WorldWideScience

Sample records for thin-film model studies

  1. Thermal conductivity model for nanoporous thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Congliang; Zhao, Xinpeng; Regner, Keith; Yang, Ronggui

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films have attracted great interest because of their extremely low thermal conductivity and potential applications in thin thermal insulators and thermoelectrics. Although there are some numerical and experimental studies about the thermal conductivity of nanoporous thin films, a simplified model is still needed to provide a straightforward prediction. In this paper, by including the phonon scattering lifetimes due to film thickness boundary scattering, nanopore scattering and the frequency-dependent intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering, a fitting-parameter-free model based on the kinetic theory of phonon transport is developed to predict both the in-plane and the cross-plane thermal conductivities of nanoporous thin films. With input parameters such as the lattice constants, thermal conductivity, and the group velocity of acoustic phonons of bulk silicon, our model shows a good agreement with available experimental and numerical results of nanoporous silicon thin films. It illustrates that the size effect of film thickness boundary scattering not only depends on the film thickness but also on the size of nanopores, and a larger nanopore leads to a stronger size effect of the film thickness. Our model also reveals that there are different optimal structures for getting the lowest in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities.

  2. Comparative DMFT study of the eg-orbital Hubbard model in thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegg, Andreas; Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Gull, Emanuel; Fiete, Gregory A.

    2014-02-01

    Heterostructures of transition-metal oxides have emerged as a new route to engineer electronic systems with desired functionalities. Motivated by these developments, we study a two-orbital Hubbard model in a thin-film geometry confined along the cubic [001] direction using the dynamical mean-field theory. We contrast the results of two approximate impurity solvers (exact diagonalization and one-crossing approximation) to the results of the numerically exact continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo solver. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that the one-crossing approximation performs well in the insulating regime, while the advantage of the exact-diagonalization-based solver is more pronounced in the metallic regime. We then investigate various aspects of strongly correlated eg-orbital systems in thin-film geometries. In particular, we show how the interfacial orbital polarization dies off quickly a few layers from the interface and how the film thickness affects the location of the interaction-driven Mott transition. In addition, we explore the changes in the electronic structure with varying carrier concentration and identify large variations of the orbital polarization in the strongly correlated regime.

  3. Field ion microscope studies on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaleru, A.; Scortaru, A.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the progress made in the last years in FIM application to thin film structure studies and adatom properties important in the nucleation stage of thin film growth: substrate binding and mobility of individual adatoms, behaviour of adatoms clusters is presented. (author)

  4. Geometrical nonlinear deformation model and its experimental study on bimorph giant magnetostrictive thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei LIU; Zhenyuan JIA; Fuji WANG; Yongshun ZHANG; Dongming GUO

    2008-01-01

    The geometrical nonlinearity of a giant magne-tostrictive thin film (GMF) can be clearly detected under the magnetostriction effect. Thus, using geometrical linear elastic theory to describe the strain, stress, and constitutive relationship of GMF is inaccurate. According to nonlinear elastic theory, a nonlinear deformation model of the bimorph GMF is established based on assumptions that the magnetostriction effect is equivalent to the effect of body force loaded on the GMF. With Taylor series method, the numerical solution is deduced. Experiments on TbDyFe/Polyimide (PI)/SmFe and TbDyFe/Cu/SmFe are then conducted to verify the proposed model, respectively. Results indicate that the nonlinear deflection curve model is in good conformity with the experimental data.

  5. Ellipsometry study on Pd thin film grown by atomic layer deposition with Maxwell–Garnett effective medium approximation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yihang; Zhou, Xueqi; Cao, Kun [State Key Laboratory of Digital of Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Xiuguo; Deng, Zhang [State Key Laboratory of Digital of Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Shiyuan, E-mail: shyliu@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Digital of Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Shan, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rongchen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Digital of Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Maxwell–Garnett effective medium approximation (MG-EMA) model is chosen to study Pd ultrathin film grown on Si substrate, as well as its growth on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified substrate respectively. The general oscillator (GO) model with one Drude and two Lorentz oscillators is firstly applied to fix the optical constants of Pd. Compared with Pd bulk model, MG-EMA model with GO is more reliable to predict the film thickness verified by X-ray reflection test. The stable growth rate on Si substrate reveals our methods are feasible and the quartz crystal microbalance measurement confirms the stability of the ALD chamber. For Pd coverage, MG-EMA fitting result is similar to the statistical computation from scanning electron microscope when Pd ALD cycles are over 400, while large bias exists for cycles under 400, might be due to that air is not the proper filling medium between nanoparticles. Then we change the filling medium into SAMs as a comparison, better fitting performance is obtained. It is demonstrated that the filling medium between nanoparticles is important for the application of MG-EMA model. - Highlights: • Ultrathin Pd thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition. • The measurement of thin film was important to understand initial growth behavior. • Maxwell–Garnett effective medium approximation model was applied. • Pd nanoparticle size and coverage were studied. • The filling medium between nanoparticles was important for model application.

  6. Modelling of imploding phase of thin-film liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, P.; Gupta, R.P.; Kekez, M.M.; Lau, J.H.; Lougheed, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical models for thin-film implosions in vacuum are proposed for theta and Z-geometries in this paper, in order to develop a high-energy XUV source. In the present study, attention is confined to the implosion phase. The authors consider the plasma to be perfectly conducting and to have a frozen magnetic field resulting in a modified magnatoacoustic wave speed. An attempt is made to find to what extend the present treatment differs from detailed numerical analysis

  7. Fabrication and Performance Study of Uniform Thin Film Integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission line model of a uniform rectangular thin film R-C-KR structure consisting of a dielectric layer of constant per unit shunt capacitance C sandwiched between two resistive thin films of constant per unit length resistances R and KR has been analysed using the concept of matrix parameter functions. The above ...

  8. Density functional study of ferromagnetism in alkali metal thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thickness uniform jellium model (UJM), and it is argued that within LSDA or GGA, alkali metal thin films cannot be claimed to have an FM ground state. Relevance of these results to the experiments on transition metal-doped alkali metal thin films ...

  9. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krc, Janez

    2013-01-01

    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  10. Modelling and Laboratory Studies on the Adhesion Fatigue Performance for Thin-Film Asphalt and Aggregate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion between asphalt and aggregate plays an important role in the performance of asphalt mixtures. A low-frequency adhesion fatigue test was proposed in this paper to study the effect of environment on the asphalt-aggregate adhesion system. The stress-based fatigue model had been utilized to describe the fatigue behavior of thin-film asphalt and aggregate system. The factors influencing the adhesion fatigue performance were also investigated. Experiment results show that asphalt has more important effect on the adhesion performance comparing with aggregate. Basalt, which is regarded as hydrophobic aggregates with low silica content, has better adhesion performance to asphalt binder when compared with granite. The effects of aging on the adhesion fatigue performance are different for PG64-22 and rubber asphalt. Long-term aging is found to reduce the adhesion fatigue lives for rubber asphalt and aggregate system, while the effect of long-term aging for aggregate and PG64-22 binder system is positive. Generally the increased stress amplitude and test temperature could induce greater damage and lead to less fatigue lives for adhesion test system.

  11. Dynamic studies of nano-confined polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Kun

    Polymer thin films with the film thickness (h0 ) below 100 nm often exhibit physical properties different from the bulk counterparts. In order to make the best use of polymer thin films in applications, it is important to understand the physical origins of these deviations. In this dissertation, I will investigate how different factors influence dynamic properties of polymer thin films upon nano-confinement, including glass transition temperature (Tg), effective viscosity (etaeff) and self-diffusion coefficient (D ). The first part of this dissertation concerns the impacts of the molecular weight (MW) and tacticity on the Tg's of nano-confined polymer films. Previous experiments showed that the Tg of polymer films could be depressed or increased as h0 decreases. While these observations are usually attributed to the effects of the interfaces, some experiments suggested that MW's and tacticities might also play a role. To understand the effects of these factors, the Tg's of silica-based poly(alpha-methyl styrene) (PalphaMS/SiOx) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA/SiOx) thin films were studied, and the results suggested that MW's and tacticities influence Tg in nontrivial ways. The second part concerns an effort to resolve the long-standing controversy about the correlation between different dynamics of polymer thin films upon nano-confinement. Firstly, I discuss the experimental results of Tg, D and etaeff of poly(isobutyl methacrylate) films supported by silica (PiBMA/SiOx). Both T g and D were found to be independent of h 0, but etaeff decreased with decreasing h 0. Since both D and etaeff describe transport phenomena known to depend on the local friction coefficient or equivalently the local viscosity, it is questionable why D and etaeff displayed seemingly inconsistent h 0 dependencies. We envisage the different h0 dependencies to be caused by Tg, D and etaeff being different functions of the local T g's (Tg,i) or viscosities (eta i). By assuming a three

  12. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  13. A thin film hydroponic system for plant studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Robert; Prince, Ralph; Muller, Eldon; Schuerger, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    The Land Pavillion, EPCOT Center, houses a hydroponic, thin film growing system identical to that residing in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center. The system is targeted for plant disease and nutrition studies. The system is described.

  14. A statistical-thermodynamic model for ordering phenomena in thin film intermetallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, Olga; Krachler, Regina

    2008-01-01

    Ordering phenomena in bcc (110) binary thin film intermetallics are studied by a statistical-thermodynamic model. The system is modeled by an Ising approach that includes only nearest-neighbor chemical interactions and is solved in a mean-field approximation. Vacancies and anti-structure atoms are considered on both sublattices. The model describes long-range ordering and simultaneously short-range ordering in the thin film. It is applied to NiAl thin films with B2 structure. Vacancy concentrations, thermodynamic activity profiles and the virtual critical temperature of order-disorder as a function of film composition and thickness are presented. The results point to an important role of vacancies in near-stoichiometric and Ni-rich NiAl thin films

  15. Conductance Thin Film Model of Flexible Organic Thin Film Device using COMSOL Multiphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradero-Santiago, Carolyn; Vedrine-Pauléus, Josee

    We developed a virtual model to analyze the electrical conductivity of multilayered thin films placed above a graphene conducting and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The organic layers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) as a hole conducting layer, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), as a p-type, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and as n-type, with aluminum as a top conductor. COMSOL Multiphysics was the software we used to develop the virtual model to analyze potential variations and conductivity through the thin-film layers. COMSOL Multiphysics software allows simulation and modeling of physical phenomena represented by differential equations such as heat transfer, fluid flow, electromagnetism, and structural mechanics. In this work, using the AC/DC, electric currents module we defined the geometry of the model and properties for each of the six layers: PET/graphene/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT/PCBM/aluminum. We analyzed the model with varying thicknesses of graphene and active layers (P3HT/PCBM). This simulation allowed us to analyze the electrical conductivity, and visualize the model with varying voltage potential, or bias across the plates, useful for applications in solar cell devices.

  16. Gold Incorporated Mesoporous Silica Thin Film Model Surface as a Robust SERS and Catalytically Active Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandakumari Chandrasekharan Sunil Sekhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-small gold nanoparticles incorporated in mesoporous silica thin films with accessible pore channels perpendicular to the substrate are prepared by a modified sol-gel method. The simple and easy spin coating technique is applied here to make homogeneous thin films. The surface characterization using FESEM shows crack-free films with a perpendicular pore arrangement. The applicability of these thin films as catalysts as well as a robust SERS active substrate for model catalysis study is tested. Compared to bare silica film our gold incorporated silica, GSM-23F gave an enhancement factor of 103 for RhB with a laser source 633 nm. The reduction reaction of p-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride from our thin films shows a decrease in peak intensity corresponding to –NO2 group as time proceeds, confirming the catalytic activity. Such model surfaces can potentially bridge the material gap between a real catalytic system and surface science studies.

  17. Study on analytical modelling approaches to the performance of thin film PV modules in sunny inland climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Ramírez, M.; Nofuentes, G.; Silva, J.P.; Silvestre, S.; Muñoz, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at verifying that analytical modelling approaches may provide an estimation of the outdoor performance of TF (thin film) PV (photovoltaic) technologies in inland sites with sunny climates with adequate accuracy for engineering purposes. Osterwald's and constant fill factor methods were tried to model the maximum power delivered and the annual energy produced by PV modules corresponding to four TF PV technologies. Only calibrated electrical parameters at STC (standard test conditions), on-plane global irradiance and module temperature are required as inputs. A 12-month experimental campaign carried out in Madrid and Jaén (Spain) provided the necessary data. Modelled maximum power and annual energy values obtained through both methods were statistically compared to the experimental ones. In power terms, the RMSE (root mean square error) stays below 3.8% and 4.5% for CdTe (cadmium telluride) and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide sulfide) PV modules, respectively, while RMSE exceeds 5.4% for a-Si (amorphous silicon) or a-Si:H/μc-Si PV modules. Regarding energy terms, errors lie below 4.0% in all cases. Thus, the methods tried may be used to model the outdoor behaviour of the a-Si, a-Si:H/μc-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV modules tested – ordered from the lowest to the highest accuracy obtained – in sites with similar spectral characteristics to those of the two sites considered. - Highlights: • Simple analytical methods to model the outdoor behaviour of thin film PV (photovoltaic) technologies. • 8 PV modules were deployed outdoors over a 12-month period in two sunny inland sites. • RMSE (root mean square error) values stay below 3.8% and 4.5% in CdTe (cadmium telluride) and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide sulfide) PV modules. • Errors remain below 4.0% for all the PV modules and sites in energy terms. • Simple methods: suitable estimation of PV outdoor behaviour for engineering purposes

  18. Studies of tantalum nitride thin film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Backscattering of 2-MeV He ions was used to correlate the electrical properties of sputtered TaN/sub x/ thin-film resistors with their N content. The properties measured were sheet resistance, differential Seebeck potential (DSP), thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR), and stability. Resistivity and DSP are linearly dependent on N content for N/Ta ratios of 0.25 to 0.55. TCR decreases sharply below N/Ta = 0.35 and is relatively constant from 0.35 to 0.55. Stability is independent of N content. (DLC)

  19. Hydrophobicity studies of polymer thin films with varied CNT concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Rodzi, N. H.; M. Shahimin, M.; Poopalan, P.; Man, B.; M. Nor, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Surface functionalization studies for re-creating a `Lotus Leaf' effect (superhydrophobic) have been carried out for the past decade; looking for the material which can provide high transparency, low energy surface and high surface roughness. Fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid thin film variations on glass to produce near-superhydrophobic surfaces is presented in this paper. There are three important parameters studied in producing hydrophobic surfaces based on the hybrid thin films; concentration of PDMS, concentration of MWCNT and droplet sizes. The study is carried out by using PDMS of varied cross linker ratio (10:1, 30:1 and 50:1) with MWCNT concentration of 1mg, 10mg and 15mg for 0.5 μl, 2.0 μl, 5.0 μl and 10 μl droplet sizes. The resulting hybrid thin films show that hydrophobicity increased with increasing cross linker ratio and MWCNT percentage in the PDMS solution. A near superhydrophobic surface can be created when using 15 mg of MWCNT with 50:1 cross linker ratio PDMS thin films, measured on 10 μl droplet size. The hybrid thin films produced can be potentially tailored to the application of biosensors, MEMS and even commercial devices.

  20. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  1. Self-consistent studies of magnetic thin film Ni (001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.S.; Freeman, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Advances in experimental methods for studying surface phenomena have provided the stimulus to develop theoretical methods capable of interpreting this wealth of new information. Of particular interest have been the relative roles of bulk and surface contributions since in several important cases agreement between experiment and bulk self-consistent (SC) calculations within the local spin density functional formalism (LSDF) is lacking. We discuss our recent extension of the (LSDF) approach to the study of thin films (slabs) and the role of surface effects on magnetic properties. Results are described for Ni (001) films using our new SC numerical basis set LCAO method. Self-consistency within the superposition of overlapping spherical atomic charge density model is obtained iteratively with the atomic configuration as the adjustable parameter. Results are presented for the electronic charge densities and local density of states. The origin and role of (magnetic) surface states is discussed by comparison with results of earlier bulk calculations

  2. The study of thin film growth by using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandogan, M.; Aktas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Thin film growth was studied by using Monte Carlo simulation method. Three basic models were used in this study. Model A, the gas particles used for the formation of film were under no external effects until they stick on the surface or to another particle which already stickled on the surface to form the film. Model B, gases were drifted towards the surface by an external agent. Model C, where the gas particles in the closed container were always distributed uniformly throughout the container while they are in gas state. The simulations revealed the fact that for an ideal thin film growth Model C gave the best result to prepare a thin film while a thicker but a better quality could be obtained by Model B.

  3. Optical, structural and electrochromic behavior studies on nanocomposite thin film of aniline, o-toluidine and WO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Ashtiani, Hamed; Bahari, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In the field of materials for electrochromic (EC) applications much attention was paid to the derivatives of aniline. We report on the optical, structural and electrochromic properties of electrochromic thin film based on composite of WO3 nanoparticles and copolymer of aniline and o-toluidine prepared by electrochemical polymerization method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphology of prepared thin film was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) as well. The optical spectra of nanocomposite thin film were characterized in the 200-900 nm wavelength range and EC properties of nanocomposite thin film were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The calculation of optical band gaps of thin film exhibited that the thin film has directly allowed transition with the values of 2.63 eV on first region and 3.80 eV on second region. Dispersion parameters were calculated based on the single oscillator model. Finally, important parameters such as dispersion energy, oscillator energy and lattice dielectric constant were determined and compared with the data from other researchers. The nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear optical susceptibility, nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index were extracted. The obtained results of nanocomposite thin film can be useful for the optoelectronic applications.

  4. Process Modeling With Inhomogeneous Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machorro, R.; Macleod, H. A.; Jacobson, M. R.

    1986-12-01

    Designers of optical multilayer coatings commonly assume that the individual layers will be ideally homogeneous and isotropic. In practice, it is very difficult to control the conditions involved in the complex evaporation process sufficiently to produce such ideal films. Clearly, changes in process parameters, such as evaporation rate, chamber pressure, and substrate temperature, affect the microstructure of the growing film, frequently producing inhomogeneity in structure or composition. In many cases, these effects are interdependent, further complicating the situation. However, this process can be simulated on powerful, interactive, and accessible microcomputers. In this work, we present such a model and apply it to estimate the influence of an inhomogeneous layer on multilayer performance. Presently, the program simulates film growth, thermal expansion and contraction, and thickness monitoring procedures, and includes the effects of uncertainty in these parameters or noise. Although the model is being developed to cover very general cases, we restrict the present discussion to isotropic and nondispersive quarterwave layers to understand the particular effects of inhomogeneity. We studied several coating designs and related results and tolerances to variations in evaporation conditions. The model is composed of several modular subprograms, is written in Fortran, and is executed on an IBM-PC with 640 K of memory. The results can be presented in graphic form on a monochrome monitor. We are currently installing and implementing color capability to improve the clarity of the multidimensional output.

  5. Visualization modeling of thin film growth in photodeposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchin, N.; Sidi, M.; Muchnik, Y.; Peled, A.

    2003-01-01

    A computer visualization technique, which analyzes and predicts the spatio-temporal evolution of thin film deposition and growth processes is given. It relies on microscopy sampled or computer generated synthetic micrographs of particles. These are then simulated for deposition, aggregation and coagulation during thin film growth by frequency domain transform techniques. Particle sources and diffusion operators on surfaces are used to predict with high temporal resolution, unattained by real world microscopy the surface structure evolution as time samples and time movies. The simulation program was used to investigate deposition and diffusive profiles in photodeposition experiments, starting from initial synthetic micrographs based on real world scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The surface microstructure time 'tracking' scheme described here relies on transforming the original image of the deposited particles into a Fourier spatial frequency domain image. The physical models used are that of a material random deposition source and subsequent surface redistribution due to diffusion and other coalescence material surface flow mechanisms. The 2-D inverse Fourier transform (IFT) is finally used to obtain back the real space-time images representing the surface spatio-temporal films morphology changes. False color representation of the images allows for a better discrimination of the films growing details especially during the fast pre-compact thin film layer formation on the substrate

  6. Visualization modeling of thin film growth in photodeposition processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirchin, N.; Sidi, M.; Muchnik, Y.; Peled, A

    2003-03-15

    A computer visualization technique, which analyzes and predicts the spatio-temporal evolution of thin film deposition and growth processes is given. It relies on microscopy sampled or computer generated synthetic micrographs of particles. These are then simulated for deposition, aggregation and coagulation during thin film growth by frequency domain transform techniques. Particle sources and diffusion operators on surfaces are used to predict with high temporal resolution, unattained by real world microscopy the surface structure evolution as time samples and time movies. The simulation program was used to investigate deposition and diffusive profiles in photodeposition experiments, starting from initial synthetic micrographs based on real world scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The surface microstructure time 'tracking' scheme described here relies on transforming the original image of the deposited particles into a Fourier spatial frequency domain image. The physical models used are that of a material random deposition source and subsequent surface redistribution due to diffusion and other coalescence material surface flow mechanisms. The 2-D inverse Fourier transform (IFT) is finally used to obtain back the real space-time images representing the surface spatio-temporal films morphology changes. False color representation of the images allows for a better discrimination of the films growing details especially during the fast pre-compact thin film layer formation on the substrate.

  7. Positron Studies of Defects in Thin Films and Semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Edwardson, C J

    2013-01-01

    Positron studies of defects in thin films and semiconductors are reviewed. The resultsobtained from experimental studies of Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (DBAR)from variable energies are presented. Normalisation methods for the DBAR parameters S andW have been developed, allowing for direct comparisons of the results for different samplestaken over long periods of time. The evaluation of the P:V parameter, the peak-to-valley ratioin a full annihilation spectrum, has been improv...

  8. Simulation model for electron irradiated IGZO thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, G. K.; Shantharama Rai, C.; Jayarama, A.; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-02-01

    An efficient drain current simulation model for the electron irradiation effect on the electrical parameters of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) thin-film transistors is developed. The model is developed based on the specifications such as gate capacitance, channel length, channel width, flat band voltage etc. Electrical parameters of un-irradiated IGZO samples were simulated and compared with the experimental parameters and 1 kGy electron irradiated parameters. The effect of electron irradiation on the IGZO sample was analysed by developing a mathematical model.

  9. Neutron diffraction studies of thin film multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkrzak, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    The application of neutron diffraction methods to the study of the microscopic chemical and magnetic structures of thin film multilayers is reviewed. Multilayer diffraction phenomena are described in general and in particular for the case in which one of the materials of a bilayer is ferromagnetic and the neutron beam polarized. Recent neutron diffraction measurements performed on some interesting multilayer systems are discussed. 70 refs., 5 figs

  10. Thermoanalytical study of the decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloussifi, H.; Farjas, J.; Roura, P.; Ricart, S.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Dammak, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the use of the thermal analysis techniques to study yttrium trifluoroacetate thin films decomposition. In situ analysis was done by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, and evolved gas analysis. Solid residues at different stages and the final product have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate thin films results in the formation of yttria and presents the same succession of intermediates than powder's decomposition, however, yttria and all intermediates but YF 3 appear at significantly lower temperatures. We also observe a dependence on the water partial pressure that was not observed in the decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate powders. Finally, a dependence on the substrate chemical composition is discerned. - Highlights: • Thermal decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate films. • Very different behavior of films with respect to powders. • Decomposition is enhanced in films. • Application of thermal analysis to chemical solution deposition synthesis of films

  11. Uniaxial anisotropy in magnetite thin film-Magnetization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechec, A.; Korecki, J.; Handke, B.; Kakol, Z.; Owoc, D.; Antolak, D.A.; Kozlowski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetization and electrical resistivity measurements have been performed on a stoichiometric single crystalline magnetite Fe 3 O 4 thin film (thickness of ca. 500 nm) MBE deposited on MgO (1 0 0) substrate. The aim of these studies was to check the influence of preparation method and sample form (bulk vs. thin film) on magnetic anisotropy properties in magnetite. The film magnetization along versus applied magnetic field has been determined both in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the film surface, and at temperatures above and below the Verwey transition. We have found, in agreement with published results, that the in-plane field of 10 kOe was not sufficient to saturate the sample. This can be understood if some additional factor, on top of the bulk magnetocrystalline anisotropy, is taken into account

  12. Parametric study of thin film evaporation from nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Kyle L.; Barabadi, Banafsheh; Lu, Zhengmao; Zhang, TieJun; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-10-01

    The performance and lifetime of advanced electronics are often dictated by the ability to dissipate heat generated within the device. Thin film evaporation from nanoporous membranes is a promising thermal management approach, which reduces the thermal transport distance across the liquid film while also providing passive capillary pumping of liquid to the evaporating interface. In this work, we investigated the dependence of thin film evaporation from nanoporous membranes on a variety of geometric parameters. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes were used as experimental templates, where pore radii of 28-75 nm, porosities of 0.1-0.35, and meniscus locations down to 1 μm within the pore were tested. We demonstrated different heat transfer regimes and observed more than an order of magnitude increase in dissipated heat flux by operating in the pore-level evaporation regime. The pore diameter had little effect on pore-level evaporation performance due to the negligible conduction resistance from the pore wall to the evaporating interface. The dissipated heat flux scaled with porosity as the evaporative area increased. Furthermore, moving the meniscus as little as 1 μm into the pore decreased the dissipated heat flux by more than a factor of two due to the added resistance to vapor escaping the pore. The experimental results elucidate thin film evaporation from nanopores and confirm findings of recent modeling efforts. This work also provides guidance for the design of future thin film evaporation devices for advanced thermal management. Furthermore, evaporation from nanopores is relevant to water purification, chemical separations, microfluidics, and natural processes such as transpiration.

  13. A computational study on the energy bandgap engineering in performance enhancement of CdTe thin film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen M. Ali

    Full Text Available In this study, photovoltaic properties of CdTe thin film in the configuration of n-SnO2/n-CdS/p-CdTe/p-CdTe:Te/metal have been studied by numerical simulation software named “Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structure” (AMPS-1D. A modified structure for CdTe thin film solar cell has been proposed by numerical analysis with the insertion of a back contact buffer layer (CdTe:Te. This layer can serve as a barrier that will decelerate the copper diffusion in CdTe solar cell. Four estimated energy bandgap relations versus the Tellurium (Te concentrations and the (CdTe:Te layer thickness have been examined thoroughly during simulation. Correlation between energy bandgap with the CdTe thin film solar cell performance has also been established. Keywords: Numerical modelling, CdTe thin film, Solar cell, AMPS-1D, Bandgap

  14. Studying the noise parameters of thin-film silicon resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, S.V.; Gostilo, V.V.; Yurov, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results of studies on spectral density and energy noise equivalent of thin-film resistors on the base of amorphous silicon and KIM and KVM commercial high-ohmic resistors are presented. Dependence of the active part of impedance on frequency is shown to be the main source of redundant noise in resistors. Dependence of spectral density of noise voltage of current noises of silicon resistors on applied voltage is described by the formula S T =B V 2 /f 1.6 with the values B=(1.4-1.7)x10 -12 Hz 0.6 . As to noise parameters the silicon resistor is superior to commercial resistors

  15. Modeling of metastable phase formation diagrams for sputtered thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Keke; Music, Denis; To Baben, Moritz; Lange, Dennis; Bolvardi, Hamid; Schneider, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    A method to model the metastable phase formation in the Cu-W system based on the critical surface diffusion distance has been developed. The driver for the formation of a second phase is the critical diffusion distance which is dependent on the solubility of W in Cu and on the solubility of Cu in W. Based on comparative theoretical and experimental data, we can describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation. Metastable phase formation diagrams for Cu-W and Cu-V thin films are predicted and validated by combinatorial magnetron sputtering experiments. The correlative experimental and theoretical research strategy adopted here enables us to efficiently describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation during magnetron sputtering.

  16. Modeling glass transition and aging processes in nanocomposites and polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2010-03-01

    We use a lattice kinetic model of glass transition to study the role of confinement and the presence of nano-inclusions. We have studied freely suspended films of glass-formers and its nanocomposites with ``plastifying'' and ``hardening'' nanoparticles. Using our model we determine the thickness and nanoparticle load dependencies of the Kauzmann temperature T0 and the fragility parameter. We found the glass transition temperature increases with the thickness of the film and the volume fraction of ``hardening'' nanoparticles , while Tg decreases with increase in the loading of ``plastifying'' nanoparticles. We found that the isothermal free volume relaxation rate of the nanocomposite thin film, usually referred as an aging, correlates with the glass transition temperature shift. We also studied the relations between our lattice model and Curro's, Kovacs and Struik's phenomenological models of free volume reduction to deduce physical insights into the mechanisms governing aging processes in thin films and nanocomposites.

  17. Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells: Impact of Modeling on Performance Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Micco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study on numerical models used to predict the absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells due to the presence of structured back-reflectors exciting, at specific wavelengths, hybrid plasmonic-photonic resonances. To evaluate the effectiveness of the analyzed models, they have been applied in a case study: starting from a U-shaped textured glass thin-film, µc-Si:H solar cells have been successfully fabricated. The fabricated cells, with different intrinsic layer thicknesses, have been morphologically, optically and electrically characterized. The experimental results have been successively compared with the numerical predictions. We have found that, in contrast to basic models based on the underlying schematics of the cell, numerical models taking into account the real morphology of the fabricated device, are able to effectively predict the cells performances in terms of both optical absorption and short-circuit current values.

  18. FDTD subcell graphene model beyond the thin-film approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuev, Ilya; Belousov, Sergei; Bogdanova, Maria; Kotov, Oleg; Lozovik, Yurii

    2017-01-01

    A subcell technique for calculation of optical properties of graphene with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is presented. The technique takes into account the surface conductivity of graphene which allows the correct calculation of its dispersive response for arbitrarily polarized incident waves interacting with the graphene. The developed technique is verified for a planar graphene sheet configuration against the exact analytical solution. Based on the same test case scenario, we also show that the subcell technique demonstrates a superior accuracy and numerical efficiency with respect to the widely used thin-film FDTD approach for modeling graphene. We further apply our technique to the simulations of a graphene metamaterial containing periodically spaced graphene strips (graphene strip-grating) and demonstrate good agreement with the available theoretical results.

  19. Two-dimensional models for the optical response of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yilei; Heinz, Tony F.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present a systematic study of 2D optical models for the response of thin layers of material under excitation by normally incident light. The treatment, within the framework of classical optics, analyzes a thin film supported by a semi-infinite substrate, with both the thin layer and the substrate assumed to exhibit local, isotropic linear response. Starting from the conventional three-dimensional (3D) slab model of the system, we derive a two-dimensional (2D) sheet model for the thin film in which the optical response is described by a sheet optical conductivity. We develop criteria for the applicability of this 2D sheet model for a layer with an optical thickness far smaller than the wavelength of the light. We examine in detail atomically thin semi-metallic and semiconductor van-der-Waals layers and ultrathin metal films as representative examples. Excellent agreement of the 2D sheet model with the 3D slab model is demonstrated over a broad spectral range from the radio frequency limit to the near ultraviolet. A linearized version of system response for the 2D model is also presented for the case where the influence of the optically thin layer is sufficiently weak. Analytical expressions for the applicability and accuracy of the different optical models are derived, and the appropriateness of the linearized treatment for the materials is considered. We discuss the advantages, as well as limitations, of these models for the purpose of deducing the optical response function of the thin layer from experiment. We generalize the theory to take into account in-plane anisotropy, layered thin film structures, and more general substrates. Implications of the 2D model for the transmission of light by the thin film and for the implementation of half- and totally absorbing layers are discussed.

  20. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.; Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.

  1. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z 1 ) and nanograins by SILAR (Z 2 ). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10 2 Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10 5 Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method

  2. Consistent three-equation model for thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gael; Gisclon, Marguerite; Ruyer-Quil, Christian; Vila, Jean-Paul

    2017-11-01

    Numerical simulations of thin films of newtonian fluids down an inclined plane use reduced models for computational cost reasons. These models are usually derived by averaging over the fluid depth the physical equations of fluid mechanics with an asymptotic method in the long-wave limit. Two-equation models are based on the mass conservation equation and either on the momentum balance equation or on the work-energy theorem. We show that there is no two-equation model that is both consistent and theoretically coherent and that a third variable and a three-equation model are required to solve all theoretical contradictions. The linear and nonlinear properties of two and three-equation models are tested on various practical problems. We present a new consistent three-equation model with a simple mathematical structure which allows an easy and reliable numerical resolution. The numerical calculations agree fairly well with experimental measurements or with direct numerical resolutions for neutral stability curves, speed of kinematic waves and of solitary waves and depth profiles of wavy films. The model can also predict the flow reversal at the first capillary trough ahead of the main wave hump.

  3. Integrated optical and electrical modeling of plasmon-enhanced thin film photovoltaics: A case-study on organic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rourke, Devin; Ahn, Sungmo; Nardes, Alexandre M.; Lagemaat, Jao van de; Kopidakis, Nikos; Park, Wounjhang

    2014-01-01

    The nanoscale light control for absorption enhancement of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices inevitably produces strongly non-uniform optical fields. These non-uniformities due to the localized optical modes are a primary route toward absorption enhancement in OPV devices. Therefore, a rigorous modeling tool taking into account the spatial distribution of optical field and carrier generation is necessary. Presented here is a comprehensive numerical model to describe the coupled optical and electrical behavior of plasmon-enhanced polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In this model, a position-dependent electron-hole pair generation rate that could become highly non-uniform due to photonic nanostructures is directly calculated from the optical simulations. By considering the absorption and plasmonic properties of nanophotonic gratings included in two different popular device architectures, and applying the Poisson, current continuity, and drift/diffusion equations, the model predicts quantum efficiency, short-circuit current density, and desired carrier mobility ratios for bulk heterojunction devices incorporating nanostructures for light management. In particular, the model predicts a significant degradation of device performance when the carrier species with lower mobility are generated far from the collecting electrode. Consequently, an inverted device architecture is preferred for materials with low hole mobility. This is especially true for devices that include plasmonic nanostructures. Additionally, due to the incorporation of a plasmonic nanostructure, we use simulations to theoretically predict absorption band broadening of a BHJ into energies below the band gap, resulting in a 4.8% increase in generated photocurrent.

  4. Integrated optical and electrical modeling of plasmon-enhanced thin film photovoltaics: A case-study on organic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rourke, Devin [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0390 (United States); Ahn, Sungmo [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0425 (United States); Nardes, Alexandre M.; Lagemaat, Jao van de; Kopidakis, Nikos [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Park, Wounjhang, E-mail: won.park@colorado.edu [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0425 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    The nanoscale light control for absorption enhancement of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices inevitably produces strongly non-uniform optical fields. These non-uniformities due to the localized optical modes are a primary route toward absorption enhancement in OPV devices. Therefore, a rigorous modeling tool taking into account the spatial distribution of optical field and carrier generation is necessary. Presented here is a comprehensive numerical model to describe the coupled optical and electrical behavior of plasmon-enhanced polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In this model, a position-dependent electron-hole pair generation rate that could become highly non-uniform due to photonic nanostructures is directly calculated from the optical simulations. By considering the absorption and plasmonic properties of nanophotonic gratings included in two different popular device architectures, and applying the Poisson, current continuity, and drift/diffusion equations, the model predicts quantum efficiency, short-circuit current density, and desired carrier mobility ratios for bulk heterojunction devices incorporating nanostructures for light management. In particular, the model predicts a significant degradation of device performance when the carrier species with lower mobility are generated far from the collecting electrode. Consequently, an inverted device architecture is preferred for materials with low hole mobility. This is especially true for devices that include plasmonic nanostructures. Additionally, due to the incorporation of a plasmonic nanostructure, we use simulations to theoretically predict absorption band broadening of a BHJ into energies below the band gap, resulting in a 4.8% increase in generated photocurrent.

  5. Magnetic studies of Fe-Y compositionally modulated thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badia, F.; Ferrater, C.; Lousa, A.; Martinez, B.; Labarta, A.; Tejada, J.

    1990-01-01

    Compositionally modulated thin films of Y/Fe have been studied by using SQUID magnetometry. Samples were grown by electron-beam evaporation onto Kapton substrates. In the low applied field regime, the samples show irreversible behavior when they are submitted to ZFC-FC magnetization processes, increasing the irreversibility zone as the thickness of the Fe layers increases. In the high applied magnetic field regime (H≥10 000 Oe), samples show ferromagnetic behavior. The temperature dependence of the saturation magnetization has been studied, and it was found that both spin-wave excitations and Stoner excitations occur at temperatures higher than 40 K, and a marked deviation from the T 3/2 law was noted below 30 K

  6. XRay Study of Transfer Printed Pentacene Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Y.; Solin, S. A.; Hines, D. R.; Williams, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the structural properties and transfer properties of pentacene thin films fabricated by thermal deposition and transfer printing onto SiO2 and plastic substrates, respectively. The dependence of the crystallite size on the printing time, temperature and pressure were measured. The increases of crystalline size were observed when pentacene thin films were printed under specific conditions, e.g. 120 deg. C and 600 psi and can be correlated with the improvement of the field effect mobility of pentacene thin-film transistors

  7. Experimental Study and Numerical Modelling of Low Velocity Impact on Laminated Composite Reinforced with Thin Film Made of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moumen, A.; Tarfaoui, M.; Hassoon, O.; Lafdi, K.; Benyahia, H.; Nachtane, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, polymer laminated composites based on Epon 862 Epoxy resin, T300 6 k carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tested with the aim to elucidate the effect of CNTs on impact properties including impact force and capacity to absorb impact energy. The polymer matrix was reinforced by a random distribution of CNTs with fraction ranging from 0.5 to 4.wt%. Composite panels were manufactured by using the infusion process. Taylor impact test was used to obtain the impact response of specimens. Projectile manufactured from a high strength and hardened steel with a diameter of 20 mm and 1.5 kg of mass was launched by a compressed gas gun within the velocity of 3 m/s. Impact force histories and absorbed energy of specimens were recorded. A numerical model was employed to simulate the impact performance. This model has been accomplished by forming a user established subroutine (VUMAT) and executing it in ABAQUS software. Finally, the effect of CNTs amount on dynamic properties of laminated composites was discussed.

  8. Combinatorial study of zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. G.; Sanderson, R. J.; Hill, I. G.

    2008-01-01

    Groups of thin-film transistors using a zinc tin oxide semiconductor layer have been fabricated via a combinatorial rf sputtering technique. The ZnO :SnO2 ratio of the film varies as a function of position on the sample, from pure ZnO to SnO2, allowing for a study of zinc tin oxide transistor performance as a function of channel stoichiometry. The devices were found to have mobilities ranging from 2to12cm2/Vs, with two peaks in mobility in devices at ZnO fractions of 0.80±0.03 and 0.25±0.05, and on/off ratios as high as 107. Transistors composed predominantly of SnO2 were found to exhibit light sensitivity which affected both the on/off ratios and threshold voltages of these devices.

  9. Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protopapa, Maria Lucia; De Tomasi, Ferdinando; Perrone, Maria Rita; Piegari, Angela; Masetti, Enrico; Ristau, Detlev; Quesnel, Etienne; Duparre, Angela

    2001-01-01

    The results of laser damage studies performed at 248 nm (KrF excimer laser) on MgF 2 thin films deposited by different techniques (electron-beam evaporation, thermal boat evaporation, and ion-beam sputtering) on fused silica and CaF 2 substrates are presented. We find that the films deposited on CaF 2 substrates by the electron-beam evaporation technique present the highest damage threshold fluence (9 J/cm2). The photoacoustic (PA) beam deflection technique was employed, in addition to microscopical inspection, to determine laser damage fluences. We confirm, by scanning electron microscopy analysis of the damaged spots, the capability of the PA technique to provide information on the mechanisms leading to damage. The dependence of both laser damage fluence and damage morphology on the film deposition technique, as well as on the film substrate, is discussed

  10. Modeling of thin films growth processes in the early stage for atoms with covalent bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupik, V A; Margolin, V I; Su, Chu Trong

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulation for obtaining thin film’s growth process at an early stage with the proposed model of atoms with isotropic and anisotropic interactions been considered. Carrying out the procedure for analyzing the problem on the basis of the program being implemented, computer simulation of thin film growth processes has been carried out on several examples. The results of computer simulation of the growth process of thin film on a given substrate and an aggregate in a vacuum condition are shown. Some characteristic distributions of the obtained structure have been carried out to evaluate the proposed adequate model and to reflect the high complexity of thin films growth process. (paper)

  11. Comparative study of the mechanical properties of nanostructured thin films on stretchable substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djaziri, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Université de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Renault, P.-O.; Le Bourhis, E.; Goudeau, Ph., E-mail: Philippe.goudeau@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Université de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Faurie, D. [LSPM, (UPR 3407 CNRS), Université Paris 13, Institut Galilée, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Geandier, G. [Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 3079 CNRS), Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, CS 50840, 54011 NANCY Cedex (France); Mocuta, C.; Thiaudière, D. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-09-07

    Comparative studies of the mechanical behavior between copper, tungsten, and W/Cu nanocomposite based on copper dispersoïd thin films were performed under in-situ controlled tensile equi-biaxial loadings using both synchrotron X-ray diffraction and digital image correlation techniques. The films first deform elastically with the lattice strain equal to the true strain given by digital image correlation measurements. The Cu single thin film intrinsic elastic limit of 0.27% is determined below the apparent elastic limit of W and W/Cu nanocomposite thin films, 0.30% and 0.49%, respectively. This difference is found to be driven by the existence of as-deposited residual stresses. Above the elastic limit on the lattice strain-true strain curves, we discriminate two different behaviors presumably footprints of plasticity and fracture. The Cu thin film shows a large transition domain (0.60% true strain range) to a plateau with a smooth evolution of the curve which is associated to peak broadening. In contrast, W and W/Cu nanocomposite thin films show a less smooth and reduced transition domain (0.30% true strain range) to a plateau with no peak broadening. These observations indicate that copper thin film shows some ductility while tungsten/copper nanocomposites thin films are brittle. Fracture resistance of W/Cu nanocomposite thin film is improved thanks to the high compressive residual stress and the elimination of the metastable β-W phase.

  12. Critical phenomena in Ising-type thin films by Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Benyoussef, A.; Hamedoun, M.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic spin-2 and 3/2 Ising-typed thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of the thin film and for different exchange interactions. The total magnetization has been determined for different values of exchange interactions in surface and in bulk and different temperatures. The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained for different values of exchange interactions ferro and antiferromagnetic in the surface and in the bulk and for different values of temperatures for a fixed size of the film thickness. The coercive field increase with increasing the film thickness. - Highlights: • The magnetic properties of thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. • The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of thin film. • The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained in the surface and in the bulk. • The coercive field increase with increasing the thin film thickness.

  13. Critical phenomena in Ising-type thin films by Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Jabar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic spin-2 and 3/2 Ising-typed thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of the thin film and for different exchange interactions. The total magnetization has been determined for different values of exchange interactions in surface and in bulk and different temperatures. The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained for different values of exchange interactions ferro and antiferromagnetic in the surface and in the bulk and for different values of temperatures for a fixed size of the film thickness. The coercive field increase with increasing the film thickness. - Highlights: • The magnetic properties of thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. • The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of thin film. • The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained in the surface and in the bulk. • The coercive field increase with increasing the thin film thickness.

  14. Real-time kinetic modeling of YSZ thin film roughness deposited by e-beam evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdikas, A.; Cerapaite-Trusinskiene, R.; Laukaitis, G.; Dudonis, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the process of yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films deposition on optical quartz (SiO 2 ) substrates using e-beam deposition technique controlling electron gun power is analyzed. It was found that electron gun power influences the non-monotonous kinetics of YSZ film surface roughness. The evolution of YSZ thin film surface roughness was analyzed by a kinetic model. The model is based on the rate equations and includes processes of surface diffusion of the adatoms and the clusters, nucleation, growth and coalescence of islands in the case of thin film growth in Volmer-Weber mode. The analysis of the experimental results done by modeling explains non-monotonous kinetics and dependence of the surface roughness on the electron gun power. A good quantitative agreement with experimental results is obtained taking into account the initial roughness of the substrate surface and the amount of the clusters in the flux of evaporated material.

  15. Properties of model atomic free-standing thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zane; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Stillinger, Frank H

    2011-03-21

    We present a computational study of the thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural properties of free-standing thin films, investigated via molecular dynamics simulation of a glass-forming binary Lennard-Jones mixture. An energy landscape analysis is also performed to study glassy states. At equilibrium, species segregation occurs, with the smaller minority component preferentially excluded from the surface. The film's interior density and interface width depend solely on temperature and not the initialization density. The atoms at the surface of the film have a higher lateral diffusivity when compared to the interior. The average difference between the equilibrium and inherent structure energies assigned to individual particles, as a function of the distance from the center of the film, increases near the surface. A minimum of this difference occurs in the region just under the liquid-vapor interface. This suggests that the surface atoms are able to sample the underlying energy landscape more effectively than those in the interior, and we suggest a possible relationship of this observation to the recently reported formation of stable glasses by vapor phase deposition.

  16. Dislocation dynamics modelling of radiation damage in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroni, Francesco; Tarleton, Edmund; Fitzgerald, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is a key tool for the extraction of information on radiation damage, the understanding of which is critical for materials development for nuclear fusion and fission reactors. Dislocations in TEM samples are subject to strong image forces, owing to the nanometric sample thicknesses, which may introduce artifacts in the damage analysis. Using dislocation dynamics, we elucidate the roles played by dislocation–surface interactions, dislocation–dislocation interactions and self-interactions due to climb for loop types observed in TEM. Comparisons with analytic solutions for a dislocation loop and an edge dislocation in a half-space are included, and the relationship between glide force and loop tilt examined. The parameters for convergence of the zero-traction boundary conditions are obtained, after which the evolution of dislocation structures in a thin film is studied. It is found that three main length scales govern the physical processes: the image force is governed by the distance of the loop from the surface and scales with the film thickness; the glide force is governed by the image stress as well as the loop–loop interaction stress which is in turn governed by the loop spacing L∼1/√ρ, where ρ is the loop density; finally, the climb force depends on the loop size. The three forces compete and their relative magnitudes define the evolution pathway of the dislocation structure. (paper)

  17. Structural and optical studies of 100 MeV Au irradiated thin films of tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshkumaripu@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India)

    2013-11-01

    Thin films of tin(IV) oxide (SnO{sub 2}) of 100 nm thickness were grown on silicon (1 0 0) matrices by electron beam evaporation deposition technique under high vacuum. The thicknesses of these films were monitored by piezo-sensor attached to the deposition chamber. Nanocrystallinity is achieved in these thin films by 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} using 1 pnA current at normal incidence with ion fluences varying from 1 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 5 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. Swift Heavy Ion beam irradiation was carried out by using 15 UD Pelletron Accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi, India. Optical studies of pristine and ion irradiated thin films were characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Prominent peak at 610 cm{sup −1} in FTIR spectrum confirmed the O–Sn–O bonding of tin(IV) oxide. For Surface topographical studies and grain size calculations, these films were characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) using Nanoscope III-A. Crystallinity and phase transformation due to irradiation of pristine and irradiated films were characterized by Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) using Brucker-D8 advance model. GAXRD results show improvement in crystallinity and phase transformation due to swift heavy ion irradiation. Grain size distribution was verified by AFM and GAXRD results. Swift heavy ion induced modifications in thin films of SnO{sub 2} were confirmed by the presence of prominent peaks at 2θ values of 30.65°, 32.045°, 43.94°, 44.96° and 52.36° in GAXRD spectrum.

  18. Structural and optical studies of 100 MeV Au irradiated thin films of tin oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar; Kanjilal, D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-11-01

    Thin films of tin(IV) oxide (SnO2) of 100 nm thickness were grown on silicon (1 0 0) matrices by electron beam evaporation deposition technique under high vacuum. The thicknesses of these films were monitored by piezo-sensor attached to the deposition chamber. Nanocrystallinity is achieved in these thin films by 100 MeV Au8+ using 1 pnA current at normal incidence with ion fluences varying from 1 × 1011 ions/cm2 to 5 × 1013 ions/cm2. Swift Heavy Ion beam irradiation was carried out by using 15 UD Pelletron Accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi, India. Optical studies of pristine and ion irradiated thin films were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Prominent peak at 610 cm-1 in FTIR spectrum confirmed the O-Sn-O bonding of tin(IV) oxide. For Surface topographical studies and grain size calculations, these films were characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) using Nanoscope III-A. Crystallinity and phase transformation due to irradiation of pristine and irradiated films were characterized by Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) using Brucker-D8 advance model. GAXRD results show improvement in crystallinity and phase transformation due to swift heavy ion irradiation. Grain size distribution was verified by AFM and GAXRD results. Swift heavy ion induced modifications in thin films of SnO2 were confirmed by the presence of prominent peaks at 2θ values of 30.65°, 32.045°, 43.94°, 44.96° and 52.36° in GAXRD spectrum.

  19. Study of the charge transport characteristics of dendrimer molecular thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.C., E-mail: jcli@mail.neu.edu.cn; Han, N.; Wang, S.S.; Ba, D.C.

    2011-05-31

    In this work, we systematically studied the electrical characteristics of two types of dendritic arylamine thin film devices. We observed that, for devices with different interfacial structures, their charge injection barriers and transport properties are obviously different. The smallest charge injection barrier is observed in dendrimer devices without charge-transfer interfacial layers. The Richardson-Schottky thermionic emission model can be well used to fit the experimental current-voltage characteristics at a lower voltage region. The charge injection barrier increases about 0.4 eV and 0.5 eV when a 1-decanethiol self-assembly layer and -CN terminated dendrimer thin films are inserted as the interfacial layer, respectively. It is shown that the molecule/electrode charge-transfer interfaces can largely affect the device charge injection/transport process and consequently change the device performance. In this case, the space charge limited conduction theory is more applicable to simulate the device conduction mechanism. Owing to its ultra-thin thickness, the self-assembly monolayer technique is proved to be an efficient approach in engineering the interfacial electronic structures of dendrimer thin film devices.

  20. Study of the charge transport characteristics of dendrimer molecular thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.C.; Han, N.; Wang, S.S.; Ba, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we systematically studied the electrical characteristics of two types of dendritic arylamine thin film devices. We observed that, for devices with different interfacial structures, their charge injection barriers and transport properties are obviously different. The smallest charge injection barrier is observed in dendrimer devices without charge-transfer interfacial layers. The Richardson-Schottky thermionic emission model can be well used to fit the experimental current-voltage characteristics at a lower voltage region. The charge injection barrier increases about 0.4 eV and 0.5 eV when a 1-decanethiol self-assembly layer and -CN terminated dendrimer thin films are inserted as the interfacial layer, respectively. It is shown that the molecule/electrode charge-transfer interfaces can largely affect the device charge injection/transport process and consequently change the device performance. In this case, the space charge limited conduction theory is more applicable to simulate the device conduction mechanism. Owing to its ultra-thin thickness, the self-assembly monolayer technique is proved to be an efficient approach in engineering the interfacial electronic structures of dendrimer thin film devices.

  1. A study of using femtosecond LIBS in analyzing metallic thin film-semiconductor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmed, A. H.; Kassem, A. K.; von Bergmann, H.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Metals and metal alloys are usually employed as interconnections to guide electrical signals between components into the very large scale integrated (VLSI) devices. These devices demand higher complexity, better performance and lower cost. Thin film is a common geometry for these metallic applications, requiring a substrate for rigidity. Accurate depth profile analysis of coatings is becoming increasingly important with expanding industrial use in technological fields. A number of articles devoted to LIBS applications for depth-resolved analysis have been published in recent years. In the present work, we are studying the ability of femtosecond LIBS to make depth profiling for a Ti thin film of thickness 213 nm deposited onto a silicon (100) substrate before and after thermal annealing. The measurements revealed that an average ablation rates of 15 nm per pulse have been achieved. The thin film was examined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), while the formation of the interface was examined using Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) before and after annealing. To verify the depth profiling results, a theoretical simulation model is presented that gave a very good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Ingenieria Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia); Perez, F A [WNANO, West Virginia University (United States); Riascos, H [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  3. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A; Perez, F A; Riascos, H

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  4. Some studies on successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) grown indium sulphide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, H.M.; Lokhande, C.D.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Amalnerkar, D.P.; Seth, T.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Indium sulphide (In 2 S 3 ) thin films were grown on amorphous glass substrate by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS) were applied to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and compositional properties of the indium sulphide thin films. Utilization of triethanolamine and hydrazine hydrate complexed indium sulphate and sodium sulphide as precursors resulted in nanocrystalline In 2 S 3 thin film. The optical band gap was found to be 2.7 eV. The film appeared to be smooth and homogeneous from SEM study

  5. Modeling the influence of the seeding layer on the transition behavior of a ferroelectric thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oubelkacem, A.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Saber, M.; Dujardin, F.

    2011-01-01

    The transition properties of a ferroelectric thin film with seeding layers were studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation functions. The effect of interaction parameters for the seeding layer on the phase diagram was also examined. We calculated the critical temperature and the polarization of the ferroelectric thin film for different seeding layer structures. We found that the seeding layer can greatly increase the Curie temperature and the polarization.

  6. Phase transition in lead titanate thin films: a Brillouin study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, P; Dugautier, C; Moch, P; Marrec, F Le; Karkut, M G

    2002-01-01

    The elastic properties of both polycrystalline and epitaxial PbTiO 3 (PTO) thin films are studied using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The epitaxial PTO films were prepared by pulsed laser ablation on (1) a [0 0 1] single crystal of SrTiO 3 (STO) doped with Nb and (2) a [0 0 1] STO buffered with a layer of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . The polycrystalline PTO films were prepared by sol-gel on a Si substrate buffered with TiO 2 and Pt layers. The data analysis takes into account the ripple and the elasto-optic contributions. The latter significantly affects the measured spectra since it gives rise to a Love mode in the p-s scattering geometry. At room temperature, the spectra of the epitaxially grown samples are interpreted using previously published elastic constants of PTO single crystals. Sol-gel samples exhibit appreciable softening of the effective elastic properties compared to PTO single crystals: this result is explained by taking into account the random orientation of the microscopic PTO grains. For both the polycrystalline and the epitaxial films we have determined that the piezoelectric terms do not contribute to the spectra. The temperature dependence of the spectra shows strong anomalies of the elastic properties near the ferroelectric phase transition. Compared to the bulk, T C is higher in the sol-gel films, while in the epitaxial films the sign of the T C shift depends on the underlying material

  7. Albumin adsorption on oxide thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Bermudez, P., E-mail: suriel21@yahoo.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, C.U., 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CU, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, C.U., 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Thin films of tantalum, niobium, zirconium and titanium oxides were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and their wettability and surface energy, optical properties, roughness, chemical composition and microstructure were characterized using contact angle measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The purpose of the work was to correlate the surface properties of the films to the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) adsorption, as a first step into the development of an initial in vitro test of the films biocompatibility, based on standardized protein adsorption essays. The films were immersed into BSA solutions with different protein concentrations and protein adsorption was monitored in situ by dynamic ellipsometry; the adsorption-rate was dependent on the solution concentration and the immersion time. The overall BSA adsorption was studied in situ using spectroscopic ellipsometry and it was found to be influenced by the wettability of the films; larger BSA adsorption occurred on the more hydrophobic surface, the ZrO{sub 2} film. On the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2} films, hydrophilic surfaces, the overall BSA adsorption increased with the surface roughness or the polar component of the surface energy.

  8. Chemical and Electronic Structure Studies of Refractory and Dielectric Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneille, Jason Stephen

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of oxide and refractory thin films under varying conditions. The deposition of the thin films is performed under vacuum conditions. The characterization of the growth, as well as the chemical and electronic properties of the thin films was accomplished using a broad array of surface analytical techniques. These model studies describe the relationship between the preparative processes and the stoichiometry, structure and electronic properties of the film products. From these efforts, the optimal deposition conditions for the production of high quality films have been established. The thin film oxides synthesized and studied here include magnesium oxide, silicon oxide and iron oxide. These oxides were synthesized on a refractory substrate using both post oxidation of thin films as well as reactive vapor deposition of the metals in the presence of an oxygen background. Comparisons and contrasts are presented for the various systems. Metallic magnesium films were grown and characterized as a preliminary study to the synthesis of magnesium oxide. Magnesium oxide (MgO(100)) was synthesized on Mo(100) by evaporating magnesium at a rate of one monolayer per minute in an oxygen background pressure of 1 times 10 ^{-6} Torr at room temperature. The resulting film was found to exhibit spectroscopic characteristics quite similar to those observed for bulk MgO. The acid/base characteristics of the films were studied using carbon monoxide, water and methanol as probe molecules. The film was found to exhibit essentially the same chemical properties as found in analogous powdered catalysts. Silicon dioxide was synthesized by evaporating silicon onto Mo(100) in an oxygen ambient. It is shown that the silicon oxide prepared at room temperature with a silicon deposition rate of {~ }{1.2}A/min and an oxygen pressure of 2 times 10^{ -8} Torr, consisted of predominantly silicon dioxide with a small fraction of suboxides. Annealing to

  9. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies on CdSe thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Thin films of CdSe were deposited by potentiostatic mode on different substrates such as ... trodeposited from aqueous acidic baths, but very few ... washed with liquid detergent (labolene) followed by ul- .... increases the ionic mobilities and hence the conductivity ... A PEC cell of configuration, CdSe/1 M polysulphide/.

  10. A novel diagnostic approach for studying silicon thin film growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the deposition of thin films, the material properties are formed through the interaction of gas phase species with the growing surface. The resulting surface kinetics and chemistry is determined by the reactivity of the different gas phase species as well as by the surface chemical nature and may

  11. Studies of electronic and magnetic properties of LaVO3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Anupam; Karwal, Sharad; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited Mott insulator LaVO3 (LVO) thin film. Structural characterization revels the single phase [00l] oriented LVO thin film. Enhancement of out of plane lattice parameter indicates the compressively strained LVO film. Electron spectroscopic studies demonstrate that vanadium is present in V3+ state. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study ensures the stoichiometric growth of the film. Very smooth surface is observed in scanning electron micrograph. Colour mapping for elemental distribution reflect the homogeneity of LVO film. The bifurcation between zero-field-cooled and Field-cooled curves clearly points towards the weak ferromagnetic phase presence in compressively strained LVO thin film. A finite value of coercivity at 300 K reflects the possibility of room temperature ferromagnetism of LVO thin film.

  12. A kinetic model for stress generation in thin films grown from energetic vapor fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chason, E.; Karlson, M. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Colin, J. J.; Abadias, G. [Institut P' , Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, SP2MI, Téléport 2, Bd M. et P. Curie, F-86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Magnfält, D.; Sarakinos, K. [Nanoscale Engineering Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2016-04-14

    We have developed a kinetic model for residual stress generation in thin films grown from energetic vapor fluxes, encountered, e.g., during sputter deposition. The new analytical model considers sub-surface point defects created by atomic peening, along with processes treated in already existing stress models for non-energetic deposition, i.e., thermally activated diffusion processes at the surface and the grain boundary. According to the new model, ballistically induced sub-surface defects can get incorporated as excess atoms at the grain boundary, remain trapped in the bulk, or annihilate at the free surface, resulting in a complex dependence of the steady-state stress on the grain size, the growth rate, as well as the energetics of the incoming particle flux. We compare calculations from the model with in situ stress measurements performed on a series of Mo films sputter-deposited at different conditions and having different grain sizes. The model is able to reproduce the observed increase of compressive stress with increasing growth rate, behavior that is the opposite of what is typically seen under non-energetic growth conditions. On a grander scale, this study is a step towards obtaining a comprehensive understanding of stress generation and evolution in vapor deposited polycrystalline thin films.

  13. Niobium thin film deposition studies on copper surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    OpenAIRE

    W. M. Roach; D. B. Beringer; J. R. Skuza; W. A. Oliver; C. Clavero; C. E. Reece; R. A. Lukaszew

    2012-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the potential to increase both the thermal efficiency and accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. However, before this potential can be realized, systematic studies on structure-property correlations in these thin films need to be carried out since the reduced geometry, combined with specific growth parameters, can modify the physical properties of the materials when compared to their bulk form. Here, we present our systematic stu...

  14. Study on the Hydrogenated ZnO-Based Thin Film Transistors. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    growth of a- IGZO channel layers, but most of the devices exhibited enhancement-mode operation. The second approach studied the effect of hydrogenation of a... IGZO channel layers during post-annealing. Even though the device quality improved, depletion-mode operation was not achieved. Depletion-mode... IGZO film on the performance of thin film transistors 5 Chapter 2. Hydrogenation of a- IGZO channel layer in the thin film transistors 12

  15. Modified hyperbolic sine model for titanium dioxide-based memristive thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Raudah; Syahirah Kamarozaman, Nur; Fazlida Hanim Abdullah, Wan; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Since the emergence of memristor as the newest fundamental circuit elements, studies on memristor modeling have been evolved. To date, the developed models were based on the linear model, linear ionic drift model using different window functions, tunnelling barrier model and hyperbolic-sine function based model. Although using hyperbolic-sine function model could predict the memristor electrical properties, the model was not well fitted to the experimental data. In order to improve the performance of the hyperbolic-sine function model, the state variable equation was modified. On the one hand, the addition of window function cannot provide an improved fitting. By multiplying the Yakopcic’s state variable model to Chang’s model on the other hand resulted in the closer agreement with the TiO2 thin film experimental data. The percentage error was approximately 2.15%.

  16. Study of neural cells on organic semiconductor ultra thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bystrenova, Eva; Tonazzini, Ilaria; Stoliar, Pablo; Greco, Pierpaolo; Lazar, Adina; Dutta, Soumya; Dionigi, Chiara; Cacace, Marcello; Biscarini, Fabio [ISMN-CNR, Bologna (Italy); Jelitai, Marta; Madarasz, Emilia [IEM- HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Huth, Martin; Nickel, Bert [LMU, Munich (Germany); Martini, Claudia [Dept. PNPB, Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    Many technological advances are currently being developed for nano-fabrication, offering the ability to create and control patterns of soft materials. We report the deposition of cells on organic semiconductor ultra-thin films. This is a first step towards the development of active bio/non bio systems for electrical transduction. Thin films of pentacene, whose thickness was systematically varied, were grown by high vacuum sublimation. We report adhesion, growth, and differentiation of human astroglial cells and mouse neural stem cells on an organic semiconductor. Viability of astroglial cells in time was measured as a function of the roughness and the characteristic morphology of ultra thin organic film, as well as the features of the patterned molecules. Optical fluorescence microscope coupled to atomic force microscope was used to monitor the presence, density and shape of deposited cells. Neural stem cells remain viable, differentiate by retinoic acid and form dense neuronal networks. We have shown the possibility to integrate living neural cells on organic semiconductor thin films.

  17. Synthesis, structuring and characterization of rare earth oxide thin films: Modeling of the effects of stress and defects on the phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaboriaud, R.J.; Paumier, F.; Lacroix, B.

    2014-01-01

    This work studies the effects of the deposition parameters on the microstructure and the related residual stress in a rare earth oxide thin film. This study is focused on the yttrium sesquioxide (Y 2 O 3 ) thin films deposited on Si (100) substrates using the ion beam sputtering technique. This technique allows the control of the microstructure and the related residual stress in the thin films by monitoring the energy of the argon beam used in the deposition process. Measurements of the stresses within the oxide layer were performed by the X-ray diffraction-sin 2 Ψ method. The results show that the classic model of a pure biaxial in-plane model of stress, generally proposed in thin films, is not satisfying. A model that includes a hydrostatic stress due to the crystalline defects generated during the deposition process and a biaxial stress called a fixation stress, gives a good agreement with the experimental results. This modeling of the residual stress, based on nanometer-scale inclusions (point, extended defects) inducing a hydrostatic stress field, leads to a quantitative analysis of the nature and the concentration of the defects. This work shows results that establish a relationship between residual stress, defects and non-equilibrium phase stabilization during growth. - Highlights: • Microstructure of Y 2 O 3 thin films • Measurements of residual stresses in the thin filmsModeling of a triaxial residual stress state • Stress-induced stabilization of non-equilibrium phase

  18. Photoconductivity study of acid on Zinc phthalocyanine pyridine thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sukhwinder, E-mail: ss7667@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. College for Girls, Ludhiana (India); Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2016-05-06

    The Metal Phthalocyanine (MPc) have attracted much interest because of chemical and high thermal stability. Molecules forming a crystal of MPc are held together by weak attractive Vander Waals forces. Organic semiconductors have π conjugate bonds which allow electrons to move via π-electron cloud overlaps. Conduction mechanisms for organic semiconductor are mainly through tunneling; hopping between localized states, mobility gaps, and phonon assisted hopping. The photo conductivity of thin films of these complexes changes when exposed to oxidizing and reducing gases. Arrhenius plot is used to find the thermal activation energy in the intrinsic region and impurity scattering region. Arrhenius plotsare used to find the thermal activation energy.

  19. Elastic properties of amorphous thin films studied by Rayleigh waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, R.B.; Rubin, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Physical vapor deposition in ultra-high vacuum was used to co-deposit nickel and zirconium onto quartz single crystals and grow amorphous Ni 1-x Zr x (0.1 < x < 0.87) thin film. A high-resolution surface acoustic wave technique was developed for in situ measurement of film shear moduli. The modulus has narrow maxima at x = 0. 17, 0.22, 0.43, 0.5, 0.63, and 0.72, reflecting short-range ordering and formation of aggregates in amorphous phase. It is proposed that the aggregates correspond to polytetrahedral atom arrangements limited in size by geometrical frustration

  20. Ellipsometric study and application of rubrene thin film in organic Schottky diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang; Deng, Jinxiang, E-mail: jdeng@bjut.edu.cn; Gao, Hongli; Yang, Qianqian; Kong, Le; Cui, Min; Zhang, Zijia

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The optical constants of rubrene were studied by ellipsometry spectroscopic. • The α reveals direct allowed transition with corresponding energy 2.21 eV. • A Schottky diodes based on rubrene were fabricated. • The basic device parameters were determined by the I–V measurement. - Abstract: Rubrene thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation technique under high vacuum (∼10{sup −4} Pa). The film surface morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Ellipsometric studies on rubrene thin film were presented for understanding its growth and optical characteristics by the Classical-Oscillator model. The analysis of the absorption coefficient (α) revealed the direct allowed transition with corresponding energy 2.21 eV of the rubrene film. In order to exploring the rubrene applications, Al/rubrene/ITO Schottky diode was fabricated. The basic device parameters, barrier height and ideality factor were determined by the I–V measurement. The log(I)–log(V) characteristic indicated three distinct regions. These regions followed ohmic conduction, TCL conduction and SCLC conduction mechanisms.

  1. In-situ study of hydriding kinetics in Pd-based thin film systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmelle, Renaud; Proost, Joris [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Div. of Materials and Process Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The hydriding kinetics of Pd thin films has been investigated in detail. The key experimental technique used in this work consists of a high resolution curvature measurement setup, which continuously monitors the reflections of multiple laser beams coming off a cantilevered sample. After mounting the sample inside a vacuum chamber, a H-containing gas mixture is introduced to instantaneously generate a given hydrogen partial pressure (p{sub H2}) inside the chamber. The resulting interaction of H with the Pd layer then leads to a volume expansion of the thin film system. This induces in turn changes in the sample curvature as a result of internal stresses developing in the Pd film during a hydriding cycle. Based on such curvature date obtained in-situ at different p{sub H2}, a two-step model for the kinetics of Pd-hydride formation has been proposed and expressions for the hydrogen adsorption and absorption velocities have been derived. The rate-limiting steps have been identified by studying the p{sub H2}-dependence of these velocities. Furthermore, from our in-situ experimental data, relevant kinetic parameters have been calculated. The effect of dry air exposure of the Pd films on the hydriding kinetics has been considered as well. (orig.)

  2. Structural, mechanical and magnetic study on galvanostatic electroplated nanocrystalline NiFeP thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, A.; Senguttuvan, G.; Kannan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Nickel based alloys has a huge applications in microelectronics and micro electromechanical systems owing to its superior soft magnetic properties. With the advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness and controllable patterning, electroplating processes has been chosen to fabricate thin films in our work. The soft magnetic NiFeP thin film was successfully deposited over the surface of copper plate through galvanostatic electroplating method by applying constant current density of 10 mA cm-2 for a deposition rate for half an hour. The properties of the deposited NiFeP thin films were analyzed by subjecting it into different physio-chemical characterization such as XRD, SEM, EDAX, AFM and VSM. XRD pattern confirms the formation of NiFeP particles and the structural analysis reveals that the NiFeP particles were uniformly deposited over the surface of copper substrate. The surface roughness analysis of the NiFeP films was done using AFM analysis. The magnetic studies and the hardness of the thin film were evaluated from the VSM and hardness test. The NiFeP thin films possess lower coercivity with higher magnetization value of 69. 36 × 10-3 and 431.92 Gauss.

  3. Black Hole Entropy Calculation in a Modified Thin Film Model Jingyi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The thin film model is modified to calculate the black hole entropy. The difference from the original method is that the Parikh–. Wilczek tunnelling framework is introduced and the self-gravitation of the emission particles is taken into account. In terms of our improvement, if the entropy is still proportional to the area, ...

  4. Chemical bath deposited and dip coating deposited CuS thin films - Structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Jiten P.; Khimani, Ankurkumar J.; Chaki, Sunil H.

    2018-05-01

    The crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface microtopography study on as-deposited CuS thin films were carried out. Thin films deposited by two techniques of solution growth were studied. The thin films used in the present study were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and dip coating deposition techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of both the as-deposited thin films showed that both the films possess covellite phase of CuS and hexagonal unit cell structure. The determined lattice parameters of both the films are in agreement with the standard JCPDS as well as reported data. The crystallite size determined by Scherrer's equation and Hall-Williamsons relation using XRD data for both the as-deposited thin films showed that the respective values were in agreement with each other. The ambient Raman spectroscopy of both the as-deposited thin films showed major emission peaks at 474 cm-1 and a minor emmision peaks at 265 cm-1. The observed Raman peaks matched with the covellite phase of CuS. The atomic force microscopy of both the as-deposited thin films surfaces showed dip coating thin film to be less rough compared to CBD deposited thin film. All the obtained results are presented and deliberated in details.

  5. Niobium thin film deposition studies on copper surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Roach, D. B. Beringer, J. R. Skuza, W. A. Oliver, C. Clavero, C. E. Reece, R. A. Lukaszew

    2012-06-01

    Thin film coatings have the potential to increase both the thermal efficiency and accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. However, before this potential can be realized, systematic studies on structure-property correlations in these thin films need to be carried out since the reduced geometry, combined with specific growth parameters, can modify the physical properties of the materials when compared to their bulk form. Here, we present our systematic studies of Nb thin films deposited onto Cu surfaces to clarify possible reasons for the limited success that this process exhibited in previous attempts. We compare these films with Nb grown on other surfaces. In particular, we study the crystal structure and surface morphology and their effect on superconducting properties, such as critical temperature and lower critical field. We found that higher deposition temperature leads to a sharper critical temperature transition, but also to increased roughness indicating that there are competing mechanisms that must be considered for further optimization.

  6. Niobium thin film deposition studies on copper surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, W.M.; Beringer, D.B.; Skuza, J.R.; Oliver, W.A.; Clavero, C.; Reece, C.E.; Lukaszew, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the potential to increase both the thermal efficiency and accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. However, before this potential can be realized, systematic studies on structure-property correlations in these thin films need to be carried out since the reduced geometry, combined with specific growth parameters, can modify the physical properties of the materials when compared to their bulk form. Here, we present our systematic studies of Nb thin films deposited onto Cu surfaces to clarify possible reasons for the limited success that this process exhibited in previous attempts. We compare these films with Nb grown on other surfaces. In particular, we study the crystal structure and surface morphology and their effect on superconducting properties, such as critical temperature and lower critical field. We found that higher deposition temperature leads to a sharper critical temperature transition, but also to increased roughness indicating that there are competing mechanisms that must be considered for further optimization.

  7. Studies on annealed ZnO:V thin films deposited by nebulised spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malini, D. Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of annealed ZnO:V thin films deposited by nebulized spray pyrolysis technique by varying vanadium concentration are studied. Thickness of thin films varies from 1.52µm to 7.78µm. V2O5, VO2 and ZnO peaks are observed in XRD patterns deposited with high vanadium concentration and the intensity of peaks corresponding to ZnO decreases in those samples. Morphological properties were studied by analysing SEM images and annealed thin films deposited at ZnO:V = 50:50 possess dumb bell shape grains. Emission peaks corresponding to both Augur transition and deep level transition are observed in the PL spectra of the samples.

  8. Experiment-scale molecular simulation study of liquid crystal thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dac; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Matheson, Michael A.; Brown, W. Michael

    2014-03-01

    Supercomputers have now reached a performance level adequate for studying thin films with molecular detail at the relevant scales. By exploiting the power of GPU accelerators on Titan, we have been able to perform simulations of characteristic liquid crystal films that provide remarkable qualitative agreement with experimental images. We have demonstrated that key features of spinodal instability can only be observed with sufficiently large system sizes, which were not accessible with previous simulation studies. Our study emphasizes the capability and significance of petascale simulations in providing molecular-level insights in thin film systems as well as other interfacial phenomena.

  9. SEM and XPS study of layer-by-layer deposited polypyrrole thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigois-Landureau, E.; Nicolau, Y. F.; Delamar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of thin films (a few nm) of polypyrrole was carried out on various substrates such as silver, platinum, electrochemically oxidized aluminum and pretreated glass. SEM micrographs showed that the deposited layers nucleate by an island-type mechanism on hydrated alumina and KOH-pretreated (hydrophilic) glass before forming a continuous film. However, continuous thin films are obtained on chromic acid pretreated (hydrophobic) glass and sputtered Ag or Pt on glass after only 3-4 deposition cycles. The mean deposition rate evaluated by XPS for the first deposition cycles on Ag and Pt is 3 and 4 nm/cycle, respectively, in agreement with previous gravimetric determinations on thicker films, proving the constancy of the deposition rate. The XPS study of the very thin films obtained by a few deposition cycles shows that the first polypyrrole layers are dedoped by hydroxydic (basic) substrate surfaces.

  10. SEM and XPS study of layer-by-layer deposited polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigois-Landureau, E.; Nicolau, Y.F.; Delamar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of thin films (a few nm) of polypyrrole was carried out on various substrates such as silver, platinum, electrochemically oxidized aluminum and pretreated glass. SEM micrographs showed that the deposited layers nucleate by an island-type mechanism on hydrated alumina and KOH-pretreated (hydrophilic) glass before forming a continuous film. However, continuous thin films are obtained on chromic acid pretreated (hydrophobic) glass and sputtered Ag or Pt on glass after only 3 endash 4 deposition cycles. The mean deposition rate evaluated by XPS for the first deposition cycles on Ag and Pt is 3 and 4 nm/cycle, respectively, in agreement with previous gravimetric determinations on thicker films, proving the constancy of the deposition rate. The XPS study of the very thin films obtained by a few deposition cycles shows that the first polypyrrole layers are dedoped by hydroxydic (basic) substrate surfaces. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Studies on nonlocal optical nonlinearity of Sr–CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamgadge, Y.S.; Talwatkar, S.S.; Sunatkari, A.L.; Pahurkar, V.G.; Muley, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Thermally induced nonlocal nonlinear optical properties of strontium (Sr) doped CuO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films under continuous wave Helium–Neon laser illumination are investigated by single beam Z-scan method. Undoped and Sr doped CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using L-arginine as surface modifying agent have been synthesized by wet chemical method and their thin films with PVA as host matrix have been obtained by spin coating technique. Structure, morphology and purity of prepared CuO NPs and thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fourier transform infra-red spectrum attests the role of L-arginine as surface modifier and ultraviolet–visible absorption studies reveal that the excitonic absorption wavelengths are blue shifted for strontium doped CuO NPs. Sr doped CuO NPs with average particle size of 7 nm and calculated optical band gap up to 2.54 eV have been reported. All Sr doped CuO–PVA nanocomposite thin films show enhanced nonlinear refraction and absorption best suited for optical limiting applications. Observed effects have been attributed to thermal lensing effect. - Highlights: • Pure and strontium doped CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films are prepared. • Z-scan studies of thin films are performed under continuous wave helium–neon laser. • Enhanced values of third order nonlinear optical coefficients are obtained for all films. • Thermally induced self-defocusing and reverse saturable absorption have been discussed.

  12. Studies on nonlocal optical nonlinearity of Sr–CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamgadge, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Mahatma Fule Arts, Commerce and S C Science Mahavidyalaya, Warud, Dist. Amravati (MS), 444906 (India); Talwatkar, S.S. [Department of Physics, D K Marathe and N G Acharya College, Chembur, Mumbai (MS) 440071 (India); Sunatkari, A.L. [Department of Physics, Siddharth College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Fort, Mumbai (MS) 440001 (India); Pahurkar, V.G. [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), 444602 (India); Muley, G.G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), 444602 (India)

    2015-11-30

    Thermally induced nonlocal nonlinear optical properties of strontium (Sr) doped CuO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films under continuous wave Helium–Neon laser illumination are investigated by single beam Z-scan method. Undoped and Sr doped CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using L-arginine as surface modifying agent have been synthesized by wet chemical method and their thin films with PVA as host matrix have been obtained by spin coating technique. Structure, morphology and purity of prepared CuO NPs and thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fourier transform infra-red spectrum attests the role of L-arginine as surface modifier and ultraviolet–visible absorption studies reveal that the excitonic absorption wavelengths are blue shifted for strontium doped CuO NPs. Sr doped CuO NPs with average particle size of 7 nm and calculated optical band gap up to 2.54 eV have been reported. All Sr doped CuO–PVA nanocomposite thin films show enhanced nonlinear refraction and absorption best suited for optical limiting applications. Observed effects have been attributed to thermal lensing effect. - Highlights: • Pure and strontium doped CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films are prepared. • Z-scan studies of thin films are performed under continuous wave helium–neon laser. • Enhanced values of third order nonlinear optical coefficients are obtained for all films. • Thermally induced self-defocusing and reverse saturable absorption have been discussed.

  13. Energy stability of droplets and dry spots in a thin film model of hanging drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Luen; Chou, Kai-Seng

    2017-10-01

    The 2-D thin film equation describing the evolution of hang drops is studied. All radially symmetric steady states are classified, and their energy stability is determined. It is shown that the droplet with zero contact angle is the only global energy minimizer and the dry spot with zero contact angle is a strict local energy minimizer.

  14. An energy landscape based approach for studying supercooled liquid and glassy thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pooja; Mittal, Jeetain; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2004-03-01

    Materials in confined spaces are important in science and technology. Examples include biological fluids in membranes, liquids trapped in porous rocks, and thin-film materials used in high-resolution patterning technologies. However, few reliable rules exist to predict how the properties of materials will be affected by thin-film confinement. We have recently shown that the potential energy landscape formalism can be used to study, by both theory [1] and simulation [2], how the behavior of thin-film materials depends on sample dimensions and film-substrate interactions. Our landscape-based mean-field theory [1] can be used to study both the thermodynamic properties and the ideal glass transition of thin films. It predicts that, in the case of neutral or repulsive walls, the ideal glass transition temperature is lowered by decreasing film thickness. This is in qualitative agreement with experimental trends for the kinetic glass transition in confined fluids. Landscape-based approaches are also valuable for understanding the structural and mechanical properties of thin-film glasses. We demonstrate how the concept of an "equation of state of the energy landscape" [3] can be generalized to thin films [1, 2], where it gives insights into potential molecular mechanisms of tensile strength. [1] T. M. Truskett and V. Ganesan, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1897-1900(2003); J. Mittal, P. Shah and T. M. Truskett, to be submitted to Langmuir. [2] P. Shah and T. M. Truskett, to be submitted to J. Phys. Chem. B. [3] S. Sastry, P. G. Debenedetti and F. H. Stillinger, Phys. Rev. E 56, 5533 (1997)

  15. Surface morphology modelling for the resistivity analysis of low temperature sputtered indium tin oxide thin films on polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xuesong; Tang Wu; Weng Xiaolong; Deng Longjiang

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous or weakly crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film samples have been prepared on polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene terephthalate substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering at a low substrate temperature. The surface morphological and electrical properties of the ITO layers were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a standard four-point probe measurement. The effect of surface morphology on the resistivity of ITO thin films was studied, which presented some different variations from crystalline films. Then, a simplified film system model, including the substrate, continuous ITO layer and ITO surface grain, was proposed to deal with these correlations. Based on this thin film model and the AFM images, a quadratic potential was introduced to simulate the characteristics of the ITO surface morphology, and the classical Kronig-Penney model, the semiconductor electrical theory and the modified Neugebauer-Webb model were used to expound the detailed experimental results. The modelling equation was highly in accord with the experimental variations of the resistivity on the characteristics of the surface morphology.

  16. Multiscale numerical study on ferroelectric nonlinear response of PZT thin films (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroki; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    PZT thin films have excellent performance in deformation precision and response speed, so it is used widely for actuators and sensors of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS). Although PZT thin films outputs large piezoelectricity at morphotropic phase bounfary (MPB), it shows a complicated hysteresis behavior caused by domain switching and structural phase transition between tetragonal and rhombohedral. In general, PZT thin films have some characteristic crystal morphologies. Additionally mechanical strains occur by lattice mismatch with substrate. Therefore it is important for fabrication and performance improvement of PZT thin films to understand the relation between macroscopic hysteresis response and microstructural changes. In this study, a multiscale nonlinear finite element simulation was proposed for PZT thin films at morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) on the substrate. The homogenization theory was employed for scale-bridging between macrostructure and microstructure. Figure 1 shows the proposed multiscale nonlinear simulation [1-3] based on the homogenization theory. Macrostructure is a homogeneous structure to catch the whole behaviors of actuators and sensors. And microstructure is a periodic inhomogeneous structure consisting of domains and grains. Macrostructure and microstructure are connected perfectly by homogenization theory and are analyzed by finite element method. We utilized an incremental form of fundamental constitutive law in consideration with physical property change caused by domain switching and structural phase transition. The developed multiscale finite element method was applied to PZT thin films with lattice mismatch strain on the substrate, and the relation between the macroscopic hysteresis response and microscopic domain switching and structural phase transition were investigated. Especially, we discuss about the effect of crystal morphologies and lattice mismatch strain on hysteresis response.

  17. Quantitative Raman characterization of cross-linked collagen thin films as a model system for diagnosing early osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Durney, Krista M.; Fomovsky, Gregory; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Vukelic, Sinisa

    2016-03-01

    The onset of osteoarthritis (OA)in articular cartilage is characterized by degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Specifically, breakage of cross-links between collagen fibrils in the articular cartilage leads to loss of structural integrity of the bulk tissue. Since there are no broadly accepted, non-invasive, label-free tools for diagnosing OA at its early stage, Raman spectroscopyis therefore proposed in this work as a novel, non-destructive diagnostic tool. In this study, collagen thin films were employed to act as a simplified model system of the cartilage collagen extracellular matrix. Cross-link formation was controlled via exposure to glutaraldehyde (GA), by varying exposure time and concentration levels, and Raman spectral information was collected to quantitatively characterize the cross-link assignments imparted to the collagen thin films during treatment. A novel, quantitative method was developed to analyze the Raman signal obtained from collagen thin films. Segments of Raman signal were decomposed and modeled as the sum of individual bands, providing an optimization function for subsequent curve fitting against experimental findings. Relative changes in the concentration of the GA-induced pyridinium cross-links were extracted from the model, as a function of the exposure to GA. Spatially resolved characterization enabled construction of spectral maps of the collagen thin films, which provided detailed information about the variation of cross-link formation at various locations on the specimen. Results showed that Raman spectral data correlate with glutaraldehyde treatment and therefore may be used as a proxy by which to measure loss of collagen cross-links in vivo. This study proposes a promising system of identifying onset of OA and may enable early intervention treatments that may serve to slow or prevent osteoarthritis progression.

  18. Photoconductivity study of acid on Zinc phthalocyanine pyridine thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The Metal Phthalocyanine (MPc) have attracted much interest because of chemical and high thermal stability. Molecules forming a crystal of MPc are held together by weak attractive Vander Waals forces. Organic semiconductors have π conjugate bonds which allow electrons to move via π-electron cloud overlaps. Conduction mechanisms for organic semiconductor are mainly through tunneling; hopping between localized states, mobility gaps, and phonon assisted hopping. The photo conductivity of thin films of these complexes changes when exposed to oxidizing and reducing gases. Arrhenius plot is used to find the thermal activation energy in the intrinsic region and impurity scattering region. Arrhenius plotsare used to find the thermal activation energy. The original version of this article supplied to AIP Publishing contained erroneous text at the end of the abstract. "Arrhenius plots are used to find the thermal activation energy." was deleted as it does not pertain to the article. In addition, a figure citation was cited incorrectly and an equation was missing. This has been corrected in the updated version republished on 4 December 2017.

  19. Study of sub band gap absorption of Sn doped CdSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    The nanocrystalline thin films of Sn doped CdSe at different dopants concentration are prepared by thermal evaporation technique on glass substrate at room temperature. The effect of Sn doping on the optical properties of CdSe has been studied. A decrease in band gap value is observed with increase in Sn concentration. Constant photocurrent method (CPM) is used to study the absorption coefficient in the sub band gap region. Urbach energy has been obtained from CPM spectra which are found to increase with amount of Sn dopants. The refractive index data calculated from transmittance is used for the identification of oscillator strength and oscillator energy using single oscillator model which is found to be 7.7 and 2.12 eV, 6.7 and 2.5 eV for CdSe:Sn 1% and CdSe:Sn 5% respectively

  20. Study of sub band gap absorption of Sn doped CdSe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Rani, Mamta [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160014 (India); Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The nanocrystalline thin films of Sn doped CdSe at different dopants concentration are prepared by thermal evaporation technique on glass substrate at room temperature. The effect of Sn doping on the optical properties of CdSe has been studied. A decrease in band gap value is observed with increase in Sn concentration. Constant photocurrent method (CPM) is used to study the absorption coefficient in the sub band gap region. Urbach energy has been obtained from CPM spectra which are found to increase with amount of Sn dopants. The refractive index data calculated from transmittance is used for the identification of oscillator strength and oscillator energy using single oscillator model which is found to be 7.7 and 2.12 eV, 6.7 and 2.5 eV for CdSe:Sn 1% and CdSe:Sn 5% respectively.

  1. Contact resistance and stability study for Au, Ti, Hf and Ni contacts on thin-film Mg2Si

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Tao; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhu, Yihan; Alshareef, Husam N.; Kim, Moon J.; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of post-deposition annealing effects on contact resistance of Au, Ti, Hf and Ni electrodes on Mg2Si thin films. Thin-film Mg2Si and metal contacts were deposited using magnetron sputtering. Various post

  2. Comparative study on Pulsed Laser Deposition and Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation of urease thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smausz, Tomi; Megyeri, Gabor; Kekesi, Renata; Vass, Csaba; Gyoergy, Eniko; Sima, Felix; Mihailescu, Ion N.; Hopp, Bela

    2009-01-01

    Urease thin films were produced by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) and Pulsed Laser Deposition from two types of targets: frozen water solutions of urease with different concentrations (1-10% m/v) and pure urease pellets. The fluence of the ablating KrF excimer laser was varied between 300 and 2200 mJ/cm 2 . Fourier transform infrared spectra of the deposited films showed no difference as compared to the original urease. Morphologic studies proved that the films consist of a smooth 'base' layer with embedded micrometer-sized droplets. Absorption-coefficient measurements contradicted the traditional 'absorptive matrix' model for MAPLE deposition. The laser energy was absorbed by urease clusters leading to a local heating-up and evaporation of the frozen matrix from the uppermost layer accompanied by the release of dissolved urease molecules. Significant enzymatic activity of urease was preserved only during matrix assisted transfer.

  3. Probing-models for interdigitated electrode systems with ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong H.; Nigon, Robin; Raeder, Trygve M.; Hanke, Ulrik; Halvorsen, Einar; Muralt, Paul

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a new method to characterize ferroelectric thin films with interdigitated electrodes is presented. To obtain accurate properties, all parasitic contributions should be subtracted from the measurement results and accurate models for the ferroelectric film are required. Hence, we introduce a phenomenological model for the parasitic capacitance. Moreover, two common analytical models based on conformal transformations are compared and used to calculate the capacitance and the electric field. With a thin film approximation, new simplified electric field and capacitance formulas are derived. By using these formulas, more consistent CV, PV and stress-field loops for samples with different geometries are obtained. In addition, an inhomogeneous distribution of the permittivity due to the non-uniform electric field is modelled by finite element simulation in an iterative way. We observed that this inhomogeneous distribution can be treated as a homogeneous one with an effective value of the permittivity.

  4. Thermoluminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films: Structural and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Shashikant; Kumar, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) is a binary II-VI direct band gap semiconducting material with cubic structure and having potential applications in different opto-electronic devices. Here we investigated the effects of annealing on the thermoluminescence (TL) of ZnTe thin films. A nanocrystalline ZnTe thin film was successfully electrodeposited on nickel substrate and the effect of annealing on structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied. The TL emission spectrum of as deposited sample is weakly emissive in UV region at ∼328 nm. The variation in the annealing temperature results into sharp increase in emission intensity at ∼328 nm along with appearance of a new peak at ∼437 nm in visible region. Thus, the deposited nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films exhibited excellent thermoluminescent properties upon annealing. Furthermore, the influence of annealing (annealed at 400 °C) on the solid state of ZnTe were also studied by XRD, SEM, EDS, AFM. It is observed that ZnTe thin film annealed at 400 °C after deposition provide a smooth and flat texture suited for optoelectronic applications.

  5. A stochastic model of solid state thin film deposition: Application to chalcopyrite growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Lovelett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing high fidelity quantitative models of solid state reaction systems can be challenging, especially in deposition systems where, in addition to the multiple competing processes occurring simultaneously, the solid interacts with its atmosphere. In this work, we develop a model for the growth of a thin solid film where species from the atmosphere adsorb, diffuse, and react with the film. The model is mesoscale and describes an entire film with thickness on the order of microns. Because it is stochastic, the model allows us to examine inhomogeneities and agglomerations that would be impossible to characterize with deterministic methods. We demonstrate the modeling approach with the example of chalcopyrite Cu(InGa(SeS2 thin film growth via precursor reaction, which is a common industrial method for fabricating thin film photovoltaic modules. The model is used to understand how and why through-film variation in the composition of Cu(InGa(SeS2 thin films arises and persists. We believe that the model will be valuable as an effective quantitative description of many other materials systems used in semiconductors, energy storage, and other fast-growing industries.

  6. Modelling approaches to the dewetting of evaporating thin films of nanoparticle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, U; Vancea, I; Archer, A J; Robbins, M J; Frastia, L; Stannard, A; Pauliac-Vaujour, E; Martin, C P; Blunt, M O; Moriarty, P J

    2009-01-01

    We review recent experiments on dewetting thin films of evaporating colloidal nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids) and discuss several theoretical approaches to describe the ongoing processes including coupled transport and phase changes. These approaches range from microscopic discrete stochastic theories to mesoscopic continuous deterministic descriptions. In particular, we describe (i) a microscopic kinetic Monte Carlo model, (ii) a dynamical density functional theory and (iii) a hydrodynamic thin film model. Models (i) and (ii) are employed to discuss the formation of polygonal networks, spinodal and branched structures resulting from the dewetting of an ultrathin 'postcursor film' that remains behind a mesoscopic dewetting front. We highlight, in particular, the presence of a transverse instability in the evaporative dewetting front, which results in highly branched fingering structures. The subtle interplay of decomposition in the film and contact line motion is discussed. Finally, we discuss a simple thin film model (iii) of the hydrodynamics on the mesoscale. We employ coupled evolution equations for the film thickness profile and mean particle concentration. The model is used to discuss the self-pinning and depinning of a contact line related to the 'coffee-stain' effect. In the course of the review we discuss the advantages and limitations of the different theories, as well as possible future developments and extensions.

  7. Polyamide Thin-Film Composite Membranes for Potential Raw Biogas Purification: Experiments and Modelling.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimčík, Miroslav; Růžička, Marek; Kárászová, Magda; Sedláková, Zuzana; Vejražka, Jiří; Veselý, M.; Čapek, P.; Friess, K.; Izák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 167, JUL 14 (2016), s. 163-173 ISSN 1383-5866 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-12695S; GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018; GA MŠk LH14006 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : thin film composite membrane * biogas membrane separation * transport modeling Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.359, year: 2016

  8. Modeling on the cathodoluminescence properties of the thin film phosphors for field emission flat panel displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Gong

    2000-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the film roughness with the fundamental luminance parameters of thin film phosphors, Y2 O3:Eu films with different thickness and roughness values were deposited on various substrate materials using a pulsed laser deposition technique under a controlled experimental procedure. The best luminous efficiency was observed from the Y2O3:Eu films on quartz substrates due to the smaller refractive index and low absorption characteristics of the quartz substrates which produce a larger amount of total internal reflection in the film and low loss of light intensity during the multiple internal reflections. The trapped light inside the film can escape the film more easily due to rougher film surface. The better epitaxial growth capability of the Y2O 3:Eu films with the LaAlO3 substrates resulted in higher luminous efficiency in the small surface roughness region. Higher luminous efficiency was observed in reflection mode than in transmission mode due to the contribution of diffusely scattered light at the air-film interface. A new theoretical model based on the diffraction scattering theory of light, the steady-state diffusion condition of carriers and the Kanaya-Okayama's electron- beam-solid interaction range satisfactorily explains all the experimental results mentioned above. The model also provides solid understandings on the cathodoluminescence properties of the thin film phosphors with the effects of other single or multiple luminance parameters. The parameters encountered for the model are surface roughness, electron-beam-solid interaction, surface recombination rate of carriers, charge carrier diffusion properties, multiple scattering at the interfaces (air- film, film-substrate, and substrate-air), optical properties of the material, film thickness, and substrate type. The model supplies a general solution in both qualitative and quantitative ways to estimate the luminance properties of the thin film phosphors and it can be

  9. Study of thin films of carrier-doped strontium titanate with emphasis on their interfaces with organic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Naoki [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)]. E-mail: naokis@e.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Harada, Youichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Terashima, Takahito [International Research Center of Elements Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kanda, Ryoko [International Research Center of Elements Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takano, Mikio [International Research Center of Elements Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    Fifty nanometer-thick metal-doped strontium titanate (M:STO, M = La and V) films deposited epitaxially on single crystalline STO substrates were characterized in comparison with indium tin oxide (ITO) covered glasses, to check their applicability to optically transparent anode materials for organic optoelectronic devices. M:STO, in particular V:STO, films turned out to have distinct surface flatness, needfully low electric resistivities and notably large work functions. While their optical transmittances are lower than those of ITOs at this moment, we suggest that M:STO films have a potential to take the place of ITO films. Further, we have observed energy level alignments for copper phthalocyanine thin films at the interface of V:STO.

  10. Modeling the transport properties of epitaxially grown thermoelectric oxide thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2012-02-01

    The influence of oxygen vacancies on the transport properties of epitaxial thermoelectric (Sr,La)TiO3 thin films is determined using electrical and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. Oxygen vacancy concentration was varied by ex-situ annealing in Ar and Ar/H2. All films exhibited degenerate semiconducting behavior, and electrical conductivity decreased (258–133 S cm−1) with increasing oxygen content. Similar decrease in the Seebeck coefficient is observed and attributed to a decrease in effective mass (7.8–3.2 me ), as determined by SE. Excellent agreement between transport properties deduced from SE and direct electrical measurements suggests that SE is an effective tool for studying oxide thin film thermoelectrics.

  11. Modeling the transport properties of epitaxially grown thermoelectric oxide thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Abutaha, Anas I.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of oxygen vacancies on the transport properties of epitaxial thermoelectric (Sr,La)TiO3 thin films is determined using electrical and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. Oxygen vacancy concentration was varied by ex-situ annealing in Ar and Ar/H2. All films exhibited degenerate semiconducting behavior, and electrical conductivity decreased (258–133 S cm−1) with increasing oxygen content. Similar decrease in the Seebeck coefficient is observed and attributed to a decrease in effective mass (7.8–3.2 me ), as determined by SE. Excellent agreement between transport properties deduced from SE and direct electrical measurements suggests that SE is an effective tool for studying oxide thin film thermoelectrics.

  12. Micromachined sensor for stress measurement and micromechanical study of free-standing thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have a wide range of applications. In the field of wireless and microwave technology, considerable attention has been given to the development and integration of MEMS-based RF (radio frequency) components. An RF MEMS switch requires low insertion loss, high isolation, and low actuation voltage - electrical aspects that have been extensively studied. The mechanical requirements of the switch, such as low sensitivity to built-in stress and high reliability, greatly depend on the micromechanical properties of the switch materials, and have not been thoroughly explored. RF MEMS switches are typically in the form of a free-standing thin film structure. Large stress gradients and across-wafer stress variations developed during fabrication severely degrade their electrical performance. A micromachined stress measurement sensor has been developed that can potentially be employed for in-situ monitoring of stress evolution and stress variation. The sensors were micromachined using five masks on two wafer levels, each measuring 5x3x1 mm. They function by means of an electron tunneling mechanism, where a 2x2 mm silicon nitride membrane elastically deflects under an applied deflection voltage via an external feedback circuitry. For the current design, the sensors are capable of measuring tensile stresses up to the GPa range under deflection voltages of 50--100 V. Sensor functionality was studied by finite element modeling and a theoretical analysis of square membrane deflection. While the mechanical properties of thin films on substrates have been extensively studied, studies of free-standing thin films have been limited due to the practical difficulties in sample handling and testing. Free-standing Al and Al-Ti thin films specimens have been successfully fabricated and microtensile and stress relaxation tests have been performed using a custom-designed micromechanical testing apparatus. A dedicated TEM (transmission electron microscopy

  13. Thin film growth studies using time-resolved x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowarik, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Thin-film growth is important for novel functional materials and new generations of devices. The non-equilibrium growth physics involved is very challenging, because the energy landscape for atomic scale processes is determined by many parameters, such as the diffusion and Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers. We review the in situ real-time techniques of x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray growth oscillations and diffuse x-ray scattering (GISAXS) for the determination of structure and morphology on length scales from Å to µm. We give examples of time resolved growth experiments mainly from molecular thin film growth, but also highlight growth of inorganic materials using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and electrochemical deposition from liquids. We discuss how scaling parameters of rate equation models and fundamental energy barriers in kinetic Monte Carlo methods can be determined from fits of the real-time x-ray data.

  14. Andreev reflexion studies on planar hybrid SNS-junctions based on 122-thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, Sebastian; Schmidt, Stefan; Schmidl, Frank; Tympel, Volker; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, Jena (Germany); Haindl, Silvia; Kurth, Fritz; Iida, Kazumasa; Holzapfel, Bernhard [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Metallische Werkstoffe, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the properties of iron-based superconductors, we prepared hybrid junctions in thin film technique. Therefore two geometries were prepared, a planar SNS-junction and an edge junction. The base electrode was made of Ba(Fe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}){sub 2}As{sub 2} thin films, a sputtered gold layer acts as normal barrier for the planar junction and for the counter electrode we used the conventional superconductor lead. We measured the electrical properties of each electrode, as well as the junctions itself. To obtain information about the order parameter symmetry, we show the differential conductance and compare with different variations of an extended BTK-model. We show differences and commonalities between the results of both junction geometries.

  15. Studies on electrodeposited silver sulphide thin films by double exposure holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhune, V.B.; Shinde, N.S.; Fulari, V.J.

    2008-01-01

    Silver sulphide (Ag 2 S) thin films have been deposited on to stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by the electrodeposition process, in potentiostatic mode using silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ), sodium thiosulphate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ) as a precursor sources and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) was used as a complexing agent. The deposition potential of the compound was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The structural and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical absorption techniques, respectively. XRD studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline with monoclinic crystal structure. Optical absorption study shows the presence of direct transition with bandgap energy 1.1 eV. The determination of thickness and stress of the Ag 2 S thin films was carried out by Double Exposure Holographic Interferometry (DEHI) technique.

  16. Study and fabrication of ZnNb2O6 thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsing; Yang, Pai-Chuan; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Yan, Shu-Fong; Tung, Hsin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Zinc niobium oxide (ZnNb 2 O 6 ) thin films were grown on ITO/glass substrate by sol-gel process. Microstructure and surface morphology of the ZnNb 2 O 6 thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties of the ZnNb 2 O 6 thin films were obtained by UV-visible recording spectrophotometer. The dependence of the microstructure, optical transmittance spectra, optical band gap on annealing temperature was also investigated.

  17. In-situ study of pn-heterojunction interface states in organic thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Rongbin; Ohta, Koji; Baba, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the density of pn-heterojunction interface states by evaluating the threshold voltage shift with in-situ measurement of electrical characteristics of a sandwich fluorinated copper phthalocyanine/pentacene thin film transistor with various thicknesses of pentacene thin films. A threshold voltage (V T ) undergoes a significant shift from + 20.6 to + 0.53 V with increasing the thickness of pentacene. When the thickness of pentacene is more than a critical thickness of 15 nm, V T undergoes hardly any shift. On the other hand, the value of mobility is lightly decreased with increasing the thickness of pentacene due to the effect of the bulk current. Thus the V T shift is attributed to the increase of drain current in the sandwich device. In order to explain the V T shift, a model was assumed in the linear region of thin film transistor operation and the V T shift agrees with a tan −1 function of film thickness. The total charge density (Q 0 ) of 1.53 × 10 −7 C/cm 2 (9.56 × 10 11 electrons or holes/cm 2 ) was obtained. Furthermore, the V T shift and Q 0 could be adjusted by selecting a p-type semiconductor. - Highlights: • A threshold voltage was in-situ measured in an organic sandwich thin film transistor. • Density of pn-heterojunction interface states by evaluating the threshold voltage shift. • The threshold voltage shift attributes to the increase of drain current. • In order to explain the threshold voltage shift, a model was assumed

  18. In-situ study of pn-heterojunction interface states in organic thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Rongbin, E-mail: ye@iwate-u.ac.jp; Ohta, Koji; Baba, Mamoru

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, we have investigated the density of pn-heterojunction interface states by evaluating the threshold voltage shift with in-situ measurement of electrical characteristics of a sandwich fluorinated copper phthalocyanine/pentacene thin film transistor with various thicknesses of pentacene thin films. A threshold voltage (V{sub T}) undergoes a significant shift from + 20.6 to + 0.53 V with increasing the thickness of pentacene. When the thickness of pentacene is more than a critical thickness of 15 nm, V{sub T} undergoes hardly any shift. On the other hand, the value of mobility is lightly decreased with increasing the thickness of pentacene due to the effect of the bulk current. Thus the V{sub T} shift is attributed to the increase of drain current in the sandwich device. In order to explain the V{sub T} shift, a model was assumed in the linear region of thin film transistor operation and the V{sub T} shift agrees with a tan{sup −1} function of film thickness. The total charge density (Q{sub 0}) of 1.53 × 10{sup −7} C/cm{sup 2} (9.56 × 10{sup 11} electrons or holes/cm{sup 2}) was obtained. Furthermore, the V{sub T} shift and Q{sub 0} could be adjusted by selecting a p-type semiconductor. - Highlights: • A threshold voltage was in-situ measured in an organic sandwich thin film transistor. • Density of pn-heterojunction interface states by evaluating the threshold voltage shift. • The threshold voltage shift attributes to the increase of drain current. • In order to explain the threshold voltage shift, a model was assumed.

  19. Work function and quantum efficiency study of metal oxide thin films on Ag(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, V.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Harrison, N. M.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing the quantum efficiency (QE) of metal photocathodes is in the design and development of photocathodes for free-electron laser applications. The growth of metal oxide thin films on certain metal surfaces has previously been shown to reduce the work function (WF). Using a photoemission model B. Camino et al. [Comput. Mater. Sci. 122, 331 (2016), 10.1016/j.commatsci.2016.05.025] based on the three-step model combined with density functional theory calculations we predict that the growth of a finite number of MgO(100) or BaO(100) layers on the Ag(100) surface increases significantly the QE compared with the clean Ag(100) surface for a photon energy of 4.7 eV. Different mechanisms for affecting the QE are identified for the different metal oxide thin films. The addition of MgO(100) increases the QE due to the reduction of the WF and the direct excitation of electrons from the Ag surface to the MgO conduction band. For BaO(100) thin films, an additional mechanism is in operation as the oxide film also photoemits at this energy. We also note that a significant increase in the QE for photons with an energy of a few eV above the WF is achieved due to an increase in the inelastic mean-free path of the electrons.

  20. Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Esmaieli Ghodsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available   Retraction Notice    The paper "Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route" by H. Absalan and F. E. Ghodsi, which appeared in Iranian Journal of Physics Research, Vol. 11, No. 4, 423-428 (in Farsi is translation of the paper "Comparative Study of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Different Sol-Gel Route" by F. E. Ghodsi and H. Absalan, which appeared in ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol 118 (2010 (in English and for this reason is retracted from this journal.The corresponding author  (and also the first author is the only responsible person for this action.   

  1. Subcritical switching dynamics and humidity effects in nanoscale studies of domain growth in ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, Cédric; Paruch, Patrycja

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric domain switching in c-axis-oriented epitaxial Pb(Zr 0.2 Ti 0.8 )O 3 thin films was studied using biased scanning probe microscopy tips. While linear and logarithmic dependence of domain size on tip bias and writing time, respectively, are well known, we report an additional linear dependence on relative humidity in the 28–65% range. We map out the switched domain size as a function of both the tip bias and the applied pulse time and describe a growth-limited regime for very short pulses and a nucleation-limited regime for very low tip bias. Using ‘interrupted-switching’ measurements, we probe the nucleation regime with subcritical pulses and identify a surprisingly long relaxation time on the order of 100 ms, which we relate to ionic redistribution both on the surface and within the thin film itself. (paper)

  2. Study of structural and optical properties of PbS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homraruen, T.; Sudswasd, Y.; Sorod, R.; Kayunkid, N.; Yindeesuk, W.

    2018-03-01

    This research aimed to synthesize lead sulfide (PbS) thin films on glass slides using the successive ion layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. We studied the optical properties and structure of PbS thin films by changing the number of dipping cycles and the concentration of precursor solution. The results of this experiment show that different conditions have a considerable influence on the thickness and absorbance of the films. When the number of dipping cycles and the concentration of the solution are increased, film thickness and absorbance tend to become higher. The xrays diffraction pattern showed all the diffraction peaks which confirmed the face center cubic and the structure of PbS had identified. Grain size computation was used to confirm how much these conditions could be affected.

  3. Experimental study of the plasma fluorination of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Li Qi; Ji Zheng Ming; Feng Yi Jun; Kang Lin; Yang Sen Zu; Wu Pei Heng; Wang Xiao Shu; Ye Yuda

    2002-01-01

    The authors have experimentally studied the surface modifications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) thin films using CF sub 4 plasma. The intensity of the plasma fluorination was controlled by changing the biasing voltage and the time of the plasma treatment. Microstructural analyses reveal that the oxygen content of the YBCO thin films was changed. Transport measurements of sufficient fluorinated YBCO films imply that the films changed totally into an oxygen-deficient semi-conducting state. From these experimental results, the authors believe that plasma fluorination is quite a useful method to form controllable a thin barrier layer in fabricating interface engineered junctions and to form a stable narrow weak-link region in fabricating planar superconductor-normal-superconductor junctions

  4. Studies on Various Functional Properties of Titania Thin Film Developed on Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Asha; Darshana R, Bangoria; Misra, S. N.

    A sol-gel based TiO2 thin film was applied on glazed wall tiles for studying its various functional properties. Thin film was deposited by spin coating on the substrate and subjected to curing at different temperatures such as 600°C, 650, 700°C, 750°C and 800°C with 10 minutes soaking. The gel powder was characterized by FTIR, DTA/TG and XRD. Microstructure of thin film was analyzed by FESEM and EDX. Surface properties of the coatings such as gloss, colour difference, stain resistance, mineral hardness and wettability were extensively studied. The antibacterial activity of the surface of coated substrate against E. coli was also examined. The durability of the coated substrate in comparison to the uncoated was tested against alkali in accordance with ISO: 10545 (Part 13):1995 standard. FESEM images showed that thin films are dense and homogeneous. Coated substrates after firing results in lustre with high gloss, which increased from 330 to 420 GU as the curing temperature increases compared to that of uncoated one (72 GU). Coated substrate cured at 800°C shows higher mineral hardness (5 Mohs’) compared to uncoated one (4 Mohs’) and films cured at all temperatures showed stain resistance. The experimental results showed that the resistance towards alkali attack increase with increase in curing temperature and alkali resistance of sample cured at 800 °C was found to be superior compared to uncoated substrate. Contact angle of water on coated surface of substrates decreased with increase in temperature. Bacterial reduction percentages of the coated surface was 97% for sample cured at 700°C and it decreased from 97% to 87% as the curing temperature increased to 800 °C when treated with E. coli bacteria.

  5. Niobium thin film deposition studies on copper surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Roach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin film coatings have the potential to increase both the thermal efficiency and accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. However, before this potential can be realized, systematic studies on structure-property correlations in these thin films need to be carried out since the reduced geometry, combined with specific growth parameters, can modify the physical properties of the materials when compared to their bulk form. Here, we present our systematic studies of Nb thin films deposited onto Cu surfaces to clarify possible reasons for the limited success that this process exhibited in previous attempts. We compare these films with Nb grown on other surfaces. In particular, we study the crystal structure and surface morphology and their effect on superconducting properties, such as critical temperature and lower critical field. We found that higher deposition temperature leads to a sharper critical temperature transition, but also to increased roughness indicating that there are competing mechanisms that must be considered for further optimization.

  6. Ellipsometry study of process deposition of amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide sputtered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talagrand, C.; Boddaert, X.; Selmeczi, D.G.; Defranoux, C.; Collot, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an InGaZnO optical study by spectrometric ellipsometry. First of all, the fitting results of different models and different structures are analysed to choose the most appropriate model. The Tauc–Lorentz model is suitable for thickness measurements but a more complex model allows the refractive index and extinction coefficient to be extracted more accurately. Secondly, different InGaZnO process depositions are carried out in order to investigate stability, influence of deposition time and uniformity. Films present satisfactory optical stability over time. InGaZnO optical property evolution as a function of deposition time is related to an increase in temperature. To understand the behaviour of uniformity, mapping measurements are correlated to thin film resistivity. Results show that temperature and resputtering are the two phenomena that affect IGZO uniformity. - Highlights: • Model and structure are investigated to fit IGZO ellipsometric angles. • Maximum refractive index rises with substrate temperature and thus deposition time. • Resputtering leads to inhomogeneity in IGZO electrical and optical properties

  7. Ellipsometry study of process deposition of amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talagrand, C., E-mail: talagrand@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne CMP-GC, Dept PS2, Gardanne, 880 route de Mimet (France); Boddaert, X. [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne CMP-GC, Dept PS2, Gardanne, 880 route de Mimet (France); Selmeczi, D.G.; Defranoux, C. [Semilab Semiconductor Physics Laboratory Co. Ltd., Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Collot, P. [Ecole Nationale Supérieure d' Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Aix-en-Provence, 2 cours des Arts et Métiers (France)

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on an InGaZnO optical study by spectrometric ellipsometry. First of all, the fitting results of different models and different structures are analysed to choose the most appropriate model. The Tauc–Lorentz model is suitable for thickness measurements but a more complex model allows the refractive index and extinction coefficient to be extracted more accurately. Secondly, different InGaZnO process depositions are carried out in order to investigate stability, influence of deposition time and uniformity. Films present satisfactory optical stability over time. InGaZnO optical property evolution as a function of deposition time is related to an increase in temperature. To understand the behaviour of uniformity, mapping measurements are correlated to thin film resistivity. Results show that temperature and resputtering are the two phenomena that affect IGZO uniformity. - Highlights: • Model and structure are investigated to fit IGZO ellipsometric angles. • Maximum refractive index rises with substrate temperature and thus deposition time. • Resputtering leads to inhomogeneity in IGZO electrical and optical properties.

  8. In situ X-ray synchrotron study of organic semiconductor ultra-thin films growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, J.-F.; Dinelli, F.; Massi, M.; Albonetti, C.; Kshirsagar, R.; Biscarini, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present an X-ray diffraction study of the early stages of growth of an organic semiconductor (sexithiophene, T 6 ) thin film prepared by high vacuum sublimation. Specular reflectometry and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction were used to monitor the formation of T 6 films on silicon oxide. Our results show that T 6 grows as a crystalline layer from the beginning of the evaporation. The reflectometry analysis suggests that, in the range of rates and temperatures studied, the growth is never layer by layer but rather 3D in nature. In-plane GIXD has allowed us to observe for the first time a thin film phase of T 6 formed of molecules standing normal to the substrate and arranged in a compressed unit cell with respect to the bulk, i.e. the unit cell parameters b and c are relatively smaller. We have followed the dynamics of formation of this new phase and identified the threshold of appearance of the bulk phase, which occurs above ∼5-6 monolayers. These results are relevant to the problem of organic thin film transistors, for which we have previously demonstrated experimentally that only the first two monolayers of T 6 films are involved in the electrical transport. The layers above the second one do not effectively contribute to charge mobility, either because they are more 'disordered' or because of a screening of the gate field

  9. Studies on the Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Cobalt Phthalocyanine Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Cobalt Phthalocyanine (CoPc are fabricated at a base pressure of 10-5 m.bar using Hind-Hivac thermal evaporation plant. The films are deposited on to glass substrates at various temperatures 318, 363, 408 and 458K. The optical absorption spectra of these thin films are measured. The present studies reveal that the optical band gap energies of CoPc thin films are almost same on substrate temperature variation. The structure and surface morphology of the films deposited on glass substrates of temperatures 303, 363 and 458K are studied using X-ray diffractograms and Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM, which show that there is a change in the crystallinity and surface morphology due to change in the substrate temperatures. Full width at half maximum (FWHM intensity of the diffraction peaks is also found reduced with increasing substrate temperatures. Scanning electron micrographs show that these crystals are needle like, which are interconnected at high substrate temperatures. The optical band gap energy is almost same on substrate temperature variation. Trap energy levels are also observed for these films.

  10. Studies on electrodeposited Cd1-xFe xS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, S.K.; Kokate, A.V.; Sathe, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Thin films of Cd 1-x Fe x S have been prepared on stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates using electrodeposition technique. Double distilled water containing precursors of Cd, Fe and S are used with ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) disodium salt as a complexing agent to obtain good quality deposits by controlling the rate of reactions. The different preparative parameters like concentration of bath, deposition time, pH of the bath and Fe content in the bath have been optimized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) technique in order to get good quality thin films. Different techniques have been used to characterize electrodeposited Cd 1-x Fe x S thin films. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the films Cd 1-x Fe x S are polycrystalline in nature with crystallite size 282 A for the films deposited with optimized preparative parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study for the sample deposited at optimized preparative parameters reveals that all grains uniformly distributed over the surface of stainless steel substrate indicates well defined growth of polycrystalline Cd-Fe-S material. Optical absorption shows the presence of direct transition and band gap energy decreases from 2.43 to 0.81 eV with the increase of Fe content from 0 to 1. PEC study shows the films of Cd 1-x Fe x S with x = 0.2 are more photosensitive than other compositions

  11. Study of post annealing influence on structural, chemical and electrical properties of ZTO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vipin Kumar; Kumar, Praveen; Kumar, Mahesh; Jain, Praveen; Bhandari, Deepika; Vijay, Y.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Structural, chemical and electrical properties of cost effective ZTO thin films with varying concentrations. → Effect of annealing of ZTO films. - Abstract: Zinc-Tin-Oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate with varying concentrations (ZnO:SnO 2 ; 100:0, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 wt.%) at room temperature by flash evaporation technique. These deposited ZTO films were annealed at 450 deg. C in vacuum. These films were characterized to study the effect of annealing and addition of SnO 2 concentration on the structural, chemical and electrical properties. The XRD analysis indicates that crystallization of the ZTO films strongly depends on the concentration of SnO 2 and post annealing where annealed films showed polycrystalline nature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images manifest the surface morphology of these ZTO thin films. The XPS core level spectra of Zn(2p), O(1s) and Sn(3d) have been deconvoluted into their Gaussian component to evaluate the chemical changes, while valence band spectra reveal the electronic structures of these films. A small shift in Zn(2p) and Sn(3d) core level towards higher binding energy and O(1s) core level towards lower binding energy have been observed. The minimum electrical resistivity (ρ ∼ 3.69 x 10 -2 Ω-cm), maximum carrier concentration (n ∼ 3.26 x 10 19 cm -3 ) and Hall mobility (μ ∼ 5.2 cm 2 v -1 s -1 ) were obtained for as-prepared ZTO (50:50) film thereafter move towards lowest resistivity (ρ ∼ 1.12 x 10 -3 Ω-cm), highest carrier concentration (n ∼ 2.96 x 10 20 cm -3 ) and mobility (μ ∼ 18.8 cm 2 v -1 s -1 ) for annealed ZTO (50:50) thin film.

  12. Modeling and Analysis of Entropy Generation in Light Heating of Nanoscaled Silicon and Germanium Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Nájera-Carpio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the irreversible processes in light heating of Silicon (Si and Germanium (Ge thin films are examined. Each film is exposed to light irradiation with radiative and convective boundary conditions. Heat, electron and hole transport and generation-recombination processes of electron-hole pairs are studied in terms of a phenomenological model obtained from basic principles of irreversible thermodynamics. We present an analysis of the contributions to the entropy production in the stationary state due to the dissipative effects associated with electron and hole transport, generation-recombination of electron-hole pairs as well as heat transport. The most significant contribution to the entropy production comes from the interaction of light with the medium in both Si and Ge. This interaction includes two processes, namely, the generation of electron-hole pairs and the transferring of energy from the absorbed light to the lattice. In Si the following contribution in magnitude comes from the heat transport. In Ge all the remaining contributions to entropy production have nearly the same order of magnitude. The results are compared and explained addressing the differences in the magnitude of the thermodynamic forces, Onsager’s coefficients and transport properties of Si and Ge.

  13. The study of voids in the AuAl thin-film system using the nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, H. S.; Pretorius, R.; Prozesky, V. M.; Churms, C. L.

    1997-07-01

    A Nuclear Microprobe (NMP) was used to study void formation in thin film gold-aluminium systems. Microprobe Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (μRBS) was utilised to effectively obtain a three-dimensional picture of the void structure on the scale of a few nanometers in the depth dimension and a few microns in the in-plane dimension. This study illustrates the usefulness of the NMP in the study of materials and specifically thin-film structures.

  14. Micro-Raman spectroscopy studies of bulk and thin films of CuInTe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthan, M R; Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Kasiviswanathan, S

    2009-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements were made on polycrystalline and amorphous thin films of CuInTe 2 as well as bulk polycrystalline CuInTe 2 . Various vibrational modes exhibited by the bulk and polycrystalline thin films were attributed to those expected for single crystal CuInTe 2 . Raman spectra of amorphous films presented a broad spectrum, decomposition of which revealed the presence of elemental tellurium on the film surface. Laser-induced changes on CuInTe 2 thin films were studied by acquiring spectra with higher laser beam power. Modes due to tellurium appeared when the spectra were acquired during laser–sample interaction, indicating tellurium segregation. The Raman spectra measured from polycrystalline films during high laser power irradiation did not show decrease in the intensity of the A 1 mode of CuInTe 2 in spite of loss of tellurium from the lattice. This has been interpreted as related to an increased contribution from the undistorted subsurface CuInTe 2 region at higher excitation power

  15. Substrate-HTcS thin film interaction studies by (S)TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, P.P.J.; Klepper, D.; Kitazawa, K.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper concerns with compatibility aspects beween HTcS thin film either their substrates. The influence of substrate-thin film interaction and thin film microstructure on the superconducting properties is discussed. In this respect, data based on (S)TEM observations are presented. It is

  16. Modeling of absorption data complicated by Fabry endash Perot interference in germanosilicate thin-film waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons-Potter, K.; Simmons, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Complex absorption spectra obtained from thin films at normal incidence can be difficult to interpret owing to the appearance of Fabry endash Perot interference fringes in the data. We describe a technique for modeling such spectra so that true absorption features can be identified and evaluated separately from the overlying fringes. The technique is used to interpret data obtained from photosensitive germanosilicate solgel films on fused-silica substrates but may be easily extended to analysis in other material systems. copyright 1996 Optical Society of America

  17. Optimization of Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E for the production of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz P, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    This work is about an Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E, it shows the principle of vacuum thermal evaporation, some observations in the operation of vacuum diffusion pumps, mechanical pumps, vacuum gauge, Penning and Pirani, and some equations of leak vacuum, after the modifications and additions of Edwards vacuum coating unit for optimization, the last part contains a concise introduction about thin films and one specific application, it also contains the recommendations and requirements to keep the system in good conditions. (Author)

  18. Acoustic study of YBa2Cu3Ox thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Chi, C.; Koren, G.; Gupta, A.

    1991-01-01

    The attenuation of surface acoustic waves by epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O x films has been studied for x congruent 6 to 7. For fully oxygenated samples, the acoustic attenuation as a function of temperature shows two broad peaks at about 135 and 240 K, and decreases monotonically below the lower peak temperature. The cause of attenuation peaks is attributed to scattering by optical phonons. Our data do not show any gap structure at T c due to relatively weak electron-phonon interactions at the acoustic frequencies. As the oxygen deficiency increases, the temperature dependence of the dc resistance changes from metallic to semiconducting and finally to insulating behavior. Acoustic attenuation data correspondingly show a drastic change due to different attenuation mechanisms: from the phonon scattering loss in the metallic regime to the electric-field coupling loss in the semiconducting and insulating regimes. In the latter regimes, the temperature dependence of low-frequency resistance calculated from the attenuation data can be fitted to a three-dimensional Mott variable-range-hopping model

  19. Modeling of metal thin film growth: Linking angstrom-scale molecular dynamics results to micron-scale film topographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, U.; Rodgers, S.; Jensen, K. F.

    2000-07-01

    A general method for modeling ionized physical vapor deposition is presented. As an example, the method is applied to growth of an aluminum film in the presence of an ionized argon flux. Molecular dynamics techniques are used to examine the surface adsorption, reflection, and sputter reactions taking place during ionized physical vapor deposition. We predict their relative probabilities and discuss their dependence on energy and incident angle. Subsequently, we combine the information obtained from molecular dynamics with a line of sight transport model in a two-dimensional feature, incorporating all effects of reemission and resputtering. This provides a complete growth rate model that allows inclusion of energy- and angular-dependent reaction rates. Finally, a level-set approach is used to describe the morphology of the growing film. We thus arrive at a computationally highly efficient and accurate scheme to model the growth of thin films. We demonstrate the capabilities of the model predicting the major differences on Al film topographies between conventional and ionized sputter deposition techniques studying thin film growth under ionized physical vapor deposition conditions with different Ar fluxes.

  20. Modelling and analysis of the stress distribution in a multi-thin film system Pt/USG/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W. Z.; Roqueta, F.; Craveur, J. C.; Belhenini, S.; Gardes, P.; Tougui, A.

    2018-04-01

    Residual stress analysis is commonly achieved through curvature measurement with the help of Stoney’s formula. However, this conventional approach is inadequate for multi-layer thin film systems, which are widely used in today’s microelectronics. Also, for the thin film case, the residual stress is composed of thermal stress and intrinsic stress. Measuring the wafer curvature at room temperature provides a value for the average stresses in the layer, the two components cannot be distinguished by the existing methodologies of curvature measurement. To alleviate these problems, a modified curvature method combining finite element (FE) modelling is proposed to study the stress distribution in a Pt/USG/Si structure. A 2D FE model is firstly built in order to calculate the thermal stress in the multilayer structure, the obtained thermal stresses in respective films are verified by an analytical model. Then, we calculate the warpage of the multilayer structure by considering the intrinsic stress in the respective films. The residual stresses in the films are determined by minimizing the difference between the simulated warpage and that of experimental measurement. The proposed approach can be used to calculate not only the average residual stress but also thermal and intrinsic stress components in the USG and Platinum films. The obtained residual and intrinsic stresses from a numerical model are compared with the values of other studies. There is no limitation for the application of our methodologies regarding the number of the layers in the stack.

  1. Nanocrystalline CsPbBr3 thin films: a grain boundary opto-electronic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, G.; Somma, F.; Nikl, M.

    2005-01-01

    CsPbBr3 thin films with nanocrystalline morphology were studied by using optoelectronic techniques to infer the grain boundary region in respect of the crystallite's interior performance. Co-evaporation of puri-fied powders or crushed Bridgman single crystals were used to deposit materials and compare recombina-tion mechanism and dielectric relaxation processes within them. Nanosecond photoconduction decay was observed on both materials as well as activated hopping transport. An asymmetric Debye-like peak was evaluated from impedance spectroscopy with a FWHM value, which remains constant for 1.25 +/- 0.02 deca-des, addressing the presence of a tight conductivity relaxation times distribution. The evaluated activation energy, equal to 0.72 +/- 0.05 eV, similar to that estimated by DC measurements, is well smaller then that expected for an intrinsic material with exciton absorption at 2.36 eV. A simple model based on Voigt's elements was used to model the electronic characteristics of these nanostructured materials, to discuss observed results and define the role played by grain boundaries.

  2. Closed-loop model: An optimization of integrated thin-film magnetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghazaly, Amal, E-mail: amale@stanford.edu [Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Sato, Noriyuki [Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); White, Robert M. [Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Wang, Shan X. [Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • An analytical model for inductance of thin-film magnetic devices was developed. • Different device topologies and magnetic permeabilities were addressed. • Inductance of various topologies were calculated and compared with simulation. • The model predicts simulated values with excellent accuracy. - Abstract: A generic analytical model has been developed to fully describe the flux closure through magnetic inductors. The model was applied to multiple device topologies including solenoidal single return path and dual return path inductors as well as spiral magnetic inductors for a variety of permeabilities and dimensions. The calculated inductance values from the analytical model were compared with simulated results for each of the analyzed device topologies and found to agree within 0.1 nH for the range of typical thin-film magnetic permeabilities (∼10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}). Furthermore, the model can be used to evaluate behavior in other integrated or discrete magnetic devices with either non-isotropic or isotropic permeability and used to produce more efficient device designs in the future.

  3. Using COMSOL Multiphysics Software to Analyze the Thin Film Resistance Model of a Conductor on PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradero-Santiago, Carolyn; Merced-Sanabria, Milzaida; Vedrine-Pauléus, Josee

    2015-03-01

    In this research work, we will develop a virtual model to analyze the electrical conductivity of a thin film with three layers, one of graphene or conducting metal film, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). COMSOL Multiphysics will be the software use to develop the virtual model to analyze the thin-film layers. COMSOL software allows simulation and modelling of physical phenomena represented by differential equations such as that of heat transfer, fluid movement, electromagnetism and structural mechanics. In the work, we will define the geometry of the model; in this case we want three layers-PET, the conducting layer and PEDOT:PSS. We will then add the materials and assign PET as the lower layer, the above conductor as the middle layer and the PEDOT:PSS as the upper layer. We will analyze the model with varying thickness of the top conducting layer. This simulation will allow us to analyze the electrical conductivity, and visualize the model with varying voltage potential, or bias across the plates.

  4. Effect of Grain Boundaries on the Performance of Thin-Film-Based Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: A Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Nikita; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2018-01-01

    Solar cells/photovoltaic, a renewable energy source, is appraised to be the most effective alternative to the conventional electrical energy generator. A cost-effective alternative of crystalline wafer-based solar cell is thin-film polycrystalline-based solar cell. This paper reports the numerical analysis of dependency of the solar cell parameters (i.e., efficiency, fill factor, open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density) on grain size for thin-film-based polycrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. A minority carrier lifetime model is proposed to do a correlation between the grains, grain boundaries and lifetime for thin-film-based polycrystalline Si solar cells in MATLAB environment. As observed, the increment in the grain size diameter results in increase in minority carrier lifetime in polycrystalline Si thin film. A non-equivalent series resistance double-diode model is used to find the dark as well as light (AM1.5) current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for thin-film-based polycrystalline Si solar cells. To optimize the effectiveness of the proposed model, a successive approximation method is used and the corresponding fitting parameters are obtained. The model is validated with the experimentally obtained results reported elsewhere. The experimentally reported solar cell parameters can be found using the proposed model described here.

  5. The uniformity study of non-oxide thin film at device level using electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Peng; Zheng, Yuankai; Li, Shaoping; Wang, Haifeng

    2018-05-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) has been widely used as a chemical analysis technique to characterize materials chemical properties, such as element valence states, atoms/ions bonding environment. This study provides a new method to characterize physical properties (i.e., film uniformity, grain orientations) of non-oxide thin films in the magnetic device by using EELS microanalysis on scanning transmission electron microscope. This method is based on analyzing white line ratio of spectra and related extended energy loss fine structures so as to correlate it with thin film uniformity. This new approach can provide an effective and sensitive method to monitor/characterize thin film quality (i.e., uniformity) at atomic level for thin film development, which is especially useful for examining ultra-thin films (i.e., several nanometers) or embedded films in devices for industry applications. More importantly, this technique enables development of quantitative characterization of thin film uniformity and it would be a remarkably useful technique for examining various types of devices for industrial applications.

  6. Rapid Optimization of External Quantum Efficiency of Thin Film Solar Cells Using Surrogate Modeling of Absorptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mine; Hajimirza, Shima

    2018-05-25

    This paper uses surrogate modeling for very fast design of thin film solar cells with improved solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency. We demonstrate that the wavelength-specific optical absorptivity of a thin film multi-layered amorphous-silicon-based solar cell can be modeled accurately with Neural Networks and can be efficiently approximated as a function of cell geometry and wavelength. Consequently, the external quantum efficiency can be computed by averaging surrogate absorption and carrier recombination contributions over the entire irradiance spectrum in an efficient way. Using this framework, we optimize a multi-layer structure consisting of ITO front coating, metallic back-reflector and oxide layers for achieving maximum efficiency. Our required computation time for an entire model fitting and optimization is 5 to 20 times less than the best previous optimization results based on direct Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations, therefore proving the value of surrogate modeling. The resulting optimization solution suggests at least 50% improvement in the external quantum efficiency compared to bare silicon, and 25% improvement compared to a random design.

  7. Critical behaviour of magnetic thin film with Heisenberg spin-S model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrour, R.; Hamedoun, M.; Bouslykhane, K.; Hourmatallah, A.; Benzakour, N.; Benyoussef, A.

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic thin film of face centered cubic (FCC) lattice with Heisenberg spin-S are examined using the high-temperature series expansions technique extrapolated with Pade approximations method. The critical reduced temperature of the system τ c is studied as function of thickness of the film and the exchange interactions in the bulk, and within the surfaces J b , J s and J perpendicular respectively. A critical value of surface exchange interaction above which surface magnetism appears is obtained. The dependence of the reduced critical temperature on the film thickness L has been investigated.

  8. Modeling drain current of indium zinc oxide thin film transistors prepared by solution deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Lei; Liang, Xiaoci; Cai, Guangshuo; Pei, Yanli; Yao, Ruohe; Wang, Gang

    2018-06-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin film transistor (TFT) deposited by solution method is of considerable technological interest as it is a key component for the fabrication of flexible and cheap transparent electronic devices. To obtain a principal understanding of physical properties of solution-processed IZO TFT, a new drain current model that account for the charge transport is proposed. The formulation is developed by incorporating the effect of gate voltage on mobility and threshold voltage with the carrier charges. It is demonstrated that in IZO TFTs the below threshold regime should be divided into two sections: EC - EF > 3kT and EC - EF ≤ 3kT, where kT is the thermal energy, EF and EC represent the Fermi level and the conduction band edge, respectively. Additionally, in order to describe conduction mechanisms more accurately, the extended mobility edge model is conjoined, which can also get rid of the complicated and lengthy computations. The good agreement between measured and calculated results confirms the efficiency of this model for the design of integrated large-area thin film circuits.

  9. Nonlinear surface impedance of YBCO thin films: Measurements, modeling, and effects in devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, D.E.; Koren, G.; Polturak, E.

    1995-01-01

    High-T c thin films continue to be of interest for passive device applications at microwave frequencies, but nonlinear effects may limit the performance. To understand these effects we have measured the nonlinear effects may limit the performance. To understand these effects we have measured the nonlinear surface impedance Z s in a number of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin films as a function of frequency from 1 to 18 GHz, rf surface magnetic field H rf to 1500 Oe, and temperature from 4 K to T c . The results at low H rf are shown to agree quantitatively with a modified coupled-grain model and at high H rf with hysteresis-loss calculations using the Bean critical-state model applied to a thin strip. The loss mechanisms are extrinsic properties resulting from defects in the films. We also report preliminary measurements of the nonlinear impedance of Josephson junctions, and the results are related to the models of nonlinear Z s . The implications of nonlinear Z s for devices are discussed using the example of a five-pole bandpass filter

  10. Structural study of Ge/GaAs thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarov, V K; Lari, L; Lytvyn, P M; Kholevchuk, V V; Mitin, V F

    2012-01-01

    Ge/GaAs heterostructure research is largely motivated by the application of this material in solar cells, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, mm-wave mixer diodes, temperature sensors and photodetectors. Therefore, understanding of how the properties of Ge/GaAs heterostructure depend on its preparation (growth) is of importance for various high-efficiency devices. In this work, by using thermal Ge evaporation on GaAs(100), we studied structural properties of these films as a function of the deposition rate. Film grains size and morphology show strong dependence of the deposition rate. Low deposition rates results in films with large crystal grains and rough surface. At high deposition rates films become flatter and their crystal grains size decreases, while at very high deposition rates films become amorphous. Cross-sectional TEM of the films show that the Ge films are granular single crystal epitaxially grown on GaAs. The Ge/GaAs interface is atomically abrupt and free from misfit dislocations. Stacking faults along the [111] directions that originate at the interface were also observed. Finally by using the Kelvin probe microscopy we show that work function changes are related to the grain structure of the film.

  11. Structural and dielectric studies of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural, dielectric and leakage current properties of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films deposited on platinized silicon (Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The role of oxygen mixing percentage (OMP on the growth, morphology, electrical and dielectric properties of the thin films has been investigated. A preferred orientation of grains along (110 direction has been observed with increasing the OMP. Such evolution of the textured growth is explained on the basis of the orientation factor analysis followed the Lotgering model. (Mg1-xCoxTiO3 (x = 0.05 thin films exhibits a maximum relative dielectric permittivity of ɛr = 12.20 and low loss (tan δ ∼ 1.2 × 10−3 over a wide range of frequencies for 75% OMP. The role of electric field frequency (f and OMP on the ac-conductivity of (Mg0.95Co0.05TiO3 have been studied. A progressive increase in the activation energy (Ea and relative permittivity ɛr values have been noticed up to 75% of OMP, beyond which the properties starts deteriorate. The I-V characteristics reveals that the leakage current density decreases from 9.93 × 10−9 to 1.14 × 10−9 A/cm2 for OMP 0% to 75%, respectively for an electric field strength of 250 kV/cm. Our experimental results reveal up to that OMP ≥ 50% the leakage current mechanism is driven by the ohmic conduction, below which it is dominated by the schottky emission.

  12. Theoretical study of the multiferroic properties in M-doped (M=Co, Cr, Mg) ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahoosh, S.G. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Apostolov, A.T. [University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Faculty of Hydrotechnics, Department of Physics, 1, Hristo Smirnenski Blvd., 1046 Sofia (Bulgaria); Apostolova, I.N. [University of Forestry, Faculty of Forest Industry, 10, Kl. Ohridsky Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Trimper, S. [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Wesselinowa, Julia M. [University of Sofia, Department of Physics, Blvd. J. Bouchier 5, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-01-01

    The origin of multiferroism is still an open problem in ZnO. We propose a microscopic model to clarify the occurrence of multiferroism in this material. Using Green's function technique we study the influence of ion doping and size effects on the magnetization and polarization of ZnO thin films. The calculations for magnetic Co- and Cr-ions are based on the s–d model, the transverse Ising model in terms of pseudo-spins and a biquadratic magnetoelectric coupling, whereas in case of nonmagnetic Mg-ions the model takes into account the Coulomb interaction and an indirect coupling between the pseudo-spins via the conduction electrons. We show that the magnetization M exhibits a maximum for a fixed concentration of the doping ions. Furthermore M increases with decreasing film thickness N. The polarization increases with increasing concentration of the dopant and decreasing N. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data. - Highlights: • The paper analyzes the multiferroic properties of doped ZnO thin films by a microscopic model. • The magnetization exhibits a maximum at a fixed doping concentration. • The polarization increases with growing dopant concentration. • The ferroelectric transition temperature is enhanced for increasing dopant concentration.

  13. A liquid-like model for the morphology evolution of ion bombarded thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, L., E-mail: luca.repetto@unige.it [Department of Physics and Nanomed Labs, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Lo Savio, R. [Department of Physics and Nanomed Labs, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Šetina Batič, B. [Inštitut Za Kovinske Materiale in Tehnologije, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Firpo, G.; Angeli, E.; Valbusa, U. [Department of Physics and Nanomed Labs, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Thin solid films exposed to ion irradiation exhibit a peculiar evolution that can differ substantially from what is observed for bulk samples. The phenomenology of the patterns that self-organize on the substrate is very rich, with morphologies that display several degrees of order upon the modification of initial film characteristics and irradiation parameters. This richness paves the way for the fabrication of novel functional surfaces, but it is also an indication of the complexity of the underlying driving mechanisms. A remarkable simplification for the comprehension of these phenomena can come from the noteworthy similarity of the obtained patterns with those showing up when liquids dewet from their substrates. Here, we analyze the possibility to apply a liquid-like model to explain the morphology evolution of ion bombarded thin films for the whole phenomenology showing up in experiments. In establishing this connection between liquids and ion bombarded thin films, we propose to use also for liquids the insight gained for our system with recent experiments that stress the importance of the substrate topography for the selection of the dewetting mechanism. If confirmed, this result would lead to a reconsideration of the importance of capillary waves in spinodal dewetting, and will help to understand the low reproducibility of the related experimental results.

  14. Modeling growth kinetics of thin films made by atomic layer deposition in lateral high-aspect-ratio structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylilammi, Markku; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2018-05-01

    The conformality of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is studied using all-silicon test structures with long narrow lateral channels. A diffusion model, developed in this work, is used for studying the propagation of ALD growth in narrow channels. The diffusion model takes into account the gas transportation at low pressures, the dynamic Langmuir adsorption model for the film growth and the effect of channel narrowing due to film growth. The film growth is calculated by solving the diffusion equation with surface reactions. An efficient analytic approximate solution of the diffusion equation is developed for fitting the model to the measured thickness profile. The fitting gives the equilibrium constant of adsorption and the sticking coefficient. This model and Gordon's plug flow model are compared. The simulations predict the experimental measurement results quite well for Al2O3 and TiO2 ALD processes.

  15. Thickness and temperature dependence of electrical resistivity of p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 thin films prepared by flash evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Xingkai; Yang Junyou; Zhu, W; Fan, X A; Bao, S Q

    2006-01-01

    P-type Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 thin films with thicknesses in the range 80-320 nm have been deposited by the flash evaporation method on glass substrates at 473 K. XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope were performed to characterize the thin films. The results show that the thin films are polycrystalline and the grain size of the thin films increases with increasing thickness of the thin films. Compositional analysis of the thin films was also carried out by energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. A near linear relationship was observed between the electrical resistivity and the inverse thickness of the annealed thin films, and it agrees with Tellier's model. Electrical resistivity of the annealed thin films was studied in the temperature range 300-350 K, and their thermal activation behaviour was characterized, the activation energy for conduction decreases with increasing thickness of the thin films

  16. Modeling of thermal, electronic, hydrodynamic, and dynamic deposition processes for pulsed-laser deposition of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; LeBoeuf, J.N.; Wood, R.F.; Geohegan, D.B.; Donato, J.M.; Chen, K.R.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1994-11-01

    Various physical processes during laser ablation of solids for pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) are studied using a variety of computational techniques. In the course of the authors combined theoretical and experimental effort, they have been trying to work on as many aspects of PLD processes as possible, but with special focus on the following areas: (a) the effects of collisional interactions between the particles in the plume and in the background on the evolving flow field and on thin film growth, (b) interactions between the energetic particles and the growing thin films and their effects on film quality, (c) rapid phase transformations through the liquid and vapor phases under possibly nonequilibrium thermodynamic conditions induced by laser-solid interactions, (d) breakdown of the vapor into a plasma in the early stages of ablation through both electronic and photoionization processes, (c) hydrodynamic behavior of the vapor/plasma during and after ablation. The computational techniques used include finite difference (FD) methods, particle-in-cell model, and atomistic simulations using molecular dynamics (MD) techniques

  17. Study on optimization of YBCO thin film stack for compact NMR magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Kimoto, T.; Hahn, S.; Iwasa, Y.; Voccio, J.; Tomita, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stacking methods for compact NMR magnet using YBCO thin films were tested. ► The stacking angles are 0°, 22.5° and 90° against the rolling direction. ► The best spatial field homogeneity was obtained in rotation angle of 22.5°. ► The maximum trapped magnetic fields of 0.4 T was obtained at 77.4 K. ► The maximum trapped magnetic fields of 0.95 T was obtained at 21 K. -- Abstract: A compact high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet, which consists of a stack of 500 HTS thin film annuli, was constructed and tested. Each thin film annulus, manufactured by the AMSC using the Rolling Assisted Bi-axially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) method, has a square cross-section of 40 mm × 40 mm with a thickness of 80 m. It has a 25-mm center hole created by machining. This paper reports a study on the anisotropic J c issue due to the rolling procedure of the Ni substrate direction and its impact on field homogeneity. Also, three different stacking methods with rotation angles of 22.5°, 90°, and 0° against the rolling direction have been tested to study their impacts on strength, spatial homogeneity, and temporal stability of trapped fields. Finally, the 500-annulus magnet was tested at 21 K under a cryogen-free environment using a GM cryocooler. The spatial field homogeneity and temporal stability were measured at 21 K and compared with those obtained in a bath of liquid nitrogen at 77 K

  18. Structural and Optical Studies of Magnesium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Arpana Agrawal; Tanveer Ahmad Dar; Pratima Sen

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the structural and optical properties of Magnesium doped Zinc Oxide (Mg  3.5 %, 6 %, 9 %, 12 % by weight) thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, Ultra-violet visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results reveal the polycrystalline nature of samples with no impurity or secondary phase formation. Ultra-violet visible absorption spectroscopy studies...

  19. A Study on the Thickness Measurement of Thin Film by Ultrasonic Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eung Kyo; Lee, Jae Joon; Kim, Jae Yeol

    1988-01-01

    Recently, it is gradually raised necessity that thickness of thin film is measured accurately and managed in industrial circles and medical world. In this study, regarding to the thickness of film which is in opaque object and is beyond distance resolution capacity, thickness measurement was done by MEM-cepstrum analysis of received ultrasonic wave. In measurement results, film thickness which is beyond distance resolution capacity was measured accurately. And within thickness range that don't exist interference, thickness measurement by MEM-ceptrum analysis was impossible

  20. Dielectric property study of poly(4-vinylphenol)-graphene oxide nanocomposite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti

    2018-05-01

    Thin film capacitor device having a sandwich structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass/polymer or polymer nanocomposite /silver has been fabricated and their dielectric and leakage current properties has been studied. The dielectric properties of the capacitors were characterized for frequencies ranging from 1 KHz to 1 MHz. 5 wt% Poly(4-vinylphenol)(PVPh)-Graphene (GO) nanocomposite exhibited an increase in dielectric constant to 5.6 and small rise in dielectric loss to around˜0.05 at 10 KHz w.r.t polymer. The DC conductivity measurements reveal rise of leakage current in nanocomposite.

  1. Comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikoglu, A. T.; Jia, Q. X.; Kwon, C.; Reagor, D. W.; Kaduchak, G.; Rasmussen, K. Oe.; Bishop, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used a coplanar waveguide structure to study broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate. We have incorporated both time- and frequency-domain measurements to determine small-signal effective refractive index and loss tangent as functions of frequency (up to 4 GHz), dc bias (up to 10 6 V/m), and cryogenic temperature (17 and 60 K). The large-signal impulse response of the devices and the associated phenomenological nonlinear wave equation illustrate how dissipation and nonlinearity combine to produce the overall response in the large-signal regime. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics

  2. Study of deposition rae coating of Ag thin films by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanati, M.; Zendehnam, A.

    2003-01-01

    Exact knowledge about deposition rate and its distribution and variation of them with respect to coating parameters (Gas pressure, Distance, discharge current,..) is very vital. In this experimental research coating of Ag thin films by magnetron sputtering have been carried out over Ar pressure range of 10 -2 -10 -1 mbar, and discharge current up to 1000 m.A, and distance between glass substrates to silver target (Cathode) was changed from 5 to 15 cm. The obtained results have been investigated by help of computer curve fitting, and these studies show a very good agreement for the conditions used in this work

  3. Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films studied by a pulsed positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Shioya, Y.; Ishimaru, T.

    2003-01-01

    Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films has been investigated by means of measurement techniques with a monoenergetic pulsed positron beam. The age-momentum correlation study revealed that positron annihilation in thermally grown SiO 2 is basically the same as that in bulk amorphous SiO 2 while o-Ps in the PECVD grown SiCOH film predominantly annihilate with electrons of C and H at the microvoid surfaces. We also discuss time-dependent three-gamma annihilation in porous low-k films by two-dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

  4. Nanostructure and bonding of zirconium diboride thin films studied by X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, David M., E-mail: david.stewart@maine.edu; Meulenberg, Robert W.; Lad, Robert J., E-mail: rjlad@maine.edu

    2015-12-01

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB{sub 2}) is an important ceramic due to its extremely high melting temperature of 3245 °C and metallic electrical conductivity, properties that make it an ideal candidate thin film electrode material for high temperature electronics. In this report, thin films of varying B:Zr ratio ranging from 3–0.67 have been grown by e-beam evaporation from elemental sources. X-ray absorption spectra at the Zr K-edge were measured before and after annealing in ultra-high vacuum for 9 h at 1000 °C. Films with compositions near ZrB{sub 2} stoichiometry show X-ray absorption fine structure that can be well modeled by crystalline ZrB{sub 2} with a small portion of a coexisting tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO{sub 2}) phase. Films far from stoichiometry show substantial disorder beyond the nearest-neighbor distances, and after vacuum annealing exhibit high levels of oxidation. Contributions to the X-ray absorption fine structure from a pure Zr phase are very small compared to ZrB{sub 2} and t-ZrO{sub 2} phases. The fact that nearly stoichiometric (3 < B:Zr < 1.6) as-deposited amorphous films form the same crystalline ZrB{sub 2} nanostructure after annealing is particularly encouraging for high temperature thin film electronics applications, because it would allow the production of highly stable electrodes with e-beam evaporation without the need of any high temperature heating during film growth. - Highlights: • Zr–B thin films of different compositions were grown at low substrate temperatures. • EXAFS analysis indicates a ZrB{sub 2} crystal structure after vacuum annealing. • The coexistence of crystalline and amorphous Zr–B phases is also observed. • Films with excess Zr readily form t-ZrO{sub 2} during deposition, which coexists with ZrB{sub 2}. • Low temperature synthesis routes are important for technological applications.

  5. Experimental study of Pulsed Laser Deposited Cu2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandur, Abhishek S.

    Thin film solar cells are gaining momentum as a renewable energy source. Reduced material requirements (15 mum in total thickness) solar cells. Among the various thin film solar absorbers that have been proposed, CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) has become the subject of intense interest because of its optimal band gap (1.45 eV), high absorption coefficient (104 cm--1 ) and abundant elemental components. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) provides excellent control over film composition since films are deposited under high vacuum with excellent stoichiometry transfer from the target. Defect-free, near-stoichiometric poly-crystalline CZTS thin films were deposited using PLD from a stoichiometrically close CZTS target (Cu2.6Zn1.1Sn0.7S3.44). The effects of fabrication parameters such as laser energy density, deposition time, substrate temperature and sulfurization (annealing in sulfur) on the surface morphology, composition and optical absorption of the CZTS thin films were examined. The results show that the presence of secondary phases, present both in the bulk and on the surface, affected the electrical and optical properties of the CZTS thin films and the CZTS based TFSCs. After selectively etching away the secondary phases with DIW, HCl and KCN, it was observed that their removal improved the performance of CZTS based TFSCs. Optimal CZTS thin films exhibited an optical band gap of 1.54 eV with an absorption coefficient of 4x10 4cm-1 with a low volume of secondary phases. A TFSC fabricated with the best CZTS thin film obtained from the experimental study done in this thesis showed a conversion efficiency of 6.41% with Voc = 530 mV, Jsc= 27.5 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 0.44.

  6. Characterization of thin-film silicon materials and solar cells through numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    At present most commercially available solar cells are made of crystalline silicon (c-Si). The disadvantages of crystalline silicon solar cells are the high material cost and energy consumption during production. A cheaper alternative can be found in thin-film silicon solar cells. The thin-film

  7. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Ø. Jensen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of normal-incidence, high-flux and high-energy X-rays, total scattering data for pair distribution function (PDF analysis have been obtained from thin films (tf, suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. The `tfPDF' method is illustrated through studies of as-deposited (i.e. amorphous and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows the prediction of whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.

  8. Dating by fission track method: study of neutron dosimetry with natural uranium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iunes, P.J.

    1990-06-01

    Fission track dating is described, focalizing the problem of the decay constant for spontaneous fission of 238 U and the use of neutron dosimetry in fission track analysis. Experimental procedures using thin films of natural uranium as neutron dosimeters and its results are presented. The author shows a intercomparison between different thin films and between the dosimetry with thin film and other dosimetries. (M.V.M.). 52 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs

  9. Deuterium absorption in Mg70Al30 thin films with bilayer catalysts: A comparative neutron reflectometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, Eric; Harrower, Chris T.; Kalisvaart, Peter; Bird, Adam; Teichert, Anke; Wallacher, Dirk; Grimm, Nico; Steitz, Roland; Mitlin, David; Fritzsche, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mg 70 Al 30 thin films studied for hydrogen absorption using in situ neutron reflectometry. → Films with Ta/Pd, Ti/Pd and Ni/Pd bilayer catalysts systematically compared. → Measurements reveals deuterium spillover from the catalysts to the MgAl phase. → The use of Ti-Pd bilayer offers best results in terms of amount absorbed and kinetics. → Key results cross-checked with X-ray reflectometry. - Abstract: We present a neutron reflectometry study of deuterium absorption in thin films of Al-containing Mg alloys capped with a Ta/Pd, Ni/Pd and Ti/Pd-catalyst bilayer. The measurements were performed at room temperature over the 0-1 bar pressure range under quasi-equilibrium conditions. The modeling of the measurements provided a nanoscale representation of the deuterium profile in the layers at different stages of the absorption process. The absorption mechanism observed was found to involve spillover of atomic deuterium from the catalyst layer to the Mg alloy phase, followed by the deuteration of the Mg alloy. Complete deuteration of the Mg alloy occurs in a pressure range between 100 and 500 mbar, dependent on the type of bilayer catalyst. The use of a Ti/Pd bilayer catalyst yielded the best results in terms of both storage density and kinetic properties.

  10. Thin Film CIGS Solar Cells, Photovoltaic Modules, and the Problems of Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Parisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the results regarding a nonvacuum technique to fabricate CIGS thin films for solar cells by means of single-step electrodeposition, we focus on the methodological problems of modeling at cell structure and photovoltaic module levels. As a matter of fact, electrodeposition is known as a practical alternative to costly vacuum-based technologies for semiconductor processing in the photovoltaic device sector, but it can lead to quite different structural and electrical properties. For this reason, a greater effort is required to ensure that the perspectives of the electrical engineer and the material scientist are given an opportunity for a closer comparison and a common language. Derived parameters from ongoing experiments have been used for simulation with the different approaches, in order to develop a set of tools which can be used to put together modeling both at single cell structure and complete module levels.

  11. Modelling the evaporation of thin films of colloidal suspensions using dynamical density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, M J; Archer, A J; Thiele, U [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-19

    Recent experiments have shown that various structures may be formed during the evaporative dewetting of thin films of colloidal suspensions. Nanoparticle deposits of strongly branched 'flower-like', labyrinthine and network structures are observed. They are caused by the different transport processes and the rich phase behaviour of the system. We develop a model for the system, based on a dynamical density functional theory, which reproduces these structures. The model is employed to determine the influences of the solvent evaporation and of the diffusion of the colloidal particles and of the liquid over the surface. Finally, we investigate the conditions needed for 'liquid-particle' phase separation to occur and discuss its effect on the self-organized nanostructures. (paper)

  12. Studies on resistive switching times in NiO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, P; Sahu, V K; Ajimsha, R S; Das, A K; Singh, B

    2017-01-01

    The resistive switching dynamics of NiO thin films in Au/NiO/Pt device configuration have been investigated to measure the switching times of set and reset events and their dependence on compliance current and switching voltages. The set switching time was found to be ∼10 ns at the set voltage of ∼1.8 V, while reset switching time was much longer ∼150 µ s at reset voltage of 0.8 V. With increasing compliance current from 5 to 75 mA during set process, although the resistance contrast of two states improved due to the decrease in the resistance of the low resistance state, the reset switching time increased substantially up to ∼3 ms while set time remained nearly unchanged. The fast reset switching time of ∼27 ns, comparable to that of set switching time, was achieved by applying a higher reset voltage of ∼1.2 V. The observed dependence of reset time on compliance current and reset voltage in NiO thin films was explained in light of the conducting filamentary model in which reset process is of thermal nature and involves dissolution of conducting filaments as a consequence of Joule heating generated by the reset current. (paper)

  13. In situ X-ray diffraction study of crystallization process of GeSbTe thin films during heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Naohiko [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)]. E-mail: e0957@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Konomi, Ichiro [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Seno, Yoshiki [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    The crystallization processes of the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film used for PD and DVD-RAM were studied in its realistic optical disk film configurations for the first time by X-ray diffraction using an intense X-ray beam of a synchrotron orbital radiation facility (SPring-8) and in situ quick detection with a Position-Sensitive-Proportional-Counter. The dependence of the amorphous-to-fcc phase-change temperature T{sub 1} on the rate of temperature elevation R{sub et} gave an activation energy E{sub a}: 0.93 eV much less than previously reported 2.2 eV obtained from a model sample 25-45 times thicker than in the real optical disks. The similar measurement on the Ge{sub 4}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 5} film whose large reflectance change attains the readability by CD-ROM drives gave E{sub a}: 1.13 eV with larger T{sub 1} than Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films at any R{sub et} implying a lower sensitivity in erasing as well as a better data stability of the phase-change disk.

  14. In situ X-ray diffraction study of crystallization process of GeSbTe thin films during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Naohiko; Konomi, Ichiro; Seno, Yoshiki; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization processes of the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin film used for PD and DVD-RAM were studied in its realistic optical disk film configurations for the first time by X-ray diffraction using an intense X-ray beam of a synchrotron orbital radiation facility (SPring-8) and in situ quick detection with a Position-Sensitive-Proportional-Counter. The dependence of the amorphous-to-fcc phase-change temperature T 1 on the rate of temperature elevation R et gave an activation energy E a : 0.93 eV much less than previously reported 2.2 eV obtained from a model sample 25-45 times thicker than in the real optical disks. The similar measurement on the Ge 4 Sb 1 Te 5 film whose large reflectance change attains the readability by CD-ROM drives gave E a : 1.13 eV with larger T 1 than Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin films at any R et implying a lower sensitivity in erasing as well as a better data stability of the phase-change disk

  15. Quantum-dot size and thin-film dielectric constant: precision measurement and disparity with simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinolds, Darcy D W; Brown, Patrick R; Harris, Daniel K; Bulovic, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-01-14

    We study the dielectric constant of lead sulfide quantum dot (QD) films as a function of the volume fraction of QDs by varying the QD size and keeping the ligand constant. We create a reliable QD sizing curve using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), thin-film SAXS to extract a pair-distribution function for QD spacing, and a stacked-capacitor geometry to measure the capacitance of the thin film. Our data support a reduced dielectric constant in nanoparticles.

  16. Passive optical limiting studies of nanostructured Cu doped ZnO-PVA composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgadge, Y. S.; Sunatkari, A. L.; Talwatkar, S. S.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    We prepared undoped and Cu doped ZnO semiconducting nanoparticles (NPs) by chemical co-precipitation method and obtained Cu doped ZnO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films by spin coating to investigate third order nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties under cw laser excitation. Powder samples of NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. XRD pattern and FE-SEM micrograph revealed the presence of hexagonal wurtzite phase ZnO NPs having uniform morphology with average particle size of 20 nm. The presence of excitons and absorption peaks in the range 343-360 nm, revealed by UV-vis study, were attributed to excitons in n = 1 quantum state. Third order NLO properties of all composite thin films were investigated by He-Ne continuous wave (cw) laser of wavelength 632.8 nm using Z-scan technique. Thermally stimulated enhanced values of nonlinear refraction and absorption coefficients were obtained which may be attributed to self-defocusing effect, reverse saturable absorption, weak free carrier absorption and surface states properties originated from thermo optic effect. Optical limiting properties have been studied using cw diode laser of wavelength 808 nm and results are presented.

  17. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on the piezoelectric response of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydok, A., E-mail: davydok@mpie.de [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Department Structure and Nano-/Micromechanics of Materials, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Cornelius, T.W. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France); Mocuta, C. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, DiffAbs beamline, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lima, E.C. [Universidade Federal do Tocantins, 77500-000 Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil); Araujo, E.B. [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Brasil, 56 Centro, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Thomas, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France)

    2016-03-31

    Piezoelectric properties of randomly oriented self-polarized PbZr{sub 0.50}Ti{sub 0.50}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Possibilities for investigating the piezoelectric effect using micro-sized hard X-ray beams are demonstrated and perspectives for future dynamical measurements on PZT samples with variety of compositions and thicknesses are given. Studies performed on the crystalline [100, 110] directions evidenced piezoelectric anisotropy. The piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} was calculated in terms of the lab reference frame (d{sub perp}) and found to be two times larger along the [100] direction than along the [110] direction. The absolute values for the d{sub perp} amount to 120 and 230 pm/V being in good agreement with experimental and theoretical values found in literature for bulk PZT ceramics. - Highlights: • We performed in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies on (PZT) thin films. • We discuss anisotropy of piezo effect in different crystallographic directions. • Perpendicular component Piezo coefficient of thin PZT layer is defined.

  18. AFM study of growth of Bi2Sr2-xLaxCuO6 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haitao Yang; Hongjie Tao; Yingzi Zhang; Duogui Yang; Lin Li; Zhongxian Zhao

    1997-01-01

    c-axis-oriented Bi 2 Sr 1.6 La 0.4 CuO 6 thin films deposited on flat planes of (100)SrTiO 3 , (100)LaAlO 3 and (100)MgO substrates and vicinal planes (off-angle ∼ 6 deg.) of SrTiO 3 substrates by RF magnetron sputtering were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). T c of these films reached 29 K. Film thickness ranged from 15 nm to 600 nm. Two typical growth modes have been observed. AFM images of thin films on flat planes of substrates showed a terraced-island growth mode. By contrast, Bi-2201 thin films on vicinal planes of substrates showed a step-flow growth mode. The growth unit is a half-unit-cell in the c-axis for both growth modes. No example of spiral growth, which was thought to be the typical structure of YBCO thin films, was found in either of these kinds of thin films. (author)

  19. Study of Interfacial Interactions Using Thin Film Surface Modification: Radiation and Oxidation Effects in Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    ) multi-scale computational modeling involving first- principle molecular dynamics (FPMD) and coarse-grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) approaches to develop theories underlying the evolution and stability of structures and phases. Samples from Tasks 1 to 3 (above) will be rigorously characterized and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford back scatter spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Expected outcomes of the experimental work include a quantitative understanding film-substrate interface mixing, evolution of defects and other phases at the interface, interaction of interfaces with defects, and the ability of the Y and Ti films to mitigate irradiation-assisted oxidation.The aforementioned experimental work will be closely coupled with multi-scale molecular dynamics (MD) modeling to understand the reactions at the surface, the transport of oxidant through the thin film, and the stabilities of the deposited thin films under radiation and oxidation. Simulations of materials property changes under conditions of radiation and oxidation require multiple size domains and a different simulation scheme for each of these domains. This will be achieved by coupling the FPMD and coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). This will enable the comparison of the results of each simulation approach with the experimental results.

  20. An improved thin film brick-wall model of black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Wen Biao

    2001-01-01

    The authors improve the brick-wall model to take only the contribution of a thin film near the event horizon into account. This improvement not only gives them a satisfactory result, but also avoids some drawbacks in the original brick-wall method such as the little mass approximation, neglecting logarithm term, and taking the term L/sup 3/ as the contribution of the vacuum surrounding a black hole. It is found that there is an intrinsic relation between the event horizon and the entropy. The event horizon is the characteristic of a black hole, so the entropy calculating of a black hole is also naturally related to its horizon. (12 refs).

  1. Fringes in FTIR spectroscopy revisited: understanding and modelling fringes in infrared spectroscopy of thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevskikh, Tatiana; Ponossov, Arkadi; Blümel, Reinhold; Lukacs, Rozalia; Kohler, Achim

    2015-06-21

    The appearance of fringes in the infrared spectroscopy of thin films seriously hinders the interpretation of chemical bands because fringes change the relative peak heights of chemical spectral bands. Thus, for the correct interpretation of chemical absorption bands, physical properties need to be separated from chemical characteristics. In the paper at hand we revisit the theory of the scattering of infrared radiation at thin absorbing films. Although, in general, scattering and absorption are connected by a complex refractive index, we show that for the scattering of infrared radiation at thin biological films, fringes and chemical absorbance can in good approximation be treated as additive. We further introduce a model-based pre-processing technique for separating fringes from chemical absorbance by extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC). The technique is validated by simulated and experimental FTIR spectra. It is further shown that EMSC, as opposed to other suggested filtering methods for the removal of fringes, does not remove information related to chemical absorption.

  2. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gułkowski Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  3. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gułkowski, Sławomir; Krawczak, Ewelina

    2017-10-01

    Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS) with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  4. Nanostructures and thin films of transparent conductive oxides studied by perturbed angular correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, M B; Redondo-Cubero, A; Miranda, S M C; Simon, R; Kessler, P; Brandt, M; Henneberger, F; Nogales, E; Méndez, B; Johnston, K; Alves, E; Vianden, R; Araújo, J P; Lorenz, K; Correia, J G

    2013-01-01

    The versatility of perturbed angular correlations (PAC) in the study of nanostructures and thin films is demonstrated, namely for the specific cases of ZnO/Cd$_x$Zn$_{1-x}$O thin films and Ga$_2$O$_3$ powder pellets and nanowires, examples of transparent conductive oxides. PAC measurements as a function of annealing temperature were performed after implantation of $^{111m}$Cd$/^{111}$Cd (T$_{1/2}$=48$\\,$min.) and later compared to density functional theory simulations. For ZnO, the substitution of Cd probes at Zn sites was observed, as well as the formation of a probe-defect complex. The ternary Cd$_x$Zn$_{1-x}$O (x=0.16) showed good macroscopic crystal quality but revealed some clustering of local defects around the probe Cd atoms, which could not be annealed. In the Ga$_2$O$_3$ samples, the substitution of the Cd probes in the octahedral Ga-site was observed, demonstrating the potential of ion-implantation for the doping of nanowires.

  5. Hysteresis loop behaviors of ferroelectric thin films:A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. M. Bedoya-Hincapi´e; H. H. Ortiz-´Alvarez; E. Restrepo-Parra; J. J. Olaya-Fl´orez; J. E. Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The ferroelectric response of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) thin film is studied through a Monte Carlo simulation of hysteresis loops. The ferroelectric system is described by using a Diffour Hamiltonian with three terms: the electric field applied in the z direction, the nearest dipole–dipole interaction in the transversal (x–y) direction, and the nearest dipole–dipole interaction in the direction perpendicular to the thin film (the z axis). In the sample construction, we take into consideration the dipole orientations of the monoclinic and orthorhombic structures that can appear in BIT at low temperature in the ferroelectric state. The effects of temperature, stress, and the concentration of pinned dipole defects are assessed by using the hysteresis loops. The results indicate the changes in the hysteresis area with temperature and stress, and the asymmetric hysteresis loops exhibit evidence of the imprint failure mechanism with the emergence of pinned dipolar defects. The simulated shift in the hysteresis loops conforms to the experimental ferroelectric response.

  6. Hysteresis loop behaviors of ferroelectric thin films: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Bedoya-Hincapié, C.; H. Ortiz-Álvarez, H.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; J. Olaya-Flórez, J.; E. Alfonso, J.

    2015-11-01

    The ferroelectric response of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) thin film is studied through a Monte Carlo simulation of hysteresis loops. The ferroelectric system is described by using a Diffour Hamiltonian with three terms: the electric field applied in the z direction, the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the transversal (x-y) direction, and the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the direction perpendicular to the thin film (the z axis). In the sample construction, we take into consideration the dipole orientations of the monoclinic and orthorhombic structures that can appear in BIT at low temperature in the ferroelectric state. The effects of temperature, stress, and the concentration of pinned dipole defects are assessed by using the hysteresis loops. The results indicate the changes in the hysteresis area with temperature and stress, and the asymmetric hysteresis loops exhibit evidence of the imprint failure mechanism with the emergence of pinned dipolar defects. The simulated shift in the hysteresis loops conforms to the experimental ferroelectric response. Project sponsored by the research departments of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia DIMA and DIB under Project 201010018227-“Crecimiento y caracterización eléctrica y estructural de películas delgadas de BixTiyOz producidas mediante Magnetrón Sputtering” and Project 12920-“Desarrollo teóricoexperimental de nanoestructuras basadas en Bismuto y materiales similares” and “Bisnano Project.”

  7. Capability of X-ray diffraction for the study of microstructure of metastable thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rafaja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metastable phases are often used to design materials with outstanding properties, which cannot be achieved with thermodynamically stable compounds. In many cases, the metastable phases are employed as precursors for controlled formation of nanocomposites. This contribution shows how the microstructure of crystalline metastable phases and the formation of nanocomposites can be concluded from X-ray diffraction experiments by taking advantage of the high sensitivity of X-ray diffraction to macroscopic and microscopic lattice deformations and to the dependence of the lattice deformations on the crystallographic direction. The lattice deformations were determined from the positions and from the widths of the diffraction lines, the dependence of the lattice deformations on the crystallographic direction from the anisotropy of the line shift and the line broadening. As an example of the metastable system, the supersaturated solid solution of titanium nitride and aluminium nitride was investigated, which was prepared in the form of thin films by using cathodic arc evaporation of titanium and aluminium in a nitrogen atmosphere. The microstructure of the (Ti,AlN samples under study was tailored by modifying the [Al]/[Ti] ratio in the thin films and the surface mobility of the deposited species.

  8. Growth and Etch Rate Study of Low Temperature Anodic Silicon Dioxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akarapu Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon dioxide (SiO2 thin films are most commonly used insulating films in the fabrication of silicon-based integrated circuits (ICs and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS. Several techniques with different processing environments have been investigated to deposit silicon dioxide films at temperatures down to room temperature. Anodic oxidation of silicon is one of the low temperature processes to grow oxide films even below room temperature. In the present work, uniform silicon dioxide thin films are grown at room temperature by using anodic oxidation technique. Oxide films are synthesized in potentiostatic and potentiodynamic regimes at large applied voltages in order to investigate the effect of voltage, mechanical stirring of electrolyte, current density and the water percentage on growth rate, and the different properties of as-grown oxide films. Ellipsometry, FTIR, and SEM are employed to investigate various properties of the oxide films. A 5.25 Å/V growth rate is achieved in potentiostatic mode. In the case of potentiodynamic mode, 160 nm thickness is attained at 300 V. The oxide films developed in both modes are slightly silicon rich, uniform, and less porous. The present study is intended to inspect various properties which are considered for applications in MEMS and Microelectronics.

  9. Experiments and numerical modeling of fast flowing liquid metal thin films under spatially varying magnetic field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Manmeet Singh

    Innovative concepts using fast flowing thin films of liquid metals (like lithium) have been proposed for the protection of the divertor surface in magnetic fusion devices. However, concerns exist about the possibility of establishing the required flow of liquid metal thin films because of the presence of strong magnetic fields which can cause flow disrupting MHD effects. A plan is underway to design liquid lithium based divertor protection concepts for NSTX, a small spherical torus experiment at Princeton. Of these, a promising concept is the use of modularized fast flowing liquid lithium film zones, as the divertor (called the NSTX liquid surface module concept or NSTX LSM). The dynamic response of the liquid metal film flow in a spatially varying magnetic field configuration is still unknown and it is suspected that some unpredicted effects might be lurking. The primary goal of the research work being reported in this dissertation is to provide qualitative and quantitative information on the liquid metal film flow dynamics under spatially varying magnetic field conditions, typical of the divertor region of a magnetic fusion device. The liquid metal film flow dynamics have been studied through a synergic experimental and numerical modeling effort. The Magneto Thermofluid Omnibus Research (MTOR) facility at UCLA has been used to design several experiments to study the MHD interaction of liquid gallium films under a scaled NSTX outboard divertor magnetic field environment. A 3D multi-material, free surface MHD modeling capability is under development in collaboration with HyPerComp Inc., an SBIR vendor. This numerical code called HIMAG provides a unique capability to model the equations of incompressible MHD with a free surface. Some parts of this modeling capability have been developed in this research work, in the form of subroutines for HIMAG. Extensive code debugging and benchmarking exercise has also been carried out. Finally, HIMAG has been used to study the

  10. Diffusivity, solubility and thermodynamic modelling of diffusion growth of Ga"3"+-doped LiTaO_3 thin film for integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, De-Long; Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Pei; Kang, Jian; Wong, Wing-Han; Yu, Dao-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Diffusion growth of Ga"3"+-doped LiTaO_3(LT) thin film was studied thermodynamically. Some Ga"3"+-doped LT thin films were grown on LT surface by in-diffusion of homogeneously coated Ga_2O_3 film at the temperature range of (1273 to 1473) K. The Ga"3"+ profile in the grown thin film was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Form the measured Ga"3"+ profiles, some thermodynamic parameters were obtained. These include diffusivity, diffusion constant, chemical activation energy, solubility, solubility constant and enthalpy of solution. These parameters are crucial to design and growth of a Ga"3"+-doped LT thin film with desired Ga"3"+ profile for integrated optics application. A thermodynamic model is suggested for the growth and verified experimentally. - Highlights: • Diffusion growth of Ga"3"+-doped LiTaO_3 thin film were studied thermodynamically. • Diffusion constant is 1.41 · 10"−"6 m"2/s and activation energy is 237.2 kJ/mol. • Solubility constant is 22.9 · 10"2"6 ions/m"3 and enthalpy of solution is 28.9 kJ/mol. • Ga"3"+ dopant has small effect on LiTaO_3 refractive index. • Ga"3"+ growth can be described by a Fick-type equation with a constant diffusivity. - Abstract: A thermodynamic study was performed on diffusion growth of Ga"3"+-doped LiTaO_3(LT) thin film for integrated optics. Some Ga"3"+-doped LT thin films were grown on LT surface by in-diffusion of homogeneously coated Ga_2O_3 film at the temperature range of (1273 to 1473) K. After growth, the refractive indices at Ga"3"+-doped and un-doped surface parts were measured by prism coupling technique and Li composition there was evaluated from the measured refractive indices. The results show that Ga"3"+ dopant has small effect on the LT index. Li_2O out-diffusion is not measurable. The Ga"3"+ profile in the grown thin film was analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It is found that the grown Ga"3"+ ions follow a complementary error function profile. A

  11. Temperature studies of optical parameters of (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films prepared by rapid thermal evaporation and pulse laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Kutsyk, M. M.; Buchuk, M. Yu.; Rati, Y. Y.; Neimet, Yu. Yu.; Izai, V. Yu.; Kökényesi, S.; Nemec, P.

    2016-02-01

    (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films were deposited using rapid thermal evaporation (RTE) and pulse laser deposition (PLD) techniques. Ag-enriched micrometre-sized cones (RTE) and bubbles (PLD) were observed on the thin film surface. Optical transmission spectra of the thin films were studied in the temperature range 77-300 K. The Urbach behaviour of the optical absorption edge in the thin films due to strong electron-phonon interaction was observed, the main parameters of the Urbach absorption edge were determined. Temperature dependences of the energy position of the exponential absorption edge and the Urbach energy are well described in the Einstein model. Dispersion and temperature dependences of refractive indices were analysed; a non-linear increase of the refractive indices with temperature was revealed. Disordering processes in the thin films were studied and compared with bulk composites, the differences between the thin films prepared by RTE and PLD were analysed.

  12. Characterization of thin-film multilayers using magnetization curves and modeling of low-angle X-ray diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, M. [Emory & Henry College, VA (United States); Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    We have characterized thin-film multilayers grown by ion-beam sputtering using magnetization curves and modeling of low-angle x-ray diffraction data. In our films, we use ferromagnetic layer = Co, Fe, and NiFe and spacer layer = Si, Ge, FeSi{sub 2}, and CoSi{sub 2}. We have studied the effects of (1) deposition conditions; (2) thickness of layers; (3) different layer materials; and (4) annealing. We find higher magnetization in films grown at 1000V rather than 500V and in films with spacer layers of 50{angstrom} rather than 100{angstrom}. We find higher coercivity in films with cobalt grown on germanium rather than silicon, metal grown on gold underlayers rather than on glass substrates, and when using thinner spacer layers. Finally, modeling reveals that films grown with disilicide layers are more thermally stable than films grown with silicon spacer layers.

  13. Mathematical modelling of thin films growth and calculation of coefficients reflection, transmission and absorption waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istratov, A. V.; Gerke, M. N.

    2018-01-01

    Progress in nano- and microsystem technology is directly related to the development of thin-film technologies. At the present time, thin metal films can serve as the basis for the creation of new instruments for nanoelectronics. One of the important parameters of thin films affecting the characteristics of devices is their optical properties. That is why the island structures, whose optical properties, can change in a wide range depending on their morphology, are of increasing interest. However, despite the large amount of research conducted by scientists from different countries, many questions about the optimal production and use of thin films remain unresolved.

  14. Study on the Preparation and Properties of Colored Iron Oxide Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xianhui; Li Changhong; Liu Qiuping; He Junjing; Wang Hai; Liang Song; Duan Yandong; Liu Su

    2013-01-01

    Colored iron oxide thin films were prepared using Sol-gel technique. The raw materials were tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), etoh ehanol (EtOH), iron nitrate, and de-ionized water. Various properties were measured and analysed, including the colour of thin films, surface topography, UV-Visible spectra, corrosion resistance and hydrophobicity. To understand how these properties influenced the structural and optical properties of Fe 2 O 3 thin films, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), UV Spectrophotometer and other facilities were employed. Many parameters influence the performance of thin films, such as film layers, added H 2 O content, and the amount of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). When the volume ratio of TEOS, EtOH and H 2 O was 15: 13: 1, the quality of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O was 6g, and pH value was 3, reddish and uniform Fe 2 O 3 thin films with excellent properties were produced. Obtained thin films possessed corrosion resistance in hydrochloric acid with pH=l and the absorption edge wavelength was ∼350.2nm. Different H 2 O contents could result in different morphologies of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. When 1.5 ml PDMS was added into the Sol, thin films possessed hydrophobiliry without dropping. Coating with different layers, thin films appeared different morphologies. Meanwhile, with the increment of film layers, the absorbance increased gradually.

  15. Simulation on Mechanical Properties of Tungsten Carbide Thin Films Using Monte Carlo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam C. Agudelo-Morimitsu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the mechanical behavior of a system composed by substrate-coating using simulation methods. The contact stresses and the elastic deformation were analyzed by applying a normal load to the surface of the system consisting of a tungsten carbide (WC thin film, which is used as a wear resistant material and a stainless steel substrate. The analysis is based on Monte Carlo simulations using the Metropolis algorithm. The phenomenon was simulated from a fcc facecentered crystalline structure, for both, the coating and the substrate, assuming that the uniaxial strain is taken in the z-axis. Results were obtained for different values of normal applied load to the surface of the coating, obtaining the Strain-stress curves. From this curve, the Young´s modulus was obtained with a value of 600 Gpa, similar to the reports.

  16. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films from dimethyl sulfoxide solution: Nucleation and growth mechanism, structural and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, R.; Badan, A.; Grez, P.; Munoz, E.; Vera, J.; Dalchiele, E.A.; Marotti, R.E.; Gomez, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrodeposition of CdSe nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films. → Polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a slight (1010) preferred orientation. → Absorption edge shifts in the optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films have been synthesized by electrodeposition at controlled potential based in the electrochemical reduction process of molecular selenium in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The nucleation and growth mechanism of this process has been studied. The XRD pattern shows a characteristic polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with a slight (1 0 1 0) crystallographic preferred orientation. The crystallite size of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films can be simply controlled by the electrodeposition potential. A quantum size effect is deduced from the correlation between the band gap energy and the crystallite size.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Visan, A.; Socol, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Surdu, A.V.; Oprea, A.E.; Grumezescu, A.M. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, Bucharest, 011061 Romania (Romania); Chifiriuc, M.C. [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest - ICUB, Bucharest, 77206 (Romania); Boehm, R.D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R.J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chrisey, D.B. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • We successfully deposited composite quercetin dehydrate-, resveratrol- and silver nanoparticle-polyvinylpyrrolidone thin coatings with chemical structure close to that of the starting materials by MAPLE. • Thin film morphology studies revealed a uniform surface without aggregates or grains on the top of the surface. • MAPLE-deposited thin films exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. • We demonstrated the potential use of these hybrid systems and MAPLE deposition method for the development of new harmless, ecological antimicrobial strategies. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF{sup *} excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, R.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Surdu, A.V.; Oprea, A.E.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Chifiriuc, M.C.; Boehm, R.D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R.J.; Chrisey, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We successfully deposited composite quercetin dehydrate-, resveratrol- and silver nanoparticle-polyvinylpyrrolidone thin coatings with chemical structure close to that of the starting materials by MAPLE. • Thin film morphology studies revealed a uniform surface without aggregates or grains on the top of the surface. • MAPLE-deposited thin films exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. • We demonstrated the potential use of these hybrid systems and MAPLE deposition method for the development of new harmless, ecological antimicrobial strategies. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF * excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  19. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  20. Modelling Defects Acceptors And Determination Of Electric Model From The Nyquist Plot And Bode In Thin Film CIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demba Diallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The performance of the chalcopyrite material CuInGaSe2 CIGS used as an absorber layer in thin-film photovoltaic devices is significantly affected by the presence of native defects. Multivalent defects e.g. double acceptors or simple acceptor are important immaterial used in solar cell production in general and in chalcopyrite materials in particular. We used the thin film solar cell simulation software SCAPS to enable the simulation of multivalent defects with up to five different charge states.Algorithms enabled us to simulate an arbitrary number of possible states of load. The presented solution method avoids numerical inaccuracies caused by the subtraction of two almost equal numbers. This new modelling facility is afterwards used to investigate the consequences of the multivalent character of defects for the simulation of chalcopyrite based CIGS. The capacitance increase with the evolution of the number of defects C- f curves have found to have defect dependence.

  1. Multi-material gate poly-crystalline thin film transistors: Modeling and simulation for an improved gate transport efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, Amit; Mangla, Tina; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional potential distribution formulation is presented for multi-material gate poly-crystalline silicon thin film transistors. The developed formulation incorporates the effects due to traps and grain-boundaries. In short-channel devices, short-channel effects and drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) effect exists, and are accounted for in the analysis. The work aims at the reduction of DIBL effect and grain-boundary effects i.e. to reduce the potential barriers generated in the channel by employing gate-engineered structures. A study of work-functions and electrode lengths of multi-material gate electrode is done to suppress the potential barriers, hot electron effect and to improve the carrier transport efficiency. Green's function approach is adopted for the two-dimensional potential solution. The results obtained show a good agreement with simulated results, thus, demonstrating the validity of our model

  2. Studies on phase transformation and molecular orientation in nanostructured zinc phthalocyanine thin films annealed at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Avijit; Biswas, Bipul; Majumder, Manisree; Sanyal, Manik Kumar; Mallik, Biswanath, E-mail: spbm@iacs.res.in

    2012-08-31

    Studies on the electronic and optical properties of thin films of organometallic compounds such as phthalocyanine are very important for the development of devices based on these compounds. The nucleation and grain growth mechanism play an important role for the final electronic as well as optoelectronic properties of the organic and organometallic thin films. The present article deals with the change in the film morphology, grain orientation of nanocrystallites and optical properties of zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPc) thin films as a function of the post deposition annealing temperature. The effect of annealing temperature on the optical and structural property of vacuum evaporated ZnPc thin films deposited at room temperature (30 Degree-Sign C) on quartz glass and Si(100) substrates has been investigated. The thin films have been characterized by the UV-vis optical absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the studies of UV-vis absorption spectra and XRD data, a metastable {alpha} to {beta}-phase transformation has been observed when the thin films were annealed at a temperature greater than about 250 Degree-Sign C. The FESEM images have shown the particlelike structure at room temperature and the structure became rodlike when the films were annealed at high temperatures. TEM image of ZnPc film dissolved in ethanol has shown spectacular rod-shaped crystallites. High resolution transmission electron microscopy image of a single nanorod has shown beautiful 'honey-comb' like structure. Particle size and root mean square roughness were calculated from AFM images. The changes in band gap energy with increase in annealing temperature have been evaluated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology and orientation of grains in zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin films. Black

  3. A Homogenized Free Energy Model for Hysteresis in Thin-film Shape Memory Alloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Massad, Jordan E; Smith, Ralph C

    2004-01-01

    Thin-film shape memory alloys (SMAs) have become excellent candidates for microactuator fabrication in MEMS due to their capability to achieve very high work densities, produce large deformations, and generate high stresses...

  4. Beyond the Young-Laplace model for cluster growth during dewetting of thin films: effective coarsening exponents and the role of long range dewetting interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Adi; Golubović, Leonardo; Levandovsky, Artem

    2013-09-01

    Long range dewetting forces acting across thin films, such as the fundamental van der Waals interactions, may drive the formation of large clusters (tall multilayer islands) and pits, observed in thin films of diverse materials such as polymers, liquid crystals, and metals. In this study we further develop the methodology of the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of thin films coarsening within continuum interface dynamics model incorporating long range dewetting interactions. The theoretical test bench model considered here is a generalization of the classical Mullins model for the dynamics of solid film surfaces. By analytic arguments and simulations of the model, we study the coarsening growth laws of clusters formed in thin films due to the dewetting interactions. The ultimate cluster growth scaling laws at long times are strongly universal: Short and long range dewetting interactions yield the same coarsening exponents. However, long range dewetting interactions, such as the van der Waals forces, introduce a distinct long lasting early time scaling behavior characterized by a slow growth of the cluster height/lateral size aspect ratio (i.e., a time-dependent Young angle) and by effective coarsening exponents that depend on cluster size. In this study, we develop a theory capable of analytically calculating these effective size-dependent coarsening exponents characterizing the cluster growth in the early time regime. Such a pronounced early time scaling behavior has been indeed seen in experiments; however, its physical origin has remained elusive to this date. Our theory attributes these observed phenomena to ubiquitous long range dewetting interactions acting across thin solid and liquid films. Our results are also applicable to cluster growth in initially very thin fluid films, formed by depositing a few monolayers or by a submonolayer deposition. Under this condition, the dominant coarsening mechanism is diffusive intercluster mass transport while the

  5. Optical band gap study of a-Se and Se-Sb thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Singh, Palwinder; Thakur, Anup

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) and a-Se_9_5Sb_5 alloy were prepared using melt quenching technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared samples. Composition of the prepared samples has been determined using Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) confirmed the glassy nature of the prepared samples. Thin films of the prepared samples were deposited on glass substrate using thermal evaporation method. Amorphous nature of the deposited films was confirmed using XRD. Optical properties of these films were obtained from the UV-VIS transmission spectra, at normal incidence, over 200-1100 nm spectral range. The optical absorption edge was described by using the model given by the Tauc. Optical band gap of the deposited films was calculated using Tauc plot. Optical characterization showed that average transmission and optical band gap decreased with the addition of antinomy.

  6. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. I. Electric dipole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Brien, Daniel B.; Massari, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) applied to organic thin film systems, a significant challenge to data analysis is in the accurate description of optical interference effects. Herein, we provide experimental evidence that a model recently developed in our lab provides an accurate description of this phenomenon. We studied the organic small molecule N,N′-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide vapor deposited as a thickness gradient on silicon wafer substrates with two oxide thicknesses and two surface preps. VSFG data were obtained using the ssp and the sps polarization combinations in the imide carbonyl stretching region as a function of organic thickness. In this first of two reports, the data are modeled and interpreted within the ubiquitous electric dipole approximation for VSFG. The intrinsic sample responses are parameterized during the fitting routines while optical interference effects are simply calculated from the model using known refractive indices, thin film thicknesses, and beam angles. The results indicate that the thin film model provides a good description of optical interferences, indicating that interfacial terms are significant. Inconsistencies between the fitting results within the bounds of the electric dipole response motivate deliberation for additional effects to be considered in the second report

  7. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. I. Electric dipole approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel B; Massari, Aaron M

    2015-01-14

    In the field of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) applied to organic thin film systems, a significant challenge to data analysis is in the accurate description of optical interference effects. Herein, we provide experimental evidence that a model recently developed in our lab provides an accurate description of this phenomenon. We studied the organic small molecule N,N'-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide vapor deposited as a thickness gradient on silicon wafer substrates with two oxide thicknesses and two surface preps. VSFG data were obtained using the ssp and the sps polarization combinations in the imide carbonyl stretching region as a function of organic thickness. In this first of two reports, the data are modeled and interpreted within the ubiquitous electric dipole approximation for VSFG. The intrinsic sample responses are parameterized during the fitting routines while optical interference effects are simply calculated from the model using known refractive indices, thin film thicknesses, and beam angles. The results indicate that the thin film model provides a good description of optical interferences, indicating that interfacial terms are significant. Inconsistencies between the fitting results within the bounds of the electric dipole response motivate deliberation for additional effects to be considered in the second report.

  8. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. I. Electric dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Brien, Daniel B.; Massari, Aaron M., E-mail: massari@umn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota—Twin Cities, 207 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-01-14

    In the field of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) applied to organic thin film systems, a significant challenge to data analysis is in the accurate description of optical interference effects. Herein, we provide experimental evidence that a model recently developed in our lab provides an accurate description of this phenomenon. We studied the organic small molecule N,N′-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide vapor deposited as a thickness gradient on silicon wafer substrates with two oxide thicknesses and two surface preps. VSFG data were obtained using the ssp and the sps polarization combinations in the imide carbonyl stretching region as a function of organic thickness. In this first of two reports, the data are modeled and interpreted within the ubiquitous electric dipole approximation for VSFG. The intrinsic sample responses are parameterized during the fitting routines while optical interference effects are simply calculated from the model using known refractive indices, thin film thicknesses, and beam angles. The results indicate that the thin film model provides a good description of optical interferences, indicating that interfacial terms are significant. Inconsistencies between the fitting results within the bounds of the electric dipole response motivate deliberation for additional effects to be considered in the second report.

  9. Self-diffraction and Z-scan studies in organic dye doped thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhana Sundari, R.; Palanisamy, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Self-diffraction in Acid Red 87 (eosin Y) dye doped thin films is studied using argon ion laser (514.5 nm). Growth of self-diffraction grating is monitored by measuring intensities of various diffraction orders. This study has resulted in the observation of phase variation between the contributing beams in any diffracted order. This change of phase is measured at various stages of grating formation. Due to self-phase modulation, circular concentric rings pattern is obtained in the far field. The observed fluctuation in this pattern may be due to the phase variation between the contributing beams in any diffracted order. Z-scan technique is used to study the optical non-linearity of the sample

  10. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies of cobalt silicide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naftel, S.J.; Coulthard, I.; Hu, Y.; Sham, T.K.; Zinke-Allmang, M.

    1998-01-01

    Cobalt silicide thin films, prepared on Si(100) wafers, have been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) at the Si K-, L 2,3 - and Co K-edges utilizing both total electron (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FLY) detection as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Co K-edge. Samples made using DC sputter deposition on clean Si surfaces and MBE were studied along with a bulk CoSi 2 sample. XANES and EXAFS provide information about the electronic structure and morphology of the films. It was found that the films studied have essentially the same structure as bulk CoSi 2 . Both the spectroscopy and materials characterization aspects of XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structures) are discussed

  11. Structural, morphological and optical studies of F doped SnO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Tarun; Thakur, Vikas; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Zaman, M. Burhanuz; Rajaram, Poolla

    2018-05-01

    Highly conducting and transparent FTO (flourine doped tin Oxide) thin films were grown on the glass substrates using a low cost spray pyrolysis technique. The films were characterized for their structural, morphological and optical studies using XRD, SEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD studies show that the FTO films crystallize in Tetragonal cassiterite structure. Morphological analysis using SEM show that the films are uniformly covered with spherical grains albeit high in surface roughness. The average optical transmission greater than 80% in the visible region along with the appearance of interference fringes in the transmission curves confirms the high quality of the films. Electrical studies show that the films exhibit sheet resistance below 10 Ω ϒ-1.

  12. Synchrotron X-ray studies of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Jeffrey A.

    The study of ferroelectric thin films is a field of considerable scientific and technological interest. In this dissertation synchrotron x-ray techniques were applied to examine the effects of lateral confinement and epitaxial strain in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures. Three materials systems were investigated: laterally confined epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures on SrTiO3 (001), ultra-thin commensurate SrTiO 3 films on Si (001), and coherently strained films of BaTiO3 on DyScO3 (110). Epitaxial films of BiFeO3 were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO 3 (001) substrates. Laterally confined nanostructures were fabricated using focused ion-beam processing and subsequently characterized with focused beam x-ray nanodiffraction measurements with unprecedented spatial resolution. Results from a series of rectangular nanostructures with lateral dimensions between 500 nm and 1 mum and a comparably-sized region of the unpatterned BiFeO3 film revealed qualitatively similar distributions of local strain and lattice rotation with a 2-3 times larger magnitude of variation observed in those of the nanostructures compared to the unpatterned film. This indicates that lateral confinement leads to enhanced variation in the local strain and lattice rotation fields in epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures. A commensurate 2 nm thick film of SrTiO3 on Si was characterized by the x-ray standing wave (XSW) technique to determine the Sr and Ti cation positions in the strained unit cell in order to verify strain-induced ferroelectricity in SrTiO3/Si. A Si (004) XSW measurement at 10°C indicated that the average Ti displacement from the midpoint between Sr planes was consistent in magnitude to that predicted by a density functional theory (DFT) calculated ferroelectric structure. The Ti displacement determined from a 35°C measurement better matched a DFT-predicted nonpolar structure. The thin film extension of the XSW technique was employed to

  13. Studies on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Magnesium Phthalocyanine Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Gopinathan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Magnesium Phthalocyanine (MgPc are prepared by thermal evaporation technique at a base pressure of 10-5 m.bar on thoroughly cleaned glass substrates kept at different constant temperatures. Films of thickness 2400 A.U. coated at room temperature are subjected to post deposition annealing in air by keeping them in a furnace at different constant temperatures, for one hour. The electrical conductivity studies are conducted in the temperature range 300 K to 525 K. The electrical conductivity is plotted as a function of absolute temperature. The conduction mechanism is observed to be hopping. The thermal activation energy is calculated in different cases and is observed to vary with substrate temperature and annealing temperature. A phase change is observed due to post-deposition annealing at around 523 K. The optical absorption studies are done in the UV-Visible region. The optical band gap energies of the samples are calculated.

  14. Study of robust thin film PT-1000 temperature sensors for cryogenic process control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, R.; Boguhn, D.; Fillinger, H.; Schlachter, S. I.; Süßer, M.

    2014-01-01

    In some cryogenic process measurement applications, for example, in hydrogen technology and in high temperature superconductor based generators, there is a need of robust temperature sensors. These sensors should be able to measure the large temperature range of 20 - 500 K with reasonable resolution and accuracy. Thin film PT 1000 sensors could be a choice to cover this large temperature range. Twenty one sensors selected from the same production batch were tested for their temperature sensitivity which was then compared with different batch sensors. Furthermore, the sensor's stability was studied by subjecting the sensors to repeated temperature cycles of 78-525 K. Deviations in the resistance were investigated using ice point calibration and water triple point calibration methods. Also the study of directional oriented intense static magnetic field effects up to 8 Oersted (Oe) were conducted to understand its magneto resistance behaviour in the cryogenic temperature range from 77 K - 15 K. This paper reports all investigation results in detail.

  15. Study of oxide/metal/oxide thin films for transparent electronics and solar cells applications by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Girtan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of a class of Oxide/Metal/Oxide (Oxide = ITO, AZO, TiO2 and Bi2O3, Metal = Au thin films was done by correlating the spectrophotometric studies with the ellispometric models. Films were deposited by successive sputtering from metallic targets In:Sn, Zn:Al, Ti and Bi in reactive atmosphere (for the oxide films and respective inert atmosphere (for the metallic Au interlayer films on glass substrates. The measurements of optical constants n—the refractive index and k—the extinction coefficient, at different incident photon energies for single oxide films and also for the three layers films oxide/metal/oxide samples were made using the spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE technique. The ellipsometry modelling process was coupled with the recorded transmission spectra data of a double beam spectrophotometer and the best fitting parameters were obtained not only by fitting the n and k experimental data with the dispersion fitting curves as usual is practiced in the most reported data in literature, but also by comparing the calculated the transmission coefficient from ellipsometry with the experimental values obtained from direct spectrophotometry measurements. In this way the best dispersion model was deduced for each sample. Very good correlations were obtained for the other different thin films characteristics such as the films thickness, optical band gap and electrical resistivity obtained by other measurements and calculation techniques. The ellipsometric modelling, can hence give the possibility in the future to predict, by ellipsometric simulations, the proper device architecture in function of the preferred optical and electrical properties.

  16. A new in situ technique for studying deformation and fracture in thin film ductile/brittle laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.A.; Milligan, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    A new technique for studying deformation and fracture of thin film ductile/brittle laminates is described. The laminates are prepared by sputtering a brittle coating on top of an electropolished TEM thin foil. The composites are then strained in situ in the TEM. In this preliminary investigation, the composites consisted of a ductile aluminum substrate and a brittle silicon coating. Cracks in the brittle film grew discontinuously in bursts several micrometers in length. The crack opening displacement initiated plastic deformation in the ductile film, thus dissipating energy and allowing crack arrest. The interface was well bonded, and delamination was not observed. Due to the good interfacial bond and the crack opening behind the crack tip, it was possible to study very large plastic deformations and ductile fracture in the aluminum in situ, without buckling of the foil. The possibility of micromechanical modeling of the fracture behavior is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  17. Transient absorption microscopy studies of energy relaxation in graphene oxide thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean; Huang, Libai

    2013-04-10

    Spatial mapping of energy relaxation in graphene oxide (GO) thin films has been imaged using transient absorption microscopy (TAM). Correlated AFM images allow us to accurately determine the thickness of the GO films. In contrast to previous studies, correlated TAM-AFM allows determination of the effect of interactions of GO with the substrate and between stacked GO layers on the relaxation dynamics. Our results show that energy relaxation in GO flakes has little dependence on the substrate, number of stacked layers, and excitation intensity. This is in direct contrast to pristine graphene, where these factors have great consequences in energy relaxation. This suggests intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic ones dominate the excited state dynamics of GO films.

  18. Transient absorption microscopy studies of energy relaxation in graphene oxide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Sean; Huang, Libai

    2013-01-01

    Spatial mapping of energy relaxation in graphene oxide (GO) thin films has been imaged using transient absorption microscopy (TAM). Correlated AFM images allow us to accurately determine the thickness of the GO films. In contrast to previous studies, correlated TAM–AFM allows determination of the effect of interactions of GO with the substrate and between stacked GO layers on the relaxation dynamics. Our results show that energy relaxation in GO flakes has little dependence on the substrate, number of stacked layers, and excitation intensity. This is in direct contrast to pristine graphene, where these factors have great consequences in energy relaxation. This suggests intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic ones dominate the excited state dynamics of GO films. (paper)

  19. Implantation of cobalt in SnO2 thin films studied by TDPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Schell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we report time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC results of Co-doped SnO2 thin films. Making use of stable Co and radioactive 111In implanted at the Bonn Radioisotope Separator with energies of 80 keV and 160 keV, respectively, it was possible to study the dopant incorporation and its lattice location during annealing. The hyperfine parameters have been probed as a function of temperature in vacuum. Two quadrupole interactions were observed. At high temperatures the dominant fraction for the probe nuclei can be assigned to the Cd-incorporation at the cation substitutional site in a highly disordered structure, obtained after implantation, to high crystallinity for the measurements at 873 K and 923 K. The similarity in TDPAC spectra obtained in undoped SnO gives indirect evidence that In and Co diffuse to different depths during the annealing process. Other interpretations will be discussed.

  20. Structural and magnetic studies of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Kalpana; Heda, N. L.; Tiwari, Shailja; Bapna, Komal; Ahuja, B. L.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the structural and magnetic properties of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films deposited on Si (100) and Si (111) using pulsed laser deposition technique. The films were deposited under vacuum and substrate temperature was kept at 700°C. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that films on both substrates have single phase cubic spinel structure. However, the film grown on Si (111) shows better crystalline behavior. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggests that films on both substrates have mixed spinel structure. These films show magnetic hysteresis behavior and magnetization value of film on Si (100) is larger than that on Si (111). It turns out that structural and magnetic properties of these two films are correlated.

  1. Post Deposition Annealing Effects on Optical, Electrical and Morphological Studies of ZnTTBPc Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Rejitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalocyanines (Pcs act as efficient absorbants of photons in the visible region, specifically between 600 and 700 nm. It will produce an excited triplet state. In this paper we report the annealing effects of optical, electrical and surface morphological properties of thermal evaporated Zinc-tetra-tert-butyl-29H, 31H phthalocyanine (ZnTTBPc thin films. The optical transmittance measurements were done in the visible region (400-800 nm and, films were found to be absorbing in nature. From spectral data the absorption coefficient α, dielectric constant ε and the extinction coefficient k were evaluated and, results discussed. Also the optical band gap of the material was estimated. The activation energies were measured. Scanning electron microscopic studies was carried out to determine surface uniformity of films.

  2. Development of a TE011 Cavity for Thin-Films Study

    CERN Document Server

    Martinet, G; Fouaidy, M; Hammoudi, N

    2010-01-01

    Bulk niobium cavities have almost reached their maximum performances. Maximum accelerating gradient field is above 35-40 MV/m for a multi-cells cavity at 1.8 Kelvin and it achieves 25-30 MV/m with high reliability. The question of increasing the accelerating gradient in a significant way is running regarding the huge amount of units required for new projects (16000 units for ILC). A promising solution is to use thin films of new materials deposited on copper or niobium. In order to investigate the behaviour of these materials for the accelerating cavities, we have developed a dedicated setup based on thermometric method and a TE011 cavity. We present here the design study of the setup and the expected sensitivity of the method for the surface measurement of materials properties under RF fields.

  3. Development of Micron-Resolved Electron Spectroscopy to Study Organic Thin Films in Real Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-H.; Fan, L.-J.; Yang, Y.-W.; Su, J.-W.; Chan, S.-W.; Chen, M.-C.

    2010-01-01

    A straightforward application of an electron energy analyzer equipped with an image detector to micron-resolved electron spectroscopic studies of organic thin film devices is reported. The electron spectroscopies implemented include synchrotron-based UPS, XPS, and Auger yield NEXAFS. Along the non-energy-dispersion direction of the analyzer, a spatial resolution of ∼40 μm is obtained through the employment of entrance slits, electrostatic lenses and segmented CCD detector. One significant benefit offered by the technique is that the electronic transport and electronic structure of the same micron-sized sample can be directly examined. The example illustrated is a top-contact organic field effect transistor (OFET) fabricated from semiconducting triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene and gold electrodes. It is found that an extensive out-diffusion of gold atoms to adjacent conduction channels takes place, presumably due to the inability of soft organic materials in dissipating the excess energy with which gaseous Au atoms possess.

  4. Preparation and characterization of ALD deposited ZnO thin films studied for gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadjiev, S.I., E-mail: boiajiev@gmail.com [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, V. [Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, R. [Department of Microelectronics, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Raicheva, Z. [Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Szilágyi, I.M. [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • For the first time the gas sensing towards NO{sub 2} of very thin ALD ZnO films is studied. • The very thin ALD ZnO films showed excellent sensitivity to NO{sub 2} at room temperature. • These very thin film ZnO-based QCM sensors very well register even low concentrations. • The sensors have fully reversible sorption and are able to be recovered in short time. • Described fast and cost-effective ALD deposition of ZnO thin films for QCM gas sensor. - Abstract: Applying atomic layer deposition (ALD), very thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on quartz resonators, and their gas sensing properties were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The gas sensing of the ZnO films to NO{sub 2} was tested in the concentration interval between 10 and 5000 ppm. On the basis of registered frequency change of the QCM, for each concentration the sorbed mass was calculated. Further characterization of the films was carried out by various techniques, i.e. by SEM-EDS, XRD, ellipsometry, and FTIR spectroscopy. Although being very thin, the films were gas sensitive to NO{sub 2} already at room temperature and could register very well as low concentrations as 100 ppm, while the sorption was fully reversible. Our results for very thin ALD ZnO films show that the described fast, simple and cost-effective technology could be implemented for producing gas sensors working at room temperature and being capable to detect in real time low concentrations of NO{sub 2}.

  5. Bacterial adhesion studies on titanium, titanium nitride and modified hydroxyapatite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyachandran, Y.L.; Venkatachalam, S.; Karunagaran, B.; Narayandass, Sa.K.; Mangalaraj, D.; Bao, C.Y.; Zhang, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative study on adhesion of the oral bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis on titanium (Ti), titanium nitride (TiN), fluorine modified hydroxyapatite (FHA) and zinc modified FHA (Zn-FHA) thin films is investigated. Ti and TiN thin films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and hydroxyapatite-based films were prepared by solgel method. The crystalline structure, optical characteristics, chemical composition and surface topography of the films were studied by XRD, optical transmission, XPS, EDAX and AFM measurements. The predominant crystallite orientation in the Ti and TiN films was along (002) and (111) of hcp and cubic structures, respectively. The Ti : O : N composition ratio in the surface of the Ti and TiN films was found to be 7 : 21 : 1 and 3 : 8 : 2, respectively. The atomic concentration ratio (Zn + Ca) / P in Zn-FHA film was found to be 1.74 whereby the Zn replaced 3.2% of Ca. The rough surface feature in modified HA films was clearly observed in the SEM images and the surface roughness (rms) of Ti and TiN films was 2.49 and 3.5 nm, respectively, as observed using AFM. The film samples were sterilized, treated in the bacteria culture medium, processed and analyzed using SEM. Surface roughness of the films was found to have least influence on the bacterial adhesion. More bacteria were observed on the TiN film with oxide nitride surface layer and less number of adhered bacteria was noticed on the Ti film with native surface oxide layer and on Zn-FHA film

  6. Bacterial adhesion studies on titanium, titanium nitride and modified hydroxyapatite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyachandran, Y L [Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu (India); Venkatachalam, S [Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu (India); Karunagaran, B [Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu (India); Narayandass, Sa K [Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu (India); Mangalaraj, D [Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu (India); Bao, C Y [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhang, C L [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2007-01-15

    A qualitative study on adhesion of the oral bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis on titanium (Ti), titanium nitride (TiN), fluorine modified hydroxyapatite (FHA) and zinc modified FHA (Zn-FHA) thin films is investigated. Ti and TiN thin films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and hydroxyapatite-based films were prepared by solgel method. The crystalline structure, optical characteristics, chemical composition and surface topography of the films were studied by XRD, optical transmission, XPS, EDAX and AFM measurements. The predominant crystallite orientation in the Ti and TiN films was along (002) and (111) of hcp and cubic structures, respectively. The Ti : O : N composition ratio in the surface of the Ti and TiN films was found to be 7 : 21 : 1 and 3 : 8 : 2, respectively. The atomic concentration ratio (Zn + Ca) / P in Zn-FHA film was found to be 1.74 whereby the Zn replaced 3.2% of Ca. The rough surface feature in modified HA films was clearly observed in the SEM images and the surface roughness (rms) of Ti and TiN films was 2.49 and 3.5 nm, respectively, as observed using AFM. The film samples were sterilized, treated in the bacteria culture medium, processed and analyzed using SEM. Surface roughness of the films was found to have least influence on the bacterial adhesion. More bacteria were observed on the TiN film with oxide nitride surface layer and less number of adhered bacteria was noticed on the Ti film with native surface oxide layer and on Zn-FHA film.

  7. Characterization of organic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham; Evans, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Thin films based upon organic materials are at the heart of much of the revolution in modern technology, from advanced electronics, to optics to sensors to biomedical engineering. This volume in the Materials Characterization series introduces the major common types of analysis used in characterizing of thin films and the various appropriate characterization technologies for each. Materials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films and self-assembled monolayers are first introduced, followed by analysis of surface properties and the various characterization technologies used for such. Readers will find detailed information on: -Various spectroscopic approaches to characterization of organic thin films, including infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy -X-Ray diffraction techniques, High Resolution EELS studies, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -Concise Summaries of major characterization technologies for organic thin films, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Tra...

  8. Reactive decontamination of absorbing thin film polymer coatings: model development and parameter determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, Mark; Mantooth, Brent; Pearl, Thomas; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    A continuum model of reactive decontamination in absorbing polymeric thin film substrates exposed to the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (known as VX) was developed to assess the performance of various decontaminants. Experiments were performed in conjunction with an inverse analysis method to obtain the necessary model parameters. The experiments involved contaminating a substrate with a fixed VX exposure, applying a decontaminant, followed by a time-resolved, liquid phase extraction of the absorbing substrate to measure the residual contaminant by chromatography. Decontamination model parameters were uniquely determined using the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least squares fitting technique to best fit the experimental time evolution of extracted mass. The model was implemented numerically in both a 2D axisymmetric finite element program and a 1D finite difference code, and it was found that the more computationally efficient 1D implementation was sufficiently accurate. The resulting decontamination model provides an accurate quantification of contaminant concentration profile in the material, which is necessary to assess exposure hazards.

  9. Multiscale Modeling at Nanointerfaces: Polymer Thin Film Materials Discovery via Thermomechanically Consistent Coarse Graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, David D.

    Due to high nanointerfacial area to volume ratio, the properties of "nanoconfined" polymer thin films, blends, and composites become highly altered compared to their bulk homopolymer analogues. Understanding the structure-property mechanisms underlying this effect is an active area of research. However, despite extensive work, a fundamental framework for predicting the local and system-averaged thermomechanical properties as a function of configuration and polymer species has yet to be established. Towards bridging this gap, here, we present a novel, systematic coarse-graining (CG) method which is able to capture quantitatively, the thermomechanical properties of real polymer systems in bulk and in nanoconfined geometries. This method, which we call thermomechanically consistent coarse-graining (TCCG), is a two-bead-per-monomer CG hybrid approach through which bonded interactions are optimized to match the atomistic structure via the Iterative Boltzmann Inversion method (IBI), and nonbonded interactions are tuned to macroscopic targets through parametric studies. We validate the TCCG method by systematically developing coarse-grain models for a group of five specialized methacrylate-based polymers including poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Good correlation with bulk all-atom (AA) simulations and experiments is found for the temperature-dependent glass transition temperature (Tg) Flory-Fox scaling relationships, self-diffusion coefficients of liquid monomers, and modulus of elasticity. We apply this TCCG method also to bulk polystyrene (PS) using a comparable coarse-grain CG bead mapping strategy. The model demonstrates chain stiffness commensurate with experiments, and we utilize a density-correction term to improve the transferability of the elastic modulus over a 500 K range. Additionally, PS and PMMA models capture the unexplained, characteristically dissimilar scaling of Tg with the thickness of free-standing films as seen in experiments. Using vibrational

  10. Scanning tunneling spectroscopic studies of superconducting NbN single crystal thin films at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwaya, S.; Koyanagi, M.; Matsuda, M.; Shoji, A.; Shibata, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope (LTSTM) constructed to study the microscopic properties of superconductors. It has atomic resolution from room temperature to 4.2 K. Conductance spectra obtained between a Pt tip and a NbN thin film agreed well with theoretical curves based on the BCS theory

  11. Optimization studies of HgSe thin film deposition by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkatasamy, V

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the optimization of HgSe thin film deposition using electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE) are reported. Cyclic voltammetry was used to obtain approximate deposition potentials for each element. These potentials were then coupled...

  12. Fundamental study on a thin-film ae sensor for measurement of behavior of a multi-pad contact slider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imai, S.; Burger, G.J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    To study the fundamental dynamic characteristics of a multi-pad slider for contact recording, we developed a thin-film piezoelectric acoustic emission array sensor on an Si-suspension with an array pattern similar to that of contact pads. Experiments showed that the sensitivity of the sensor is

  13. Temperature responsive functional polymeric thin films obtained by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for cells attachment–detachment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusen, L. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Dinca, V., E-mail: dinali@nipne.ro [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mitu, B. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mustaciosu, C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN HH, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, M. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-05-01

    Multifunctional thin films used as thermoresponsive substrate for engineering cell sheets represent an important area in tissue engineering. As the morphology and the chemical characteristics of the thin films directly control their interaction with cells, it is important to correlate these characteristics with the biological answer. In this study, thermally sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), (pNIPAAm) thin films were prepared by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and utilized in L929 cell adhesion and detachment studies. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to determine the pNIPAAm thin films chemical and morphological characteristics. The FTIR data demonstrated that the functional groups in the MAPLE-deposited films remained intact for fluences in the range of 200–600 mJ cm{sup −2}. Within this fluence range, the AFM topographical studies showed that the roughness of the coatings was dependent on laser fluence and the obtained surfaces were characterized by a granular aspect. L929 cell viability studies onto the pNIPAAm coatings showed little or no toxic effect for fluences below 600 mJ cm{sup −2}, while for higher fluences, viability was decreased with more than 50%. The adhesion and detachment of the cell was found to be mainly dependent on the film surface morphology.

  14. Residual stress mapping by micro X-ray diffraction: Application to the study of thin film buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of spontaneous detachment of the film from its substrate and in the case of compressive stresses, thin film buckling. Although these effects are undesirable for future applications, one may take benefit of it for thin film mechanical properties investigation. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical works have been done to develop mechanical models with the aim to get a better understanding of driven mechanisms giving rise to this phenomenon and thus to propose solutions to avoid such problems. Nevertheless, only a few experimental works have been done on this subject to support these theoretical results and nothing concerning local stress/strain measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few tenth mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam x-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress/ strain mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  15. Study on effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of thin film structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Soo [Ahtti Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun Hyu [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Yup [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This paper describes the effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of structure made with thin film. It is well known that the mean stress influences fatigue life prediction of mechanical structure. We investigated a reasonable method for considering mean stress when fatigue strength assessment of micro structure of thin film should be performed. Fatigue tests of smooth specimen of beryllium-copper (BeCu) thin film were performed in ambient air at R = 0.1 with 5 Hz. A micro probe was designed and made with BeCu thin film by the precision press process. Fatigue tests of micro structure were performed with 5 Hz frequency, in ambient air to verify the fatigue life predicted by computer simulation through FE analysis. The fatigue life predicted by the Sa -N curve modified by Goodman method with principal stress through FE analysis shows a more reasonable result than other methods.

  16. Study of Sb2S3 thin films deposited by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, M. P.; Chauhan, Krishna; Patel, Kiran N.; Rajput, Piyush; Bhoi, Hiteshkumar R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we deposited Sb2S3 thin films on glass slide by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique with different time cycles. From EDAX, we could observe that the films were non-stoichiometric and contained few elements from glass slide. X-ray diffraction has shown that these films are orthorhombic in structure from where we have calculated the lattice parameter and crystallize size. SEM images shows that SILAR synthesized Sb2S3 thin films are homogenous and well distributed indicating the formation of uniform thin films at lower concentration. The room temperature Raman spectra of Sb2S3 thin films showed sharp peaks at 250 cm‑1 and 300 cm‑1 for all cases. Room temperature photoluminescence emission spectrum shows broad bands over 430–480 nm range with strong blue emission peak centered at same wavelength of 460 nm (2.70 eV) for all cases.

  17. Study on effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of thin film structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Myung Soo; Park, Jun Hyu; Kim, Jung Yup

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of mean stress on fatigue life prediction of structure made with thin film. It is well known that the mean stress influences fatigue life prediction of mechanical structure. We investigated a reasonable method for considering mean stress when fatigue strength assessment of micro structure of thin film should be performed. Fatigue tests of smooth specimen of beryllium-copper (BeCu) thin film were performed in ambient air at R = 0.1 with 5 Hz. A micro probe was designed and made with BeCu thin film by the precision press process. Fatigue tests of micro structure were performed with 5 Hz frequency, in ambient air to verify the fatigue life predicted by computer simulation through FE analysis. The fatigue life predicted by the Sa -N curve modified by Goodman method with principal stress through FE analysis shows a more reasonable result than other methods

  18. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, R.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Surdu, A. V.; Oprea, A. E.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  19. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) study on graphene oxide based hematite thin films heterojunction (R-GO/Fe2O3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Zachariah, Michael; Ehrman, Sheryl; Shrivastava, Rohit; Dass, Sahab; Satsangi, Vibha; Michael Zachariah, Sheryl Ehrman Collaboration; Rohit Shrivastava, Sahab Dass Collaboration; Vibha R Satsangi, Poonam Sharma Team

    2013-03-01

    Graphene has an excellent electronic conductivity, a high theoretical surface area of 2630 m2/g and excellent mechanical properties and, thus, is a promising component for high-performance electrode materials. Following this, GO has been used to modify the PEC response of photoactive material hematite thin films in PEC cell. A reduced graphene oxide/iron oxide (R-GO/Fe2O3) thin film structure has been successfully prepared on ITO by directly growing iron oxide particles on the thermally reduced graphene oxide sheets prepared from suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide. R-GO/Fe2O3 thin films were tested in PEC cell and offered ten times higher photocurrent density than pristine Fe2O3 thin film sample. XRD, SEM, EDS, UV-Vis, Mott-Schottky and Raman studies were carried out to study spectro-electrochemical properties. Enhanced PEC performance of these photoelectrodes was attributed to its porous morphology, improved conductivity upon favorable carrier transfer across the oxides interface.

  20. Theoretical Study on Synchronous Characterization of Surface and Interfacial Mechanical Properties of Thin-Film/Substrate Systems with Residual Stress Based on Pressure Blister Test Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-xin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, based on the pressure blister test technique, a theoretical study on the synchronous characterization of surface and interfacial mechanical properties of thin-film/substrate systems with residual stress was presented, where the problem of axisymmetric deformation of a blistering film with initial stress was analytically solved and its closed-form solution was presented. The expressions to determine Poisson’s ratios, Young’s modulus, and residual stress of surface thin films were derived; the work done by the applied external load and the elastic energy stored in the blistering thin film were analyzed in detail and their expressions were derived; and the interfacial adhesion energy released per unit delamination area of thin-film/substrate (i.e., energy release rate was finally presented. The synchronous characterization technique presented here has theoretically made a big step forward, due to the consideration for the residual stress in surface thin films.

  1. A simple non-equilibrium, statistical-physics toy model of thin-film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochab, Jeremi K; Nagel, Hannes; Janke, Wolfhard; Waclaw, Bartlomiej

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple non-equilibrium model of mass condensation with Lennard–Jones interactions between particles and the substrate. We show that when some number of particles is deposited onto the surface and the system is left to equilibrate, particles condense into an island if the density of particles becomes higher than some critical density. We illustrate this with numerically obtained phase diagrams for three-dimensional systems. We also solve a two-dimensional counterpart of this model analytically and show that not only the phase diagram but also the shape of the cross-sections of three-dimensional condensates qualitatively matches the two-dimensional predictions. Lastly, we show that when particles are being deposited with a constant rate, the system has two phases: a single condensate for low deposition rates, and multiple condensates for fast deposition. The behaviour of our model is thus similar to that of thin film growth processes, and in particular to Stranski–Krastanov growth. (paper)

  2. First-principles-based study of transport properties of Fe thin films on Cu surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Tomoya [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kasai, Hideaki [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakanishi, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Dino, Wilson Agerico [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Komori, Fumio [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan)

    2004-12-08

    We investigate the transport properties of Fe thin films on Cu(111) based on first principles calculation. We calculate the electron current through these Fe thin films, which can be observed by using a double-tipped scanning tunnelling microscope. We find that the conductance is majority spin polarized. On the basis of the band structures for this system, we discuss the origin of these interesting transport properties.

  3. First-principles-based study of transport properties of Fe thin films on Cu surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Tomoya; Kasai, Hideaki; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Dino, Wilson Agerico; Komori, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties of Fe thin films on Cu(111) based on first principles calculation. We calculate the electron current through these Fe thin films, which can be observed by using a double-tipped scanning tunnelling microscope. We find that the conductance is majority spin polarized. On the basis of the band structures for this system, we discuss the origin of these interesting transport properties

  4. A study on linear and non-linear optical constants of Rhodamine B thin film deposited on FTO glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Jilani, Asim; Abutalib, M. M.; AlFaify, S.; Shkir, M.; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to fabricate/deposit the good quality thin film of Rhodamine B dye on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate by the low cost spin coating technique and study their linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The thickness of the thin film was measured about 300 nm with alpha step system. The transmittance of the fabricated thin film was found to be above 75% corresponding to the fluorine doped tin oxide layer. The structural analysis was performed with X-rays diffraction spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope showed the topographic image of deposited thin film. Linear optical constant like absorption coefficient, band gap, and extinction index was calculated. The dielectric constant was calculated to know the optical response of Rhodamine B dye over fluorine doped tin oxide substrate. The nonlinear optical constant like linear optical susceptibility χ(1), nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3), nonlinear refractive index (n2) were calculated by spectroscopic method. This method has advantage over the experimental method like Z-Scan for organic dye base semiconductors for future advance optoelectronics applications like dye synthesis solar cell.

  5. A study on linear and non-linear optical constants of Rhodamine B thin film deposited on FTO glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia, I.S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Jilani, Asim, E-mail: asim.jilane@gmail.com [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abutalib, M.M. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); AlFaify, S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Shkir, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M.Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); El-Naggar, A.M. [Exploitation of Renewable Energy Applications in Saudi Arabia, Physics & Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O.Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to fabricate/deposit the good quality thin film of Rhodamine B dye on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate by the low cost spin coating technique and study their linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The thickness of the thin film was measured about 300 nm with alpha step system. The transmittance of the fabricated thin film was found to be above 75% corresponding to the fluorine doped tin oxide layer. The structural analysis was performed with X-rays diffraction spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope showed the topographic image of deposited thin film. Linear optical constant like absorption coefficient, band gap, and extinction index was calculated. The dielectric constant was calculated to know the optical response of Rhodamine B dye over fluorine doped tin oxide substrate. The nonlinear optical constant like linear optical susceptibility χ{sup (1)}, nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)}, nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) were calculated by spectroscopic method. This method has advantage over the experimental method like Z-Scan for organic dye base semiconductors for future advance optoelectronics applications like dye synthesis solar cell.

  6. On the role of initial void geometry in plastic deformation of metallic thin films: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yanqing [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0340 (United States); Xu, Shuozhi, E-mail: shuozhixu@gatech.edu [GWW School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Void growth is usually considered one of the most critical phases leading to dynamic fracture of ductile materials. Investigating the detailed process of void growth at the nanoscale aids in understanding the damage mechanism of metals. While most atomistic simulations by far assume circular or spherical voids for simplicity, recent studies highlight the significance of the initial void ellipticity in mechanical response of voided metals. In this work, we perform large scale molecular dynamics simulations with millions of atoms to investigate the void growth in plastic deformation of thin films in face-centered cubic Cu. It is found that the initial ellipticity and the initial orientation angle of the void have substantial impacts on the dislocation nucleation, the void evolution, and the stress-strain response. In particular, the initial dislocation emission sites and the sequence of slip plane activation vary with the initial void geometry. For the void size evolution, three regimes are identified: (I) the porosity increases relatively slowly in the absence of dislocations, (II) the porosity grows much more rapidly after dislocations start to glide on different slip planes, and (III) the rate of porosity variation becomes much more slowly when dislocations are saturated in the model, and the void surface becomes irregular, non-smooth. In terms of the stress-strain response, the effects of the initial orientation angle are more pronounced when the initial void ellipticity is large; the influence of the initial void ellipticity is different for different initial orientation angles. The effects of the temperature, the strain rate, the loading direction, and the initial porosity in the void growth are also explored. Our results reveal the underlying mechanisms of initial void geometry-dependent plastic deformation of metallic thin films and shed light on informing more accurate theoretical models.

  7. On the role of initial void geometry in plastic deformation of metallic thin films: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yanqing; Xu, Shuozhi

    2016-01-01

    Void growth is usually considered one of the most critical phases leading to dynamic fracture of ductile materials. Investigating the detailed process of void growth at the nanoscale aids in understanding the damage mechanism of metals. While most atomistic simulations by far assume circular or spherical voids for simplicity, recent studies highlight the significance of the initial void ellipticity in mechanical response of voided metals. In this work, we perform large scale molecular dynamics simulations with millions of atoms to investigate the void growth in plastic deformation of thin films in face-centered cubic Cu. It is found that the initial ellipticity and the initial orientation angle of the void have substantial impacts on the dislocation nucleation, the void evolution, and the stress-strain response. In particular, the initial dislocation emission sites and the sequence of slip plane activation vary with the initial void geometry. For the void size evolution, three regimes are identified: (I) the porosity increases relatively slowly in the absence of dislocations, (II) the porosity grows much more rapidly after dislocations start to glide on different slip planes, and (III) the rate of porosity variation becomes much more slowly when dislocations are saturated in the model, and the void surface becomes irregular, non-smooth. In terms of the stress-strain response, the effects of the initial orientation angle are more pronounced when the initial void ellipticity is large; the influence of the initial void ellipticity is different for different initial orientation angles. The effects of the temperature, the strain rate, the loading direction, and the initial porosity in the void growth are also explored. Our results reveal the underlying mechanisms of initial void geometry-dependent plastic deformation of metallic thin films and shed light on informing more accurate theoretical models.

  8. Study on the effect of deposition rate and concentration of Eu on the fluorescent lifetime of CsI: Tl thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yijun; Guo, Lina [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Shuang, E-mail: shuangliu@uestc.edu.cn [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Qianfeng; Zhang, Shangjian; Liu, Yong [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhong, Zhiyong [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2017-06-21

    Although there are many new scintillators being developed recently, CsI: Tl is still very efficient among them. The fluorescent lifetime is a very important parameter of CsI: Tl thin film and two series of experiments have been conducted to learn about it. Our experiments, however, have demonstrated that the deposition rate and the codoping of Eu{sup 2+} will significantly influence its fluorescent lifetime. In order to increase the efficiency of the imaging system, we intend to obtain a higher fluorescent lifetime for CsI: Tl thin film by controlling these two conditions. - Highlights: • We used vacuum vapor deposition method to grow the high-quality thin films. • The relationship between the deposition rate and the fluorescent lifetime of CsI: Tl thin film was tested. • Concentration of Eu on fluorescent lifetime of the CsI: Tl thin film was studied.

  9. A Drain Current Model Based on the Temperature Effect of a-Si:H Thin-Film Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Lei; Yao Ruo-He

    2012-01-01

    Based on the differential Ohm's law and Poisson's equation, an analytical model of the drain current for a-Si:H thin-film transistors is developed. This model is proposed to elaborate the temperature effect on the drain current, which indicates that the drain current is linear with temperature in the range of 290-360 K, and the results fit well with the experimental data

  10. Predictive modeling of nanoscale domain morphology in solution-processed organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Cyrus; Jenkins, Michael; Morehouse, Robell; Stanfield, Dane; McDowall, Stephen; Johnson, Brad L.; Patrick, David L.

    2017-09-01

    The electronic and optoelectronic properties of molecular semiconductor thin films are directly linked to their extrinsic nanoscale structural characteristics such as domain size and spatial distributions. In films prepared by common solution-phase deposition techniques such as spin casting and solvent-based printing, morphology is governed by a complex interrelated set of thermodynamic and kinetic factors that classical models fail to adequately capture, leaving them unable to provide much insight, let alone predictive design guidance for tailoring films with specific nanostructural characteristics. Here we introduce a comprehensive treatment of solution-based film formation enabling quantitative prediction of domain formation rates, coverage, and spacing statistics based on a small number of experimentally measureable parameters. The model combines a mean-field rate equation treatment of monomer aggregation kinetics with classical nucleation theory and a supersaturation-dependent critical nucleus size to solve for the quasi-two-dimensional temporally and spatially varying monomer concentration, nucleation rate, and other properties. Excellent agreement is observed with measured nucleation densities and interdomain radial distribution functions in polycrystalline tetracene films. Numerical solutions lead to a set of general design rules enabling predictive morphological control in solution-processed molecular crystalline films.

  11. Microstructure and optical studies of electron beam evaporated ZnSe1−xTex nanocrystalline thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam-Ismail, M.; El-Hagary, M.; Shaaban, E.R.; Al-Hedeib, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The structural and optical properties of ZnSeTe thin films were studied. ► The micro structural parameters of the films have been determined. ► The room temperature reflectance and transmittance data are analyzed. ► The refractive index and energy gap are determined. ► The single oscillator parameters were calculated. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline thin films of ZnSe 1−x Te x (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) were deposited on glass substrate using electron beam deposition technique. The structure of the prepared films was examined using X-ray diffraction technique and revealed that the deposited films have polycrystalline zinc blend structure with lattice constant, a, increasing linearly from 0.55816 to 0.59989 nm as x varies from 0 to 1. The optical studies of the nanocrystalline ZnSe 1−x Te x films showed that the refractive index increases and fundamental band gap E g decreases from 2.58 to 2.21 eV as the tellurium concentration increases from 0 to 1. Furthermore, it was also found that the variation of E g with composition shows quadratic behavior with bowing parameter equal to 0.105. In addition, the thickness and annealing effects on the structure and optical properties of the deposited films were also investigated. The refractive index dispersion and its dependence on composition were discussed in terms of single oscillator model proposed by Wemple–DiDomenico.

  12. A Monte Carlo simulation study of boron profiles as-implanted into LPCVD NiDoS polycrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukezzata, M.; Ait-Kaki, A.; Temple-Boyer, P.; Scheid, E.

    2003-03-01

    This work presents a Monte Carlo simulation study of boron profiles obtained from as-implanted ions into thin films nitrogen doped silicon (NiDoS) thin films. These films are performed by LPCVD technique from Si2H6 and NH3 gas sources, four values deliberately chosen, of the ratio NH3/Si2H6 to obtain samples, differently in situ nitrogen-doped. Taking into account the effect of the codoping case, and the structure specificity of these films, an accurate Monte Carlo model based on binary collisions in a multi-atomic target was performed. Nitrogen atoms present in the target is shown to affect the boron profiles and confirms clearly a reduction penetration effect which becomes more significant at high nitrogen concentrations. Whereas, the fine-grained polysilicon structure, and thus the presence of grains (G) and grain boundaries (GB), is known to enhance the opposite phenomenon by assuming an effective role played by GB's in the scattering calculation process of the incident ions. This role is represented by the change in direction of the incident ion after interaction with GB without corresponding loss in its energy. The results obtained show an enhancement of the stopping parameter when nitrogen concentration increases, while the GB interaction remains very important. This behavior is due to a great number of GB's interactions with boron atoms which gave low deflection angles. So that, the average positions described by the sequences of trajectories took place farther than what expected with channeling effect in crystal silicon materials.

  13. Characterization and modeling of a highly-oriented thin film for composite forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. D.; Sherwood, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) materials exhibit high impact strength, excellent abrasion resistance and high chemical resistance, making them attractive for a number of impact applications for automotive, marine and medical industries. One format of this class of materials that is being considered for the thermoforming process is a highly-oriented extruded thin film. Parts are made using a two-step manufacturing process that involves first producing a set of preforms and then consolidating these preforms into a final shaped part. To assist in the design of the processing parameters, simulations of the preforming and compression molding steps can be completed using the finite element method. Such simulations require material input data as developed through a comprehensive characterization test program, e.g. shear, tensile and bending, over the range of potential processing temperatures. The current research investigates the challenges associated with the characterization of thin, highly-oriented UHMWPE films. Variations in grip type, sample size and testing rates are explored to achieve convergence of the characterization data. Material characterization results are then used in finite element simulations of the tension test to explore element formulations that work well with the mechanical behavior. Comparisons of the results from the material characterization tests to results of simulations of the same test are performed to validate the finite element method parameters and the credibility of the user-defined material model.

  14. Temperature dependent structural, luminescent and XPS studies of CdO:Ga thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moholkar, A.V.; Agawane, G.L.; Sim, Kyu-Ung; Kwon, Ye-bin; Choi, Doo Sun; Rajpure, K.Y.; Kim, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The CdO:Ga thin films seems an alternative to traditional TCO materials used in photovoltaic applications. This work deals the effect of deposition temperature on sprayed CdO:Ga films with respect to the structural, luminescent and XPS studies. → The crystalline quality of the GCO films improves with deposition temperature. → The oxygen vacancies are responsible for n-type conductivity and green emission. → The minimum resistivity, highest carrier concentration and mobility are 1.9 x 10 -4 Ω cm, 11.7 x 10 21 cm -3 and 27.64 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively. - Abstract: The structural, compositional, photoluminescent and XPS properties of CdO:Ga thin films deposited at temperatures ranging from 275 to 350 o C, using spray pyrolysis are reported. X-ray diffraction characterization of as-deposited GCO thin films reveals that films are of cubic structure with a (2 0 0) preferred orientation. The crystalline quality of the GCO films improves and the grain size increases with deposition temperature. The EDS analyses confirm oxygen deficiency present in the film and are responsible for n-type conductivity. The photoluminescence spectra demonstrated that the green emission peaks of CdO thin films are centered at 482 nm. The relative intensity of these peaks is strongly dependent on the deposition temperature. Oxygen vacancies are dominant luminescent centers for green emission in CdO thin films. The XPS measurement shows the presence of Cd, Ga, O and C elements and confirms that CdO:Ga films are cadmium-rich.

  15. A computational study of the piezoelectric response due to the material effect in periodic, single island thin films and the geometric effect in periodic, bi-island thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.

    2010-01-01

    The electromechanical response of a square-periodic array of circular piezoelectric (PE) thin films alternating with non-piezoelectric (NPE) films is studied in this paper. The material effects are studied for four film/substrate combinations in absence of NPE films for which it is found that if d zxx zzz (z-axis being normal to the interfacial plane between the film and the substrate), it results in reduced substrate bending leading to reduced degradation in the electromechanical response of the thin film. The bi-island structure is studied for zinc oxide on strontium titanate, and, in general, it is seen that the NPE films not only reduce degradation of the electromechanical response of the PE films but also increase their internal stresses; the effect on the former is less than the latter. These effects are most prominent when the circular NPE thin films fill the space between the PE thin films and are elastically very stiff compared to the substrate.

  16. DOE Final Report: A Unified Understanding of Residual Stress in Thin Films: Kinetic Models, Experiments and Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chason, Eric [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Thin films are critical for a wide range of advanced technologies. However, the deposited films often have high levels of residual stress that can limit their performance or lead to failure. The stress is known to depend on many variables, including the processing conditions, type of material, deposition technique and the film’s microstructure. The goal of this DOE program was to develop a fundamental understanding of how the different processes that control thin film growth under different conditions can be related to the development of stress. In the program, systematic experiments were performed or analyzed that related the stress to the processing conditions that were used. Measurements of stress were obtained for films that were grown at different rates, different solutions (for electrodeposition), different particle energies (for sputter deposition) and different microstructures. Based on this data, models were developed to explain the observed dependence on the different parameters. The models were based on considering the balance among different stress-inducing mechanism occurring as the film grows (for both non-energetic and energetic deposition). Comparison of the model predictions with the experiments enabled the kinetic parameters to be determined for different materials. The resulting model equations provide a comprehensive picture of how stress changes with the processing conditions that can be used to optimize the growth of thin films.

  17. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  18. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  19. Molecular simulation of freestanding amorphous nickel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, T.Q. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France); Hoang, V.V., E-mail: vvhoang2002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of Ho Chi Minh City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lauriat, G. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-10-31

    Size effects on glass formation in freestanding Ni thin films have been studied via molecular dynamics simulation with the n-body Gupta interatomic potential. Atomic mechanism of glass formation in the films is determined via analysis of the spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms occurred upon cooling from the melt. Solid-like atoms are detected via the Lindemann ratio. We find that solid-like atoms initiate and grow mainly in the interior of the film and grow outward. Their number increases with decreasing temperature and at a glass transition temperature they dominate in the system to form a relatively rigid glassy state of a thin film shape. We find the existence of a mobile surface layer in both liquid and glassy states which can play an important role in various surface properties of amorphous Ni thin films. We find that glass formation is size independent for models containing 4000 to 108,000 atoms. Moreover, structure of amorphous Ni thin films has been studied in details via coordination number, Honeycutt–Andersen analysis, and density profile which reveal that amorphous thin films exhibit two different parts: interior and surface layer. The former exhibits almost the same structure like that found for the bulk while the latter behaves a more porous structure containing a large amount of undercoordinated sites which are the origin of various surface behaviors of the amorphous Ni or Ni-based thin films found in practice. - Highlights: • Glass formation is analyzed via spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms. • Amorphous Ni thin film exhibits two different parts: surface and interior. • Mobile surface layer enhances various surface properties of the amorphous Ni thin films. • Undercoordinated sites play an important role in various surface activities.

  20. Measuring and modelling of diffusivities in carbohydrate-rich matrices during thin film drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about moisture diffusivity in solid matrices is a key for understanding drying behaviour of for example probiotic or enzymatic formulations. This paper presents an experimental procedure to determine moisture diffusivity on the basis of thin film drying and gravimetric analysis in a

  1. Crystal plasticity based modeling of time and scale dependent behavior of thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erturk, I.; Gao, K.; Bielen, J.A.; Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The micro and sub-micro scale dimensions of the components of modern high-tech products pose challenging engineering problems that require advanced tools to tackle them. An example hereof is time dependent strain recovery, here referred to as anelasticity, which is observed in metallic thin film

  2. Optical properties of organic semiconductor thin films. Static spectra and real-time growth studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, Ute

    2009-07-20

    The aim of this work was to establish the anisotropic dielectric function of organic thin films on silicon covered with native oxide and to study their optical properties during film growth. While the work focuses mainly on the optical properties of Diindenoperylene (DIP) films, also the optical response of Pentacene (PEN) films during growth is studied for comparison. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and differential reflectance spectroscopy are used to determine the dielectric function of the films ex-situ and in-situ, i.e. in air and in ultrahigh vacuum. Additionally, Raman- and fluorescence spectroscopy is utilized to characterize the DIP films serving also as a basis for spatially resolved optical measurements beyond the diffraction limit. Furthermore, X-ray reflectometry and atomic force microscopy are used to determine important structural and morphological film properties. The absorption spectrum of DIP in solution serves as a monomer reference. The observed vibronic progression of the HOMO-LUMO transition allows the determination of the Huang-Rhys parameter experimentally, which is a measure of the electronic vibrational coupling. The corresponding breathing modes are measured by Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of DIP films on native oxide show significant differences compared to the monomer spectrum due to intermolecular interactions. First of all, the thin film spectra are highly anisotropic due to the structural order of the films. Furthermore the Frenkel exciton transfer is studied and the energy difference between Frenkel and charge transfer excitons is determined. Real-time measurements reveal optical differences between interfacial or surface molecules and bulk molecules that play an important role for device applications. They are not only performed for DIP films but also for PEN films. While for DIP films on glass the appearance of a new mode is visible, the spectra of PEN show a pronounced energy red-shift during growth. It is shown how the

  3. Back surface studies of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchi, Hamed

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells have attracted a lot of interest because they have shown the highest achieved efficiency (21%) among thin film photovoltaic materials, long-term stability, and straightforward optical bandgap engineering by changing relative amounts of present elements in the alloy. Still, there are several opportunities to further improve the performance of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices. The interfaces between layers significantly affect the device performance, and knowledge of their chemical and electronic structures is essential in identifying performance limiting factors. The main goal of this research is to understand the characteristics of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2-back contact interface in order to design ohmic back contacts for Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells with a range of band gaps and device configurations. The focus is on developing either an opaque or transparent ohmic back contact via surface modification or introduction of buffer layers in the back surface. In this project, candidate back contact materials have been identified based on modeling of band alignments and surface chemical properties of the absorber layer and back contact. For the first time, MoO3 and WO 3 transparent back contacts were successfully developed for Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cells. The structural, optical, and surface properties of MoO 3 and WO3 were optimized by controlling the oxygen partial pressure during reactive sputtering and post-deposition annealing. Valence band edge energies were also obtained by analysis of the XPS spectra and used to characterize the interface band offsets. As a result, it became possible to illuminate of the device from the back, resulting in a recently developed "backwall superstrate" device structure that outperforms conventional substrate Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices in the absorber thickness range 0.1-0.5 microm. Further enhancements were achieved by introducing moderate amounts of Ag into the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 lattice during the co-evaporation method

  4. Semiconductor thin films directly from minerals—study of structural, optical, and transport characteristics of Cu2O thin films from malachite mineral and synthetic CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramaniam, K.R.; Kao, V.M.; Ravichandran, J.; Rossen, P.B.; Siemons, W.; Ager, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the proof-of-concept of using an abundantly occurring natural ore, malachite (Cu 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 ) to directly yield the semiconductor Cu 2 O to be used as an active component of a functional thin film based device. Cu 2 O is an archetype hole-conducting semiconductor that possesses several interesting characteristics particularly useful for solar cell applications, including low cost, non-toxicity, good hole mobility, large minority carrier diffusion length, and a direct energy gap ideal for efficient absorption. In this article, we compare the structural, optical, and electrical transport characteristics of Cu 2 O thin films grown from the natural mineral malachite and synthetic CuO targets. Growth from either source material results in single-phase, fully epitaxial cuprous oxide thin films as determined by x-ray diffraction. The films grown from malachite have strong absorption coefficients ( 10 4 cm −1 ), a direct allowed optical bandgap ( 2.4 eV), and majority carrier hole mobilities ( 35 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at room temperature) that compare well with films grown from the synthetic target as well as with previously reported values. Our work demonstrates that minerals could be useful to directly yield the active components in functional devices and suggests a route for the exploration of low cost energy conversion and storage technologies. - Highlights: ► Semiconductor thin films directly from minerals ► Chemistry and structure evolution of the films obtained from mineral target is very similar to that films obtained from high-purity synthetic targets. ► Quite interestingly, transport and optical characteristics are also found to be similar.

  5. Study of the Carrier-Aided Thin Film Electrode Array Design for Cochlear Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The micro-fabricated thin film electrode array (TFEA has been a promising design for cochlear implants (CIs because of its cost-effectiveness and fabrication precision. The latest polymer-based cochlear TFEAs have faced difficulties for cochlear insertion due to the lack of structural stiffness. To stiffen the TFEA, dissolvable stiffening materials, TFEAs with different structures, and TFEAs with commercial CIs as carriers have been invested. In this work, the concept of enhancing a Parylene TFEA with Kapton tape as a simpler carrier for cochlear insertion has been proved to be feasible. The bending stiffness of the Kapton-aided TFEA was characterized with an analytical model, a finite element model, and a cantilever bending experiment, respectively. While the Kapton tape increased the bending stiffness of the Parylene TFEA by 103 times, the 6-μm-thick TFEA with a similar Young’s modulus, as a polyimide, in turn significantly increased the bending stiffness of the 170-μm-thick Kapton carrier by 60%. This result indicated that even the TFEA is ultra-flexible and that its bending stiffness should not be neglected in the design or selection of its carrier.

  6. Modeling the instability behavior of thin film devices: Fermi Level Pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Iman; Ahmadpour, Mohammad; Gorji, Nima E.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the underlying physics of degradation/recovery of a metal/n-CdTe Schottcky junction under reverse or forward bias stressing conditions. We used Sah-Noyce-Shockley (SNS) theory to investigate if the swept of Fermi level pinning at different levels (under forward/reverse bias) is the origin of change in current-voltage characteristics of the device. This theory is based on Shockley-Read-Hall recombination within the depletion width and takes into account the interface defect levels. Fermi Level Pinning theory was primarily introduced by Ponpon and developed to thin film solar cells by Dharmadasa's group in Sheffield University-UK. The theory suggests that Fermi level pinning at multiple levels occurs due to high concentration of electron-traps or acceptor-like defects at the interface of a Schottky or pn junction and this re-arranges the recombination rate and charage collection. Shift of these levels under stress conditions determines the change in current-voltage characteristics of the cell. This theory was suggested for several device such as metal/n-CdTe, CdS/CdTe, CIGS/CdS or even GaAs solar cells without a modeling approach to clearly explain it's physics. We have applied the strong SNS modeling approach to shed light on Fermi Level Pinning theory. The modeling confirms that change in position of Fermi Level and it's pining in a lower level close to Valence band increases the recombination and reduces the open-circuit voltage. In contrast, Fermi Level pinning close to conduction band strengthens the electric field at the junction which amplifies the carrier collection and boosts the open-circuit voltage. This theory can well explain the stress effect on device characteristics of various solar cells or Schottky junctions by simply finding the right Fermi level pinning position at every specific stress condition.

  7. A multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework to modeling stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidian, M., E-mail: jamshidian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Marienstrasse 15, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Thamburaja, P., E-mail: prakash.thamburaja@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600 (Malaysia); Rabczuk, T., E-mail: timon.rabczuk@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Computational Mechanics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-12-15

    A previously-developed finite-deformation- and crystal-elasticity-based constitutive theory for stressed grain growth in cubic polycrystalline bodies has been augmented to include a description of excess surface energy and grain-growth stagnation mechanisms through the use of surface effect state variables in a thermodynamically-consistent manner. The constitutive theory was also implemented into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field computational framework. With the material parameters in the constitutive theory suitably calibrated, our three-dimensional numerical simulations show that the constitutive model is able to accurately predict the experimentally-determined evolution of crystallographic texture and grain size statistics in polycrystalline copper thin films deposited on polyimide substrate and annealed at high-homologous temperatures. In particular, our numerical analyses show that the broad texture transition observed in the annealing experiments of polycrystalline thin films is caused by grain growth stagnation mechanisms. - Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developing a theory for stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films. • Implementation into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework. • Quantitative reproduction of the experimental grain growth data by simulations. • Revealing the cause of texture transition to be due to the stagnation mechanisms.

  8. Ion beam modification of sputtered metal nitride thin films: A study of the induced microstructural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosavljevic, M.; Perusko, D.; Popovic, M.; Novakovic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Single CrN and TiN and multilayered AlN/TiN and Al/Ti thin film structures (t = 240-280 nm) deposited on Si were irradiated with 120-200 keV Ar + ions to the fluences ranging from 1 x 10 11 5 to 4 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 . The metallic Al/Ti multilayered structure was also irradiated with high fluence (1- 2 x 10 17 /cm 2 ) nitrogen ions at 200 keV, in order to study interface mixing and formation of nitrides. Single component CrN and TiN thin films were found to grow in the form of a very fine polycrystalline columnar structures. Individual crystal grains were of the order of a few tens of nm in diameter, stretching from the substrate to the surface. After ion irradiation, the layers retain their polycrystalline structure, although the columns become disconnected, the resulting structures consisting of larger grains and nano-particles of the same phase. The implanted samples displayed higher electrical resistivity, presumably due to a higher concentration of point defects and the presence of nano-particles. In Al/Ti and AlN/TiN multilayers irradiated with Ar ions, the as-deposited structures exhibit well-defined, isolated polycrystalline Al and Ti, or AlN and TiN layers, with sharp interfaces. In the metallic system ion irradiation induced interface mixing which progressed with increasing the ion fluence. Mixing was most pronounced at the interfaces that are located around the projected ion range. The multilayered structure was essentially preserved, but the implanted samples exhibit much larger crystal grains. Also, the formation of lamellar columns stretching over a number of individual layers was observed. The AlN/TiN multilayered structures exhibited no measurable interface mixing on Ar irradiation, attributable to the nature of interatomic bonding and to mutual immiscibility of AlN and TiN. High fluence nitrogen ion irradiation of Al/Ti multilayers results in both the introduction of nitrogen into the structures as well as a high level of their intermixing. A

  9. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Joginder, E-mail: joginderchauhan82@gmail.com; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (MP), India-474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential −1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ε) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In{sup 3+} and Sb{sup 3+} ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  10. Pyroelectric properties of finite size ferroelectric thin films with structural transition zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jing; Lue Tianquan; Sun Punan; Xie Wenguang; Cao Wenwu

    2009-01-01

    A Fermi-type Green's function is used to study pyroelectric properties of the thin film with finite sizes in three dimensions based on a modified transverse Ising model. The results demonstrate that a decrease in the lateral size of the film has a disadvantageous influence on the pyroelectric coefficient of the thin film.

  11. Study of poli (ethylene tereftalate) thin films submitted to radiations by using permeation and spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, L.A.

    1986-06-01

    Properties of poly (ethylene terephthalate P.E.T. thin films submitted to electric discharges, electron, He + ion and proton beams were investigated using permeation technique, electronic paramagnetic resonance resonance (E.P.R.) and visible and infrared spectroscopies. Experimental apparatuses and procedures are described and the results of the analyses are presented and discussed. The existence of structural modifications in irradiated P.E.T. thin films is confirmed. It is shown that the kind of effects occuring in irradiated P.E.T. depends on the nature of the incident radiation. (author) [pt

  12. Lamellar Diblock Copolymer Thin Films during Solvent Vapor Annealing Studied by GISAXS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianqi; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2014-01-01

    The reorientation of lamellae and the dependence of the lamellar spacing, Dlam, on polymer volume fraction, ϕP, Dlam ∝ ϕP–β, in diblock copolymer thin films during solvent vapor annealing (SVA) are examined by combining white light interferometry (WLI) and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scat......The reorientation of lamellae and the dependence of the lamellar spacing, Dlam, on polymer volume fraction, ϕP, Dlam ∝ ϕP–β, in diblock copolymer thin films during solvent vapor annealing (SVA) are examined by combining white light interferometry (WLI) and grazing-incidence small-angle X...

  13. Study of the mobility activation in ZnSe thin films deposited using inert gas condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeewan Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ZnSe thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using the inert gas condensation technique at substrate temperature ranging from 25 °C to 100 °C. The hexagonal structure and average crystallite size (6.1–8.4 nm were determined from X-ray diffraction data. The transient photoconductivity was investigated using white light of intensity 8450 lx to deduce the effective density of states (Neff in the order of 1.02 × 1010–13.90 × 1010 cm−3, the frequency factor (S in the range 2.5 × 105–24.6 × 105 s−1 and the trap depth (E ranging between 0.37–0.64 eV of these films. The trap depth study revealed three different types of levels with quasi-continuous distribution below the conduction band. An increase in the photoconductivity was observed as a result of the formation of potential barriers (Vb and of the increase of carrier mobility at the crystallite boundaries. The study of the dependence of various mobility activation parameters on the deposition temperature and the crystallite size has provided better understanding of the mobility activation mechanism.

  14. Defect chemistry in CuGaS2 thin films: A photoluminescence study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, J.R.; Branch, M.S.; Berndt, P.R.; Leitch, A.W.R.; Weber, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the radiative recombination in CuGaS 2 thin films, deposited by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), is studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. From PL studies of several series of layers grown under various growth conditions, a clear picture emerges of the radiative emission dominating for Cu-rich and Ga-rich layers. For near-stoichiometric layers, weak excitonic recombination at ∼ 2.48 eV and a donor-acceptor line at ∼ 2.4 eV are observed in the low temperature PL spectra. In Cu-rich layers, a donor-acceptor band at ∼ 2.18 eV dominates, while a band at ∼ 2.25 eV dominates for slightly Ga-rich material. For Ga-rich layers, deviations from the ideal Cu/Ga ratio of more than a few percent strongly quenches the emission above 2 eV in favour of a very broad band at ∼ 1.8 eV. The PL response is discussed within the context of fluctuating potentials in compensated material and compared to available reports in literature

  15. Preparation and study of the properties of indium phosphide thin films impregnated with cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Indium phosphide thin films were deposited by vacuum evaporation of indium and phosphorous, using the three-temperature method. The effects of the introduction of cadmium and zinc, group II impurities, on the properties of these films were studied. The introduction of cadmium was achieved by coevaporation of this element during the film deposition. The introduction of zinc was done by diffusion of this element in intrinsic films. Analyses of these films were carried out by the study of the composition, morphology, structure, optical properties and electrical properties. The introduction of cadmium led to the reduction of grain size and increase in the bandgap and in certain cases, even change in morphology. Phases of CdP2 and β-CdP2 were detected and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. The introduction of zinc did not change the morphology, crystalline structure and bandgap. However, a new energy level corresponding to the zinc acceptor level was found and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. (Author) [pt

  16. Study of self-assembled triethoxysilane thin films made by casting neat reagents in ambient atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongan; Bittner, Alexander M.; Baldelli, Steve; Kern, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    We studied four trialkoxysilane thin films, fabricated via self-assembly by casting neat silane reagents onto hydrophilic SiO x /Si substrates in the ambient. This drop-casting method is simple, yet rarely studied for the production of silane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Various ex-situ techniques were utilized to systematically characterize the growth process: Ellipsometry measurements can monitor the evolution of film thickness with silanization time; water droplet contact angle measurements reveal the wettability; the change of surface morphology was followed by Atomic Force Microscopy; the chemical identity of the films was verified by Infrared-Visible Sum Frequency Generation spectroscopy. We show that the shorter carbon chain (propyl-) or branched (2-(diphenylphosphino)ethyl-) silane SAMs exhibit poor ordering. In contrast, longer carbon chain (octadecyl and decyl) silanes form relatively ordered monolayers. The growth of the latter two cases shows Langmuir-like kinetics and a transition process from lying-down to standing-up geometry with increasing coverage

  17. Structural, optical and electrical studies on pulse electrodeposited CdIn2S4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokate, A.V.; Asabe, M.R.; Shelake, S.B.; Hankare, P.P.; Chougule, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    CdIn 2 S 4 thin films were prepared by pulse electrodeposition technique over F:SnO 2 glass and stainless steel substrates in galvanostatic mode from an aqueous acidic bath containing CdSO 4 , InCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 . The growth kinetics of the film has been studied and the deposition parameters such as electrolyte bath concentration, bath temperature, time of deposition, deposition current and pH of the bath are optimized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the as deposited and annealed films shows polycrystalline nature. Energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) confirms nearly stoichiometric CdIn 2 S 4 nature of the film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies show that, the deposited films are well adherent and grains are uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. The optical transmission spectra show a direct band gap of 2.16 eV. Conductivity measurements have been carried out at different temperatures and electrical parameters such as activation energy, trapped energy state and barrier heights etc. have been determined

  18. A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Hernández, G., E-mail: german.perez@ujat.mx [Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Avenida Universidad s/n, Col. Magisterial, Villahermosa, Tabasco 86040 (Mexico); Pantoja-Enríquez, J. [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Energías Renovables, UNICACH, Libramiento Norte No 1150, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas 29039 (Mexico); Escobar-Morales, B. [Instituto Tecnológico de Cancún, Avenida Kábah Km 3, Cancún, Quintana Roo 77500 (Mexico); Martinez-Hernández, D.; Díaz-Flores, L.L.; Ricardez-Jiménez, C. [Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Avenida Universidad s/n, Col. Magisterial, Villahermosa, Tabasco 86040 (Mexico); Mathews, N.R.; Mathew, X. [Centro de Investigación en Energía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium sulfide thin-films were deposited on glass slides and SnO{sub 2}:F coated glass substrates by chemical bath deposition, sputtering and close-spaced sublimation techniques. The films were studied for the structural and opto-electronic properties after annealing in an ambient identical to that employed in the fabrication of CdTe/CdS devices. Quantum efficiency of the CdTe/CdS solar cells fabricated with CdS buffer films prepared by the three methods were investigated to understand the role of CdS film preparation method on the blue response of the devices. The higher blue response observed for the devices fabricated with chemical bath deposited CdS film is discussed. - Highlights: ► CdS films were prepared by different techniques. ► Role of CdS on the blue response of device was studied. ► Structural and optical properties of CdS were analyzed. ► Chemically deposited CdS has high blue transmittance. ► CdS deposition method influences diffusion of S and Te.

  19. Comparative study of ITO and FTO thin films grown by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Aouaj, M.; Diaz, R.; Belayachi, A.; Rueda, F.; Abd-Lefdil, M.

    2009-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films have been prepared by one step spray pyrolysis. Both film types grown at 400 deg. C present a single phase, ITO has cubic structure and preferred orientation (4 0 0) while FTO exhibits a tetragonal structure. Scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous surfaces with average grain size around 257 and 190 nm for ITO and FTO respectively. The optical properties have been studied in several ITO and FTO samples by transmittance and reflectance measurements. The transmittance in the visible zone is higher in ITO than in FTO layers with a comparable thickness, while the reflectance in the infrared zone is higher in FTO in comparison with ITO. The best electrical resistivity values, deduced from optical measurements, were 8 x 10 -4 and 6 x 10 -4 Ω cm for ITO (6% of Sn) and FTO (2.5% of F) respectively. The figure of merit reached a maximum value of 2.15 x 10 -3 Ω -1 for ITO higher than 0.55 x 10 -3 Ω -1 for FTO.

  20. Interfacial electronic structure of Na deposited on rubrene thin film studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Ching-Hsuan; Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Lin, Hong-Cheu; Pi, Tun-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Na deposited on rubrene had undergone three-stage development process via (1) atomic diffusion, (2) atomic incorporation in the surface region, (3) formation of a metallic film. • High resolution core-level photoemission was used to determine the location of the doped Na atoms, which is affiliated at the end position of the tetracene-like backbone. • Na metal was formed on the rubrene thin film. • Ionization potential of the organic molecule regulated with different Na doping concentration could be controllable and favorable in practical applications. - Abstract: The electronic structure of rubrene doped with various concentrations of Na was studied by synchrotron-radiation photoemission. Three stages of development were found with increasing Na concentration; Na penetrating deep into the organic film, followed by development of gap states, and ended with a metallic Na film. The charge transfer from Na to rubrene resulted in a vacuum-level shift. By doping Na into rubrene, we could control the IP of the organic molecule, which is favorable for application in organic semiconductor devices.

  1. Phase transition and thermal expansion studies of alumina thin films prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, G; Thirumurugesan, R; Mohandas, E; Sastikumar, D; Kuppusami, P; Songl, J I

    2014-10-01

    Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) thin films were deposited on Si (100) substrates at an optimized oxygen partial pressure of 3 x 10(-3) mbar at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were characterized by high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The HTXRD pattern showed the cubic y-Al2O3 phase in the temperature range 300-973 K. At temperatures ≥ 1073 K, the δ and θ-phases of Al2O3 were observed. The mean linear thermal expansion coefficient and volume thermal expansion coefficient of γ-Al2O3 was found to be 12.66 x 10(-6) K(-1) and 38.87 x 10(-6) K(-1) in the temperature range 300 K-1073 K. The field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a smooth and structureless morphology of the films deposited on Si (100). The atomic force microscopy study indicated the increased crystallinity and surface roughness of the films after annealing at high temperature.

  2. Structural, electrical and optical studies of SILAR deposited cadmium oxide thin films: Annealing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salunkhe, R.R.; Dhawale, D.S.; Gujar, T.P.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method has been successfully employed for the deposition of cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films. The films were annealed at 623 K for 2 h in an air and changes in the structural, electrical and optical properties were studied. From the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that after annealing, H 2 O vapors from as-deposited Cd(O 2 ) 0.88 (OH) 0.24 were removed and pure cubic cadmium oxide was obtained. The as-deposited film consists of nanocrystalline grains of average diameter about 20-30 nm with uniform coverage of the substrate surface, whereas for the annealed film randomly oriented morphology with slight increase in the crystallite size has been observed. The electrical resistivity showed the semiconducting nature with room temperature electrical resistivity decreased from 10 -2 to 10 -3 Ω cm after annealing. The decrease in the band gap energy from 3.3 to 2.7 eV was observed after the annealing

  3. Structural and optical studies on spin coated ZnO-graphene conjugated thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinatha, N.; Angadi, Basavaraj; Son, D. I.; Choi, W. K.

    2018-05-01

    ZnO-Graphene conjugated thin films were prepared using spin coating technique for different spin rates. Prior to the deposition, ZnO-Graphene nanoparticles were synthesized and their particle size and conjugation was studied through Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The deposited films were characterized using grazing incidence x-ray diffractometer (GIXRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and UV-Visible spectrometer for their crystallinity, surface topographic features and optical properties. GIXRD patterns confirms the presence of both ZnO and Graphene related crystalline peaks supports the TEM results, which shows the quasi core-shell type conjugation of ZnO-Graphene particles. The crystallinity as well as thickness of the films found to decrease with increase of spin rate. AFM results reveal the uniform, smooth and homogeneity of films and also good adhesivity of ZnO-Graphene with glass substrates. No significant change in the transmittance and absorption with spin rate is observed, while the band gap energy found to decrease due to the reduction in the thickness of the films and conjugation of ZnO-Graphene. All films exhibit˜90 % transmittance in the visible wavelength region, could be potential candidates for optoelectronics and transparent conducting oxide (TCO) applications.

  4. Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibau, Emmanuel S.

    Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as promising materials for fundamentally low-cost, high-performance optoelectronics. In this thesis, we utilize thermal co-evaporation of PbI2 and CH3NH 3 I to fabricate thin films of CH3NH3PbI 3. We first investigate the effect of stoichiometry on some of its structural, optical and electronic properties. Then, we study the energy level alignment of CH3NH3PbI3 with 6 organic semiconductors, revealing good agreement between the data and the theory of vacuum level alignment. Finally, the interface formed between CH3NH 3PbI3 and MoO3 is examined. The findings suggest migration of iodide species into the oxide layer, resulting in deterioration of its chemical and electronic properties. Insertion of an organic interlayer is shown to mitigate these undesirable effects. The results of this work could be of use in device engineering, where knowledge of such interfacial phenomena is of utmost importance in achieving optimized device structures.

  5. Device and material characterization and analytic modeling of amorphous silicon thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Holly Claudia

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film transistors (TFTs) are now well-established as switching elements for a variety of applications in the lucrative electronics market, such as active matrix liquid crystal displays, two-dimensional imagers, and position-sensitive radiation detectors. These applications necessitate the development of accurate characterization and simulation tools. The main goal of this work is the development of a semi- empirical, analytical model for the DC and AC operation of an amorphous silicon TFT for use in a manufacturing facility to improve yield and maintain process control. The model is physically-based, in order that the parameters scale with gate length and can be easily related back to the material and device properties. To accomplish this, extensive experimental data and 2D simulations are used to observe and quantify non- crystalline effects in the TFTs. In particular, due to the disorder in the amorphous network, localized energy states exist throughout the band gap and affect all regimes of TFT operation. These localized states trap most of the free charge, causing a gate-bias-dependent field effect mobility above threshold, a power-law dependence of the current on gate bias below threshold, very low leakage currents, and severe frequency dispersion of the TFT gate capacitance. Additional investigations of TFT instabilities reveal the importance of changes in the density of states and/or back channel conduction due to bias and thermal stress. In the above threshold regime, the model is similar to the crystalline MOSFET model, considering the drift component of free charge. This approach uses the field effect mobility to take into account the trap states and must utilize the correct definition of threshold voltage. In the below threshold regime, the density of deep states is taken into account. The leakage current is modeled empirically, and the parameters are temperature dependent to 150oC. The capacitance of the TFT can be

  6. Temperature dependent photoreflectance study of Cu2SnS3 thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raadik, T.; Grossberg, M.; Krustok, J.

    2017-01-01

    structure (C1c1) prevails in the studied CTS thin film; however, a weak contribution from cubic CTS (F-43m) was also detected. The PR spectra revealed the valence band splitting of CTS. Optical transitions at EA = 0.92 eV, EB = 1.04 eV, and EC = 1.08 eV were found for monoclinic CTS at low-temperature (T...

  7. Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaxelaire, N; Labat, S; Thomas, O [Aix-Marseille University, IM2NP, FST avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, F-13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Proudhon, H; Forest, S [MINES ParisTech, Centre des materiaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J [Erich Schmid Institute for Material Science, Austrian Academy of Science and Institute of Metal Physics, University of Leoben, Jahnstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Jacques, V; Ravy, S [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: nicolas.vaxelaire@univ-cezanne.fr

    2010-03-15

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the mechanical properties of a single grain within a polycrystalline thin film in situ during a thermal cycle. Both the experimental approach and finite element simulation are described. Coherent diffraction from a single grain has been monitored in situ at different temperatures. This experiment offers unique perspectives for the study of the mechanical properties of nano-objects.

  8. Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaxelaire, N; Labat, S; Thomas, O; Proudhon, H; Forest, S; Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J; Jacques, V; Ravy, S

    2010-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the mechanical properties of a single grain within a polycrystalline thin film in situ during a thermal cycle. Both the experimental approach and finite element simulation are described. Coherent diffraction from a single grain has been monitored in situ at different temperatures. This experiment offers unique perspectives for the study of the mechanical properties of nano-objects.

  9. Study of sputtered ZnO thin films on SiO2 and GaP substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brath, T.; Buc, D.; Kovac, J.; Hrnciar, V.; Caplovic, L.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated n-ZnO polycrystalline thin films prepared on SiO 2 and p-GaP substrate using magnetron sputtering technique. The structural and electrical properties of these structures were studied. The measured parameters give promising results with a possibility to utilize n-ZnO/p-GaP heterostructure for application in the solar cells development especially in the field of nanostructures. The prepared structures will be a subject of further research. (authors)

  10. Structural study and fabrication of nano-pattern on ultra thin film of Ag grown by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Kundu, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the structural study of ultra thin Ag films using grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity and the modification of these films with the tip of an atomic force microscope. Ag thin films are deposited using dc magnetron sputtering on a Si(001) substrate. Initially, the growth of the film is carpet like and above a certain thickness (∼42 A) the film structure changes to form mounds. This ultra thin film of Ag having carpet-like growth can be modified by the tip of an atomic force microscope, which occurs due to the porous nature of the film. A periodic pattern of nanometer dimensions has been fabricated on this film using the atomic force microscope tip. (author)

  11. Studies on ion scattering and sputtering processes relevant to ion beam sputter deposition of multicomponent thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.; Ameen, M.S.; Kingon, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Results from computer simulation and experiments on ion scattering and sputtering processes in ion beam sputter deposition of high Tc superconducting and ferroelectric thin films are presented. It is demonstrated that scattering of neutralized ions from the targets can result in undesirable erosion of, and inert gas incorporation in, the growing films, depending on the ion/target atom ass ratio and ion beam angle of incidence/target/substrate geometry. The studies indicate that sputtering Kr + or Xe + ions is preferable to the most commonly used Ar + ions, since the undesirable phenomena mentioned above are minimized for the first two ions. These results are used to determine optimum sputter deposition geometry and ion beam parameters for growing multicomponent oxide thin films by ion beam sputter-deposition. 10 refs., 5 figs

  12. Studies on nonvolatile resistance memory switching in ZnO thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Six decades of research on ZnO has recently sprouted a new branch in the domain of resistive random access memories. Highly resistive and c-axis oriented ZnO thin films were grown by us using d.c. discharge assisted pulsed laser deposition on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at room temperature. The resistive switching ...

  13. On the oxidation mechanism of microcrystalline silicon thin films studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronneberg, A. C.; Smets, A. H. M.; Creatore, M.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,

    2011-01-01

    Insight into the oxidation mechanism of microcrystalline silicon thin films has been obtained by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The films were deposited by using the expanding thermal plasma and their oxidation upon air exposure was followed in time. Transmission spectra were

  14. Study of third order nonlinearity of chalcogenide thin films using third harmonic generation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Sunita; Mohan, Devendra; Kumar, Manish; Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    Third order nonlinear susceptibility of (GeSe3.5)100-xBix (x = 0, 10, 14) and ZnxSySe100-x-y (x = 2, y = 28; x = 4, y = 20; x = 6, y = 12; x = 8, y = 4) amorphous chalcogenide thin films prepared using thermal evaporation technique is estimated. The dielectric constant at incident and third harmonic wavelength is calculated using "PARAV" computer program. 1064 nm wavelength of Nd: YAG laser is incident on thin film and third harmonic signal at 355 nm wavelength alongwith fundamental light is obtained in reflection that is separated from 1064 nm using suitable optical filter. Reflected third harmonic signal is measured to trace the influence of Bi and Zn on third order nonlinear susceptibility and is found to increase with increase in Bi and Zn content in (GeSe3.5)100-xBix, and ZnxSySe100-x-y chalcogenide thin films respectively. The excellent optical nonlinear property shows the use of chalcogenide thin films in photonics for wavelength conversion and optical data processing.

  15. Optical and infrared spectroscopic studies of chemical sensing by copper phthalocyanine thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Tripathi, S.K.; Saini, G.S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of copper phthalocyanine have been deposited on KBr and glass substrates by thermal evaporation method and characterized by the X-ray diffraction and optical absorption techniques. The observed X-ray pattern suggests the presence of α crystalline phase of copper phthalocyanine in the as-deposited thin films. Infrared spectra of thin films on the KBr pallet before and after exposure to the vapours of ammonia and methanol have been recorded in the wavenumber region of 400-1650 cm -1 . The observed infrared bands also confirm the α crystalline phase. On exposure, change in the intensity of some bands is observed. A new band at 1385 cm -1 , forbidden under ideal D 4h point group symmetry, is also observed in the spectra of exposed thin films. These changes in the spectra are interpreted in terms of the lowering of molecular symmetry from D 4h to C 4v . Axial ligation of the vapour molecules on fifth coordination site of the metal ion is responsible for lowering of the molecular symmetry

  16. Nanomechanical study of amorphous and polycrystalline ALD HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Tapily; J.E. Jakes; D. Gu; H. Baumgart; A.A. Elmustafa

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of hafnium oxide (HfO2) were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The structural properties of the deposited films were characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We investigated the effect of phase transformations induced by thermal treatments on the mechanical properties of ALD HfO

  17. Structural, dielectric and AC conductivity study of Sb2O3 thin film ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    52

    However, to date, no reports have appeared on impedance spectroscopy, modulus behavior, electrical conductivity, dielectric relaxation and dielectric properties of crystalline Sb2O3 thin films. This paper deals for the first time with the frequency and temperature dependence of AC conductivity and complex electric modulus ...

  18. Polymer-coated compliant receivers for intact laser-induced forward transfer of thin films: experimental results and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinaeugle, Matthias; Horak, Peter; Sones, Collin L.; Lippert, Thomas; Eason, Rob W.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigate both experimentally and numerically laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of thin films to determine the role of a thin polymer layer coating the receiver with the aim of modifying the rate of deceleration and reduction of material stress preventing intact material transfer. A numerical model of the impact phase during LIFT shows that such a layer reduces the modelled stress. The evolution of stress within the transferred deposit and the substrate as a function of the thickness of the polymer layer, the transfer velocity and the elastic properties of the polymer are evaluated. The functionality of the polymer layer is verified experimentally by LIFT printing intact 1- m-thick bismuth telluride films and polymeric light-emitting diode pads onto a layer of 12-m-thick polydimethylsiloxane and 50-nm-thick poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) blended with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated experimentally that the introduction of such a compliant layer improves adhesion between the deposit and its substrate.

  19. Studies on acetone sensing characteristics of ZnO thin film prepared by sol–gel dip coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukrishnan, Karthika; Vanaraja, Manoj [School of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, 613401 (India); Boomadevi, Shanmugam [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, 620015 (India); Karn, Rakesh Kumar [School of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, 613401 (India); Singh, Vijay [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Singh, Pramod K. [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Bornova, 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Material Research Laboratory, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, 201310, U. P. (India); Pandiyan, Krishnamoorthy, E-mail: krishpandiyan@ece.sastra.edu [School of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, 613401 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Acetone sensing characteristics of Zinc Oxide thin films prepared by dip coating method are discussed in this paper. The sol for dip coating was synthesized using Zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. 6H{sub 2}O) and organic polymer sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (Na-CMC) as a starting material. Crystallinity and crystallite size of the prepared thin film was characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Morphology was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The gas sensing characteristics was studied using chemiresistive method, by exposing the film to various concentrations of acetone at room temperature. Further, for comparative study ethanol and acetaldehyde has also been tested. Gas sensing parameters such us response, selectivity, lowest detection limit, response/recovery time of the thin film towards acetone were also reported. - Highlights: • ZnO has successfully synthesized using cheap and ease method. • Detail characterization have carried out and explained. • Sensing behaviour has been studied. • Acetone sensor has been fabricated.

  20. Plasma dynamics study by fast imaging and Sm1-xNdxNiO3 thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafane, S.; Kerdja, T.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Malek, S.; Maaza, M.

    2009-01-01

    The plume expansion dynamics of an ablated target of Sm 2 O 3 , Nd 2 O 3 and NiO mixture oxides by KrF laser into 0.2 mbar oxygen atmosphere has been investigated using fast imaging. The study was carried out for two different laser fluences 2 and 3 J cm -2 . It was found that at early time delays, the expansion is still linear, independently of the laser fluence. However, as time evolves, the plume is decelerated and comes to rest. The plasma plume dynamics was analysed in the framework of Predtechensky and Mayorov model and drag model. It was found that Predtechensky and Mayorov model gives a general description of the plume expansion. However, at later time delays, it is rather the drag model which is valid. Furthermore, under the same conditions of pressure and fluences used for the plasma study, thin films were deposited at 4 cm from target surface and at temperature of 500 deg. C on (1 0 0) silicon substrates. The obtained layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy diagnostics. A correlation between the films properties and the plasma plume dynamics was found.

  1. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1995-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  2. Growth, structural, optical and electrical study of ZnS thin films deposited by solution growth technique (SGT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadekar, H.K.; Deshpande, N.G.; Gudage, Y.G.; Ghosh, A.; Chavhan, S.D.; Gosavi, S.R.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2008-01-01

    ZnS thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates at temperature 90 deg. C by solution growth technique (SGT). The deposition parameters were optimized. Triethanolamine (TEA) was used as a complexing agent for uniform deposition of the thin films. The elemental composition of the film was confirmed by energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) technique. Structure and surface morphology of as-deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. XRD patterns reveal that as-deposited thin films were amorphous in nature; while the obtained precipitate powder was polycrystalline in nature. SEM results revealed that deposited ZnS material has ∼120 ± 20 nm average grain size and the spherical grains are distributed over the entire glass substrate. Low surface roughness was found to be 2.7 nm from AFM studies. Transmission spectra indicate a high transmission coefficient (∼75%) with direct band gap energy equal to 3.72 eV while indirect band gap was found to be 3.45 eV. A photoluminescence (PL) study of the ZnS at room temperature (300 K) indicates a strong luminescence band at energy 2.02 eV

  3. Growth, structural, optical and electrical study of ZnS thin films deposited by solution growth technique (SGT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadekar, H K [Arts, Commerce and Science college, Sonai 414105 (M.S.) (India); Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. B.A.M. University, Aurangabad 431004 (M.S.) (India); Deshpande, N G; Gudage, Y G; Ghosh, A; Chavhan, S D; Gosavi, S R [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. B.A.M. University, Aurangabad 431004 (M.S.) (India); Sharma, Ramphal [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. B.A.M. University, Aurangabad 431004 (M.S.) (India)

    2008-04-03

    ZnS thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates at temperature 90 deg. C by solution growth technique (SGT). The deposition parameters were optimized. Triethanolamine (TEA) was used as a complexing agent for uniform deposition of the thin films. The elemental composition of the film was confirmed by energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) technique. Structure and surface morphology of as-deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. XRD patterns reveal that as-deposited thin films were amorphous in nature; while the obtained precipitate powder was polycrystalline in nature. SEM results revealed that deposited ZnS material has {approx}120 {+-} 20 nm average grain size and the spherical grains are distributed over the entire glass substrate. Low surface roughness was found to be 2.7 nm from AFM studies. Transmission spectra indicate a high transmission coefficient ({approx}75%) with direct band gap energy equal to 3.72 eV while indirect band gap was found to be 3.45 eV. A photoluminescence (PL) study of the ZnS at room temperature (300 K) indicates a strong luminescence band at energy 2.02 eV.

  4. Structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates, studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Robert, E-mail: bobsinc@stanford.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lee, Sang Chul, E-mail: sclee99@stanford.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Shi, Yezhou; Chueh, William C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    We have applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films, grown by pulsed laser deposition onto (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. There are few observable defects apart from the expected mismatch interfacial dislocations and so the films would be expected to have good potential for applications. Under high electron beam dose rate (above about 6000 e{sup -}/Å{sup 2}s) domains of an ordered structure appear and these are interpreted as being created by oxygen vacancy ordering. The ordered structure does not appear at lower lose rates (ca. 2600 e{sup -}/Å{sup 2}s) and can be removed by imaging under 1 mbar oxygen gas in an environmental TEM. EELS confirms that there is both oxygen deficiency and the associated increase in Ce{sup 3+} versus Ce{sup 4+} cations in the ordered domains. In situ high resolution TEM recordings show the formation of the ordered domains as well as atomic migration along the ceria thin film (001) surface. - Highlights: • The local structure and chemistry of ceria can be studied by TEM combined with EELS. • At lower electron, there are no observable changes in the ceria thin films. • At higher dose rates, an ordered phase is created due to oxygen vacancy ordering. • In situ HRTEM shows the oxygen vacancy ordering and the movement of surface atoms.

  5. Study of structural and optical properties of Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahab, L.A., E-mail: aly_lo2003@yahoo.com [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Zayed, H.A. [University Collage of Women for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Galil, A.A. Abd [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-06-01

    Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Se (x = 0, 0.5 and 1) thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates using thermal evaporation technique. The lattice constants, grain size, microstrain and dislocation density were studied by using X-ray diffraction. In addition the optical constants were calculated in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm. Transmittance and reflectance were used to calculate the absorption coefficient {alpha} and the optical band gap E{sub g}. The linear relation of ({alpha}h{upsilon}){sup 2} as a function of photon energy h{upsilon} for the thin films illustrated that the films exhibit a direct band gap, which increases with increasing Zn content. This increasing of optical band gap was interpreted in accordance to the increasing in the cohesive energy. Optical constants, such as refractive index n, optical conductivity {sigma}{sub opt}, complex dielectric constant, relaxation time {tau} and dissipation factor tan{delta} were determined. The optical dispersion parameters E{sub 0}, E{sub d} were determined according to Wemple and Di Domenico method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnSe thin film has cubic zinc blende structure while CdSe and Cd{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Se thin films have hexagonal structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain size of Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Se decreases with increasing x (x = 0, 0.5 and 1). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical band gap increases with increasing x.

  6. A Comuputerized DRBEM model for generalized magneto-thermo-visco-elastic stress waves in functionally graded anisotropic thin film/substrate structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy

    Full Text Available A numerical computer model, based on the dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM for studying the generalized magneto-thermo-visco-elastic stress waves in a rotating functionally graded anisotropic thin film/substrate structure under pulsed laser irradiation is established. An implicit-implicit staggered algorithm was proposed and implemented for use with the DRBEM to get the solution for the temperature, displacement components and thermal stress components through the structure thickness. A comparison of the results for different theories is presented in the presence and absence of rotation. Some numerical results that demonstrate the validity of the proposed method are also presented.

  7. Structural and optical studied of nano structured lead sulfide thin films prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Din, Nasser Saad, E-mail: nsaadaldin@yahoo.com; Hussain, Nabiha, E-mail: nabihahssin@yahoo.com [Damascus University Faculty of Science, Department of physics, Homs (Syrian Arab Republic); Jandow, Nidhal, E-mail: nidhaljandow@yahoo.com [Al –Mustansiriyah University, College of Education, Department of physics, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-07-25

    Lead (II) Sulfide PbS thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 25°C by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The structural properties of the films were studied as a function of the concentration of Thiourea (CS (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) as Source of Sulfide and deposition time. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited films Polycrystalline had cubic crystalline phase that belong to S.G: Fm3m. We found that they have preferred orientation [200]. Also the thickness of thin films decrease with deposition time after certain value and, it observed free sulfide had orthorhombic phase. Optical properties showed that the thin films have high transmission at visible range and low transmission at UV, IR range. The films of PbS have direct band gap (I.68 - 2.32 ev) at 300 K the values of band energy decreases with increases thickness of the Lead (II) Sulfide films.

  8. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study and thermoelectric properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Fang Liang; Zhou Xianju; Liu Ziyi; Zhao Liang; Jiang Sha

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, high quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were prepared by direct current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering using a Zn target (99.99%) containing Al of 1.5 wt.%. The films obtained were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermoelectric measurements. The XPS results reveal that Zn and Al exist only in oxidized state, while there are dominant crystal lattice and rare adsorbed oxygen for O in the annealed AZO thin films. The studies of thermoelectric property show a striking thermoelectric effect in the AZO thin films. On the one hand, the thermoelectromotive and magnetothermoelectromotive forces increase linearly with increasing temperature difference (ΔT). On the other hand, the thermoelectric power (TEP) decreases with the electrical resistance of the sample. But the TEP increases with the increase of temperature below 300 K, and it nearly does not change around room temperature. The experimental results also demonstrate that the annealing treatment increases TEP, while the external magnetic field degrades TEP.

  9. Electrodeposited semiconductors at room temperature: an X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy study of Cu-, Zn-, S-bearing thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Benedetto, Francesco; Cinotti, Serena; D’Acapito, Francesco; Vizza, Francesco; Foresti, Maria Luisa; Guerri, Annalisa; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Montegrossi, Giordano; Romanelli, Maurizio; Cioffi, Nicola; Innocenti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    A SEM, DRS and XAS study was carried out on ultra-thin films with chemical composition belonging to the Cu-Zn-S ternary system, related to the kesterite-type materials, in the light of their potential application to thin film photovoltaic technology. The films, realized through the layer-by-layer E-ALD electrochemical technique, reveal variable phase composition as a function of the applied E-ALD sequence. In particular, by increasing the Zn cycles per Cu cycle from 1:1 to 9:1, the number of detected phases changes from 3 to 2. In all samples, Cu mainly crystallize in a Cu_2S type phase, whereas Zn occurs as ZnS. In the 1:1 sample, additional ZnO is detected. The variable phase composition parallels apparent changes in the sample morphology. In all samples, a sulphide thin film is covered by a net of elongated nanostructures, the length of which decreases with increasing the number of Zn cycles per Cu cycle. All these evidences are interpreted as due to the operating electrochemical route during the synthesis and confirm the lack of miscibility between Cu_2S and ZnS, thermodynamically relevant after the E-ALD has stopped. The band gap values exhibited by the three films, modulated by changing the copper:zinc ratio, progressively approach a value useful for solar energy conversion, thus strongly proposing these new sulfide nanomaterials for photovoltaics and photochemical applications.

  10. High temperature annealing effects on chromel (Ni90Cr10) thin films and interdiffusion study for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Arindom; Cheng Xudong; Miller, Michael A.; Li Xiaochun

    2008-01-01

    Metal embedded thin film thermocouples are very attractive for various applications in harsh environments. One promising technique to embed thin films micro sensors is diffusion bonding, which requires high temperatures and pressures typically in a vacuum. In this study, high temperature annealing effects on chromel (Ni90Cr10) thin film, an important sensor material as one of the components in type K thermocouple, were investigated in a diffusion bonding environment. Annealing was carried out at 800 deg. C for one hour in a diffusion bonder under vacuum without applying pressure. Under such conditions; surface, interface and interdiffusion phenomena were investigated using different characterization techniques including X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Results indicate that the present combination of dielectrics is quite reliable and Ni90Cr10 films of 500 nm thickness can be used for applications at least up to 800 deg. C due to a protective thin chromium oxide layer formation on top of the sensor film during annealing

  11. An in situ grazing incidence x-ray scattering study of block copolymer thin films during solvent vapor annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodan; Gunkel, Ilja; Hexemer, Alexander; Russell, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Although solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has been widely applied to block copolymer (BCP) thin films to obtain well-ordered microdomains, the mechanism of enhancing lateral order is not well understood. Here, we used real time in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (in situGISAXS) to study the self-assembly of PS-b-P2VP BCP BCPs with different molecular weights thin films in THF vapor, a near neutral solvent for both blocks. Both swelling and deswelling behavior of BCP thin films were examined. The extent of swellingand the solvent removal rate not only affect the domain spacing of BCPs but also dictate the extent of lateral ordering of the BCP microdomains. Larger grains were observed at higher values of the swelling ratio (close to disordering). To preserve the maximal lateral ordering of the microdomains in the swollen state, the fastest solvent removal rate is required to freeze in the ordered microdomain structure of the swollen BCP film. We thanks support from U.S. Department of Energy BES under contract BES-DE-FG02-96ER45612 and ALS doctoral fellowship.

  12. Effect of native oxide layers on copper thin-film tensile properties: A reactive molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarlinski, Michael D., E-mail: michael.skarlinski@rochester.edu [Materials Science Program, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Quesnel, David J. [Materials Science Program, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Metal-oxide layers are likely to be present on metallic nano-structures due to either environmental exposure during use, or high temperature processing techniques such as annealing. It is well known that nano-structured metals have vastly different mechanical properties from bulk metals; however, difficulties in modeling the transition between metallic and ionic bonding have prevented the computational investigation of the effects of oxide surface layers. Newly developed charge-optimized many body [Liang et al., Mater. Sci. Eng., R 74, 255 (2013)] potentials are used to perform fully reactive molecular dynamics simulations which elucidate the effects that metal-oxide layers have on the mechanical properties of a copper thin-film. Simulated tensile tests are performed on thin-films while using different strain-rates, temperatures, and oxide thicknesses to evaluate changes in yield stress, modulus, and failure mechanisms. Findings indicate that copper-thin film mechanical properties are strongly affected by native oxide layers. The formed oxide layers have an amorphous structure with lower Cu-O bond-densities than bulk CuO, and a mixture of Cu{sub 2}O and CuO charge character. It is found that oxidation will cause modifications to the strain response of the elastic modulii, producing a stiffened modulii at low temperatures (<75 K) and low strain values (<5%), and a softened modulii at higher temperatures. While under strain, structural reorganization within the oxide layers facilitates brittle yielding through nucleation of defects across the oxide/metal interface. The oxide-free copper thin-film yielding mechanism is found to be a tensile-axis reorientation and grain creation. The oxide layers change the observed yielding mechanism, allowing for the inner copper thin-film to sustain an FCC-to-BCC transition during yielding. The mechanical properties are fit to a thermodynamic model based on classical nucleation theory. The fit implies that the oxidation of the

  13. A study of the optical properties and adhesion of zinc sulfide anti-reflection thin film coated on a germanium substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firoozifar, S.A.R. [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behjat, A., E-mail: abehjat@yazduni.ac.ir [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Photonics Research Group, Engineering Research Center, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kadivar, E. [Physics Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorashi, S.M.B.; Zarandi, M. Borhani [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-01

    To conduct this study, zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films deposited on germanium (Ge) substrates were prepared by an evaporation method. The effects of deposition rate and annealing on the optical properties and adhesion of the ZnS thin films were investigated. The transmission intensity and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the samples showed that the transmittance of the samples decreases by increasing the evaporation rates. However, with the increase of the annealing temperature, crystallinity of the thin films improves which, in turn, results in the enhancement of the transmission intensity in a far infrared region. The maximum grain size was obtained at the annealing temperature of 225 deg. C. Our experimental results also show that evaporation rate and annealing influences the adhesion of ZnS thin films to Ge substrates.

  14. Thin film studies toward improving the performance of accelerator electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Future electron accelerators require DC high voltage photoguns to operate beyond the present state of the art to conduct new experiments that require ultra-bright electron beams with high average current and higher bunch charge. To meet these demands, the accelerators must demonstrate improvements in a number of photogun areas including vacuum, field emission elimination in high voltage electrodes, and photocathodes. This dissertation illustrates how these improvements can be achieved by the application of suitable thin-films to the photogun structure for producing ultra-bright electron beams. This work is composed of three complementary studies. First, the outgassing rates of three nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were studied to determine the effects of chamber coatings (silicon and titanium nitride) and heat treatments. For an uncoated stainless steel chamber, the diffusion limited outgassing was taken over by the recombination limited process as soon as a low outgassing rate of ~1.79(±0.05) x 10-13 Torr L s-1 cm-2 was achieved. An amorphous silicon coating on the stainless steel chambers exhibited recombination limited behavior and any heat treatment became ineffective in reducing the outgassing rate. A TiN coated chamber yielded the smallest apparent outgassing rate of all the chambers: 6.44(±0.05) x 10-13 Torr L s-1 cm-2 following an initial 90 °C bake and 2(±20) x 10-16 Torr L s-1 cm-2 following the final bake in the series. This perceived low outgassing rate was attributed to the small pumping nature of TiN coating itself. Second, the high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, were compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). This study suggests that aluminum electrodes, coated with TiN, could simplify

  15. Comparative study of ZnO nanorods and thin films for chemical and biosensing applications and the development of ZnO nanorods based potentiometric strontium ion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, K.; Ibupoto, Z. H.; Chey, C. O.; Lu, Jun.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the comparative study of ZnO nanorods and ZnO thin films were performed regarding the chemical and biosensing properties and also ZnO nanorods based strontium ion sensor is proposed. ZnO nanorods were grown on gold coated glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth method and the ZnO thin films were deposited by electro deposition technique. ZnO nanorods and thin films were characterised by field emission electron microscopy [FESEM] and X-ray diffraction [XRD] techniques and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform and exhibited good crystal quality. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy [TEM] was used to investigate the quality of ZnO thin film and we observed that ZnO thin film was comprised of nano clusters. ZnO nanorods and thin films were functionalised with selective strontium ionophore salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [ST] membrane, galactose oxidase, and lactate oxidase for the detection of strontium ion, galactose and L-lactic acid, respectively. The electrochemical response of both ZnO nanorods and thin films sensor devices was measured by using the potentiometric method. The strontium ion sensor has exhibited good characteristics with a sensitivity of 28.65 ± 0.52 mV/decade, for a wide range of concentrations from 1.00 × 10-6 to 5.00 × 10-2 M, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and fast response time of 10.00 s. The proposed strontium ion sensor was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of strontium ion versus ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid [EDTA]. This comparative study has shown that ZnO nanorods possessed better performance with high sensitivity and low limit of detection due to high surface area to volume ratio as compared to the flat surface of ZnO thin films.

  16. Development of tantalum oxynitride thin films produced by PVD: Study of structural stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, D. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Department of Materials Science, Transylvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Crisan, A. [Department of Materials Science, Transylvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Barradas, N.P.; Alves, E. [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Estrada Nacional 10, ao km 139,7 2695-066, Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Moura, C.; Vaz, F. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Cunha, L., E-mail: lcunha@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this work is to study the evolution of the structure and of the thermal stability of a group of tantalum oxynitride thin films, prepared by magnetron sputtering, under the influence of vacuum annealing, up to a temperature of 800 °C. When varying the partial pressure of the reactive gases (P{sub O{sub 2+N{sub 2}}}), during the deposition process, the films change from a structure with a combination of poorly developed crystallites of the tetragonal β-Ta and of the face centred cubic (fcc) Ta(O,N) phases, for the films deposited with low P{sub O2+N2}, to a quasi-amorphous structure, for the films deposited with highest pressures. For intermediate pressures, the films reveal the presence of the fcc-Ta(O,N) structure. This structure corresponds to O atoms substituting some of the N atoms on the fcc-TaN structure and/or N atoms substituting O atoms of the fcc-γ-TaO structure. When subjected to the thermal annealing at 700 °C or higher, the film produced with lowest partial pressure revealed a remarkable structural change. New diffraction peaks appear and can only be attributed to a sub-stoichiometric hexagonal tantalum nitride structure. The film did not reveal any signs of delamination or cracks after all annealing temperatures. The two films produced with highest partial pressure proved to be the most stable. Structurally, they maintain the amorphous structure after all the annealing treatments and, in addition, no cracks or delamination were detected.

  17. Photostable epoxy polymerized carbon quantum dots luminescent thin films and the performance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhang

    Full Text Available High photostable epoxy polymerized carbon quantum dots (C-dots luminescent thin films were prepared and their performances were compared with the CdTe quantum dots (QDs. First, water soluble C-dots (λem = 543.60 nm were synthesized. Poly (ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEG and diaminooctane were used as the polymer matrix to make the epoxy resin films. FT-IR spectra showed that there were vibration at 3448 cm−1 and 1644 cm−1 which contributed to -OH and -NH respectively. SEM observations showed that the polymerizations of the films were uniform and there were no structure defects. Mechanical tests showed the tensile modulus of C-dots composite films were 4.6, 4.9, 6.4 and 7.8 MPa respectively with corresponding 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% mass fraction of C-dots, while the tensile modulus of CdTe QDs films were 4.6 MPa under the same mass fraction of CdTe QDs. Compared with semiconductor QDs, the decay of quantum yield were 5% and 10% for the C-dots and CdTe QDs, respectively. The pictures in the continuous irradiation of 48 h showed that the C-dots film was more photostable. This study provides much helpful and profound towards the fluorescent enhancement films in the field of flexible displays. Keywords: Carbon-dots, Waterborne epoxy resin, Luminescent materials, Quantum dots displays

  18. Nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films: Structural, morphological, electrical transport and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhare, R.D.; Khuspe, G.D.; Navale, S.T.; Mulik, R.N.; Chougule, M.A.; Pawar, R.C.; Lee, C.S.; Sen, Shashwati; Patil, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel chemical route of synthesis of SnO 2 films. ► Physical properties SnO 2 are influenced by process temperature. ► The room temperature electrical conductivity of SnO 2 is of 10 −7 –10 −5 (Ω cm) −1 . ► SnO 2 exhibit high absorption coefficient (10 4 cm −1 ). -- Abstract: Sol–gel spin coating method has been successfully employed for preparation of nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films. The effect of processing temperature on the structure, morphology, electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power and band gap was studied using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction pattern, atomic force microscopy, two probe technique and UV–visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that SnO 2 films are crystallized in the tetragonal phase and present a random orientation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis revealed that surface morphology of the tin oxide film consists nanocrystalline grains with uniform coverage of the substrate surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of SnO 2 film showed nanocrystals having diameter ranging from 5 to 10 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirms tetragonal phase evolution of SnO 2 . Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed surface morphology of SnO 2 film is smooth. The dc electrical conductivity showed the semiconducting nature with room temperature electrical conductivity increased from 10 −7 to 10 −5 (Ω cm) −1 as processing temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C. Thermo power measurement confirms n-type conduction. The band gap energy of SnO 2 film decreased from 3.88 to 3.60 eV as processing temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C

  19. A study of the chemical, mechanical, and surface properties of thin films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandentop, G.J.

    1990-07-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films were studied with the objective of elucidating the nucleation and growth mechanisms, and the origin of their unique physical properties. The films were deposited onto Si(100) substrates both on the powered (negatively self-biased) and on the grounded electrodes from methane in an rf plasma (13.56 MHz) at 65 mTorr and 300 to 370 K. The films produced at the powered electrode exhibited superior mechanical properties, such as high hardness. A mass spectrometer was used to identify neutral species and positive ions incident on the electrodes from the plasma, and also to measure ion energies. The effect of varying ion energy flux on the properties of a-C:H films was investigated using a novel pulsed biasing technique. It was demonstrated that ions were not the dominant deposition species as the total ion flux measured was insufficient to account for the observed deposition rate. The interface between thin films of a-C:H and silicon substrates was investigated using angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A silicon carbide layer was detected at the interface of a hard a-C:H film formed at the powered electrode. At the grounded electrode, where the kinetic energy is low, no interfacial carbide layer was observed. Scanning tunneling microscopy and high energy electron energy loss spectroscopy was used to investigate the initial stages of growth of a-C:H films. On graphite substrates, films formed at the powered electrode were observed to nucleate in clusters approximately 50 {Angstrom} in diameter, while at the grounded electrode no cluster formation was observed. 58 figs.

  20. Electron microscopy studies of octa-calcium phosphate thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliescu, Monica; Nelea, V.; Werckmann, J.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Socol, G.; Bigi, Adriana; Bracci, Barbara

    2004-04-01

    Octa-calcium phosphate (OCP), Ca{sub 8}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O, is present as transient compound in the precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HA) and biological apatites. Because of these characteristics, OCP plays a crucial role in the in-vivo mineralization of human bones and teeth. The use of OCP in developing new generations of bone prosthesis stands therefore for an innovative challenge. This paper reports studies of OCP structures grown in the form of thin films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with emphasis on electron microscopy investigations. OCP films were grown on etched Ti substrates, using an UV KrF* excimer laser source ({lambda}=248 nm, {tau}{>=}20 ns). Films were deposited in low-pressure (50 Pa) water vapors environment on substrates heated at 20-180 deg. C. We performed annealing treatments in water vapors and ambient pressure at substrate temperatures identical to those used during deposition. Comprehensive structural and morphological investigations were carried out with different based-electron microscopy procedures. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and white light confocal microscopy were also applied to characterize the films. Ca/P atomic ratio of films was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, electron energy loss spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained films generally exhibit an amorphous structure, as evidenced by GIXRD. Nevertheless, cross-section transmission electron microscopy investigations provide supplementary information about the film characteristics and material crystallization in small domains. OCP nanoparticles coalesce and grow perpendicular to the substrate in a tree-like structure, comparable to a coral reef.

  1. Study on the preheating duration of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} thin films using RF magnetron sputtering technique for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuchen; He, Jun; Li, Xinran; Chen, Ye; Sun, Lin, E-mail: lsun@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2016-04-25

    Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} (CTS) thin films are prepared by sulfurization the stacked metallic precursors deposited by raido-frequency magnetron sputtering method on molybdenum-coated soda lime glass substrates. The details of sulfurization process and the effect of preheating duration on the properties of CTS thin films have been investigated. It is found that the content of element tin strongly depend on the preheating duration. X-ray diffraction patterns identify that the CTS thin films exhibit the monoclinic structure. Raman scattering spectra make a further confirmation for the crystal structure. Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR) is first used to study the properties of CTS thin films. The assigned active modes in Raman scattering spectra is consistent with the analysis in FTIR. Morphology analysis reveals long preheating duration would make the quality of films deteriorate. The thin film solar cell (TFSC) fabricated using the CTS absorber layer synthesized at preheating duration of 15 min shows that a power conversion efficiency up to 0.76% for a 0.19 cm{sup 2} area. The electrical characterization of CTS TFSC is first studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which implies the existence of MoS{sub x} and defects in the CTS/CdS interface. - Highlights: • CTS thin films and solar cells prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. • Preheating duration is a critical way to remain the Sn content in CTS thin film. • XRD, Raman, FTIR and XPS confirmed the single phase of CTS thin film. • The device characterization of CTS solar cell has been systematically investigated.

  2. Predictive Model for the Meniscus-Guided Coating of High-Quality Organic Single-Crystalline Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janneck, Robby; Vercesi, Federico; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan; Rolin, Cedric

    2016-09-01

    A model that describes solvent evaporation dynamics in meniscus-guided coating techniques is developed. In combination with a single fitting parameter, it is shown that this formula can accurately predict a processing window for various coating conditions. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), fabricated by a zone-casting setup, indeed show the best performance at the predicted coating speeds with mobilities reaching 7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Study of Nitrogen Effect on the Boron Diffusion during Heat Treatment in Polycrystalline Silicon/Nitrogen-Doped Silicon Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saci, Lynda; Mahamdi, Ramdane; Mansour, Farida; Boucher, Jonathan; Collet, Maéva; Bedel Pereira, Eléna; Temple-Boyer, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    The present paper studies the boron (B) diffusion in nitrogen (N) doped amorphous silicon (a-Si) layer in original bi-layer B-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si)/in-situ N-doped Si layers (NIDOS) thin films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique. The B diffusion in the NIDOS layer was investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. A new extended diffusion model is proposed to fit the SIMS profile of the bi-layer films. This model introduces new terms which take into account the effect of N concentration on the complex diffusion phenomena of B atoms in bi-layer films. SIMS results show that B diffusion does not exceed one third of NIDOS layer thickness after annealing. The reduction of the B diffusion in the NIDOS layer is due to the formation of complex B-N as shown by infrared absorption measurements. Electrical measurements using four-probe and Hall effect techniques show the good conductivity of the B-doped poly-Si layer after annealing treatment.

  4. Magnetite thin films: A simulational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the study of the magnetic properties of magnetite thin films is addressed by means of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model. We simulate LxLxd magnetite thin films (d being the film thickness and L the transversal linear dimension) with periodic boundary conditions along transversal directions and free boundary conditions along d direction. In our model, both the three-dimensional inverse spinel structure and the interactions scheme involving tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been considered in a realistic way. Results reveal a power-law dependence of the critical temperature with the film thickness accordingly by an exponent ν=0.81 and ruled out by finite-size scaling theory. Estimates for the critical exponents of the magnetization and the specific heat are finally presented and discussed

  5. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film .... The electrical resistivity of CdTe films was studied in air. Figure 3 shows the variation of log ...

  6. Optoelectronic and low temperature thermoelectric studies on nanostructured thin films of silver gallium selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena; Nazer, Sheeba; Abraham, Anitha; Nair, Sinitha B.; Pradeep, B.; Urmila, K. S.; Okram, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of silver gallium selenide were deposited on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates by multi-source vacuum co-evaporation technique. The structural analysis done by X-ray diffraction ascertained the formation of nano structured tetragonal chalcopyrite thin films. The compound formation was confirmed by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic technique has been used for surface morphological analysis. Direct allowed band gap ∼1.78eV with high absorption coefficient ∼10 6 /m was estimated from absorbance spectra. Low temperature thermoelectric effects has been investigated in the temperature range 80–330K which manifested an unusual increase in Seebeck coefficient with negligible phonon drag toward the very low and room temperature regime. The electrical resistivity of these n-type films was assessed to be ∼2.6Ωm and the films showed good photo response

  7. Optoelectronic and low temperature thermoelectric studies on nanostructured thin films of silver gallium selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena; Nazer, Sheeba; Abraham, Anitha; Nair, Sinitha B.; Pradeep, B.; Urmila, K. S.; Okram, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of silver gallium selenide were deposited on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates by multi-source vacuum co-evaporation technique. The structural analysis done by X-ray diffraction ascertained the formation of nano structured tetragonal chalcopyrite thin films. The compound formation was confirmed by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic technique has been used for surface morphological analysis. Direct allowed band gap ˜1.78eV with high absorption coefficient ˜106/m was estimated from absorbance spectra. Low temperature thermoelectric effects has been investigated in the temperature range 80-330K which manifested an unusual increase in Seebeck coefficient with negligible phonon drag toward the very low and room temperature regime. The electrical resistivity of these n-type films was assessed to be ˜2.6Ωm and the films showed good photo response.

  8. Structural and electrical studies on sol-gel derived spun TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A K; Chaure, N B; Ray, A K; Nabok, A V; Habesch, S

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were prepared by spin coating of sol precursor onto microscopic glass slides, silicon and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. Spin speed was varied between 1000 and 6000 rpm. From the morphological analysis, it is found that thin films spun with speed ω≤4000 rpm assume higher ordered structure than those spun at a speed higher than 4000 rpm. Conduction at low voltages is believed to be variable range hopping at temperatures T a = 0.46 eV below the conduction band edge becomes dominant at temperatures higher than 220 K. At high field charge transport is due to trap-controlled space charge limited mechanism. Traps with a density N t ∼1x10 22 m -3 are thought to be situated at energy level E t 0.3 eV below the conduction band and are associated with film nonstoichiometry and interface states

  9. Oxygen tracer studies of ferroelectric fatigue in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloss, Lawrence F.; McIntyre, Paul C.; Hendrix, Bryan C.; Bilodeau, Steven M.; Roeder, Jeffrey F.; Gilbert, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Long-range oxygen motion has been observed in Pt/Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 /Ir thin-film structures after electrical fatigue cycling at room temperature. Through an exchange anneal, isotopic 18 O was incorporated as a tracer into bare Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) films, allowing secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements of the tracer profile evolution as a function of the number of polarization reversals. Observation of 18 O tracer redistribution during voltage cycling, which is presumably mediated by oxygen vacancy motion, was found to be strongly dependent upon the thermal history of the film. However, there was no strong correlation between the extent of 18 O tracer redistribution and the extent of polarization suppression induced by voltage cycling. Our results suggest that oxygen vacancy motion plays, at most, a secondary role in ferroelectric fatigue of PZT thin films

  10. Raman scattering study of phonons in Bi-based superconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia-Garcia, C.; Diaz-Valdes, E.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Lopez-Lopez, J.L.; Jergel, M.; Morales, A.

    2004-01-01

    Raman spectra were obtained from samples of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BPSCCO) thin films after varying several growth parameters, such as covering material, annealing time (t R ), annealing temperature (T R ), and nominal lead content (x). Thin films with the nominal composition Bi 1.4 Pb x Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O δ were grown on MgO substrates by a spray pyrolysis technique, followed by a solid state reaction. The results of Raman scattering measurements at room temperature show a series of vibrational optical modes within the range 300-900 cm -1 . The assignment of these modes was made by involving mainly the 2212 and 2223 phases and was confirmed by both X-ray diffraction and resistance in dependence of the temperature (R-T) measurements as well

  11. Elastic properties of fcc Fe–Mn–X (X = Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys studied by the combinatorial thin film approach and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeh, S; Kasprzak, M; Klusmann, C D; Stalf, F; Music, D; Schneider, J M; Ekholm, M; Abrikosov, I A

    2013-01-01

    The elastic properties of fcc Fe–Mn–X (X = Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys with additions of up to 8 at.% X were studied by combinatorial thin film growth and characterization and by ab initio calculations using the disordered local moments (DLM) approach. The lattice parameter and Young’s modulus values change only marginally with X. The calculations and experiments are in good agreement. We demonstrate that the elastic properties of transition metal alloyed Fe–Mn can be predicted by the DLM model. (paper)

  12. Elastic properties of fcc Fe-Mn-X (X = Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys studied by the combinatorial thin film approach and ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, S; Kasprzak, M; Klusmann, C D; Stalf, F; Music, D; Ekholm, M; Abrikosov, I A; Schneider, J M

    2013-06-19

    The elastic properties of fcc Fe-Mn-X (X = Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys with additions of up to 8 at.% X were studied by combinatorial thin film growth and characterization and by ab initio calculations using the disordered local moments (DLM) approach. The lattice parameter and Young's modulus values change only marginally with X. The calculations and experiments are in good agreement. We demonstrate that the elastic properties of transition metal alloyed Fe-Mn can be predicted by the DLM model.

  13. Exciton-polaron quenching in organic thin-film transistors studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Baunegaard With; Leißner, Till; Osadnik, Andreas

    Organic semiconductors show great potential in electronic and optical applications. However, a major challenge is the degradation of the semiconductor materials that cause a reduction in device performance. Here, we present our investigations of Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFT) based...... that correlates with the local charge density indicates a pronounced exciton quenching by the injected charges. Subsequent FLIM measurements on previously biased OTFT devices show a general decrease in fluorescence lifetime suggesting degradation of the organic semiconductor. This is correlated with the results...

  14. EXAFS study of the stability of amorphous TbFe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, M.G.; Marinero, E.E.; Robinson, C.; Cargill, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the measurement of the local atomic structure of Fe in Au doped Tb-Fe thin film alloys by the use of EXAFS. The as deposited sample shows structural features which are essentially identical to those of the undoped films. Au additions stabilizes the amorphous structure against recrystallization, however, the loss of magnetic anisotropy under thermal annealing is not reduced. This demonstrates that magnetic relaxation in these alloys does not involve crystallization of the amorphous structure

  15. Design, Modeling and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor based on a Thin-Film PZT Membrane Containing Nanocrystalline Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid MOHAMMADI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper fabrication of a 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin film has been presented and then a pressure sensor based on multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm contain of Lead Zirconate Titanate nanocrystalline powders was designed, modeled and optimized. Dynamics characteristics of this multilayer diaphragm have been investigated by ANSYS® FE software. By this simulation the effective parameters of the multilayer PZT diaphragm for improving the performance of a pressure sensor in different ranges of pressure are optimized. The optimized thickness ratio of PZT layer to SiO2 was given in the paper to obtain the maximum deflection of the multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm. A 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 film has been developed to fabricate the pressure sensor by a hybrid sol gel process. PZT nanopowders fabricated via conventional sol gel method and uniformly dispersed in PZT precursor solution by an attrition mill. XRD analysis shows that perovskite structure would be formed due to the presence of a significant amount of ceramic nanopowders. This texture has a good effect on piezoelectric properties of perovskite structure. The film forms a strongly bonded network and less shrinkage occurs, so the films do not crack during process. Also the aspect ratio through this process would be increased. SEM micrographs indicated that PZT films were uniform, crack free and have a composite microstructure and a piezoelectric coefficient d31 of -40 pC.N-1 and d33 ranged from 50pm.N-1 to 60pm.N-1.

  16. Studies on the high electronic energy deposition in polyaniline thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.; Gudage, Y.G.; Vyas, J.C.; Singh, F.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2008-01-01

    We report here the physico-chemical changes brought about by high electronic energy deposition of gold ions in HCl doped polyaniline (PANI) thin films. PANI thin films were synthesized by in situ polymerization technique. The as-synthesized PANI thin films of thickness 160 nm were irradiated using Au 7+ ion of 100 MeV energy at different fluences, namely, 5 x 10 11 ions/cm 2 and 5 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 , respectively. A significant change was seen after irradiation in electrical and photo conductivity, which may be related to increased carrier concentration, and structural modifications in the polymer film. In addition, the high electronic energy deposition showed other effects like cross-linking of polymer chains, bond breaking and creation of defect sites. AFM observations revealed mountainous type features in all (before and after irradiation) PANI samples. The average size (diameter) and density of such mountainous clusters were found to be related with the ion fluence. The AFM profiles also showed change in the surface roughness of the films with respect to irradiation, which is one of the peculiarity of the high electronic energy deposition technique

  17. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sekhar C.; Pong, W.F.; Papakonstantinou, P.

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp"3 network to sp"2 as evidenced by an increase of the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp"3-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp"3 and sp"2 contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  18. Zinc phthalocyanine thin film and chemical analyte interaction studies by density functional theory and vibrational techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, G S S; Singh, Sukhwinder; Kumar, Ranjan; Tripathi, S K; Kaur, Sarvpreet; Sathe, Vasant

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of zinc phthalocyanine have been deposited on KBr and glass substrates by the thermal evaporation method and characterized by the x-ray diffraction, optical, infrared and Raman techniques. The observed x-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectra of as-deposited thin films suggest the presence of an α crystalline phase. Infrared and Raman spectra of thin films after exposure to vapours of ammonia and methanol have also been recorded. Shifts in the position of some IR and Raman bands in the spectra of exposed films have been observed. Some bands also show changes in their intensity on exposure. Increased charge on the phthalocyanine ring and out-of-plane distortion of the core due to interaction between zinc phthalocyanine and vapour molecules involving the fifth coordination site of the central metal ion may be responsible for the band shifts. Changes in the intensity of bands are interpreted in terms of the lowering of molecular symmetry from D 4h to C 4v due to doming of the core. Molecular parameters and Mulliken atomic charges of zinc phthalocyanine and its complexes with methanol and ammonia have been calculated from density functional theory. The binding energy of the complexes have also been calculated. Calculated values of the energy for different complexes suggest that axially coordinated vapour molecules form the most stable complex. Calculated Mulliken atomic charges show net charge transfer from vapour molecules to the phthalocyanine ring for the most stable complex.

  19. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sekhar C., E-mail: Raysc@unisa.ac.za [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, Science Campus, Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida Park, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pong, W.F. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [Nanotechnology and Integrated Bio-Engineering Centre, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp{sup 3} network to sp{sup 2} as evidenced by an increase of the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp{sup 3}-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  20. Study of CdTe and HgCdTe thin films obtained by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium telluride polycrystalline thin films were fabricated on SnO 2 -coated glass substrates by potentiostatic electrodeposition and characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDAX), optical and electrical measurements. The films dseposited at potentials more positive than -0.65 V vs.SCE were p-type but those deposited at more negative potentials were n-type. All CdTe thin films showed a band-gap energy about 1.45 eV and a large absorption coeffici-ent (a=10 5 cm -1 ) above de band edge. The addition of even small amounts of mercury to the CdTe produces higuer conductivity values and lower band-gap energies. We have prepared HgCdTe thin films where the band-gap energies ranged between 0.93 and 0.88 eV depending on the ratio of mercury to cadmium. Heat treatment at 300 0 C increases the crystalline diameter and alter the composition of the electrodeposited films, a decrease of the resistivity values was also observed. (Author)

  1. Density functional study of BiSbTeSe{sub 2} topological insulator thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadpourrad, Zahra; Abolhassani, Mohammadreza [Department of Physics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In this work, using density functional theory calculations, we have investigated the band topology of bulk BiSbTeSe{sub 2} and its thin film electronic properties in several thicknesses. It is one member of the quaternary compounds Bi{sub 2-x}Sb{sub x}Te{sub 3-y}Se{sub y} (BSTS) with the best intrinsic bulk insulating behavior. Based on our calculations we have found that a band inversion at Γ-point is induced when spin-orbit coupling is turned on, with an energy gap of about 0.318 eV. The film thickness has an effect on the surface states such that a gap opens at Dirac point in 6 quintuple-layers film and with decrease in thickness, the magnitude of the gap increases. The atomic contributions have been mapped out for the first few layers of thin films to demonstrate the surface states. The relative charge density has been calculated layer-wise and the penetration depth of the surface states into the bulk region is found to be about 2.5-3.5 quintuple layers, depending on the termination species of thin films. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Room temperature photoluminescence spectrum modeling of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide thin films by a joint density of tail states approach and its application to plasma deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sel, Kıvanç; Güneş, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC x :H) thin films was modeled by a joint density of tail states approach. In the frame of these analyses, the density of tail states was defined in terms of empirical Gaussian functions for conduction and valance bands. The PL spectrum was represented in terms of an integral of joint density of states functions and Fermi distribution function. The analyses were performed for various values of energy band gap, Fermi energy and disorder parameter, which is a parameter that represents the width of the energy band tails. Finally, the model was applied to the measured room temperature PL spectra of a-SiC x :H thin films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, with various carbon contents, which were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The energy band gap and disorder parameters of the conduction and valance band tails were determined and compared with the optical energies and Urbach energies, obtained by UV–Visible transmittance measurements. As a result of the analyses, it was observed that the proposed model sufficiently represents the room temperature PL spectra of a-SiC x :H thin films. - Highlights: ► Photoluminescence spectra (PL) of the films were modeled. ► In the model, joint density of tail states and Fermi distribution function are used. ► Various values of energy band gap, Fermi energy and disorder parameter are applied. ► The model was applied to the measured PL of the films. ► The proposed model represented the room temperature PL spectrum of the films.

  3. A thermodynamic model for predicting surface melting and overheating of different crystal planes in BCC, FCC and HCP pure metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, Vafa; Riahifar, Reza; Sahba Yaghmaee, Maziar

    2016-01-01

    In order to predict as well as study the surface melting phenomena in contradiction to surface overheating, a generalized thermodynamics model including the surface free energy of solid and the melt state along with the interfacial energy of solid–liquid (melt on substrate) has been introduced. In addition, the effect of different crystal structures of surfaces in fcc, bcc and hcp metals was included in surface energies as well as in the atomistic model. These considerations lead us to predict surface melting and overheating as two contradictory melting phenomena. The results of the calculation are demonstrated on the example of Pb and Al thin films in three groups of (100), (110) and (111) surface planes. Our conclusions show good agreement with experimental results and other theoretical investigations. Moreover, a computational algorithm has been developed which enables users to investigate the surface melt or overheating of single component metallic thin film with variable crystal structures and different crystalline planes. This model and developed software can be used for studying all related surface phenomena. - Highlights: • Investigating the surface melting and overheating phenomena • Effect of crystal orientations, surface energies, geometry and different atomic surface layers • Developing a computational algorithm and its related code (free-software SMSO-Ver1) • Thickness and orientation of surface plane dominate the surface melting or overheating. • Total excess surface energy as a function of thickness and temperature explains melting.

  4. A thermodynamic model for predicting surface melting and overheating of different crystal planes in BCC, FCC and HCP pure metallic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahangir, Vafa, E-mail: vafa.jahangir@yahoo.com; Riahifar, Reza, E-mail: reza_rfr@yahoo.com; Sahba Yaghmaee, Maziar, E-mail: fkmsahba@uni-miskolc.hu

    2016-03-31

    In order to predict as well as study the surface melting phenomena in contradiction to surface overheating, a generalized thermodynamics model including the surface free energy of solid and the melt state along with the interfacial energy of solid–liquid (melt on substrate) has been introduced. In addition, the effect of different crystal structures of surfaces in fcc, bcc and hcp metals was included in surface energies as well as in the atomistic model. These considerations lead us to predict surface melting and overheating as two contradictory melting phenomena. The results of the calculation are demonstrated on the example of Pb and Al thin films in three groups of (100), (110) and (111) surface planes. Our conclusions show good agreement with experimental results and other theoretical investigations. Moreover, a computational algorithm has been developed which enables users to investigate the surface melt or overheating of single component metallic thin film with variable crystal structures and different crystalline planes. This model and developed software can be used for studying all related surface phenomena. - Highlights: • Investigating the surface melting and overheating phenomena • Effect of crystal orientations, surface energies, geometry and different atomic surface layers • Developing a computational algorithm and its related code (free-software SMSO-Ver1) • Thickness and orientation of surface plane dominate the surface melting or overheating. • Total excess surface energy as a function of thickness and temperature explains melting.

  5. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  6. Self-consistent modelling of X-ray photoelectron spectra from air-exposed polycrystalline TiN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greczynski, G., E-mail: grzgr@ifm.liu.se; Hultman, L.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • We present first self-consistent model of TiN core level spectra with a cross-peak qualitative and quantitative agreement. • Model is tested for a series of TiN thin films oxidized to different extent by varying the venting temperature. • Conventional deconvolution process relies on reference binding energies that typically show large spread introducing ambiguity. • By imposing requirement of quantitative cross-peak self-consistency reliability of extracted chemical information is enhanced. • We propose that the cross-peak self-consistency should be a prerequisite for reliable XPS peak modelling. - Abstract: We present first self-consistent modelling of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Ti 2p, N 1s, O 1s, and C 1s core level spectra with a cross-peak quantitative agreement for a series of TiN thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering and oxidized to different extent by varying the venting temperature T{sub v} of the vacuum chamber before removing the deposited samples. So-obtained film series constitute a model case for XPS application studies, where certain degree of atmosphere exposure during sample transfer to the XPS instrument is unavoidable. The challenge is to extract information about surface chemistry without invoking destructive pre-cleaning with noble gas ions. All TiN surfaces are thus analyzed in the as-received state by XPS using monochromatic Al Kα radiation (hν = 1486.6 eV). Details of line shapes and relative peak areas obtained from deconvolution of the reference Ti 2p and N 1 s spectra representative of a native TiN surface serve as an input to model complex core level signals from air-exposed surfaces, where contributions from oxides and oxynitrides make the task very challenging considering the influence of the whole deposition process at hand. The essential part of the presented approach is that the deconvolution process is not only guided by the comparison to the reference binding energy values that often show

  7. Critical behavior of ferromagnetic Ising thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossio, P.; Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we study the magnetic properties and critical behavior of simple cubic ferromagnetic thin films. We simulate LxLxd films with semifree boundary conditions on the basis of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model with nearest neighbor interactions. A Metropolis dynamics was implemented to carry out the energy minimization process. For different film thickness, in the nanometer range, we compute the temperature dependence of the magnetization, the magnetic susceptibility and the fourth order Binder's cumulant. Bulk and surface contributions of these quantities are computed in a differentiated fashion. Additionally, according to finite size scaling theory, we estimate the critical exponents for the correlation length, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization. Results reveal a strong dependence of critical temperature and critical exponents on the film thickness. The obtained critical exponents are finally compared to those reported in literature for thin films

  8. Modelling arsenic toxicity in wheat: Simultaneous application of diffusive gradients in thin films to arsenic and phosphorus in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojsilovic, Ognjen, E-mail: ognjen.mojsilovic@ecan.govt.nz [Department of Soil and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, PO Box 84, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch (New Zealand); McLaren, Ron G., E-mail: ron.mclaren@lincoln.ac.nz [Department of Soil and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, PO Box 84, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch (New Zealand); Condron, Leo M., E-mail: leo.condron@lincoln.ac.nz [Department of Soil and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, PO Box 84, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2011-10-15

    The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique was evaluated in modelling wheat (Triticum aestivum) arsenic toxicity using a dataset of As-contaminated soil samples (n = 28) collected from former sheep dip sites. Above ground wheat biomass from a 21-day early growth bioassay was adopted as the response variable and the dose-response relationships were modelled using the three-parameter sigmoid equation. The DGT-derived effective soil solution As to P concentration ratios corresponded strongly to the differences in the response variable. With a single sample identified as an outlier, the 95% confidence interval for the effective soil solution As/P molar concentration ratio which resulted in a 50% reduction in the response (EC50) was 0.168-0.360. While the DGT-derived soil measure of As/P ratio was shown as a promising phytotoxicity predictor, the influence of P nutrition on the dose-response relationship deserves further consideration. - Highlights: > We measure the labile As and P in long-term As-contaminated soils using DGT. > We assess soil As toxicity in wheat using an early growth bioassay. > Wheat biomass corresponds strongly to effective soil solution As/P ratio. > Available soil P exhibits an ameliorative effect on As toxicity in wheat. > Response of wheat to available soil As/P ratio appeared sensitive to plant P status. - Diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) measure of soil arsenic-to-phosphorus ratio provides a promising indicator of arsenic toxicity in wheat.

  9. Studies on transient characteristics of unipolar resistive switching processes in TiO2 thin film grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Vikas Kumar; Das, Amit K.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Misra, P.

    2018-05-01

    The transient characteristics of resistive switching processes have been investigated in TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to study the temporal evolution of the switching processes and measure the switching times. The reset and set switching times of unipolar Au/TiO2/Pt devices were found to be ~250 µs and 180 ns, respectively in the voltage windows of 0.5–0.9 V for reset and 1.9–4.8 V for set switching processes, obtained from quasi-static measurements. The reset switching time decreased exponentially with increasing amplitude of applied reset voltage pulse, while the set switching time remained insensitive to the amplitude of the set voltage pulse. A fast reset process with a switching time of ~400 ns was achieved by applying a reset voltage of ~1.8 V, higher than that of the quasi-static reset voltage window but below the set voltage window. The sluggish reset process in TiO2 thin film and the dependence of the reset switching time on the amplitude of the applied voltage pulse was understood on the basis of a self-accelerated thermal dissolution model of conducting filaments (CFs), where a higher temperature of the CFs owing to enhanced Joule heating at a higher applied voltage imposes faster diffusion of oxygen vacancies, resulting in a shorter reset switching time. Our results clearly indicate that fast resistive switching with switching times in hundreds of nanoseconds can be achieved in ALD-grown TiO2 thin films. This may find applications in fast non-volatile unipolar resistive switching memories.

  10. Study of Exciton Hopping Transport in PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Thin Films Using Frequency- and Temperature-Scanned Photocarrier Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lilei; Mandelis, Andreas; Melnikov, Alexander; Lan, Xinzheng; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Solution-processed colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials for realizing low-cost, large-area, and flexible photovoltaic devices. The study of charge carrier transport in quantum dot solids is essential for understanding energy conversion mechanisms. Recently, solution-processed two-layer oleic-acid-capped PbS CQD solar cells with one layer treated with tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) serving as the main light-absorbing layer and the other treated with 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) acting as an electron-blocking/hole-extraction layer were reported. These solar cells demonstrated a significant improvement in power conversion efficiency of 8.55% and long-term air stability. Coupled with photocarrier radiometry measurements, this work used a new trap-state mediated exciton hopping transport model, specifically for CQD thin films, to unveil and quantify exciton transport mechanisms through the extraction of hopping transport parameters including exciton lifetimes, hopping diffusivity, exciton detrapping time, and trap-state density. It is shown that PbS-TBAI has higher trap-state density than PbS-EDT that results in higher PbS-EDT exciton lifetimes. Hopping diffusivities of both CQD thin film types show similar temperature dependence, particularly higher temperatures yield higher hopping diffusivity. The higher diffusivity of PbS-TBAI compared with PbS-EDT indicates that PbS-TBAI is a much better photovoltaic material than PbS-EDT. Furthermore, PCR temperature spectra and deep-level photothermal spectroscopy provided additional insights to CQD surface trap states: PbS-TBAI thin films exhibit a single dominant trap level, while PbS-EDT films with lower trap-state densities show multiple trap levels.

  11. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  12. Study of an X-ray fluorescence thin film method for the determination of uranium in low activity solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Guerra, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the X-ray fluorescence thin film technique to the uranium determination in nitric solutions for a concentration range from 1 g/l to 100 g/l and activity levels under 5 mCi/ml is studied. The most suited excitation and measurement conditions are also studied and the uranium matrix effect correction, which is performed through the double dilution, α U U interaction coefficient calculation and internal standard methods, is discussed. The specimen preparation is satisfactorily accomplished by using P.V.C. filters fixed on aluminium supports. (Author) 18 refs

  13. Mechanical properties of UO{sub 2} thin films under heavy ion irradiation using nanoindentation and finite element modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S., E-mail: elbakhs1@illinois.edu; Miao, Yinbin; Stubbins, James F.; Heuser, Brent J.

    2016-10-15

    The mechanical response of UO{sub 2} to irradiation is becoming increasingly important due to the shift to higher burn-up rates in the next generation of nuclear reactors. In the current study, thin films of UO{sub 2} were deposited on YSZ substrates using reactive-gas magnetron sputtering. Nanoindentation was used to measure the mechanical properties of the as-grown and irradiated films. Finite element modeling was used to account for the substrate effect on the measurements. In order to study the effect of displacement cascades accompanying gas bubbles, 5000 Å UO{sub 2} films were irradiated with 600 keV Kr{sup +} ions at 25 °C and 600 °C. These irradiation conditions were used to confine radiation damage effects and implanted gas within the film. Results showed an increase in the film hardness and yield strength with dose, while elastic modulus initially decreased with irradiation and then kept increasing with dose. The change in hardness and elastic modulus is attributed to the introduction of gas bubbles and displacement cascade damage. Irradiation at 600 °C resulted in a decrease in the hardness and elastic modulus after irradiation using 600 keV Kr{sup +} at a dose of 1E14 ions/cm{sup 2}. Both hardness and elastic modulus then increased with irradiation dose. This behavior is attributed to recrystallization during irradiation at 600 °C and the formation of nanocrystallite regions with diameter and density that increase with dose. The calculation of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) demonstrated that nanocrystals are the primary cause for film hardening based on the Orowan hardening mechanism.

  14. Electronic properties of dioctylterthiophene-based organic thin-film transistors: A Kelvin probe force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsharimani, N.; Nysten, B.

    2013-01-01

    It appeared in the past decades that semi-conducting organic liquid crystals could be used as the active layer in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). They can be processed by simple methods such as inkjet printing, which paves the way to applications for cheap plastic electronics such as electronic tags, biosensors, and flexible screens. However, the measured field-effect mobility in these OTFTs is relatively low compared to inorganic devices. Generally, such low field-effect mobility values result from extrinsic effects such as grain boundaries or imperfect interfaces with source and drain electrodes. It has been shown that reducing the number of grain boundaries between the source and drain electrodes improves the field effect mobility. Therefore, it is important to understand the transport mechanisms by studying the local structure and electronic properties of organic thin films within the channel and at the interfaces with source and drain electrodes in order to improve the field-effect mobility in OTFTs. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is an ideal tool for that purpose since it allows to simultaneously investigate the local structure and the electrical potential distribution in electronic devices. In this work, the structure and the electrical properties of OTFTs based on dioctylterthiophene (DOTT) were studied. The transistors were fabricated by spin-coating DOTT on the transistor structures with untreated and treated (silanized) channel silicon oxide. The potential profiles across the channel and at the metal-electrode interfaces were measured by KPFM. The effect of surface treatment on the electrical properties, charge trapping phenomenon and hysteresis effects is demonstrated and analyzed. - Highlights: • Kelvin probe force microscopy study of organic thin film transistors. • Cost and time savings by using solution processable molecules as active layers. • Smaller crystals and less charge trapping effects in silanized devices. • Decrement

  15. Study of nanocluster-assembled ZnO thin films by nanocluster-beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Lei, Wei; Zhang, Xiaobing [School of Electronic Science and Engieering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Tay, Beng Kang [School of Electronical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang (Singapore)

    2012-01-15

    Nanocluster-assembled ZnO thin films were obtained by nanocluster-beam deposition, in which nanoclusters were produced by a magnetron sputtering gas aggregation source. Two kinds of ZnO thin films were obtained using this method with the one grown under the on-line heating temperature of 700 C, and the other grown without on-line heating. Film microstructure and optical properties are investigated by various diagnostic techniques. It was found that both of film microstructure of ZnO thin films keep wurtzite structure as that of ZnO bulk materials. The averaged particle size for the film grown without on-line heating is around 6 nm, which is a little lower than that grown with the on-line heating. It was also found that as increasing the wavelength, both of the absorbance spectra for the films decrease sharply near ultra-visible to extend slowly to the visible and infrared wavelength range. For the film grown without on-line heating, the bandgap energy was estimated to 3.77 eV, while for the film grown with on-line heating, the bandgap energy was redshift to 3.71 eV. Similar behavior was also found for PL spectra analysis, where PL spectrum exhibited a peak centered at 3.31 eV without on-line heating, while it redshift to 3.20 eV with on-line heating. The mechanisms behind these behaviors were presented in this article. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Photoelectrochemical study of nanostructured ZnO thin films for hydrogen generation from water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Abraham; Zhang, Jin Z. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz 1156 High St. Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Smith, Wilson A.; Zhao, Yiping [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Kuykendall, Tevye R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-06-23

    Photoelectrochemical cells based on traditional and nanostructured ZnO thin films are investigated for hydrogen generation from water splitting. The ZnO thin films are fabricated using three different deposition geometries: normal pulsed laser deposition, pulsed laser oblique-angle deposition, and electron-beam glancing-angle deposition. The nanostructured films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical techniques. Normal pulsed laser deposition produces dense thin films with ca. 200 nm grain sizes, while oblique-angle deposition produces nanoplatelets with a fishscale morphology and individual features measuring ca. 900 by 450 nm on average. In contrast, glancing-angle deposition generates a highly porous, interconnected network of spherical nanoparticles of 15-40 nm diameter. Mott-Schottky plots show the flat band potential of pulsed laser deposition, oblique-angle deposition, and glancing-angle deposition samples to be -0.29, -0.28 and +0.20 V, respectively. Generation of photocurrent is observed at anodic potentials and no limiting photocurrents were observed with applied potentials up to 1.3 V for all photoelectrochemical cells. The effective photon-to-hydrogen efficiency is found to be 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.6% for pulsed laser deposition, oblique-angle deposition and glancing-angle deposition samples, respectively. The photoelectrochemical properties of the three types of films are understood to be a function of porosity, crystal defect concentration, charge transport properties and space charge layer characteristics. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Magnetism in heterogeneous thin film systems: Resonant X-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.; Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.; Hellwig, O.; Marguiles, D.T.; Fullerton, E.E.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic and chemical heterogeneity are common in a broad range of magnetic thin film systems. Emerging resonant soft x-ray scattering techniques are well suited to resolve such heterogeneity at relevant length scales. Resonant x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements laterally average over heterogeneity but can provide depth resolution in different ways, as illustrated in measurements resolving reversible and irreversible changes in different layers of exchange-spring heterostructures. Resonant small-angle scattering measures in-plane heterogeneity and can resolve magnetic and chemical scattering sources in different ways, as illustrated in measurements of granular alloy recording media

  18. Nanoscale Thermoelectrics: A Study of the Absolute Seebeck Coefficient of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sarah J.

    The worlds demand for energy is ever increasing. Likewise, the environmental impact of climate change due generating that energy through combustion of fossil fuels is increasingly alarming. Due to these factors new sources of renewable energies are constantly being sought out. Thermoelectric devices have the ability to generate clean, renewable, energy out of waste heat. However promising that is, their inefficiency severely inhibits applicability and practical use. The usefulness of a thermoelectric material increases with the dimensionless quantity, ZT, which depends on the Seebeck coefficient and electrical and thermal conductivity. These characteristic material parameters have interdependent energy transport contributions that classically prohibit the optimization of one with out the detriment of another. Encouraging advancements of ZT have occurred in the past ten years due to the decoupling of the thermal and electrical conductivity. Further advancements are necessary in order to produce applicable devices. One auspicious way of decoupling or tuning energy transport properties, is through size reduction to the nanoscale. However, with reduced dimensions come complications in measuring material properties. Measurements of properties such as the Seebeck coefficient, S, are primarily contingent upon the measurement apparatus. The Seebeck coefficient is defined as the amount of voltage generated by a thermal gradient. Measuring a thermally generated voltage by traditional methods gives, the voltage measured as a linear function of the Seebeck coefficient of the leads and of the material being tested divided by the applied thermal gradient. If accurate values of the Seebeck coefficients of the leads are available, simple subtraction provides the answer. This is rarely the case in nanoscale measurement devices with leads exclusively made from thin film materials that do not have well known bulk-like thermopower values. We have developed a technique to directly

  19. Study of some structural properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films prepared by radiofrequency cathodic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellassi, K.; Chafik El Idrissi, M.; Barhdadi, A.

    2001-08-01

    In this work, we have used the grazing X-rays reflectometry technique to characterise hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films deposited by radio-frequency cathodic sputtering. Relfectometry measurements are taken immediately after films deposition as well as after having naturally oxidised their surfaces during a more or less prolonged stay in the ambient. For the films examined just after deposition, the role of hydrogen appears in the increase of their density. For those analysed after a short stay in the ambient, hydrogen plays a protective role against the oxidation of their surfaces. This role disappears when the stay in the ambient is so long. (author)

  20. Slow positron beam study of hydrogen ion implanted ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xue, Xudong; Wu, Yichu

    2014-08-01

    The effects of hydrogen related defect on the microstructure and optical property of ZnO thin films were investigated by slow positron beam, in combination with x-ray diffraction, infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The defects were introduced by 90 keV proton irradiation with doses of 1×1015 and 1×1016 ions cm-2. Zn vacancy and OH bonding (VZn+OH) defect complex were identified in hydrogen implanted ZnO film by positron annihilation and infrared spectroscopy. The formation of these complexes led to lattice disorder in hydrogen implanted ZnO film and suppressed the luminescence process.

  1. Mechanical properties of metal-organic frameworks: An indentation study on epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, S.; Kraft, O.; Arslan, H. K.; Gliemann, H.; Weidler, P. G.; Wöll, C.

    2012-09-01

    We have determined the hardness and Young's modulus of a highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF) using a standard nanoindentation technique. Despite the very low density of these films, 1.22 g cm-3, Young's modulus reaches values of almost 10 GPa for HKUST-1, demonstrating that this porous coordination polymer is substantially stiffer than normal polymers. This progress in characterizing mechanical properties of MOFs has been made possible by the use of high quality, oriented thin films grown using liquid phase epitaxy on modified Au substrates.

  2. MFM study of NdFeB and NdFeB/Fe/NdFeB thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouteff, P.C.; Folks, L.; Street, R.

    1998-01-01

    Domain structures of NdFeB thin films, ranging in thickness between 1500 and 29 nm, have been studied qualitatively by magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Samples were prepared using a range of sputtering conditions resulting in differences in properties such as texture, coercivity and magnetic saturation. MFM images of all the films showed extensive interaction domain structures, similar to those observed in nanocrystalline bulk NdFeB. An exchange-coupled NdFeB/Fe/NdFeB trilayer with layer thicknesses 18 nm/15 nm/18 nm, respectively, was also examined using MFM. (orig.)

  3. A study on crystallization, optical and electrical properties of the advanced ZITO thin films using co-sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.J.; Hung, F.Y.; Chang, S.J.; Chang, S.P.; Mai, Y.C.; Hu, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: Conductor and semiconductor ZITO transparent oxide thin films have been obtained by co-sputtering system. Therefore, we could fabricate a fully transparent ZITO optoelectronic device (thin film transistors or photodetector) in the future. The conducting ZITO was used as the electrode. The active layer of TFTs and photodetector employed the semiconducting ZITO. In addition, the investigation of luminescence characteristics on Zn-In-Sn-O (ZITO) film has never been reported. So, the multi-compound ZITO (ZnO combined ITO) films would be measured by photoluminescence (PL) to analyze the effects of ITO doping and oxygen gas content on emission characteristics of film. - Abstract: Multi-functions (conductor, semiconductor and insulator) ZnInSnO (ZITO) transparent oxide thin films have been obtained by a co-sputtering system using ITO target and ZnO target with oxygen gas contents (0-8%). The ZITO film containing a small ITO content had the lowest resistivity (good electron mobility) and higher optical transmittance. In addition, the influences of thermal treatments (post-annealing and substrate temperature) on electrical properties and optical transmittance of ZITO films were studied. Photoluminescence (PL) of the ZITO film confirmed the contribution of ITO content and oxygen gas content on the photo-emission. The ZITO film with zinc atomic concentration of 58 at.% was a good candidate for TCO material (3.08 x 10 -4 Ω cm). Under the substrate temperature of 100 deg. C or post-annealing temperature of 200 o C, the properties of ZITO film could be improved.

  4. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  5. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  6. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  7. Realisation and study of poly-phthalocyanine thin films grafted on solid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huc, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop thin films of phthalocyanines covalently grafted to solid substrates. These thin films are formed of successive monomolecular layers of macrocycles, deposited on the substrate by a 'Merrifield' sequential method. These phthalocyanines have in their centre a metallic ion (such as ruthenium) which ensures the bonding of phthalocyanines on the substrate and the assembling of monolayers consecutive together. The deposition of these monolayers is provided by a succession of two spontaneous exchange ligands reactions between the labile groups L initially bound to ruthenium and to those present on the substrate (preliminary functionalized). The repetition of these two steps allows to consider the controlled formation of phthalocyanines multilayers by self-assembling. The main substrates used are the silicon oxide and the gold. Their different characteristics have imposed the development of separate functionalization and characterization methods. The results obtained with these two substrates are separately described. A second method of construction of successive monolayers of phthalocyanines is described involving a chemical coupling between an amine function carried out by the substrate and an aldehyde function present on the ligands bound on ruthenium. (author) [fr

  8. AES study of growth process of al thin films on uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Liu Kezhao; Yang Jiangrong; Xiao Hong

    2009-01-01

    Metallic uranium was exposed to 40 languirs of oxygen at room temperature in order to form UO 2 on the surface of metallic U. And thin layers of aluminum on UO 2 were prepared by sputter deposition under ultra high vacuum conditions. Process of Al thin film growth and its interaction with UO 2 were investigated by auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). It was shown that the Al thin film growth underwent via the Volmer-Weber (VW) mode. At room temperature, Al and UO 2 interact with each other, electrons transfer occurres from Al atoms to uranium ions, and a few of Al 2 O 3 exist in the region of UO 2 /Al interface due to O 2 adsorption to the surface. Inter-diffusion between UO 2 and Al is observable. Aluminum diffuses into interface region of UO 2 and U. It results in the formation of a coexistence regime containing uranium oxide, metallic U and Al. (authors)

  9. Infrared reflectance studies of hillock-like porous zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, C.G.; Lee, S.C.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, Z.; Abu Hassan, H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the infrared (IR) reflectance characteristics of hillock-like porous zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates. The IR reflectance spectra of the porous samples exhibited an extra resonance hump in the reststrahlen region of ZnO compared with the as-grown sample. Oscillation fringes with different behaviors were also observed in the non-reststrahlen region of ZnO. Standard multilayer optic technique was used with the effective medium theory to analyze the observations. Results showed that the porous ZnO layer consisted of several sublayers with different porosities and thicknesses. These findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy measurements. - Highlights: • Multilayer porous assumption qualitatively increased the overall spectra fitting. • IR reflectance is a sensitive method to probe the multilayer porous structure. • Hillock-like porous ZnO thin films fabricated using electrochemical etching method. • The thickness and porosity of the samples were determined. • Formation of extra resonance hump was due to splitting of reststrahlen band

  10. Initial Study on Thin Film Preparation of Carbon Nanodots Composites as Luminescence Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, F.; Aimon, A. H.; Akmaluddin, A. R.; Nuryadin, B. W.; Abdullah, M.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the developments of phosphors materials require elements without noble metals and simple production process. Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are one of phosphor materials with wide range of emission band, and high biocompatibility. In this research thin film carbon nanodots composite have been prepared by spin coating method. Prior deposition, powder carbon nanodots were synthesized from a mixture of commercial urea as the nitrogen sources and citric acid as a carbon source by using hydrothermal and microwave-assisted heating method. The prepared powder was dispersed in transparent epoxy resin and then coated on glass substrate. The photoluminescence result for sample with 0.035 g citric acid exhibited an intense, single, homogeneous and broad spectrum with yellowish emission upon excitation at 365 nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) result showed the existences of C=C, C-H, C=O, N-H and O-H functional groups which confirmed the quality of the sample. Further, based on UV-Vis measurement, the prepared thin film was highly transparent (transmittance 90%) with estimated film thickness around 764 nm. This result may open an opportunity for optoelectronic devices.

  11. Initial Study on Thin Film Preparation of Carbon Nanodots Composites as Luminescence Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandar, F; Aimon, A H; Akmaluddin, A R; Abdullah, M; Nuryadin, B W

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the developments of phosphors materials require elements without noble metals and simple production process. Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are one of phosphor materials with wide range of emission band, and high biocompatibility. In this research thin film carbon nanodots composite have been prepared by spin coating method. Prior deposition, powder carbon nanodots were synthesized from a mixture of commercial urea as the nitrogen sources and citric acid as a carbon source by using hydrothermal and microwave-assisted heating method. The prepared powder was dispersed in transparent epoxy resin and then coated on glass substrate. The photoluminescence result for sample with 0.035 g citric acid exhibited an intense, single, homogeneous and broad spectrum with yellowish emission upon excitation at 365 nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) result showed the existences of C=C, C-H, C=O, N-H and O-H functional groups which confirmed the quality of the sample. Further, based on UV-Vis measurement, the prepared thin film was highly transparent (transmittance 90%) with estimated film thickness around 764 nm. This result may open an opportunity for optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  12. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  13. A mechanistic study of hydrogen gas sensing by PdO nanoflake thin films at temperatures below 250 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Ju; Li, Kuang-Chung; Lin, Yi-Chieh; Pan, Fu-Ming

    2015-02-07

    We prepared PdO nanoflake thin films on the SiO2 substrate by reactive sputter deposition, and studied their sensing response to H2 at temperatures between 25 and 250 °C. In addition to the oxygen ionosorption model, which is used to describe the early H2 sensing response over the temperature range studied, the H2 sensing kinetics of the PdO thin films can be separated into three temperature regimes: temperatures below 100 °C, around 150 °C and above 200 °C. At temperatures below 100 °C, PdO reduction is the dominant reaction affecting the H2 sensing behavior. At temperatures around 150 °C, Pd reoxidation kinetically competes with PdO reduction leading to a complicated sensing characteristic. Active PdO reduction by H2 promotes the continuing growth of Pd nanoislands, facilitating dissociative oxygen adsorption and thus the subsequent Pd reoxidation in the H2-dry air gas mixture. The kinetic competition between the PdO reduction and reoxidation at 150 °C leads to the observation of an inverse of the increase in the sensor conductivity. At temperatures above 200 °C, the PdO sensor exhibits a sensor signal monotonically increasing with the H2 concentration, and the H2 sensing behavior is consistent with the Mars-van-Krevelen redox mechanism.

  14. Deuterium absorption in Mg{sub 70}Al{sub 30} thin films with bilayer catalysts: A comparative neutron reflectometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Eric [National Research Council Canada/Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Bldg. 459, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Harrower, Chris T.; Kalisvaart, Peter [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta and National Research Council Canada/National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9 (Canada); Bird, Adam [National Research Council Canada/Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Bldg. 459, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Teichert, Anke [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica and INPAC, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme and INPAC, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Wallacher, Dirk; Grimm, Nico; Steitz, Roland [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Mitlin, David [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta and National Research Council Canada/National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9 (Canada); Fritzsche, Helmut, E-mail: Helmut.Fritzsche@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada/Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Bldg. 459, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2011-05-05

    Highlights: > Mg{sub 70}Al{sub 30} thin films studied for hydrogen absorption using in situ neutron reflectometry. > Films with Ta/Pd, Ti/Pd and Ni/Pd bilayer catalysts systematically compared. > Measurements reveals deuterium spillover from the catalysts to the MgAl phase. > The use of Ti-Pd bilayer offers best results in terms of amount absorbed and kinetics. > Key results cross-checked with X-ray reflectometry. - Abstract: We present a neutron reflectometry study of deuterium absorption in thin films of Al-containing Mg alloys capped with a Ta/Pd, Ni/Pd and Ti/Pd-catalyst bilayer. The measurements were performed at room temperature over the 0-1 bar pressure range under quasi-equilibrium conditions. The modeling of the measurements provided a nanoscale representation of the deuterium profile in the layers at different stages of the absorption process. The absorption mechanism observed was found to involve spillover of atomic deuterium from the catalyst layer to the Mg alloy phase, followed by the deuteration of the Mg alloy. Complete deuteration of the Mg alloy occurs in a pressure range between 100 and 500 mbar, dependent on the type of bilayer catalyst. The use of a Ti/Pd bilayer catalyst yielded the best results in terms of both storage density and kinetic properties.

  15. A theoretical study of the relaxation of a phenyl group chemisorbed to an RDX freestanding thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereverzev, Andrey, E-mail: pereverzeva@missouri.edu; Sewell, Thomas D., E-mail: sewellt@missouri.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211-7600 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    Energy relaxation from an excited phenyl group chemisorbed to the surface of a crystalline thin film of α-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (α-RDX) at 298 K and 1 atm is simulated using molecular dynamics. Two schemes are used to excite the phenyl group. In the first scheme, the excitation energy is added instantaneously as kinetic energy by rescaling momenta of the 11 atoms in the phenyl group. In the second scheme, the phenyl group is equilibrated at a higher temperature in the presence of static RDX geometries representative of the 298 K thin film. An analytical model based on ballistic phonon transport that requires only the harmonic part of the total Hamiltonian and includes no adjustable parameters is shown to predict, essentially quantitatively, the short-time dynamics of the kinetic energy relaxation (∼200 fs). The dynamics of the phenyl group for times longer than about 6 ps follows exponential decay and agrees qualitatively with the dynamics described by a master equation. Long-time heat propagation within the bulk of the crystal film is consistent with the heat equation.

  16. A drain current model for amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors considering temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M. X.; Yao, R. H.

    2018-03-01

    Temperature dependent electrical characteristics of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated considering the percolation and multiple trapping and release (MTR) conduction mechanisms. Carrier-density and temperature dependent carrier mobility in a-IGZO is derived with the Boltzmann transport equation, which is affected by potential barriers above the conduction band edge with Gaussian-like distributions. The free and trapped charge densities in the channel are calculated with Fermi-Dirac statistics, and the field effective mobility of a-IGZO TFTs is then deduced based on the MTR theory. Temperature dependent drain current model for a-IGZO TFTs is finally derived with the obtained low field mobility and free charge density, which is applicable to both non-degenerate and degenerate conductions. This physical-based model is verified by available experiment results at various temperatures.

  17. Universal dispersion model for characterization of optical thin films over wide spectral range: Application to magnesium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Daniel; Nečas, David; Giglia, Angelo; Franta, Pavel; Ohlídal, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Optical characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films is performed in a wide spectral range from far infrared to extreme ultraviolet (0.01-45 eV) utilizing the universal dispersion model. Two film defects, i.e. random roughness of the upper boundaries and defect transition layer at lower boundary are taken into account. An extension of universal dispersion model consisting in expressing the excitonic contributions as linear combinations of Gaussian and truncated Lorentzian terms is introduced. The spectral dependencies of the optical constants are presented in a graphical form and by the complete set of dispersion parameters that allows generating tabulated optical constants with required range and step using a simple utility in the newAD2 software package.

  18. Structural and surface morphological studies of long chain fatty acid thin films deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nayan Mani, E-mail: nayanmanidas3@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Roy, Dhrubojyoti [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Gupta, Mukul [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Gupta, P.S. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2012-12-15

    In the present work we aim to study the structural and surface morphological characteristics of divalent cation (cadmium ion, Cd{sup 2+}) induced thin mono- to multilayer films of fatty acids such as arachidic acid and stearic acid prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. These ultra thin films of various numbers of layers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). In this specific Y-type deposition, it was found that as the individual layer thickness increases, the corresponding layer by layer interfacial electron density of the thin films decreases. Since the fatty acid chain tries to maintain its minimum value of cross-sectional area, tilting occurs with respect to its nearest neighbor. The tilt angle calculated for 9 layers of cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) and cadmium stearate (CdSt{sub 2}) are 18 Degree-Sign and 19.5 Degree-Sign , respectively. An asymmetric air gap of thickness {approx}3 A was also seen between the tail parts of 2 molecular chains. The RMS roughness and average height factors calculated through AFM studies show non-uniform surface morphology of both CdA{sub 2} and CdSt{sub 2}, although the calculated topographic variations were found to have more irregularity in case of CdSt{sub 2} than in case of CdA{sub 2}.

  19. A comparative study: Effect of plasma on V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanostructured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Megha; Kumar, Prabhat; Sharma, Rabindar K., E-mail: rkrksharma6@gmail.com; Reddy, G. B. [Thin film laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2016-05-06

    Vanadium pentoxide nanostructured thin films (NSTs) have been studied to analyze the effect of plasma on nanostructures grown and morphology of films deposited using sublimation process. Nanostructured thin films were deposited on glass substrates, one in presence of oxygen plasma and other in oxygen environment (absence of plasma). Films were characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and HRTEM. XRD studies revealed α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films (orthorhombic phase) with good crystallinity. However, film deposited in presence of plasma have higher peak intensities as compared to those deposited in absence of plasma. Raman studies also support these finding following same trends of considerable increase in intensity in case of film deposited in presence of plasma. SEM micrographs makes the difference more visible, as film deposited in plasma have well defined plate like structures whereas other film have not-clearly-defined petal-like structures. HRTEM results show orthorhombic phase with 0.39 nm interplanar spacing, as reported by XRD. Results are hereby in good agreement with each other.

  20. Photoluminescence study of high energy proton irradiation on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bonhyeong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June Hyuk [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Donghyeop [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Ahn, Byung Tae, E-mail: btahn@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byungha, E-mail: byungha@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    We have studied the effect of proton irradiation on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films using photoluminescence (PL). We used a 10 MeV proton beam with varying doses from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. Intensity-dependent low temperature PL measurements suggest that the proton irradiation does not create a new defect level but instead changes the number of preexisting defects in the detection range of the PL system. By comparing PL spectra after the proton irradiation with those obtained after thermal annealing under inert gas as well as under hydrogen gas ambient, we find that the irradiation-induced change in the defect structure does not originate from the incorporation of hydrogen but from energetics of the irradiating particles. Electrical resistivity of the proton irradiated CIGS thin films is shown to decrease after the proton irradiation, and this is explained by the reduction of the concentration of compensating donor-like defects, specifically selenium vacancies, based on the PL results. - Highlights: • Photoluminescence study of 10 MeV proton irradiation on CIGS at 10 K. • Irradiation modified population of existing defects without introducing new levels. • Changes in CIGS by 10 MeV irradiation are due to energetics of irradiating protons.

  1. Contact resistance and stability study for Au, Ti, Hf and Ni contacts on thin-film Mg2Si

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2016-12-28

    We present a detailed study of post-deposition annealing effects on contact resistance of Au, Ti, Hf and Ni electrodes on Mg2Si thin films. Thin-film Mg2Si and metal contacts were deposited using magnetron sputtering. Various post-annealing temperatures were studied to determine the thermal stability of each contact metal. The specific contact resistivity (SCR) was determined using the Cross Bridge Kelvin Resistor (CBKR) method. Ni contacts exhibits the best thermal stability, maintaining stability up to 400 °C, with a SCR of approximately 10−2 Ω-cm2 after annealing. The increased SCR after high temperature annealing is correlated with the formation of a Mg-Si-Ni mixture identified by cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) characterization, X-ray diffraction characterization (XRD) and other elemental analyses. The formation of this Mg-Si-Ni mixture is attributed to Ni diffusion and its reaction with the Mg2Si film.

  2. Study of metal/ZnO based thin film ultraviolet photodetectors: The effect of induced charges on the dynamics of photoconductivity relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Harish Kumar; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet photoconductivity relaxation in ZnO thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering are investigated. Effect of oxygen partial pressure in the reactive gas mixture and film thickness on the photoconductivity transients is studied. A different photodetector configuration comprising ZnO thin film with an ultrathin overlayer of metals like Cu, Al, Sn, Au, Cr, and Te was designed and tested. Photoresponse signal were found to be stronger (four to seven times) in these configurations than the pure ZnO thin films. Sn(30 nm)/ZnO sample exhibits highest responsivity of ∼8.57 kV/W whereas Te(20 nm)/ZnO structure presents highest sensitivity of ∼31.3x10 3 compared to unloaded ZnO thin film. Enhancement in the photoresponse of ZnO thin films is attributed to the change in surface conductivity due to induced charge carriers at the interface because of the difference in work function and oxygen affinity values of metal overlayer with the underlying semiconducting layer. Charge carrier transfer from the metal layer to ZnO creates a surplus of electrons at the interface; a fraction of which are captured by the defect centers (traps) at the surface whereas the remaining one represents free carriers in the conduction band and are responsible for the enhanced photoconductivity.

  3. Crystallographic structure and grain size of polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles and thin films studied with XRD and SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutz, Folker; Chory, Christine; Riedel, Ingo; Parisi, Juergen [Thin Film Photovoltaics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) is a compound semiconductor with an absorption coefficient of >10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} and energy gap of about 1.5 eV. Because CZTS is comprised of abundant and non-toxic precursor elements the semiconductor represents an attractive material for low-cost thin film solar cells. CZTS nanoparticles (NP) were prepared in a low-temperature colloidal synthesis yielding high amounts per synthesis cycle. For thin film deposition the NPs were converted to an ink which can be processed to thin films via printing techniques. Finally, the thin films were annealed in argon atmosphere at different temperatures in order to control the growth of microcrystallites. The photoelectrical quality of the semiconductor sensitively depends on the relative concentrations of the precursor elements (band gap, crystallographic phases) and the average grain size (charge transport). We report on structural investigations (X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy) of CZTS dried powders and thin films processed from inks with varying chemical compositions. Further, the evolution of the grain size was studied as function of the annealing temperature.

  4. Study of metal/ZnO based thin film ultraviolet photodetectors: The effect of induced charges on the dynamics of photoconductivity relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Harish Kumar; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2010-02-01

    Ultraviolet photoconductivity relaxation in ZnO thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering are investigated. Effect of oxygen partial pressure in the reactive gas mixture and film thickness on the photoconductivity transients is studied. A different photodetector configuration comprising ZnO thin film with an ultrathin overlayer of metals like Cu, Al, Sn, Au, Cr, and Te was designed and tested. Photoresponse signal were found to be stronger (four to seven times) in these configurations than the pure ZnO thin films. Sn(30 nm)/ZnO sample exhibits highest responsivity of ˜8.57 kV/W whereas Te(20 nm)/ZnO structure presents highest sensitivity of ˜31.3×103 compared to unloaded ZnO thin film. Enhancement in the photoresponse of ZnO thin films is attributed to the change in surface conductivity due to induced charge carriers at the interface because of the difference in work function and oxygen affinity values of metal overlayer with the underlying semiconducting layer. Charge carrier transfer from the metal layer to ZnO creates a surplus of electrons at the interface; a fraction of which are captured by the defect centers (traps) at the surface whereas the remaining one represents free carriers in the conduction band and are responsible for the enhanced photoconductivity.

  5. Engineering and validation of a novel lipid thin film for biomembrane modeling in lipophilicity determination of drugs and xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Udochi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of lipophilicity as a tool for predicting pharmacokinetic molecular behavior is limited by the predictive power of available experimental models of the biomembrane. There is current interest, therefore, in models that accurately simulate the biomembrane structure and function. A novel bio-device; a lipid thin film, was engineered as an alternative approach to the previous use of hydrocarbon thin films in biomembrane modeling. Results Retention behavior of four structurally diverse model compounds; 4-amino-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (ADBA, naproxen (NPX, nabumetone (NBT and halofantrine (HF, representing 4 broad classes of varying molecular polarities and aqueous solubility behavior, was investigated on the lipid film, liquid paraffin, and octadecylsilane layers. Computational, thermodynamic and image analysis confirms the peculiar amphiphilic configuration of the lipid film. Effect of solute-type, layer-type and variables interactions on retention behavior was delineated by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and quantitative structure property relationships (QSPR. Validation of the lipid film was implemented by statistical correlation of a unique chromatographic metric with Log P (octanol/water and several calculated molecular descriptors of bulk and solubility properties. Conclusion The lipid film signifies a biomimetic artificial biological interface capable of both hydrophobic and specific electrostatic interactions. It captures the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB in the determination of lipophilicity of molecules unlike the pure hydrocarbon film of the prior art. The potentials and performance of the bio-device gives the promise of its utility as a predictive analytic tool for early-stage drug discovery science.

  6. Study on Buckling of Stiff Thin Films on Soft Substrates as Functional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng

    In engineering, buckling is mechanical instability of walls or columns under compression and usually is a problem that engineers try to prevent. In everyday life buckles (wrinkles) on different substrates are ubiquitous -- from human skin to a rotten apple they are a commonly observed phenomenon. It seems that buckles with macroscopic wavelengths are not technologically useful; over the past decade or so, however, thanks to the widespread availability of soft polymers and silicone materials micro-buckles with wavelengths in submicron to micron scale have received increasing attention because it is useful for generating well-ordered periodic microstructures spontaneously without conventional lithographic techniques. This thesis investigates the buckling behavior of thin stiff films on soft polymeric substrates and explores a variety of applications, ranging from optical gratings, optical masks, energy harvest to energy storage. A laser scanning technique is proposed to detect micro-strain induced by thermomechanical loads and a periodic buckling microstructure is employed as a diffraction grating with broad wavelength tunability, which is spontaneously generated from a metallic thin film on polymer substrates. A mechanical strategy is also presented for quantitatively buckling nanoribbons of piezoelectric material on polymer substrates involving the combined use of lithographically patterning surface adhesion sites and transfer printing technique. The precisely engineered buckling configurations provide a route to energy harvesters with extremely high levels of stretchability. This stiff-thin-film/polymer hybrid structure is further employed into electrochemical field to circumvent the electrochemically-driven stress issue in silicon-anode-based lithium ion batteries. It shows that the initial flat silicon-nanoribbon-anode on a polymer substrate tends to buckle to mitigate the lithiation-induced stress so as to avoid the pulverization of silicon anode. Spontaneously

  7. (Sr,Ba)(Si,Ge)2 for thin-film solar-cell applications: First-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Umezawa, Naoto; Imai, Motoharu

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing demand for electric power generation from solar energy conversion, the development of efficient light absorber materials has been awaited. To this end, the electronic and optical properties of advanced alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides (SrSi 2 , BaSi 2 , SrGe 2 , and BaGe 2 ) are studied by means of the density functional theory using HSE06 exchange-correlation energy functional. Our calculations show that all these orthorhombic structured compounds have fundamental indirect band gaps in the range E g ≈ 0.89–1.25 eV, which is suitable for solar cell applications. The estimated lattice parameters and band gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculations show that the electronic band structures of all four compounds are very similar except in the vicinity of the Γ-point. The valence band of these compounds is made up by Si(Ge)-p states, whereas the conduction band is composed of Sr(Ba)-d states. Their band alignments are carefully determined by estimating the work function of each compound using slab model. The optical properties are discussed in terms of the complex dielectric function ε(ω) = ε 1 (ω) + iε 2 (ω). The static and high-frequency dielectric constants are calculated, taking into account the ionic contribution. The absorption coefficient α(ω) demonstrates that a low energy dispersion of the conduction band, which results in a flat conduction band minimum, leads to large optical activity in these compounds. Therefore, alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides possess great potential as light absorbers for applications in thin-film solar cell technologies.

  8. Inter- and intragranular plasticity mechanisms in ultrafine-grained Al thin films: An in situ TEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mompiou, F.; Legros, M.; Boé, A.; Coulombier, M.; Raskin, J.-P.; Pardoen, T.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the elementary deformation mechanisms in small-grained metals has been the subject of numerous recent studies. In the submicron range, mechanisms other than intragranular dislocation mechanisms, such as grain boundary (GB)-based mechanisms, are active and can explain the deviations from the Hall–Petch law. Here, we report observations performed during in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tensile tests on initially dislocation-free Al thin films with a mean grain size around 250 nm prepared by microfabrication techniques. Intergranular plasticity is activated at the onset of plasticity. It consists of the motion of dislocations in the GB plane irrespective of the GB character. Surface imperfections, such as GB grooves, are supposed to trigger intergranular plasticity. At larger deformations, the motion of the intergranular dislocations leads to GB sliding and eventually cavitation. In the meantime, GB stress-assisted migration and dislocation emission inside the grain from GB sources have also been observed. The observation of these different mechanisms during the deformation provides an important insight into the understanding of the mechanical properties of metallic thin films.

  9. A comparative study of the refractive index of silk protein thin films towards biomaterial based optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciarelli, A.; Mulloni, V.; Maniglio, D.; Pal, R. K.; Yadavalli, V. K.; Motta, A.; Quaranta, A.

    2018-04-01

    Over the last two decades, silk fibroin has been exploited as a versatile optical material in biological applications due to a combination of unique properties. Recently, protocols have been developed to produce a silk fibroin negative tone resist that is UV crosslinkable, thereby allowing micro and nanoscale patterning of the protein using traditional photolithographic tools. The same protocol has been applied to the silk protein sericin to develop a sericin resist. Despite the immense potential of these biomaterials to develop micro optical patterns on silicon and glass surfaces, as well as self-standing components, their refractive indexes are not well characterized. In this work, optimizing a method to obtain extremely smooth, thin films, the refractive index (RI) of fibroin and sericin proteins and resists were characterized using ellipsometry. The parameters of the Sellmeier and Cauchy dispersion laws have been determined to obtain the RI over a large wavelength range. A complete morphological study of the films has been conducted. In addition, the effect of solvent on the optical properties of silk fibroin and sericin thin films are reported, with differences in values explained by examining the change in the protein secondary structure.

  10. Study on fabrication of TiO{sub 2} thin films by spin – coating and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zharvan, Vicran, E-mail: vicran.zharvan@gmail.com; Daniyati, Risqa; Nur Ichzan, A.S.; Yudoyono, Gatut; Darminto, E-mail: darminto@physics.its.ac.id [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Study on fabrication of TiO{sub 2} thin films and their optical properties in UV-VIS spectrum has been conducted. TiO{sub 2} nanopowders were prepared by co-precipitation method with varying mixing duration for 5, 10 and 25 hours using TiCl{sub 3} as precursor. The as-synthesized TiO{sub 2} phase is anatase having crystalline size of 14.25 nm, 13.75 nm and 12.62, respectively for the corresponding mixing duration. Thin films of TiO{sub 2} were fabricated by spin coating method and then checked by XRD diffractometer and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to examine their structure and band gap energy. The prepared films also contain anatase phase of TiO{sub 2} with respective band gap of 3.70 eV, 3.74 eV and 3.76 eV, depending on the powders and their treatment.

  11. Oxygen stoichiometry of LaTiO{sub 3} thin films studied by in-situ photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheiderer, Philipp; Goessmann, Alex; Sing, Michael; Claessen, Ralph [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Physikalisches Institut and Roentgen Center for Complex Material Systems (RCCM), 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    As in the famous oxide heterostructure LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (LAO/STO) a two dimensional electron system is found at the interface between the strongly correlated Mott insulator LaTi{sup 3+}O{sub 3} and the band insulator STO. The stabilization of LaTi{sup 3+}O{sub 3} requires strong reducing growth conditions since the thermodynamically stable bulk phase is the oxygen rich La{sub 2}Ti{sup 4+}{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Therefore, we have systematically studied the impact of the oxygen background atmosphere on LaTi{sup 3+}O{sub 3} thin film growth by PLD. Reflection high-energy diffraction intensity oscillations of the specular spot indicate a layer by layer growth mode for thin films, which merges into the formation of islands for thicker films. In-situ photoemission measurements enables us to determine the oxidation state of Ti indicating excess or lack of oxygen present in the prepared samples. Our experiments show that even for films grown in vacuum, strong oxygen excess is present probably due to oxygen out-diffusion from the STO substrate. We find that an LAO buffer layer serves as an effective barrier for this process. The spectral weight of the lower Hubbard band, being a characteristic feature for the Mott insulating phase, is found to scale inversely with the amount of excess oxygen.

  12. Structural study of Mg doped cobalt ferrite thin films on ITO coated glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Mahesh; Bapna, Komal; Kumar, Kishor; Ahuja, B. L.

    2018-05-01

    We have synthesized thin films of Co1-xMgxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) on transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. The structural properties of the grown films were analyzed by the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which suggest the single phase growth of these films. Raman spectra revealed the incorporation of Mg ions into CoFe2O4 lattice and suggest that the Mg ions initially go both to the octahedral and tetrahedral sites upto a certain concentration. For higher concentration, Mg ions prefer to occupy the tetrahedral sites.

  13. Setup for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth by magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ellmer, K; Weiss, V; Rossner, H

    2001-01-01

    A novel method is described for the in situ-investigation of nucleation and growth of thin films during magnetron sputtering. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron light is used for the structural analysis during film growth. An in situ-magnetron sputtering chamber was constructed and installed at a synchrotron radiation beam line with a bending magnet. The white synchrotron light (1-70 keV) passes the sputtering chamber through Kapton windows and hits one of the substrates on a four-fold sample holder. The diffracted beam, observed under a fixed diffraction angle between 3 deg. and 10 deg., is energy analyzed by a high purity Ge-detector. The in situ-EDXRD setup is demonstrated for the growth of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic target.

  14. Rutherford Backscattering and Channeling Studies of Al and Mg Diffusion in Iron Oxide Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevuthasan, Theva; McCready, David E.; Jiang, Weilin; Mcdaniel, Emily P.; Yi, Sang I.; Chambers, Scott A.; J.L. Duggan and I.L. Morgan

    1999-01-01

    Thin films of alpha-Fe2O3(0001) (hermatite) and gamma-Fe2O3 (001) (maghemite) were epitaxially grown on Al2O3(0001) substrates, respectively, using the new molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). We have investigated the crystalline quality of these films using Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and channeling experiments. Minimum yields obtained from aligned and random spectra are 2.7+-0.3% for the alpha-Fe2o3(0001) film and 14.5+-0.6% for the gamma-Fe2O3 (001) film. Al and Mg outdiffusion into the hematite and maghemite films were observed at higher temperatures. Indiffusion of Fe atoms from the film into the substrate was observed for the gamma-Fe2o3(001)/MgO(001) system. In contrast, no Fe indiffusion was observed for the sapphire substrate

  15. Magnetic and structural study of Cu-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.E. Rodriguez; Golmar, F.; Cabrera, A.F.; Errico, L.; Navarro, A.M. Mudarra; Renteria, M.; Sanchez, F.H.; Duhalde, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent pure and Cu-doped (2.5, 5 and 10 at.%) anatase TiO 2 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on LaAlO 3 substrates. The samples were structurally characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were measured using a SQUID. All films have a FM-like behaviour. In the case of the Cu-doped samples, the magnetic cycles are almost independent of the Cu concentration. Cu atoms are forming CuO and/or substituting Ti in TiO 2 . The thermal treatment in air promotes the CuO segregation. Since CuO is antiferromagnetic, the magnetic signals present in the films could be assigned to Cu substitutionally replacing cations in TiO 2

  16. Magnetic and structural study of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, C.E. Rodriguez [Dpto de Fisica-IFLP, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: torres@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Golmar, F. [Laboratorio de Ablacion Laser, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabrera, A.F.; Errico, L.; Navarro, A.M. Mudarra; Renteria, M.; Sanchez, F.H. [Dpto de Fisica-IFLP, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Duhalde, S. [Laboratorio de Ablacion Laser, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-10-31

    Transparent pure and Cu-doped (2.5, 5 and 10 at.%) anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. The samples were structurally characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were measured using a SQUID. All films have a FM-like behaviour. In the case of the Cu-doped samples, the magnetic cycles are almost independent of the Cu concentration. Cu atoms are forming CuO and/or substituting Ti in TiO{sub 2}. The thermal treatment in air promotes the CuO segregation. Since CuO is antiferromagnetic, the magnetic signals present in the films could be assigned to Cu substitutionally replacing cations in TiO{sub 2}.

  17. Band-Gap Engineering in ZnO Thin Films: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Vani; Jha, Pardeep K.; Panda, S. K.; Jha, Priyanka A.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films are synthesized and characterized using x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the structural, morphological, and optical properties are closely related to the stress of the sample provided that the texture of the film remains the same. The anomalous results are obtained once the texture is altered to a different orientation. We support this experimental observation by carrying out first-principles hybrid functional calculations for two different orientations of the sample and show that the effect of quantum confinement is much stronger for the (100) surface than the (001) surface of ZnO. Furthermore, our calculations provide a route to enhance the band gap of ZnO by more than 50% compared to the bulk band gap, opening up possibilities for wide-range industrial applications.

  18. Slow positron beam study of hydrogen ion implanted ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yi; Xue, Xudong; Wu, Yichu

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen related defect on the microstructure and optical property of ZnO thin films were investigated by slow positron beam, in combination with x-ray diffraction, infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The defects were introduced by 90 keV proton irradiation with doses of 1×10 15 and 1×10 16 ions cm −2 . Zn vacancy and OH bonding (V Zn +OH) defect complex were identified in hydrogen implanted ZnO film by positron annihilation and infrared spectroscopy. The formation of these complexes led to lattice disorder in hydrogen implanted ZnO film and suppressed the luminescence process. - Highlights: • Hydrogen introduced by ion implantation can form hydrogen-related defect complex. • V Zn +OH defect complex is identified by positron annihilation and IR spectroscopy. • Irradiation defects suppress the luminescence process

  19. Polarized Raman scattering study of PSN single crystals and epitaxial thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pokorný

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a detailed analysis of the dependence of Raman scattering intensity on the polarization of the incident and inelastically scattered light in PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 (PSN single crystals and epitaxially compressed thin films grown on (100-oriented MgO substrates. It is found that there are significant differences between the properties of the crystals and films, and that these differences can be attributed to the anticipated structural differences between these two forms of the same material. In particular, the scattering characteristics of the oxygen octahedra breathing mode near 810 cm-1 indicate a ferroelectric state for the crystals and a relaxor state for the films, which is consistent with the dielectric behaviors of these materials.

  20. Ion scattering spectroscopy studies of zirconium dioxide thin films prepared in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.J.; Netterfield, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Low energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy has been used to investigate, in situ, thin films of zirconium dioxide deposited by evaporation and ion-assisted deposition. It is shown that when a film is deposited to an average thickness of 0.3 nm +- 0.03, as measured by in situ ellipsometry, complete coverage of the substrate occurs. 'Ion-assisted films have detectably higher Zr surface concentrations and reduced low-energy sputter peaks. Inelastic tailing effects in the Zr scattering peak for 2 keV 4 He + are found to come from particles scattered from approximately the first 7 nm of the oxide surface. The influence of primary ion energy on the Zr/O ratio is also examined. (author)

  1. Cu-based metal-organic framework thin films: A morphological and photovoltaic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajavian, Ruhollah; Ghani, Kamal

    2018-06-01

    This work explores the layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of [Cu2(bdc)2(bpy)]n thin films by using pyridine and acetic acid as capping agents onto mesoporous titania surface. While in the presence of acetic acid highly-ordered crystals with nanoplate morphology are formed, modulation with pyridine gives rise to formation of leaf-like crystals. In addition, processing sequence also matters when modulator is added. According to our results, modulators should be added to metal solution rather than linker/pillar during LbL assembly. These films were subsequently shown to generate photocurrent in a sandwich-type Grätzel solar cell device in response to simulated 1 sun illumination. The results also demonstrated that the device consisted of well-aligned nanoplates exhibits higher power conversion efficiency than the similar cell with disordered leaf-like crystals after iodine loading.

  2. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  3. Modelling arsenic toxicity in wheat: Simultaneous application of diffusive gradients in thin films to arsenic and phosphorus in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojsilovic, Ognjen; McLaren, Ron G.; Condron, Leo M.

    2011-01-01

    The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique was evaluated in modelling wheat (Triticum aestivum) arsenic toxicity using a dataset of As-contaminated soil samples (n = 28) collected from former sheep dip sites. Above ground wheat biomass from a 21-day early growth bioassay was adopted as the response variable and the dose-response relationships were modelled using the three-parameter sigmoid equation. The DGT-derived effective soil solution As to P concentration ratios corresponded strongly to the differences in the response variable. With a single sample identified as an outlier, the 95% confidence interval for the effective soil solution As/P molar concentration ratio which resulted in a 50% reduction in the response (EC50) was 0.168-0.360. While the DGT-derived soil measure of As/P ratio was shown as a promising phytotoxicity predictor, the influence of P nutrition on the dose-response relationship deserves further consideration. - Highlights: → We measure the labile As and P in long-term As-contaminated soils using DGT. → We assess soil As toxicity in wheat using an early growth bioassay. → Wheat biomass corresponds strongly to effective soil solution As/P ratio. → Available soil P exhibits an ameliorative effect on As toxicity in wheat. → Response of wheat to available soil As/P ratio appeared sensitive to plant P status. - Diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) measure of soil arsenic-to-phosphorus ratio provides a promising indicator of arsenic toxicity in wheat.

  4. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  5. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies of azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) fluorophore in silica and PVA thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chib, Rahul; Raut, Sangram; Shah, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    A cationic azadioxatriangulenium dye was entrapped in silica thin films obtained by the sol-gel process and in poly (vinyl) alcohol (PVA) thin films. Azadioxatriangulenium is a red emitting fluorophore with a long fluorescence lifetime of ∼20 ns. The fluorescent properties of azadioxatriangulenium...

  6. Temperature dependence of LRE-HRE-TM thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoyi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lin, Gengqi; Li, Zhen; Huang, Zhixin; Jin, Fang; Wang, Xianran; Yang, Xiaofei

    2003-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the properties of RE-TM thin films is very important for MO recording. In this paper, we studied the temperature dependence of the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the amorphous LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films and LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films. For LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films, the temperature dependence of the magnetization was investigated by using the mean field theory. The experimental and theoretical results matched very well. With the LRE substitution in HRE-TM thin film, the compensation temperature Tcomp decreased and the curie temperature Tc remained unchanged. Kerr rotation angle became larger and the saturation magnetization Ms at room temperature increased. For LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films, comparisons of the temperature dependences of the coercivities and Kerr rotation angles were made between isolated sublayers and couple-bilayered thin film.

  7. Study of the optical properties and structure of ZnSe/ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD with varying thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabri, S., E-mail: slaheddine.jabri@fst.rnu.tn [Unité des nanomatériaux et photoniques, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire Ferhat Hachad, El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Amiri, G.; Sallet, V. [Groupe d’Etude de la Matière Condensée, CNRS-Université de Versailles St Quentin, Université Paris-Saclay, 45 avenue des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Souissi, A. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole Borj Cedria, B.P. 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); Meftah, A. [Unité des nanomatériaux et photoniques, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire Ferhat Hachad, El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Galtier, P. [Groupe d’Etude de la Matière Condensée, CNRS-Université de Versailles St Quentin, Université Paris-Saclay, 45 avenue des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Oueslati, M. [Unité des nanomatériaux et photoniques, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire Ferhat Hachad, El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2016-05-15

    ZnSe layers were grown on ZnO substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. A new structure appeared at lower thicknesses films. The structural properties of the thin films were studied by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy methods. First, Raman selection rules are explicitly put forward from a theoretical viewpoint. Second, experimentally-retrieved-intensities of the Raman signal as a function of polarization angle of incident light are fitted to the obtained theoretical dependencies in order to confirm the crystallographic planes of zinc blend ZnSe thin film, and correlate with DRX measurements. Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize the interfacial disorder that affects energy transport phenomena at ZnSe/ZnO interfaces and the Photoluminescence (PL) near the band edge of ZnSe thin films.

  8. Thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boldyš, Jiří; Hrach, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 55-64 ISSN 0011-4626 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 173/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thin films * wavelet transform * descriptors * histogram model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/boldys-thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics .pdf

  9. Comprehensive study of growth mechanism and properties of low Zn content Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S thin films by chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Carlos Anibal [Multidisciplinary Research Institute in Science and Technology, Ineergias, University of La Serena (Chile); Sandoval-Paz, Myrna Guadalupe; Saavedra, Renato; De la Carrera, Francisco [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Concepcion (Chile); Trejo-Cruz, Cuauhthemoc [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Biobio, Concepcion (Chile); Aragon, Luis E.; Sirena, Martin [Centro Atomico Bariloche & Instituto Balseiro, CNEA & Univ. Nac. de Cuyo, Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Delplancke, Marie-Paule [4MAT, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Carrasco, Claudia [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepcion (Chile)

    2016-11-15

    Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S thin films have been studied extensively as window layers for solar cell applications. However, a mismatch between the Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S and copper-indium-gallium-selenide absorber layers increases with Zn film concentration, which reduces the device efficiency. In this work, Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S thin films with low Zn concentrations were analyzed. The effect of the addition of different molar Zn concentrations to the reaction mixture on the growth mechanism of Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S thin films and the influence of these mechanisms on structural, optical and morphological properties of the films has been studied. Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition using an ammonia-free alkaline solution. Microstructural analysis by X-ray diffraction showed that all deposited films grew with hexagonal structure and crystallite sizes decreased as the Zn concentration in the film increased. Optical measurements indicated a high optical transmission between 75% and 90% for wavelengths above the absorption edge. Band gap value increased from 2.48 eV to 2.62 eV, and the refractive index values for Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S thin films decreased as the Zn increased. These changes in films and properties are related to a modification in growth mechanism of the Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S thin films, with the influence of Zn(OH){sub 2} formation being more important as Zn in solution increases. (author)

  10. Comprehensive study of growth mechanism and properties of low Zn content Cd_1_-_xZn_xS thin films by chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Carlos Anibal; Sandoval-Paz, Myrna Guadalupe; Saavedra, Renato; De la Carrera, Francisco; Trejo-Cruz, Cuauhthemoc; Aragon, Luis E.; Sirena, Martin; Delplancke, Marie-Paule; Carrasco, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Cd_1_-_xZn_xS thin films have been studied extensively as window layers for solar cell applications. However, a mismatch between the Cd_1_-_xZn_xS and copper-indium-gallium-selenide absorber layers increases with Zn film concentration, which reduces the device efficiency. In this work, Cd_1_-_xZn_xS thin films with low Zn concentrations were analyzed. The effect of the addition of different molar Zn concentrations to the reaction mixture on the growth mechanism of Cd_1_-_xZn_xS thin films and the influence of these mechanisms on structural, optical and morphological properties of the films has been studied. Cd_1_-_xZn_xS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition using an ammonia-free alkaline solution. Microstructural analysis by X-ray diffraction showed that all deposited films grew with hexagonal structure and crystallite sizes decreased as the Zn concentration in the film increased. Optical measurements indicated a high optical transmission between 75% and 90% for wavelengths above the absorption edge. Band gap value increased from 2.48 eV to 2.62 eV, and the refractive index values for Cd_1_-_xZn_xS thin films decreased as the Zn increased. These changes in films and properties are related to a modification in growth mechanism of the Cd_1_-_xZn_xS thin films, with the influence of Zn(OH)_2 formation being more important as Zn in solution increases. (author)

  11. Removal of antibiotics in a parallel-plate thin-film-photocatalytic reactor: Process modeling and evolution of transformation by-products and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkal, Can Burak; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Meriç, Süreyya

    2017-10-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) antibiotic has been studied under recycling batch and homogeneous flow conditions in a thin-film coated immobilized system namely parallel-plate (PPL) reactor. Experimentally designed, statistically evaluated with a factorial design (FD) approach with intent to provide a mathematical model takes into account the parameters influencing process performance. Initial antibiotic concentration, UV energy level, irradiated surface area, water matrix (ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater) and time, were defined as model parameters. A full of 2 5 experimental design was consisted of 32 random experiments. PPL reactor test experiments were carried out in order to set boundary levels for hydraulic, volumetric and defined defined process parameters. TTIP based thin-film with polyethylene glycol+TiO 2 additives were fabricated according to pre-described methodology. Antibiotic degradation was monitored by High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis while the degradation products were specified by LC-TOF-MS analysis. Acute toxicity of untreated and treated SMX solutions was tested by standard Daphnia magna method. Based on the obtained mathematical model, the response of the immobilized PC system is described with a polynomial equation. The statistically significant positive effects are initial SMX concentration, process time and the combined effect of both, while combined effect of water matrix and irradiated surface area displays an adverse effect on the rate of antibiotic degradation by photocatalytic oxidation. Process efficiency and the validity of the acquired mathematical model was also verified for levofloxacin and cefaclor antibiotics. Immobilized PC degradation in PPL reactor configuration was found capable of providing reduced effluent toxicity by simultaneous degradation of SMX parent compound and TBPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Growth of metastable fcc Mn thin film on GaAs(001) and its electronic structure studied by photoemission with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Dong Guosheng; Zhang Ming

    1995-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of metastable fcc Mn thin films on GaAs(001) surface has been achieved at a substrate temperature of 400 K. The development of the fcc Mn thin films as a function of coverage is studied by photoemission with synchrotron radiation. The electron density of states below the Fermi edge of the fcc Mn phase is measured. A significant difference of the electronic structures is observed between the metastable fcc Mn phase and the thermodynamically stable α-Mn phase. Possible mechanisms are proposed to interpret the experimental result

  13. Title: Using Alignment and 2D Network Simulations to Study Charge Transport Through Doped ZnO Nanowire Thin Film Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Phadke, Sujay

    2011-09-30

    Factors affecting charge transport through ZnO nanowire mat films were studied by aligning ZnO nanowires on substrates and coupling experimental measurements with 2D nanowire network simulations. Gallium doped ZnO nanowires were aligned on thermally oxidized silicon wafer by shearing a nanowire dispersion in ethanol. Sheet resistances of nanowire thin films that had current flowing parallel to nanowire alignment direction were compared to thin films that had current flowing perpendicular to nanowire alignment direction. Perpendicular devices showed ∼5 fold greater sheet resistance than parallel devices supporting the hypothesis that aligning nanowires would increase conductivity of ZnO nanowire electrodes. 2-D nanowire network simulations of thin films showed that the device sheet resistance was dominated by inter-wire contact resistance. For a given resistivity of ZnO nanowires, the thin film electrodes would have the lowest possible sheet resistance if the inter-wire contact resistance was one order of magnitude lower than the single nanowire resistance. Simulations suggest that the conductivity of such thin film devices could be further enhanced by using longer nanowires. Solution processed Gallium doped ZnO nanowires are aligned on substrates using an innovative shear coating technique. Nanowire alignment has shown improvement in ZnO nanowire transparent electrode conductivity. 2D network simulations in conjunction with electrical measurements have revealed different regimes of operation of nanowire thin films and provided a guideline for improving electrical performance of nanowire electrodes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  15. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  16. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  17. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  18. Structure and composition of magnetocaloric Ni-Mn-In-Co thin films on the nanoscale - a TEM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkartal, Burak; Schuermann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz [Institute for Materials Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel (Germany); Duppel, Viola [Nanochemistry Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Niemann, Robert; Schultz, Ludwig; Faehler, Sebastian [IFW Dresden (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    A complementary set of electron microscopy techniques is applied for the determination of structural and chemical segregation phenomena within a 300 nm thick metamagnetic Ni-Mn-In-Co thin film. The structure is predominantly composed of distinct modulated martensites of the 5M-, 6M-, 7M-, and 8M-type. Additionally these modulated structures exhibit twinning and stacking disordering. The nature of the disordering and the structural misfit at the twin interface were analyzed via high resolution micrographs. Next to an adhesion layer of Cr interdiffusion on the nanoscale was observed producing a penternary chemically and structurally homogeneous precipitate. The structure can be assigned to a twinned non-modulated pseudocubic model. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Mapping Charge Carrier Density in Organic Thin-Film Transistors by Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Lifetime Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Jensen, Per Baunegaard With; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    The device performance of organic transistors is strongly influenced by the charge carrier distribution. A range of factors effect this distribution, including injection barriers at the metal-semiconductor interface, the morphology of the organic film, and charge traps at the dielectric/organic...... interface or at grain boundaries. In our comprehensive experimental and analytical work we demonstrate a method to characterize the charge carrier density in organic thin-film transistors using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. We developed a numerical model that describes the electrical...... and optical responses consistently. We determined the densities of free and trapped holes at the interface between the organic layer and the SiO2 gate dielectric by comparison to electrical measurements. Furthermore by applying fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy we determine the local charge carrier...

  20. Fabrication and characterization of optical sensors using metallic core-shell thin film nanoislands for ozone detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addanki, Satish; Nedumaran, D.

    2017-07-01

    Core-Shell nanostructures play a vital role in the sensor field owing to their performance improvements in sensing characteristics and well-established synthesis procedures. These nanostructures can be ingeniously tuned to achieve tailored properties for a particular application of interest. In this work, an Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands with APTMS (3-Aminopropyl trimethoxysilane) and PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol) binding agents was modeled, synthesized and characterized. The simulation results were used to fabricate the sensor through chemical route. The results of this study confirmed that the APTMS based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands offered a better performance over the PVA based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands. Also, the APTMS based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands exhibited better sensitivity towards ozone sensing over the other types, viz., APTMS/PVA based Au-Ag core-shell and standalone Au/Ag thin film nanoislands.

  1. Electronic transport in the heavy fermion superconductors UPd2Al3 and UNi2Al3. Thin film studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the electronical properties of the superconductors UPd 2 Al 3 and UNi 2 Al 3 on the basis of thin film experiments. Epitaxial thin film samples of UPd 2 Al 3 and UNi 2 Al 3 were prepared using UHV Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). For UPd 2 Al 3 , the change of the growth direction from the intrinsic (001) to epitaxial (100) was predicted and sucessfully demonstrated using LaAlO3 substrates cut in (110) direction. With optimized deposition process parameters for UPd 2 Al 3 (100) on LaAlO 3 (110) superconducting samples with critical temperatures up to T c =1.75 K were obtained. UPd 2 Al 3 -AlO x -Ag mesa junctions with superconducting base electrode were prepared and shown to be in the tunneling regime. However, no signatures of a superconducting density of states were observed in the tunneling spectra. The resistive superconducting transition was probed for a possible dependence on the current direction. In contrast to UNi 2 Al 3 , the existence of such feature was excluded in UPd 2 Al 3 (100) thin films. The second focus of this work is the dependence of the resistive transition in UNi 2 Al 3 (100) thin films on the current direction. The experimental fact that the resistive transition occurs at slightly higher temperatures for I parallel a than for I parallel c can be explained within a model of two weakly coupled superconducting bands. Evidence is presented for the key assumption of the two-band model, namely that transport in and out of the ab-plane is generated on different, weakly coupled parts of the Fermi surface. Main indications are the angle dependence of the superconducting transition and the dependence of the upper critical field B c 2 on current and field orientation. Additionally, several possible alternative explanations for the directional splitting of the transition are excluded in this work. An origin due to scattering on crystal defects or impurities is ruled out, likewise a relation to ohmic heating or vortex dynamics. The

  2. Structural studies of thin films of semiconducting nanoparticles in polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luccio, Tiziana; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Laera, Anna Maria; Antisari, Marco Vittori

    2007-01-01

    Ordered films of nanoscale materials are issue of wide interest for applications in several fields, such as optics, catalysis, and bioelectronics. In particular, semiconducting nanoparticles incorporation in a processable polymer film is an easy way to manipulate such materials for their application. We deposited thin layers of cadmium sulphide (CdS) and zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles embedded in a thermoplastic cyclo-olephin copolymer (COC) with elevated optical transparency and highly bio-compatible. The nanoparticles were obtained by thiolate precursors previously dispersed in the polymer upon thermal treatment at temperatures ranging between 200 and 300 deg. C depending on the desired size. The precursor/polymer solutions were spin-coated in order to get thin films. The spinning conditions were changed in order to optimise the layer thickness and uniformity. The samples were mainly characterised by X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses. The thinnest layer we have deposited is 8 nm thick, as evaluated by XRR. The HRTEM measurements showed that the nanoparticles have quasi-spherical shape without evident microstructural defects. The size of the nanoparticles depends on the annealing temperature, e.g. at 232 deg. C the size of the CdS nanoparticles is about 4-5 nm

  3. Study of Structure and Electro-Optical Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Khusayfan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ITO thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation of ceramic ITO target. The films were subsequently annealed in air atmosphere at the temperatures 300°C and 600°C in order to improve their optical and electrical properties. The crystal structure and morphology of the films are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope techniques, respectively. The films exhibited cubic structure with predominant orientation of growth along (222 direction, and the crystallite size increases by rising annealing temperature. Transparency of the films, over the visible light region, is increased by annealing temperature. The resulting increase in the carrier concentration and in the carrier mobility decreases the resistivity of the films due to annealing. The absorption coefficient of the films is calculated and analyzed. The direct allowed optical band gap for as-deposited films is determined as 3.81 eV; this value is increased to 3.88 and 4.0 eV as a result of annealing at 300°C and 600°C, respectively. The electrical sheet resistance is significantly decreased by increasing annealing temperature, whereas figure of merit is increased.

  4. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S.-M. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France); Layadi, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)]. E-mail: a_layadi@yahoo.fr; Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, U.B.O., Brest 29238 (France); Nacereddine, C. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Roussigne, Y. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France)

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K {sub 1} and K {sub 2}, have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K {sub 1} was found to decrease from 1.0x10{sup 6} to 0.18x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3} as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K {sub 2} increased from 0.24x10{sup 6} to 0.8x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}. Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t{>=}165 nm in Ni/glass and t{>=}90 nm in Ni/Cu.

  5. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, S.-M.; Layadi, A.; Ben Youssef, J.; Nacereddine, C.; Roussigne, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K 1 and K 2 , have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K 1 was found to decrease from 1.0x10 6 to 0.18x10 6 erg/cm 3 as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K 2 increased from 0.24x10 6 to 0.8x10 6 erg/cm 3 . Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t≥165 nm in Ni/glass and t≥90 nm in Ni/Cu

  6. Indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic thin films by atomic force microscopy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeri, D.; Bettucci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Rossi, M.; Alippi, A.; Tamburri, E.; Lucci, M.; Davoli, I.; Berezina, S.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a nanoindentation technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) that allows one to deduce both indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic materials from the force versus penetration depth dependence, obtained by recording the AFM cantilever deflection as a function of the sample vertical displacement when the tip is pressed against (loading phase) and then removed from (unloading phase) the surface of the sample. Reliable quantitative measurements of both indentation modulus and hardness of the investigated sample are obtained by calibrating the technique through a set of different polymeric samples, used as reference materials, whose mechanical properties have been previously determined by standard indentation tests. By analyzing the dependence of the cantilever deflection versus time, the proposed technique allows one to evaluate and correct the effect of viscoelastic properties of the investigated materials, by adapting a post-experiment data processing procedure well-established for standard depth sensing indentation tests. The technique is described in the case of the measurement of indentation modulus and hardness of a thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate), deposited by chronoamperometry on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate.

  7. Indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic thin films by atomic force microscopy: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passeri, D., E-mail: daniele.passeri@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Bettucci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Rossi, M.; Alippi, A. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Tamburri, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Lucci, M.; Davoli, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Berezina, S. [Department of Physics, University of Zilina, 01026, Univerzitna 1 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2009-11-15

    We propose a nanoindentation technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) that allows one to deduce both indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic materials from the force versus penetration depth dependence, obtained by recording the AFM cantilever deflection as a function of the sample vertical displacement when the tip is pressed against (loading phase) and then removed from (unloading phase) the surface of the sample. Reliable quantitative measurements of both indentation modulus and hardness of the investigated sample are obtained by calibrating the technique through a set of different polymeric samples, used as reference materials, whose mechanical properties have been previously determined by standard indentation tests. By analyzing the dependence of the cantilever deflection versus time, the proposed technique allows one to evaluate and correct the effect of viscoelastic properties of the investigated materials, by adapting a post-experiment data processing procedure well-established for standard depth sensing indentation tests. The technique is described in the case of the measurement of indentation modulus and hardness of a thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate), deposited by chronoamperometry on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate.

  8. Pulsed-laser deposition and growth studies of Bi3Fe5O12 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, Robert; Heinrich, Andreas; Leitenmeier, Stephan; Koerner, Timo; Herbort, Michael; Stritzker, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Magneto-optical garnets are attractive because of their high Faraday rotation and low optical loss in the near infrared. Therefore their use is generally in nonreciprocal devices, i.e., as optical isolators in optical communication. In this paper we present data concerning the deposition of Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 (BIG) thin films on (100) and (111) Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 substrates using pulsed-laser deposition. Laser-induced processes on the surface of the oxide target used for ablation were analyzed and numerous films were deposited. We found the BIG film quality to be strongly affected by oxygen pressure, laser energy density, and the Bi/Fe film ratio, whereas temperature had a minor influence. We also investigated the BIG-film deposition using a target pressed from metallic Bi and Fe powders and found information on the growth behavior of BIG. We report on details of the film deposition and film properties determined by environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. In addition, we determined the Faraday rotation of the films

  9. Preparation and study of nanostructured TiAlSiN thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakab-Farkas L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available TiAlSiN thin film coatings were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering of TiAlSi target with 40 at.% Ti, 40 at.% Al and 20 at.% Si, performed in N2-Ar gas mixture. The sputtering power used in these experiments was controlled for 400 W. The bias voltage of the substrates was kept at -20 V DC and the temperature at 500 0C. All the samples were prepared with a constant flow rate of Ar and different nitrogen flow rates, which were selected from 1.25 sccm to 4.0 sccm. Nanostructured TiAlSiN coatings were developed on Si(100 and HSS substrates. Microstructure investigation of the coatings was performed by transmission electron microscopy investigation, structure investigation was performed by XRD analysis, and the mechanical properties of the coatings have been tested by ball-on-disk tribological investigation and micro-Vickers hardness measurements. In this paper will be shown that for optimized nitrogen concentration the microstructure of TiAlSiN coating evolve from a competitive columnar growth to a dendritic growth one with very fine nano-lamellae like morphology. The developed nanostructured TiAlSiN coatingshave hardness HV exceeding 40 GPa and show an increased abrasive wear resistance

  10. Studying Selective Transparency in ZnS/ Cu/ ZnS Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksibe, A.; Howari, H.; Diab, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dielectric/ Metal/ Dielectric (DMD) thin films deposited on glass offer of significant energy saving in buildings and can find other applications of advanced materials design. In an effort to reduce the complexity and cost production of DMD films, physical vapor deposition was used for the laboratory manufacture of ZnS/ Cu/ ZnS films on glass. ZnS was used because of its high refractive index, ease of deposition and low cost; Cu was used because of its low absorption in the visible spectrum and its thermal stability. The films produced were of good quality, with transmittance as high as 85%. The ZnS layers were found not only to antireflect the Ag layer, but also to stabilize the ZnS/ Cu/ ZnS films, improve its adherence on glass and increase the film thermal resistance up to 240 C. The influence of annealing on the optical properties was investigated. The experimental results show that the properties of the multilayers are improved with annealing in air. the change of maximum transmission indicates that, with the increase of annealing temperature, maximum transmittance was change. Multilayer films annealed at after 200 C, show a decrease in the maximum transmittance witch might be due to the diffused Cu atoms onto ZnS layer. (author)

  11. Simulation and growing study of Cu–Al–S thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duclaux, L., E-mail: loraine-externe.duclaux@edf.fr [Institute of Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy (IRDEP), EDF R& D/CNRS/ChimieParistech, UMR 7174, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Donsanti, F.; Vidal, J. [Institute of Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy (IRDEP), EDF R& D/CNRS/ChimieParistech, UMR 7174, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Bouttemy, M. [Lavoisier Institute of Versailles, UMR 8180, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles cedex (France); Schneider, N.; Naghavi, N. [Institute of Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy (IRDEP), EDF R& D/CNRS/ChimieParistech, UMR 7174, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2015-11-02

    In this paper, we have explored the potential of Cu–Al–S compounds as p-type transparent conducting material by means of atomistic simulation using CuAlS{sub 2} as a reference ternary compound and atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth. We have identified key intrinsic point defects acting either as shallow acceptor or deep donor which define the conductivity of CuAlS{sub 2}. Higher p-type conductivity was found to be achievable under metal-poor and chalcogen-rich growth conditions. According to this precept, ALD growth of Cu{sub x}Al{sub y}S{sub z} was attempted using Cu(acac){sub 2} and Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} as precursors for Cu and Al respectively and under H{sub 2}S atmosphere. While as grown thin films present low content of Al, it influences the band gap values as well as the obtained structures. - Highlights: • Ab-initio investigation of CuAlS{sub 2} • Indentification of two opposite main-contributive intrinsic defects on the conductivity: V{sub Cu} and Al{sub Cu} • Synthesis of Cu-Al-S ternary compound using atomic layer deposition • Impact of aluminum insertion on the optical and structural properties of the films.

  12. Iron doping of lithium niobate by thermal diffusion from thin film: study of the treatment effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampolillo, Maria Vittoria; Zaltron, Annamaria; Bazzan, Marco; Argiolas, Nicola; Sada, Cinzia [Universita di Padova (Italy); CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Padova (Italy); Mignoni, Sabrina; Fontana, Marc [Universite de Metz et Supelec, Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photoniques et Systemes, UMR CNRS 7132, Metz (France)

    2011-07-15

    Thermal diffusion from thin film is one of the most widespread approaches to prepare iron doped regions in lithium niobate with limited size for photorefractive applications. In this work, we investigate the doping process with the aim of determining the best process conditions giving a doped region with the characteristics required for photorefractive applications. Six samples were prepared by changing the atmosphere employed in the diffusion treatment in order to obtain different combination of diffusion profiles and reduction degrees and also to check the effect of employing a wet atmosphere. The compositional, optical, and structural properties are then extensively characterized by combining Secondary ion Mass Spectrometry, UV, visible and IR spectrophotometry, High Resolution X-Rays Diffraction, and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy. Moreover, the sample topography was checked by Atomic Force Microscopy. An analysis of all our data shows that the best results are obtained performing a double step process, i.e. diffusion in oxidizing atmosphere and subsequent reduction at lower temperature in an hydrogen-containing atmosphere. (orig.)

  13. Hydroxyapatite thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation: Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu-Pelin, G.; Sima, F.; Sima, L. E.; Mihailescu, C. N.; Luculescu, C.; Iordache, I.; Socol, M.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2017-10-01

    Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) techniques were applied for growing hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films on titanium substrates. All experiments were conducted in a reaction chamber using a KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM ≈ 25 ns). Half of the samples were post-deposition thermally treated at 500 °C in a flux of water vapours in order to restore crystallinity and improve adherence. Coating surface morphologies and topographies specific to the deposition method were evidenced by scanning electron, atomic force microscopy investigations and profilometry. They were shown to depend on deposition technique and also on the post-deposition treatment. Crystalline structure of the coatings evaluated by X-ray diffraction was improved after thermal treatment. Biocompatibility of coatings, cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation tests were conducted using human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results showed that annealed MAPLE deposited HA coatings were supporting MSCs proliferation, while annealed PLD obtained films were stimulating osteogenic differentiation.

  14. Internal friction study of microplasticity of aluminum thin films on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Y.; Tanahashi, K.; Asano, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    Internal friction in aluminum thin films 0.2 to 2.0 {mu}m thick on silicon substrates has been investigated between 180 and 360 K as a function of strain amplitude by means of a free-decay method of flexural vibration. According to the constitutive equation, the internal friction in the film alone can be evaluated separately from the data on the film/substrate composite. The amplitude-dependent part of internal friction in aluminum films is found in the strain range approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that for bulk aluminum. On the basis of the microplasticity theory, the amplitude-dependent internal friction can be converted into the plastic strain as a function of the effective stress on dislocation motion. The mechanical responses thus obtained for aluminum films show that the plastic strain of the order of 10-9 in creases nonlinearly with increasing stress. These curves tend to shift to a higher stress with decreasing film thickness and also with decreasing temperature, both indicating a suppression of the microplastic deformation. At all temperatures examined, the microflow stress at a constant level of the plastic strain varies inversely with the film thickness, which qualitatively agrees with the variation in macroscopic yield stress. 36 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Study of Ultraviolet Emission Spectra in ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoluminescence (PL of ZnO thin films prepared on c-Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD are investigated. For all samples, roomtemperature (RT spectra show a strong band-edge ultraviolet (UV emission with a pronounced low-energy band tail. The origin of this UV emission is analyzed by the temperature dependence of PL spectra. The result shows that the UV emission at RT contains different recombination processes. At low temperature donor-bound exciton (D0X emission plays a major role in PL spectra, while the free exciton transition (FX gradually dominates the spectrum with increasing temperatures. It notes that at low temperature an emission band (FA appears in low energy side of D0X and FX and can survive up to RT. Further confirmation shows that the origin of the band FA can be attributed to the transitions of conduction band electrons to acceptors (e, A0, in which the acceptor binding energy is estimated to be approximately 121 meV. It is concluded that at room temperature UV emission originates from the corporate contributions of the free exciton and free electrons-to-acceptor transitions.

  16. Structural studies of thin films of semiconducting nanoparticles in polymer matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luccio, Tiziana [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy)], E-mail: tiziana.diluccio@portici.enea.it; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Laera, Anna Maria [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy); Antisari, Marco Vittori [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, I-00060 S. Maria di Galeria (Roma) (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    Ordered films of nanoscale materials are issue of wide interest for applications in several fields, such as optics, catalysis, and bioelectronics. In particular, semiconducting nanoparticles incorporation in a processable polymer film is an easy way to manipulate such materials for their application. We deposited thin layers of cadmium sulphide (CdS) and zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles embedded in a thermoplastic cyclo-olephin copolymer (COC) with elevated optical transparency and highly bio-compatible. The nanoparticles were obtained by thiolate precursors previously dispersed in the polymer upon thermal treatment at temperatures ranging between 200 and 300 deg. C depending on the desired size. The precursor/polymer solutions were spin-coated in order to get thin films. The spinning conditions were changed in order to optimise the layer thickness and uniformity. The samples were mainly characterised by X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses. The thinnest layer we have deposited is 8 nm thick, as evaluated by XRR. The HRTEM measurements showed that the nanoparticles have quasi-spherical shape without evident microstructural defects. The size of the nanoparticles depends on the annealing temperature, e.g. at 232 deg. C the size of the CdS nanoparticles is about 4-5 nm.

  17. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  18. Thickness dependent structural ordering, degradation and metastability in polysilane thin films: A photoluminescence study on representative σ-conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbánek, Pavel; Kuřitka, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    We present a fundamental experimental study based on the fluorescence investigation of thin σ-conjugated polymer films, where the dependence of optoelectrical properties and UV degradation on film thickness ranging from nano- to microscale was studied. Such extensive and detailed study was performed for the first time and observed spectral shifts in emission and excitation spectra and UV degradation retardation point towards the conclusions that there exists a threshold thickness where the material degradation behavior, electron delocalization and structure suddenly change. The development of well aligned polymeric chain structure between the nano- and micrometer thickness (on the mesoscale) was shown responsible for the manifested phenomena. The material thicker than critical 500 nm has extremely small Stokes' shift, maximum extended σ-delocalization along the silicon polymer backbone and exhibits remarkable UV degradation slowdown and self-recovery ability. On the contrary, the electronic properties of thin films below 80 nm resemble those of random coils in solutions. The films of moderate thickness show relatively steep transition between these two modes of structural ordering and resulting properties. Altogether, we consider this complex phenomenon as a consequence of the mesoscale effect, which is an only recently introduced concept in polymer thin films. - Highlights: • Photoluminescence was used as a tool for structural investigation of polysilanes. • Primary study of strong dependence of thin polymer film structure on mesoscale. • A mesoscale effect observed for the first time on sigma conjugated polymers. • Conjugation length is dramatically extended in thicker films than in nanoscale. • Self-recovery effect was shown to be dependent on the mesoscale as well.

  19. A comparative study of ultraviolet photoconductivity relaxation in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Harish Kumar; Gupta, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    Photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin films deposited by three different techniques namely rf diode sputtering, rf magnetron sputtering, and electrophoretic deposition has been investigated in the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) configuration. A significant variation in the crystallinity, surface morphology, and photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin film with change in growth kinetics suggest that the presence of defect centers and their density govern the photodetector relaxation properties. A relatively low density of traps compared to the true quantum yield is found very crucial for the realization of practical ZnO thin film based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector.

  20. A comparative study of ultraviolet photoconductivity relaxation in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Harish Kumar; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin films deposited by three different techniques namely rf diode sputtering, rf magnetron sputtering, and electrophoretic deposition has been investigated in the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) configuration. A significant variation in the crystallinity, surface morphology, and photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin film with change in growth kinetics suggest that the presence of defect centers and their density govern the photodetector relaxation properties. A relatively low density of traps compared to the true quantum yield is found very crucial for the realization of practical ZnO thin film based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector.

  1. Study of electrochemical properties of thin film materials obtained using plasma technologies for production of electrodes for pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrezkov, O I; Vinogradov, V P; Krauz, V I; Mozgrin, D V; Guseva, I A; Andreev, E S; Zverev, A A; Starostin, A L

    2016-01-01

    Studies of thin film materials (TFM) as coatings of tips of pacemaker electrodes implanted into the human heart have been performed. TFM coatings were deposited in vacuum by arc magnetron discharge plasma, by pulsed discharge of “Plasma Focus”, and by electron beam evaporation. Simulation of electric charge transfer to the heart in physiological blood- imitator solution and determination of electrochemical properties of the coatings were carried out. TFM of highly developed surface of contact with tissue was produced by argon plasma spraying of titanium powder with subsequent coating by titanium nitride in vacuum arc assisted by Ti ion implantation. The TFM coatings of pacemaker electrode have passed necessary clinical tests and were used in medical practice. They provide low voltage myocardium stimulation thresholds within the required operating time. (paper)

  2. Screen-printed carbon electrode modified on its surface with amorphous carbon nitride thin film: Electrochemical and morphological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamouss, F. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France); Tessier, P.-Y. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Djouadi, A. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Besland, M.-P. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Boujtita, M. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France)]. E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.fr

    2007-04-20

    The surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified by using amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN {sub x}) thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to characterise respectively the morphology and the chemical structure of the a-CN {sub x} modified electrodes. The incorporation of nitrogen in the amorphous carbon network was demonstrated by X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The a-CN {sub x} layers were deposited on both carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) and silicon (Si) substrates. A comparative study showed that the nature of substrate, i.e. SPCE and Si, has a significant effect on both the surface morphology of deposited a-CN {sub x} film and their electrochemical properties. The improvement of the electrochemical reactivity of SPCE after a-CN {sub x} film deposition was highlighted both by comparing the shapes of voltammograms and calculating the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant.

  3. Study of Ho-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, S. E. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Zhang, S. L.; Chen, Y. L.; Hesjedal, T., E-mail: Thorsten.Hesjedal@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Baker, A. A. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Figueroa, A. I.; Laan, G. van der [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kellock, A. J.; Pushp, A.; Parkin, S. S. P. [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Harris, J. S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Breaking time-reversal symmetry through magnetic doping of topological insulators has been identified as a key strategy for unlocking exotic physical states. Here, we report the growth of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films doped with the highest magnetic moment element Ho. Diffraction studies demonstrate high quality films for up to 21% Ho incorporation. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry reveals paramagnetism down to 2 K with an effective magnetic moment of ∼5 μ{sub B}/Ho. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows that the topological surface state remains intact with Ho doping, consistent with the material's paramagnetic state. The large saturation moment achieved makes these films useful for incorporation into heterostructures, whereby magnetic order can be introduced via interfacial coupling.

  4. Structural, optical and nonlinear optical studies of AZO thin film prepared by SILAR method for electro-optic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, D. Joseph; Nirmala, W.; Kumar, K. Deva Arun; Valanarasu, S.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd.; AlFaify, S.

    2017-10-01

    Aluminium doped (i.e. 3 at%) zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were prepared by simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method with different dipping cycles. The structural and surface morphology of AZO thin films were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical parameters such as, transmittance, band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant and nonlinear optical properties of AZO films were investigated. XRD pattern revealed the formation of hexagonal phase ZnO and the intensity of the film was found to increase with increasing dipping cycle. The crystallite size was found to be in the range of 29-37 nm. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images show the presence of small sized grains, revealing that the smoothest surface was obtained at all the films. The EDAX spectrum of AZO conforms the presence of Zn, O and Al. The optical transmittance in the visible region is high 87% and the band gap value is 3.23 eV. The optical transmittance is decreased with respect to dipping cycles. The room temperature PL studies revealed that the AZO films prepared at (30 cycles) has good film quality with lesser defect density. The third order nonlinear optical parameters were also studied using Z-scan technique to know the applications of deposited films in nonlinear devices. The third order nonlinear susceptibility value is found to be 1.69 × 10-7, 3.34 × 10-8, 1.33 × 10-7and 2.52 × 10-7 for AZO films deposited after 15, 20, 25 and 30 dipping cycles.

  5. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  6. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  7. Studies on Cd1Se0.6Te0.4 Thin Films by Spectroscopic and Diffractometer Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliff Orori Mosiori

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium selenide tellurium is a compound containing cadmium, tellurium and selenium elements forming a combined solid. Hall measurements suggest that it is an n-type semiconductor. Related optical studies indicate that is transparent to infra-red radiation. Structural studies clearly show that it has a wurtzite, sphalerite crystalline forms. Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal, and selenium is only toxic in large amounts or doses. By this toxicity, cadmium selenide is a known to be carcinogen to humans; however, this does not stop investigating it for optoelectronic applications. Current research has narrowed down to investigating cadmium selenide when in the form of nanoparticles. Cadmium selenide finds applications has found applications in opto-electronic devices like laser diodes, biomedical imaging, nano-sensing, high-efficiency solar cells and thin-film transistors. By chemical bath deposition, Cd1Se0.6Te0.4 thin films were grown onto glass. Tellurium was gradually introduced as an impurity and its crystalline structure and optical properties were investigated by XRD and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The main Cd1Se0.6Te0.4/glass characteristics were correlated with the conditions of growing and post-growth treatment and it was found out that films were homogeneous films with controllable thickness onto the glass substrate and suitable for n-type “sandwich” heterostructures applications. Comparison of the intensities of equivalent reflexions provided a test for the internal consistency of the measurements. Equivalent reflexions in two specimens differed on average by 1.4 % and 0.6% from the mean measured intensity, attesting to the high internal consistency of measurements from extended-face crystals. By comparison from data obtained from all samples showed their average deviation from the mean to be 0.9 %.

  8. Optoelectronic study and annealing stability of room temperature pulsed laser ablated ZnSe polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Taj Muhammad, E-mail: tajakashne@gmail.com; Zakria, M.; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Shakoor, Rana I.

    2014-03-15

    In principal, we described stability of the room temperature ZnSe thin films with thermal annealing deposited onto glass by pulsed laser deposition technique using third harmonic 355 nm of Nd: YAG laser beam. Optoelectronic analysis and stability with thermal annealing was described in terms of structural and optical properties. These properties were investigated via X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, Raman, Fourier transform infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopies. From the strong reflection corresponding to the (1 1 1) plane (2θ=27.48°) and the longitudinal optical “LO” phonon modes at 250 cm{sup −1} and 500 cm{sup −1} in the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra, a polycrystalline zincblende structure of the film was established. At 300 and 350 °C annealing temperatures, the film crystallites were preferentially oriented with the (1 1 1) plane parallel to the substrate and became amorphous at 400 °C. Atomic force microscopic images showed that the morphologies of ZnSe films became smooth with root mean squared roughness 9.86 nm after annealing at 300 and 350 °C while a rougher surface was observed for the amorphous film at 400 °C. Fourier transform infrared study illustrated the chemical nature and Zn–Se bonding in the deposited films. For the as-deposited and annealed samples at 300 and 350 °C, scanning electron micrographs revealed mono-dispersed indistinguishable ZnSe grains and smooth morphological structure which changed to a cracking and bumpy surface after annealing at 400 °C. The physical phenomenon of annealing induced morphological changes could be explained in terms of “structure zone model”. Excitonic emission at 456 nm was observed for both as-deposited and annealed film at 350 °C. The transmission spectrum shows oscillatory behavior because of the thin film interference and exhibited a high degree of transparency down to a wavelength ∼500 nm in the IR region. Energy band-gap was

  9. Spectroelectrochemical study of the adsorption of acetate anions at gold single crystal and thin-film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, Antonio; Delgado, Jose Manuel; Orts, Jose Manuel; Rodes, Antonio; Feliu, Juan Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Acetate adsorption at gold electrodes is studied in perchloric acid solutions by cyclic voltammetry and in-situ infrared spectroscopy. External reflection measurements, performed with gold single crystal electrodes, are combined with Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy experiments under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS) carried out with sputtered gold thin-film electrodes. Theoretical harmonic IR frequencies of acetate species adsorbed with different geometries on Au clusters with (1 1 1), (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) orientations have been obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ, 6-31 + G* calculations. The theoretical and experimental results confirm that, irrespective of the surface crystallographic orientation, bonding of acetate to the surface involves the two oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group, with the OCO plane perpendicular to the metal surface. DFT calculations reveal also that the total charge of the metal cluster-acetate supermolecule has small effect on the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed acetate species. Both the external and the internal reflection measurements show the co-adsorption of acetate and perchlorate anions. Step-scan measurements carried out with the gold thin-film electrodes have allowed the monitoring of the time-dependent behaviour of perchlorate, acetate and water bands in potential step experiments. Acetate adsorption under those conditions is shown to involve perchlorate desorption and to follow a Langmuir-type kinetics. The step-scan spectra also show the rise and decay of transient water structures with parallel time-dependent shifts of the background intensity in the infrared spectra

  10. Electron-lattice energy relaxation in laser-excited thin-film Au-insulator heterostructures studied by ultrafast MeV electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Shen, X; Zheng, Q; Chase, T; Coffee, R; Jerman, M; Li, R K; Ligges, M; Makasyuk, I; Mo, M; Reid, A H; Rethfeld, B; Vecchione, T; Weathersby, S P; Dürr, H A; Wang, X J

    2017-09-01

    We apply time-resolved MeV electron diffraction to study the electron-lattice energy relaxation in thin film Au-insulator heterostructures. Through precise measurements of the transient Debye-Waller-factor, the mean-square atomic displacement is directly determined, which allows to quantitatively follow the temporal evolution of the lattice temperature after short pulse laser excitation. Data obtained over an extended range of laser fluences reveal an increased relaxation rate when the film thickness is reduced or the Au-film is capped with an additional insulator top-layer. This behavior is attributed to a cross-interfacial coupling of excited electrons in the Au film to phonons in the adjacent insulator layer(s). Analysis of the data using the two-temperature-model taking explicitly into account the additional energy loss at the interface(s) allows to deduce the relative strength of the two relaxation channels.

  11. Electrochemical growth and studies of CuInSe2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasher, Dixit; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, Poolla

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of CuInSe 2 were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (<10 Ω/□) coated glass using the electrodeposition technique. The electrodeposition was carried out potentiostatically using an aqueous bath consisting of solutions of CuCl 2 , InCl 3 and SeO 2 with ethylenediamine-dihydrochloride (EDC) added for complexation. CuInSe 2 films were also deposited without using any complexing agent in the bath. To improve the crystallinity the CuInSe 2 films were annealed in vaccum at 300 °C for one hour. The annealed films were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical spectra. The results obtained in this work show that by adding a suitable complexing agent to the electrochemical bath, nanocrystalline CuInSe 2 , 20 nm to 30 nm in size, can be grown. The composition of the CuInSe 2 films can be controlled by means of the bath composition and stoichiometric films can be obtained for a bath with ionic Cu:In:Se composition close to 1:4:2. AFM micrographs show that the particles are generally oval shaped for near stoichiometric compositions. However for extreme copper rich layers, the morphology is completely different, the particles in this case appearing in the form of nanoflakes. Each flake has a thickness in the nano range, but the surface extends to a length of several microns. (papers)

  12. Magnetic resonance study of bulk and thin film EuTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguta, V V; Kamba, S; Maryško, M; Andrzejewski, B; Kachlík, M; Maca, K; Lee, J H; Schlom, D G

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectra of EuTiO 3 in both bulk and thin film form were taken at temperatures from 3–350 K and microwave frequencies from 9.2–9.8 and 34 GHz. In the paramagnetic phase, magnetic resonance spectra are determined by magnetic dipole and exchange interactions between Eu 2+ spins. In the film, a large contribution arises from the demagnetization field. From detailed analysis of the linewidth and its temperature dependence, the parameters of spin–spin interactions were determined: the exchange frequency is 10.5 GHz and the estimated critical exponent of the spin correlation length is  ≈0.4. In the bulk samples, the spectra exhibited a distinct minimum in the linewidth at the Néel temperature, T N   ≈  5.5 K, while the resonance field practically does not change even on cooling below T N . This is indicative of a small magnetic anisotropy ∼320 G in the antiferromagnetic phase. In the film, the magnetic resonance spectrum is split below T N into several components due to excitation of the magnetostatic modes, corresponding to a non-uniform precession of magnetization. Moreover, the film was observed to degrade over two years. This was manifested by an increase of defects and a change in the domain structure. The saturated magnetization in the film, estimated from the magnetic resonance spectrum, was about 900 emu cm −3 or 5.5 µ B /unit cell at T   =  3.5 K. (paper)

  13. Simultaneous optical and electrical modeling of plasmonic light trapping in thin-film amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Keyur K.; Nejim, Ahmed; Beliatis, Michail J.; Mills, Christopher A.; Henley, Simon J.; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid prototyping of photovoltaic (PV) cells requires a method for the simultaneous simulation of the optical and electrical characteristics of the device. The development of nanomaterial-enabled PV cells only increases the complexity of such simulations. Here, we use a commercial technology computer aided design (TCAD) software, Silvaco Atlas, to design and model plasmonic gold nanoparticles integrated in optoelectronic device models of thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) PV cells. Upon illumination with incident light, we simulate the optical and electrical properties of the cell simultaneously and use the simulation to produce current-voltage (J-V) and external quantum efficiency plots. Light trapping due to light scattering and localized surface plasmon resonance interactions by the nanoparticles has resulted in the enhancement of both the optical and electrical properties due to the reduction in the recombination rates in the photoactive layer. We show that the device performance of the modeled plasmonic a-Si:H PV cells depends significantly on the position and size of the gold nanoparticles, which leads to improvements either in optical properties only, or in both optical and electrical properties. The model provides a route to optimize the device architecture by simultaneously optimizing the optical and electrical characteristics, which leads to a detailed understanding of plasmonic PV cells from a design perspective and offers an advanced tool for rapid device prototyping.

  14. A comparative study of the physical properties of Sb2S3 thin films treated with N2 AC plasma and thermal annealing in N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calixto-Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, H.; Pena, Y.; Flores, O.; Esparza-Ponce, H.E.; Sanchez-Juarez, A.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Reyes, P.

    2010-01-01

    As-deposited antimony sulfide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition were treated with nitrogen AC plasma and thermal annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. The as-deposited, plasma treated, and thermally annealed antimony sulfide thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. The results have shown that post-deposition treatments modify the crystalline structure, the morphology, and the optoelectronic properties of Sb 2 S 3 thin films. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystallinity of the films was improved in both cases. Atomic force microscopy studies showed that the change in the film morphology depends on the post-deposition treatment used. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analysis revealed the plasma etching on the surface of the film, this fact was corroborated by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The optical band gap of the films (E g ) decreased after post-deposition treatments (from 2.36 to 1.75 eV) due to the improvement in the grain sizes. The electrical resistivity of the Sb 2 S 3 thin films decreased from 10 8 to 10 6 Ω-cm after plasma treatments.

  15. Structural studies on Langmuir-Blodgett ultra-thin films on tin (IV) stearate using X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Deraman; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Mohd Ali Sulaiman; Mohd Ali Sufi

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out on Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) ultra-thin films of tin (IV) stearate for different numbers of layers. The structural information such as interplanar spacing, unit cells spacing, molecular length and orientation of molecular chains were obtained from the diffraction data. This information is discussed and compared with that previously published for LB ultra-thin films of manganese stearate and cadmium stearate

  16. Design and Simulation of a 6-Bit Successive-Approximation ADC Using Modeled Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyen Thanh Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated a method for using proper models of pentacene P-channel and fullerene N-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs in order to design and simulate organic integrated circuits. Initially, the transistors were fabricated, and we measured their main physical and electrical parameters. Then, these organic TFTs (OTFTs were modeled with support of an organic process design kit (OPDK added in Cadence. The key specifications of the modeled elements were extracted from measured data, whereas the fitting ones were elected to replicate experimental curves. The simulating process proves that frequency responses of the TFTs cover all biosignal frequency ranges; hence, it is reasonable to deploy the elements to design integrated circuits used in biomedical applications. Complying with complementary rules, the organic circuits work properly, including logic gates, flip-flops, comparators, and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs as well. The proposed successive-approximation-register (SAR ADC consumes a power of 883.7 µW and achieves an ENOB of 5.05 bits, a SNR of 32.17 dB at a supply voltage of 10 V, and a sampling frequency of about 2 KHz.

  17. Determination of magnetic properties of multilayer metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birlikseven, C.

    2000-01-01

    In recent year, Giant Magnetoresistance Effect has been attracting an increasingly high interest. High sensitivity magnetic field detectors and high sensitivity read heads of magnetic media can be named as important applications of these films. In this work, magnetic and electrical properties of single layer and thin films were investigated. Multilayer thin films were supplied by Prof. Dr. A. Riza Koeymen from Texas University. Multilayer magnetic thin films are used especially for magnetic reading and magnetic writing. storing of large amount of information into small areas become possible with this technology. Single layer films were prepared using the electron beam evaporation technique. For the exact determination of film thicknesses, a careful calibration of the thicknesses was made. Magnetic properties of the multilayer films were studied using the magnetization, magnetoresistance measurements and ferromagnetic resonance technique. Besides, by fitting the experimental results to the theoretical models, effective magnetization and angles between the ferromagnetic layers were calculated. The correspondence between magnetization and magnetoresistance was evaluated. To see the effect of anisotropic magnetoresistance in the magnetoresistance measurements, a new experimental set-up was build and measurements were taken in this set-up. A series of soft permalloy thin films were made, and temperature dependent resistivity, magnetoresistance, anisotropic magnetoresistance and magnetization measurements were taken

  18. Numerical and experimental modeling of liquid metal thin film flows in a quasi-coplanar magentic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Neil B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metal film protection of plasma-facing surfaces in fusion reactors is proposed in an effort to counter the adverse effects of high heat and particle fluxes from the burning plasma. Concerns still exist about establishing the required flow in presence of strong magnetic fields and plasma momentum flux typical of a reactor environment. In this work, the flow behavior of the film is examined under such conditions. Analysis of MHD equations as they apply to liquid metal flows with a free surface in the fully-developed limit was undertaken. Solution yields data for velocity profiles and uniform film heights vs key design parameters (channel size, magnetic field magnitude/orientation, channel slope, wall conductivity). These results are compared to previous models to determine accuracy of simplifying assumptions, in particular Hartmann averaging of films along {rvec B}. Effect of a plasma momentum flux on the thin films is also analyzed. The plasma momentum is strong enough in the cases examined to seriously upset the film, especially for lighter elements like Li. Ga performed much better and its possible use is bolstered by calculations. In an experiment in the MeGA-loop MHD facility, coplanar, wide film flow was found to be little affected by the magnetic field due to the elongated nature of the film. Both MHD drag and partial laminarization are observed, supporting the fully- developed film model predictions of the onset of MHD drag and duct flow estimations for flow laminarization.

  19. Numerical and experimental modeling of liquid metal thin film flows in a quasi-coplanar magentic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, N.B.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metal film protection of plasma-facing surfaces in fusion reactors is proposed in an effort to counter the adverse effects of high heat and particle fluxes from the burning plasma. Concerns still exist about establishing the required flow in presence of strong magnetic fields and plasma momentum flux typical of a reactor environment. In this work, the flow behavior of the film is examined under such conditions. Analysis of MHD equations as they apply to liquid metal flows with a free surface in the fully-developed limit was undertaken. Solution yields data for velocity profiles and uniform film heights vs key design parameters (channel size, magnetic field magnitude/orientation, channel slope, wall conductivity). These results are compared to previous models to determine accuracy of simplifying assumptions, in particular Hartmann averaging of films along rvec B. Effect of a plasma momentum flux on the thin films is also analyzed. The plasma momentum is strong enough in the cases examined to seriously upset the film, especially for lighter elements like Li. Ga performed much better and its possible use is bolstered by calculations. In an experiment in the MeGA-loop MHD facility, coplanar, wide film flow was found to be little affected by the magnetic field due to the elongated nature of the film. Both MHD drag and partial laminarization are observed, supporting the fully- developed film model predictions of the onset of MHD drag and duct flow estimations for flow laminarization

  20. A simple model for quantifying the degree of layer-by-layer growth in low energy ion deposition of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtamaeki, T.; Jahma, M.O.; Koponen, I.T.

    2007-01-01

    Layer-by-layer growth of thin films can be promoted by using low energy ion deposition (LEID) techniques. The basic process affecting the growth are often quite diverse, but often the ion impact induced inter layer mass transfer processes due to adatom insertion to lower step edges or pile-ups to step edges above dominate. In this paper we propose a simple phenomenological model which describes the growth of thin films in LEID under these conditions. The model makes possible to distinguish the dominant growth, the detection of the transition from the 3D growth to 2D growth, and it can be used to quantify the degree of layer-by-layer growth. The model contains only two parameters, which can be phenomenologically related to the properties of the bombarding ion beam

  1. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au)

  2. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  3. Experimental and ab initio investigations on textured Li–Mn–O spinel thin film cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J., E-mail: Julian.Fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Music, D. [RWTH Aachen University, Materials Chemistry, Kopernikusstrasse 10, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Bergfeldt, T.; Ziebert, C.; Ulrich, S.; Seifert, H.J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the tailored preparation of nearly identical lithium–manganese–oxide thin film cathodes with different global grain orientations. The thin films were synthesized by rf magnetron sputtering from a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-target in a pure argon plasma. Under appropriate processing conditions, thin films with a cubic spinel structure and a nearly similar density and surface topography but different grain orientation, i.e. (111)- and (440)-textured films, were achieved. The chemical composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and carrier gas hot extraction. The constitution- and microstructure were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology and roughness were investigated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The differently textured films represent an ideal model system for studying potential effects of grain orientation on the lithium ion diffusion and electrochemical behavior in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based thin films. They are nearly identical in their chemical composition, atomic bonding behavior, surface-roughness, morphology and thickness. Our initial ab initio molecular dynamics data indicate that Li ion transport is faster in (111)-textured structure than in (440)-textured one. - Highlights: • Thin film model system of differently textured cubic Li–Mn–O spinels. • Investigation of the Li–Mn–O thin film mass density by X-ray reflectivity. • Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on Li ion diffusion in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  4. Experimental and ab initio investigations on textured Li–Mn–O spinel thin film cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Music, D.; Bergfeldt, T.; Ziebert, C.; Ulrich, S.; Seifert, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the tailored preparation of nearly identical lithium–manganese–oxide thin film cathodes with different global grain orientations. The thin films were synthesized by rf magnetron sputtering from a LiMn 2 O 4 -target in a pure argon plasma. Under appropriate processing conditions, thin films with a cubic spinel structure and a nearly similar density and surface topography but different grain orientation, i.e. (111)- and (440)-textured films, were achieved. The chemical composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and carrier gas hot extraction. The constitution- and microstructure were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology and roughness were investigated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The differently textured films represent an ideal model system for studying potential effects of grain orientation on the lithium ion diffusion and electrochemical behavior in LiMn 2 O 4 -based thin films. They are nearly identical in their chemical composition, atomic bonding behavior, surface-roughness, morphology and thickness. Our initial ab initio molecular dynamics data indicate that Li ion transport is faster in (111)-textured structure than in (440)-textured one. - Highlights: • Thin film model system of differently textured cubic Li–Mn–O spinels. • Investigation of the Li–Mn–O thin film mass density by X-ray reflectivity. • Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on Li ion diffusion in LiMn 2 O 4

  5. A nanomagnetic study of phase transition in manganite thin films and ballistic magnetoresistance in magnetic nanocontacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seok-Hwan

    This work focuses on two largely unexplored phenomena in micromagnetics: the temperature-driven paramagnetic insulator to ferromagnetic (FM) metallic phase transition in perovskite manganite and ballistic magnetoresistance in spin-polarized nanocontacts. To investigate the phase transition, an off-the-shelf commercial scanning force microscope was redesigned for operation at temperatures from 350 K to 100 K. This adaptation is elaborated in this thesis. Using this system, both ferromagnetic and charge-ordered domain structures of (La 1-xPrx)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 thin film were observed by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and electric force microscopy (EFM) operated in the vicinity of the peak resistance temperature (Tp). Predominantly in-plane oriented FM domains of sub-micrometer size emerge below Tp and their local magnetic moment increased as the temperature is reduced. Charge-ordered insulating regions show a strong electrostatic interaction with an EFM tip at a few degrees above Tp and the interaction correlates well with the temperature dependence of resistivity of the film. Cross-correlation analysis between topography and magnetic structure on several substrates indicates FM domains form on the flat regions of the surface, while charge ordering occurs at surface protrusions. In the investigation of ballistic magnetoresistance, new results on half-metallic ferromagnets formed by atomic or nanometer contacts of CrO2-CrO 2 and CrO2-Ni are presented showing magnetoconductance as high as 400%. Analysis of the magnetoconductance versus conductance data for all materials known to exhibit so-called ballistic magnetoresistance strongly suggests that magnetoconductance of nanocontacts follows a universal mechanism. If the maximum magnetoconductance is normalized to unity and the conductance is scaled with the resistivity of the material, then all data points fall onto a universal curve independent of the contact material and the transport mechanism. The analysis has been

  6. Theoretical study of quaternary compounds as thin-film solar cell absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Huai Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Design of chalcogenide photovoltaic absorbers is carried out systematically through sequential cation mutation, from binary to ternary to quaternary compounds, using first-principles electronic structure calculations. Several universal trends are found for the ternary and two classes of quaternary chalcogenides. For example, the lowest-energy structure always has larger lattice constant a, smaller tetragonal distortion parameter η=c/2a, and larger band gap than the metastable structures for common-row cation mutations. The band gap is reduced during the mutation. The band gap decreases from binary II-VI to ternary I-III-VI 2 are mostly due to the p-d repulsion in the valence band, the decreases from ternary I-III-VI 2 to quaternary I 2 -II-IV-VI 4 chalcogenides are due to the downshift in the conduction band caused by the wavefunction localization on the group IV cation site. It was found that I 2 -II-IV-VI 4 compounds are more stable in the kesterite structure, whereas the widely-assumed stannite structure reported in the literature is most likely due to partial disorder in the I-II layer of the kesterite phase. Among the derived quaternary compounds, Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) is one of the ideal candidate absorber materials for thin-film solar cells with an optimal band gap, high absorption coefficient, abundant elemental components, and is adaptable to various growth techniques. It was performed a series of first-principles electronic structure calculations for CZTS. Also it was found that in the ground state kesterite structure, (i) the chemical potential region that CZTS can form is very small. Therefore, it will be very difficult to obtain high quality stoichiometric CZTS samples; (ii) The dominant p-type acceptor in CZTS is CuZn, however, the associated acceptor level is relatively high, suggesting that p-type doping in CZTS is more difficult than ternary compounds such as CuInSe 2 ; (iii) The formation of the self-compensated defect pair [Cu

  7. Nonlinear optical studies on 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, Andreea [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Marinescu, Maria, E-mail: maria.marinescu@chimie.unibuc.ro [UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Şoseaua Panduri, Sector 5, RO-010184, Bucharest (Romania); Constantinescu, Catalin, E-mail: catalin.constantinescu@inflpr.ro [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Ion, Valentin; Mitu, Bogdana [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Ionita, Iulian [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, Maria [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Emandi, Ana [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Şoseaua Panduri, Sector 5, RO-010184, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A newly synthesized ferrocene-derivative exhibits SHG potential. • Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation is employed for thin film fabrication. • The optical properties of the films are investigated, presented and discussed. • At maximum laser output power, the SHG signal is strongly influenced by thin film thickness. - Abstract: We present results on a new, laboratory synthesized ferrocene-derivative, i.e. 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid. Thin films with controlled thickness are deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), on quartz and silicon substrates, with the aim of evaluating the nonlinear optical properties for potential optoelectronic applications. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as matrix, with 1% wt. concentration of the guest compound. The frozen target is irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser (4ω/266 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition rate), at low fluences ranging from 0.1 to 1 J/cm{sup 2}. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to probe the surface morphology of the films. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy reveal similar structure of the thin film material when compared to the starting material. The optical properties of the thin films are investigated by spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE), and the refractive index dependence with respect to temperature is studied. The second harmonic generation (SHG) potential is assessed by using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 60–100 fs pulse duration, 80 MHz repetition rate), at 200 mW maximum output power, revealing that the SHG signal intensity is strongly influenced by the films’ thickness.

  8. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of Al–Y codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao; Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Chuang, Ming-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Song; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2013-01-01

    Low cost transparent conductive Al–Y codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 5–13 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 × 10 −4 Ω cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm 2 /V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 × 10 20 cm −3 , and high transmittance in the visible region (400–800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (η) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  9. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of Al–Y codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Chuang, Ming-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Song [Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan (China); Houng, Mau-Phon, E-mail: mphoung@eembox.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-01

    Low cost transparent conductive Al–Y codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 5–13 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm{sup 2}/V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, and high transmittance in the visible region (400–800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (η) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  10. Electro-optical evaluation of tungsten oxide and vanadium pentoxide thin films for modeling an electrochromic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Najafi Ashtiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tungsten oxide and vanadium oxide electrochromic thin films were placed in vacuum and in a thickness of 200 nm on a transparent conductive substrate of SnO2:F using the physical method of thermal evaporation. Then they were studied for the optical characteristics in the wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm and for their electrical potentials in the range form +1.5 to -1.5 volts. The films were post heated in order to assess changes in energy gap with temperature, at temperatures120 , 300 and 500°C. Refractive and extinction coefficients and the transition type of films in the visible light range and in the thickness of 200 nm were determined and measured. X-ray diffraction pattern and SEM images and cyclic Voltammetry of layers were also studied. The results of this study due to the deposition of layers, the layer thickness selected, the type of substrate, the range of annealing temperatures and selected electrolyte were in full compliance with the works of other researchers [1,2,3]. Therefore, these layers with features such as crystal structure, refractive and even extinction coefficients in the range of visible light, the appropriate response of chromic switch in the replication potential, good adhesion to the substrate, and the high amount of optical transmition and so on, prove useful to be used in an electrochromic device

  11. Preliminary study of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostructures deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwoto, Putut; Made, D. P. Ngurah; Sugianto [Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Wibowo, Edy; Astuti, Santi Yuli; Aryani, Nila Prasetya [Materials Research Group, Laboratory of Thin Film, Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Othaman, Zulkafli [Departement of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2013-09-03

    Growth and properties of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostrucures deposited by using dc magnetron sputtering are reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphologies of the thin films. At growth conditions of 250 °C and 14 W, CdTe films did not yet evenly deposited. However, at growth temperature and plasma power of 325 °C and 43 W, both CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) have deposited on the substrates. In this condition, the morphology of the films indicate that the films have a grain-like nanostructures. Grain size diameter of about 200 nm begin to appear on top of the films. Energy Dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDX) was used to investigate chemical elements of the Cu doped CdTe film deposited. It was found that the film deposited consist of Cd, Te and Cu elements. XRD was used to investigate the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the thin films deposited. The results show that CdTe:Cu(2%) thin film has better crystallographic properties than CdTe thin film. The UV-Vis spectrometer was used to investigate the optical properties of thin films deposited. The transmittance spectra showed that transmittance of CdTe:Cu(2%) film is lower than CdTe film. It was found that the bandgap energy of CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) thin films of about 1.48 eV.

  12. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  13. Thermal spike model interpretation of sputtering yield data for Bi thin films irradiated by MeV {sup 84}Kr{sup 15+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, S. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: souichaoui@gmail.com [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Faculté de Physique, Laboratoire SNIRM, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Ammi, H. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Dib, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Msimanga, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P. Bag 11, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Department of Physics, Tshwane University of Technology, P. Bag X680, Pretoria 001 (South Africa)

    2015-07-01

    A modified thermal spike model initially proposed to account for defect formation in metals within the high heavy ion energy regime is adapted for describing the sputtering of Bi thin films under MeV Kr ions. Surface temperature profiles for both the electronic and atomic subsystems have been carefully evaluated versus the radial distance and time with introducing appropriate values of the Bi target electronic stopping power for multi-charged Kr{sup 15+} heavy ions as well as different target physical proprieties like specific heats and thermal conductivities. Then, the total sputtering yields of the irradiated Bi thin films have been determined from a spatiotemporal integration of the local atomic evaporation rate. Besides, an expected non negligible contribution of elastic nuclear collisions to the Bi target sputtering yields and ion-induced surface effects has also been considered in our calculation. Finally, the latter thermal spike model allowed us to derive numerical sputtering yields in satisfactorily agreement with existing experimental data both over the low and high heavy ion energy regions, respectively, dominated by elastic nuclear collisions and inelastic electronic collisions, in particular with our data taken recently for Bi thin films irradiated by 27.5 MeV Kr{sup 15+} heavy ions. An overall consistency of our model calculation with the predictions of sputtering yield theoretical models within the target nuclear stopping power regime was also pointed out.

  14. Thin Film Microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Thin film batteries are built layer by layer by vapor deposition. The resulting battery is formed of parallel plates, much as an ordinary battery construction, just much thinner. The figure (Fig. 1) shows an example of a thin film battery layout where films are deposited symmetrically onto both sides of a supporting substrate. The full stack of films is only 10 to 15 (micro)m thick, but including the support at least doubles the overall battery thickness. When the support is thin, the entire battery can be flexible. At least six companies have commercialized or are very close to commercializing such all-solid-state thin film batteries and market research predicts a growing market and a variety of applications including sensors, RFID tags, and smarter cards. In principle with a large deposition system, a thin film battery might cover a square meter, but in practice, most development is targeting individual cells with active areas less than 25 cm 2 . For very small battery areas, 2 , microfabrication processes have been developed. Typically the assembled batteries have capacities from 0.1 to 5 mAh. The operation of a thin film battery is depicted in the schematic diagram (Fig. 2). Very simply, when the battery is allowed to discharge, a Li + ion migrates from the anode to the cathode film by diffusing through the solid electrolyte. When the anode and cathode reactions are reversible, as for an intercalation compound or alloy, the battery can be recharged by reversing the current. The difference in the electrochemical potential of the lithium determines the cell voltage. Most of the thin films used in current commercial variations of this thin film battery are deposited in vacuum chambers by RF and DC magnetron sputtering and by thermal evaporation onto unheated substrates. In addition, many publications report exploring a variety of other physical and chemical vapor deposition processes, such as pulsed laser deposition, electron cyclotron resonance sputtering, and

  15. Photoluminescence properties of perovskite multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, Leilane Roberta; Longo, Elson, E-mail: leilanemacario@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Mazzo, Tatiana Martelli [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Bouquet, Valerie; Deputier, Stephanie; Ollivier, Sophie; Guilloux-Viry, Maryline [Universite de Rennes (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the optical properties of thin films is important in many scientific, technological and industrial applications of thin films such as photoconductivity, solar energy, photography, and numerous other applications [1]. In this study, perovskite type oxides were grown by pulsed laser deposition [2] in order to obtain thin films with applicable optical properties. The LaNiO{sub 3} (LN), BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) and KNbO{sub 3} (KNb) targets were prepared by solid-state reaction. The X-ray Diffraction revealed the presence of the desired phases, containing the elements of interest in the targets and in the thin films that were produced. The LN, BT and KNb thin films were polycrystalline and the corresponding diffraction peaks were indexed in the with JCPDS cards n. 00-033-0711, n. 00-005-0626, and n. 00-009-0156, respectively. The multilayers films were polycrystalline. The majority of the micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy presented films with a thickness from 100 to 400 nm. The photoluminescent (PL) emission spectra of thin films show different broad bands that occupies large region of the visible spectrum, ranging from about 300-350 to 600-650 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The PL emission is associated with the order-disorder structural, even small structural changes can modify the interactions between electronic states. The structural disorder results in formation of new energy levels in the forbidden region. The proximity or distance of these new energy levels formed in relation to valence band and to the conduction band results in PL spectra located at higher or lower energies. These interactions change the electronic states which can be influenced by defects, particularly the interface defects between the layers of the thin films. The presence of defects results in changes in the broad band matrix intensity and in displacement of the PL emission maximum. (author)

  16. Advection-diffusion model for normal grain growth and the stagnation of normal grain growth in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, C.

    2002-01-01

    An advection-diffusion model has been set up to describe normal grain growth. In this model grains are divided into different groups according to their topological classes (number of sides of a grain). Topological transformations are modelled by advective and diffusive flows governed by advective and diffusive coefficients respectively, which are assumed to be proportional to topological classes. The ordinary differential equations governing self-similar time-independent grain size distribution can be derived analytically from continuity equations. It is proved that the time-independent distributions obtained by solving the ordinary differential equations have the same form as the time-dependent distributions obtained by solving the continuity equations. The advection-diffusion model is extended to describe the stagnation of normal grain growth in thin films. Grain boundary grooving prevents grain boundaries from moving, and the correlation between neighbouring grains accelerates the stagnation of normal grain growth. After introducing grain boundary grooving and the correlation between neighbouring grains into the model, the grain size distribution is close to a lognormal distribution, which is usually found in experiments. A vertex computer simulation of normal grain growth has also been carried out to make a cross comparison with the advection-diffusion model. The result from the simulation did not verify the assumption that the advective and diffusive coefficients are proportional to topological classes. Instead, we have observed that topological transformations usually occur on certain topological classes. This suggests that the advection-diffusion model can be improved by making a more realistic assumption on topological transformations. (author)

  17. The electrical resistivity of rough thin films: A model based on electron reflection at discrete step edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianji; Zheng, Pengyuan; Pandey, Sumeet C.; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Gall, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the surface roughness on the electrical resistivity of metallic thin films is described by electron reflection at discrete step edges. A Landauer formalism for incoherent scattering leads to a parameter-free expression for the resistivity contribution from surface mound-valley undulations that is additive to the resistivity associated with bulk and surface scattering. In the classical limit where the electron reflection probability matches the ratio of the step height h divided by the film thickness d, the additional resistivity Δρ = √{3 /2 } /(g0d) × ω/ξ, where g0 is the specific ballistic conductance and ω/ξ is the ratio of the root-mean-square surface roughness divided by the lateral correlation length of the surface morphology. First-principles non-equilibrium Green's function density functional theory transport simulations on 1-nm-thick Cu(001) layers validate the model, confirming that the electron reflection probability is equal to h/d and that the incoherent formalism matches the coherent scattering simulations for surface step separations ≥2 nm. Experimental confirmation is done using 4.5-52 nm thick epitaxial W(001) layers, where ω = 0.25-1.07 nm and ξ = 10.5-21.9 nm are varied by in situ annealing. Electron transport measurements at 77 and 295 K indicate a linear relationship between Δρ and ω/(ξd), confirming the model predictions. The model suggests a stronger resistivity size effect than predictions of existing models by Fuchs [Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 34, 100 (1938)], Sondheimer [Adv. Phys. 1, 1 (1952)], Rossnagel and Kuan [J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 22, 240 (2004)], or Namba [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 9, 1326 (1970)]. It provides a quantitative explanation for the empirical parameters in these models and may explain the recently reported deviations of experimental resistivity values from these models.

  18. Structural and electrical transport properties of La2Mo2O9 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, T.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-04-01

    We have studied the structure and electrical properties of La2Mo2O9 thin films of different thicknesses prepared by the laser deposition technique at different substrate temperatures. The structural properties of the thin films have been investigated using XRD, XPS, AFM, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The electrical transport properties of the thin films have been investigated in wide temperature and frequency ranges. The cubic nature of the thin films has been confirmed from structural analysis. An enhancement of the oxygen ion conductivity of the films up to five orders of magnitude is obtained compared to that of the bulk La2Mo2O9, suggesting usefulness of the thin films as electrolytes in micro-solid oxide fuel cells. The enhanced dc ionic conductivity of the thin films has been interpreted using the rule of the mixture model, while a power law model has been used to investigate the frequency and temperature dependences of the conductivity. The analysis of the results predicts the three-dimensional oxygen ion conduction in the thin films.

  19. Transport physics and device modeling of zinc oxide thin-film transistors. Pt. II: Contact Resistance in Short Channel Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torricelli, F.; Meijboom, J.R.; Smits, E.; Tripathi, A.K.; Gelinck, G.H.; Colalongo, L.; Kovacs-Vajna, Z.M.; Leeuw, D. de; Cantatore, E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—Short-channel zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in a wide range of temperatures and bias conditions. Scaling down the channel length, the TFT performance is seriously affected by contact resistances, which depend on gate voltage and temperature. To account for

  20. Transport physics and device modeling of zinc oxide thin film transistors - part II : contact resistance in short channel devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torricelli, F.; Smits, E.C.P.; Meijboom, J.R.; Tripathi, A.K.; Gelinck, G.H.; Colalongo, L.; Kovacs-Vajna, Z.M.; Cantatore, E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-channel zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in a wide range of temperatures and bias conditions. Scaling down the channel length, the TFT performance is seriously affected by contact resistances, which depend on gate voltage and temperature. To account for the

  1. Identification and design of novel polymer-based mechanical transducers: A nano-structural model for thin film indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Joshua; Huang, Qian; Sirbuly, Donald J., E-mail: dsirbuly@ucsd.edu [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    Mechanical characterization is important for understanding small-scale systems and developing devices, particularly at the interface of biology, medicine, and nanotechnology. Yet, monitoring sub-surface forces is challenging with current technologies like atomic force microscopes (AFMs) or optical tweezers due to their probe sizes and sophisticated feedback mechanisms. An alternative transducer design relying on the indentation mechanics of a compressible thin polymer would be an ideal system for more compact and versatile probes, facilitating measurements in situ or in vivo. However, application-specific tuning of a polymer's mechanical properties can be burdensome via experimental optimization. Therefore, efficient transducer design requires a fundamental understanding of how synthetic parameters such as the molecular weight and grafting density influence the bulk material properties that determine the force response. In this work, we apply molecular-level polymer scal