distributed in the film and exhibit obvious agglomerated areas. The multilayer films only show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, indicating a high transparency for ultraviolet light. What’s more, the Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films also exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism deriving from the Fe doping Ga2O3. PMID:27121446

  6. Epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of ultraviolet transparent Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daoyou; An, Yuehua; Cui, Wei; Zhi, Yusong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Tang, Weihua

    2016-04-28

    Multilayer thin films based on the ferromagnetic and ultraviolet transparent semiconductors may be interesting because their magnetic/electronic/photonic properties can be manipulated by the high energy photons. Herein, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films were obtained by alternating depositing of wide band gap Ga2O3 layer and Fe ultrathin layer due to inter diffusion between two layers at high temperature using the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The multilayer films exhibits a preferred growth orientation of crystal plane, and the crystal lattice expands as Fe replaces Ga site. Fe ions with a mixed valence of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) are stratified distributed in the film and exhibit obvious agglomerated areas. The multilayer films only show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, indicating a high transparency for ultraviolet light. What's more, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films also exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism deriving from the Fe doping Ga2O3.

  7. Controlling thin film structure for the dewetting of catalyst nanoparticle arrays for subsequent carbon nanofiber growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, S J; Fowlkes, J D; Melechko, A V; Klein, K L; III, H M Meyer; Simpson, M L; Rack, P D

    2007-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (CNF) growth is a catalytic chemical vapor deposition process in which structure and functionality is controlled by the plasma conditions and the properties of the catalyst nanoparticles that template the fiber growth. We have found that the resultant catalyst nanoparticle network that forms by the dewetting of a continuous catalyst thin film is dependent on the initial properties of the thin film. Here we report the ability to tailor the crystallographic texture and composition of the nickel catalyst film and subsequently the nanoparticle template by varying the rf magnetron sputter deposition conditions. After sputtering the Ni catalyst thin films, the films are heated and exposed to an ammonia dc plasma, to chemically reduce the native oxide on the films and induce dewetting of the film to form nanoparticles. Subsequent nanoparticle treatment in an acetylene plasma at high substrate temperature results in CNF growth. Evidence is presented that the texture and composition of the nickel thin film has a significant impact on the structure and composition of the formed nanoparticle, as well as the resultant CNF morphology. Nickel films with a preferred (111) or (100) texture were produced and conditions favoring interfacial silicidation reactions were identified and investigated. Both compositional and structural analysis of the films and nanoparticles indicate that the properties of the as-deposited Ni catalyst film influences the subsequent nanoparticle formation and ultimately the catalytic growth of the carbon nanofibers

  8. Structural and biocompatible characterization of TiC/a:C nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balázsi, K.; Vandrovcová, M.; Bačáková, L.; Balázsi, Cs.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sputtered TiC/amorphous C thin films have been developed in order to be applied as potential barrier coating for interfering of Ti ions from pure Ti or Ti alloy implants. Our experiments were based on magnetron sputtering method, because the vacuum deposition provides great flexibility for manipulating material chemistry and structure, leading to films and coatings with special properties. The films have been deposited on silicon (001) substrates with 300 nm thick oxidized silicon sublayer at 200 °C deposition temperature as model substrate. Transmission electron microscopy has been used for structural investigations. Thin films consisted of ∼ 20 nm TiC columnar crystals embedded by 5 nm thin amorphous carbon matrix. MG63 osteoblast cells have been applied for in vitro study of TiC nanocomposites. The cell culture tests give strong evidence of thin films biocompatibility. Highlights: ► The main goal of this work is the relatively easy preparation of nanocomposite TiC thin films by dc magnetron sputtering. ► TEM and HREM were applied for structural characterization of columnar TiC nanocrystals and amorphous carbon matrix. ► The biocompatibility of films was showed by MG63 human osteoblast like cells during 1, 3 and 7 days seeding

  9. UHV-cluster-tool for fabrication of thin film structures and transport- and noise properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ grain boundary-SQUIDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    A UHV-thin-film-deposition system for the fabrication of thin film structures of metals and oxides was designed and optimized. For oxide materials, Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) was implemented. Epitaxial thin film growth can be analyzed during the PLD process by high-pressure RHEED (Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction). Furthermore layer-by-layer growth can be triggered by Pulsed Laser Intervall Deposition (PLiD). Heteroepitaxial multilayers can be fabricated automatically. Metal thin films can be grown by planar magnetron sputtering and by electron beam evaporation. Furthermore the system contains an rf-plasma source for surface cleaning and Ion Beam Etching (IBE). The three different deposition techniques are located in separate vacuum chambers which are connected by a central handling chamber allowing to combine all these processes in-situ. Furthermore superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) were fabricated out of epitaxially grown high-temperature superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -films on bicrystals. The SQUIDs were structured using a combined process of ion milling and chemical wet etching. By this combined etching process, edge signals that appear during imaging of flux quanta by low temperature scanning microscopy can be avoided. The transport- and noise properties of the SQUIDs were investigated. (orig.)

  10. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  11. Transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors based on multilayer transparent source-drain electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yongsheng, E-mail: huyongsheng@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn; Lin, Jie; Li, Yantao; Liu, Xingyuan, E-mail: huyongsheng@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2016-08-08

    A fabrication method for transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors with transparent Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag/Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SAS) source and drain electrodes has been developed. A pentacene/N,N′-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide (PTCDI-C13) bilayer heterojunction is used as the active semiconductor. The electrodes are deposited by room temperature electron beam evaporation. The devices are fabricated without damaging the active layers. The SAS electrodes have high transmittance (82.5%) and low sheet resistance (8 Ω/sq). High performance devices with hole and electron mobilities of 0.3 cm{sup 2}/V s and 0.027 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively, and average visible range transmittance of 72% were obtained. These transistors have potential for transparent logic integrated circuit applications.

  12. Low emissivity Ag/Ta/glass multilayer thin films deposited by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Ho; Lee, Kee Sun; Sivasankar Reddy, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ta is deposited on a glass substrate as an interlayer for the two-dimensional growth of Ag thin films because Ta has good thermal stability and can induce a negative surface-energy change in Ag/glass. From the transmission electron microscopy results, we concluded that the Ag crystals in the bottom layer (seemingly on Ag/Ta) were flattened; this was rarely observed in the three-dimensional growth mode. Comparing Ag/Ta/glass with Ag/glass, we found that the Ta interlayer was effective in reducing both the resistance and the emissivity, accompanied by the relatively high transmittance in the visible region. In particular, Ag(9 nm)/Ta(1 nm)/glass film showed 0.08 of the emissivity, including ∼61% of the transmittance in the visible region (wavelength: 550 nm).

  13. Preparation of BiOBr thin films with micro-nano-structure and their photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rui [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Fan, Caimei, E-mail: fancm@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhang, Xiaochao, E-mail: zhang13598124761@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Yawen; Wang, Yunfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhang, Hui [Particle Technology Research Centre, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    A series of micro-nano-structure BiOBr thin films were prepared at a low temperature by the alcoholysis-coating method using BiBr{sub 3} as precursor. The as-prepared films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area. The obtained results indicated that micro-nano-structure tetragonal BiOBr films with different intensity ratios of (110) to (102) characteristic peaks could be synthesized through controlling the reaction temperature and the calcination temperatures. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activities of BiOBr thin films with different preparation conditions have been evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under UV light irradiation, suggesting that the photocatalytic activity should be closely related to the solvent, the alcoholysis reaction temperature, and the calcining temperature. The best photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MO for BiOBr thin films reaches 98.5% under 2.5 h UV irradiation. The BiOBr thin films display excellent stability and their photocatalytic activity still remains above 90% after being used five times. The main reasons for the higher photocatalytic activity of micro-nano-structure BiOBr microspheres have been investigated. In addition, the possible formation mechanism of BiOBr thin films with micro-nano-structure and excellent photocatalytic activity was proposed and discussed. - Highlights: • The BiOBr film was prepared at low temperature via alcoholysis-coating method. • The optimum process conditions of preparing BiOBr film were discussed. • As-prepared BiOBr films were composed of micro-nano flake structures. • The BiOBr films demonstrated excellent photocatalytic activity. • The formation mechanism of BiOBr films with high activity was proposed.

  14. Thermoluminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films: Structural and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Shashikant; Kumar, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) is a binary II-VI direct band gap semiconducting material with cubic structure and having potential applications in different opto-electronic devices. Here we investigated the effects of annealing on the thermoluminescence (TL) of ZnTe thin films. A nanocrystalline ZnTe thin film was successfully electrodeposited on nickel substrate and the effect of annealing on structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied. The TL emission spectrum of as deposited sample is weakly emissive in UV region at ∼328 nm. The variation in the annealing temperature results into sharp increase in emission intensity at ∼328 nm along with appearance of a new peak at ∼437 nm in visible region. Thus, the deposited nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films exhibited excellent thermoluminescent properties upon annealing. Furthermore, the influence of annealing (annealed at 400 °C) on the solid state of ZnTe were also studied by XRD, SEM, EDS, AFM. It is observed that ZnTe thin film annealed at 400 °C after deposition provide a smooth and flat texture suited for optoelectronic applications.

  15. Optical and structural properties of thin films of ZnO at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayani, Zohra N.; Afzal, Tosif; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin films of ZnO are prepared on glass substrates using dip-coating. • The X-ray diffraction showed that films are crystalline. • Optical measurements show that the film possesses high transmittance in visible region. • The transmission decreased with increased withdrawal speed. • The films has direct band gap in range 3.78-3.48 eV. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared on glass substrate by sol–gel dip-coating method. The paper presents the properties of zinc oxide thin films deposited on soda-lime-glass substrate via dip-coating technique, using zinc acetate dehydrate and ethanol as raw materials. The effect of withdrawal speed on the crystalline structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films has been investigated using XRD, SEM and UV–Vis spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction study shows that all the films have hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation in (0 0 2) direction and transmission spectra showed highly transparent films with band gap ranging from 3.78 to 3.48 eV

  16. Structural and electrochemical analysis of chemically synthesized microcubic architectured lead selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, T. S.; Shinde, A. V.; Devan, R. S.; Teli, A. M.; Ma, Y. R.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of lead selenide (PbSe) thin films by simple and cost-effective chemical bath deposition method with variation in deposition time. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of as-deposited thin films were examined using characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. XRD reveals formation of rock salt phase cubic structured PbSe. FE-SEM images show the formation of microcubic structured morphology. The existence of the PbSe is confirmed from the XPS analysis. On the other hand, CV curves show four reaction peaks corresponding to oxidation [PbSe and Pb(OH)2] and reduction (PbO2 and Pb(OH)2) at the surface of PbSe thin films. The PbSe:2 sample deposited for 80 min. shows maximum specific capacitance of 454 ± 5 F g- 1 obtained at 0.25 mA cm- 2 current density. The maximum energy density of 69 Wh kg- 1 was showed by PbSe:2 electrode with a power density of 1077 W kg- 1. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance studies of PbSe:2 thin film show 80 ± 3% cycling stability even after 500 CV cycles. Such results show the importance of microcubic structured PbSe thin film as an anode in supercapacitor devices.

  17. Growth and structure of thermally evaporated Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogacheva, E.I., E-mail: rogacheva@kpi.kharkov.ua [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, 21 Frunze St., Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Budnik, A.V. [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, 21 Frunze St., Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Dobrotvorskaya, M.V.; Fedorov, A.G.; Krivonogov, S.I.; Mateychenko, P.V. [Institute for Single Crystals of NAS of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Prospect, Kharkov 61001 (Ukraine); Nashchekina, O.N.; Sipatov, A.Yu. [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, 21 Frunze St., Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine)

    2016-08-01

    The growth mechanism, microstructure, and crystal structure of the polycrystalline n-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films with thicknesses d = 15–350 nm, prepared by thermal evaporation in vacuum onto glass substrates, were studied. Bismuth telluride with Te excess was used as the initial material for the thin film preparation. The thin film characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scan electron microscopy, and electron force microscopy. It was established that the chemical composition of the prepared films corresponded rather well to the starting material composition and the films did not contain any phases apart from Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. It was shown that the grain size and the film roughness increased with increasing film thickness. The preferential growth direction changed from [00l] to [015] under increasing d. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies showed that the thickness of the oxidized surface layer did not exceed 1.5–2.0 nm and practically did not change in the process of aging at room temperature, which is in agreement with the results reported earlier for single crystals. The obtained data show that using simple and inexpensive method of thermal evaporation in vacuum and appropriate technological parameters, one can grow n-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films of a sufficiently high quality. - Highlights: • The polycrystalline n-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films were grown thermal evaporation onto glass. • The growth mechanism and film structure were studied by different structure methods. • The grain size and film roughness increased with increasing film thickness. • The growth direction changes from [00l] to [015] under film thickness increasing. • The oxidized layer thickness (1–2 nm) did not change under aging at room temperature.

  18. Topotactic synthesis of strontium cobalt oxyhydride thin film with perovskite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tsukasa; Chikamatsu, Akira; Kamisaka, Hideyuki; Yokoyama, Yuichi; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Wadati, Hiroki; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2015-10-01

    The substitution of hydride anions (H-) into transition metal oxides has recently become possible through topotactic reactions or high-pressure synthesis methods. However, the fabrication of oxyhydrides is still difficult because of their inherently less-stable frameworks. In this study, we successfully fabricated perovskite SrCoOxHy thin films via the topotactic hydride doping of brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 epitaxial thin films with CaH2. The perovskite-type cation framework was maintained during the topotactic treatment owing to epitaxial stabilization. Structural and chemical analyses accompanied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed that the doped hydride ions form a two-dimensional network of Co-H--Co bonds, in contrast to other reported perovskite oxyhydrides, SrMO3-xHx (M = Cr, Ti, V). The SrCoOxHy thin film exhibited insulating behavior and had a direct band gap of 2.1 eV. Thus, topotactic hydride doping of transition-metal-oxide thin films on suitable substrates is a promising method for the synthesis of new transition metal oxyhydrides.

  19. Topotactic synthesis of strontium cobalt oxyhydride thin film with perovskite structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Katayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of hydride anions (H− into transition metal oxides has recently become possible through topotactic reactions or high-pressure synthesis methods. However, the fabrication of oxyhydrides is still difficult because of their inherently less-stable frameworks. In this study, we successfully fabricated perovskite SrCoOxHy thin films via the topotactic hydride doping of brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 epitaxial thin films with CaH2. The perovskite-type cation framework was maintained during the topotactic treatment owing to epitaxial stabilization. Structural and chemical analyses accompanied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed that the doped hydride ions form a two-dimensional network of Co-H−-Co bonds, in contrast to other reported perovskite oxyhydrides, SrMO3−xHx (M = Cr, Ti, V. The SrCoOxHy thin film exhibited insulating behavior and had a direct band gap of 2.1 eV. Thus, topotactic hydride doping of transition-metal-oxide thin films on suitable substrates is a promising method for the synthesis of new transition metal oxyhydrides.

  20. Topotactic synthesis of strontium cobalt oxyhydride thin film with perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tsukasa [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Chikamatsu, Akira, E-mail: chikamatsu@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kamisaka, Hideyuki [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yokoyama, Yuichi; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Wadati, Hiroki [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Fukumura, Tomoteru [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Tohoku University, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The substitution of hydride anions (H{sup −}) into transition metal oxides has recently become possible through topotactic reactions or high-pressure synthesis methods. However, the fabrication of oxyhydrides is still difficult because of their inherently less-stable frameworks. In this study, we successfully fabricated perovskite SrCoO{sub x}H{sub y} thin films via the topotactic hydride doping of brownmillerite SrCoO{sub 2.5} epitaxial thin films with CaH{sub 2}. The perovskite-type cation framework was maintained during the topotactic treatment owing to epitaxial stabilization. Structural and chemical analyses accompanied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed that the doped hydride ions form a two-dimensional network of Co-H{sup −}-Co bonds, in contrast to other reported perovskite oxyhydrides, SrMO{sub 3−x}H{sub x} (M = Cr, Ti, V). The SrCoO{sub x}H{sub y} thin film exhibited insulating behavior and had a direct band gap of 2.1 eV. Thus, topotactic hydride doping of transition-metal-oxide thin films on suitable substrates is a promising method for the synthesis of new transition metal oxyhydrides.

  1. Structural and surface morphological studies of long chain fatty acid thin films deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nayan Mani, E-mail: nayanmanidas3@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Roy, Dhrubojyoti [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Gupta, Mukul [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Gupta, P.S. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2012-12-15

    In the present work we aim to study the structural and surface morphological characteristics of divalent cation (cadmium ion, Cd{sup 2+}) induced thin mono- to multilayer films of fatty acids such as arachidic acid and stearic acid prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. These ultra thin films of various numbers of layers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). In this specific Y-type deposition, it was found that as the individual layer thickness increases, the corresponding layer by layer interfacial electron density of the thin films decreases. Since the fatty acid chain tries to maintain its minimum value of cross-sectional area, tilting occurs with respect to its nearest neighbor. The tilt angle calculated for 9 layers of cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) and cadmium stearate (CdSt{sub 2}) are 18 Degree-Sign and 19.5 Degree-Sign , respectively. An asymmetric air gap of thickness {approx}3 A was also seen between the tail parts of 2 molecular chains. The RMS roughness and average height factors calculated through AFM studies show non-uniform surface morphology of both CdA{sub 2} and CdSt{sub 2}, although the calculated topographic variations were found to have more irregularity in case of CdSt{sub 2} than in case of CdA{sub 2}.

  2. Optical, structural and electrochromic behavior studies on nanocomposite thin film of aniline, o-toluidine and WO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Ashtiani, Hamed; Bahari, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In the field of materials for electrochromic (EC) applications much attention was paid to the derivatives of aniline. We report on the optical, structural and electrochromic properties of electrochromic thin film based on composite of WO3 nanoparticles and copolymer of aniline and o-toluidine prepared by electrochemical polymerization method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphology of prepared thin film was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) as well. The optical spectra of nanocomposite thin film were characterized in the 200-900 nm wavelength range and EC properties of nanocomposite thin film were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The calculation of optical band gaps of thin film exhibited that the thin film has directly allowed transition with the values of 2.63 eV on first region and 3.80 eV on second region. Dispersion parameters were calculated based on the single oscillator model. Finally, important parameters such as dispersion energy, oscillator energy and lattice dielectric constant were determined and compared with the data from other researchers. The nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear optical susceptibility, nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index were extracted. The obtained results of nanocomposite thin film can be useful for the optoelectronic applications.

  3. Texture, residual stress and structural analysis of thin films using a combined X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutterotti, L.; Chateigner, D.; Ferrari, S.; Ricote, J.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thin films for today's industrial and research needs require highly specialized methodologies for a successful quantitative characterization. In particular, in the case of multilayer and/or unknown phases a global approach is necessary to obtain some or all the required information. A full approach has been developed integrating novel texture and residual stress methodologies with the Rietveld method (Acta Cryst. 22 (1967) 151) (for crystal structure analysis) and it has been coupled with the reflectivity analysis. The complete analysis can be done at once and offers several benefits: the thicknesses obtained from reflectivity can be used to correct the diffraction spectra, the phase analysis help to identify the layers and to determine the electron density profile for reflectivity; quantitative texture is needed for quantitative phase and residual stress analyses; crystal structure determination benefits of the previous. To achieve this result, it was necessary to develop some new methods, especially for texture and residual stresses. So it was possible to integrate them in the Rietveld, full profile fitting of the patterns. The measurement of these spectra required a special reflectometer/diffractometer that combines a thin parallel beam (for reflectivity) and a texture/stress goniometer with a curved large position sensitive detector. This new diffraction/reflectivity X-ray machine has been used to test the combined approach. Several spectra and the reflectivity patterns have been collected at different tilting angles and processed at once by the special software incorporating the aforementioned methodologies. Some analysis examples will be given to show the possibilities offered by the method

  4. Coulombic interactions on the deposition and rotational mobility distributions of dyes in polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Yip, Wai Tak

    2004-12-07

    We employed negatively charged fluorescein (FL), positively charged rhodamine 6G (R6G), and neutral Nile Red (NR) as molecular probes to investigate the influence of Coulombic interaction on their deposition into and rotational mobility inside polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films. The entrapment efficiency of the dyes reveals that while Coulombic repulsion has little effect on dye deposition, Coulombic attraction can dramatically enhance the loading efficiency of dyes into a PEM film. By monitoring the emission polarization of single dye molecules in polyethylenimine (PEI) films, the percentages of mobile R6G, NR, and FL were determined to be 87 +/- 4%, 76 +/- 5%, and 68 +/- 3%, respectively. These mobility distributions suggest that cationic R6G enjoys the highest degree of rotational freedom, whereas anionic FL shows the least mobility because of Coulombic attraction toward cationic PEI. Regardless of charges, this high percentage of mobile molecules is in stark contrast to the 5-40% probe mobility reported from spun-cast polymer films, indicating that our PEI films contain more free volume and display richer polymer dynamics. These observations demonstrate the potential of using isolated fluorescent probes to interrogate the internal structure of a PEM film at a microscopic level.

  5. Influence of lithium doping on the structural and electrical characteristics of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johny, T. Anto [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), (Department of Information Technology, Scientific Society, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Govt. of India), Athani - PO, Thrissur, 680 581 Kerala (India); Kumar, Viswanathan, E-mail: vkumar10@yahoo.com [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), (Department of Information Technology, Scientific Society, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Govt. of India), Athani - PO, Thrissur, 680 581 Kerala (India); Imai, Hideyuki; Kanno, Isaku [Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-06-30

    Thin films of undoped and lithium-doped Zinc oxide, (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O; x = 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 were prepared by sol-gel method using spin-coating technique on silicon substrates [(111)Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si)]. The influence of lithium doping on the structural, electrical and microstructural characteristics have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, leakage current, piezoelectric measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The resistivity of the ZnO film is found to increase markedly with low levels (x {<=} 0.05) of lithium doping thereby enhancing their piezoelectric applications. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient, e{sub 31}{sup Low-Asterisk} has been determined for the thin films having the composition (Zn{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05})O, to study their suitability for piezoelectric applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preferentially c-axis oriented (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O films were spin-coated on glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O thin films exhibit dense columnar microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low levels of lithium doping, increases the electrical resistivity of ZnO thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O thin films show high values of transverse piezoelectric coefficient, e{sup Low-Asterisk }{sub 31}.

  6. Fully integrated carbon nanotube composite thin film strain sensors on flexible substrates for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. R.; Lynch, J. P.; Kurata, M.; Law, K. H.

    2017-09-01

    Multifunctional thin film materials have opened many opportunities for novel sensing strategies for structural health monitoring. While past work has established methods of optimizing multifunctional materials to exhibit sensing properties, comparatively less work has focused on their integration into fully functional sensing systems capable of being deployed in the field. This study focuses on the advancement of a scalable fabrication process for the integration of multifunctional thin films into a fully integrated sensing system. This is achieved through the development of an optimized fabrication process that can create a broad range of sensing systems using multifunctional materials. A layer-by-layer deposited multifunctional composite consisting of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in a polyvinyl alcohol and polysodium-4-styrene sulfonate matrix are incorporated with a lithography process to produce a fully integrated sensing system deposited on a flexible substrate. To illustrate the process, a strain sensing platform consisting of a patterned SWNT-composite thin film as a strain-sensitive element within an amplified Wheatstone bridge sensing circuit is presented. Strain sensing is selected because it presents many of the design and processing challenges that are core to patterning multifunctional thin film materials into sensing systems. Strain sensors fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate are experimentally tested under cyclic loading using standard four-point bending coupons and a partial-scale steel frame assembly under lateral loading. The study reveals the material process is highly repeatable to produce fully integrated strain sensors with linearity and sensitivity exceeding 0.99 and 5 {{V}}/{ε }, respectively. The thin film strain sensors are robust and are capable of high strain measurements beyond 3000 μ {ε }.

  7. Origin of room temperature ferromagnetic moment in Rh-rich [Rh/Fe] multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kande, Dhishan; Laughlin, David; Zhu Jiangang

    2010-01-01

    B2 ordered FeRh thin films switch from antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) state on heating above 350 K and switch back on cooling, with a hysteresis. This property makes FeRh a very attractive choice as a write-assist layer material for low temperature heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) media. Studies have shown that as we decrease the thickness of the FeRh films, the B2 phase is no longer AFM even below 350 K and there is a thickness dependant FM stabilization of the B2 phase. It was also proved that slightly Rh-richer compositions (>50 at. % Rh) were more preferable to stabilize the AFM phase. The current study focuses on growing highly ordered FeRh films by alternate layer rf sputtering of thin layers of iron and rhodium onto a heated substrate. It has been shown that films with rhodium content beyond 55 at. % contain a disordered bcc FM phase which gives rise to residual moment at room temperature even for thicker films.

  8. Thin film and multilayer optics for XUV spectral domain (1 nm to 60 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmotte, Franck

    2010-02-01

    The XUV spectral domain (1-60 nm wavelength range) has experienced rapid growth in recent years. On one side, the sources (synchrotron radiation, harmonic generation, x-ray laser, free-electron laser...) require ever more efficient optics, on the other hand, applications (diagnostics of hot plasma, solar physics, x-ray microscopy, EUV lithography, x-ray analysis...) provide new constraints on the design of multilayer stacks. The multilayer mirrors are the only way to achieve efficient optics operating at non-grazing incidence angles in this spectral range. Our work within the team XUV Optics at Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique focuses on the study of materials in thin layers correlated to the study of optical properties of multilayers. The objective is to achieve new multilayer components previously unavailable in the XUV domain, through a better understanding of physical phenomena in these nano-layer stacks. We show through several examples of how we have managed both to improve the performance of multilayer mirrors in a broad spectral range, and secondly, to develop new optical functions: beam splitters, broadband mirrors, dual-band mirrors or phase compensation mirrors. (author)

  9. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  10. Semiconductor thin films directly from minerals—study of structural, optical, and transport characteristics of Cu2O thin films from malachite mineral and synthetic CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramaniam, K.R.; Kao, V.M.; Ravichandran, J.; Rossen, P.B.; Siemons, W.; Ager, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the proof-of-concept of using an abundantly occurring natural ore, malachite (Cu 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 ) to directly yield the semiconductor Cu 2 O to be used as an active component of a functional thin film based device. Cu 2 O is an archetype hole-conducting semiconductor that possesses several interesting characteristics particularly useful for solar cell applications, including low cost, non-toxicity, good hole mobility, large minority carrier diffusion length, and a direct energy gap ideal for efficient absorption. In this article, we compare the structural, optical, and electrical transport characteristics of Cu 2 O thin films grown from the natural mineral malachite and synthetic CuO targets. Growth from either source material results in single-phase, fully epitaxial cuprous oxide thin films as determined by x-ray diffraction. The films grown from malachite have strong absorption coefficients ( 10 4 cm −1 ), a direct allowed optical bandgap ( 2.4 eV), and majority carrier hole mobilities ( 35 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at room temperature) that compare well with films grown from the synthetic target as well as with previously reported values. Our work demonstrates that minerals could be useful to directly yield the active components in functional devices and suggests a route for the exploration of low cost energy conversion and storage technologies. - Highlights: ► Semiconductor thin films directly from minerals ► Chemistry and structure evolution of the films obtained from mineral target is very similar to that films obtained from high-purity synthetic targets. ► Quite interestingly, transport and optical characteristics are also found to be similar.

  11. Structural and Electromagnetic Properties of Ni-Mn-Ga Thin Films Deposited on Si Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M. J.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ni2MnGa thin films raise great interest due to their properties, which provide them with strong potential for technological applications. Ni2MnGa thin films were prepared by r.f. sputtering deposition on Si substrates at low temperature (400 ºC. Film thicknesses in the range 10-120 nm were obtained. A study of the structural, magnetic and electrical properties of the films is presented. We find that the deposited films show some degree of crystallinity, with coexisting cubic and tetragonal structural phases, the first one being preponderant over the latter, particularly in the thinner films. The films possess soft magnetic properties and their coercivity is thickness dependent in the range 15-200 Oe at 300K. Electrical resistivity measurements signal the structural transition and suggest the occurrence of avalanche and return-point memory effects, in temperature cycling through the magnetic/structural transition range.

  12. High performance sandwich structured Si thin film anodes with LiPON coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinyi; Lang, Jialiang; Lv, Shasha; Li, Zhengcao

    2018-04-01

    The sandwich structured silicon thin film anodes with lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) coating are synthesized via the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method, whereas the thicknesses of both layers are in the nanometer range, i.e. between 50 and 200 nm. In this sandwich structure, the separator simultaneously functions as a flexible substrate, while the LiPON layer is regarded as a protective layer. This sandwich structure combines the advantages of flexible substrate, which can help silicon release the compressive stress, and the LiPON coating, which can provide a stable artificial solidelectrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the electrode. As a result, the silicon anodes are protected well, and the cells exhibit high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability and good rate capability. All the results demonstrate that this sandwich structure can be a promising option for high performance Si thin film lithium ion batteries.

  13. Disorder Improves Light Absorption in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells with Hybrid Light Trapping Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic simulation study on the impact of disorder in thin film silicon solar cells with hybrid light trapping structure. For the periodical structures introducing certain randomness in some parameters, the nanophotonic light trapping effect is demonstrated to be superior to their periodic counterparts. The nanophotonic light trapping effect can be associated with the increased modes induced by the structural disorders. Our study is a systematic proof that certain disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light trapping concepts in thin film solar cells. The result is relevant to the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasiperiodic textures. The random effect on the shape of the pattern (position, height, and radius investigated in this paper could be a good approach to estimate the influence of experimental inaccuracies for periodic or quasi-periodic structures.

  14. Fabrication of Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film and its tunable energetics and tailorable optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film was fabricated. The effects of graphene oxide (GO and bimetal on the structure and optical properties of metal silver films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical absorption, and Raman intensity measurements, respectively. Compared to silver thin film, Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure composite thin films were observed with wider optical absorption peak and enhanced absorption intensity. The Raman signal for Rhodamine B molecules based on the Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich nanostructure substrate were obviously enhanced due to the bimetal layer and GO layer with tunable absorption intensity and fluorescence quenching effects.

  15. Magnetic multilayer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Philipp; O'Sullivan, Eugene J.; Romankiw, Lubomyr T.; Wang, Naigang; Webb, Bucknell C.

    2016-07-05

    A mechanism is provided for an integrated laminated magnetic device. A substrate and a multilayer stack structure form the device. The multilayer stack structure includes alternating magnetic layers and diode structures formed on the substrate. Each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by a diode structure.

  16. Geometric structures of thin film: Pt on Pd(110) and NiO on Ni(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Oden L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This thesis is divided into 3 papers: dynamical low-energy electron- diffraction investigation of lateral displacements in topmost layer of Pd(110); determination of (1x1) and (1x2) structures of Pt thin films on Pd(110) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis; and structural determination of a NiO(111) film on Ni(100) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis.

  17. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J. E. [University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-15

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO{sub 2} and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  18. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO 2 and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  19. Electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured Ti:WO3 thin films grown by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karuppasamy, A., E-mail: karuppasamy@psnacet.edu.in

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dendrite structured Ti doped WO{sub 3} (WTO) thin films are grown by co-sputtering. • Sputtering condition influences structure and surface morphology of WTO films. • Titanium doping and annealing lead to dendritic surface structures in WTO films. • Structural, optical, electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of WTO films. • Enhanced electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured WTO thin films. - Abstract: Titanium doped tungsten oxide (Ti:WO{sub 3}) thin films with dendrite surface structures were grown by co-sputtering titanium and tungsten in Ar + O{sub 2} atmosphere. Ti:WO{sub 3} thin films were deposited at oxygen flow rates corresponding to pressures in the range 1.0 × 10{sup −3}–5.0 × 10{sup −3} mbar. Argon flow rate and sputtering power densities for titanium (2 W/cm{sup 2}) and tungsten (3 W/cm{sup 2}) were kept constant. Ti:WO{sub 3} films deposited at an oxygen pressure of 5 × 10{sup −3} mbar are found to be better electrochromic and photocatalytic. They have high optical modulation (80% at λ = 550 nm), coloration efficiency (60 cm{sup 2}/C at λ = 550 nm), electron/ion storage and removal capacity (Qc: −22.01 mC/cm{sup 2}, Qa: 17.72 mC/cm{sup 2}), reversibility (80%) and methylene blue decomposition rate (−1.38 μmol/l d). The combined effects of titanium doping, dendrite surface structures and porosity leads to significant enhancement in the electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of Ti:WO{sub 3} films.

  20. Electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured Ti:WO3 thin films grown by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dendrite structured Ti doped WO 3 (WTO) thin films are grown by co-sputtering. • Sputtering condition influences structure and surface morphology of WTO films. • Titanium doping and annealing lead to dendritic surface structures in WTO films. • Structural, optical, electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of WTO films. • Enhanced electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured WTO thin films. - Abstract: Titanium doped tungsten oxide (Ti:WO 3 ) thin films with dendrite surface structures were grown by co-sputtering titanium and tungsten in Ar + O 2 atmosphere. Ti:WO 3 thin films were deposited at oxygen flow rates corresponding to pressures in the range 1.0 × 10 −3 –5.0 × 10 −3 mbar. Argon flow rate and sputtering power densities for titanium (2 W/cm 2 ) and tungsten (3 W/cm 2 ) were kept constant. Ti:WO 3 films deposited at an oxygen pressure of 5 × 10 −3 mbar are found to be better electrochromic and photocatalytic. They have high optical modulation (80% at λ = 550 nm), coloration efficiency (60 cm 2 /C at λ = 550 nm), electron/ion storage and removal capacity (Qc: −22.01 mC/cm 2 , Qa: 17.72 mC/cm 2 ), reversibility (80%) and methylene blue decomposition rate (−1.38 μmol/l d). The combined effects of titanium doping, dendrite surface structures and porosity leads to significant enhancement in the electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of Ti:WO 3 films.

  1. Effect of thermal annealing on structural properties of SrGa2S4:Ce thin films prepared by flash evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarov, E.F.; Bayramov, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    In the present report the preparation technology and structural characterization of Ce 3 +activated SrGa 2 S 4 thin films are given. SrGa 2 S 4 : e thin films are prepared by so called flash evaporation which is simple and inexpensive method for thin film deposition. X-ray diffraction shows that the as deposited films exhibit amorphous behavior, but after annealing in H S stream, the polycrystalline one. EPMA results indicate nearly stoichiometric composition of the thin films

  2. Structural and electrical transport properties of La2Mo2O9 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, T.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-04-01

    We have studied the structure and electrical properties of La2Mo2O9 thin films of different thicknesses prepared by the laser deposition technique at different substrate temperatures. The structural properties of the thin films have been investigated using XRD, XPS, AFM, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The electrical transport properties of the thin films have been investigated in wide temperature and frequency ranges. The cubic nature of the thin films has been confirmed from structural analysis. An enhancement of the oxygen ion conductivity of the films up to five orders of magnitude is obtained compared to that of the bulk La2Mo2O9, suggesting usefulness of the thin films as electrolytes in micro-solid oxide fuel cells. The enhanced dc ionic conductivity of the thin films has been interpreted using the rule of the mixture model, while a power law model has been used to investigate the frequency and temperature dependences of the conductivity. The analysis of the results predicts the three-dimensional oxygen ion conduction in the thin films.

  3. Growth of Hexagonal Columnar Nanograin Structured SiC Thin Films on Silicon Substrates with Graphene–Graphitic Carbon Nanoflakes Templates from Solid Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanshun Zhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a new method for growing hexagonal columnar nanograin structured silicon carbide (SiC thin films on silicon substrates by using graphene–graphitic carbon nanoflakes (GGNs templates from solid carbon sources. The growth was carried out in a conventional low pressure chemical vapor deposition system (LPCVD. The GGNs are small plates with lateral sizes of around 100 nm and overlap each other, and are made up of nanosized multilayer graphene and graphitic carbon matrix (GCM. Long and straight SiC nanograins with hexagonal shapes, and with lateral sizes of around 200–400 nm are synthesized on the GGNs, which form compact SiC thin films.

  4. Nickel silicide thin films as masking and structural layers for silicon bulk micro-machining by potassium hydroxide wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskaran, M; Sriram, S; Sim, L W

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of using titanium and nickel silicide thin films as mask materials for silicon bulk micro-machining. Thin films of nickel silicide were found to be more resistant to wet etching in potassium hydroxide. The use of nickel silicide as a structural material, by fabricating micro-beams of varying dimensions, is demonstrated. The micro-structures were realized using these thin films with wet etching using potassium hydroxide solution on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) silicon substrates. These results show that nickel silicide is a suitable alternative to silicon nitride for silicon bulk micro-machining

  5. Study of structural and optical properties of PbS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homraruen, T.; Sudswasd, Y.; Sorod, R.; Kayunkid, N.; Yindeesuk, W.

    2018-03-01

    This research aimed to synthesize lead sulfide (PbS) thin films on glass slides using the successive ion layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. We studied the optical properties and structure of PbS thin films by changing the number of dipping cycles and the concentration of precursor solution. The results of this experiment show that different conditions have a considerable influence on the thickness and absorbance of the films. When the number of dipping cycles and the concentration of the solution are increased, film thickness and absorbance tend to become higher. The xrays diffraction pattern showed all the diffraction peaks which confirmed the face center cubic and the structure of PbS had identified. Grain size computation was used to confirm how much these conditions could be affected.

  6. Structural sensitivity of x-ray Bragg projection ptychography to domain patterns in epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Zhang, Q.; Holt, M. V.; Highland, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Bragg projection ptychography (BPP) is a coherent diffraction imaging technique capable of mapping the spatial distribution of the Bragg structure factor in nanostructured thin films. Here, we show that, because these images are projections, the structural sensitivity of the resulting images depends on the film thickness and the aspect ratio and orientation of the features of interest and that image interpretation depends on these factors. Lastly, we model changes in contrast in the BPP reconstructions of simulated PbTiO_3 ferroelectric thin films with meandering 180° stripe domains as a function of film thickness, discuss their origin, and comment on the implication of these factors on the design of BPP experiments of general nanostructured films.

  7. Vacuum deposition and pulsed modification of Ge thin films on Si. Structure and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalov, R.I.; Bayazitov, R.M.; Novikov, G.A.; Shustov, V.A.; Bizyaev, D.A.; Gajduk, P.I.; Ivlev, G.D.; Prokop'ev, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum deposition of Ge thin films onto Si substrates by magnetron sputtering was studied. During deposition sputtering time and substrate temperature were varied. Nanosecond pulsed annealing of deposited films by powerful laser or ion beams was performed. The dependence of the structure and optical properties of Ge/Si films on parameters of pulsed treatments was investigated. Optimum parameters of deposition and pulsed treatments resulting into light emitting monocrystalline Ge/Si layers are determined. (authors)

  8. Electrical and Structural Origin of Self-Healing Phenomena in Pentacene Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Evan S H; Zhang, Hongbin; Donner, Wolfgang; von Seggern, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Self-healing induced by structural phase transformation is demonstrated using pentacene field-effect transistors. During the self-healing process, the electrical properties at the pentacene interfaces improve due to the phase transformation from monolayer phase to thin-film phase. Enhanced mobility is confirmed by first-principles calculations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Structural transformations in MoOx thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho-Lopez, M.A.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Escobar-Alarcon, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, laser-induced crystallization in MoO x thin films (1.8≤x≤2.1) is reported. This transformation involves a MoO x oxidation and subsequently a crystallization process from amorphous MoO 3 to crystalline αMoO 3 . For comparison purposes crystallization is induced thermally, in an oven, as well. The crystallization kinetics is monitored by Raman spectroscopy; a threshold in the energy density necessary to induce the phase transformation is determined in the case of photo-crystallization. This threshold depends on the type of substrate on which the film is deposited. For the thin films deposited on glass substrates, the structural transformation is from amorphous MoO x to the thermodynamically stable αMoO 3 crystalline phase. For the thin films deposited on Si(100) the structural transformation is from amorphous MoO x to a mixture of αMoO 3 and the thermodynamically unstable βMoO 3 crystalline phases. The structural transformations are also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light-transmission experiments. (orig.)

  10. Structural transformations in MoO{sub x} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Lopez, M.A.; Haro-Poniatowski, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Cuantica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Escobar-Alarcon, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2004-01-01

    In this work, laser-induced crystallization in MoO{sub x} thin films (1.8{<=}x{<=}2.1) is reported. This transformation involves a MoO{sub x} oxidation and subsequently a crystallization process from amorphous MoO{sub 3} to crystalline {alpha}MoO{sub 3}. For comparison purposes crystallization is induced thermally, in an oven, as well. The crystallization kinetics is monitored by Raman spectroscopy; a threshold in the energy density necessary to induce the phase transformation is determined in the case of photo-crystallization. This threshold depends on the type of substrate on which the film is deposited. For the thin films deposited on glass substrates, the structural transformation is from amorphous MoO{sub x} to the thermodynamically stable {alpha}MoO{sub 3} crystalline phase. For the thin films deposited on Si(100) the structural transformation is from amorphous MoO{sub x} to a mixture of {alpha}MoO{sub 3} and the thermodynamically unstable {beta}MoO{sub 3} crystalline phases. The structural transformations are also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light-transmission experiments. (orig.)

  11. Study of post annealing influence on structural, chemical and electrical properties of ZTO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vipin Kumar; Kumar, Praveen; Kumar, Mahesh; Jain, Praveen; Bhandari, Deepika; Vijay, Y.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Structural, chemical and electrical properties of cost effective ZTO thin films with varying concentrations. → Effect of annealing of ZTO films. - Abstract: Zinc-Tin-Oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate with varying concentrations (ZnO:SnO 2 ; 100:0, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 wt.%) at room temperature by flash evaporation technique. These deposited ZTO films were annealed at 450 deg. C in vacuum. These films were characterized to study the effect of annealing and addition of SnO 2 concentration on the structural, chemical and electrical properties. The XRD analysis indicates that crystallization of the ZTO films strongly depends on the concentration of SnO 2 and post annealing where annealed films showed polycrystalline nature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images manifest the surface morphology of these ZTO thin films. The XPS core level spectra of Zn(2p), O(1s) and Sn(3d) have been deconvoluted into their Gaussian component to evaluate the chemical changes, while valence band spectra reveal the electronic structures of these films. A small shift in Zn(2p) and Sn(3d) core level towards higher binding energy and O(1s) core level towards lower binding energy have been observed. The minimum electrical resistivity (ρ ∼ 3.69 x 10 -2 Ω-cm), maximum carrier concentration (n ∼ 3.26 x 10 19 cm -3 ) and Hall mobility (μ ∼ 5.2 cm 2 v -1 s -1 ) were obtained for as-prepared ZTO (50:50) film thereafter move towards lowest resistivity (ρ ∼ 1.12 x 10 -3 Ω-cm), highest carrier concentration (n ∼ 2.96 x 10 20 cm -3 ) and mobility (μ ∼ 18.8 cm 2 v -1 s -1 ) for annealed ZTO (50:50) thin film.

  12. Structural, electrical and optical properties of nanostructured ZrO2 thin film deposited by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salodkar, R. V.; Belkhedkar, M. R.; Nemade, S. D.

    2018-05-01

    Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method has been employed to deposit nanocrystalline ZrO2 thin film of thickness 91 nm onto glass substrates using ZrOCl2.8H2O and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors respectively. The structural and surface morphological characterizations have been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy confirms the nanocrystalline nature of ZrO2 thin film. The direct optical band gap and activation energy of the ZrO2 thin film are found to be 4.74 and 0.80eV respectively.

  13. Structural and electrical studies on sol-gel derived spun TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A K; Chaure, N B; Ray, A K; Nabok, A V; Habesch, S

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were prepared by spin coating of sol precursor onto microscopic glass slides, silicon and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. Spin speed was varied between 1000 and 6000 rpm. From the morphological analysis, it is found that thin films spun with speed ω≤4000 rpm assume higher ordered structure than those spun at a speed higher than 4000 rpm. Conduction at low voltages is believed to be variable range hopping at temperatures T a = 0.46 eV below the conduction band edge becomes dominant at temperatures higher than 220 K. At high field charge transport is due to trap-controlled space charge limited mechanism. Traps with a density N t ∼1x10 22 m -3 are thought to be situated at energy level E t 0.3 eV below the conduction band and are associated with film nonstoichiometry and interface states

  14. Structural and optical characteristics of SnS thin film prepared by SILAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SnS thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple route named successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The films were prepared using tin chloride as tin (Sn source and ammonium sulfide as sulphur (S source. The structural, optical and morphological study was done using XRD, FESEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD measurement confirmed the presence of orthorhombic phase. Particle size estimated from XRD was about 45 nm which fitted well with the FESEM measurement. The value of band gap was about 1.63 eV indicating that SnS can be used as an important material for thin film solar cells. The surface morphology showed a smooth, homogenous film over the substrate. Characteristic stretching vibration mode of SnS was observed in the absorption band of FT-IR spectrum. The electrical activation energy was about 0.306 eV.

  15. Growth and structural properties of indium sesquitelluride (In2Te3) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, R.R.; Lakshminarayana, D.; Patel, P.B.; Patel, P.K.; Panchal, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Indium sesquitelluride (In 2 Te 3 ) compound was synthesized by mixing and melting the pure individual elements in stoichiometric proportions. The synthesized compound was utilized for the deposition of In 2 Te 3 thin films on glass and freshly cleaved NaCl substrates using flash evaporation technique. The structure of In 2 Te 3 thin films has been studied on the glass substrates by X-ray diffraction technique and on the cleavage faces of NaCl by electron diffraction technique. It was observed that the deposition from an ordered α-phase compound results in polycrystalline films on glass substrate at 473 K which are predominant α-phase and random β-phase compounds resulting in single crystal films on NaCl substrate at 523 K. Effect of source and substrate temperature on the composition of In 2 Te 3 was also studied

  16. Enhanced stimulated emission in ZnO thin films using microdisk top-down structuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomenyo, K.; Kostcheev, S.; Lérondel, G. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS UMR 6281, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, CS 42060, 10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Gadallah, A.-S. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS UMR 6281, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, CS 42060, 10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Department of Laser Sciences and Interactions, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Rogers, D. J. [Nanovation, 8, route de Chevreuse, 78117 Châteaufort (France)

    2014-05-05

    Microdisks were fabricated in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films using a top-down approach combining electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. These microdisk structured thin films exhibit a stimulated surface emission between 3 and 7 times higher than that from a reference film depending on the excitation power density. Emission peak narrowing, reduction in lasing threshold and blue-shifting of the emission wavelength were observed along with enhancement in the emitted intensity. Results indicate that this enhancement is due to an increase in the internal quantum efficiency combined with an amplification of the stimulated emission. An analysis in terms of waveguiding is presented in order to explain these effects. These results demonstrate that very significant gains in emission can be obtained through conventional microstructuration without the need for more onerous top-down nanostructuration techniques.

  17. Finite element method calculations of GMI in thin films and sandwiched structures: Size and edge effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Arribas, A.; Barandiaran, J.M.; Cos, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The impedance values of magnetic thin films and magnetic/conductor/magnetic sandwiched structures with different widths are computed using the finite element method (FEM). The giant magneto-impedance (GMI) is calculated from the difference of the impedance values obtained with high and low permeability of the magnetic material. The results depend considerably on the width of the sample, demonstrating that edge effects are decisive for the GMI performance. It is shown that, besides the usual skin effect that is responsible for GMI, an 'unexpected' increase of the current density takes place at the lateral edge of the sample. In magnetic thin films this effect is dominant when the permeability is low. In the trilayers, it is combined with the lack of shielding of the central conductor at the edge. The resulting effects on GMI are shown to be large for both kinds of samples. The conclusions of this study are of great importance for the successful design of miniaturized GMI devices

  18. Chemical vapor deposition of Si/SiC nano-multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.; Remfort, R.; Woehrl, N.; Assenmacher, W.; Schulz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Stoichiometric SiC films were deposited with the commercially available single source precursor Et_3SiH by classical thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as well as plasma-enhanced CVD at low temperatures in the absence of any other reactive gases. Temperature-variable deposition studies revealed that polycrystalline films containing different SiC polytypes with a Si to carbon ratio of close to 1:1 are formed at 1000 °C in thermal CVD process and below 100 °C in the plasma-enhanced CVD process. The plasma enhanced CVD process enables the reduction of residual stress in the deposited films and offers the deposition on temperature sensitive substrates in the future. In both deposition processes the film thickness can be controlled by variation of the process parameters such as the substrate temperature and the deposition time. The resulting material films were characterized with respect to their chemical composition and their crystallinity using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XRD), atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. Finally, Si/SiC multilayers of up to 10 individual layers of equal thickness (about 450 nm) were deposited at 1000 °C using Et_3SiH and SiH_4. The resulting multilayers features amorphous SiC films alternating with Si films, which feature larger crystals up to 300 nm size as measured by transmission electron microscopy as well as by XRD. XRD features three distinct peaks for Si(111), Si(220) and Si(311). - Highlights: • Stoichiometric silicon carbide films were deposited from a single source precursor. • Thermal as well as plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used. • Films morphology, crystallinity and chemical composition were characterized. • Silicon/silicon carbide multilayers of up to 10 individual nano-layers were deposited.

  19. Core-Shell Double Gyroid Structure Formed by Linear ABC Terpolymer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Ségolène; Aissou, Karim; Mumtaz, Muhammad; Telitel, Siham; Pécastaings, Gilles; Wirotius, Anne-Laure; Brochon, Cyril; Cloutet, Eric; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2018-05-01

    The synthesis and self-assembly in thin-film configuration of linear ABC triblock terpolymer chains consisting of polystyrene (PS), poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP), and polyisoprene (PI) are described. For that purpose, a hydroxyl-terminated PS-b-P2VP (45 kg mol -1 ) building block and a carboxyl-terminated PI (9 kg mol -1 ) are first separately prepared by anionic polymerization, and then are coupled via a Steglich esterification reaction. This quantitative and metal-free catalyst synthesis route reveals to be very interesting since functionalization and purification steps are straightforward, and well-defined terpolymers are produced. A solvent vapor annealing (SVA) process is used to promote the self-assembly of frustrated PS-b-P2VP-b-PI chains into a thin-film core-shell double gyroid (Q 230 , space group: Ia3¯d) structure. As terraces are formed within PS-b-P2VP-b-PI thin films during the SVA process under a CHCl 3 vapor, different plane orientations of the Q 230 structure ((211), (110), (111), and (100)) are observed at the polymer-air interface depending on the film thickness. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Comparison of structural properties of thermally evaporated CdTe thin films on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, G.H.; Anis-ur-Rehman, M.

    2011-01-01

    The direct energy band gap in the range of 1.5 eV and the high absorption coefficient (105 cm/sup -1/) makes Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) a suitable material for fabrication of thin film solar cells. Thin film solar cells based on CdTe (1 cm area) achieved efficiency of 15.6% on a laboratory scale. CdTe thin films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum 2 X 10/sup -5/mbar on glass and stainless steel (SS) substrates. During deposition substrates temperature was kept same at 200 deg. C for all samples. The structural properties were determined by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns. All samples exhibit polycrystalline nature. Dependence of different structural parameters such as lattice parameter, micro strain, and grain size and dislocation density on thickness was studied. Also the influence of the different substrates on these parameters was investigated. The analysis showed that the preferential orientation of films was dependent on the substrate type. (author)

  1. Magnetic and structural properties of ion beam sputtered Fe–Zr–Nb–B–Cu thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, S.S.; Kane, S.N.; Gupta, A.; Mazaleyrat, F.; LoBue, M.; Coisson, M.; Celegato, F.; Tiberto, P.; Vinai, F.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic and structural properties of Fe–Zr–Nb–B–Cu thin films, prepared by ion beam sputtering on silicon substrates by using a target made up of amorphous ribbons of nominal composition Fe 84 Zr 3.5 Nb 3.5 B 8 Cu 1 , are reported. As-deposited thin film samples exhibit an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, which can be ascribed to the preparation technique and the coupling of quenched-in internal stresses. Structural measurements indicate no significant variation of the grain size with thickness and with the annealing temperature. Increase in surface irregularities with annealing temperature and oxidation results in aggregates that would act as pinning centers, affecting the magnetic properties leading to magnetic hardening of the specimens. The role of the magnetic anisotropy is thoroughly discussed with the help of magnetic and ferromagnetic resonance measurements. - Highlights: ►Ion beam sputtered Fe–Zr–Nb–B–Cu thin films of different thickness are prepared. ►Films exhibit in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, which reduces with thermal treatments. ►Increased surface roughness leads to wall pinning, increasing the coercive field.

  2. Structural and dielectric characterization of sputtered Tantalum Titanium Oxide thin films for high temperature capacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouahi, A., E-mail: rouahi_ahlem@yahoo.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 (France); Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Challali, F. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux (LSPM)-CNRS-UPR3407, Université Paris13, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430, Villetaneuse (France); Dakhlaoui, I. [Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Vallée, C. [CNRS, LTM, CEA-LETI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Salimy, S. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN) UMR CNRS 6502, Université de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssinière, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Jomni, F.; Yangui, B. [Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Besland, M.P.; Goullet, A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN) UMR CNRS 6502, Université de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssinière, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Sylvestre, A. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 (France)

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the dielectric properties of metal-oxide-metal capacitors based on Tantalum Titanium Oxide (TiTaO) thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on aluminum bottom electrode are investigated. The structure of the films was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The dielectric properties of TiTaO thin films were studied by complex impedance spectroscopy over a wide frequency range (10{sup -2} - to 10{sup 5} Hz) and temperatures in -50 °C to 325 °C range. The contributions of different phases, phases’ boundaries and conductivity effect were highlighted by Cole – Cole diagram (ε” versus ε’). Two relaxation processes have been identified in the electric modulus plot. A first relaxation process appears at low temperature with activation energy of 0.37 eV and it is related to the motion of Ti{sup 4+} (Skanavi’s model). A second relaxation process at high temperature is related to Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation with activation energy of 0.41 eV. - Highlights: • Titanium Tantalum Oxide thin films are grown on Aluminum substrate. • The existence of phases was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • Conductivity effect appears in Cole-Cole plot. • At low temperatures, a relaxation phenomenon obeys to Skanavi’s model. • Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization is processed at high temperatures.

  3. Structural effects in UO{sub 2} thin films irradiated with fission-energy Xe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popel, A.J., E-mail: apopel@cantab.net [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Lebedev, V.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Martin, P.G. [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Shiryaev, A.A. [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Lampronti, G.I. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Springell, R. [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Kalmykov, S.N. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, 123098, Moscow (Russian Federation); Scott, T.B. [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Monnet, I.; Grygiel, C. [CIMAP, CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-Université de Caen, BP 5133, 14070, Caen, Cedex5 (France); Farnan, I. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    Uranium dioxide thin films have been successfully grown on LSAT (Al{sub 10}La{sub 3}O{sub 51}Sr{sub 14}Ta{sub 7}) substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering. Irradiation by 92 MeV {sup 129}Xe{sup 23+} ions to simulate fission damage that occurs within nuclear fuels caused microstructural and crystallographic changes. Initially flat and continuous thin films were produced by magnetron sputtering with a root mean square roughness of 0.35 nm determined by AFM. After irradiation, this roughness increased to 60–70 nm, with the films developing discrete microstructural features: small grains (∼3 μm), along with larger circular (up to 40 μm) and linear formations with non-uniform composition according to the SEM, AFM and EDX results. The irradiation caused significant restructuring of the UO{sub 2} films that was manifested in significant film-substrate mixing, observed through EDX analysis. Diffusion of Al from the substrate into the film in unirradiated samples was also observed. - Highlights: • Flat (001) single crystal UO{sub 2} thin films on LSAT (001) substrates produced. • Ion irradiation induced topographical and structural rearrangements in UO{sub 2} films.

  4. Multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} thin films: Structural and magnetic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Z. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Girls Branch), Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Atta, A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Abbas, Y. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Sedeek, K.; Adam, A.; Abdeltwab, E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Girls Branch), Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-02-27

    BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) film has been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by a simple sol–gel spin-coating technique. The crystal phase composition, surface morphology, topography and magnetization measurements of the BFO thin film were investigated using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. GIXRD analysis revealed that the film was fully crystallized and no impure phase was observed. Cross-section SEM results indicated that compact and homogeneous BFO thin film was deposited on ITO with a thickness of about 180 nm. Moreover, most of A and E-symmetry normal modes of R3c BFO were assigned by Raman spectroscopy. We report here that the pure phase BFO film shows ferromagnetism at room temperature with remarkably high saturation magnetization of 63 kA m{sup −1}. Our results are discussed mainly in correlation with the condition of processing technique and destruction of the spiral spin cycloid at interface layers and grain boundaries. - Highlights: • Multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin film was prepared by sol–gel spin-coating method. • BFO film w asdeposited on indium tin oxide substrate with a thickness of 180 nm. • The film exhibits pure rhombohedral perovskite structure. • High saturation magnetization was recorded for our film at room temperature.

  5. Structural and mechanical properties of ZrSiN thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, F.G.R.; Conceicao, A.G.S.; Vitoria, E.R.; Carvalho, R.G.; Tentardini, E.K.; Hübler, R.; Soares, G.

    2014-01-01

    Zirconium silicon nitride (ZrSiN) thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in order to verify the silicon influence on coating morphology and mechanical properties. The Si/(Zr+Si) ratio was adjusted between 0 to 14.5% just modifying the power applied on the silicon target. Only peaks associated to ZrN crystalline structure were observed in XRD analysis, since Si_3N_4 phase was amorphous. All samples have (111) preferred orientation, but there is a peak intensity reduction and a broadening increase for the sample with the highest Si/(Zr+Si) ratio (14.5%), demonstrating a considerable loss of crystallinity or grain size reduction (about 8 nm calculated by Scherrer). It was also observed that the texture coefficient for (200) increases with silicon addition. Chemical composition and thickness of the coatings were determined by RBS analysis. No significant changes in nano hardness with increasing Si content were found. The thin film morphology observed by SEM presents columnar and non columnar characteristics. The set of results suggests that Si addition is restricting the columnar growth of ZrN thin films. This conclusion is justified by the fact that Si contributes to increase the ZrN grains nucleation during the sputtering process. (author)

  6. Characterization of Novel Thin-Films and Structures for Integrated Circuit and Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao

    Thin films have been widely used in various applications. This research focuses on the characterization of novel thin films in the integrated circuits and photovoltaic techniques. The ion implanted layer in silicon can be treated as ion implanted thin film, which plays an essential role in the integrated circuits fabrication. Novel rapid annealing methods, i.e. microwave annealing and laser annealing, are conducted to activate ion dopants and repair the damages, and then are compared with the conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). In terms of As+ and P+ implanted Si, the electrical and structural characterization confirms that the microwave and laser annealing can achieve more efficient dopant activation and recrystallization than conventional RTA. The efficient dopant activation in microwave annealing is attributed to ion hopping under microwave field, while the liquid phase growth in laser annealing provides its efficient dopant activation. The characterization of dopants diffusion shows no visible diffusion after microwave annealing, some extent of end range of diffusion after RTA, and significant dopant diffusion after laser annealing. For photovoltaic applications, an indium-free novel three-layer thin-film structure (transparent composited electrode (TCE)) is demonstrated as a promising transparent conductive electrode for solar cells. The characterization of TCE mainly focuses on its optical and electrical properties. Transfer matrix method for optical transmittance calculation is validated and proved to be a desirable method for predicting transmittance of TCE containing continuous metal layer, and can estimate the trend of transmittance as the layer thickness changes. TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAgT) electrode for organic solar cells (OSCs) is then designed using numerical simulation and shows much higher Haacke figure of merit than indium tin oxide (ITO). In addition, TAgT based OSC shows better performance than ITO based OSC when compatible hole transfer layer

  7. Structural and optical properties of ZnO–SnO{sub 2} mixed thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharsika, T., E-mail: tharsika@siswa.um.edu.my; Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my; Sabri, M.F.M., E-mail: faizul@um.edu.my

    2014-05-02

    Nanocrystalline ZnO–SnO{sub 2} mixed thin films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique at various substrate temperatures during deposition. The mixed films were prepared in the range of 20.9 at.% to 73.4 at.% by altering the Zn/(Sn + Zn) atomic ratio in the starting solution. Morphology, crystal structures, and optical properties of the films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet–visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD analysis reveals that the crystallinity of the Sn-rich mixed thin films increases with increasing substrate temperatures. FESEM images show that the grain size of mixed thin films is smaller compared to that of pure ZnO and SnO{sub 2} thin films. A drop in the thickness and optical bandgap of the film was observed for films fabricated at high temperatures, which coincided with the increased crystallinity of the films. The average optical transmission of mixed thin films increased from 70% to 95% within the visible range (400–800 nm) as the substrate temperature increases. Optical bandgap of the films was determined to be in the range of 3.21–3.96 eV. The blue shift in the PL spectra from the films was supported by the fact that grain size of the mixed thin films is much smaller than that of the pure ZnO and SnO{sub 2} thin films. Due to the improved transmission and reduced grain size, the ZnO–SnO{sub 2} mixed thin films can have potential use in photovoltaic and gas sensing applications. - Highlights: • ZnO–SnO{sub 2} mixed thin films were deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis. • Crystallinity of the thin films increases with substrate temperature. • Grain size of the mixed thin films is smaller than that of the pure thin films. • Reduction of grain size depends on mixed atomic ratios of precursor solution. • Optical band gap of films could be engineered by changing substrate temperature.

  8. Structural and magnetic properties of pure and Cu doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, N. Sai; Kaleemulla, S., E-mail: skaleemulla@gmail.com; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Begam, M. Rigana [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore – 632014 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam –603102 (India); UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu-603104 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Pure and Cu (7 at.%) doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were prepared using an electron beam evaporation technique. A systematic study was carried out on the structural, chemical and magnetic properties of the thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all the films were cubic in structure. The pure and Cu doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films showed ferromagnetism at room temperature. The Cu doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films showed the saturation magnetization, coercivity and retentivity of 38.71 emu/cm{sup 3}, 245 G and 5.54 emu/cm{sup 3}, respectively.

  9. Osteoblast Adhesion on Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposited Nano-Multilayered TiCrAlSiN Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Kyu [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Pham, Vuong Hung [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2014-03-15

    Adhesion of osteoblast cells to TiCrAlSiN thin films was evaluated in vitro. Ti and TiCrAlSiN thin films were deposited on glass substrates by cathodic arc deposition. Surface roughness and chemistry of the TiCrAlSiN thin films was characterized by AFM and EPMA, respectively. Ti and TiCrAlSiN thin films and glass coverslips were cultured with human osteoblast cells (hFOB 1.19). The cell cytoskeleton was analyzed by observing the organization of actin stress fibers and microtubules. Cell proliferation was investigated by MTT assay and visualization. Focal contact adhesion was studied by observing the vinculin density. The results indicated that the TiCrAlSiN coating significantly influenced the actin cytoskeleton and microtubule organization. Human osteoblasts hFOB attached and proliferated better on TiCrAlSiN thin films with more focal contact adhesions than on Ti thin films or glass surfaces. These results suggest that TiCrAlSiN thin films can be an implantable material where the maximum cell adhesion is required.

  10. Electric Field Structures in Thin Films: Formation and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, Andrew; Plekan, Oksana; Balog, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A newly discovered class of molecular materials, so-called “spontelectrics”, display spontaneous electric fields. Here we show that the novel properties of spontelectrics can be used to create composite spontelectrics, illustrating how electric fields in solid films may be structured on the nanoscale...... by combining layers of different spontelectric materials. This is demonstrated using the spontelectric materials nitrous oxide, toluene, isoprene, isopentane, and CF2Cl2. These yield a variety of tailored electric field structures, with individual layers harboring fields between 107 and 108 V/m. Fields may...

  11. Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of thin-film transistors with indium-zinc-tin oxide/Ag/indium-zinc-tin oxide multilayer electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yun, Dong Yeol; Cho, Woon-Jo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-08-01

    Transparent indium-zinc-tin oxide (IZTO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were fabricated on glass substrates using a tilted dual-target radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes exhibited a high optical transmittance in a visible region. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the on/off-current ratio of the TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were enhanced in comparison with those of the TFTs with ITO electrodes. The source/drain contact resistance of the IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes was smaller than that of the IZTO TFTs with ITO electrodes, resulting in enhancement of their electrical characteristics.

  12. Optical and structural behaviors of crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Subhankar; Kundu, Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) has excellent properties like uniaxial tensile stress, chemical resistance, biocompatibility, etc. The properties of PVA further can be tuned by crosslinking process. In this work, a simple heat treatment method is used to find out the optimum crosslinking of PVA and the corresponding structural and optical responses are explored. The PVA crosslinking is done by exposing the films at different temperatures and time intervals. The optical property of pure and heat treated PVA films are investigated by UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and structural modifications are studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The absorption peaks of pure PVA are observed at ≈ 280 and 335 nm and the corresponding emission is observed at ≈ 424 nm. The pure PVA showed modified optical behaviors after the heat treatment. In addition, dipping the PVA films in hot water (85°C) for nearly 20 minutes also show impact on both structural and optical properties. From FTIR spectroscopy, the changes in vibrational band positions confirm the structural modifications of PVA films.

  13. Effects of thickness on electronic structure of titanium thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) technique at titanium L2,3 edge in total electron yield .... the contribution of titanium L2,3 levels to the absorption co- ... all absorption coefficient of a sample is related to the atomic.

  14. Structural studies on Langmuir-Blodgett ultra-thin films on tin (IV) stearate using X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Deraman; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Mohd Ali Sulaiman; Mohd Ali Sufi

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out on Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) ultra-thin films of tin (IV) stearate for different numbers of layers. The structural information such as interplanar spacing, unit cells spacing, molecular length and orientation of molecular chains were obtained from the diffraction data. This information is discussed and compared with that previously published for LB ultra-thin films of manganese stearate and cadmium stearate

  15. Strontium titanate thin film deposition - structural and electronical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzig, Florian; Hanzig, Juliane; Stoecker, Hartmut; Mehner, Erik; Abendroth, Barbara; Meyer, Dirk C. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik (Germany); Franke, Michael [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Elektronik- und Sensormaterialien (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Strontium titanate is on the one hand a widely-used model oxide for solids which crystallize in perovskite type of structure. On the other hand, with its large band-gap energy and its mixed ionic and electronic conductivity, SrTiO{sub 3} is a promising isolating material in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for resistive switching memory cells. Here, we used physical vapour deposition methods (e. g. electron-beam and sputtering) to produce strontium titanate layers. Sample thicknesses were probed with X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Additionally, layer densities and dielectric functions were quantified with XRR and SE, respectively. Using infrared spectroscopy free electron concentrations were obtained. Phase and element composition analysis was carried out with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Subsequent temperature treatment of samples lead to crystallization of the initially amorphous strontium titanate.

  16. Magnetic domain structure of MnAs thin films as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, Masaki; Manago, Takashi; Akinaga, Hiroyuki; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Okabayashi, Jun

    2003-01-01

    We have investigate magnetic domain structures of MnAs thin films grown on GaAs substrates by a magnetic force microscope. We observed, by an atomic force microscope, rectangular defects along GaAs [110] direction which disperse randomly on the surface of MnAs/GaAs(001). The Curie temperature of MnAs is 45degC, and it is successfully confirmed directly by the variable temperature magnetic force microscope observation. We also investigated magnetic domain structures of MnAs/GaAs(111)B, and no apparent relation was observed between the topographic structure and the magnetic domain structure. (author)

  17. Growth and structure of Co/Au magnetic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsot, N.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the growth and the crystallographic structure of magnetic ultra thin cobalt/gold films (Co/Au), in order to investigate the correlations between their magnetic and structural properties. Room temperature (R.T.) Co growth on Au (111) proceeds in three stages. Up to 2 Co monolayers (ML), a bilayer island growth mode is observed. Between 2 and 5 ML, coalescence of the islands occurs, covering the substrate surface and a Co/Au mixing is observed resulting from the de-construction of the Herringbone reconstruction. Finally, beyond 5 ML, the CoAu mixing is buried and the Co growth continues in a 3-D growth. Annealing studies at 600 K on this system show a smoothing effect of the Co film, and at the same time, segregation of Au atoms. The quality of the Co/Au interface (sharpness) is not enhanced by the annealing. The local order was studied by SEXAFS and the long range order by GIXRD showing that the Co film has a hexagonal close packed structure, with an easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the surface. From a local order point of view, the Co grows with an incoherent epitaxy and keeps its own bulk parameters. The GIXRD analysis shows a residual strain in the Co film of 4%. The difference observed between the local order analysis and the long range order results is explained in terms of the low dimensions of the diffracting domains. The evolution of film strains, as a function of the Co coverage, shows a marked deviation from the elastic strain theory. Modification of the strain field in the Co film as a function of the Au coverage is studied by GIXRD analysis. The Au growth study, at R.T., shows no evidence of a Au/Co mixing in the case of the Au/Co interface. The Au overlayer adopts a twinned face centred cubic structure on the rough Co film surface. (author)

  18. Structural study of Ge/GaAs thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarov, V K; Lari, L; Lytvyn, P M; Kholevchuk, V V; Mitin, V F

    2012-01-01

    Ge/GaAs heterostructure research is largely motivated by the application of this material in solar cells, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, mm-wave mixer diodes, temperature sensors and photodetectors. Therefore, understanding of how the properties of Ge/GaAs heterostructure depend on its preparation (growth) is of importance for various high-efficiency devices. In this work, by using thermal Ge evaporation on GaAs(100), we studied structural properties of these films as a function of the deposition rate. Film grains size and morphology show strong dependence of the deposition rate. Low deposition rates results in films with large crystal grains and rough surface. At high deposition rates films become flatter and their crystal grains size decreases, while at very high deposition rates films become amorphous. Cross-sectional TEM of the films show that the Ge films are granular single crystal epitaxially grown on GaAs. The Ge/GaAs interface is atomically abrupt and free from misfit dislocations. Stacking faults along the [111] directions that originate at the interface were also observed. Finally by using the Kelvin probe microscopy we show that work function changes are related to the grain structure of the film.

  19. Effect of R.F. Power to the Structural Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, N.D.M.; Rusop, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of RF power variation (100 watt∼400 watt ) on the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films electrical, optical and structural properties were examined using current voltage (I-V) measurement, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). ZnO thin films were prepared at room temperature in pure argon atmosphere by a RF magnetron sputtering using ZnO target. The resistivity of thin film show the lowest at 300 watt. The absorption coefficient spectra obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer measurement show all films have low absorbance in visible and near infrared (IR) region but have high UV absorption properties using UV-VIS spectrophotometer (JASCO 670) . Highly oriented ZnO thin films [002] direction were obtained by using Rigaku Ultima IV. (author)

  20. Composition, structure and magnetic properties of sputter deposited Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annadurai, A.; Nandakumar, A.K.; Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Manivel Raja, M.; Bysak, S. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500 058 (India); Gopalan, R. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500 058 (India)], E-mail: rg_gopy@yahoo.com; Chandrasekaran, V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500 058 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga thin films were deposited by the d.c. magnetron sputtering on well-cleaned substrates of Si(1 0 0) and glass at a constant sputtering power of 36 W. We report the influence of sputtering pressure on the composition, structure and magnetic properties of the sputtered thin films. These films display ferromagnetic behaviour only after annealing at an elevated temperature and a maximum saturation magnetization of 335 emu/cc was obtained for the films investigated. Evolution of martensitic microstructure was observed in the annealed thin films with the increase of sputtering pressure. The thermo-magnetic curves exhibited only magnetic transition in the temperature range of 339-374 K. The thin film deposited at high sputtering pressure of 0.025 mbar was found to be ordered L2{sub 1} austenitic phase.

  1. Edge-closed laminated structures for thin-film heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, D. A.; Argyle, B. E.; Lee, H.-P.; Trouilloud, P. O.; Petek, B.

    1991-04-01

    Magnetic film laminations containing nonmagnetic spacers have been explored with the hope of eliminating domain walls to diminish Barkhausen instabilities. Such laminates have limitations however, which originate in their ``edge-curling walls'' (ECWs).1 We have developed a new structure, free of ECWs, in which flux closure at opposing edges occurs via edge-shorting material added to circulate the easy-axis flux of the flat layers. We show experimentally with Kerr-effect imaging that (1) this edge-closed laminated (ECL) structure can support an (ECW-free) ``easy-axis'' (EA) magnetic state under conditions as modeled recently by Slonczewski,2 and (2) that this EA state is quite robust in the face of imperfect structure fabrication. This is, if the imperfections are not too severe, the resultant states depart minimally from the pure EA state and conduct hard-axis-driven flux nearly as well. Flat-film ECL elements in diamond, stripe, and recording-head-yoke shapes, plus experimental heads with ECL top yokes, were fabricated. Our domain images verify some key predictions from Slonczewski's static equilibrium modeling; additional results taken in applied magnetic fields extend the micromagnetic understanding. The sketch shows a typical domain pattem for a yoke-shaped element. The most stable state in the open portion of the yoke is the single domain shown. This remanent pattern was stable in the face of (slowly varying) external fields up to the 150 Oe that could be applied. The pole tip region contained a few 180° walls as indicated. On close inspection, these walls were seen to end in vestigial, nontouching, closure domains as predicted by the model when only partial flux closure occurs via the edge shorting material. The wall spacing in the tip varied somewhat following saturation-demagnetization cycles. The dynamic stability of this EA state was investigated in the experimental heads having ECL top yokes. The pseudodynamic LAMOM technique3 was applied using ``write

  2. Pd-Ni-MWCNT nanocomposite thin films: preparation and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Mirosław; Czerwosz, ElŻbieta; Sobczak, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    The properties of nanocomposite palladium-nickel-multi-walled (Pd-Ni-MWCNT) films deposited on aluminum oxide (Al2O3) substrate have been prepared and investigated. These films were obtained by 3 step process consisted of PVD/CVD/PVD methods. The morphology and structure of the obtained films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques at various stages of the film formation. EDX spectrometer was used to measurements of elements segregation in the obtained film. TEM and STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy) observations showed MWCNTs decorated with palladium nanoparticles in the film obtained in the last step of film formation (final PVD process). The average size of the palladium nanoparticles observed both on MWCNTs and carbonaceous matrix does not exceed 5 nm. The research was conducted on the use of the obtained films as potential sensors of gases (e.g. H2, NH3, CO2) and bio-sensors or optical sensors.

  3. Pulsed laser deposition and characterization of multilayer metal-carbon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siraj, K., E-mail: khurram.uet@gmail.com [Advance Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Rafique, M.S.; Munawar, M.Z. [Advance Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Naseem, S.; Riaz, S. [Center for Solid State Physics, University of Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2011-05-15

    Cobalt-DLC multilayer films were deposited with increasing content of cobalt, keeping carbon content constant by pulsed laser deposition technique. A cobalt free carbon film was also deposited for comparison. Excimer laser was employed to ablate the materials onto silicon substrate, kept at 250 deg. C, while post-deposition annealing at 400 deg. C was also performed in situ. The formation of cobalt grains within the carbon matrix in Co-DLC films can be seen through scanning electron and atomic force micrographs while no grains on the surface of the cobalt-free DLC film were observed. Raman spectra of all the films show D- and G-bands, which is a confirmation that the films are DLC in nature. According to Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements, the DLC films with cobalt revealed ferromagnetic behaviour whereas the cobalt free DLC film exhibited diamagnetic behaviour. The pure DLC film also shows ferromagnetic nature when diamagnetic background is subtracted. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) analysis showed that the optical band gaps, refractive indices and extinction coefficients of Co-DLC films can be effectively tuned with increasing content of cobalt.

  4. Pulsed laser deposition and characterization of multilayer metal-carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siraj, K.; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Rafique, M.S.; Munawar, M.Z.; Naseem, S.; Riaz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt-DLC multilayer films were deposited with increasing content of cobalt, keeping carbon content constant by pulsed laser deposition technique. A cobalt free carbon film was also deposited for comparison. Excimer laser was employed to ablate the materials onto silicon substrate, kept at 250 deg. C, while post-deposition annealing at 400 deg. C was also performed in situ. The formation of cobalt grains within the carbon matrix in Co-DLC films can be seen through scanning electron and atomic force micrographs while no grains on the surface of the cobalt-free DLC film were observed. Raman spectra of all the films show D- and G-bands, which is a confirmation that the films are DLC in nature. According to Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements, the DLC films with cobalt revealed ferromagnetic behaviour whereas the cobalt free DLC film exhibited diamagnetic behaviour. The pure DLC film also shows ferromagnetic nature when diamagnetic background is subtracted. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) analysis showed that the optical band gaps, refractive indices and extinction coefficients of Co-DLC films can be effectively tuned with increasing content of cobalt.

  5. Thin films of metal oxides on metal single crystals: Structure and growth by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed studies of the growth and structure of thin films of metal oxides grown on metal single crystal surfaces using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) are presented. The oxide overlayer systems studied are iron oxide and titanium oxide on the Pt(III) surface. The complexity of the metal oxides and large lattice mismatches often lead to surface structures with large unit cells. These are particularly suited to a local real space technique such as scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the symmetry that is directly observed with the STM elucidates the relationship of the oxide overlayers to the substrate as well as distinguishing, the structures of different oxides

  6. Structure of the Buried Metal-Molecule Interface in Organic Thin Film Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Rein; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Glyvradal, Magni

    2009-01-01

    By use of specular X-ray reflectivity (XR) the structure of a metal-covered organic thin film device is measured with angstrom resolution. The model system is a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film, sandwiched between a silicon substrate and a top electrode consisting of 25 Å titanium and 100 Å aluminum....... By comparison of XR data for the five-layer Pb2+ arachidate LB film before and after vapor deposition of the Ti/Al top electrode, a detailed account of the structural damage to the organic film at the buried metal-molecule interface is obtained. We find that the organized structure of the two topmost LB layers...

  7. Structural and Optical Properties of Ultra-high Pure Hot Water Processed Ga2O3 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani SHANMUGAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thin film based gas sensor is an advanced application of thin film especially Ga2O3 (GO thin film gas sensor is useful for high temperature gas sensor. The effect of moisture or environment on thin film properties has more influence on gas sensing properties. Radio Frequency sputtered Ga2O3 thin film was synthesized and processed in ultra-high pure hot water at 95 °C for different time durations. The structural properties were verified by the Xray Diffraction technique and the observed spectra revealed the formation of hydroxyl compound of Gallium (Gallium Oxide Dueterate – GOD on the surface of the thin film and evidenced for structural defects as an effect of moisture. Decreased crystallite size and increased dislocation density was showed the crystal defects of prepared film. From the Ultra Violet – Visible spectra, decreased optical transmittance was noticed for various processing time. The formation of needle like GOD was confirmed using Field Emission Secondary Electron Microscope (FESEM images.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7186

  8. Low-temperature growth and electronic structures of ambipolar Yb-doped zinc tin oxide transparent thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seol Hee; Ferblantier, Gerald; Park, Young Sang; Schmerber, Guy; Dinia, Aziz; Slaoui, Abdelilah; Jo, William

    2018-05-01

    The compositional dependence of the crystal structure, optical transmittance, and surface electric properties of the zinc tin oxide (Zn-Sn-O, shortened ZTO) thin films were investigated. ZTO thin films with different compositional ratios were fabricated on glass and p-silicon wafers using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The binding energy of amorphous ZTO thin films was examined by a X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical transmittance over 70% in the visible region for all the ZTO films was observed. The optical band gap of the ZTO films was changed as a result of the competition between the Burstein-Moss effect and renormalization. An electron concentration in the films and surface work function distribution were measured by a Hall measurement and Kelvin probe force microscopy, respectively. The mobility of the n- and p-type ZTO thin films have more than 130 cm2/V s and 15 cm2/V s, respectively. We finally constructed the band structure which contains band gap, work function, and band edges such as valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of ZTO thin films. The present study results suggest that the ZTO thin film is competitive compared with the indium tin oxide, which is a representative material of the transparent conducting oxides, regarding optoelectronic devices applications.

  9. Preparation of InSe Thin Films by Thermal Evaporation Method and Their Characterization: Structural, Optical, and Thermoelectrical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Boolchandani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The indium selenium (InSe bilayer thin films of various thickness ratios, InxSe(1-x (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, were deposited on a glass substrate keeping overall the same thickness of 2500 Ǻ using thermal evaporation method under high vacuum atmosphere. Electrical, optical, and structural properties of these bilayer thin films have been compared before and after thermal annealing at different temperatures. The structural and morphological characterization was done using XRD and SEM, respectively. The optical bandgap of these thin films has been calculated by Tauc’s relation that varies within the range of 1.99 to 2.05 eV. A simple low-cost thermoelectrical power measurement setup is designed which can measure the Seebeck coefficient “S” in the vacuum with temperature variation. The setup temperature variation is up to 70°C. This setup contains a Peltier device TEC1-12715 which is kept between two copper plates that act as a reference metal. Also, in the present work, the thermoelectric power of indium selenide (InSe and aluminum selenide (AlSe bilayer thin films prepared and annealed in the same way is calculated. The thermoelectric power has been measured by estimating the Seebeck coefficient for InSe and AlSe bilayer thin films. It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient is negative for InSe and AlSe thin films.

  10. Stress and stability of sputter deposited A-15 and bcc crystal structure tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, M.J.; Stutz, C.E.

    1997-07-01

    Magnetron sputter deposition was used to fabricate body centered cubic (bcc) and A-15 crystal structure W thin films. Previous work demonstrated that the as-deposited crystal structure of the films was dependent on the deposition parameters and that the formation of a metastable A-15 structure was favored over the thermodynamically stable bcc phase when the films contained a few atomic percent oxygen. However, the A-15 phase was shown to irreversibly transform into the bcc phase between 500 C and 650 C and that a significant decrease in the resistivity of the metallic films was measured after the transformation. The current investigation of 150 nm thick, sputter deposited A-15 and bcc tungsten thin films on silicon wafers consisted of a series of experiments in which the stress, resistivity and crystal structure of the films was measured as a function of temperatures cycles in a Flexus 2900 thin film stress measurement system. The as-deposited film stress was found to be a function of the sputtering pressure and presputter time; under conditions in which the as-deposited stress of the film was {approximately}1.5 GPa compressive delamination of the W film from the substrate was observed. Data from the thermal studies indicated that bcc film stress was not affected by annealing but transformation of the A-15 structure resulted in a large tensile increase in the stress of the film, regardless of the as-deposited stress of the film. In several instances, complete transformation of the A-15 structure into the bcc phase resulted in {ge}1 GPa tensile increase in film stress.

  11. Stress and stability of sputter deposited A-15 and bcc crystal structure tungsten thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Keefe, M.J.; Stutz, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetron sputter deposition was used to fabricate body centered cubic (bcc) and A-15 crystal structure W thin films. Previous work demonstrated that the as-deposited crystal structure of the films was dependent on the deposition parameters and that the formation of a metastable A-15 structure was favored over the thermodynamically stable bcc phase when the films contained a few atomic percent oxygen. However, the A-15 phase was shown to irreversibly transform into the bcc phase between 500 C and 650 C and that a significant decrease in the resistivity of the metallic films was measured after the transformation. The current investigation of 150 nm thick, sputter deposited A-15 and bcc tungsten thin films on silicon wafers consisted of a series of experiments in which the stress, resistivity and crystal structure of the films was measured as a function of temperatures cycles in a Flexus 2900 thin film stress measurement system. The as-deposited film stress was found to be a function of the sputtering pressure and presputter time; under conditions in which the as-deposited stress of the film was approximately1.5 GPa compressive delamination of the W film from the substrate was observed. Data from the thermal studies indicated that bcc film stress was not affected by annealing but transformation of the A-15 structure resulted in a large tensile increase in the stress of the film, regardless of the as-deposited stress of the film. In several instances, complete transformation of the A-15 structure into the bcc phase resulted in ge1 GPa tensile increase in film stress

  12. Multiferroic properties of BiFeO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} multilayered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Savita [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Tomar, Monika [Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar, Ashok [CSIR—National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Puri, Nitin K. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-09-01

    Multilayered structures of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) and ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) have been fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties of the multilayered system (BFO/BTO) have been investigated. It could be inferred that the magnetization increases with the incorporation of BTO buffer layer, which indicates a coupling between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic orders. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements performed on the prepared multiferroic samples show that the magnetization is significantly increased (M{sub s}=56.88 emu/cm{sup 3}) for the multilayer system with more number of layers (four) keeping the total thickness of the multilayered system constant (350 nm) meanwhile maintaining the sufficiently enhanced ferroelectric properties (P{sub r}=29.68 µC/cm{sup 2})

  13. Enhancement in figure-of-merit with superlattices structures for thin-film thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, R; Colpitts, T

    1997-07-01

    Thin-film superlattice (SL) structures in thermoelectric materials are shown to be a promising approach to obtaining an enhanced figure-of-merit, ZT, compared to conventional, state-of-the-art bulk alloyed materials. In this paper the authors describe experimental results on Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Si/Ge SL structures, relevant to thermoelectric cooling and power conversion, respectively. The short-period Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Si/Ge SL structures appear to indicate reduced thermal conductivities compared to alloys of these materials. From the observed behavior of thermal conductivity values in the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} SL structures, a distinction is made where certain types of periodic structures may correspond to an ordered alloy rather than an SL, and therefore, do not offer a significant reduction in thermal conductivity values. The study also indicates that SL structures, with little or weak quantum-confinement, also offer an improvement in thermoelectric power factor over conventional alloys. They present power factor and electrical transport data in the plane of the SL interfaces to provide preliminary support for the arguments on reduced alloy scattering and impurity scattering in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Si/Ge SL structures. These results, though tentative due to the possible role of the substrate and the developmental nature of the 3-{omega} method used to determine thermal conductivity values, suggest that the short-period SL structures potentially offer factorial improvements in the three-dimensional figure-of-merit (ZT3D) compared to current state-of-the-art bulk alloys. An approach to a thin-film thermoelectric device called a Bipolarity-Assembled, Series-Inter-Connected Thin-Film Thermoelectric Device (BASIC-TFTD) is introduced to take advantage of these thin-film SL structures.

  14. Chemical and Electronic Structure Studies of Refractory and Dielectric Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneille, Jason Stephen

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of oxide and refractory thin films under varying conditions. The deposition of the thin films is performed under vacuum conditions. The characterization of the growth, as well as the chemical and electronic properties of the thin films was accomplished using a broad array of surface analytical techniques. These model studies describe the relationship between the preparative processes and the stoichiometry, structure and electronic properties of the film products. From these efforts, the optimal deposition conditions for the production of high quality films have been established. The thin film oxides synthesized and studied here include magnesium oxide, silicon oxide and iron oxide. These oxides were synthesized on a refractory substrate using both post oxidation of thin films as well as reactive vapor deposition of the metals in the presence of an oxygen background. Comparisons and contrasts are presented for the various systems. Metallic magnesium films were grown and characterized as a preliminary study to the synthesis of magnesium oxide. Magnesium oxide (MgO(100)) was synthesized on Mo(100) by evaporating magnesium at a rate of one monolayer per minute in an oxygen background pressure of 1 times 10 ^{-6} Torr at room temperature. The resulting film was found to exhibit spectroscopic characteristics quite similar to those observed for bulk MgO. The acid/base characteristics of the films were studied using carbon monoxide, water and methanol as probe molecules. The film was found to exhibit essentially the same chemical properties as found in analogous powdered catalysts. Silicon dioxide was synthesized by evaporating silicon onto Mo(100) in an oxygen ambient. It is shown that the silicon oxide prepared at room temperature with a silicon deposition rate of {~ }{1.2}A/min and an oxygen pressure of 2 times 10^{ -8} Torr, consisted of predominantly silicon dioxide with a small fraction of suboxides. Annealing to

  15. Structural and electrical properties of sputter deposited ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed Shameem P., V.; Mekala, Laxman; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2018-05-01

    The growth of zinc oxide thin films having different oxygen content was achieved at ambient temperature by reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique and their structural and electrical properties are studied. The structural studies show that the films are polycrystalline with a preferential orientation of the grains along the c-axis [002], which increases with increase in oxygen partial pressure. The grain size and the surface roughness of the zinc oxide films are found to decrease with increasing oxygen partial pressure. It is observed that the resistivity of the zinc oxide films can be tuned from semiconducting to insulating regime by varying the oxygen content.

  16. Growth process and structure of Er/Si(100) thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, S.; Michishita, Y.; Miyamae, N.; Suto, H.; Honda, S.; Okado, H.; Oura, K.; Katayama, M.

    2006-01-01

    The solid-phase reactive epitaxial growth processes and structures of Er/Si(100) thin films were investigated by coaxial impact-collision ion scattering spectroscopy (CAICISS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The as-deposited Er film grown at room temperature was transformed into crystalline rectangular-shaped islands after annealing at 900 deg. C. These islands have a hexagonal AlB 2 -type structure and the epitaxial relationship is determined to be ErSi 2 (011-bar0)[0001]//Si(100)[011-bar]. It has been revealed that the surface of the Er silicide island is terminated with an Er plane

  17. Influence of Ag doping concentration on structural and optical properties of CdS thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pragati; Saxena, Nupur; Gupta, Vinay; Agarwal, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the influence of Ag concentration on structural properties of pulsed laser deposited nanocrystalline CdS thin film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirm the dopant concentration in CdS films and atomic concentration of elements. XPS studies show that the samples are slightly sulfur deficient. GAXRD scan reveals the structural phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal phase of CdS without appearance of any phase of CdO, Ag 2 O or Ag 2 S suggesting the substitutional doping of Ag ions. Photoluminescence studies illustrate that emission intensity increases with increase in dopant concentration upto 5% and then decreases for higher dopant concentration

  18. On the carrier transport in metal-insulator-metal structures for CdTe thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.W.; Choi, C.K.

    1982-01-01

    According to the energy band model for the Al-CdTe-Ag sandwich structure, we have investigate to the mechanism of the current limited transport(CLT). As the bias voltage applied to the Alsup(+) and Agsup(+) electrode, the potential barrier difference for this structure was found 0.2eV. From what this results, we conclude that the mechanism of the current limited transport due to the potential barrier of the contact limited current. Not only this phenomena but also the annealing effect of thin film was shown that the distingushable for virgin film. (Author)

  19. Chloroform micro-evaporation induced ordered structures of poly(L-lactide) thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaoyong; Li, Hongfei; Shang, Yingrui

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembly of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) in thin films induced by chloroform micro-evaporation was investigated by microscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction studies. A film-thickness dependent on highly ordered structures has been derived from disordered films. Ring-banded spherulitic...... and dendritic morphologies with radial periodic variation of thicknesses were formed in dilute solution driven by micro-evaporation of the solvent. Bunched morphologies stacked with a flat-on lozenge-shaped lamellae were created in thinner films. The formation of the concentric ring banded structures...

  20. Mesoscopic layered structure in conducting polymer thin film fabricated by potential-programmed electropolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitsuka, Mamoru (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Nakahara, Reiko (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Iyoda, Tomokazu (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Shimidzu, Takeo (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Tomita, Shigehisa (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Hatano, Yayoi (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Soeda, Fusami (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Ishitani, Akira (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Tsuchiya, Hajime (Nitto Technical Information Center Co., Ltd., Shimohozumi Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Ohtani, Akira (Central Research Lab., Nitto Denko Co., Ltd., Shimohozumi Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Mesoscopic layered structures in conducting polymer thin films are fabricated by the potential-programmed electropolymerization method. High lateral quality in the layered structure is realized by the improvement of polymerization conditions, i.e., a mixture of pyrrole and bithiophene as monomers, a silicon single-crystal wafer as a working electrode and propylene carbonate as a solvent. SIMS depth profiling of the resulting layered films indicates a significant linear correlation between the electric charge passed and the thickness of the individual layers on a 100 A scale. (orig.)

  1. Effects of oxygen partial pressure on structural and gasochromic properties of sputtered VOx thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Wei-Luen [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Lu, Yang-Ming [Department of Electrical Engineering, National University of Tainan, Tainan 70005, Taiwan (China); Lu, Ying-Rui [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Program for Science and Technology of Accelerator Light Source, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chi-Liang [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Dong, Chung-Li, E-mail: dong.cl@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jeng-Lung; Chan, Ting-Shan; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Pao, Chih-Wen [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Weng-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    VOx films were deposited by radio-frequency reactive magnetron sputtering from a vanadium target in an Ar–O{sub 2} gas mixture and pure O{sub 2}. For the films deposited in the gas mixture, the Ar flow rate was controlled at 20 sccm and the oxygen flow rate was controlled at 1, 3, and 5 sccm, respectively. A thin (∼ 5 nm) Pt layer was deposited on the VOx thin films as a hydrogen catalyst. The long-range structural order, short-range atom arrangement, and gasochromic properties of the deposited films were studied. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) results indicate that the deposited films are amorphous. Lamellar structures were found at oxygen flow rates of 3 sccm and above. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results show that the short-range atom arrangement of the lamellar VOx thin films is similar to that of crystal V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The GIXRD and XAS results show that the film obtained with the gas mixture and at an oxygen flow rate of 1 sccm did not significantly change after exposure to hydrogen, whereas the other films exhibited decreased interlayer distance, oxidation state, and crystallinity. The color of the films changed from light or deep yellow to gray. The results suggest that the gasochromic properties of the VOx thin films are related to the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-like atom arrangement and the interlayer distance of the lamellar structure. The films deposited with an oxygen flow rate of 3 sccm and above can be applied to H{sub 2} gas sensors. - Highlights: • Sputtered VOx film capped by Pt have potential for application in hydrogen sensor. • We present the X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the gasochromic VOx films. • Correlation of gasochromism and electronic structure of VOx film were studied. • Correlation of gasochromism and atomic structure were investigated.

  2. Structure and electrical properties of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 deposited on textured Pt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jongin; Song, Han Wook; Lee, Hee Chul; Lee, Won Jong; No, Kwangsoo

    2001-01-01

    The texturing of the bottom electrode plays a key role in the structure and electrical properties of Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films. We fabricated Pt bottom electrodes having a different thickness on MgO single crystals at 600 o C by rf magnetron sputtering. As the thickness of platinum (Pt) thin film increased, the preferred orientation of Pt thin film changed from (200) to (111). PZT thin films were fabricated at 450 o C by electron cyclotron resonance-plasma enhanced metal organic chemical vapor deposition on the textured Pt thin films. The texturing of the bottom electrode caused drastic changes in the C--V characteristics, P--E characteristics, and fatigue characteristics of metal/ferroelectric material/metal (MFM) capacitors. The difference of the electrical properties between the PZT thin films having different texturing was discussed in terms-of the x--y alignment and the interface between electrode and PZT in MFM capacitors. copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  3. Structural and Optical Studies of Magnesium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Arpana Agrawal; Tanveer Ahmad Dar; Pratima Sen

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the structural and optical properties of Magnesium doped Zinc Oxide (Mg  3.5 %, 6 %, 9 %, 12 % by weight) thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, Ultra-violet visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results reveal the polycrystalline nature of samples with no impurity or secondary phase formation. Ultra-violet visible absorption spectroscopy studies...

  4. {11-bar 01} twin dislocation structures in evaporated titanium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng, Julin; Fan, Xudong; Kasukabe, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    1995-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron micrographs of { 11-bar 01} interfacial twin dislocations in Ti thin films are reexamined. Computer simulations of the experimental images were obtained using atomic models deduced by Pond, Bacon and Serra (Phil Mag Letts, 1995). Two twin dislocations were analysed, with step heights of 4 x d(K 1 ) and 2 x d (K 1 ), where d(K 1 ) is the spacing of the { 11-bar 01 } planes. Reasonable agreement with the predicted structures was obtained at about 0.17nm resolution. 10 refs., 2 figs

  5. Crystal structure and phase composition of aluminium thin films with holmium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koleshko, V.M.; Belitskij, V.F.; Obukhov, V.E.; Rumak, N.V.; Urban, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of holmium additions on the crystal structure and phase composition of thin aluminium films has been studied. A regularity in grain size changes in aluminium thin films versus the holmium content in them is established. The holmium introduction is shown to result in the appearance of axial texture in the aluminium films, the texture axis being determined by the quantity of the addition. During heat treatment of the aluminium films, containing holmium additions, in the range of low ( approximately 100-200 deg C) annealing temperatures holmium monohydroxide is formed, and at annealing temperatures 300 deg C 0 3 is formed

  6. Influence of air flow rate on structural and electrical properties of undoped indium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzapour, S.; Rozati, S.M.; Takwale, M.G.; Marathe, B.R.; Bhide, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    Using the spray pyrolysis technique thin films of indium oxide were prepared on Corning glass (7059) at a substrate temperature of 425 C at different flow rates. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The Hall measurements at room temperature showed that the films prepared in an air flow rate of 7 litre min -1 have the highest mobility of 47 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and a minimum resistivity of 1.125 x 10 -3 Ω cm. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the films have a preferred orientation of [400] which peaks at the air flow rate of 7 litre min -1 . (orig.)

  7. Structural, optoelectronic, luminescence and thermal properties of Ga-doped zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.S.; Shinde, P.S.; Oh, Y.W.; Haranath, D.; Bhosale, C.H.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ecofriendly deposition of Ga-doped zinc oxide. ► Influence of Ga doping onto physicochemical properties in aqueous media. ► Electron–phonon coupling by Raman. ► Chemical bonding structure and valence band analysis by XPS. - Abstract: Ga-doped ZnO thin films are synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis onto corning glass substrates in aqueous media. The influence of gallium doping on to the photoelectrochemical, structural, Raman, XPS, morphological, optical, electrical, photoluminescence and thermal properties have been investigated in order to achieve good quality films. X-ray diffraction study depicts the films are polycrystalline and fit well with hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure with strong orientations along the (0 0 2) and (1 0 1) planes. Presence of E 2 high mode in Raman spectra indicates that the gallium doping does not change the wurtzite structure. The coupling strength between electron and LO phonon has experimentally estimated. In order to understand the chemical bonding structure and electronic states of the Ga-doped ZnO thin films XPS analysis have been studied. SEM images shows the films are adherent, compact, densely packed with hexagonal flakes and spherical grains. Optical transmittance and reflectance measurements have been carried out. Room temperature PL spectra depict violet, blue and green emission in deposited films. The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant in these polycrystalline films.

  8. Influence of grain size on structural and optic properties of PbS thin films produced by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güneri, E.; Göde, F.; Çevik, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this the paper, we use the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction technique (SILAR) chemical deposition method to fabricate good quality PbS thin films and the effects of grain size on the structural and optical properties of the thin films were determined by varying deposition cases. All of the films obtained in different dipping cycles show cubic rock-salt (NaCl) structure. The preferred orientation changed from the (111) direction to the (200) direction with increasing dipping cycles. Grain size determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) increased from 32 nm to 104 nm. Moreover, changing of atomic ratio of the thin films is determined according to the results of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The transmission of the thin films was characterized by UV–Vis measurements from 400 nm to 1100 nm. It was determined from the allowed direct graphics that the energy band gaps of the thin films shift from 1.33 eV to 1.92 eV in connection with deposition conditions. The variation in band gap may be attributed to the variation of grain size. Additionally, the refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), real (ε 1 ) and imaginary (ε 2 ) dielectric constants varied with increasing immersion cycles. - Highlights: • The effects of grain size on the structural, optical properties of PbS thin films deposited by SILAR were investigated. • The preferred orientation varied from the (111) direction to the (200) direction with changing grain size. • The energy band gaps of the thin films shift from 1.33 eV to 1.92 eV in connection with deposition conditions. • The refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary dielectric constants varied with increasing dipping cycles

  9. Influence of grain size on structural and optic properties of PbS thin films produced by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güneri, E., E-mail: emineg7@gmail.com [Department of Primary Education, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039, Turkey. (Turkey); Göde, F.; Çevik, S. [Department of Physics, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Burdur 15030, Turkey. (Turkey)

    2015-08-31

    In this the paper, we use the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction technique (SILAR) chemical deposition method to fabricate good quality PbS thin films and the effects of grain size on the structural and optical properties of the thin films were determined by varying deposition cases. All of the films obtained in different dipping cycles show cubic rock-salt (NaCl) structure. The preferred orientation changed from the (111) direction to the (200) direction with increasing dipping cycles. Grain size determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) increased from 32 nm to 104 nm. Moreover, changing of atomic ratio of the thin films is determined according to the results of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The transmission of the thin films was characterized by UV–Vis measurements from 400 nm to 1100 nm. It was determined from the allowed direct graphics that the energy band gaps of the thin films shift from 1.33 eV to 1.92 eV in connection with deposition conditions. The variation in band gap may be attributed to the variation of grain size. Additionally, the refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), real (ε{sub 1}) and imaginary (ε{sub 2}) dielectric constants varied with increasing immersion cycles. - Highlights: • The effects of grain size on the structural, optical properties of PbS thin films deposited by SILAR were investigated. • The preferred orientation varied from the (111) direction to the (200) direction with changing grain size. • The energy band gaps of the thin films shift from 1.33 eV to 1.92 eV in connection with deposition conditions. • The refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary dielectric constants varied with increasing dipping cycles.

  10. Heat treatment and aging effect on the structural and optical properties of plasma polymerized 2,6-diethylaniline thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, Rummana; Bhuiyan, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The monomer, 2,6-diethylaniline has been used to deposit plasma polymerized 2,6-diethylaniline (PPDEA) thin films at room temperature on to glass substrates by a capacitively coupled parallel plate glow discharge reactor. A comparative analysis on the changes of morphological, structural and optical properties of as-deposited, heat treated and aged PPDEA thin films is ascertained. Scanning electron microscopy shows uniform and pinhole free surface of PPDEA thin films and no significant difference in the surface morphology is observed due to heat treatment. Electron dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations indicate some structural rearrangement in PPDEA thin films due to heat treatment. Differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermogravimetric analysis suggest that the PPDEA is thermally stable up to about 580 K. The study on the optical absorption spectra of as-deposited, heat treated and aged PPDEA thin films of different thicknesses lead to the determination of the allowed direct and indirect transition energies ranging from 3.63 to 2.73 and 2.38 to 1.26 eV respectively. Urbach energy, steepness parameter and extinction coefficient are also assessed. It is observed that the optical parameters of as-deposited PPDEA thin films change due to heat treatment and do not change appreciably due to aging. - Highlights: ► Heat treatment and aging effect of plasma polymerized 2,6-diethylaniline thin films. ► The surface morphology of PPDEA is found uniform for all types of sample. ► Heat treatment introduces some elemental and structural rearrangement. ► The thermal stability is found up to about 580 K. ► Optical parameters were changed for heat treatment but not markedly for aging.

  11. Mechanism of polarization switching in wurtzite-structured zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Ayako; Ogawa, Takafumi; Fisher, Craig A. J.; Kuwabara, Akihide; Shimizu, Takao; Yasui, Shintaro; Itoh, Mitsuru; Moriwake, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    The properties of a potentially new class of ferroelectric materials based on wurtzite-structured ZnO thin films are examined using the first-principles calculations. Theoretical P-E hysteresis loops were calculated using the fixed-D method for both unstrained and (biaxially) strained single crystals. Ferroelectric polarization switching in ZnO (S.G. P63mc) is shown to occur via an intermediate non-polar structure with centrosymmetric P63/mmc symmetry by displacement of cations relative to anions in the long-axis direction. The calculated coercive electric field (Ec) for polarization switching was estimated to be 7.2 MV/cm for defect-free monocrystalline ZnO. During switching, the short- and long-axis lattice parameters expand and contract, respectively. The large structural distortion required for switching may explain why ferroelectricity in this compound has not been reported experimentally for pure ZnO. Applying an epitaxial tensile strain parallel to the basal plane is shown to be effective in lowering Ec during polarization, with a 5% biaxial expansion resulting in a decrease of Ec to 3.5 MV/cm. Comparison with calculated values for conventional ferroelectric materials suggests that the ferroelectric polarization switching of wurtzite-structured ZnO may be achievable by preparing high-quality ZnO thin films with suitable strain levels and low defect concentrations.

  12. Three dimensional simulation of giant magneto-impedance effect in thin film structures

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a three dimensional model for the giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect in thin film structures is developed using the finite element method(FEM) with a GMI permeability model embedded. One-layer, three-layer, and five-layer thin film structures are simulated. The GMI effect and the sensitivity are calculated as a function of the external magnetic field, driving frequency, and the thickness of the magnetic layers. The results show that the five-layer structure has the best performance, which is in accordance with experimental results. The GMI ratio and the sensitivity first improve with the increasing thickness of the magnetic layer but reach saturation at a certain value of the thickness. In a five-layer structure,saturation of the GMI effect becomes effective at about 3 μm thickness of the magnetic layers, where a GMI ratio of 1125% was obtained, with a corresponding sensitivity of 0.37%/A/m (29.6%/Oe).

  13. Three dimensional simulation of giant magneto-impedance effect in thin film structures

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2011-04-04

    In this paper, a three dimensional model for the giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect in thin film structures is developed using the finite element method(FEM) with a GMI permeability model embedded. One-layer, three-layer, and five-layer thin film structures are simulated. The GMI effect and the sensitivity are calculated as a function of the external magnetic field, driving frequency, and the thickness of the magnetic layers. The results show that the five-layer structure has the best performance, which is in accordance with experimental results. The GMI ratio and the sensitivity first improve with the increasing thickness of the magnetic layer but reach saturation at a certain value of the thickness. In a five-layer structure,saturation of the GMI effect becomes effective at about 3 μm thickness of the magnetic layers, where a GMI ratio of 1125% was obtained, with a corresponding sensitivity of 0.37%/A/m (29.6%/Oe).

  14. Structural and vibrational investigations of Nb-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyanga, E.; Gibaud, A.; Daniel, P.; Sangaa, D.; Sevjidsuren, G.; Altantsog, P.; Beuvier, T.; Lee, Chih Hao; Balagurov, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the evolutions of structure for TiO 2 thin film as changes with Nb doping and temperatures. • Up to 800 °C, the grain size of Nb 0.1 Ti 0.9 O 2 is smaller than for pure TiO 2 because doped Nb hinders the growth of the TiO 2 grains. • There was no formation of the rutile phase at high temperature. • Nb doped TiO 2 films have high electron densities at 400–700 °C. • Nb dope extends the absorbance spectra of TiO 2 which leads to the band gap reduce. - Abstract: Acid-catalyzed sol–gel and spin-coating methods were used to prepare Nb-doped TiO 2 thin film. In this work, we studied the effect of niobium doping on the structure, surface, and absorption properties of TiO 2 by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectometry (XRR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy at various annealing temperatures. EDX spectra show that the Nb:Ti atomic ratios of the niobium-doped titania films are in good agreement with the nominal values (5 and 10%). XPS results suggest that charge compensation is achieved by the formation of Ti vacancies. Specific niobium phases are not observed, thus confirming that niobium is well incorporated into the titania crystal lattice. Thin films are amorphous at room temperature and the formation of anatase phase appeared at an annealing temperature close to 400 °C. The rutile phase was not observed even at 900 °C (XRD and Raman spectroscopy). Grain sizes and electron densities increased when the temperature was raised. Nb-doped films have higher electron densities and lower grain sizes due to niobium doping. Grain size inhibition can be explained by lattice stress induced by the incorporation of larger Nb 5+ ions into the lattice. The band gap energy of indirect transition of the TiO 2 thin films was calculated to be about 3.03 eV. After niobium doping, it decreased to 2.40 eV

  15. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Ø. Jensen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of normal-incidence, high-flux and high-energy X-rays, total scattering data for pair distribution function (PDF analysis have been obtained from thin films (tf, suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. The `tfPDF' method is illustrated through studies of as-deposited (i.e. amorphous and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows the prediction of whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.

  16. Structural and electrical properties of CuAlMo thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkett, Martin, E-mail: martin.birkett@northumbria.ac.uk; Penlington, Roger; Wan, Chaoying; Zoppi, Guillaume

    2013-07-01

    The structural and electrical properties of a low resistivity CuAlMo thin film resistor material were investigated. The thin films were grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and glass substrates by direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering. The key electrical properties of sheet resistance, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and resistance stability were investigated as a function of sputtering pressure and post-deposition heat treatment time and temperature. A low sputtering pressure range of 0.13 to 0.40 Pa produced CuAlMo films with sheet resistance in the range 0.1 to 0.2 Ω/□ and resistance stability of 0.45 to 0.65% with a TCR of − 90 ppm/°C which could be shifted to zero following annealing in air at 425 °C. Films grown at higher sputtering pressures of 0.53 to 0.80 Pa had increased sheet resistance in the range 0.4 to 0.6 Ω/□ and inferior stability of 0.8 to 1.7% with a more negative TCR of − 110 to − 180 ppm/°C which could not be shifted to zero following annealing. The stability of the films grown at 0.13 and 0.40 Pa could be further improved to < 0.25% with heat treatment, due to the formation of a protective aluminium oxide layer. A minimum dwell time of 3 h at 425 °C was required to stabilise the films and set the electrical properties. - Highlights: • Thin films of copper–aluminium–molybdenum were sputtered on alumina substrates. • Film properties were investigated with variation in process conditions. • Low sputtering pressure gave improved electrical performance. • Post deposition annealing in air further improved electrical performance.

  17. Structural and electrical properties of CuAlMo thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkett, Martin; Penlington, Roger; Wan, Chaoying; Zoppi, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The structural and electrical properties of a low resistivity CuAlMo thin film resistor material were investigated. The thin films were grown on Al 2 O 3 and glass substrates by direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering. The key electrical properties of sheet resistance, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and resistance stability were investigated as a function of sputtering pressure and post-deposition heat treatment time and temperature. A low sputtering pressure range of 0.13 to 0.40 Pa produced CuAlMo films with sheet resistance in the range 0.1 to 0.2 Ω/□ and resistance stability of 0.45 to 0.65% with a TCR of − 90 ppm/°C which could be shifted to zero following annealing in air at 425 °C. Films grown at higher sputtering pressures of 0.53 to 0.80 Pa had increased sheet resistance in the range 0.4 to 0.6 Ω/□ and inferior stability of 0.8 to 1.7% with a more negative TCR of − 110 to − 180 ppm/°C which could not be shifted to zero following annealing. The stability of the films grown at 0.13 and 0.40 Pa could be further improved to < 0.25% with heat treatment, due to the formation of a protective aluminium oxide layer. A minimum dwell time of 3 h at 425 °C was required to stabilise the films and set the electrical properties. - Highlights: • Thin films of copper–aluminium–molybdenum were sputtered on alumina substrates. • Film properties were investigated with variation in process conditions. • Low sputtering pressure gave improved electrical performance. • Post deposition annealing in air further improved electrical performance

  18. Alternative nano-structured thin-film materials used as durable thermal nanoimprint lithography templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, M.; Boussey, J.; Le Drogoff, B.; Chaker, M.

    2016-02-01

    Nanoimprint templates made of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) thin films and fluorine-doped associated materials, i.e. F-DLC and F-SiC were investigated in the context of thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) with respect to their release properties. Their performances in terms of durability and stability were evaluated and compared to those of conventional silicon or silica molds coated with antisticking molecules applied as a self-assembled monolayer. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition parameters were firstly tuned to optimize mechanical and structural properties of the DLC and SiC thin films. The impact of the amount of fluorine dopant on the deposited thin films properties was then analyzed. A comparative analysis of DLC, F-DLC as well as SiC and F-SiC molds was then carried out over multiple imprints, performed into poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thermo-plastic resist. The release properties of un-patterned films were evaluated by the measurement of demolding energies and surface energies, associated with a systematic analysis of the mold surface contamination. These analyses showed that the developed materials behave as intrinsically easy-demolding and contamination-free molds over series of up to 40 imprints. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a large number of imprints has been considered within an exhaustive comparative study of materials for NIL. Finally, the developed materials went through standard e-beam lithography and plasma etching processes to obtain nanoscale-patterned templates. The replicas of those patterned molds, imprinted into PMMA, were shown to be of high fidelity and good stability after several imprints.

  19. Structural effects in UO{sub 2} thin films irradiated with U ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popel, A.J., E-mail: apopel@cantab.net [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Adamska, A.M.; Martin, P.G.; Payton, O.D. [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Lampronti, G.I. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Picco, L.; Payne, L.; Springell, R.; Scott, T.B. [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Monnet, I.; Grygiel, C. [CIMAP, CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-Université de Caen, BP 5133, 14070 Caen Cedex5 (France); Farnan, I. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Quantitative characterisation of radiation damage by kernel average misorientation. • UO{sub 2} (1 1 1) plane showed higher irradiation tolerance than (1 1 0) plane. • UO{sub 2} film-YSZ substrate interface is stable under low fluence irradiation. • (0 0 1), (1 1 0), (1 1 1) single crystal UO{sub 2} thin films on YSZ substrates are expected. - Abstract: This work presents the results of a detailed structural characterisation of irradiated and unirradiated single crystal thin films of UO{sub 2}. Thin films of UO{sub 2} were produced by reactive magnetron sputtering onto (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) single crystal yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) substrates. Half of the samples were irradiated with 110 MeV {sup 238}U{sup 31+} ions to fluences of 5 × 10{sup 10}, 5 × 10{sup 11} and 5 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} to induce radiation damage, with the remainder kept for reference measurements. It was observed that as-produced UO{sub 2} films adopted the crystallographic orientation of their YSZ substrates. The irradiation fluences used in this study however, were not sufficient to cause any permanent change in the crystalline nature of UO{sub 2}. It has been demonstrated that the effect of epitaxial re-crystallisation of the induced radiation damage can be quantified in terms of kernel average misorientation (KAM) and different crystallographic orientations of UO{sub 2} respond differently to ion irradiation.

  20. Annealing impact on the structural and photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films on Ag substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linhua; Zheng, Gaige; Lai, Min; Pei, Shixin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Gaussian fitting indicates that the PL spectra of the ZnO thin films include four emission peaks which are centered at 380, 520, 570 and 610 nm, respectively. The ZnO thin film deposited on an Ag substrate shows a stronger green emission and a weaker UV emission than the ZnO thin film directly deposited on a Si substrate annealed at 400 °C. With the rise of annealing temperature, the visible emission intensity and wavelength are largely changed. Highlights: • ZnO thin films have been prepared on Ag substrates by sol–gel method. • The Ag substrates have a great effect on the photoluminescence of ZnO thin films. • All the films exhibit three visible emission bands including green, yellow and red. • Annealing causes a large change of the visible emission intensity and wavelength. -- Abstract: In this work, ZnO thin films were prepared by sol–gel method on Ag substrates. The structural and optical properties of the films annealed at different temperatures were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence, respectively. The results of XRD showed that all the ZnO thin films had a wurtzite phase and were preferentially oriented along the c-axis direction. The sample annealed at 400 °C exhibited better crystalline quality than the ZnO thin film directly deposited on a Si substrate annealed at the same temperature. The photoluminescence spectra showed that ZnO thin films had an ultraviolet emission band and three visible emission bands including green, yellow and red band. The sample annealed at 400 °C exhibited a stronger green emission and a weaker ultraviolet emission compared with the ZnO thin film deposited on a Si substrate annealed at the same temperature. The difference of the luminescence properties was thought to be originated from different substrates. As for the ZnO films on Ag substrates, the increase of annealing temperature led to different changes of visible emissions

  1. Microscopic silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio structures for thin film conformality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Arpiainen, Sanna; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2015-01-01

    Film conformality is one of the major drivers for the interest in atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. This work presents new silicon-based microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures for the analysis of the conformality of thin films deposited by ALD and by other chemical vapor deposition means. The microscopic LHAR structures consist of a lateral cavity inside silicon with a roof supported by pillars. The cavity length (e.g., 20–5000 μm) and cavity height (e.g., 200–1000 nm) can be varied, giving aspect ratios of, e.g., 20:1 to 25 000:1. Film conformality can be analyzed with the microscopic LHAR by several means, as demonstrated for the ALD Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 processes from Me 3 Al/H 2 O and TiCl 4 /H 2 O. The microscopic LHAR test structures introduced in this work expose a new parameter space for thin film conformality investigations expected to prove useful in the development, tuning and modeling of ALD and other chemical vapor deposition processes

  2. On the structural and optical properties of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.; Chafik El ldrissi, M.

    2002-08-01

    The present work is essentially focused on the study of optical and structural properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films (a-Si:H) prepared by radio-frequency cathodic sputtering. We examine separately the influence of hydrogen partial pressure during film deposition, and the effect of post-deposition thermal annealings on the main optical characteristics of the layers such as refraction index, optical gap and Urbach energy. Using the grazing X-rays reflectometry technique, thin film structural properties are examined immediately after films deposition as well as after surface oxidation or annealing. We show that low hydrogen pressures allow a saturation of dangling bonds in the layers, while high doses lead to the creation of new defects. We show also that thermal annealing under moderate temperatures improves the structural quality of the deposited layers. For the films examined just after deposition, the role of hydrogen appears in the increase of their density. For those analysed after a short stay in the ambient, hydrogen plays a protective role against the oxidation of their surfaces. This role disappears for a long time stay in the ambient. (author)

  3. Reversal of lattice, electronic structure, and magnetism in epitaxial SrCoOx thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeen, H.; Choi, W. S.; Lee, J. H.; Cooper, V. R.; Lee, H. N.; Seo, S. S. A.; Rabe, K. M.

    2014-03-01

    SrCoOx (x = 2.5 - 3.0, SCO) is an ideal material to study the role of oxygen content for electronic structure and magnetism, since SCO has two distinct topotactic phases: the antiferromagnetic insulating brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 and the ferromagnetic metallic perovskite SrCoO3. In this presentation, we report direct observation of a reversible lattice and electronic structure evolution in SrCoOx epitaxial thin films as well as different magnetic and electronic ground states between the topotactic phases.[2] By magnetization measurements, optical absorption, and transport measurements drastically different electronic and magnetic ground states are found in the epitaxially grown SrCoO2.5 and SrCoO3 thin films by pulsed laser epitaxy. First-principles calculations confirm substantial, which originate from the modification in the Co valence states and crystallographic structures. By real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry, the two electronically and magnetically different phases can be reversibly changed by changing the ambient pressure at greatly reduced temperatures. Our finding provides an important pathway to understanding the novel oxygen-content-dependent phase transition uniquely found in multivalent transition metal oxides. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  4. Combinatorial experiment in Ni-Ti thin films by laser interference structuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.W.; Gachot, C.; Leibenguth, P.; Muecklich, F.

    2005-01-01

    Combinatorial experiments are achieved on periodically structured Ni-Ti thin film composition spreads by laser interference irradiation using a Nd:YAG laser. Continuous Ni-Ti compositional spreads covering almost the whole binary system are prepared by combining sputter mask, shutter and movement of substrate. The continuous compositional spread is subsequently micro-structured into a sample library consisting of well-defined lines of individual samples by laser interference irradiation. The composition and microstructure effects in continuous spread and sample libraries after laser structuring are explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and white light interferometry (WLI) microscopy. The sample library consists of individual samples with a distance of about 5 μm and a composition resolution as high as 0.1 at.% in between. Although, there are certain difficulties so far in obtaining the optimized laser fluence for the spread, the laser interference irradiation provides an effective way to prepare thin film libraries with around 200 sample lines within 1 mm

  5. Structural and electronic properties of rare-earth silicide thin films at Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dues, Christof; Schmidt, Wolf Gero; Sanna, Simone [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Paderborn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Rare-earth (RE) silicides thin films on silicon surfaces are currently of high interest. They grow nearly defect-free because of the small lattice mismatch, and exhibit very low Schottky-barriers on n-type silicon. They even give rise to the self-organized formation of RE silicide nanowires on the Si(001) and vicinal surfaces. Depending on the amount of deposited RE atoms, a plethora of reconstructions are observed for the RE silicide. While one monolayer leads to the formation of a 1 x 1-reconstruction, several monolayer thick silicides crystallize in a √(3) x √(3) R30 {sup circle} superstructure. Submonolayer RE deposition leads to different periodicities. In this work we investigate the formation of RE silicides thin films on Si(111) within the density functional theory. The energetically favored adsorption site for RE adatoms is determined calculating the potential energy surface. As prototypical RE, Dysprosium is used. Additional calculations are performed for silicides formed by different RE elements. We calculate structural properties, electronic band structures and compare measured and simulated STM images. We consider different terminations for the 5 x 2 reconstruction occurring in the submonolayer regime and investigate their stability by means of ab initio thermodynamics. The same method is employed to predict the stable silicide structure as a function of the deposited RE atoms.

  6. Fabrication and Crystal Structure of Sol-Gel Deposited BST Thin Films with Compositional Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czekaj D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present research technology of compositionally graded barium strontium titanate Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films deposited on stainless steel substrates by sol-gel spin coating followed with thermal annealing at T = 650°C is reported. Results of thermal behavior of the sol-gel derived powders with compositions used for fabrication of graded structure (i.e. with Sr mole fraction x = 0.5, 0.4 and 0.3 are described. X-ray diffraction studies of the phase composition and crystal structure of such complex thin film configuration are given. It was found that gel powders exhibited a large total weight loss of about Δm ≈ 44-47%. Three stages of weight loss took place at temperature ranges: below T ≈ 300°C, at ΔT ≈ 300-500°C and between T = 600°C and T = 800°C. Phase analysis has shown that the dominating phase is Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 compound while the second phase is Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 or Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 for “up-graded” and “down-graded” structure, respectively.

  7. Effect of crystal structure on strontium titanate thin films and their dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampangkeaw, Satreerat

    causes that make dielectric behavior in STO thin films different from the bulk. We characterized such film structures as lattice parameters, out-of-plane grain size, in-plane grain size, thickness, roughness, strains, and defects using ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and a high-resolution X-ray diffractometry. In plane grain size and percentage of defects were found to play a major role on the dielectric performance of the films.

  8. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of Ag doped lead chalcogenide (PbSe) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, A.A., E-mail: aghamdi90@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Heniti, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Shamshad A. [Department of Physics, St. Andrew' s College, Gorakhpur, UP (India)

    2013-03-15

    Research and development efforts are currently underway to fabricate a variety of solid state devices. A good deal of information regarding the synthesis, structural, optical and electrical properties of Ag doped lead chalcogenides have been revealed. The bulk polycrystalline (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} ternary chalcogenides are prepared by diffusion technique. The XRD patterns recorded for the (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films prepared by vacuum deposition technique, show that these films are polycrystalline in nature. The optical measurements reveal that the (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films possess direct band gap and the band gap energy decreases with an increase of Ag concentration. The extinction coefficient (k) and refractive index (n) are found to be changing by increasing Ag concentration in PbSe. These results are interpreted in terms of the change in concentration of localized states due to the shift in Fermi level. The dc conductivities of (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films are measured in temperature range 303-403 K. It is observed that the dc conductivity increases at all the temperatures with an increase of Ag content in PbSe system. The experimental data suggests that the conduction is due to thermally assisted tunneling of the charge carriers in the localized states near the band edges. The activation energy and optical band gap are found to decrease with increasing Ag concentration in lead chalcogenide and there are good agreements between these two values. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycrystalline nature has been verified by X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical absorption data showed the rules of direct transitions predominate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dc conductivity increases with an increase of Ag content in PbSe system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of Ag concentration causes a decrease in E{sub g

  9. Emission Characteristics of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Organic Thin-Films with Planar and Corrugated Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Kuo Wei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the emission characteristics from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs and organic molecular thin films with planar and corrugated structures. In a planar thin film structure, light emission from OLEDs was strongly influenced by the interference effect. With suitable design of microcavity structure and layer thicknesses adjustment, optical characteristics can be engineered to achieve high optical intensity, suitable emission wavelength, and broad viewing angles. To increase the extraction efficiency from OLEDs and organic thin-films, corrugated structure with micro- and nano-scale were applied. Microstructures can effectively redirects the waveguiding light in the substrate outside the device. For nanostructures, it is also possible to couple out the organic and plasmonic modes, not only the substrate mode.

  10. Annealing Temperature Dependent Structural and Optical Properties of RF Sputtered ZnO Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shashikant; Varma, Tarun; Asokan, K; Periasamy, C; Boolchandani, Dharmendar

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown over Si 100 and glass substrates using RF sputtering technique. Annealing temperature has been varied from 300 °C to 600 °C in steps of 100, and different microstructural parameters such as grain size, dislocation density, lattice constant, stress and strain have been evaluated. The structural and surface morphological characterization has been done using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRD analysis reveals that the peak intensity of 002 crystallographic orientation increases with increased annealing temperature. Optical characterization of deposited films have been done using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectrometer. An increase in optical bandgap of deposited ZnO thin films with increasing annealing temperature has been observed. The average optical transmittance was found to be more than 85% for all deposited films. Photoluminiscense spectra (PL) suggest that the crystalline quality of deposited film has increased at higher annealing temperature.

  11. Substrate structure dependence of the growth modes of p-quaterphenyl thin films on gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellegger, S.; Mitsche, S.; Poelt, P.; Haenel, K.; Birkner, A.; Woell, C.; Winkler, A.

    2005-01-01

    The variably oriented crystallite surfaces of a recrystallized polycrystalline gold sample served as substrates for the investigation of the structure dependence of p-quaterphenyl (4P) thin film growth. The films were prepared in ultrahigh vacuum by organic molecular beam evaporation. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, combined with laterally resolved electron backscatter diffraction and scanning tunnelling microscopy have been applied to determine the correlation between the substrate surface structure and 4P film morphology. Crystallite surfaces consisting of (110) terraces favour highly anisotropic needle-like 4P growth with the needle orientation normal to the Au directions. Atomic steps on vicinal planes with narrow terraces (< 2 nm) can also induce anisotropy in the 4P thin film growth, in particular elongated 4P islands normal to the step direction. In contrast to that, a nearly isotropic distribution of the needle orientations is observed on Au grains terminated by highly symmetric (111) or (100) crystal planes. Additionally, patches of continuous 4P layers can be found on these surfaces. There is strong evidence that the 4P molecules within the needle-like crystallites are oriented parallel to the Au surface, whereas for the continuous layers the 4P molecules are oriented nearly upright on the surface

  12. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacereddine, C. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Layadi, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)]. E-mail: A_Layadi@yahoo.fr; Guittoum, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger 16000 (Algeria); Cherif, S.-M. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Chauveau, T. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Billet, D. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Youssef, J. Ben [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, U.B.O., Brest 29238 (France); Bourzami, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Bourahli, M.-H. [Departement d' O. M. P., Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2007-01-25

    The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Ni thin films evaporated onto glass and polycrystalline Cu substrates have been investigated. The Ni thickness ranges from 31 to 165 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study the structure and morphology of these systems. The Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films are found to be polycrystalline with a (1 1 1) texture. There is an overall increase of the grain size with increasing thickness. A negative strain was noted indicating that all the samples are under a compressive stress. Diffusion at the grain boundaries seems to be a major contribution to the electrical resistivity in this thickness range. Study of the hysteresis curves, obtained by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), indicates that all samples are characterized by an in-plane magnetization easy axis. Higher in-plane coercive fields seem to be associated with higher grain size, indicating that coercivity may be due to nucleation of reverse domains rather than pinning of domain walls. The saturation field and the squareness have been studied as a function of the Ni thickness.

  13. Structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of co-doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, E. R.; El-Hagary, M.; Moustafa, El Sayed; Hassan, H. Shokry; Ismail, Yasser A. M.; Emam-Ismail, M.; Ali, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Different compositions of Co-doped zinc oxide [(Zn(1- x)Co x O) ( x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10)] thin films were evaporated onto highly clean glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique using a modified source. The structural properties investigated by X-ray diffraction revealed hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-type structure. The crystallite size of the films was found to decrease with increasing Co content. The optical characterization of the films has been carried out using spectral transmittance and reflectance obtained in the wavelength range from 300 to 2500 nm. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Co content. It was further found that optical energy gap decreases from 3.28 to 3.03 eV with increasing Co content from x = 0 to x = 0.10, respectively. The dispersion of refractive index has been analyzed in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico (WDD) single-oscillator model. The oscillator parameters, the single-oscillator energy ( E o), the dispersion energy ( E d), and the static refractive index ( n 0), were determined. The nonlinear refractive index of the Zn(1- x)Co x O thin films was calculated and revealed well correlation with the linear refractive index and WDD parameters which in turn depend on the density and molar volume of the system.

  14. Progress in thin-film silicon solar cells based on photonic-crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Kenji; De Zoysa, Menaka; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Jeon, Seung-Woo; Noda, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    We review the recent progress in thin-film silicon solar cells with photonic crystals, where absorption enhancement is achieved by using large-area resonant effects in photonic crystals. First, a definitive guideline for enhancing light absorption in a wide wavelength range (600–1100 nm) is introduced, showing that the formation of multiple band edges utilizing higher-order modes confined in the thickness direction and the introduction of photonic superlattice structures enable significant absorption enhancement, exceeding that observed for conventional random scatterers. Subsequently, experimental evidence of this enhancement is demonstrated for a variety of thin-film Si solar cells: ∼500-nm-thick ultrathin microcrystalline silicon cells, few-µm-thick microcrystalline silicon cells, and ∼20-µm-thick thin single-crystalline silicon cells. The high short-circuit current densities and/or efficiencies observed for each cell structure confirm the effectiveness of using multiple band-edge resonant modes of photonic crystals for enhancing broadband absorption in actual solar cells.

  15. Effect of sputtering parameters and substrate composition on the structure of tantalum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallmann, Lubica, E-mail: lubica.hallmann@zzm.uzh.c [Clinic of Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Dental Material Science, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zürich (Switzerland); Ulmer, Peter [Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-01

    The crystallographic properties of tantalum films deposited as a bioactive coating on Co–Cr–Mo and Ti–Al–Nb alloys have been investigated. The desired tough and ductile alpha phase of tantalum has been obtained by DC magnetron sputtering on Co–Cr–Mo and Ti–Al–Nb substrates. The thickness of the tantalum layer was between 20 and 600 nm. The crystallographic structure of tantalum thin film was dependent on the sputtering parameters such as DC power, bias voltage and gas impurities. Oxygen is an important factor for the stabilization of the tantalum alpha phase on Co–Cr–Mo substrate. The crystallographic structure and texture of tantalum thin films was found to be additionally dependent on the substrate composition. For Ti–Al–Nb substrate, oxygen content was not an important factor for the stabilization of the alpha phase. The observed shift of X-ray diffraction peaks to lower 2(θ) is an indication of stress evolving during the sputtering process and was dependent on bias voltage and oxygen content of the carrier gas.

  16. In{sub 6}Se{sub 7} thin films by heating thermally evaporated indium and chemical bath deposited selenium multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornelas, R.E.; Avellaneda, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon-CIIDIT, Apodaca, N.L (Mexico); Castillo, G.A.; Roy, T.K. Das [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B., E-mail: kbindu_k@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon-CIIDIT, Apodaca, N.L (Mexico)

    2012-05-15

    Indium selenide (In{sub 6}Se{sub 7}) thin films were prepared via selenization of thermally evaporated indium thin films by dipping in sodium selenosulphate solution followed by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. First, indium was thermally evaporated on glass substrate. Then, the indium coated glass substrates were dipped in a solution containing 80 ml 0.125 M sodium selenosulphate and 1.5 ml dilute acetic acid (25%) for 5 min. Glass/In-Se layers were annealed at 200-400 Degree-Sign C in nitrogen atmosphere (0.1 Torr) for 30 min. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of monoclinic In{sub 6}Se{sub 7}. Morphology of the thin films formed at different conditions was analyzed using Scanning electron microscopy. The elemental analysis was done using Energy dispersive X-ray detection. Electrical conductivity under dark and illumination conditions was evaluated. Optical band gap was computed using transmittance and reflectance spectra. The band gap value was in the range 1.8-2.6 eV corresponding to a direct allowed transition. We studied the effect of indium layer thickness and selenium deposition time on the structure, electrical and optical properties of In{sub 6}Se{sub 7} thin films.

  17. Indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin film transistors with a hybrid-channel structure for defect suppression and mobility improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Huang-Kai; Su, Liang-Yu; Hung, Chia-Chin; Huang, JianJang

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we explore an indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistor structure with a vacuum annealed IGZO thin film inserted between the dielectric and typical channel layers. The device demonstrates a better subthreshold swing and field-effect mobility due to the suppression of defects in the channel and the channel/dielectric interface. The hybrid channel structure also exhibits the flexibility of adjusting the threshold voltage. The superior carrier mobility was then verified from the transient response of the inverter circuit constructed by the devices. - Highlights: • Additional in-situ annealed In–Ga–ZnO film was inserted in thin film transistor (TFT). • Traps are suppressed and field effect mobility is improved in the TFT. • An inverter with the device structure has a better transient response

  18. Indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin film transistors with a hybrid-channel structure for defect suppression and mobility improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huang-Kai; Su, Liang-Yu; Hung, Chia-Chin [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, JianJang, E-mail: jjhuang@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we explore an indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistor structure with a vacuum annealed IGZO thin film inserted between the dielectric and typical channel layers. The device demonstrates a better subthreshold swing and field-effect mobility due to the suppression of defects in the channel and the channel/dielectric interface. The hybrid channel structure also exhibits the flexibility of adjusting the threshold voltage. The superior carrier mobility was then verified from the transient response of the inverter circuit constructed by the devices. - Highlights: • Additional in-situ annealed In–Ga–ZnO film was inserted in thin film transistor (TFT). • Traps are suppressed and field effect mobility is improved in the TFT. • An inverter with the device structure has a better transient response.

  19. Analysis of Crystal Structure of Fe3O4 Thin Films Based on Iron Sand Growth by Spin Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianto, D.; Yulfriska, N.; Murti, F.; Hidayati, H.; Ramli, R.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, iron sand used as one of base materials in the steel industry. However, the content of iron sand can be used as starting materials in sensor technology in the form of thin films. In this paper, we report the analysis of crystal structure of magnetite thin film based on iron sand from Tiram’s Beach. The magnetic content of sand separated by a permanent magnet, then it was milled at 30 hours milling time. In order to increase the purity of magnetite, it washed after milling using aquades under magnetic separation by a magnet permanent. The thin film has been prepared using iron (III) nitrate by sol–gel technique. The precursor is resulted by dissolving magnetite in oxalic acid and nitric acid. Then, solution of iron (III) nitrate dissolved in ethylene glycol was applied on glass substrates by spin coating. The X-Ray Diffraction is operated thin film characterization. The structure of magnetite has been studied based on X-Ray Peaks that correspond to magnetite content of thin films.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of porous structured ZnO thin film for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N., E-mail: anandhan-kn@rediffmail.com; Mummoorthi, M. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 003 (India); Dharuman, V. [Department of Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 003 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide/eosin yellow (ZnO/EY) thin films were potentiostatically deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. Effect of eosin yellow dye on structural, morphological and optical properties was studied. X-ray diffraction patterns, micro Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal hexagonal wurtzite structure with less atomic defects in 101 plane orientation of the ZnO/EY film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show flower for ZnO and porous like structure for ZnO/EY thin film, respectively. DSSC was constructed and evaluated by measuring the current density verses voltage curve.

  1. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies of cobalt silicide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naftel, S.J.; Coulthard, I.; Hu, Y.; Sham, T.K.; Zinke-Allmang, M.

    1998-01-01

    Cobalt silicide thin films, prepared on Si(100) wafers, have been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) at the Si K-, L 2,3 - and Co K-edges utilizing both total electron (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FLY) detection as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Co K-edge. Samples made using DC sputter deposition on clean Si surfaces and MBE were studied along with a bulk CoSi 2 sample. XANES and EXAFS provide information about the electronic structure and morphology of the films. It was found that the films studied have essentially the same structure as bulk CoSi 2 . Both the spectroscopy and materials characterization aspects of XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structures) are discussed

  2. Stress, microstructure and evolution under ion irradiation in thin films grown by ion beam sputtering: modelling and application to interfacial effects in metallic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelle, A.

    2006-09-01

    We have investigated the formation of the interfacial chemical mixing in Mo/Ni multilayers, and particularly the influence of ballistic effects during the growth. For this purpose, hetero-epitaxial b.c.c./f.c.c. Mo(110)/Ni(111) multilayers were grown by two deposition methods: thermal evaporation and direct ion beam sputtering. As a preliminary, an accurate description of the stress state in pure sputtered Mo thin films was required. Microstructural and stress state analyses were essentially carried out by X-ray diffraction, and ion irradiation was used as a powerful tool to control the stress level. We showed that thermal evaporated thin films exhibit a weak tensile growth stress (∼ 0.6 GPa) that can be accounted for by the grain boundary relaxation model, whereas sputtered thin films develop large compressive growth stress (- 2 to - 4 GPa). This latter results from the bombardment of the growing film by the energetic particles involved during the sputtering process (atomic peening phenomenon), which induces the formation of defects in the layers, generating volume distortions. We thus developed a stress model that includes a hydrostatic stress component to account for these volume strains. This model allowed us to determine the 'unstressed and free of defects lattice parameter' a 0 , solely linked to chemical effects. For epitaxial Mo layers, it was possible to separate coherency stress from growth stress due to their distinct kinetic evolution during ion irradiation. Therefore, the stress analysis enabled us to determine the a 0 values in Mo sub-layers of Mo/Ni superlattices. A tendency to the formation of an interfacial alloy is observed independently of the growth conditions, which suggests that thermodynamic forces favour the exchange mechanism. However, the extent of the intermixing effect is clearly enhanced by ballistic effects. (author)

  3. Annealing effect on structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited MnS thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulutas, Cemal, E-mail: cemalulutas@hakkari.edu.tr [Faculty of Education, Hakkari Universty, 30000, Hakkari (Turkey); Gumus, Cebrail [Faculty of Science and Letters, Cukurova University, 01330, Adana (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    MnS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on commercial microscope glass substrate deposited at 30 °C. The as-deposited film was given thermal annealing treatment in air atmosphere at various temperatures (150, 300 and 450 °C) for 1 h. The MnS thin film was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement system. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties such as optical constants of refractive index (n) and energy band gap (E{sub g}) of the film was determined. XRD measurements reveal that the film is crystallized in the wurtzite phase and changed to tetragonal Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase after being annealed at 300 °C. The energy band gap of film decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.21 eV based on the annealing temperature.

  4. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of crystallographically aligned CuCr_2Se_4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esters, Marco; Liebig, Andreas; Ditto, Jeffrey J.; Falmbigl, Matthias; Albrecht, Manfred; Johnson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the low temperature synthesis of highly textured CuCr_2Se_4 thin films using the modulated elemental reactant (MER) method. The structure of CuCr_2Se_4 is determined for the first time in its thin film form and exhibits cell parameters that are smaller than found in bulk CuCr_2Se_4. X-ray diffraction and precession electron diffraction show a strong degree of crystallographic alignment of the crystallites, where the axis is oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface, while being rotationally disordered within the plane. Temperature and field dependent in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization measurements show that the film is ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature of 406 K CuCr_2Se_4 synthesized utilizing the MER method shows stronger magnetic anisotropy (effective anisotropy: 1.82 × 10"6 erg cm"−"3; shape anisotropy: 1.07 × 10"6 erg cm"−"3), with the easy axis lying out of plane, and a larger magnetic moment (6 μ_B/f.u.) than bulk CuCr_2Se_4. - Highlights: • Crystallographically aligned, phase pure CuCr_2Se_4 were synthesized. • The degree of alignment decreases with annealing time. • The films are ferromagnetic with the easy axis along the direction. • The magnetization is larger than bulk CuCr_2Se_4 or other CuCr_2Se_4 films made to date.

  5. Effect of temperature on optical and structural properties of indium selenide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asabe, M.R.; Manikshete, A.H.; Hankare, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2 Se 3 thin film have been prepared for the first time by using a relatively simple chemical bath deposition technique at room temperature using indium chloride, tartaric acid, hydrazine hydrate and sodium selenosulphate in an aqueous alkaline medium. Various preparative conditions of thin film deposition are outlined. The films deposited at optimum preparative parameters are annealed at different temperatures. The as-deposited films those annealed at 100℃ and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Analysis by X-ray (EDAX), Optical absorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The as grown films were found to be transparent, uniform, well adherent and brown in color. The XRD analysis of the as-deposited and annealed films shows the presence of polycrystalline nature in tetragonal crystal structure. EDAX study reveals that as-deposited films are almost stoichiometric while optical absorption study shows the presence of band gap for direct while optical absorption study shows the presence of band gap for direct transition at 2.35 and 2.10 eV respectively, for the as-deposited and annealed films. SEM study indicated the presence of uniformly distributed grains over the surface of substrate for the as-deposited as well as annealed film. (author)

  6. Probing magnetism and electronic structure of Fe-doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Amiri, A.; Moubah, R.; Lmai, F.; Abid, M.; Hassanain, N.; Hlil, E.K.; Lassri, H.

    2016-01-01

    Ab-initio calculations using Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation were performed in order to study the magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO thin films with different Fe contents. The extracted parameters are compared with those determined experimentally. Based on total and partial densities of state curves, we demonstrate that there is a competition between p–d exchange and superexchange mechanisms leading to weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic contributions, respectively. The dominant mechanism is found to be antiferromagnetic. However, with increasing Fe content the ferromagnetic contribution increases. In addition, the effect of structural defects on the magnetism of the system is reported. It is shown that both Zn and O vacancies increase ferromagnetism, which is more pronounced in case of Zn. - Highlights: • The KKR–CPA approach was used to study the magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO thin films. • There is a competition between p–d exchange and superexchange mechanisms leading to weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic contributions. • Zn vacancies are more significant than the O ones for obtaining ferromagnetism.

  7. Effects of laser fluence on the structural properties of pulsed laser deposited ruthenium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wai-Keat; Wong, Hin-Yong; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Tou, Teck-Yong [Multimedia University, Centre for Advanced Devices and Systems (CADS), Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yong, Thian-Khok [Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yap, Seong-Shan [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Institute of Physics, Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Ruthenium (Ru) has received great interest in recent years for applications in microelectronics. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) enables the growth of Ru thin films at low temperatures. In this paper, we report for the first time the characterization of pulsed laser deposited Ru thin films. The deposition processes were carried out at room temperature in vacuum environment for different durations with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 355-nm laser wavelength, employing various laser fluences ranging from 2 J/cm{sup 2} to 8 J/cm{sup 2}. The effect of the laser fluence on the structural properties of the deposited Ru films was investigated using surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ru droplets, some spherical in shape and some flattened into round discs were found on the deposited Ru. The droplets were correlated to ripple formations on the target during the laser-induced ejection from the target. In addition, crystalline Ru with orientations of (100), (101), and (002) was observed in the XRD spectra and their intensities were found to increase with increasing laser fluence and film thickness. Grain sizes ranging from 20 nm to 35 nm were deduced using the Scherrer formula. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) show that the composition of the plume and the deposited Ru film was of high purity. (orig.)

  8. Effects of laser fluence on the structural properties of pulsed laser deposited ruthenium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wai-Keat; Wong, Hin-Yong; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Tou, Teck-Yong; Yong, Thian-Khok; Yap, Seong-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) has received great interest in recent years for applications in microelectronics. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) enables the growth of Ru thin films at low temperatures. In this paper, we report for the first time the characterization of pulsed laser deposited Ru thin films. The deposition processes were carried out at room temperature in vacuum environment for different durations with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 355-nm laser wavelength, employing various laser fluences ranging from 2 J/cm 2 to 8 J/cm 2 . The effect of the laser fluence on the structural properties of the deposited Ru films was investigated using surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ru droplets, some spherical in shape and some flattened into round discs were found on the deposited Ru. The droplets were correlated to ripple formations on the target during the laser-induced ejection from the target. In addition, crystalline Ru with orientations of (100), (101), and (002) was observed in the XRD spectra and their intensities were found to increase with increasing laser fluence and film thickness. Grain sizes ranging from 20 nm to 35 nm were deduced using the Scherrer formula. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) show that the composition of the plume and the deposited Ru film was of high purity. (orig.)

  9. Structural and optical properties of magnetron sputtered MgxZn1-xO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gupte, Vinay; Sreenivas, K

    2006-01-01

    Mg x Zn 1-x O (MZO) thin films prepared by an rf magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were grown at room temperature and at relatively low rf power of 50 W. MZO thin films were found to possess preferred c-axis orientation and exhibited hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO up to a Mg concentration of 42 mol%. A small variation in the c-axis lattice parameter of around 0.3% was observed with increasing Mg composition, showing the complete solubility of Mg in ZnO. The band gap of the MZO films in the wurtzite phase varied linearly with the Mg concentration and a maximum band gap ∼4.19 eV was achieved at x = 0.42. The refractive indices of the MgO films were found to decrease with increasing Mg content. The observed optical dispersion data are in agreement with the single oscillator model. A photoluminescence study revealed a blue shift in the near band edge emission peak with increasing Mg content in the MZO films. The results show the potential of MZO films in various opto-electronic applications

  10. Formation, properties, and ion irradiation effects of hexagonal structure MoN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, D.K.; Sekula, S.T.; Ellis, J.T.; Lewis, J.D.; Williams, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Thin films (100-120 nm) of hexagonal structures MoN have been fabricated by reaction of Mo films in an NH 3 atmosphere. The as-formed films possessed superconducting transition temperatures T/sub c/ ≅ 13 0 K, with resistance ratios r = R(296K)/R(T/sub c/) in the range 5 to 10, low-temperature normal state resistivities rho 0 = 4 to 10 μΩ-cm, and extrapolated upper critical fields H/sub c2/(0) = 4.0 to 5.0 T. Thin film x-ray diffraction patterns revealed no visible second phase, with measured lattice parameters close to literature values. The effects of lattice disorder on the superconducting and electronic properties were investigated by irradiation with nitrogen ions of energy 45 and 340 keV, resulting in a nearly uniform damage profile without the introduction of any new chemical species. The results indicate that ordered hexagonal MoN shows some of the unusual properties characteristic of moderate-to-high T/sub c/ transition metal compounds, but is relatively insensitive to degradation of the superconducting properties by lattice disorder. For ion fluences PHI up to 2 x 10 16 N-ions/cm 2 , T/sub c/ is found to decrease monotonically and saturate at 9.5 0 K, almost 3/4 the initial value, while H/sub c2/(0) undergoes a gradual increase to 11T

  11. Surface molecular aggregation structure and surface physicochemical properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, K; Yamaguchi, H; Takahara, A; Kobayashi, M; Morita, M

    2008-01-01

    Effect of side chain length on the molecular aggregation states and surface properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate)s [PFA-C y , where y is fluoromethylene number in R f group] thin films were systematically investigated. Spin-coated PFA-C y thin films were characterized by static and dynamic contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and grazing- incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). The receding contact angles showed small values for PFA-C y with short side chain (y≤6) and increased above y≥8. GIXD revealed that fluoroalkyl side chain of PFA-C y with y≥8 was crystallized and formed ordered structures at the surface region as well as bulk one. These results suggest that water repellent mechanism of PFA-C y can be attributed to the presence of highly ordered fluoroalkyl side chains at the outermost surfaces. The results of XPS in the dry and hydrated states and contact angle measurement in water support the mechanism of lowering contact angle for water by exposure of carbonyl group to the water interface through reorientation of short fluoroalkyl chains. The surface nanotextured PFA-C 8 through imprinting of anodic aluminum oxide mold showed extremely high hydrophobicity as well as high oleophobicity

  12. Probing magnetism and electronic structure of Fe-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Amiri, A., E-mail: aelamiri@casablanca.ma [LPFA, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, BP 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Moubah, R., E-mail: reda.moubah@hotmail.fr [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, BP 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Lmai, F. [LPTA, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, BP 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Abid, M. [LPFA, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, BP 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Hassanain, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences, BP 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Lassri, H. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, BP 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2016-01-15

    Ab-initio calculations using Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation were performed in order to study the magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO thin films with different Fe contents. The extracted parameters are compared with those determined experimentally. Based on total and partial densities of state curves, we demonstrate that there is a competition between p–d exchange and superexchange mechanisms leading to weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic contributions, respectively. The dominant mechanism is found to be antiferromagnetic. However, with increasing Fe content the ferromagnetic contribution increases. In addition, the effect of structural defects on the magnetism of the system is reported. It is shown that both Zn and O vacancies increase ferromagnetism, which is more pronounced in case of Zn. - Highlights: • The KKR–CPA approach was used to study the magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO thin films. • There is a competition between p–d exchange and superexchange mechanisms leading to weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic contributions. • Zn vacancies are more significant than the O ones for obtaining ferromagnetism.

  13. Structure disorder degree of polysilicon thin films grown by different processing: Constant C from Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Quan; Zhang, Yanmin; Hu, Ran; Ren, Naifei; Ge, Daohan

    2013-01-01

    Flat, low-stress, boron-doped polysilicon thin films were prepared on single crystalline silicon substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the polysilicon films with different deposition processing have different microstructure properties. The confinement effect, tensile stresses, defects, and the Fano effect all have a great influence on the line shape of Raman scattering peak. But the effect results are different. The microstructure and the surface layer are two important mechanisms dominating the internal stress in three types of polysilicon thin films. For low-stress polysilicon thin film, the tensile stresses are mainly due to the change of microstructure after thermal annealing. But the tensile stresses in flat polysilicon thin film are induced by the silicon carbide layer at surface. After the thin film doped with boron atoms, the phenomenon of the tensile stresses increasing can be explained by the change of microstructure and the increase in the content of silicon carbide. We also investigated the disorder degree states for three polysilicon thin films by analyzing a constant C. It was found that the disorder degree of low-stress polysilicon thin film larger than that of flat and boron-doped polysilicon thin films due to the phase transformation after annealing. After the flat polysilicon thin film doped with boron atoms, there is no obvious change in the disorder degree and the disorder degree in some regions even decreases

  14. Structure disorder degree of polysilicon thin films grown by different processing: Constant C from Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quan, E-mail: wangq@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of mechanical engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Yanmin; Hu, Ran; Ren, Naifei [School of mechanical engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Ge, Daohan [School of mechanical engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2013-11-14

    Flat, low-stress, boron-doped polysilicon thin films were prepared on single crystalline silicon substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the polysilicon films with different deposition processing have different microstructure properties. The confinement effect, tensile stresses, defects, and the Fano effect all have a great influence on the line shape of Raman scattering peak. But the effect results are different. The microstructure and the surface layer are two important mechanisms dominating the internal stress in three types of polysilicon thin films. For low-stress polysilicon thin film, the tensile stresses are mainly due to the change of microstructure after thermal annealing. But the tensile stresses in flat polysilicon thin film are induced by the silicon carbide layer at surface. After the thin film doped with boron atoms, the phenomenon of the tensile stresses increasing can be explained by the change of microstructure and the increase in the content of silicon carbide. We also investigated the disorder degree states for three polysilicon thin films by analyzing a constant C. It was found that the disorder degree of low-stress polysilicon thin film larger than that of flat and boron-doped polysilicon thin films due to the phase transformation after annealing. After the flat polysilicon thin film doped with boron atoms, there is no obvious change in the disorder degree and the disorder degree in some regions even decreases.

  15. Formation and structure of V-Zr amorphous alloy thin films

    KAUST Repository

    King, Daniel J M

    2015-01-01

    Although the equilibrium phase diagram predicts that alloys in the central part of the V-Zr system should consist of V2Zr Laves phase with partial segregation of one element, it is known that under non-equilibrium conditions these materials can form amorphous structures. Here we examine the structures and stabilities of thin film V-Zr alloys deposited at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computational methods. Atomic-scale modelling was used to investigate the enthalpies of formation of the various competing structures. The calculations confirmed that an amorphous solid solution would be significantly more stable than a random body-centred solid solution of the elements, in agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the modelling effort provided insight into the probable atomic configurations of the amorphous structures allowing predictions of the average distance to the first and second nearest neighbours in the system.

  16. Structural and magnetic studies of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Kalpana; Heda, N. L.; Tiwari, Shailja; Bapna, Komal; Ahuja, B. L.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the structural and magnetic properties of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films deposited on Si (100) and Si (111) using pulsed laser deposition technique. The films were deposited under vacuum and substrate temperature was kept at 700°C. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that films on both substrates have single phase cubic spinel structure. However, the film grown on Si (111) shows better crystalline behavior. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggests that films on both substrates have mixed spinel structure. These films show magnetic hysteresis behavior and magnetization value of film on Si (100) is larger than that on Si (111). It turns out that structural and magnetic properties of these two films are correlated.

  17. The preparation of Zn-ferrite epitaxial thin film from epitaxial Fe3O4:ZnO multilayers by ion beam sputtering deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Hui-Chia; Dai, Jeng-Yi; Liao, Yen-Fa; Wu, Yu-Han; Huang, J.C.A.; Lee, Chih-Hao

    2010-01-01

    A new method to grow a well-ordered epitaxial ZnFe 2 O 4 thin film on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrate is described in this work. The samples were made by annealing the ZnO/Fe 3 O 4 multilayer which was grown with low energy ion beam sputtering deposition. Both the Fe 3 O 4 and ZnO layers were found grown epitaxially at low temperature and an epitaxial ZnFe 2 O 4 thin film was formed after annealing at 1000 o C. X-ray diffraction shows the ZnFe 2 O 4 film is grown with an orientation of ZnFe 2 O 4 (111)//Al 2 O 3 (0001) and ZnFe 2 O 4 (1-10)//Al 2 O 3 (11-20). X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies show that Zn 2+ atoms replace the tetrahedral Fe 2+ atoms in Fe 3 O 4 during the annealing. The magnetic properties measured by vibrating sample magnetometer show that the saturation magnetization of ZnFe 2 O 4 grown from ZnO/Fe 3 O 4 multilayer reaches the bulk value after the annealing process.

  18. Effect of substituents on electronic properties, thin film structure and device performance of dithienothiophene-phenylene cooligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiming; Guo Yunlong; Xi Hongxia; Di Chongan; Yu Jian; Zheng Kai; Liu Ruigang; Zhan Xiaowei; Liu Yunqi

    2009-01-01

    Dithienothiophene-phenylene cooligomers with n-hexyloxy or n-dodecyloxy substituents have been synthesized and compared to the previously reported unsubstituted parent compound. The effect of substituents on the thermal, electronic, optical, thin film structure and field-effect transistor (OFET) properties was investigated. Structural phase transitions from highly-ordered nanocrystalline to liquid crystalline were observed at 241 and 213 deg. C for n-hexyloxy- and n-dodecyloxy-substituted compounds respectively, different from the parent compound. For the alkoxy-substituted compounds, the absorption spectra in thin film blue shift 50 nm, while the fluorescence spectra in thin film red shift 88-100 nm compared to those in solution. The OFET devices based on the alkoxy-substituted compounds exhibit mobilities as high as ca 0.02 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and their performance is sensitive to the alkoxy substituents and substrate temperatures

  19. Investigation of growth, structural and electronic properties of V2O3 thin films on selected substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nateprov, Alexei

    2006-08-01

    The present work is devoted to the experimental study of the MI transition in V 2 O 3 thin films, grown on different substrates. The main goal of the work was to develop a technology of growth of V 2 O 3 thin films on substrates with different electrical and structural properties (diamond and LiNbO 3 ), designed for specific applications. The structural and electrical properties of the obtained films were characterized in detail with a special focus on their potential applications. The MIT of V 2 O 3 was investigated by SAW using first directly deposited V 2 O 3 thin film onto a LiNbO 3 substrate. (orig.)

  20. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films from dimethyl sulfoxide solution: Nucleation and growth mechanism, structural and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, R.; Badan, A.; Grez, P.; Munoz, E.; Vera, J.; Dalchiele, E.A.; Marotti, R.E.; Gomez, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrodeposition of CdSe nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films. → Polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a slight (1010) preferred orientation. → Absorption edge shifts in the optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films have been synthesized by electrodeposition at controlled potential based in the electrochemical reduction process of molecular selenium in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The nucleation and growth mechanism of this process has been studied. The XRD pattern shows a characteristic polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with a slight (1 0 1 0) crystallographic preferred orientation. The crystallite size of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films can be simply controlled by the electrodeposition potential. A quantum size effect is deduced from the correlation between the band gap energy and the crystallite size.

  1. Structural and corrosive properties of ZrO2 thin films on zircaloy-4 by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Ho; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Ko, Jae Hwan; Yoon, Young Soo; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Sang Jin

    2006-01-01

    Zirconium-oxide (ZrO 2 ) thin films as protective layers were grown on a Zircaloy-4 (Z-4) cladding material as a substrate by RF reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. To investigate the effect of plasma immersion on the structural and the corrosive properties of the as-grown ZrO 2 thin film, we immersed Z-4 in plasma during the deposition process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that the as-grown ZrO 2 thin films immersed in plasma had cubic, well as monoclinic and tetragonal, phases whereas those immersed in the plasma had monoclinic and tetragonal phases only. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of the surface morphology showed that the surface roughness of the as-grown ZrO 2 thin films immersed in plasma was larger than that of the films not immersed in plasma. In addition, the corrosive property of the as-grown ZrO 2 thin films immersed in the plasma was characterized using the weight gains of Z-4 after the corrosion test. Compared with the non-immersed films, the weight gains of the immersed films were larger. These results indicate that the ZrO 2 films immersed in plasma cannot protect Z-4 from corrosive phenomena.

  2. The effect of film thickness and molecular structure on order and disorder in thin films of compositionally asymmetric block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vindhya

    Directed self-assembly of thin film block copolymers offer a high throughput-low cost route to produce next generation lithographic devices, if one can bring the defect densities in the self assembled patterns below tolerance limits. However, the ability to control the nanoscale structure or morphology in thin film block copolymers presents challenges due to confinement effects on equilibrium behavior. Using structure characterization techniques such as grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), transmission electron and atomic force microscopy as well as self-consistent field theory, we have investigated how film thickness, annealing temperature and block copolymer structure affects the equilibrium behavior of asymmetric block copolymer films. Our studies have revealed the complicated dependence of order-disorder transitions, order-order transitions and symmetry transitions on film thickness. We found that the thickness dependent transition in the packing symmetry of spherical morphology diblock copolymers can be suppressed by blending with a small amount of majority block homopolymer, which allowed us to resolve the driving force behind this transition. Defect densities in, and the order-disorder transition temperature of, thin films of graphoepitaxially aligned diblock copolymer cylinders showed surprising sensitivity to the microdomain spacing. Methods to mitigate defect formation in thin films have been identified. The challenge of quantification of structural order in these systems was overcome using GISAXS, which allowed us to study the phenomena of disordering in two and three dimensions. Through studies on block copolymers which exhibit an order-order transition in bulk, we found that that subtle differences in the packing frustration of the spherical and cylindrical phases as well as the higher configurational entropy of free chain ends at the surface can drive the equilibrium configuration in thin films away from the stable bulk structure

  3. A simple visible light photo-assisted method for assembling and curing multilayer GO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro da Silva, Mauro Francisco, E-mail: mfps@usp.br [Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, PMT-EPUSP e Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletrônicos, PSI-EPUSP, Av. Professor Mello Moraes, n° 2463, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-030, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pontifícia Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Rua Marquês de Paranaguá, 111, CEP 01303-050, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Débora Rose de [Instituto de Criminalística da Secretaria de Segurança do Estado de São Paulo, Núcleo de Química, Rua Moncorvo Filho, CEP 05507-060, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pontifícia Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Rua Marquês de Paranaguá, 111, CEP 01303-050, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); and others

    2015-09-01

    A simple and efficient method for deposition of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) thin films onto arbitrary substrates is described. The present protocol consists in the application of radial compression to a thin layer of graphene oxide (GO) formed at the air–liquid interface of an ammoniacal dispersion of graphene oxide by continuous irradiation with visible light, that drives both the formation and curing of the film. Both infrared and near infrared luminescence spectroscopies were used for the proposition of a chemical mechanism in which the in situ singlet oxygen Δ{sup 1}O{sub 2}, generated by the photosensitization of molecular oxygen to visible light, initiates the formation and curing of the film. The GO and RGO films display Raman spectral signatures typical of graphene – based materials, with thickness of ca. 20 nm as evaluated by atomic force microscopy. The deposited films exhibited good transparency to visible light (max. 85%; 550 ± 2 nm), electrical resistivity equals to 14 ± 0.02 Ω m, sheet resistance equals to 5 kΩ sq{sup −1} with associated charge carrier mobility of 200 cm{sup 2}/V s. - Highlights: • Visible light photochemical assembly of self-supported graphene oxide thin films. • Graphene oxide photosensitizer for in situ production of singlet oxygen Δ{sup 1}O{sub 2}. • Δ{sup 1}O{sub 2}, as initiator of formation and curing of graphene oxide thin film. • Deposition of colloidal graphene oxide thin film by radial compression. • Deposition of graphene oxide thin film in arbitrary solid substrate.

  4. Structural, optical and electrical characteristics of ITO thin films deposited by sputtering on different polyester substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.

    2008-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and different polyester substrates; namely polyarylate (PA), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephtalate (PET). The influence of the substrate on the structural, optical and electrical characteristics of the ITO layers was investigated. The sputtered films exhibited crystallization in the (2 2 2) orientation, with higher mean crystallite size and lower structural distortion onto PET than onto PA, PC or glass substrates. ITO films deposited onto PET showed also higher band gap energy, higher carrier concentration and lower resistivity than the ITO layers onto the other tested substrates. These optical and electrical characteristics have been related to the structural distortion that was found dependent on the specific polyester substrate

  5. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Ni-doped SnO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mayuri; Kumar, Shalendra; Alvi, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Ni-doped SnO2 thin film which were grown on Si (100) substrate by PLD (pulse laser deposition) technique under oxygen partial pressure (PO2). For getting electronic structure and magnetic behavior, the films were characterized using near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and DC magnetization measurements. The NEXAFS study at Ni L3,2 edge has been done to understand the local environment of Ni and Sn ions within SnO2 lattice. DC magnetization measurement shows that the saturation magnetization increases with the increase in substitution of Ni2+ ions in the system.

  6. Annealing behaviour of structural and magnetic properties of evaporated Co thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jergel, M; Halahovets, Y; Siffalovic, P; Mat'ko, I; Senderak, R; Majkova, E; Luby, S; Cheshko, I; Protsenko, S

    2009-01-01

    Cobalt thin films of 50 nm nominal thickness were e-beam evaporated on silicon substrates covered with thermal oxide. Two series of independent and cumulative vacuum annealings up to 600 deg. C and 650 deg. C, respectively, were performed. The x-ray diffraction, specular and non-specular x-ray reflectivity and longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements were applied to probe the annealing behaviour of the film structure and magnetic properties. A gradual transition from the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) to the face-centred cubic (fcc) structure was observed. Evolution of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy is dominated by residual stresses which relax during the structural transformation. The coercivity follows the stress behaviour in the hcp phase up to 300 deg. C and increases abruptly above 400 deg. C due to improving the magneto-crystalline anisotropy in the growing fcc crystallites and enhanced surface/interface roughness.

  7. Structural and chemical transformations in SnS thin films used in chemically deposited photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avellaneda, David; Delgado, Guadalupe; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Chemically deposited SnS thin films possess p-type electrical conductivity. We report a photovoltaic structure: SnO 2 :F-CdS-SnS-(CuS)-silver print, with V oc > 300 mV and J sc up to 5 mA/cm 2 under 850 W/m 2 tungsten halogen illumination. Here, SnO 2 :F is a commercial spray-CVD (Pilkington TEC-8) coating, and the rest deposited from different chemical baths: CdS (80 nm) at 333 K, SnS (450 nm) and CuS (80 nm) at 293-303 K. The structure may be heated in nitrogen at 573 K, before applying the silver print. The photovoltaic behavior of the structure varies with heating: V oc ∼ 400 mV and J sc 2 , when heated at 423 K in air, but V oc decreases and J sc increases when heated at higher temperatures. These photovoltaic structures have been found to be stable over a period extending over one year by now. The overall cost of materials, simplicity of the deposition process, and possibility of easily varying the parameters to improve the cell characteristics inspire further work. Here we report two different baths for the deposition of SnS thin films of about 500 nm by chemical deposition. There is a considerable difference in the nature of growth, crystalline structure and chemical stability of these films under air-heating at 623-823 K or while heating SnS-CuS layers, evidenced in XRF and grazing incidence angle XRD studies. Heating of SnS-CuS films results in the formation of SnS-Cu x SnS y . 'All-chemically deposited photovoltaic structures' involving these materials are presented

  8. Structural and optical properties of nano-structured CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Rekha, E-mail: rekha.mittal07@gmail.com; Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K. [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been deposited on conducting glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effect of precursor concentration on the structural, morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the CdS films has been studied. Crystal structure of these CdS films is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it reveals polycrystalline structure with mixture of cubic and wurtzite phases with grain size decreasing as precursor concentration is increased. Optical studies reveal that the CdS thin films have high transmittance in visible spectral region reaching 90% and the films possess direct optical band gap that decreases from 2.46 to 2.39 eV with decreasing bath concentration. Our study suggests that growth is nucleation controlled.

  9. Structural and optical properties of nano-structured CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Rekha; Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been deposited on conducting glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effect of precursor concentration on the structural, morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the CdS films has been studied. Crystal structure of these CdS films is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it reveals polycrystalline structure with mixture of cubic and wurtzite phases with grain size decreasing as precursor concentration is increased. Optical studies reveal that the CdS thin films have high transmittance in visible spectral region reaching 90% and the films possess direct optical band gap that decreases from 2.46 to 2.39 eV with decreasing bath concentration. Our study suggests that growth is nucleation controlled.

  10. The effect of Mg dopants on magnetic and structural properties of iron oxide and zinc ferrite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritaş, Sevda; Ceviz Sakar, Betul; Kundakci, Mutlu; Yildirim, Muhammet

    2018-06-01

    Iron oxide thin films have been obtained significant interest as a material that put forwards applications in photovoltaics, gas sensors, biosensors, optoelectronic and especially in spintronics. Iron oxide is one of the considerable interest due to its chemical and thermal stability. Metallic ion dopant influenced superexchange interactions and thus changed the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of the thin film. Mg dopped zinc ferrite (Mg:ZnxFe3-xO4) crystal was used to avoid the damage of Fe3O4 (magnetite) crystal instead of Zn2+ in this study. Because the radius of the Mg2+ ion in the A-site (tetrahedral) is almost equal to that of the replaced Fe3+ ion. Inverse-spinel structure in which oxygen ions (O2-) are arranged to form a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice where there are two kinds of sublattices, namely, A-site and B-site (octahedral) interstitial sites and in which the super exchange interactions occur. In this study, to increase the saturation of magnetization (Ms) value for iron oxide, inverse-spinal ferrite materials have been prepared, in which the iron oxide was doped by multifarious divalent metallic elements including Zn and Mg. Triple and quaternary; iron oxide and zinc ferrite thin films with Mg metal dopants were grown by using Spray Pyrolysis (SP) technique. The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Mg dopped iron oxide (Fe2O3) and zinc ferrite (ZnxFe3-xO4) thin films have been investigated. Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) technique was used to study for the magnetic properties. As a result, we can say that Mg dopped iron oxide thin film has huge diamagnetic and of Mg dopped zinc ferrite thin film has paramagnetic property at bigger magnetic field.

  11. Structural, morphological and local electric properties of TiO2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergy, E; Pino, A Perez del; Sauthier, G; Figueras, A; Alsina, F; Pascual, J

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were synthesized on (1 0 0) Si substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. A frequency quadrupled Nd : YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 5 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source was used for the irradiations of metallic Ti targets. The experiments were performed in controlled oxygen atmosphere. Crystallinity, surface morphology and local electric properties of the obtained oxide thin films were investigated by x-ray diffractometry, micro-Raman spectroscopy and current sensing atomic force microscopy. An inter-relation was found between the surface morphology, the crystalline structure and the nano-scale electric properties which open the possibility of synthesizing by the PLD technique TiO 2 thin films with tunable functional properties for future applications such as photocatalysts, gas sensors or solar energy converters

  12. Experimental studies on the nonlinear dynamics of ferroelectric thin films and layered ferroelectricum/semiconductor structures in oscillating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barz, Kay

    2010-01-01

    In this work experimental techniques for characterization of ferroelectric nm-thin films and ferroelectric/semiconductor structures by means of nonlinear phenomena are discussed. The thin film sample is applied in a series resonant circuit. By recording time series data and amplitude-frequency-characteristics (resonance frequency shift), the nonlinear behavior can be analyzed with respect to the theoretical aspects of these effects in the framework of nonlinear dynamics. The evolving ferroelectric hysteresis is represented by the amplitude-frequency-characteristic in a very detailed form. Interpretations are presented on how transient alterations like fatigue or retention loss, affect the amplitude-frequency-characteristics. Time series analysis allows to separate the specific influence of the nonlinear components and their corresponding time constants. The work closes with suggestions for a systematic application of the presented techniques for an extended characterization of ferroelectric thin films. (orig.)

  13. Structural and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Silver Oxide Thin Films: Role of Deposition Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nwanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of 50°C by chemical bath deposition technique under different deposition times using pure AgNO3 precursor and triethanolamine as the complexing agent. The chemical analysis based on EDX technique shows the presence of Ag and O at the appropriate energy levels. The morphological features obtained from SEM showed that the AgxO structures varied as the deposition time changes. The X-ray diffraction showed the peaks of Ag2O and AgO in the structure. The direct band gap and the refractive index increased as the deposition time increased and was in the range of 1.64–1.95 eV and 1.02–2.07, respectively. The values of the band gap and refractive index obtained indicate possible applications in photovoltaic and photothermal systems.

  14. The effect of laser irradiation on electrical and structural properties of ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kameli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, ZnO thin film was prepared by sol-gel process on glass substrates. The deposited films were dried at 100 and 240 ˚C and then annealed at 300, 400 and 500 ˚C. The two-probe measurement showed that resistance of as-prepared films is very high. The KrF excimer (λ=248 nm laser irradiation with 1000 pulses, frequency of 1 Hz and 90 mJ/cm2 energy on surface of film resulted in the reduction of the films electrical resistance. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns confirmed the improved hexagonal wurtzite structure of film, and AFM and FE-SEM analyses showed regular and spherical grain was formed on the surface. The particle size was increased from ~10 to ~30 nm after leaser irradiation. Generally, it was showed that electrical, structural and morphological properties of films improve considerably by laser irradiation.

  15. Structural, morphological and electronic properties of pulsed laser grown Eu2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Prakash, Ram; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2018-05-01

    Herein, we report the growth, structural, morphological and electronic properties of Europium sesquioxide (Eu2O3) thin films on Si [1 0 0] substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. The films were deposited at ˜750 °C substrate temperature while the oxygen partial pressure (OPP) was varied (vacuum,˜1 mTorr, ˜10 mTorr and ˜300 mTorr). X-ray diffraction results confirm the single phase cubic structure of the film grown at ˜300 mTorr. The XRD results are also supported by the Raman's spectroscopy results. Eu-3d XPS core level spectra confirms the dominant contributions from the "3+" states of Eu in the film.

  16. Influence of Ag doping concentration on structural and optical properties of CdS thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pragati, E-mail: pkumar.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bareilly College, Bareilly, 243 005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110 007 (India); Saxena, Nupur; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110 007 (India); Agarwal, Avinash [Department of Physics, Bareilly College, Bareilly, 243 005, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-05-15

    This work shows the influence of Ag concentration on structural properties of pulsed laser deposited nanocrystalline CdS thin film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirm the dopant concentration in CdS films and atomic concentration of elements. XPS studies show that the samples are slightly sulfur deficient. GAXRD scan reveals the structural phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal phase of CdS without appearance of any phase of CdO, Ag{sub 2}O or Ag{sub 2}S suggesting the substitutional doping of Ag ions. Photoluminescence studies illustrate that emission intensity increases with increase in dopant concentration upto 5% and then decreases for higher dopant concentration.

  17. Structural analysis of LaVO3 thin films under epitaxial strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meley

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth vanadate perovskites exhibit a phase diagram in which two different types of structural distortions coexist: the strongest, the rotation of the oxygen octahedra, comes from the small tolerance factor of the perovskite cell (t = 0.88 for LaVO3 and the smaller one comes from inter-site d-orbital interactions manifesting as a cooperative Jahn-Teller effect. Epitaxial strain acts on octahedral rotations and crystal field symmetry to alter this complex lattice-orbit coupling. In this study, LaVO3 thin film structures have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The analysis shows two different orientations of octahedral tilt patterns, as well as two distinct temperature behaviors, for compressive and tensile film strain states. Ab initio calculations capture the strain effect on the tilt pattern orientation in agreement with experimental data.

  18. Structural, Optical, and Morphological Properties of the Cadmium Oxide Thin Film Taif S. Almaadhede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taif S. Almaadhede

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium oxide nanoparticles CdO NPS has been prepared by laser ablation in ethanol at 600 pulses and 600 mJ as laser energy. The structural, optical, and morphological properties of the cadmium oxide CdO thin film deposited on a glass substrate have been studied. X-ray diffrac-tometer (XRD 6000, Shimadzu, X-ray, diffractometer with Cukα radiation at a wavelength of ( = 0.154056 nm was utilized to investigate the structural properties of CdO NPs. The optical absorption of colloidal CdO NPs was measured using a spectrophotometer (Cary, 100 cans plus, UV-Vis-NIR, Split Beam Optics, Dual detectors in the range of (200–900 nm. The morpholo-gy of the CdO NPs was investigated by using AFM (AA 3000 Scanning Probe Microscope. The thickness of the films was measured using ellipsometer (Angstrom sun Technologies Ins.

  19. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Sc doped EuO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisner, Andreas; Altendorf, Simone; Chang, Chun-Fu; Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzer Str.40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Lin, Hong-Ji; Chen, Chien-Te [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsin-Ann Road, 30076 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    Europium monoxide is a ferromagnetic semiconductor with a Curie temperature T{sub C} of 69 K. Upon doping the material can show an increase of the Curie temperature, a metal-to-insulator transition and a high spin polarization of the charge carriers. Applying pressure can also enhance T{sub C}. Mostly other trivalent rare earth metals are used as dopant. Here we set out to explore the possibility of using transition metals as dopants. As a start we focus on the non magnetic Sc ions. We are able to achieve excellent crystalline growth of Sc-doped EuO thin films on YSZ (001) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. We report our results on the crystal structure as characterized by RHEED and LEED, the electronic structure as determined by XPS and ARPES, and on the magnetic properties as measured by SQUID.

  20. Supramolecular structure of a perylene derivative in thin films deposited by physical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Jose D.; Aoki, Pedro H.B.; Constantino, Carlos J.J.; Junior, Wagner D.M.; Teixeira, Silvio R.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Thin films of a perylene derivative, the bis butylimido perylene (BuPTCD), were produced using thermal evaporation (PVD, physical vapor deposition). The main objective is to investigate the supramolecular structure of the BuPTCD in these PVD films, which implies to control the thickness and to determine the molecular organization, morphology at micro and nanometer scales and crystallinity. This supramolecular structure is a key factor in the optical and electrical properties of the film. The ultraviolet-visible absorption revealed an uniform growth of the PVD films. The optical and atomic force microscopy images showed a homogeneous surface of the film at micro and nanometer scales. A preferential orientation of the molecules in the PVD films was determined via infrared absorption. The X-ray diffraction showed that both powder and PVD film are in the crystalline form. (author)

  1. Structural, morphological and optical studies of F doped SnO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Tarun; Thakur, Vikas; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Zaman, M. Burhanuz; Rajaram, Poolla

    2018-05-01

    Highly conducting and transparent FTO (flourine doped tin Oxide) thin films were grown on the glass substrates using a low cost spray pyrolysis technique. The films were characterized for their structural, morphological and optical studies using XRD, SEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD studies show that the FTO films crystallize in Tetragonal cassiterite structure. Morphological analysis using SEM show that the films are uniformly covered with spherical grains albeit high in surface roughness. The average optical transmission greater than 80% in the visible region along with the appearance of interference fringes in the transmission curves confirms the high quality of the films. Electrical studies show that the films exhibit sheet resistance below 10 Ω ϒ-1.

  2. Ultra-low damping in lift-off structured yttrium iron garnet thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofik, A.; Coy, L. E.; Kuświk, P.; Załeski, K.; Głowiński, H.; Dubowik, J.

    2017-11-01

    We show that using maskless photolithography and the lift-off technique, patterned yttrium iron garnet thin films possessing ultra-low Gilbert damping can be accomplished. The films of 70 nm thickness were grown on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet by means of pulsed laser deposition, and they exhibit high crystalline quality, low surface roughness, and the effective magnetization of 127 emu/cm3. The Gilbert damping parameter is as low as 5 ×10-4. The obtained structures have well-defined sharp edges which along with good structural and magnetic film properties pave a path in the fabrication of high-quality magnonic circuits and oxide-based spintronic devices.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of [001] CoCr2O4 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzman, Roger; Heuver, Jeroen; Matzen, Sylvia; Magen, Cesar; Noheda, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    The spinel CoCr2O4 (CCO) is one of the few bulk multiferroics with net magnetic moment. However, studies on the properties of CCO thin films are scarce. Here, we investigate the interplay between microstructure and magnetism of a series of CCO epitaxial thin films by means of x-ray diffraction,

  4. Pyroelectric properties of finite size ferroelectric thin films with structural transition zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jing; Lue Tianquan; Sun Punan; Xie Wenguang; Cao Wenwu

    2009-01-01

    A Fermi-type Green's function is used to study pyroelectric properties of the thin film with finite sizes in three dimensions based on a modified transverse Ising model. The results demonstrate that a decrease in the lateral size of the film has a disadvantageous influence on the pyroelectric coefficient of the thin film.

  5. Hall effect measurements of high-quality M n3CuN thin films and the electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshiki; Hatano, Takafumi; Urata, Takahiro; Iida, Kazumasa; Takenaka, Koshi; Ikuta, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    The physical properties of M n3CuN were studied using thin films. We found that an annealing process was very effective to improve the film quality, the key of which was the use of Ti that prevented the formation of oxide impurities. Using these high-quality thin films, we found strong strain dependence for the ferromagnetic transition temperature (TC) and a sign change of the Hall coefficient at TC. The analysis of Hall coefficient data revealed a sizable decrease of hole concentration and a large increase of electron mobility below TC, which is discussed in relation to the electronic structure of this material.

  6. Surface structure determinations of crystalline ionic thin films grown on transition metal single crystal surfaces by low energy electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joel Glenn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The surface structures of NaCl(100), LiF(100) and alpha-MgCl2(0001) adsorbed on various metal single crystals have been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Thin films of these salts were grown on metal substrates by exposing the heated metal surface to a molecular flux of salt emitted from a Knudsen cell. This method of investigating thin films of insulators (ionic salts) on a conducting substrate (metal) circumvents surface charging problems that plagued bulk studies, thereby allowing the use of electron-based techniques to characterize the surface.

  7. Influence of ion bombardment on structure and properties of TiZrN thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Wei, E-mail: james722@itrc.narl.org.tw [Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories Taiwan (China); Huang, Jia-Hong; Yu, Ge-Ping [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Chen, Fong-Zhi [Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • (Ti,Zr)N thin films were produced using dual guns with Ti and Zr targets. • Ti{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}N shows excellent hardness of 37.8 GPa with exhibiting (1 1 1) preferred orientation. • Resistivity is inverse proportional to the packing density. • Hardness is proportional to the packing density. - Abstract: The study is focused on the characterization of TiZrN thin film by controlling the behavior of ion bombardment. Thin films are grown using radio frequency magnetron sputtering process on Si wafer. The negative bias voltage ranging from −20 V to −130 V was applied to the substrate. The ion current density increases rapidly as substrate bias is lower than −60 V, then slightly increases as the critical value about −60 V is exceeded. At the substrate bias of −60 V, the ion current density is close to 0.56 mA/cm{sup 2}. The resistivity measured by four-point probe decreases from conditions −20 V to −60 V and then increases for substrate bias increases from −60 V to −130 V. The resistivity of TiZrN films is contributed from the packing factor. The N/TiZr ratios about 1 were measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometer, and the packing factors of TiZrN films can also be obtained by the results of RBS. Field Emission scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) is used to characterize the thickness and structure of the deposited TiZrN film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to determine the preferred orientation and lattice parameter. The precursor results of XRD show that all the coating samples exhibited (1 1 1) preferred orientation, and the hardness values of TiZrN films were ranging from 20 to 40 GPa. To sum up the precursor studies, the TiZrN films which can improve the properties from TiN and ZrN is a new ceramic material with higher potential. Following the advance process and analysis research, the structure and properties can be correlated and as a reference for industry application.

  8. Structural study of Mg doped cobalt ferrite thin films on ITO coated glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Mahesh; Bapna, Komal; Kumar, Kishor; Ahuja, B. L.

    2018-05-01

    We have synthesized thin films of Co1-xMgxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) on transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. The structural properties of the grown films were analyzed by the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which suggest the single phase growth of these films. Raman spectra revealed the incorporation of Mg ions into CoFe2O4 lattice and suggest that the Mg ions initially go both to the octahedral and tetrahedral sites upto a certain concentration. For higher concentration, Mg ions prefer to occupy the tetrahedral sites.

  9. Analysis of structural and optical properties of annealed fullerene thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Ali, H. A. M.; Gadallah, A.-S.; Atta Khedr, M.; Afify, H. A.

    2015-08-01

    Fullerene thin films were thermally deposited onto different substrates. The films annealed at 523 K for 10 h. X-ray diffraction technique was used to examine the structure of the films. The morphology of films was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra were recorded in wavenumber range 400-2000 cm-1. The optical characteristics were analyzed using UV- Vis-NIR spectrophotometric measurements in the spectral range 200-2500 nm. The refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. Some dispersion parameters were calculated such as single oscillator energy, dispersion energy, dielectric constant at high frequency and lattice dielectric constant. As well as, the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) and nonlinear refractive index n2 were determined.

  10. Molecular and electronic structure of thin films of protoporphyrin(IX)Fe(III)Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Shelly R.; White, Henry S.

    1991-11-01

    Electrochemical, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and tunneling spectroscopy studies of the molecular and electronic properties of thin films of protoporphyrin(IX)Fe(III)Cl (abbreviated as PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes are reported. PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl films are prepared by two different methods: (1) adsorption, yielding an electrochemically-active film, and (2) irreversible electrooxidative polymerization, yielding an electrochemically-inactive film. STM images, in conjunction with electro-chemical results, indicate that adsorption of PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl from aqueous solutions onto freshly cleaved HOPG results in a film comprised of molecular aggregates. In contrast, films prepared by irreversible electrooxidative polymerization of PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl have a denser, highly structured morphology, including what appear to be small pinholes (approx. 50A diameter) in an otherwise continuous film.

  11. Magnetic and structural study of Cu-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.E. Rodriguez; Golmar, F.; Cabrera, A.F.; Errico, L.; Navarro, A.M. Mudarra; Renteria, M.; Sanchez, F.H.; Duhalde, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent pure and Cu-doped (2.5, 5 and 10 at.%) anatase TiO 2 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on LaAlO 3 substrates. The samples were structurally characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were measured using a SQUID. All films have a FM-like behaviour. In the case of the Cu-doped samples, the magnetic cycles are almost independent of the Cu concentration. Cu atoms are forming CuO and/or substituting Ti in TiO 2 . The thermal treatment in air promotes the CuO segregation. Since CuO is antiferromagnetic, the magnetic signals present in the films could be assigned to Cu substitutionally replacing cations in TiO 2

  12. Magnetic and structural study of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, C.E. Rodriguez [Dpto de Fisica-IFLP, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: torres@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Golmar, F. [Laboratorio de Ablacion Laser, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabrera, A.F.; Errico, L.; Navarro, A.M. Mudarra; Renteria, M.; Sanchez, F.H. [Dpto de Fisica-IFLP, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Duhalde, S. [Laboratorio de Ablacion Laser, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-10-31

    Transparent pure and Cu-doped (2.5, 5 and 10 at.%) anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. The samples were structurally characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were measured using a SQUID. All films have a FM-like behaviour. In the case of the Cu-doped samples, the magnetic cycles are almost independent of the Cu concentration. Cu atoms are forming CuO and/or substituting Ti in TiO{sub 2}. The thermal treatment in air promotes the CuO segregation. Since CuO is antiferromagnetic, the magnetic signals present in the films could be assigned to Cu substitutionally replacing cations in TiO{sub 2}.

  13. Surface electronic structure and molecular orientation of poly(9-vinylcarbazole) thin film: ARUPS and NEXAFS

    CERN Document Server

    Okudaira, K K; Hasegawa, S; Ishii, H; Azuma, Y; Imamura, M; Shimada, H; Seki, K; Ueno, N

    2001-01-01

    The molecular orientation at the surfaces of poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PvCz) thin films was studied by angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The observed take-off angle (theta) dependence of photoelectron intensities from top pi band peaks clearly at larger theta than the calculated one for the three-dimensional isotropic random orientation model. The results indicate that there are more pendant groups with large tilt angles than the three-dimensional isotropic random orientation model, which is in good agreement with the result obtained from NEXAFS spectroscopy. The surface electronic states of PvCz may be rather dominated by sigma(C-H) states at the pendant carbazole group than pi states

  14. Epitaxial growth and electronic structure of oxyhydride SrVO{sub 2}H thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tsukasa; Chikamatsu, Akira, E-mail: chikamatsu@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Yamada, Keisuke; Onozuka, Tomoya [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shigematsu, Kei [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Minohara, Makoto; Kumigashira, Hiroshi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ikenaga, Eiji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, Mikazuki-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    Oxyhydride SrVO{sub 2}H epitaxial thin films were fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates via topotactic hydridation of oxide SrVO{sub 3} films using CaH{sub 2}. Structural and composition analyses suggested that the SrVO{sub 2}H film possessed one-dimensionally ordered V-H{sup −}-V bonds along the out-of-plane direction. The synthesis temperature could be lowered by reducing the film thickness, and the SrVO{sub 2}H film was reversible to SrVO{sub 3} by oxidation through annealing in air. Photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed the V{sup 3+} valence state in the SrVO{sub 2}H film, indicating that the hydrogen existed as hydride. Furthermore, the electronic density of states was highly suppressed at the Fermi energy, consistent with the prediction that tetragonal distortion induces metal to insulation transition.

  15. Epitaxial growth and electronic structure of oxyhydride SrVO2H thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tsukasa; Chikamatsu, Akira; Yamada, Keisuke; Shigematsu, Kei; Onozuka, Tomoya; Minohara, Makoto; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Ikenaga, Eiji; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-08-01

    Oxyhydride SrVO2H epitaxial thin films were fabricated on SrTiO3 substrates via topotactic hydridation of oxide SrVO3 films using CaH2. Structural and composition analyses suggested that the SrVO2H film possessed one-dimensionally ordered V-H--V bonds along the out-of-plane direction. The synthesis temperature could be lowered by reducing the film thickness, and the SrVO2H film was reversible to SrVO3 by oxidation through annealing in air. Photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed the V3+ valence state in the SrVO2H film, indicating that the hydrogen existed as hydride. Furthermore, the electronic density of states was highly suppressed at the Fermi energy, consistent with the prediction that tetragonal distortion induces metal to insulation transition.

  16. Superconductivity of Rock-Salt Structure LaO Epitaxial Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminaga, Kenichi; Oka, Daichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Fukumura, Tomoteru

    2018-06-06

    We report a superconducting transition in a LaO epitaxial thin film with the superconducting transition onset temperature ( T c ) at around 5 K. This T c is higher than those of other lanthanum monochalcogenides and opposite to their chemical trend: T c = 0.84, 1.02, and 1.48 K for LaX (X = S, Se, Te), respectively. The carrier control resulted in a dome-shaped T c as a function of electron carrier density. In addition, the T c was significantly sensitive to epitaxial strain in spite of the highly symmetric crystal structure. This rock-salt superconducting LaO could be a building block to design novel superlattice superconductors.

  17. Structural analysis of CdS thin films obtained by multiple dips of oscillating chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Lazos, C.D. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosendo, E., E-mail: erosendo@siu.buap.m [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Ortega, M. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Tapia, O.; Diaz, T.; Juarez, H.; Garcia, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Rubin, M. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Computacion, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-11-25

    Highly oriented CdS thin films with thicknesses greater than 1 mum were deposited by multiple dips, using oscillating chemical bath deposition (OCBD) at the bath temperature of 75 deg. C, and deposition time ranging from 15 to 75 min for a single dip. Samples with different thickness were prepared by repeating the deposition process for two and three times. The films deposited by a single dip have the alpha-greenockite structure showing the (0 0 2) as preferred orientation, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction measurements. This notable characteristic is preserved in the samples obtained from two or three dips. The crystallite size for the samples deposited by a single dip depends on the deposition time, because it varied from 23 to 37 nm as the deposition time increased. Nevertheless for samples deposited by two and three dips, the grain size shows no noticeable change, being about 22 nm.

  18. Structural and optical investigation of Te-based chalcogenide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rita, E-mail: reetasharma2012@gmail.com; Sharma, Shaveta; Thangaraj, R.; Mian, M. [Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar (India); Chander, Ravi [Applied Science Deptt. Govt. Polytechnic College Amritsar (India); Kumar, Praveen [Department of Physics, DAV University, Sarmastipur, Jalandhar-144012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We report the structural and optical properties of thermally evaporated Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and InBiTe{sub 3} films by using X-ray diffraction, optical and Raman Spectroscopy techniques. The as-prepared thin films were found to be Semi-crystalline by X-ray diffraction. Particle Size and Strain has been calculated from XRD data. The optical constants, film thickness, refractive index and optical band gap (E{sub g}) has been reported for In{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, InBiTe{sub 3} films. Raman Spectroscopy was performed to investigate the effect of Bi, In, on lattice vibration and chemical bonding in Te based chalcogenide glassy alloys.

  19. Effects on crystal structure of CZTS thin films owing to deionized water and sulfurization treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadi, Samia Ahmed; Chelvanathan, Puvaneswaran; Islam, M. A.; Sopian, Kamruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusoff, Yulisa [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Amin, Nowshad [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-05-15

    To condense the cost and increase the production, using abundantly obtainable non-toxic elements, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) seem to be a strong contender among the photovoltaic thin film technologies. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering system. CZTS were sputtered on Molybdenum (Mo) coated soda lime glass (SLG) using a single target sputtering technique. The sputtering parameters (base pressure, working pressure, Argon (Ar) flow rate, RF power and sputtering time) were kept same for all three types of films. For sulfurization, the temperature used was 500 °C. Finally, As-deposited film was immersed in DIW before undergoing identical sulfurization profile. As-deposited film (Sample A), sulfurized films (Sample B) and sulfurized plus DIW treated (Sample C) were compared in terms of their structural properties by means of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurement and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Sample B and C showed peak of (1 1 2) planes of CZTS which are characteristics of stannite structure. Post deposition treatment on CZTS films proved to be beneficial as evident from the observed enhancement in the crystallinity and grain growth. Significant difference on grain size and area roughness could be observed from the AFM measurement. The roughness of Sample A, B and C increased from 5.007 nm to 20.509 nm and 14.183 nm accordingly. From XRD data secondary phases of Cu{sub x}MoS{sub x} could be observed.

  20. Structural and optical properties of SiC-SiO2 nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozetine, I.; Keffous, A.; Kaci, S.; Menari, H.; Manseri, A.

    2018-03-01

    This study deals with the deposition of thin films of a SiC-SiO2nanocomposite deposited on silicon substrates. The deposition is carried out by a co-sputtering RF magnetron 13.56 MHz, using two targets a polycristallin 6H-SiC and sprigs of SiO2. In order to study the influence of the deposition time on the morphology, the structural and optical properties of the thin films produced, two series of samples were prepared, namely a series A with a 30 min deposition time and a series B of one hour duration. The samples were investigated using different characterization techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (DRX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and photoluminescence. The results obtained, reveal an optical gap varies between 1.4 and 2.4 eV depending on the thickness of the film; thus depending on the deposition time. The SIMS profile recorded the presence of oxygen (16O) on the surface, which the signal beneath the silicon signal (28Si) and carbon (12C) signals, which confirms that the oxide (SiO2) is the first material deposited at the interface film - substrate with an a-OSiC structure. The photoluminescence (PL) measurement exhibits two peaks, centred at 390 nm due to the oxide and at 416 nm due probably to the nanocrystals of SiC crystals, note that when the deposition time increases, the intensity of the PL drops drastically, result in agreement with dense and smooth film.

  1. Magnetic and structural properties of Co2FeAl thin films grown on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmeguenai, Mohamed; Tuzcuoglu, Hanife; Gabor, Mihai; Petrisor, Traian; Tiusan, Coriolan; Berling, Dominique; Zighem, Fatih; Mourad Chérif, Salim

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between magnetic and structural properties of Co 2 FeAl (CFA) thin films of different thicknesses (10 nmthin films were grown on a Si(001) substrates and annealed at 600 °C. • The thickness dependence of magnetic and structural properties has been studied. • X-ray measurements revealed an (011) out-of-plane textured growth of the films. • The easy axis coercive field varies linearly with the inverse CFA thickness. • The effective magnetization increases linearly with the inverse film thickness

  2. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  3. Structural and morphological properties of HfxZr 1-xO2 thin films prepared by Pechini route

    KAUST Repository

    Garcí a-Cerda, L. A.; Puente-Urbina, B. A.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Gnade, Bruce E.; Baldenegro-Pé rez, Leonardo Aurelio; Alshareef, Husam N.; Herná ndez-Landaverde, Martí n Adelaido

    2010-01-01

    In this study, HfxZr1-xO2 (0 < x < 1) thin films were deposited on silicon wafers using a dip-coating technique and by using a precursor solution prepared by the Pechini route. The effects of annealing temperature on the structure and morphological

  4. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Co-doped ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayani, Zohra Nazir; Shah, Iqra; Zulfiqar, Bareera; Sabah, Aneeqa [Lahore College for Women Univ., Lahore (Pakistan); Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad [Univ. of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics

    2018-04-01

    Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited using a sol-gel route by changing the number of coats on the substrate from 6 to 18. This project deals with various film thicknesses by increasing the number of deposited coats. The effect of thickness on structural, magnetic, surface morphology and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin film was studied. The crystal structure of the Co-doped ZnO films was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The films have polycrystalline wurtzite hexagonal structures. A Co{sup 2+} ion takes the place of a Zn{sup 2+} ion in the lattice without creating any distortion in its hexagonal wurtzite structure. An examination of the optical transmission spectra showed that the energy band gap of the Co-doped ZnO films increased from 3.87 to 3.97 eV with an increase in the number of coatings on the substrate. Ferromagnetic behaviour was confirmed by measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The surface morphology of thin films was assessed by scanning electron microscope. The grain size on the surface of thin films increased with an increase in the number of coats.

  5. Structure dependent resistivity and dielectric characteristics of tantalum oxynitride thin films produced by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, D., E-mail: daniel.cristea@unitbv.ro [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Crisan, A. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Cretu, N. [Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Department, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Borges, J. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, C.; Cunha, L. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Ion, V.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, “Photonic Processing of Advanced Materials” Group, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Apreutesei, M. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, 21 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully F-69134 (France); Munteanu, D. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Tantalum oxynitride thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering, in various configurations. • The rising of the reactive gases mixture flow has the consequence of a gradual increase in the non-metallic content in the films, which results in a 10 orders of magnitude resistivity domain. • The higher resistivity films exhibit dielectric constants up to 41 and quality factors up to 70. - Abstract: The main purpose of this work is to present and to interpret the change of electrical properties of Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} thin films, produced by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Some parameters were varied during deposition: the flow of the reactive gases mixture (N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, with a constant concentration ratio of 17:3); the substrate voltage bias (grounded, −50 V or −100 V) and the substrate (glass, (1 0 0) Si or high speed steel). The obtained films exhibit significant differences. The variation of the deposition parameters induces variations of the composition, microstructure and morphology. These differences cause variation of the electrical resistivity essentially correlated with the composition and structural changes. The gradual decrease of the Ta concentration in the films induces amorphization and causes a raise of the resistivity. The dielectric characteristics of some of the high resistance Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films were obtained in the samples with a capacitor-like design (deposited onto high speed steel, with gold pads deposited on the dielectric Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films). Some of these films exhibited dielectric constant values higher than those reported for other tantalum based dielectric films.

  6. Effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the structural and optical properties of indium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Riti; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M., E-mail: amsiddiqui@jmi.ac.in [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India); Kumar, Pravin [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067 (India); Khan, Sameen Ahmed [Department of Mathematics and Sciences, College of Arts and Applied Sciences (CAAS) Dhofar University, Salalah, Sultanate of Oman (Oman)

    2016-06-10

    : We report here synthesis and subsequent nitrogen ion implantation of indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films. The films were implanted with 25 keV N{sup +} beam for different ion doses between 3E15 to 1E16 ions/cm{sup 2}. The resulting changes in structural and optical properties were investigated using XRD, SEM-EDAX and UV-Vis Spectrometry. XRD studies reveal decrease in crystallite size from 20.06 to 12.42 nm with increase in ion dose. SEM micrographs show an increase in the grain size from 0.8 to 1.35 µm with increase in ion dose because of the agglomeration of the grains. Also, from EDAX data on pristine and N-implanted thin films the presence of indium and oxygen without any traces of impurity elements could be seen. However, at lower ion doses such as 3E15 and 5E15 ions/cm{sup 2}, no evidence of the presence of nitrogen ion was seen. However, for the ion dose of 1E16 ions/cm{sup 2}, evidence of presence of nitrogen can be seen in the EDAX data. Band gap calculations reveal a decrease in band gap from 3.54 to 3.38 eV with increasing ion dose. However, the band gap was found to again show an increase to 3.58 eV at the highest ion dose owing to quantum confinement effect.

  7. Composition and structural analysis of Sm-Co thin films on (100)Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghantasala, M.; Sood, D.K.; Mohan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The necessity of integration of magnetics with silicon processing technology became essential with the advent of Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS). The need to control the crystalline and magnetic properties of the magnetic thin films on silicon substrates has been the primary motivation for this work. The major objective of this work is to prepare the stoichiometric and crystalline SmCo 5 thin films with good magnetic properties on single crystal silicon substrate. We have prepared the SmCo think films on single crystal (100) silicon substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. Films have been prepared in pure argon as the sputter media at two different pressures 2 x 10 -2 torr and 2 x 10 3 torr with the substrates kept at room temperature, 500 and 700 deg C separately. These films have been characterised using RBS, XRD and SEM. RBS analysis showed that the films are nearly stoichiometric (1:4.9) and have significant amounts of oxygen as impurity. But XRD studies indicated that the as deposited films (at all substrate temperatures) are yet to form the crystalline structure. Some of the films have been subjected to rapid thermal annealing at two different temperatures at 800 and 1000 deg C for 30 secs in an effort to crystallise the films. RBS analysis of these films indicated that the room temperature and post annealed films at 1000 deg C resulted in considerable interdiffusion characteristics, whereas the high temperature deposited (500 and 700 deg C) and annealed films showed relatively very stable characteristics with minimal diffusion between the film and the substrate. XRD and SEM analysis of the films is in progress. The detailed results of these investigations will be presented

  8. Structural, compositional and optical properties of spin coated MoO3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishva; Shah, Dimple; Patel, K. D.; Zankat, Chetan

    2018-05-01

    The attraction towards the MoO3 thin film is due to its wide range of application base on its properties. Its application in the field of energy storage and conversion as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium ion battery, hole selective layer in solar cell and in pseudocapacitors makes it more attractive material. Taking in consideration, economical route and tailoring advantage of film formation we have used spin coating method for the synthesis of the film with Ammonium heptamolybdate (NH4)6Mo7O24 4H2O) and distilled water as the precursor and solvent respectively on the glass substrate. The method also provides the large area synthesis of the film which is beneficial for the commercial applications. The film was spin coated at 1600 rpm with 4 % weight per volume ratio. The film so formed was annealed at 300 °C for 3 hours. The structural investigation was done by the X-Ray diffraction technique which shows the thin film of polycrystalline type. The average crystallize size is about 50 nm. The composition of the film was studied with the help of EDAX. The optical properties were studied by the photoluminescence and UV Spectroscopy. The results from both the characterization are well matched with each other. Photoluminescence studies show band to band emission observed at 416 nm shown in the fig. 5. From UV spectroscopy, using transmission and absorption spectra we observed the band gap edge around 3 eV. This is in accordance with the photoluminescence result.

  9. Structural features of spin-coated thin films of binary AsxS100−x chalcogenide glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.; Slang, S.; Golovchak, R.; Jain, H.; Vlcek, M.; Kovalskiy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Spin-coating technology offers a convenient method for fabricating photostable chalcogenide glass thin films that are especially attractive for applications in IR optics. In this paper we report the structure of spin-coated As x S 100−x (x = 30, 35, 40) thin films as determined using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy, especially in relation to composition (i.e. As/S ratio) and preparation process variables. It was observed that As atoms during preparation have a tendency to precipitate out in close to stoichiometric compositions. The mechanism of bonding between the inorganic matrix and organic residuals is discussed based on the experimental data. A weak interaction between S ions and amine-based clusters is proposed as the basis of structural organization of the organic–inorganic interface. - Highlights: • As–S spin-coated chalcogenide thin films with different As/S were fabricated. • XPS measurements support the cluster-like structure of spin-coated films. • As 2 O 3 was confirmed as the composition of precipitate formed during dissolution. • Lack of As–As bonds explains the observed photostability of the thin films

  10. Effect of Precursor Concentration on Structural Optical and Electrical Properties of NiO Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Barir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Undoped nickel oxide (NiO thin films were deposited on 500°C heated glass substrates using spray pyrolysis method at (0.015–0.1 M range of precursor. The latter was obtained by decomposition of nickel nitrate hexahydrate in double distilled water. Effect of precursor concentration on structural, optical, and electrical properties of NiO thin films was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD shows the formation of NiO under cubic structure with single diffraction peak along (111 plane at 2θ=37.24°. When precursor concentration reaches 0.1 M, an increment in NiO crystallite size over 37.04 nm was obtained indicating the product nano structure. SEM images reveal that beyond 0.04 M as precursor concentration the substrate becomes completely covered with NiO and thin films exhibit formation of nano agglomerations at the top of the sample surface. Ni-O bonds vibrations modes in the product of films were confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Transparency of the films ranged from 57 to 88% and band gap energy of the films decreases from 3.68 to 3.60 eV with increasing precursor concentration. Electrical properties of the elaborated NiO thin films were correlated to the precursor concentration.

  11. Galvanic corrosion of structural non-stoichiometric silicon nitride thin films and its implications on reliability of microelectromechanical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broas, M., E-mail: mikael.broas@aalto.fi; Mattila, T. T.; Paulasto-Kröckel, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto (Finland); Liu, X.; Ge, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, P.O. Box 16200, FIN-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2015-06-28

    This paper describes a reliability assessment and failure analysis of a poly-Si/non-stoichiometric silicon nitride thin film composite structure. A set of poly-Si/SiN{sub x} thin film structures were exposed to a mixed flowing gas (MFG) environment, which simulates outdoor environments, for 90 days, and an elevated temperature and humidity (85 °C/95% R.H.) test for 140 days. The mechanical integrity of the thin films was observed to degrade during exposure to the chemically reactive atmospheres. The degree of degradation was analyzed with nanoindentation tests. Statistical analysis of the forces required to initiate a fracture in the thin films indicated degradation due to the exposure to the MFG environment in the SiN{sub x} part of the films. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous-like reaction layer on top of SiN{sub x}. The morphology of the reaction layer resembled that of galvanically corroded poly-Si. Transmission electron microscopy further clarified the microstructure of the reaction layer which had a complex multi-phase structure extending to depths of ∼100 nm. Furthermore, the layer was oxidized two times deeper in a 90 days MFG-tested sample compared to an untested reference. The formation of the layer is proposed to be caused by galvanic corrosion of elemental silicon in non-stoichiometric silicon nitride during hydrofluoric acid etching. The degradation is proposed to be due uncontrolled oxidation of the films during the stress tests.

  12. Surface and interface characterization of thin-film silicon solar cell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Dominic

    2013-02-21

    The properties of Si thin films for solar cells, the interaction with different substrates and the influence of dopants are examined with synchrotron based x-ray spectroscopy - primarily X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The films are studied as-deposited (i.e., amorphous, a-Si) and after conversion into polycrystalline (poly-Si) employing solid phase crystallization (SPC). Si L{sub 2,3} XES spectra of thin-film Si samples can be described by a superposition of a-Si and monocrystalline Si-wafer (c-Si) reference spectra. According to a quantification based on that superposition principle, none of the investigated samples are completely crystallized - a measurable a-Si component always remains (5-20 %) regardless of deposition and treatment conditions. Based on additional results from electron back scattering diffraction different models are developed which may explain this finding. According to these models, the remnant a-Si component can be attributed to amorphous/disordered material at the grain boundaries. Using one of these models, the thickness of this grain-surrounding material s could be approximated to be (1.5 {+-} 0.5) nm. Further investigations of the SPC process reveal a faster crystallization for boron-doped samples, and a slower crystallization for phosphorous-doped samples, when compared to the crystallization of undoped a Si:H thin films. The peculiarities of B K XES spectra (and observed changes upon SPC) indicate that boron could act as a nucleation center promoting crystallization. Si L{sub 2,3} XES spectra of a-Si:H and P-doped poly-Si exhibit spectral features above the valence band maximum at 100 eV that could be attributed to a-Si defect states and n{sup +}-dopant states, respectively. The SPC crystallization velocity of Si thin films on ZnO:Al/glass is found to be faster than that on SiNx/glass substrate. Multiple indications for oxidization at the poly-Si/ZnO:Al interface are found based on

  13. Structural and optical studied of nano structured lead sulfide thin films prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Din, Nasser Saad, E-mail: nsaadaldin@yahoo.com; Hussain, Nabiha, E-mail: nabihahssin@yahoo.com [Damascus University Faculty of Science, Department of physics, Homs (Syrian Arab Republic); Jandow, Nidhal, E-mail: nidhaljandow@yahoo.com [Al –Mustansiriyah University, College of Education, Department of physics, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-07-25

    Lead (II) Sulfide PbS thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 25°C by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The structural properties of the films were studied as a function of the concentration of Thiourea (CS (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) as Source of Sulfide and deposition time. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited films Polycrystalline had cubic crystalline phase that belong to S.G: Fm3m. We found that they have preferred orientation [200]. Also the thickness of thin films decrease with deposition time after certain value and, it observed free sulfide had orthorhombic phase. Optical properties showed that the thin films have high transmission at visible range and low transmission at UV, IR range. The films of PbS have direct band gap (I.68 - 2.32 ev) at 300 K the values of band energy decreases with increases thickness of the Lead (II) Sulfide films.

  14. Structural and optical analysis of 60Co gamma-irradiated thin films of polycrystalline Ga10Se85Sn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shabir; Asokan, K.; Shahid Khan, Mohd.; Zulfequar, M.

    2015-12-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of gamma irradiation on structural and optical properties of polycrystalline Ga10Se85Sn5 thin films with a thickness of ∼300 nm deposited by the thermal evaporation technique on cleaned glass substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns of the investigated thin films show that crystallite growth occurs in the orthorhombic phase structure. The surface study carried out by using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirms that the grain size increases with gamma irradiation. The optical parameters were estimated from optical transmission spectra data measured from a UV-vis-spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 200-1100 nm. The refractive index dispersion data of the investigated thin films follow the single oscillator model. The estimated values of static refractive index n0, oscillator strength Ed, zero frequency dielectric constant ε0, optical conductivity σoptical and the dissipation factor increases after irradiation, while the single oscillator energy Eo decreases after irradiation. It was found that the value of the optical band gap of the investigated thin films decreases and the corresponding absorption coefficient increases continuously with an increase in the dose of gamma irradiation. This post irradiation changes in the values of optical band gap and absorption coefficient were interpreted in terms of the bond distribution model.

  15. Influence of stress on the structural and dielectric properties of rf magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rashmi; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-05-01

    Highly c axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared on 1737 Corning glass substrate by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50mTorr) and different oxygen percentage (40%-100%) in reactive gas mixtures. The as-grown ZnO thin films were found to have stress over a wide range from -6×1010to-9×107dynes/cm2. The presence of stress depends strongly on processing conditions, and films become almost stress free under a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. The studies show a correlation of stress with structural and electrical properties of the ZnO thin film. The stressed films possess high electrical conductivity and exhibits strong dielectric dispersion over a wide frequency (1kHz-1MHz). The dielectric constant ɛ'(ω) of stress free ZnO film was almost frequency independent and was close to the bulk value. The measured value of dc conductivity, σdc(ω) and ac conductivity σac(ω) of stress free ZnO film was 1.3×10-9 and 6.8×10-5Ω-1cm-1, respectively. The observed variation in the structural and electrical properties of ZnO thin film with stress has been analyzed in the light of growth kinetics.

  16. Influence of the substrate texture on the structural and electrochemical properties of sputtered LiCoO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ki-Taek; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Kim, Ki-Won; Nam, Tae-Hyun; Jeong, Hyo-Min; Huh, Sun-Chul; Chung, Han-Shik; Noh, Jung-Pil

    2013-01-01

    LiCoO 2 thin films were fabricated on textured and annealed STS304 substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering method. The effects of the substrate texture on the structural and electrochemical properties of the LiCoO 2 thin film deposited on both the substrates have been investigated. The crystal structures and surface morphologies of the deposited films were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Based on the XRD analysis, the LiCoO 2 thin film deposited on the textured substrate was found to exhibit (003) preferred orientation, while the film deposited on annealed substrate exhibited (104) preferred orientation. In addition, SEM analysis revealed that the film deposited on the textured substrate showed a smooth morphology. On the other hand, the film deposited on the annealed substrate exhibited a very rough surface morphology, which resulted in a higher surface area. Consequently, the initial discharge capacity of the film deposited on the annealed substrate was higher than that of the film deposited on the textured substrate. The film deposited on the textured substrate exhibited a good cyclic performance compared to the film deposited on the annealed substrate. - Highlights: • The sputtered LiCoO 2 thin films were influenced by the substrate texture. • The film deposited on the annealed substrate exhibited (104) preferred orientation. • The film deposited on the textured substrate exhibited a good cyclic performance

  17. High temperature superconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correra, L.

    1992-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research on superconducting oxides is the main focus of the contributors in this volume. Several aspects of the thin film field from fundamental properties to applications are examined. Interesting results for the Bi system are also reviewed. The 132 papers, including 8 invited, report mainly on the 1-2-3 system, indicating that the Y-Ba-Cu-O and related compounds are still the most intensively studied materials in this field. The volume attests to the significant progress that has been made in this field, as well as reporting on the challenging problems that still remain to be solved. The papers are presented in five chapters, subsequently on properties, film growth and processing, substrates and multilayers, structural characterization, and applications

  18. Synthesis and characterization of structural, morphological and photosensor properties of Cu0.1Zn0.9S thin film prepared by a facile chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubari, Ghamdan M. M.; Ibrahim Mohammed S., M.; Huse, Nanasaheb P.; Dive, Avinash S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2018-05-01

    The Cu0.1Zn0.9S thin film was grown by facile chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on glass substrates at 60°C. The structural, morphological, photosensor properties of the as-grown thin film has been investigated. The structural and phase confirmation of the as-grown thin film was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. The FE-SEM images showed that the thin films are well covered with material on an entire glass substrate. From the optical absorption spectrum, the direct band gap energy for the Cu0.1Zn0.9S thin film was found to be ˜3.16 eV at room temperature. The electrical properties were measured at room temperature in the voltage range ±2.5 V, showed a drastic enhancement in current under light illumination with the highest photosensitivity of ˜72 % for 260 W.

  19. Nano structured TiO2 thin films by polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, Daniel Grando; Giraldi, Tania Regina; Leite, Edson Roberto; Varela, Jose Arana; Longo, Elson

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses in optimizing setup for obtaining TiO 2 thin films by polymeric precursor route due to its advantages on stoichiometric and morphological control. Precursor stoichiometry, synthesis pH, solids concentration and rotation speed at deposition were optimized evaluating thin films morphology and thickness. Thermogravimetry and NMR were applied for precursor's characterization and AFM, XRD and ellipsometry for thin films evaluation. Results showed successful attainment of homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films with outstanding control over morphological characteristics, mean grain size of 17 nm, packing densities between 57 and 75%, estimated surface areas of 90 m 2 /g and monolayers thickness within 20 and 128 nm. (author)

  20. Temperature dependent structural, luminescent and XPS studies of CdO:Ga thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moholkar, A.V.; Agawane, G.L.; Sim, Kyu-Ung; Kwon, Ye-bin; Choi, Doo Sun; Rajpure, K.Y.; Kim, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The CdO:Ga thin films seems an alternative to traditional TCO materials used in photovoltaic applications. This work deals the effect of deposition temperature on sprayed CdO:Ga films with respect to the structural, luminescent and XPS studies. → The crystalline quality of the GCO films improves with deposition temperature. → The oxygen vacancies are responsible for n-type conductivity and green emission. → The minimum resistivity, highest carrier concentration and mobility are 1.9 x 10 -4 Ω cm, 11.7 x 10 21 cm -3 and 27.64 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively. - Abstract: The structural, compositional, photoluminescent and XPS properties of CdO:Ga thin films deposited at temperatures ranging from 275 to 350 o C, using spray pyrolysis are reported. X-ray diffraction characterization of as-deposited GCO thin films reveals that films are of cubic structure with a (2 0 0) preferred orientation. The crystalline quality of the GCO films improves and the grain size increases with deposition temperature. The EDS analyses confirm oxygen deficiency present in the film and are responsible for n-type conductivity. The photoluminescence spectra demonstrated that the green emission peaks of CdO thin films are centered at 482 nm. The relative intensity of these peaks is strongly dependent on the deposition temperature. Oxygen vacancies are dominant luminescent centers for green emission in CdO thin films. The XPS measurement shows the presence of Cd, Ga, O and C elements and confirms that CdO:Ga films are cadmium-rich.

  1. Critical current density of strained multilayer thin films of Nd1.83Ce0.17CuOx/YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.; Gupta, A.; Olsson, E.; Segmueller, A.; Koren, G.

    1990-01-01

    The superconducting transport properties of strained multilayer thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ / Nd 1.83 Ce 0.17 CuO x , grown heteroepitaxially by laser ablation deposition, are reported. For individual layer thicknesses below a critical layer thickness of about 250 A, coherency strain removes the orthorhombic distortion in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ layers and makes them twin-free. Zero-field critical current densities as high as 1.1x10 7 A/cm 2 at 77 K have been measured for the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ layers. Flux pinning energies at zero temperature and zero magnetic field in the range of 80--140 meV have been found

  2. Iron-platinum multilayer thin film reactions to form L1(0) iron-platinum and exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo

    FePt films with the L10 phase have potential applications for magnetic recording and permanent magnets due to its high magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy density. Heat treatment of [Fe/Pt] n multilayer films is one approach to form the L10 FePt phase through a solid state reaction. This thesis has studied the diffusion and reaction of [Fe/Pt]n multilayer films to form the L10 FePt phase and has used this understanding to construct exchange spring magnets. The process-structure-property relations of [Fe/Pt] n multilayer films were systematically examined. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the annealed multilayers indicates that the Pt layer grows at the expense of Fe during annealing, forming a disordered fcc FePt phase by the interdiffusion of Fe into Pt. This thickening of the fcc Pt layer can be attributed to the higher solubilities of Fe into fcc Pt, as compared to the converse. For the range of film thickness studied, a continuous L10 FePt product layer that then thickens with further annealing is not found. Instead, the initial L10 FePt grains are distributed mainly on the grain boundaries within the fcc FePt layer and at the Fe/Pt interfaces and further transformation of the sample to the ordered L10 FePt phase proceeds coupled with the growth of the initial L10 FePt grains. A comprehensive study of annealed [Fe/Pt]n films is provided concerning the phase fraction, grain size, nucleation/grain density, interdiffusivity, long-range order parameter, and texture, as well as magnetic properties. A method based on hollow cone dark field TEM is introduced to measure the volume fraction, grain size, and density of ordered L10 FePt phase grains in the annealed films, and low-angle X-ray diffraction is used to measure the effective Fe-Pt interdiffusivity. The process-structure-properties relations of two groups of samples with varying substrate temperature and periodicity are reported. The results demonstrate that the processing parameters

  3. Annealing effect on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO bilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.; Imran, S.; Shahnawaz; Saleem, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif

    2018-03-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO (TZ) thin films has been observed. Bilayer thin films of TiO2/ZnO are deposited on FTO glass substrate by spray pyrolysis method. After deposition, these films are annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K. XRD shows that TiO2 is present in anatase phase only and ZnO is present in hexagonal phase. No other phases of TiO2 and ZnO are present. Also, there is no evidence of other compounds like Zn-Ti etc. It also shows that the average grain size of TiO2/ZnO films is increased by increasing annealing temperature. AFM (Atomic force microscope) showed that the average roughness of TiO2/ZnO films is decreased at temperature 573-723 K and then increased at 873 K. The calculated average sheet resistivity of thin films annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K is 152.28 × 102, 75.29 × 102 and 63.34 × 102 ohm-m respectively. This decrease in sheet resistivity might be due to the increment of electron concentration with increasing thickness and the temperature of thin films.

  4. Effect of tungsten (W) on structural and magnetic properties of electroplated NiFe thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R.; Devaki, P.; Premkumar, P. S.; Selvambikai, M.

    2018-04-01

    Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline NiFe and NiFeW thin films were carried out from ammonium citrate bath at a constant current density and controlled pH of 8 by varying the bath temperature from 40 °C to 70 °C. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the electrodeposited NiFe and NiFeW soft magnetic thin films were studied by using SEM and EDAX. The SEM micrographs of the films coated at higher electrodeposited bath temperature have no micro cracks and also the films have more uniform surface morphology. The existence of crystalline nature of the coated films were analysed by XRD. The presence of predominant peaks in x-ray diffraction pattern (compared with JCPDS data) reveal that the average crystalline size was in the order of few tens of nano meters. The magnetic properties such as coercivity, saturation magnetization and magnetic flux density have been calculated from vibrating sample magnetometer analysis. The VSM result shows that the NiFeW thin film synthesised at 70 °C exhibit the lower coercivity with higher saturation magnetization. The hardness and adhesion of the electroplated films have been investigated. Reasons for variation in magnetic properties and structural characteristics are also discussed. The electroplated NiFe and NiFeW thin films can be used for Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) applications due to their excellent soft magnetic behaviour.

  5. Structural, Optical Constants and Photoluminescence of ZnO Thin Films Grown by Sol-Gel Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Sattar Gadallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report manufacturing and characterization of low cost ZnO thin films grown on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. For structural properties, X-ray diffraction measurements have been utilized for evaluating the dominant orientation of the thin films. For optical properties, reflectance and transmittance spectrophotometric measurements have been done in the spectral range from 350 nm to 2000 nm. The transmittance of the prepared thin films is 92.4% and 88.4%. Determination of the optical constants such as refractive index, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant in this wavelength range has been evaluated. Further, normal dispersion of the refractive index has been analyzed in terms of single oscillator model of free carrier absorption to estimate the dispersion and oscillation energy. The lattice dielectric constant and the ratio of free carrier concentration to free carrier effective mass have been determined. Moreover, photoluminescence measurements of the thin films in the spectral range from 350 nm to 900 nm have been presented. Electrical measurements for resistivity evaluation of the films have been done. An analysis in terms of order-disorder of the material has been presented to provide more consistency in the results.

  6. Perpendicular Structure Formation of Block Copolymer Thin Films during Thermal Solvent Vapor Annealing: Solvent and Thickness Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyan Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solvent vapor annealing of block copolymer (BCP thin films can produce a range of interesting morphologies, especially when the perpendicular orientation of micro-domains with respect to the substrate plays a role. This, for instance, allows BCP thin films to serve as useful templates for nanolithography and hybrid materials preparation. However, precise control of the arising morphologies is essential, but in most cases difficult to achieve. In this work, we investigated the solvent and thickness effects on the morphology of poly(styrene-b-2 vinyl pyridine (PS-b-P2VP thin films with a film thickness range from 0.4 L0 up to 0.8 L0. Ordered perpendicular structures were achieved. One of the main merits of our work is that the phase behavior of the ultra-high molecular weight BCP thin films, which hold a 100-nm sized domain distance, can be easily monitored via current available techniques, such as scanning electron microscope (SEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Systematic monitoring of the self-assembly behavior during solvent vapor annealing can thus provide an experimental guideline for the optimization of processing conditions of related BCP films systems.

  7. Thickness dependent structural, optical and electrical properties of Se85In12Bi3 nanochalcogenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ravi P.; Zulfequar, M.; Khan, Shamshad A.

    2018-04-01

    Our aim is to study the thickness dependent effects on structure, electrical and optical properties of Se85In12Bi3 nanochalcogenide thin films. Bulk alloy of Se85In12Bi3 was synthesized by melt-quenching technique. The amorphous as well as glassy nature of Se85In12Bi3 chalcogenide was confirmed by non-isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The nanochalcogenide thin films of thickness 30, 60 and 90 nm were prepared on glass/Si wafer substrate using Physical Vapour Condensation Technique (PVCT). From XRD studies it was found that thin films have amorphous texture. The surface morphology and particle size of films were studied by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). From optical studies, different optical parameters were estimated for Se85In12Bi3 thin films at different thickness. It was found that the absorption coefficient (α) and extinction coefficient (k) increases with photon energy and decreases with film thickness. The optical absorption process followed the rule of indirect transitions and optical band gap were found to be increase with film thickness. The value of Urbach energy (Et) and steepness parameter (σ) were also calculated for different film thickness. For electrical studies, dc-conductivity measurement was done at different temperature and activation energy (ΔEc) were determined and found to be increase with film thickness.

  8. Porting of the transfer-matrix method for multilayer thin-film computations on graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Steffen; Fey, Dietmar

    2013-07-01

    Thin-film computations are often a time-consuming task during optical design. An efficient way to accelerate these computations with the help of graphics processing units (GPUs) is described. It turned out that significant speed-ups can be achieved. We investigate the circumstances under which the best speed-up values can be expected. Therefore we compare different GPUs among themselves and with a modern CPU. Furthermore, the effect of thickness modulation on the speed-up and the runtime behavior depending on the input data is examined.

  9. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2011-02-01

    Osmotically driven membrane processes have the potential to treat impaired water sources, desalinate sea/brackish waters, and sustainably produce energy. The development of a membrane tailored for these processes is essential to advance the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation. By systematically varying the conditions used during the casting of the polysulfone layer, an array of support layers with differing structures was produced. The role that solvent quality, dope polymer concentration, fabric layer wetting, and casting blade gate height play in the support layer structure formation was investigated. Using a 1M NaCl draw solution and a deionized water feed, water fluxes ranging from 4 to 25Lm-2h-1 with consistently high salt rejection (>95.5%) were produced. The relationship between membrane structure and performance was analyzed. This study confirms the hypothesis that the optimal forward osmosis membrane consists of a mixed-structure support layer, where a thin sponge-like layer sits on top of highly porous macrovoids. Both the active layer transport properties and the support layer structural characteristics need to be optimized in order to fabricate a high performance forward osmosis membrane. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Co thin film with metastable bcc structure formed on GaAs(111 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minakawa Shigeyuki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Co thin films are prepared on GaAs(111 substrates at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 600 ºC by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The growth behavior and the detailed resulting film structure are investigated by in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. In early stages of film growth at temperatures lower than 200 ºC, Co crystals with metastable A2 (bcc structure are formed, where the crystal structure is stabilized through hetero-epitaxial growth. With increasing the film thickness beyond 2 nm, the metastable structure starts to transform into more stable A1 (fcc structure through atomic displacements parallel to the A2{110} close-packed planes. The crystallographic orientation relationship between the A2 and the transformed A1 crystals is A1{111} || A2{110}. When the substrate temperature is higher than 400 ºC, Ga atoms of substrate diffuse into the Co films and a Co-Ga alloy with bcc-based ordered structure of B2 is formed.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of sputtering induced surface roughness and its influence on AES depth profiles of polycrystalline Ni/Cu multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X.L.; Coetsee, E. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P O Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Wang, J.Y., E-mail: wangjy@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shantou University, 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, 515063, Guangdong (China); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swartHC@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P O Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Terblans, J.J., E-mail: terblansjj@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P O Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Linear Least Square (LLS) method used to separate Ni and Cu Auger spectra. • The depth-dependent ion sputtering induced roughness was quantitatively evaluated. • The depth resolution better when profiling with dual-ion beam vs. a single-ion beam. • AES depth profiling with a lower ion energy results in a better depth resolution. - Abstract: The polycrystalline Ni/Cu multilayer thin films consisting of 8 alternating layers of Ni and Cu were deposited on a SiO{sub 2} substrate by means of electron beam evaporation in a high vacuum. Concentration-depth profiles of the as-deposited multilayered Ni/Cu thin films were determined with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) in combination with Ar{sup +} ion sputtering, under various bombardment conditions with the samples been stationary as well as rotating in some cases. The Mixing-Roughness-Information depth (MRI) model used for the fittings of the concentration-depth profiles accounts for the interface broadening of the experimental depth profiling. The interface broadening incorporates the effects of atomic mixing, surface roughness and information depth of the Auger electrons. The roughness values extracted from the MRI model fitting of the depth profiling data agrees well with those measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ion sputtering induced surface roughness during the depth profiling was accordingly quantitatively evaluated from the fitted MRI parameters with sample rotation and stationary conditions. The depth resolutions of the AES depth profiles were derived directly from the values determined by the fitting parameters in the MRI model.

  12. Influence of post-deposition annealing on structural, morphological and optical properties of copper (II) acetylacetonate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, H; El-Samahi, M I; El-Mahalawy, Ahmed M

    2018-05-21

    In this study, the effect of thermal annealing under vacuum conditions on structural, morphological and optical properties of thermally evaporated copper (II) acetylacetonate, cu(acac) 2 , thin films were investigated. The copper (II) acetylacetonate thin films were deposited using thermal evaporation technique at vacuum pressure ~1 × 10 -5  mbar. The deposited films were thermally annealed at 323, 373, 423, and 473 K for 2 h in vacuum. The thermogravimetric analysis of cu(acac) 2 powder indicated a thermal stability of cu(acac) 2 up to 423 K. The effects of thermal annealing on the structural properties of cu(acac) 2 were evaluated employing X-ray diffraction method and the analysis showed a polycrystalline nature of the as-deposited and annealed films with a preferred orientation in [1¯01] direction. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) technique was used to negate the decomposition of copper (II) acetylacetonate during preparation or/and annealing up to 423 K. The surface morphology of the prepared films was characterized by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A significant enhancement of the morphological properties of cu(acac) 2 thin films was obtained till the annealing temperature reaches 423 K. The variation of optical constants that estimated from spectrophotometric measurements of the prepared thin films was investigated as a function of annealing temperature. The annealing process presented significantly impacted the nonlinear optical properties such as third-order optical susceptibility χ (3) and nonlinear refractive index n 2 of cu(acac) 2 thin films. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of the structural, surface, optical and electrical properties of the Indium doped CuxO thin films deposited by a thermionic vacuum arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaoğlu, Caner; Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan; Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza

    2018-03-01

    In this study, investigation of some physical properties of In-doped CuxO thin films onto amorphous glass substrates were done. The thin films were depsoied by thermionic vacuum arc technique (TVA). TVA technique gives a thin film with lower precursor impurity according to the other chemical and physical depsoition methods. The microstructural properties of the produced thin films was determined by x-ray diffraction device (XRD). The thickness values were measured as to be 30 nm and 60 nm, respectively. The miller indices of the thin films’ crystalline planes were determined as to be Cu (111), CuO (\\bar{1} 12), CuInO2 (107) and Cu2O (200), Cu (111), CuO (\\bar{1} 12), CuO (\\bar{2} 02), CuInO2 (015) for sample C1 and C2, respectively. The produced In-doped CuO thin films are in polycrystalline structure. The surface properties of produced In doped CuO thin films were determined by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) tools. The optical properties of the In doped CuO thin films were determined by UV–vis spectrophotometer, interferometer, and photoluminescence devices. p-type semiconductor thin film was obtained by TVA depsoition.

  14. Long range surface plasmons on asymmetric suspended thin film structures for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Qiao; Chen, Chengkun; Berini, Pierre; Gordon, Reuven

    2010-08-30

    We show that long-range surface plasmons (LRSPs) are supported in a physically asymmetric thin film structure, consisting of a low refractive index medium on a metal slab, supported by a high refractive index dielectric layer (membrane) over air, as a suspended waveguide. For design purposes, an analytic formulation is derived in 1D yielding a transcendental equation that ensures symmetry of the transverse fields of the LRSP within the metal slab by constraining its thicknesses and that of the membrane. Results from the formulation are in quantitative agreement with transfer matrix calculations for a candidate slab waveguide consisting of an H(2)O-Au-SiO(2)-air structure. Biosensor-relevant figures of merit are compared for the asymmetric and symmetric structures, and it is found that the asymmetric structure actually improves performance, despite higher losses. The finite difference method is also used to analyse metal stripes providing 2D confinement on the structure, and additional constraints for non-radiative LRSP guiding thereon are discussed. These results are promising for sensors that operate with an aqueous solution that would otherwise require a low refractive index-matched substrate for the LRSP.

  15. Crystal Structure of AgBi2I7 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zewen; Meng, Weiwei; Mitzi, David B; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-10-06

    Synthesis of cubic-phase AgBi 2 I 7 iodobismuthate thin films and fabrication of air-stable Pb-free solar cells using the AgBi 2 I 7 absorber have recently been reported. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and nominal composition, it was suggested that the synthesized films have a cubic ThZr 2 H 7 crystal structure with AgBi 2 I 7 stoichiometry. Through careful examination of the proposed structure and computational evaluation of the phase stability and bandgap, we find that the reported "AgBi 2 I 7 " films cannot be forming with the ThZr 2 H 7 -type structure, but rather more likely adopt an Ag-deficient AgBiI 4 type. Both the experimental X-ray diffraction pattern and bandgap can be better explained by the AgBiI 4 structure. Additionally, the proposed AgBiI 4 structure, with octahedral bismuth coordination, removes unphysically short Bi-I bonding within the [BiI 8 ] hexahedra of the ThZr 2 I 7 model. Our results provide critical insights for assessing the photovoltaic properties of AgBi 2 I 7 iodobismuthate materials.

  16. Effect of crystal structure on optical properties of sol–gel derived zirconia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xiaodong_wang@tongji.edu.cn [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Guangming; Zhou, Bin [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shen, Jun, E-mail: shenjun67@tongji.edu.cn [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► ZrO{sub 2} films were deposited by sol–gel method. ► Crystal structures of the films were tuned by different thermal annealing methods. ► The refractive indices vary with the crystal structures of the films. ► Lattice-mismatch was found to reduce the refractive index of ZrO{sub 2} films. -- Abstract: The optical properties of sol–gel derived zirconia thin films and their relation to the crystal structure are studied in this paper. ZrO{sub 2} films were deposited on quartz glass and silicon wafer substrates by sol–gel method with conventional furnace annealing (CFA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Crystal structures of the films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while refractive indices of the films were determined from the reflectance and transmittance spectra. The refractive indices vary with the function of crystal structure and density of the films, which depends on annealing temperature and annealing technique. Lattice-mismatch between monoclinic phase and tetragonal phase was found to reduce the refractive index of ZrO{sub 2} films.

  17. Structure and magnetic properties of Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, N. Sai; Kaleemulla, S., E-mail: skaleemulla@gmail.com; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Begam, M. Rigana [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore – 632014 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu, Tamilnadu -603104 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Pure and Fe (7 at.%) doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were grown onto the glass substrates by electron beam evaporation technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the pure and Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films have been studied. The undoped and Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films shown ferromagnetic property at room temperature. A magnetization of 24 emu/cm{sup 3} was observed for pure In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. The magnetization of 38.23 emu/cm{sup 3} was observed for the Fe (7 at.%) doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films.

  18. Structural and optical analysis of ZnBeMgO powder and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Neeraj; Liriano, J.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Structural and optical studies of Zn 1-x-y Be x Mg y O (0 ≤ x ≤0.10; 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.20) powders and thin films. → Raman studies of the pure ZnO powder showed all the characteristic peaks of the wurtzite hexagonal structure and with (Be, Mg) co-doping new modes appeared which can be attributed to arise as a result of doping effect. → The XRD of the films prepared from the powders using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique exhibited the preferential orientation and with doping the (0 0 0 2) peak also shifts to higher 2θ values suggesting the incorporation of Be/Mg at the Zn-site. → From the UV-visible optical band gap measurement it was noticed that the band gap of the pristine ZnO film is 3.3 eV which enhanced up to 4.51 eV for Zn 0.7 Be 0.1 Mg 0.2 O film which lies in the solar blind region and is very useful for the deep UV detection. - Abstract: We here report the structural and optical studies of Zn 1-x-y Be x Mg y O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15; 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.20) powders and thin films. From the Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns it was revealed that the value of 'a' lattice parameter remains almost unchanged whereas 'c' parameter reduces with Be and Mg co-doping in ZnO. The Zn-O bond length also decreases in co-doped samples. Raman studies of the pure ZnO powder showed all the characteristic peaks of the wurtzite hexagonal structure and with (Be, Mg) co-doping new modes appeared which can be attributed to arise as a result of substitution. The XRD of the films prepared from the powders using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique exhibited the preferential orientation and with increase in co-doping the (0 0 0 2) peak also shifts to higher 2θ values suggesting the incorporation of Be/Mg at the Zn-site. From the UV-visible optical transmittance measurement it was noticed that the band gap of the pristine ZnO film is 3.3 eV which enhanced up to 4.51 eV for Zn 0.7 Be 0.1 Mg 0.2 O film which lies in the

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of Gd/Fe multilayers grown by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kant, K. Mohan; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Pryds, Nini

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the structural and the magnetic properties of Gd/Fe multilayered thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition onto Si (001) substrates at room temperature. he Fe layer thickness is varied from 70 to 150 nm and its effect on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Gd/Fe ...

  20. InGaN-based thin film solar cells: Epitaxy, structural design, and photovoltaic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Liwen, E-mail: SANG.Liwen@nims.go.jp [International Center for Material Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, The Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo [Wide Bandgap Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sumiya, Masatomo [Wide Bandgap Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); JST-ALCA, The Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2015-03-14

    In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, with the tunable direct bandgaps from ultraviolet to near infrared region, offers a promising candidate for the high-efficiency next-generation thin-film photovoltaic applications. Although the adoption of thick InGaN film as the active region is desirable to obtain efficient light absorption and carrier collection compared to InGaN/GaN quantum wells structure, the understanding on the effect from structural design is still unclear due to the poor-quality InGaN films with thickness and difficulty of p-type doping. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the effects from film epitaxy, doping, and device structural design on the performances of the InGaN-based solar cells. The high-quality InGaN thick film is obtained on AlN/sapphire template, and p-In{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N is achieved with a high hole concentration of more than 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. The dependence of the photovoltaic performances on different structures, such as active regions and p-type regions is analyzed with respect to the carrier transport mechanism in the dark and under illumination. The strategy of improving the p-i interface by using a super-thin AlN interlayer is provided, which successfully enhances the performance of the solar cells.

  1. InGaN-based thin film solar cells: Epitaxy, structural design, and photovoltaic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2015-03-01

    InxGa1-xN, with the tunable direct bandgaps from ultraviolet to near infrared region, offers a promising candidate for the high-efficiency next-generation thin-film photovoltaic applications. Although the adoption of thick InGaN film as the active region is desirable to obtain efficient light absorption and carrier collection compared to InGaN/GaN quantum wells structure, the understanding on the effect from structural design is still unclear due to the poor-quality InGaN films with thickness and difficulty of p-type doping. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the effects from film epitaxy, doping, and device structural design on the performances of the InGaN-based solar cells. The high-quality InGaN thick film is obtained on AlN/sapphire template, and p-In0.08Ga0.92N is achieved with a high hole concentration of more than 1018 cm-3. The dependence of the photovoltaic performances on different structures, such as active regions and p-type regions is analyzed with respect to the carrier transport mechanism in the dark and under illumination. The strategy of improving the p-i interface by using a super-thin AlN interlayer is provided, which successfully enhances the performance of the solar cells.

  2. Bioinspired Non-iridescent Structural Color from Polymer Blend Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallapaneni, Asritha; Shawkey, Matthew; Karim, Alamgir

    Colors exhibited in biological species are either due to natural pigments, sub-micron structural variation or both. Structural colors thus exhibited can be iridescent (ID) or non-iridescent (NID) in nature. NID colors originate due to interference and coherent scattering of light with quasi-ordered micro- and nano- structures. Specifically, in Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) these nanostructures develop as a result of phase separation of β-keratin from cytoplasm present in cells. We replicate these structures via spinodal blend phase separation of PS-PMMA thin films. Colors of films vary from ultraviolet to blue. Scattering of UV-visible light from selectively leeched phase separated blends are studied in terms of varying domain spacing (200nm to 2 μm) of film. We control these parameters by tuning annealing time and temperature. Angle-resolved spectroscopy studies suggest that the films are weakly iridescent and scattering from phase-separated films is more diffused when compared to well-mixed films. This study offers solutions to several color-based application in paints and coatings industry.

  3. Imaging of current distributions in superconducting thin film structures; Abbildung von Stromverteilungen in supraleitenden Duennfilmstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doenitz, D.

    2006-10-31

    Local analysis plays an important role in many fields of scientific research. However, imaging methods are not very common in the investigation of superconductors. For more than 20 years, Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy (LTSEM) has been successfully used at the University of Tuebingen for studying of condensed matter phenomena, especially of superconductivity. In this thesis LTSEM was used for imaging current distributions in different superconducting thin film structures: - Imaging of current distributions in Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer, also known as SIFS junctions, showed inhomogeneous current transport over the junctions which directly led to an improvement in the fabrication process. An investigation of improved samples showed a very homogeneous current distribution without any trace of magnetic domains. Either such domains were not present or too small for imaging with the LTSEM. - An investigation of Nb/YBCO zigzag Josephson junctions yielded important information on signal formation in the LTSEM both for Josephson junctions in the short and in the long limit. Using a reference junction our signal formation model could be verified, thus confirming earlier results on short zigzag junctions. These results, which could be reproduced in this work, support the theory of d-wave symmetry in the superconducting order parameter of YBCO. Furthermore, investigations of the quasiparticle tunneling in the zigzag junctions showed the existence of Andreev bound states, which is another indication of the d-wave symmetry in YBCO. - The LTSEM study of Hot Electron Bolometers (HEB) allowed the first successful imaging of a stable 'Hot Spot', a self-heating region in HEB structures. Moreover, the electron beam was used to induce an - otherwise unstable - hot spot. Both investigations yielded information on the homogeneity of the samples. - An entirely new method of imaging the current distribution in superconducting interference

  4. Thin films for precision optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.F.; Maurici, N.; Castro, J.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The technology of producing dielectric and/or metallic thin films for high precision optical components is discussed. Computer programs were developed in order to calculate and register, graphically, reflectance and transmittance spectra of multi-layer films. The technology of vacuum evaporation of several materials was implemented in our thin-films laboratory; various films for optics were then developed. The possibility of first calculate film characteristics and then produce the film is of great advantage since it reduces the time required to produce a new type of film and also reduces the cost of the project. (C.L.B.) [pt

  5. Design and Preparation of a Micro-Pyramid Structured Thin Film for Broadband Infrared Antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Ge

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A micro-pyramid structured thin film with a broad-band infrared antireflection property is designed and fabricated by using the single-point diamond turning (SPDT technique and combined with nano-imprint lithography (NIL. A structure with dimensions of 10 μm pitch and 5 μm height is transferred from the copper mold to the silicon nitride optical film by using NIL and proportional inductively-coupled plasma (ICP etching. Reflectance of the micro-optical surface is reduced below 1.0% over the infrared spectral range (800–2500 nm. A finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD analysis indicates that this micro-structure can localize photons and enhance the absorption inside the micro-pyramid at long wavelengths. As described above, the micro-pyramid array has been integrated in an optical film successfully. Distinguishing from the traditional micro-optical components, considering the effect of refraction and diffraction, it is a valuable and flexible method to take account of the interference effect of optical film.

  6. Structural and magnetic characterization of martensitic Ni-Mn-Ga thin films deposited on Mo foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernenko, V.A.; Anton, R. Lopez; Kohl, M.; Barandiaran, J.M.; Ohtsuka, M.; Orue, I.; Besseghini, S.

    2006-01-01

    Three martensitic Ni 51.4 Mn 28.3 Ga 20.3 thin films sputter-deposited on a Mo foil were investigated with regard to their crystal and magnetic domain structures, as well as their magnetic and magnetostrain properties. The film thicknesses, d, were 0.1, 0.4 and 1.0μm. X-ray and electron diffraction patterns revealed a tetragonal modulated martensitic phase (10M) in the films. The surface topography and micromagnetic structure were studied by scanning probe microscopy. A maze magnetic domain structure featuring a large out-of-plane magnetization component was found in all films. The domain width, δ, depends on the film thickness as δ∼d. The thickness dependencies of the saturation magnetization, saturation magnetic field and magnetic anisotropy were clarified. Beam cantilever tests on the Ni-Mn-Ga/Mo composite as a function of magnetic field showed reversible strains, which are larger than ordinary magnetostriction

  7. Hematite Thin Films with Various Nanoscopic Morphologies Through Control of Self-Assembly Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingling; Kim, Yong-Tae; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2015-05-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin films with various nanostructures were synthesized through self-assembly between iron oxide hydroxide particles, generated by hydrolysis and condensation of Fe(NO3)3 · 6H2O, and a Pluronic triblock copolymer (F127, (EO)106(PO)70(EO)106, EO = ethylene oxide, PO = propylene oxide), followed by calcination. The self-assembly structure can be tuned by introducing water in a controlled manner through the control of the humidity level in the surrounding of the as-cast films during aging stage. For the given Fe(NO3)3 · 6H2O:F127 ratio, there appear to be three different thermodynamically stable self-assembly structures depending on the water content in the film material, which correspond to mesoporous, spherical micellar, and rod-like micellar structures after removal of F127. Coupled with the thermodynamic driving forces, the kinetics of the irreversible reactions of coalescence of iron oxide hydroxide particles into larger ones induce diverse nanostructures of the resultant films. The length scale of so-obtained nanostructures ranges from 6 nm to a few hundred nanometers. In addition to water content, the effects of other experimental parameters such as aging temperature, spin rate during spin coating, type of substrate, and type of iron reagent were investigated.

  8. Self-assembly of dodecaphenyl POSS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Bartosz; Klita, Łukasz; Niemiec, Wiktor

    2017-12-01

    The self-assembly abilities of Dodecaphenyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane thin films on Si(1 0 0) surfaces were studied. Due to their thermal properties - relatively low sublimation temperature and preservation of molecular structure - cage type silsesquioxanes are ideal material for the preparation of a thin films by Physical Vapor Deposition. The Ultra-High Vacuum environment and the deposition precision of the PVD method enable the study of early stages of thin film growth and its molecular organization. X-ray Reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements allow to pursuit size-effects in the structure of thin films with thickness ranges from less than a single molecular layer up to several tens of layers. Thermal treatment of the thin films triggered phase change: from a poorly ordered polycrystalline film into a well-ordered multilayer structure. Self-assembly of the layers is the effect of the π-stacking of phenyl rings, which force molecules to arrange in a superlattice, forming stacks of alternating organic-inorganic layers.

  9. Supramolecular structure of a perylene derivative in thin films made by vacuum thermal evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Jose Diego

    2015-01-01

    The supramolecular arrangement of organic thin films is a factor that influences both optical and electrical properties of these films and, consequently, the technological applications involving organic electronics. In this dissertation, thin films of a perylene derivative (bis butylimido perylene, acronym BuPTCD) were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) using vacuum thermal evaporation. The aim of this work was to investigate the supramolecular arrangement of BuPTCD films, which implies to control the thickness at nanometer scale and to determine the molecular organization, the morphology (at nano and micrometer scales) and the crystallinity, besides the stability of this arrangement as a function of the temperature. Optical properties (such as absorption and emission) and electrical properties (such as conductivity and photoconductivity) were also determined. The UV-Vis absorption spectra revealed a controlled growth (uniform) of the BuPTCD films. Atomic force and optical microscopy images showed a homogeneous surface of the film at nano and micrometer scales, respectively. The X-ray diffraction showed that the BuPTCD powder and PVD film have different crystalline structures, with the BuPTCD molecules head-on oriented in the PVD films, supported on the substrate surface by the side group (FTIR). This structure favors the light emission (photoluminescence) by the formation of excimers. The thermal treatment (200°C for 10 min) does not affect the molecular organization of the PVD films, showing a thermal stability of the BuPTCD supramolecular arrangement under these circumstances. The electrical measurements (DC) showed a linear increase of the current as a function of the tension, which is characteristic of ohmic behavior. Also, the films exhibited an increase of current by 2 orders of magnitude when exposed to light (photoconductive properties). Finally, BuPTCD films were exposed to vapor of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) to verify the sensitivity of the Bu

  10. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José

    2010-10-24

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation and strain in oxide ionic conducting materials used as electrolytes, such as fluorites, and in mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials used as electrodes, typically oxides with perovskite or perovskite-related layered structures. The recent effort towards the enhancement of the electrochemical performance of SOFC materials through the deposition of artificial film heterostructures is also presented. These thin films have been engineered at a nanoscale level, such as the case of epitaxial multilayers or nanocomposite cermet materials. The recent progress in the implementation of thin films in SOFC devices is also reported. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Development of tantalum oxynitride thin films produced by PVD: Study of structural stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, D. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Department of Materials Science, Transylvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Crisan, A. [Department of Materials Science, Transylvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Barradas, N.P.; Alves, E. [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Estrada Nacional 10, ao km 139,7 2695-066, Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Moura, C.; Vaz, F. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Cunha, L., E-mail: lcunha@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this work is to study the evolution of the structure and of the thermal stability of a group of tantalum oxynitride thin films, prepared by magnetron sputtering, under the influence of vacuum annealing, up to a temperature of 800 °C. When varying the partial pressure of the reactive gases (P{sub O{sub 2+N{sub 2}}}), during the deposition process, the films change from a structure with a combination of poorly developed crystallites of the tetragonal β-Ta and of the face centred cubic (fcc) Ta(O,N) phases, for the films deposited with low P{sub O2+N2}, to a quasi-amorphous structure, for the films deposited with highest pressures. For intermediate pressures, the films reveal the presence of the fcc-Ta(O,N) structure. This structure corresponds to O atoms substituting some of the N atoms on the fcc-TaN structure and/or N atoms substituting O atoms of the fcc-γ-TaO structure. When subjected to the thermal annealing at 700 °C or higher, the film produced with lowest partial pressure revealed a remarkable structural change. New diffraction peaks appear and can only be attributed to a sub-stoichiometric hexagonal tantalum nitride structure. The film did not reveal any signs of delamination or cracks after all annealing temperatures. The two films produced with highest partial pressure proved to be the most stable. Structurally, they maintain the amorphous structure after all the annealing treatments and, in addition, no cracks or delamination were detected.

  12. Study of Structure and Electro-Optical Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Khusayfan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ITO thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation of ceramic ITO target. The films were subsequently annealed in air atmosphere at the temperatures 300°C and 600°C in order to improve their optical and electrical properties. The crystal structure and morphology of the films are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope techniques, respectively. The films exhibited cubic structure with predominant orientation of growth along (222 direction, and the crystallite size increases by rising annealing temperature. Transparency of the films, over the visible light region, is increased by annealing temperature. The resulting increase in the carrier concentration and in the carrier mobility decreases the resistivity of the films due to annealing. The absorption coefficient of the films is calculated and analyzed. The direct allowed optical band gap for as-deposited films is determined as 3.81 eV; this value is increased to 3.88 and 4.0 eV as a result of annealing at 300°C and 600°C, respectively. The electrical sheet resistance is significantly decreased by increasing annealing temperature, whereas figure of merit is increased.

  13. Structural and Galvanomagnetic properties in Mn-Bi2Te3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidinakis, K.; Speliotis, Th.

    2017-12-01

    Bismuth-based binary chalcogenide compounds such as Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 are well known materials for their excellent thermoelectric properties due to their near-gap electronic structure. In the last few years these materials have received attention for exhibiting new physics of 3D topological insulators (TI). Possible applications of TI based devices range from quantum computing, spin based logic and memory to electrodynamics. The 3D TIs present spin-momentum-locked surface states by time reversal symmetry (TRS). Introducing magnetic doping in a TI, brakes the TRS and is predicted to open the gap at Dirac point, resulting in exotic quantum phenomena. This interaction between magnetism and topologically protected states is of potential attention for applications in modern spintronics. Quantum phenomena such as weak antilocalization observed in these nanostructures are described. In this work, granular Mn-Bi2Te3 thin films were grown by DC magnetron sputtering on Si(111) substrates and were submitted to ex situ annealing. We present results for the crystal structure of sputtered and annealed films characterized with X-ray diffraction and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). The surface analysis was studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Magnetotransport measurements were performed using standard four probe technique with Hall and MR configurations, with perpendicular magnetic fields up to 9T and temperatures from 300 to 3K.

  14. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Thin Film Growth Techniques for Low-Dimensional Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, S; Dobson, P; Neave, J; Arrott, A

    1987-01-01

    This work represents the account of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Thin Film Growth Techniques for Low Dimensional Structures", held at the University of Sussex, Brighton, England from 15-19 Sept. 1986. The objective of the workshop was to review the problems of the growth and characterisation of thin semiconductor and metal layers. Recent advances in deposition techniques have made it possible to design new material which is based on ultra-thin layers and this is now posing challenges for scientists, technologists and engineers in the assessment and utilisation of such new material. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has become well established as a method for growing thin single crystal layers of semiconductors. Until recently, MBE was confined to the growth of III-V compounds and alloys, but now it is being used for group IV semiconductors and II-VI compounds. Examples of such work are given in this volume. MBE has one major advantage over other crystal growth techniques in that the structure of the growi...

  15. Correlation between the structural and optical properties of ion-assisted hafnia thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Salvatore; Sarto, Francesca; Alvisi, Marco; Rizzo, Antonella; Perrone, Maria R.; Protopapa, Maria L.

    2000-03-01

    The ion beam assistance during the film growth is one of the most useful method to obtain dense film along with improved optical and structural properties. Afnia material is widely used in optical coating operating in the UV region of the spectrum and its optical properties depend on the production method and the physical parameters of the species involved in the deposition process. In this work afnia thin films were evaporated by an e-gun and assisted during the growth process. The deposition parameters, ion beam energy, density of ions impinging on the growing film and the number of arrival atoms from the crucible, have been related to the optical and structural properties of the film itself. The absorption coefficient and the refractive index were measured by spectrophotometric technique while the microstructure has been studied by means of x-ray diffraction. A strictly correlation between the grain size, the optical properties and the laser damage threshold measurements at 248 nm was found for the samples deposited at different deposition parameters.

  16. Structural and morphological changes in P3HT thin film transistors applying an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Deepak Kumar; Grigorian, Souren; Pietsch, Ullrich [University of Siegen (Germany); Flesch, Heinz; Resel, Roland [University of Siegen (Germany); Graz University of Technology (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    We report on electric field dependent crystalline structure and morphological changes of drop casting and spin coated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin films. In order to probe the morphological changes induced by an applied electric field the samples were covered with thin source/drain electrodes separated by a small channel of 2 mm width. A series of x-ray reflectivity, X-ray grazing incidence out-of-plane and in-plane scans have been performed as function of the applied electric voltage. The (100) peak shows a decrease in intensity with increase of the applied electric field. This might be caused by Joule heating and the creation of current induced defects in the P3HT film. On other hand the (020) peak intensity shows much stronger changes with applied field. Considering the *-* stacking direction the measured effect can be directly related to a change in the electric transport. The observed changes in structure are reversible and the current-voltage cycle can be repeated several times. For X-ray reflectivity major changes have been found close to critical angle of total external reflection indicating the film becomes less dense and increases in surface roughness with increase of the voltage. This change in surface behaviour could be confirmed by in-situ AFM measurements.

  17. Optical, structural and photocatalysis properties of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensouici, F., E-mail: fbensouici@yahoo.fr [Department of Physics, URMPE Unite, UMBB University, 35000 Boumerdes (Algeria); Bououdina, M.; Dakhel, A.A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 (Bahrain); Tala-Ighil, R.; Tounane, M.; Iratni, A. [Department of Physics, URMPE Unite, UMBB University, 35000 Boumerdes (Algeria); Souier, T. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36 (Oman); Liu, S.; Cai, W. [Key laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Technology, Center for Environmental and Energy Nanomaterials, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A simple chemical route to obtain thin layers of Cu doped TiO{sub 2}. • Detailed structure analysis was carried out by Rietveld refinements. • Forming the CuO phase decreases the efficiency photocatalysis of TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Pure and Cu{sup +2} doped TiO{sub 2} thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrate by sol–gel dip-coating. The films were annealed at 450 °C for 1 h and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–vis spectrophotometer and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. XRD confirmed the presence of two phases at higher Cu concentration; TiO{sub 2} anatase and CuO. AFM analysis showed that the surface roughness increases within increasing Cu content as well as the presence of large aggregates at higher Cu content. SEM observations confirmed the granular structure of the films, and EDX analysis revealed a low solubility limit (effective doping) of Cu into TiO{sub 2} lattice. It was found that the optical band gap energy decreases with increasing Cu content. At constant irradiation time, the photo-degradation of methylene blue rate decreased with increasing concentration of Cu{sup +2}.

  18. Amorphous Carbon Gold Nanocomposite Thin Films: Structural and Spectro-ellipsometric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel-Gonzalez, Z., E-mail: zeuzmontiel@hotmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Mendoza-Galvan, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, 76010 Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico); Rodriguez-Fernandez, L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Spectroscopic Ellipsometry was used to determine the optical and structural properties of amorphous carbon:gold nanocomposite thin films deposited by dc magnetron co-sputtering at different deposition power. The incorporation of gold as small particles distributed in the amorphous carbon matrix was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction, Rutherford Backscattering measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Based on these results, an optical model for the films was developed using the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium with the Drude-Lorentz model representing the optical response of gold and the Tauc-Lorentz model for the amorphous carbon. The gold volume fraction and particle size obtained from the fitting processes were comparable to those from the physical characterization. The analysis of the ellipsometric spectra for all the samples showed strong changes in the optical properties of the carbon films as a consequence of the gold incorporation. These changes were correlated to the structural modification observed by Raman Spectroscopy, which indicated a clustering of the sp{sup 2} phase with a subsequent decrease in the optical gap. Finally, measurements of Reflection and Transmission Spectroscopy were carried out and Transmission Electron Microscopy images were obtained in order to support the ellipsometric model results.

  19. Structure and tribological properties of MoS2 low friction thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradecka Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the studies was the deposition of the AlCrN film, covered by molybdenum disulphide (MoS2 – based lubricant, on the austenitic steel substrate. The AlCrN and MoS2 layers were deposited by PVD lateral rotating ARC-cathodes (LARC and magnetron sputtering technology on the X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 respectively. Structural characterizations of the MoS2 thin films have been carried out using SEM (scanning electron microscopy and AFM (atomic force microscopy to determine the surface topography as well as HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy for structural investigations. The tribological wear relationships using ball-on-disc test were specified for surface layers, determining the friction co-efficient and mass loss of the investigated surfaces. Tests of the coatings’ adhesion to the substrate material were made using the scratch test. HRTEM investigation shows an amorphous character of the MoS2 layer. In sliding dry friction conditions, the friction co-efficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.4-0.5. The investigated coating reveals high wear resistance. The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate. The good properties of the PVD AlCrN+MoS2 coatings make them suitable in various engineering and industrial applications.

  20. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of Thin Film Structures through Oxidation Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Leon, Juan Jose

    Materials science and engineering is devoted to the understanding of the physics and chemistry of materials at the mesoscale and to applying that knowledge into real-life applications. In this work, different oxide materials and different oxidation methods are studied from a materials science point of view and for specific applications. First, the deposition of complex metal oxides is explored for solar energy concentration. This requires a number of multi-cation oxide structures such as thin-film dielectric barriers, low loss waveguides or the use of continuously graded composition oxides for antireflection coatings and light concentration. Then, oxidation via Joule heating is used for the self-alignment of a selector on top of a memristor structure on a nanovia. Simulations are used to explore the necessary voltage for the insulator-to-metal transition temperature of NbO2 using finite element analysis, followed by the fabrication and the characterization of such a device. Finally, long-term copper oxidation at room temperature and pressure is studied using optical techniques. Alternative characterization techniques are used to confirm the growth rate and phase change, and an application of copper oxide as a volatile conductive bridge is shown. All these examples show how the combination of novel simulation, fabrication and characterization techniques can be used to understand physical mechanisms and enable disruptive technologies in fields such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors or memory devices.

  1. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Joginder, E-mail: joginderchauhan82@gmail.com; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (MP), India-474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential −1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ε) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In{sup 3+} and Sb{sup 3+} ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  2. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Mn doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, Arun, E-mail: aruncusat@gmail.com [Nanophotonic and Optoelectronic Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022, Kerala (India); Jayaraj, M.K., E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in [Nanophotonic and Optoelectronic Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022, Kerala (India); Kumar, Mukesh; Chandra, Ramesh [Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defect induced Raman active modes in Mn doped ZnO thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room temperature ferromagnetism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphological variations of ZnO thin films with Mn doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation of refractive index of ZnO thin films with Mn doping. - Abstract: Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The phase purity and the structure were confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The films have a transmittance more than 80% in the visible region. The refractive index of Zn{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.10}O films is found to be 1.77 at 550 nm. The presence of non-polar E{sub 2}{sup high} and E{sub 2}{sup low} Raman modes in thin films indicates that 'Mn' doping does not change the wurtzite structure of ZnO. Apart from the normal modes of ZnO the Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O ceramic targets show two additional modes at 332 cm{sup -1} (I{sub 1}) and 524 cm{sup -1} (I{sub 2}). The broad Raman peaks (340-600 cm{sup -1}) observed Zn{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.10}O thin films can be deconvoluted into five peaks, denoted as P{sub 1}-P{sub 5}. The possible origins of Raman peaks in Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O films are the structural disorder and morphological change caused by the Mn dopant. The B{sub 1}{sup low}, {sup 2}B{sub 1}{sup low}, B{sub 1}{sup high} and A{sub 1}{sup LO} modes as well as the surface phonon mode have been observed in heavily Mn-doped ZnO films. Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O thin film shows room temperature ferromagnetism. The saturation magnetic moment of the Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O thin film is 0.42{mu}{sub B}/Mn atom. The undoped ZnO film prepared under the same condition shows diamagnetic nature. At higher doping concentrations the formation of Mn clusters suppress the room temperature ferromagnetism in Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O thin films and shows paramagnetism. XPS confirms the incorporation of Mn{sup 2+} into the ZnO lattice.

  3. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  4. Structural and morphological properties of HfxZr 1-xO2 thin films prepared by Pechini route

    KAUST Repository

    García-Cerda, L. A.

    2010-03-01

    In this study, HfxZr1-xO2 (0 < x < 1) thin films were deposited on silicon wafers using a dip-coating technique and by using a precursor solution prepared by the Pechini route. The effects of annealing temperature on the structure and morphological properties of the proposed films were investigated. HfxZr1-xO2 thin films with 1, 3 and 5 layers were annealed in air for 2 h at 600 and 800 °C and the structural and morphological properties studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show that the films have monoclinic and tetragonal structure depending of the Hf and Zr concentration. SEM photographs show that all films consist of nanocrystalline grains with sizes in the range of 6 - 13 nm. The total film thickness is about 90 nm. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  5. The first report on SILAR deposited nano-structured uranyl sulphide thin films and their chemical conversion to silver sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garole, Dipak J.; Tetgure, Sandesh R.; Borse, Amulrao U.; Yogesh R Toda; Vaman J Garole; Babasaheb R Sankapal; Prashant K Baviskar

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the novel synthesis of uranyl sulphide (UO_2S) thin films using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature. Cationic exchange reaction was used to convert uranyl sulphide (UO_2S) to silver sulphide (Ag_2S). The influence of concentration variation on the structural and optical properties of UO_2S and Ag_2S thin films was investigated. The structural, surface morphological, elemental analysis and optical absorption studies were performed. Structural studies revealed that all the deposited films were nano-sized and amorphous in nature. Surface morphology showed that all the grains were spherical and granular in nature and grains got conglomerated to form a large particle. Also, the variations of the optical band gap and the width of the tail of localized states were represented as a function of various parameters. (authors)

  6. Structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered zinc aluminum oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh, E-mail: rajphyind@gmail.com [Department of Physics, GITAM Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam - 530 045, A.P. (India); Rao, T. Subba, E-mail: thotasubbarao6@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapuramu - 515 003, A.P. (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highly transparent conductive Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. The thin films were deposited at 200 °C and post-deposition annealing from 15 to 90 min. XRD patterns of ZAO films exhibit only (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating that they have c-axis preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology of the films. The grain size obtained from SEM images of ZAO thin films are found to be in the range of 20 - 26 nm. The minimum resistivity of 1.74 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm and an average transmittance of 92% are obtained for the thin film post annealed for 30 min. The optical band gap of ZAO thin films increased from 3.49 to 3.60 eV with the increase of annealing time due to Burstein-Moss effect. The optical constants refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were also determined from the optical transmission spectra.

  7. High coercivity Sm-Co thin films from elemental Sm/Co multilayer deposition and their microstructural aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Predeep, P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Sridhara Rao, D.V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratories, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prajapat, C.L.; Singh, M.R. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Barshilia, Harish C. [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Chowdhury, P., E-mail: pchowdhury@nal.res.in [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Hard magnetic thin films with high coercivity were fabricated by magnetron sputtering on MgO(100) and quartz substrates. The films were grown by depositing sequentially Sm and Co layers at an elevated substrate temperature of 500 °C. Subsequent post-annealing was carried out at various temperatures in range of 500–700 °C to form Sm-Co hard magnetic thin films. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of randomly oriented SmCo{sub 5} crystallites on quartz substrate, whereas, a textured growth of Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 7} with strong (110) crystalline phases was observed on MgO substrate. Microstructural analyses were carried out using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for samples grown on MgO substrate at 650 °C and inferred the presence of high density planar defects along with large grain boundaries. Further microdiffraction studies confirmed the presence of SmCo{sub 3} as an impurity phase in the films. Magnetic hysteresis measurements indicate the square hysteresis behaviors with high coercivity value of 3.1 T and 2.7 T for 650 °C annealed samples on both MgO and quartz substrates, respectively. The origin of such high coercivity value was then correlated with pinning type of spin reversal mechanism as confirmed through the analyses of demagnetization curves. The magnetic force microscopy images for films on MgO substrate, annealed at 650 °C, revealed the presence of magnetic domains with size higher than 1 µm. The formed magnetic domains lacked well defined boundaries indicating an enhanced exchange coupling between the grain clusters. - Highlights: • Ewald technique in micromagnetic simulations with periodic boundary conditions. • Effect of micromagnetic parameters on hysteresis in exchange spring magnets. • Importance of the interface exchange coupling for hard-soft nanocomposites. • Geometry dependence of the optimal soft phase size in exchange spring magnets.

  8. Structural, optical and electrical characteristics of nickel oxide thin films synthesised through chemical processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkuade, Shadrach; Mwankemwa, Benanrd; Nel, Jacqueline; Meyer, Walter

    2018-04-01

    A simple and cheap chemical deposition method was used to produce a nickel oxide (NiO) thin film on glass substrates from a solution that contained Ni2+ and monoethanolamine. Thermal treatment of the film at temperatures above 350 °C for 1 h caused decomposition of the nickel hydroxide into nickel oxide. Structural, optical and electrical properties of the film were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectrophotometry, current-voltage measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The film was found to be polycrystalline with interplanar spacing of 0.241 nm, 0.208 nm and 0.148 nm for (111), (200) and (220) planes respectively, the lattice constant a was found to be 0.417 nm. The film had a porous surface morphology, formed from a network of nanowalls of average thickness of 66.67 nm and 52.00 nm for as-deposited and annealed films respectively. Transmittance of visible light by the as-deposited film was higher and the absorption edge of the film blue-shifted after annealing. The opti