WorldWideScience

Sample records for thin steel plates

  1. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Austempering SUS440 Steel Thin Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUS440 is a high-carbon stainless steel, and its martensite matrix has high heat resistance, high corrosion resistance, and high pressure resistance. It has been widely used in mechanical parts and critical materials. However, the SUS440 martempered matrix has reliability problems in thin plate applications and thus research uses different austempering heat treatments (tempering temperature: 200 °C–400 °C to obtain a matrix containing bainite, retained austenite, martensite, and the M7C3 phase to investigate the relationships between the resulting microstructure and tensile mechanical properties. Experimental data showed that the austempering conditions of the specimen affected the volume fraction of phases and distribution of carbides. After austenitizing heat treatment (1080 °C for 30 min, the austempering of the SUS440 thin plates was carried out at a salt-bath temperature 300 °C for 120 min and water quenching was then used to obtain the bainite matrix with fine carbides, with the resulting material having a higher tensile fracture strength and average hardness (HRA 76 makes it suitable for use as a high-strength thin plate for industrial applications.

  2. Welding of Thin Steel Plates by Hybrid Welding Process Combined TIG Arc with YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewon; Suga, Yasuo; Koike, Takashi

    TIG arc welding and laser welding are used widely in the world. However, these welding processes have some advantages and problems respectively. In order to improve problems and make use of advantages of the arc welding and the laser welding processes, hybrid welding process combined the TIG arc with the YAG laser was studied. Especially, the suitable welding conditions for thin steel plate welding were investigated to obtain sound weld with beautiful surface and back beads but without weld defects. As a result, it was confirmed that the shot position of the laser beam is very important to obtain sound welds in hybrid welding. Therefore, a new intelligent system to monitor the welding area using vision sensor is constructed. Furthermore, control system to shot the laser beam to a selected position in molten pool, which is formed by TIG arc, is constructed. As a result of welding experiments using these systems, it is confirmed that the hybrid welding process and the control system are effective on the stable welding of thin stainless steel plates.

  3. Elastic behavior and onset of cracking in cement composite plates reinforced by perforated thin steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronchik, V.

    1996-03-01

    Thin cement mortar plates reinforced by perforated thin steel sheets have been tested in four-point flexure loading. Six kinds of sheet reinforcement and to additional ones (for control) were used. Perforated sheets of the Daugavpils Factory of Machinery Chains differed by their thickness (0.6-1.8 mm), shape (round, rectangular, oval, "dumbbell"), and mark of steel (St. 08, 50, 70). Dimensions of plantes were 100×20×2 cm. Cements-sand mortar with a 1∶2 ratio of cement PZ35 and river sand of 3 mm grains was used as a matrix. Control specimens of similar dimensions and matrix were reinforced by wire cages and meshes (ferrocement). The testing was performed using an UMM-5 testing machine. Maximum deflection (at the midspan), tension, and shear strains were recorded. The expeimental data are presented in tables and graphs. The testing results showed that the elasticity modulus of material was in good agreement with the "admixture rule;" an onset of cracking for all types (excluding one) practically did not differ from reference samples; the mode of fracture in typical cases included an adhesion failure and significant shear strains. In one case the limit of the tension strength of the reinforcement was achieved.

  4. Simulation Study on the Deflection Response of the 921A Steel thin plate under Explosive Impact Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Fang; Han, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The Ship cabin would be subject to high-intensity shock wave load when it is attacked by anti-ship weapons, causing its side board damaged. The time course of the deflection of the thin plate made of 921A steel in different initial conditions under the impact load is researched by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. According to the theory of elastic-plastic deformation of the thin plate, the dynamic response equation of the thin plate under the explosion impact load is established with the method of energy, and the theoretical calculation value is compared with the result from the simulation method. It proved that the theoretical calculation method has better reliability and accuracy in different boundary size.

  5. Antisymmetric-Symmetric Mode Conversion of Ultrasonic Lamb Waves and Negative Refraction on Thin Steel Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young H.; Sung, Jin Woo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, focusing of ultrasonic Lamb wave by negative refraction with mode conversion from antisymmetric to symmetric mode was investigated. When a wave propagates backward by negative refraction, the energy flux is antiparallel to the phase velocity. Backward propagation of Lamb wave is quite well known, but the behavior of backward Lamb wave at an interface has rarely been investigated. A pin-type transducer is used to detect Lamb wave propagating on a steel plate with a step change in thickness. Conversion from forward to backward propagating mode leads to negative refraction and thus wave focusing. By comparing the amplitudes of received Lamb waves at a specific frequency measured at different distance between transmitter and interface, the focusing of Lamb wave due to negative refraction was confirmed.

  6. Lumped Parameter experiments for Single Mode Fiber Laser Cutting of Thin Stainless Steel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shengying; Jia, Ye; Han, Bing; Wang, Jun; Liu, Zongkai; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian

    2017-06-01

    The present work reports the parameters on laser cutting stainless steel including workpiece thickness, cutting speed, defocus length and assisting gas pressure. The cutting kerf width, dross attachment and cut edge squareness deviation are examined to provide information on cutting quality. The results show that with the increasing thickness, the cutting speed decrease rate is about 27%. The optimal ranges of cutting speed, defocus length and gas pressure are obtained with maximum quality. The first section in your paper

  7. Study of the temperature distribution on welded thin plates of duplex steel to be used for the external clad of a cask for transportation of radiopharmaceuticals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betini, Evandro G.; Ceoni, Francisco C.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Politano, Rodolfo; Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Orlando, Marcos T.D.

    2015-01-01

    The clad material for a proprietary transport device for radiopharmaceutical products is the main focus of the present work. The production of 99 Mo- 99m Tc transport cask requires a receptacle or cask where the UNS S32304 duplex steel sheet has shown that it meets high demands as the required mechanical strength and the spread of impact or shock waves mitigation. This work reports the experimental efforts in recording the thermal distribution on autogenous thin plates of UNS S32304 steel during welding. The UNS S32304 duplex steel is the most probable candidate for the external clad of the containment package for the transport of radioactive substances so it is highly relevant the understanding of all its physical parameters and its behavior under the thermal cycle imposed by a welding process. For the welding of the UNS S32304 autogenous plates the GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process was used with a pure argon arc protection atmosphere in order to simulate a butt joint weld on a thin duplex steel plate without filler metal. The thermal cycles were recorded by means of K-type thermocouples embedded by electrical spot welding near the weld region and connected to a multi-channel data acquisition system. The obtained results validate the reliability of the experimental apparatus for the future complete analysis of the welding experiment and further comparison to numerical analysis. (author)

  8. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  9. Temperature of Heating and Cooling of Massive, Thin, and Wedge-Shaped Plates from Hard-to-Machine Steels During Their Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement‧ev, V. B.; Ivanova, T. N.; Dolginov, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Grinding of flat parts occurs by solid abrasive particles due to the physicomechanical process of deformation and to the action of a process liquid at high temperatures in a zone small in volume and difficult for observation. The rate of heating and cooling depends on the change in the intensity of the heat flux and in the velocity and time of action of the heat source. A study has been made of the regularities of the influence of each of these parameters on the depth and character of structural transformations during the grinding of flat parts from hard-to-machine steels. A procedure to calculate temperature in grinding massive, thin, and wedge-shaped parts has been developed with account taken of the geometric and thermophysical parameters of the tool and the treated part, and also of cutting regimes. The procedure can be used as a constituent part in developing a system for automatic design of the technological process of grinding of flat surfaces. A relationship between the temperature in the grinding zone and the regimes of treatment has been established which makes it possible to control the quality of the surface layer of massive, thin, and wedge-shaped plates from hard-to-machine steels. The rational boundaries of shift of cutting regimes have been determined.

  10. Probing Formability Improvement of Ultra-thin Ferritic Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate of PEMFC in Non-conventional Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Hyuk Jong; Barlat, Frédéric; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    Formability increase in non-conventional forming profiles programmed in the servo-press was investigated using finite element analysis. As an application, forming experiment on a 0.15-mm-thick ferritic stainless steel sheet for a bipolar plate, a primary component of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, was conducted. Four different forming profiles were considered to investigate the effects of forming profiles on formability and shape accuracy. The four motions included conventional V motion, holding motion, W motion, and oscillating motion. Among the four motions, the holding motion, in which the slide was held for a certain period at the bottom dead point, led to the best formability. Finite element simulations were conducted to validate the experimental results and to probe the formability improvement in the non-conventional forming profiles. A creep model to address stress relaxation effect along with tool elastic recovery was implemented using a user-material subroutine, CREEP in ABAQUS finite element software. The stress relaxation and variable contact conditions during the holding and oscillating profiles were found to be the main mechanism of formability improvement.

  11. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  12. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Corroded steel plate; plastic collapse; FEM; rough surface. ... The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method ... Department of Ocean Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, 15914 Tehran, Iran ...

  13. Diffusion zinc plating of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakovskaya, Tatiana; Goncharov, Ivan; Tukmakov, Victor; Shapovalov, Vyacheslav

    2004-01-01

    The report deals with the research on diffusion zinc plating of structural steels when replacing their cyanide cadmium plating. The results of the experiments in the open air, in vacuum, in the inert atmosphere, under various temperatures (300 - 500 deg.C) for different steel brands are presented. It is shown that diffusion zinc plating in argon or nitrogen atmosphere ensures obtaining the qualitative anticorrosion coating with insignificant change of mechanical properties of steels. The process is simple, reliable, ecology pure and cost-effective. (authors)

  14. Fire performance of basalt FRP mesh reinforced HPC thin plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    An experimental program was carried out to investigate the influence of basalt FRP (BFRP) reinforcing mesh on the fire behaviour of thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates applied to sandwich elements. Samples with BFRP mesh were compared to samples with no mesh, samples with steel mesh...

  15. Ultrasonic diagnosis of spot welding in thin plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, No You; Hong, Min Sung

    2005-01-01

    Spot welding widely used in automotive and aerospace industries has made it possible to produce more precise and smaller electric part by robotization and systemization of welding process. The quality of welding depends upon the size of nugget between the overlapped steel plates. Recently, the thickness of the steel plates becomes much thinner and hence, it introduces the smaller size of nugget. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the criterion to evaluate the quality of weld in order to obtain the optimal welding conditions for the better performance. In this paper, a thin steel plates, 0.1 mm through 0.3 mm thickness, have been spot-welded at different welding conditions and the nugget sizes are examined by defocused scanning microscopy. The relationships between nugget sizes and weldability have been investigated experimentally. The result of ultrasonic technique shows the good agreement with that of the tensile test.

  16. Free vibration analysis of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami-Majd, Alireza; Rahbar-Ranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Vibration analysis of unstiffened/stiffened plates has long been studied due to its importance in the design and condition assessments of ship and offshore structures. Corrosion is inevitable in steel structures and has been so far considered in strength analysis of structures. We studied the free vibration of pitted corroded plates with simply supported boundary conditions. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS, was used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of corroded plates. Influential parameters including plate aspect ratio, degree of pit, one-sided/both-sided corroded plate, and different corrosion patterns were investigated. By increasing the degree of corrosion, reduction of natural frequency increases. Plate aspect ratio and plate dimensions have no influence on reduction of natural frequency. Different corrosion patterns on the surface of one-sided corroded plates have little influence on reduction of natural frequency. Ratio of pit depth over plate thickness has no influence on the reduction of natural frequency. The reduction of natural frequency in both-sided corroded plates is higher than one-sided corroded plates with the same amount of total corrosion loss. Mode shapes of vibration would change due to corrosion, except square mode shapes.

  17. Blast response of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslamimajd, Alireza; RahbarRanji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Numerical results for one- and both-sided corroded steel plates subjected to blast loading are presented. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS software, is employed to determine the deformation and stress distributions. The results for the case of triangular pulse pressure on un-corroded plates are validated against literature-based data and then, detailed parametric studies are carried-out. The effects of influential parameters including, plate aspect ratio, degree of pit and different ratio of pit depth at each sides of the plate are investigated. The results show that position of pitted surface in respect to applied pressure is the most influential parameter on reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity of pitted plates. By increasing degree of pitting, reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity decrease more.

  18. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  19. Corrosion Behaviour of Nickel Plated Low Carbon Steel in Tomato Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleke OLUWOLE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated the corrosion resistance of nickel plated low carbon steel in tomato fluid. It simulated the effect of continuous use of the material in a tomato environment where corrosion products are left in place. Low carbon steel samples were nickel electroplated at 4V for 20, 25, 30 and 35 mins using Watts solution.The plated samples were then subjected to tomato fluid environment for for 30 days. The electrode potentials mV (SCE were measured every day. Weight loss was determined at intervals of 5 days for the duration of the exposure period. The result showed corrosion attack on the nickel- plated steel, the severity decreasing with the increasing weight of nickel coating on substrate. The result showed that thinly plated low carbon steel generally did not have any advantage over unplated steel. The pH of the tomato solution which initially was acidic was observed to progress to neutrality after 4 days and then became alkaline at the end of the thirty days test (because of corrosion product contamination of the tomatocontributing to the reduced corrosion rates in the plated samples after 10 days. Un-plated steel was found to be unsuitable for the fabrication of tomato processing machinery without some form of surface treatment - thick nickel plating is suitable as a protective coating in this environment.

  20. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  1. Ultrabroadband elastic cloaking in thin plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan

    2009-07-10

    Control of waves with metamaterials is of great topical interest, and is fueled by rapid progress in broadband acoustic and electromagnetic cloaks. We propose a design for a cloak to control bending waves propagating in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. This is achieved through homogenization of a multilayered concentric coating filled with piecewise constant isotropic elastic material. Significantly, our cloak displays no phase shift for both backward and forward scattering. To foster experimental efforts, we provide a simplified design of the cloak which is shown to work in a more than two-octave frequency range (30 Hz to 150 Hz) when it consists of 10 layers using only 6 different materials overall. This metamaterial should be easy to manufacture, with potential applications ranging from car industry to anti-earthquake passive systems for smart buildings, depending upon the plate dimensions and wavelengths.

  2. Transient vibration of thin viscoelastic orthotropic plates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, J.; Valeš, František; Volek, J.; Skočilas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2011), s. 98-107 ISSN 0567-7718. [International Conference on Dynamical Systems - Theory and Applications /10./. Lodz, 07.12.2009-10.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : transient vibration thin plate * orthotropic * general viscoelastic standard solid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/hn67324178846n4r/

  3. Deconvolution using thin-plate splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, Udo v.; Gori, Silvio

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitous problem of estimating 2-dimensional profile information from a set of line integrated measurements is tackled with Bayesian probability theory by exploiting prior information about local smoothness. For this purpose thin-plate-splines (the 2-D minimal curvature analogue of cubic-splines in 1-D) are employed. The optimal number of support points required for inversion of 2-D tomographic problems is determined using model comparison. Properties of this approach are discussed and the question of suitable priors is addressed. Finally, we illustrated the properties of this approach with 2-D inversion results using data from line-integrated measurements from fusion experiments

  4. Splitting in Dual-Phase 590 high strength steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Chao, Yuh J.; Li Xiaodong; Tan Jinzhu

    2008-01-01

    Charpy V-notch impact tests on 5.5 mm thick, hot-rolled Dual-Phase 590 (DP590) steel plate were evaluated at temperatures ranging from 90 deg. C to -120 deg. C. Similar tests on 2.0 mm thick DP590 HDGI steel plate were also conducted at room temperature. Splitting or secondary cracks was observed on the fractured surfaces. The mechanisms of the splitting were then investigated. Fracture surfaces were analyzed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composition of the steel plates was determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Micro Vickers hardness of the steel plates was also surveyed. Results show that splitting occurred on the main fractured surfaces of hot-rolled steel specimens at various testing temperatures. At temperatures above the ductile-brittle-transition-temperature (DBTT), -95 deg. C, where the fracture is predominantly ductile, the length and amount of splitting decreased with increasing temperature. At temperatures lower than the DBTT, where the fracture is predominantly brittle, both the length and width of the splitting are insignificant. Splitting in HDGI steel plates only appeared in specimens of T-L direction. The analysis revealed that splitting in hot-rolled plate is caused by silicate and carbide inclusions while splitting in HDGI plate results from strip microstructure due to its high content of manganese and low content of silicon. The micro Vickers hardness of either the inclusions or the strip microstructures is higher than that of the respective base steel

  5. Special heavy plates and steel solutions for bridge building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    In many European countries infrastructure, -road as well as railway infrastructure-, needs intensive investments to follow the growing demands of mobility and goods traffic. Steel or steel composite bridges offer in this context viable and very sustainable solutions. Due to its unlimited recyclability steel can in general be seen as the ideal material for such sustainable constructions, but especially when designers or fabricators exploit the nowadays available possibilities of steel industry very cost-efficient and remarkable constructions are realizable. This paper will highlight some of these newest developments in heavy plates for bridge building. For example, for small span railway bridges the so-called thick plate trough bridges have proven to be a favourable concept. Very heavy plates with single plate weights up to 42 t allow building these bridges very efficiently out of one or very few single plates. Another interesting development is the so-called longitudinally profiled plates which allow a varying plate thickness along the actual loading profile. As last point the rising entry of higher strength steels in bridge building will be discussed and it will be shown why thermomechanically rolled plates are the ideal solution for these demands.

  6. Seismic Performance and Design of Steel Plate Shear Walls with Low Yield Point Steel Infill Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Zirakian, Tadeh

    2013-01-01

    Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) have been frequently used as the primary or part of the primary lateral force-resisting system in design of low-, medium-, and high-rise buildings. Their application has been based on two different design philosophies as well as detailing strategies. Stiffened and/or stocky-web SPSWs with improved buckling stability and high seismic performance have been mostly used in Japan, which is one of the pioneering countries in design and application of these systems. U...

  7. Progress in thermomechanical control of steel plates and their commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Kiyoshi; Ichikawa, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    The water-cooled thermomechanical control process (TMCP) is a technology for improving the strength and toughness of water-cooled steel plates, while allowing control of the microstructure, phase transformation and rolling. This review describes metallurgical aspects of the microalloying of steel, such as niobium addition, and discusses advantages of TMCP, for example, in terms of weldability, which is reduced upon alloying. Other covered topics include the development of equipment, distortions in steel plates, peripheral technologies such as steel making and casting, and theoretical modeling, as well as the history of property control in steel plate production and some early TMCP technologies. We provide some of the latest examples of applications of TMCP steel in various industries such as shipbuilding, offshore structures, building construction, bridges, pipelines, penstocks and cryogenic tanks. This review also introduces high heat-affected-zone toughness technologies, wherein the microstructure of steel is improved by the addition of fine particles of magnesium-containing sulfides and magnesium- or calcium-containing oxides. We demonstrate that thanks to ongoing developments TMCP has the potential to meet the ever-increasing demands of steel plates. PMID:27877477

  8. Progress in thermomechanical control of steel plates and their commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Nishioka and Kazutoshi Ichikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-cooled thermomechanical control process (TMCP is a technology for improving the strength and toughness of water-cooled steel plates, while allowing control of the microstructure, phase transformation and rolling. This review describes metallurgical aspects of the microalloying of steel, such as niobium addition, and discusses advantages of TMCP, for example, in terms of weldability, which is reduced upon alloying. Other covered topics include the development of equipment, distortions in steel plates, peripheral technologies such as steel making and casting, and theoretical modeling, as well as the history of property control in steel plate production and some early TMCP technologies. We provide some of the latest examples of applications of TMCP steel in various industries such as shipbuilding, offshore structures, building construction, bridges, pipelines, penstocks and cryogenic tanks. This review also introduces high heat-affected-zone toughness technologies, wherein the microstructure of steel is improved by the addition of fine particles of magnesium-containing sulfides and magnesium- or calcium-containing oxides. We demonstrate that thanks to ongoing developments TMCP has the potential to meet the ever-increasing demands of steel plates.

  9. Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

  10. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stanley R [Windsor, SC; Korinko, Paul S [Aiken, SC

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  11. Characteristics of martensite as a function of the Ms temperature in low-carbon armour steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maweja, Kasonde; Stumpf, Waldo; Berg, Nic van der

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure, morphology, crystal structure and surface relief of martensite in a number of experimental armour steel plates with different M s temperatures were analysed. Atomic force microscopy, thin foil transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy allowed the identification of three groups of low-carbon martensitic armour steels. The investigation showed that the size of individual martensite products (plates or packets, laths or blocks) increases as the M s temperature increases. Comparison of ballistic performances suggests that the morphology (plate or lath) and size of the individual martensite products dictate the effective 'grain size' in resisting fracture or perforation due to ballistic impact.

  12. Characteristics of martensite as a function of the M{sub s} temperature in low-carbon armour steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maweja, Kasonde, E-mail: mawejak@yahoo.fr [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, CSIR, Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Stumpf, Waldo [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Berg, Nic van der [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2009-08-30

    The microstructure, morphology, crystal structure and surface relief of martensite in a number of experimental armour steel plates with different M{sub s} temperatures were analysed. Atomic force microscopy, thin foil transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy allowed the identification of three groups of low-carbon martensitic armour steels. The investigation showed that the size of individual martensite products (plates or packets, laths or blocks) increases as the M{sub s} temperature increases. Comparison of ballistic performances suggests that the morphology (plate or lath) and size of the individual martensite products dictate the effective 'grain size' in resisting fracture or perforation due to ballistic impact.

  13. Development of stress correction formulae for heat formed steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyun Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The heating process such as line heating, triangular heating and so on is widely used in plate forming of shell plates found in bow and stern area of outer shell in a ship. Local shrinkage during heating process is main physical phenomenon used in plate forming process. As it is well appreciated, the heated plate undergoes the change in material and mechanical properties around heated area due to the harsh thermal process. It is, therefore, important to investigate the changes of physical and mechanical properties due to heating process in order to use them plate the design stage of shell plates. This study is concerned with the development of formula of plastic hardening constitutive equation for steel plate on which line heating is applied. In this study the stress correction formula for the heated plate has been developed based on the numerical simulation of tension test with varying plate thickness and heating speed through the regression analysis of multiple variable case. It has been seen the developed formula shows very good agreement with results of numerical simulation. This paper ends with usefulness of the present formula in examining the structural characteristic of ship's hull. Keywords: Heat input, Heat transfer analysis, Line heating, Shell plate, Stress correction, Thermo-elasto-plastic analysis

  14. Application of low energy electron beam to precoated steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiishi, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Recently in the fields of home electric appliances, machinery and equipment and interior building materials, the needs for the precoated steel plates having the design and function of high class increase rapidly. In order to cope with such needs, the authors have advanced the examination on the application of electron beam hardening technology to precoated steel plates, and developed the precoated steel plates of high grade and high design 'Super Tecstar EB Series' by utilizing low energy electron beam. The features of this process are (1) hardening can be done at room temperature in a short time-thermally weak films can be adhered, (2) high energy irradiation-the hardening of thick enamel coating and the adhesion of colored films are feasible, (3) the use of monomers of low molecular weight-by high crosslinking, the performance of high sharpness, high hardness, anti-contamination property and so on can be given. The application to precoated steel plate production process is the coating and curing of electron beam hardening type paints, the coating of films with electron beam hardening type adhesives, and the reforming of surface polymer layers by impregnating monomers and causing graft polymerization with electron beam irradiation. The outline of the Super Tecstar EB Series is described. (K.I.)

  15. The effect of electrode vertex angle on automatic tungsten-inert-gas welds for stainless steel 304L plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarek, V.; Sharir, Y.; Stern, A.

    1980-03-01

    The effect of electrode vertex angle on penetration depth and weld bead width, in automatic tungsten-inert-gas (TIG) dcsp bead-on-plate welding with different currents, has been studied for stainless steel 304L plates 1.5 mm and 8 mm thick. It has been found that for thin plates, wider and deeper welds are obtained when using sharper electrodes while, for thick plates, narrower and deeper welds are produced when blunt electrodes (vertex angle 180 deg) are used. An explanation of the results, based on a literature survey, is included

  16. Experimental investigation of thermal loading of a horizontal thin plate using infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the results of experimental investigations of the characteristics of thermal loading of a thin plate by discrete radiative heat sources. The carbon–steel thin plate is horizontally located above the heat sources. Temperature distribution of the plate is measured using an infrared camera. The effects of various parameters, such as the Rayleigh number, from 107 to 1011, the aspect ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the distance ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the number of heaters, from 1 to 24, the thickness ratio, from 0.003 to 0.005, and the thermal radiative emissivity, from 0.567 to 0.889 on the maximum temperature and the length of uniform temperature region on a thin plate are explored. The results indicate that the most effective parameters on the order of impact on the maximum temperature is Rayleigh number, the number of heat sources, the distance ratio, the aspect ratio, the surface emissivity, and the plate thickness ratio. Finally, the results demonstrated that there is an optimal distance ratio to maximize the region of uniform temperature on the plate.

  17. Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Ishigami, Ryoya; Yamagishi, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser was studied for application to nuclear decommissioning. Successful cutting of carbon steel and stainless steel plates up to 300 mm in thickness was demonstrated, as was that of thick steel components such as simulated reactor vessel walls, a large pipe, and a gate valve. The results indicate that laser cutting applied to nuclear decommissioning is a promising technology. (author)

  18. 75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United... on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would be likely to lead...

  19. Immobilization of mesoporous silica particles on stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqua, Luigi; Morra, Marco

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary study aimed to the nano-engineering of stainless steel surface is presented. Aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica is covalently and electrostatically anchored on the surface of stainless steel plates. The anchoring is carried out through the use of a nanometric spacer, and two different spacers are proposed (both below 2 nm in size). The first sample is obtained by anchoring to the stainless steel amino functionalized, a glutaryl dichloride spacer. This specie forms an amide linkage with the amino group while the unreacted acyl groups undergo hydrolysis giving a free carboxylic group. The so-obtained functionalized stainless steel plate is used as substrate for anchoring derivatized mesoporous silica particles. The second sample is prepared using 2-bromo-methyl propionic acid as spacer (BMPA). Successively, the carboxylic group of propionic acid is condensed to the aminopropyl derivatization on the external surface of the mesoporous silica particle through covalent bond. In both cases, a continuous deposition (coating thickness is around 10 μm) is obtained, in fact, XPS data do not reveal the metal elements constituting the plate. The nano-engineering of metal surfaces can represent an intriguing opportunity for producing long-term drug release or biomimetic surface.

  20. Immobilization of mesoporous silica particles on stainless steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqua, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.pasqua@unical.it [University of Calabria, Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (Italy); Morra, Marco, E-mail: mmorra@nobilbio.com [Via Valcastellana 26 (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    A preliminary study aimed to the nano-engineering of stainless steel surface is presented. Aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica is covalently and electrostatically anchored on the surface of stainless steel plates. The anchoring is carried out through the use of a nanometric spacer, and two different spacers are proposed (both below 2 nm in size). The first sample is obtained by anchoring to the stainless steel amino functionalized, a glutaryl dichloride spacer. This specie forms an amide linkage with the amino group while the unreacted acyl groups undergo hydrolysis giving a free carboxylic group. The so-obtained functionalized stainless steel plate is used as substrate for anchoring derivatized mesoporous silica particles. The second sample is prepared using 2-bromo-methyl propionic acid as spacer (BMPA). Successively, the carboxylic group of propionic acid is condensed to the aminopropyl derivatization on the external surface of the mesoporous silica particle through covalent bond. In both cases, a continuous deposition (coating thickness is around 10 μm) is obtained, in fact, XPS data do not reveal the metal elements constituting the plate. The nano-engineering of metal surfaces can represent an intriguing opportunity for producing long-term drug release or biomimetic surface.

  1. Effect of Plate Curvature on Blast Response of Structural Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeredhi, Lakshmi Shireen Banu; Ramana Rao, N. V.; Veeredhi, Vasudeva Rao

    2018-04-01

    In the present work an attempt is made, through simulation studies, to determine the effect of plate curvature on the blast response of a door structure made of ASTM A515 grade 50 steel plates. A door structure with dimensions of 5.142 m × 2.56 m × 10 mm having six different radii of curvatures is analyzed which is subjected to blast load. The radii of curvature investigated are infinity (flat plate), 16.63, 10.81, 8.26, 6.61 and 5.56 m. In the present study, a stand-off distance of 11 m is considered for all the cases. Results showed that the door structure with smallest radius of curvature experienced least plastic deformation and yielding when compared to a door with larger radius of curvature with same projected area. From the present Investigation, it is observed that, as the radius of curvature of the plate increases, the deformation mode gradually shifts from indentation mode to flexural mode. The plates with infinity and 16.63 m radius of curvature have undergone flexural mode of deformation and plates with 6.61 and 5.56 m radius of curvature undergo indentation mode of deformation. Whereas, mixed mode of deformation that consists of both flexural and indentation mode of deformations are seen in the plates with radius of curvature 10.81 and 8.26 m. As the radius of curvature of the plate decreases the ability of the plate to mitigate the effect the blast loads increased. It is observed that the plate with smaller radius of curvature deflects most of the blast energy and results in least indentation mode of deformation. The most significant observation made in the present investigation is that the strain energy absorbed by the steel plate gets reduced to 1/3 rd when the radius of curvature is approximately equal to the stand-off distance which could be the critical radius of curvature.

  2. Illumination estimation via thin-plate spline interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lilong; Xiong, Weihua; Funt, Brian

    2011-05-01

    Thin-plate spline interpolation is used to interpolate the chromaticity of the color of the incident scene illumination across a training set of images. Given the image of a scene under unknown illumination, the chromaticity of the scene illumination can be found from the interpolated function. The resulting illumination-estimation method can be used to provide color constancy under changing illumination conditions and automatic white balancing for digital cameras. A thin-plate spline interpolates over a nonuniformly sampled input space, which in this case is a training set of image thumbnails and associated illumination chromaticities. To reduce the size of the training set, incremental k medians are applied. Tests on real images demonstrate that the thin-plate spline method can estimate the color of the incident illumination quite accurately, and the proposed training set pruning significantly decreases the computation.

  3. Electron beam cladding of titanium on stainless steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomie, Michio; Abe, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Masanori; Noguchi, Shuichi.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental characteristics of electron beam cladding was investigated. Titanium foil of 0.2mm thickness was cladded on stainless steel plate of 3mm thickness by scanning electron beam. Surface roughness and cladded layer were analyzed by surface roughness tester, microscope, scanning electron microscope and electron probe micro analyzer. Electron beam conditions were discussed for these fundamental characteristics. It is found that the energy density of the electron beam is one of the most important factor for cladding. (author)

  4. Performance of Retrofitted Self-Compacting Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beams Using External Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. M. AL-Shaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete-filled steel tube (SCCFST beams, similar to other structural members, necessitate retrofitting for many causes. However, research on SCCFST beams externally retrofitted by bolted steel plates has seldom been explored in the literature. This paper aims at experimentally investigating the retrofitting performance of square self-compacting concrete-filled steel tube (SCCFST beams using bolted steel plates with three different retrofitting schemes including varied configurations and two different steel plate lengths under flexure. A total of 18 specimens which consist of 12 retrofitted SCCFST beams, three unretrofitted (control SCCFST beams, and three hollow steel tubes were used. The flexural behaviour of the retrofitted SCCFST beams was examined regarding flexural strength, failure modes, and moment versus deflection curves, energy absorption, and ductility. Experimental results revealed that the implemented retrofitting schemes efficiently improve the moment carrying capacity and stiffness of the retrofitted SCCFST beams compared to the control beams. The increment in flexural strength ranged from 1% to 46%. Furthermore, the adopted retrofitting schemes were able to restore the energy absorption and ductility of the damaged beams in the range of 35% to 75% of the original beam ductility. Furthermore, a theoretical model was suggested to predict the moment capacity of the retrofitted SCCFST beams. The theoretical model results were in good agreement with the test results.

  5. FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF THIN CIRCULAR SANDWICH PLATES DEFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kurachka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a thin circular sandwich plate being under the vertical load is proposed. The model employs the finite element method and takes advantage of an axisymmetric finite element that leads to the small dimension of the resulting stiffness matrix and sufficient accuracy for practical calculations. The analytical expressions for computing local stiffness matrices are found, which can significantly speed up the process of forming the global stiffness matrix and increase the accuracy of calculations. A software is under development and verification. The discrepancy between the results of the mathematical model and those of analytical formulas for homogeneous thin circularsandwich plates does not exceed 7%.

  6. The limitations on applying classical thin plate theory to thin annular plates clamped on the inner boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Zietlow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimentally measured resonance frequencies of a thin annular plate with a small ratio of inner to outer radii and clamped on the inner boundary are compared to the predictions of classical thin-plate (CTP theory and a finite-element (FE model. The results indicate that, contrary to the conclusions presented in a number of publications, CTP theory does not accurately predict the frequencies of a relatively small number of resonant modes at lower frequencies. It is shown that these inaccuracies are attributable to shear deformations, which are thought to be negligible in thin plates and are neglected in CTP theory. Of particular interest is the failure of CTP theory to accurately predict the resonance frequency of the lowest vibrational mode, which was shifted approximately 30% by shear motion at the inner boundary.

  7. Laser cutting of thick steel plates with 30 kW fiber laser for nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Laser cutting technologies of the thick steel plates for the nuclear decommissioning were developed with a 30 kW fiber laser. Plates of stainless steel and carbon steel more than 100 mm thick were successfully cut, indicating that this technology is promising for the application to the nuclear decommissioning. (author)

  8. Copper contamination in thin stainless steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbert, R.K. Jr.; Dobbins, A.G.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The standard welding technique used at Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for joining thin stainless sheet is the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process. One of the reoccurring problems with the sheet welds is surface cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Metallography shows that the cracks are only about 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) deep which is significant in a 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) thick sheet. Thus, welding requirements do not permit any surfacing cracking as detected by a fluorescent dye penetrant test conducted on every part after welding. Surface cracks have been found in both of the two most common weld designs in the thin sheet fabricated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These butt joints are welded between two 0.25 mm thick stainless steel sheets and a tube with eyelet welded to a 25 mm (0.98 in.) thick sheet. The weld between the two sheets is made on a semiautomatic seam welding unit, whereas the tube-to-eyelet-to-sheet welds are done manually. The quality of both welds is very dependent on the welding procedure and the way the parts are placed in the weld fixturing. Metallographic examination has indicated that some welded parts with surface cracking in the weld region had copper particles on the surface, and the question of copper contamination has been raised. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope and an electron microprobe, the existence of copper in an around the surface cracks has been verified. The copper is on the surface of the parts prior to welding in the form of small dust particles

  9. Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-04-10

    We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.

  10. Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, P.-Y.; Bagci, Hakan; Enoch, S.; Guenneau, S.; Alù , A.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.

  11. Development of a selective thin film and of a hermetically sealed flat plate solar collector with gas filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernial, W.

    1982-12-01

    The industrial productibility of a selective absorbing thin film was investigated on the basis of reactive cathodic sputtering of Ni. On substrates of 1.8 sq m of Al, Cu, steel and stainless steel, solar absorption values up to 97% were achieved at emissivities of 5 to 10%. A prototype flat plate collector for high temperatures with two covers and hermetical sealing was developed. The technical data of the collector were measured, dependent on the selectivity of the absorber, gas fillings of dry air, argon or SF6 and the geometry and were compared with those of an evacuated flat plate collector. A hermetical sealed double flat plate collector for low temperatures was developed which has the advantage of lower no load temperatures and higher energy gain for heating swimming pool water compared with a conventional flat plate collector. The insolation values on collectors were measured and were used for a calculation of the energy gains of different collector types.

  12. Behavior of Equipment Support Beam Joint Directly Connected to A Steel-plate Concrete(SC) Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Kwon, K. J.

    2008-01-01

    To decrease the time for building nuclear power plants, a modular construction method, 'Steel-plate Concrete(SC)', has been investigated for over a decade. To construct a SC wall, a pair of steel plates are placed in parallel similar to a form-work in conventional reinforced concrete (RC) structures, and concrete is filled between the steel plates. Instead of removing the steel plates after the concrete has cured, the steel plates serve as components of the structural member. The exposed steel plate of SC structures serves as the base plate for the equipment support, and the headed studs welded to the steel plates are used as anchor bolts. Then, a support beam can be directly welded to the surface of the steel plate in any preferred position. In this study, we discuss the behavior and evaluation method of the equipment support joint directly connected to exposed steel plate of SC wall

  13. Electroless Plated Nanodiamond Coating for Stainless Steel Passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Korinko, P.; Spencer, W.; Stein, E.

    2016-01-01

    Tritium gas sample bottles and manifold components require passivation surface treatments to minimize the interaction of the hydrogen isotopes with surface contamination on the stainless steel containment materials. This document summarizes the effort to evaluate electroless plated nanodiamond coatings as a passivation layer for stainless steel. In this work, we developed an electroless nanodiamond (ND)-copper (Cu) coating process to deposit ND on stainless steel parts with the diamond loadings of 0%, 25% and 50% v/v in a Cu matrix. The coated Conflat Flanged Vessel Assemblies (CFVAs) were evaluated on surface morphology, composition, ND distribution, residual hydrogen release, and surface reactivity with deuterium. For as-received Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs, hydrogen off-gassing is rapid, and the off-gas rates of H 2 was one to two orders of magnitude higher than that for both untreated and electropolished stainless steel CFVAs, and hydrogen and deuterium reacted to form HD as well. These results indicated that residual H 2 was entrapped in the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs during the coating process, and moisture was adsorbed on the surface, and ND and/or Cu might facilitate catalytic isotope exchange reaction for HD formation. However, hydrocarbons (i.e., CH 3 ) did not form, and did not appear to be an issue for the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs. After vacuum heating, residual H 2 and adsorbed H 2 O in the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs were dramatically reduced. The H 2 off-gassing rate after the vacuum treatment of Cu and 50% ND-Cu coated CFVAs was on the level of 10 -14 l mbar/s cm 2 , while H 2 O off-gas rate was on the level of 10 -15 l mbar/s cm 2 , consistent with the untreated or electropolished stainless steel CFVA, but the HD formation remained. The Restek EP bottle was used as a reference for this work. The Restek Electro-Polished (EP) bottle and their SilTek coated bottles tested under a different research project exhibited very little hydrogen off-gassing and

  14. Electroless Plated Nanodiamond Coating for Stainless Steel Passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Korinko, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Spencer, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stein, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-15

    Tritium gas sample bottles and manifold components require passivation surface treatments to minimize the interaction of the hydrogen isotopes with surface contamination on the stainless steel containment materials. This document summarizes the effort to evaluate electroless plated nanodiamond coatings as a passivation layer for stainless steel. In this work, we developed an electroless nanodiamond (ND)-copper (Cu) coating process to deposit ND on stainless steel parts with the diamond loadings of 0%, 25% and 50% v/v in a Cu matrix. The coated Conflat Flanged Vessel Assemblies (CFVAs) were evaluated on surface morphology, composition, ND distribution, residual hydrogen release, and surface reactivity with deuterium. For as-received Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs, hydrogen off-gassing is rapid, and the off-gas rates of H2 was one to two orders of magnitude higher than that for both untreated and electropolished stainless steel CFVAs, and hydrogen and deuterium reacted to form HD as well. These results indicated that residual H2 was entrapped in the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs during the coating process, and moisture was adsorbed on the surface, and ND and/or Cu might facilitate catalytic isotope exchange reaction for HD formation. However, hydrocarbons (i.e., CH3) did not form, and did not appear to be an issue for the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs. After vacuum heating, residual H2 and adsorbed H2O in the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs were dramatically reduced. The H2 off-gassing rate after the vacuum treatment of Cu and 50% ND-Cu coated CFVAs was on the level of 10-14 l mbar/s cm2, while H2O off-gas rate was on the level of 10-15 l mbar/s cm2, consistent with the untreated or electropolished stainless steel CFVA, but the HD formation remained. The Restek EP bottle was used as a reference for this work. The Restek Electro-Polished (EP) bottle and their Sil

  15. Detection of wall thinning of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation using Pulsed Eddy Current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Duckgun; Kishore, M. B.; Lee, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    The test sample is a ferromagnetic carbon steel pipe having different thickness, covered with a 10 cm plastic insulation laminated by 0.4 mm Al plate to simulate the pipelines in NPPs. The PEC Probe used for the wall thinning detection consists of an excitation coil and a Hall sensor. The excitation coils in the probe is driven by a rectangular bipolar current pulse and the Hall-sensor will detects the resultant field. The Hall sensor output is considered as PEC signal. Results shows that the PEC system can detect wall thinning in an insulated pipeline of the NPPs. Local wall thinning in pipelines affects the structural integrity of industries like nuclear power plants (NPPs). In the present study a pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology to detect the wall thing of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation is developed

  16. Casting of Hearth Plates from High-chromium Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drotlew A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the development of manufacturing technologies to cast hearth plates operating in chamber furnaces for heat treatment. Castings made from the heat-resistant G-X40CrNiSi27-4 steel were poured in hand-made green sand molds. The following operations were performed: computer simulation to predict the distribution of internal defects in castings produced by the above mentioned technology with risers bare and coated with exothermic and insulating sleeves, analysis of each variant of the technology, and manufacture of experimental castings. As a result of the conducted studies and analysis it was found that the use of risers with exothermic sleeves does not affect to a significant degree the quality of the produced castings of hearth plates, but it significantly improves the metal yield.

  17. The crack growth resistance of thin steel sheets under eccentric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ľ AMBRIŠKO

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... Abstract. The stable crack growth in thin steel sheets is the topic of this paper. The crack opening was observed using a videoextensometry system, allowing the crack extension determination. JR-curve and dR-curve were established from obtained data. The ductile tearing properties of different thin sheets ...

  18. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizik F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile’s core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  19. Underwater Shock Response of Circular HSLA Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajendran

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on shock response of circular plates subjected to underwater explosion is of interest to ship designers. Non-contact underwater explosion experiments were carried out on air backed circular High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steel plates of 4 mm thickness and 290 mm diameter. The experiments were carried out in two phases. In the first phase, strain gauges were fixed at intervals of 30 mm from the centre of the plate and strains were recorded for the shock intensity gradually increasing to yielding. Semi-analytical models were derived for the elastic strain prediction which showed good agreement with the experiments. Dynamic yield stress and the shock factor for yielding were established. In the second phase, individual plates were subjected to increasing shock severity until fracture and the apex bulge depth and the thickness strains were measured. Empirical models were derived to predict the plastic deformation which were validated through a fresh set of experiments. Analysis of the fractured surface by visual examination showed that there was slant fracture indicating ductile mode of failure and the same was corroborated by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM examination.

  20. Fire resistance of a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Akio; Kanchi, Masaki; Fujinaka, Hideo; Akita, Shodo; Ozaki, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Samples from a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall composed of concrete slab sandwiched between studded steel plates, were subjected to loaded fire resistance tests. There were two types of specimens: some were 1800 mm high while the rest were 3000 mm high ; thickness and width were the same for all specimens, at 200 mm and 800 mm, respectively. Under constant load conditions, one side of each specimen was heated along the standard fire-temperature curve. The results enabled us to approximate the relationship between the ratio of working load to concrete strength N/(Ac x c σ b) and the fire resistance time (t: minutes), as equation (1) for the 1800 mm - high specimen, and equation (2) for the 3000 mm - high specimen. N/(Ac x c σ b) = 2.21 x (1/t) 0.323 (1), .N/(Ac x c σ b) 2.30 x (1/t) 0.378 (2) In addition, the temperature of the unheated side of the specimens was 100degC at 240 minutes of continuous heating, clearly indicating that there was sufficient heat insulation. (author)

  1. 78 FR 4385 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to- length carbon-quality steel plate products (CTL plate... Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products from the Republic of Korea'' dated concurrently with this notice...

  2. Ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri and ostectomized humeri stabilized with caudally applied titanium locking plate or stainless steel nonlocking plate constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Brett G; Biskup, Jeffrey J; Weigel, Joseph P; Jones, Michael P; Xie, Xie; Liaw, Peter K; Tharpe, Josh L; Sharma, Aashish; Penumadu, Dayakar

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate. SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared. RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.

  3. Influence of Basalt FRP Mesh Reinforcement on High-Performance Concrete Thin Plates at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Lauridsen, Dan H.; Hodicky, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    A basalt fiber–reinforced polymer (BFRP) mesh was introduced as reinforcement in high-performance concrete (HPC) thin plates (20–30 mm) for implementation in precast sandwich panels. An experimental program studied the BFRP mesh influence on HPC exposed to high temperature. A set of standard...... furnace tests compared performances of HPC with and without BFRP mesh, assessing material behavior; another set including polypropylene (PP) fibers to avoid spalling compared the performance of BFRP mesh reinforcement to that of regular steel reinforcement, assessing mechanical properties......, requiring the use of steel. Microscope observations highlighted degradation of the HPC-BFRP mesh interface with temperature due to the melting polymer matrix of the mesh. These observations call for caution when using fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement in elements exposed to fire hazard....

  4. Recent trend of titanium-clad steel plate/sheet (NKK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideto

    1997-01-01

    The roll-bonding process for titanium-clad steel production enabled the on-line manufacturing and quality control of the products which are usually applied for the production of steel plate and sheet by the steel producers. The recent trend of roll-bonded titanium-clad steel which has an excellent corrosion resistance together with the advantage in cost-saving are mainly described in this article as to the demand, production technique and new application aspects. Though the predominant usage of titanium-clad steel plate has been in power-generating plants, enlargeing utilization in the chemical plants such as terephthalic acid production plants is leading the growth in the market of titanium-clad steel plate. Also, the application of titanium-clad steel plates and sheets for the lining the marine structures is expected as one of the best solution to long-term surface protection for their outstanding corrosion resistance against sea water. (author)

  5. Containment liner plate anchors and steel embedments test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Lo, P.L.; Johnson, T.E.; Pfeifer, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes test data on shear load and deformation capabilities for liner plate line anchors and structural steel embedments in reinforced and prestressed concrete nuclear containments. Reinforced and prestressed nuclear containments designed and constructed in the United States are lined with a minimum of 0.64 cm steel plate. The liner plates are anchored by the use of either studs or structural members (line anchors) which usually run in the vertical direction. This paper will only address line anchors. Static load versus displacement test data is necessary to assure that the design is adequate for the maximum loads. The test program for the liner anchors had the following major objectives: determine load versus displacement data for a variety of anchors considering structural tees and small beams with different weld configurations, from the preceding tests, determine which anchors would lead to an economical and extremely safe design and test these anchors for cyclic loads resulting from thermal fluctuations. Various concrete embeds in the containment and other structures are subjected to loads such as pipe rupture which results in shear. Since many of the loads are transient by nature, it is necessary to know the load-displacement relationship so that the energy absorption can be determined. The test program for the embeds had the following objectives: determine load-displacement relationship for various size anchors from 6.5 cm 2 to 26 cm 2 with maximum capacities of approximately 650 kN; determine the effect of various anchor width-to-thickness ratios for the same shear area

  6. A crack arrest test using a toughness gradient steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, H.; Yagawa, G.; Urabe, Y.; Satoh, M.; Sano, J.

    1995-01-01

    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) is a phenomenon that can occur in the reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with internal pressure and is one of the most severe stress conditions that can be applied to the vessel. Preliminary research has shown that no PTS concern is likely to exist on Japanese RPVs during their design service lives. However, public acceptance of vessel integrity requires analyses and experiment in order to establish an analytical method and a database for life extension of Japanese RPVs. The Japanese PTS integrity study was carried out from FY 1983 to FY 1991 as a national project by Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) under contract with Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in cooperation with LWR utilities and vendors. Here, a crack arrest test was carried out using a toughness gradient steel plate with three layers to study the concept of crack arrest toughness. Four-point bending load with thermal shock was applied to the large flat plate specimen with a surface crack. Five crack initiations and arrests were observed during the test and the propagated crack bifurcated. Finally, cracks were arrested at the boundary of the first and the second layer, except for a small segment of the crack. The first crack initiation took place slightly higher than the lower bound of K Ic data obtained by ITCT specimens. That is, the K IC concept for brittle crack initiation was verified for heavy section steel plates. The first crack arrest took place within the scatter band of K Ia and K Id data for the first layer. That is, the K Ia concept appears applicable for crack arrest of a short crack jump

  7. Experimental investigations of sandwich panels using high performance concrete thin plates exposed to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    Structural sandwich panels using thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates offer a possibility to address the modern environmental challenges faced by the construction industry. Fire resistance is a major necessity in structures using HPC. This paper presents experimental studies at elevated...... temperatures for panels with 30 mm thick plates stiffened by structural ribs, thick insulation layers, and steel shear connecting systems. Parametric variation assessing the role of each component of the sandwich structure was performed on unloaded specimens of reduced size. Full size walls were tested...... with load. Tests were performed in standard furnaces, following the conditions of REI certification tests. Unloaded specimens successfully passed tests. Loaded specimens met the R and I requirements, failing E due to sustained flaming of the insulation. They exhibited multiple cracking of their exposed...

  8. Mechanical characterization of auxetic stainless steel thin sheets with reentrant structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekesiz, H.; Bhullar, S. K.; Karaca, A. A.; Jun, M. B. G.

    2017-08-01

    Smart materials in auxetic form present a great potential for various medical applications due to their unique deformation mechanisms along with durable infrastructure. Both analytical and finite element (FE) models are extensively used in literature to characterize mechanical response of auxetic structures but these structures are mostly thick enough to be considered as bulk material and 3D inherently. Auxetic plates in very thin form, a.e. foil, may bring numerous advantages such as very light design and better biodegradability when needed. However, there is a gap in literature on mechanical characterization of auxetic thin plates. In this study, structural analysis of very thin auxetic plates under uniaxial loading is investigated using both FE method and experimental method. 25 μm thick stainless steel (316L) plates are fabricated with reentrant texture for three different unit cell dimensions and tested under uniaxial loading using universal testing machine. 25 and 50 μm thick sheets with same cell dimensions were analyzed using implicit transient FE model including strain hardening and failure behaviors. FE results cover all the deformation schemes seen in actual tests and total deformation level matches with test results. Effect of plate thickness and cell geometry on auxetic behavior is discussed in detail using FE results. Finally, based on FE analysis results, an optimum geometry for prolonged auxetic behavior, high flexibility and high durability is suggested for future potential applications.

  9. Methodical Specifics of Thermal Experiments with Thin Carbon Reinforced Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Denisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composite materials (CM are widely used in creation of large space constructions, especially reflectors of space antennas. Composite materials should provide high level of specific stiffness and strength for space structures. Thermal conductivity in reinforcement plane is a significant factor in case of irregular heating space antennas. Nowadays, data on CM reinforcement plane thermal conductivity are limited and existing methods of its defining are imperfect. Basically, traditional methods allow us to define thermal conductivity in perpendicular direction towards the reinforcement plane on the samples of round or rectangular plate. In addition, the thickness of standard samples is larger than space antenna thickness. Consequently, new methods are required. Method of contact heating, which was developed by BMSTU specialists with long hollow carbon beam, could be a perspective way. This article is devoted to the experimental method of contact heating on the thin carbon plates.Thermal tests were supposed to provide a non-stationary temperature field with a gradient being co-directional with the plane reinforcement in the material sample. Experiments were conducted in vacuum chamber to prevent unstructured convection. Experimental thermo-grams processing were calculated by 1-d thermal model for a thin plate. Influence of uncertainty of experimental parameters, such as (radiation emission coefficients of sample surface, glue, temperature sensors and uncertainty of sensors placement on the result of defined thermal conductivity has been estimated. New data on the thermal conductivity in reinforcement plane were obtained within 295 - 375 K temperature range, which can be used to design and develop reflectors of precision space antennas. In the future it is expedient to conduct tests of thin-wall plates from carbon fiber-reinforced plastic in wide temperature range, especially in the low-range temperatures.

  10. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United..., and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with full reviews... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would be...

  11. Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using integral method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.І. Токарев

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using  integral method The influence of boundary conditions on sound wave propagation, radiation and transmission through thin elastic plate is investigated. Necessary for that numerical model was found using the Helmholtz equation and equation of oscilated plate by means of integral formulation of the solution for acoustic fields near to elastic thin plate and for bending waves of small amplitudes.

  12. Reduction of core loss in non-oriented (NO) electrical steel by electroless-plated magnetic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivavibul, Pornthep; Enoki, Manabu; Konda, Shigeru; Inada, Yasushi; Tomizawa, Tamotsu; Toda, Akira

    2011-01-01

    An important issue in development of electrical steels for core-laminated products is to reduce core loss to improve energy conversion efficiency. This is usually obtained by tailoring the composition, microstructure, and texture of electrical steels themselves. A new technique to reduce core loss in electrical steel has been investigated. This technique involves electroless plating of magnetic thin coating onto the surface of electrical steel. The material system was electroless Ni-Co-P coatings with different thicknesses (1, 5, and 10 μm) deposited onto the surface of commercially available Fe-3% Si electrical steel. Characterization of deposited Ni-Co-P coating was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer. The deposited Ni-Co-P coatings were amorphous and composed of 56-59% Ni, 32-35% Co, and 8-10% P by mass. The effect of coatings on core loss of the electrical steel was determined using single sheet test. A core loss reduction of 4% maximum was achieved with the Ni-Co-P coating of 1 μm thickness at 400 Hz and 0.3 T. - Research Highlights: → New approach to reduce core loss of electrical steel by magnetic coating. → Ni-Co-P coating influences core loss of NO electrical steel. → Core loss increases in RD direction but reduces in TD direction.

  13. Chromate coating of zinc-aluminum plating on mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, I.; Khan, A.; Nadeem, A.

    2005-01-01

    The chromate coating on zinc-aluminium deposits has been studied. Zinc-aluminium deposition from non-cyanide bath was carried out at current density 3-3.5 A/dm/sup 2/, plating voltage approx. equal to 1.25 V, temperature 18-20 deg. C, for 15 min. The effect of aluminium chloride on the rest potentials of golden, colorless and non-chromated zinc-aluminium alloy deposits was observed. It was found that rest potential was slightly increased with the increase in the concentration of aluminium chloride, only in the case of golden chromating. The rest potential of colorless chromated zinc-aluminium deposits on mild steel were observed to have no correlation with aluminium chloride concentration. The abrasion resistance of colorless chromating was better than golden chromating. (author)

  14. Exact result in strong wave turbulence of thin elastic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düring, Gustavo; Krstulovic, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    An exact result concerning the energy transfers between nonlinear waves of a thin elastic plate is derived. Following Kolmogorov's original ideas in hydrodynamical turbulence, but applied to the Föppl-von Kármán equation for thin plates, the corresponding Kármán-Howarth-Monin relation and an equivalent of the 4/5 -Kolmogorov's law is derived. A third-order structure function involving increments of the amplitude, velocity, and the Airy stress function of a plate, is proven to be equal to -ɛ ℓ , where ℓ is a length scale in the inertial range at which the increments are evaluated and ɛ the energy dissipation rate. Numerical data confirm this law. In addition, a useful definition of the energy fluxes in Fourier space is introduced and proven numerically to be flat in the inertial range. The exact results derived in this Rapid Communication are valid for both weak and strong wave turbulence. They could be used as a theoretical benchmark of new wave-turbulence theories and to develop further analogies with hydrodynamical turbulence.

  15. Damage sensing and mechanical characteristics of CFRP strengthened steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieda, Genki; Nakano, Daiki; Fuji, Yuya; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Matsui, Takahiro; Ochi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Yukihiro

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, a large number of structures that were built during the period of high economic growth in Japan is beginning to show signs of aging. For example, the structural performance of steel structures has degraded due to corrosion. One measure that has been proposed and studied to address this issue is the adhesive bonding method, which can be used to repair and reinforce these structures. However, this method produces brittle fracture in the adhesive layer and is difficult to maintain after bonding. To solve the problem faced by this method, a clarification of the mechanical properties inside the adhesive is necessary. Then this background, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor has been used in this study. This sensor can be embedded within the building material that needs repairing and reinforcing because an FBG sensor is extremely small. Eventually based on this, a three-point bending test of a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) strengthened steel plate that was embedded with an FBG sensor was conducted. This paper demonstrates that an FBG sensor is effectively applicable for sensing when damage occurs.

  16. Buckling of Flat Thin Plates under Combined Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DIMA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a quick methodology to determine the critical values of the forces applied to the central plane of a flat isotropic plate at which a change to the stable configuration of equilibrium occurs. Considering the variety of shapes, boundary conditions and loading combinations, the article does not intend to make an exhaustive presentation of the plate buckling. As an alternative, there will be presented only the most used configurations such as: rectangular flat thin plates, boundary conditions with simply supported (hinged or clamped (fixed edges, combined loadings with single compression or single shear or combination between them, compression and shear, with or without transverse loading, encountered at wings and control surfaces shell of fin and rudder or stabilizer and elevator. The reserve factor and the critical stresses will be calculated using comparatively two methods, namely the methodology proposed by the present article and ASSIST 6.6.2.0 – AIRBUS France software, a dedicated software to local calculations, for a simply supported plate under combined loading, compression on the both sides and shear.

  17. Effect of Chloride on Tensile and Bending Capacities of Basalt FRP Mesh Reinforced Cementitious Thin Plates under Indoor and Marine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a durability experimental study for thin basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP mesh reinforced cementitious plates under indoor and marine environment. The marine environment was simulated by wetting/drying cycles (wetting in salt water and drying in hot air. After 12 months of exposure, the effects of the chloride on the tensile and bending behaviors of the thin plate were investigated. In addition to the penetration of salt water, the chloride in the thin plate could be also from the sea sand since it is a component of the plate. Experimental results showed that the effect of the indoor exposure on the tensile capacity of the plate is not pronounced, while the marine exposure reduced the tensile capacity significantly. The bending capacity of the thin plates was remarkably reduced by both indoor and marine environmental exposure, in which the effect of the marine environment is more severe. The tensile capacity of the meshes extracted from the thin plates was tested, as well as the meshes immersed in salt solution for 30, 60, and 90 days. The test results confirmed that the chloride is the reason of the BFRP mesh deterioration. Moreover, as a comparison, the steel mesh reinforced thin plate was also tested and it has a similar durability performance.

  18. Thin-plate spline analysis of mandibular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A

    2001-04-01

    The analysis of mandibular growth changes around the pubertal spurt in humans has several important implications for the diagnosis and orthopedic correction of skeletal disharmonies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular shape and size growth changes around the pubertal spurt in a longitudinal sample of subjects with normal occlusion by means of an appropriate morphometric technique (thin-plate spline analysis). Ten mandibular landmarks were identified on lateral cephalograms of 29 subjects at 6 different developmental phases. The 6 phases corresponded to 6 different maturational stages in cervical vertebrae during accelerative and decelerative phases of the pubertal growth curve of the mandible. Differences in shape between average mandibular configurations at the 6 developmental stages were visualized by means of thin-plate spline analysis and subjected to permutation test. Centroid size was used as the measure of the geometric size of each mandibular specimen. Differences in size at the 6 developmental phases were tested statistically. The results of graphical analysis indicated a statistically significant change in mandibular shape only for the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation. Significant increases in centroid size were found at all developmental phases, with evidence of a prepubertal minimum and of a pubertal maximum. The existence of a pubertal peak in human mandibular growth, therefore, is confirmed by thin-plate spline analysis. Significant morphological changes in the mandible during the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation may be described as an upward-forward direction of condylar growth determining an overall "shrinkage" of the mandibular configuration along the measurement of total mandibular length. This biological mechanism is particularly efficient in compensating for major increments in mandibular size at the adolescent spurt.

  19. 75 FR 29976 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Extension of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-826] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Extension of the Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...-quality steel plate products from Italy. See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products...

  20. 78 FR 29113 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ...-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products... duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products from the Republic of Korea...

  1. Thin-plate spline quadrature of geodetic integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangysen, Herman

    1989-01-01

    Thin-plate spline functions (known for their flexibility and fidelity in representing experimental data) are especially well-suited for the numerical integration of geodetic integrals in the area where the integration is most sensitive to the data, i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the evaluation point. Spline quadrature rules are derived for the contribution of a circular innermost zone to Stoke's formula, to the formulae of Vening Meinesz, and to the recursively evaluated operator L(n) in the analytical continuation solution of Molodensky's problem. These rules are exact for interpolating thin-plate splines. In cases where the integration data are distributed irregularly, a system of linear equations needs to be solved for the quadrature coefficients. Formulae are given for the terms appearing in these equations. In case the data are regularly distributed, the coefficients may be determined once-and-for-all. Examples are given of some fixed-point rules. With such rules successive evaluation, within a circular disk, of the terms in Molodensky's series becomes relatively easy. The spline quadrature technique presented complements other techniques such as ring integration for intermediate integration zones.

  2. Influence of Deposition Conditions on Fatigue Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steel with Tin Film Coated by Arc Ion Plating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Satoshi; Yonekura, Daisuke; Murakami, Ri-Ichi

    The surface properties like roughness etc. strongly influence the fatigue strength of high-tensile steel. To investigate the effect of surface condition and TiN coating on the fatigue strength of high-strength steel, four-point bending fatigue tests were carried out for martensitic stainless steel with TiN film coated using arc ion plating (AIP) method. This study, using samples that had been polished under several size of grind particle, examines the influence of pre-coating treatment on fatigue properties. A 2-µm-thick TiN film was deposited onto the substrate under three kinds of polishing condition. The difference of the hardness originated in the residual stress or thin deformation layer where the difference of the size of grinding particle of the surface polishing. And it leads the transformation of the interface of the substrate and the TiN film and improves fatigue limit.

  3. Magnetostrictive clad steel plates for high-performance vibration energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenjun; Nakajima, Kenya; Onodera, Ryuichi; Tayama, Tsuyoki; Chiba, Daiki; Narita, Fumio

    2018-02-01

    Energy harvesting technology is becoming increasingly important with the appearance of the Internet of things. In this study, a magnetostrictive clad steel plate for harvesting vibration energy was proposed. It comprises a cold-rolled FeCo alloy and cold-rolled steel joined together by thermal diffusion bonding. The performances of the magnetostrictive FeCo clad steel plate and conventional FeCo plate cantilevers were compared under bending vibration; the results indicated that the clad steel plate construct exhibits high voltage and power output compared to a single-plate construct. Finite element analysis of the cantilevers under bending provided insights into the magnetic features of a clad steel plate, which is crucial for its high performance. For comparison, the experimental results of a commercial piezoelectric bimorph cantilever were also reported. In addition, the cold-rolled FeCo and Ni alloys were joined by thermal diffusion bonding, which exhibited outstanding energy harvesting performance. The larger the plate volume, the more the energy generated. The results of this study indicated not only a promising application for the magnetostrictive FeCo clad steel plate as an efficient energy harvester, related to small vibrations, but also the notable feasibility for the formation of integrated units to support high-power trains, automobiles, and electric vehicles.

  4. Stålplader gav dobbelt bæreevne (Steel plates doubled the load bearing capacity)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Broch

    1999-01-01

    Abstract from an examination of motor road bridge beams reinforced with steel plates on the sides and bottom. The plates doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams.......Abstract from an examination of motor road bridge beams reinforced with steel plates on the sides and bottom. The plates doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams....

  5. Experimental Study on Temperature Behavior of SSC (Stiffened Steel Plate Concrete) Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. J.; Ham, K. W.; Park, D. S.; Kwon, K. J.

    2008-01-01

    SSC(Stiffened Steel plate Concrete) module method uses steel plate instead of reinforcing bar and mold in existing RC structure. Steel plate modules are fabricated in advance, installed and poured with concrete in construction field, so construction period is remarkably shortened by SC module technique. In case of existence of temperature gap between internal and external structure surface such as containment building, thermal stress is taken place and as a result of it, structural strength is deteriorated. In this study, we designed two test specimens and several tests with temperature heating were conducted to evaluate temperature behavior of SSC structures and RC structure

  6. Thin Fresnel zone plate lenses for focusing underwater sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, David C.; Thangawng, Abel L.; Nicholas, Michael; Layman, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    A Fresnel zone plate (FZP) lens of the Soret type creates a focus by constructive interference of waves diffracted through open annular zones in an opaque screen. For underwater sound below MHz frequencies, a large FZP that blocks sound using high-impedance, dense materials would have practical disadvantages. We experimentally and numerically investigate an alternative approach of creating a FZP with thin (0.4λ) acoustically opaque zones made of soft silicone rubber foam attached to a thin (0.1λ) transparent rubber substrate. An ultra-thin (0.0068λ) FZP that achieves higher gain is also proposed and simulated which uses low-volume fraction, bubble-like resonant air ring cavities to construct opaque zones. Laboratory measurements at 200 kHz indicate that the rubber foam can be accurately modeled as a lossy fluid with an acoustic impedance approximately 1/10 that of water. Measured focal gains up to 20 dB agree with theoretical predictions for normal and oblique incidence. The measured focal radius of 0.68λ (peak-to-null) agrees with the Rayleigh diffraction limit prediction of 0.61 λ/NA (NA = 0.88) for a low-aberration lens

  7. Experimental study on behavior of RC panels covered with steel plates subjected to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Hashimoto; Katsuki Takiguchi; Koshiro Nishimura; Kazuyuki Matsuzawa; Mayuko Tsutsui; Yasuhiro Ohashi; Isao Kojima; Haruhiko Torita

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on the behavior of concrete panels with steel plate subjected to missile impact. Two tests were carried out, divided in accordance with the types of projectile, non-deformable and deformable. In all, 40 specimens of 750 mm square were prepared. The panel specimen was suspended vertically by two steel wire ropes to allow free movement after projectile impact, and was subjected to a projectile. As a result, it is confirmed that a RC panel with steel plate on its back side has higher impact resistance performance than a RC panel and that thickness of concrete panel, thickness of steel plate and the impact velocity of the projectile have a great effect on the failure modes of steel concrete panels. Moreover, based on the experimental results, the quantitative evaluation method for impact resistance performance of RC panels covered with steel plates is examined. The formula for perforation velocity of a half steel concrete panel, proposed in accordance with the bulging height, is effective to evaluate the impact resistance performance of RC panels with steel plates. (authors)

  8. Multiple scattering and stop band characteristics of flexural waves on a thin plate with circular holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuowei; Biwa, Shiro

    2018-03-01

    A numerical procedure is proposed for the multiple scattering analysis of flexural waves on a thin plate with circular holes based on the Kirchhoff plate theory. The numerical procedure utilizes the wave function expansion of the exciting as well as scattered fields, and the boundary conditions at the periphery of holes are incorporated as the relations between the expansion coefficients of exciting and scattered fields. A set of linear algebraic equations with respect to the wave expansion coefficients of the exciting field alone is established by the numerical collocation method. To demonstrate the applicability of the procedure, the stop band characteristics of flexural waves are analyzed for different arrangements and concentrations of circular holes on a steel plate. The energy transmission spectra of flexural waves are shown to capture the detailed features of the stop band formation of regular and random arrangements of holes. The increase of the concentration of holes is found to shift the dips of the energy transmission spectra toward higher frequencies as well as deepen them. The hexagonal hole arrangement can form a much broader stop band than the square hole arrangement for flexural wave transmission. It is also demonstrated that random arrangements of holes make the transmission spectrum more complicated.

  9. Mathematical model of temperature field distribution in thin plates during polishing with a free abrasive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilov Alex

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the heating process of thin plates during polishing with a free abrasive. A mathematical model of the temperature field distribution in space and time according to the plate thickness is based on Lagrange equation of the second kind in the thermodynamics of irreversible processes (variation principle Bio. The research results of thermo elasticity of thin plates (membranes will allow to correct the modes of polishing with a free abrasive to receive the exact reflecting surfaces of satellites reflector, to increase temperature stability and the ability of radio signal reflection, satellite precision guidance. Calculations of temperature fields in thin plates of different thicknesses (membranes is held in the Excel, a graphical characteristics of temperature fields in thin plates (membranes show non-linearity of temperature distribution according to the thickness of thin plates (membranes.

  10. Digital image rectification tool for metrification of gusset plate connections in steel truss bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A method was developed to obtain dimensional data from photographs for analyzing steel truss gusset plate : connections. The method relies on a software application to correct photographic distortion and to scale the : photographs for analysis. The a...

  11. TPSLVM: a dimensionality reduction algorithm based on thin plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinwei; Gao, Junbin; Wang, Tianjiang; Shi, Daming

    2014-10-01

    Dimensionality reduction (DR) has been considered as one of the most significant tools for data analysis. One type of DR algorithms is based on latent variable models (LVM). LVM-based models can handle the preimage problem easily. In this paper we propose a new LVM-based DR model, named thin plate spline latent variable model (TPSLVM). Compared to the well-known Gaussian process latent variable model (GPLVM), our proposed TPSLVM is more powerful especially when the dimensionality of the latent space is low. Also, TPSLVM is robust to shift and rotation. This paper investigates two extensions of TPSLVM, i.e., the back-constrained TPSLVM (BC-TPSLVM) and TPSLVM with dynamics (TPSLVM-DM) as well as their combination BC-TPSLVM-DM. Experimental results show that TPSLVM and its extensions provide better data visualization and more efficient dimensionality reduction compared to PCA, GPLVM, ISOMAP, etc.

  12. Design Review Report for Concrete Cover Block Replaced by Steel Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JAKA, O.M.

    2000-07-27

    The design for the steel cover plates to replace concrete cover blocks for U-109 was reviewed and approved in a design review meeting. The design for steel plates to replace concrete blocks were reviewed and approved by comparison and similarity with U-109 for the following additional pits: 241-U-105. 241-I-103, 241-Ax-101. 241-A-101, 241-SX-105, 241-S-A, 241-S-C, 241-SX-A.

  13. Development of improved SGV480 steel plate for containment vessel in PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Norioki [Advanced Nuclear Equipment Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Morikage, Yasushi; Okayama, Yutaka; Higashikubo, Tomohiro

    2001-01-01

    When a nuclear containment vessel made of steel plate at PWR plants in Japan is produced, SGV480 steel plate made by annealing method according to JIS G3118 is usually used in main. And, when thickness of welding portion of the vessel is larger than 38 mm, as heat treatment after welding is regulated to carry out according to the ministerial ordinance, it is difficult in actual to carry out the heat treatment of the actual welded portions. In a leading plant, approval of welding using a special method without heat treatment less than 47.25 mm of SGV480 carbon steel plate for JIS G3118 middle and ordinary pressure vessel was carried out to supply it for actual use. And, it is required for protection of welding fracture to carry out pre-heat treatment before welding. Because of increasing plate thickness requiring for lower temperature and more seismic resistance in construction condition, in order to produce a containment vessel without heat treatment after welding, more toughness is required for using material and welded portion. Therefore, a new SGV480 steel plate was developed by using TMCP method of modern steel manufacturing technology, to establish lower carbon equivalence and finer texture with upgrading of both toughness and weldability, without heat treatment after welding and pre-heat treatment before welding, at the Shin-Nippon Steel Co, Ltd. and Kawasaki Steel, Co. Ltd., respectively. (G.K.)

  14. Sensitivity and statistical analysis within the elaboration of steel plated girder resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melcher, J.; Škaloud, Miroslav; Kala, Z.; Karmazínová, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2009), s. 120-126 ISSN 1816-112X. [International conf. on steel and aluminium structures /6./. Oxford, 24.06.2007-27.06.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : steel structures * fatigue * sensitivity * imperfection * plated girder Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  15. The effect on the multipolar electromagnet for the levitation of thin iron plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osabe, H [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, M [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Torii, S [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, D [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The thin iron plate is needed to be transported without the degradation of the quality of surface, and magnetic levitation technology is one of the solutions to satisfy these requirements. Magnetic saturation in the objective, however, is a severe problem for the levitation of the thin iron plate. Design and evaluation method of the electromagnet is studied to avoid the saturation. In this paper, the shape of the electromagnet is studied to obtain the maximum attractive force without the saturation in the thin iron plate. The magnetic saturation position is investigated first, and it is proved that the saturation occurs in the iron plate especially when it is very thin. Therefore, the preferable shape of electromagnet should be investigated to secure the large cross sectional area of flux path in the plate. The authors propose the Multipolar electromagnet to solve this problem. The relationship between the electromagnet shape and the cross sectional area of flux path in the plate is studied. (orig.)

  16. Failure analysis of stainless steel femur fixation plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P B; Mohammad, M

    2004-05-01

    Failure analysis was performed to investigate the failure of the femur fixation plate which was previously fixed on the femur of a girl. Radiography, metallography, fractography and mechanical testing were conducted in this study. The results show that the failure was due to the formation of notches on the femur plate. These notches act as stress raisers from where the cracks start to propagate. Finally fracture occurred on the femur plate and subsequently, the plate failed.

  17. 77 FR 21527 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... from the Republic of Korea. The review covers one manufacturer/ exporter. The period of review is...-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products (CTL plate) from the Republic...

  18. Ultra-Low Carbon Bainitic Steels for Heavy Plate Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    these steels. The CCT diagrams 7 of steels typical of the HY grades indicate that the nose of the proeutectoid ferrite/pearlite reactions is located...austenite, carbides, and martensite. An example of the type of CCT diagram for one of the steels used in this investigation is presented in Figure 12...introduce a "bay" of unstable austenite which acts to separate the ferrite "nose" from the bainite/martensite regions on TTT or CCT diagrams , see Figure

  19. Development of High Heat Input Welding High Strength Steel Plate for Oil Storage Tank in Xinyu Steel Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hemin; Dong, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xiong

    This essay introduces the developed high-heat input welding quenched and tempered pressure vessel steel 12MnNiVR for oil storage tank by Xinyu Steel, which passed the review by the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Technical Committee in 2009. The review comments that compared to the domestic and foreign similar steel standard, the key technical index of enterprise standard were in advanced level. After the heat input of 100kJ/cm electro-gas welding, welded points were still with excellent low temperature toughness at -20°C. The steel plate may be constructed for oil storage tank, which has been permitted by thickness range from 10 to 40mm, and design temperature among -20°C-100°C. It studied microstructure genetic effects mechanical properties of the steel. Many production practices indicated that the mechanical properties of products and the steel by stress relief heat treatment of steel were excellent, with pretreatment of hot metal, converter refining, external refining, protective casting, TMCP and heat treatment process measurements. The stability of performance and matured technology of Xinyu Steel support the products could completely service the demand of steel constructed for 10-15 million cubic meters large oil storage tank.

  20. Selection of parameters on laser cutting mild steel plates taking account of some manufacturing purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Jippei; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Hiroshi

    2003-11-01

    There are large number of processing conditions which can be set for laser-cutting of plate materials, because importance of the objective for the cutting is different from product to product. This study aims to build a system which can set the processing conditions reasonably and efficiently. From plural processing objectives, roughness of cutting surface was taken up from among the required qualities, such as processing speed, circularity of a processed hole, height of dross on the rear side, roughness of cutting surfaces, accuracy of shapes and dimensions, and with of burning, to review the effects of the processing condition on the cutting surface including the drag line gap. In our experiments, a 1 kW CO2 gas laser machine was used to make laser-cutting samples and 389 combinations of samples were used. From the results of the experiments, the range of processing conditions which allow cutting is defined by the energy input per unit area HIA = 4.8 [J/mm2]. The values of roughness of the cutting surface on both front and rear sides of the plates can be reduced if the cutting speed is 1000 mm/min or higher, and they little change at small values if the heat input per unit area is within a range under 20 J/mm2. In a range of thin plate thickness, the drag gap on cutting surfaces can be evaluated by the heat input per unit area. In the case of thicker plate, the greater the duty is, the smaller the drag gap is, if the heat input per units area is kept unchanged. Cutting with small heat input is desirable for better roughness of cutting surface. Cutting with large heat input is required for better drag gap. In the scope of our study, a value 20 J/mm2 of heat input per unit area is recommended for laer-cutting of 0.8 - 4.5 mm thick mild steel plates.

  1. Experimental Study on Welded Headed Studs Used In Steel Plate-Concrete Composite Structures Compared with Contactless Method of Measuring Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisała, Dawid; Tekieli, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Steel plate-concrete composite structures are a new innovative design concept in which a thin steel plate is attached to the reinforced concrete beam by means of welded headed studs. The comparison between experimental studies and theoretical analysis of this type of structures shows that their behaviour is dependent on the load-slip relationship of the shear connectors used to ensure sufficient bond between the concrete and steel parts of the structure. The aim of this paper is to describe an experimental study on headed studs used in steel plate-concrete composite structures. Push-out tests were carried out to investigate the behaviour of shear connectors. The test specimens were prepared according to standard push-out tests, however, instead of I-beam, a steel plate 16 mm thick was used to better reflect the conditions in the real structure. The test specimens were produced in two batches using concrete with significantly different compressive strength. The experimental study was carried out on twelve specimens. Besides the traditional measurements based on LVDT sensors, optical measurements based on the digital image correlation method (DIC) and pattern tracking methods were used. DIC is a full-field contactless optical method for measuring displacements in experimental testing, based on the correlation of the digital images taken during test execution. With respect to conventional methods, optical measurements offer a wider scope of results and can give more information about the material or construction behaviour during the test. The ultimate load capacity and load-slip curves obtained from the experiments were compared with the values calculated based on Eurocodes, American and Chinese design specifications. It was observed that the use of the relationships developed for the traditional steel-concrete composite structures is justified in the case of ultimate load capacity of shear connectors in steel plate-concrete composite structures.

  2. Thin slab processing of acicular ferrite steels with high toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reip, Carl-Peter; Hennig, Wolfgang; Hagmann, Rolf [SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sabrudin, Bin Mohamad Suren; Susanta, Ghosh; Lee, Weng Lan [Megasteel Sdn Bhd, Banting (Malaysia)

    2005-07-01

    Near-net-shape casting processes today represent an important option in steelmaking. High productivity and low production cost as well as the variety of steel grades that can be produced plus an excellent product quality are key factors for the acceptance of such processes in markets all over the world. Today's research focuses on the production of pipe steel with special requirements in terms of toughness at low temperatures. The subject article describes the production of hot strip made from acicular ferritic / bainitic steel grades using the CSP thin-slab technology. In addition, the resulting strength and toughness levels as a function of the alloying concepts are discussed. Optimal control of the CSP process allows the production of higher-strength hot-rolled steel grades with a fine-grain acicular-ferritic/bainitic microstructure. Hot strip produced in this way is characterized by a high toughness at low temperatures. In a drop weight tear test, transition temperatures of up to -50 deg C can be achieved with a shear-fracture share of 85%. (author)

  3. Experimental procedure for the characterization of cyclic behavior from very thin plate specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, A.; Moulin, D.

    1983-01-01

    Many investigators, including those involved in the INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARK PROJECT ON SIMPLIFIED METHODS FOR ELEVATED TEMPERATURE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS - PROBLEM II, have tried to reproduce experimentally observed behavior by inelastic calculations. Unfortunately, the material characteristics used in the computer code were established from monotonic tensile tests performed with specimens extracted from the plate product itself (1.45 mm thick) employed to construct the ratchetting specimen. It now appears that the cyclic behavior of the material is much more relevant to the phenomenon observed. Hence the need to make this kind of characterization. Nevertheless, the practical problem is to produce cyclic stresses, i.e. tensile and compressive stresses, with very thin specimens. The main difficulty is to prevent the buckling effect. A new special device set up for this particular purpose is described here. The solution adopted was to create uniformly distributed alternative pure bending stresses in the thin plate specimen. Bending moments were produced by two end-grips fixed to the specimen, and these grips were mounted on a conventional test-machine which was displacement-controlled. To reduce tensile and compressive membrane stresses inside the specimen, the grips had two parallel axles of rotation. The forces produced by the machine and the displacements of a number of points of the specimen were continuously recorded during the test, so that cyclically stabilized, bending moments could be evaluated easily for each curvature variation imposed. The very first cyclic experimental data obtained, at room temperature, for the material of the sodium test specimen, a 316 type stainless steel, are presented. It may be noted that the simple specimens were very easy to prepare and hence inexpensive. (orig.)

  4. Topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Jiu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study for exotic topological effects of sound has attracted uprising interests in fundamental physics and practical applications. Based on the concept of valley pseudospin, we demonstrate the topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface, where a deterministic two-fold Dirac degeneracy is form by two plate modes. We show that the topological property can be controlled by the height of stubs deposited on the plate. By adjusting the relative heights of adjacent stubs, the valley vortex chirality and band inversion are induced, giving rise to a phononic analog of valley Hall phase transition. We further numerically demonstrate the valley states of plate-mode waves with robust topological protection. Our results provide a new route to design unconventional elastic topological insulators and will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  5. Joint surface modeling with thin-plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, S K; Ronsky, J L; Lichti, D D; Salkauskas, K; Chapman, M A; Salkauskas, D

    1999-10-01

    Mathematical joint surface models based on experimentally determined data points can be used to investigate joint characteristics such as curvature, congruency, cartilage thickness, joint contact areas, as well as to provide geometric information well suited for finite element analysis. Commonly, surface modeling methods are based on B-splines, which involve tensor products. These methods have had success; however, they are limited due to the complex organizational aspect of working with surface patches, and modeling unordered, scattered experimental data points. An alternative method for mathematical joint surface modeling is presented based on the thin-plate spline (TPS). It has the advantage that it does not involve surface patches, and can model scattered data points without experimental data preparation. An analytical surface was developed and modeled with the TPS to quantify its interpolating and smoothing characteristics. Some limitations of the TPS include discontinuity of curvature at exactly the experimental surface data points, and numerical problems dealing with data sets in excess of 2000 points. However, suggestions for overcoming these limitations are presented. Testing the TPS with real experimental data, the patellofemoral joint of a cat was measured with multistation digital photogrammetry and modeled using the TPS to determine cartilage thicknesses and surface curvature. The cartilage thickness distribution ranged between 100 to 550 microns on the patella, and 100 to 300 microns on the femur. It was found that the TPS was an effective tool for modeling joint surfaces because no preparation of the experimental data points was necessary, and the resulting unique function representing the entire surface does not involve surface patches. A detailed algorithm is presented for implementation of the TPS.

  6. Buckling analysis of partially corroded steel plates with irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Ocean Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, ... could yield some acceptance criteria to assist surveyors or designers in repair and .... Finite element model of a partially both-sided corroded plate (shell elements).

  7. Cytotoxicity difference of 316L stainless steel and titanium reconstruction plate

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Putu Mira Sumarta; Coen Pramono Danudiningrat; Ester Arijani Rachmat; Pratiwi Soesilawati

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pure titanium is the most biocompatible material today and used as a gold standard for metallic implants. However, stainless steel is still being used as implants because of its strength, ductility, lower price, corrosion resistant and biocompatibility. Purpose: This study was done to revealed the cytotoxicity difference between reconstruction plate made of 316L stainless steel and of commercially pure (CP) titanium in baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) fibroblast culture through MTT...

  8. Mechanical Behavior of BFRP-Steel Composite Plate under Axial Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyu Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Combining the advantages of basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP material and steel material, a novel BFRP-steel composite plate (BSP is proposed, where a steel plate is sandwiched between two outer BFRP laminates. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanical behavior of the proposed BSP under uniaxial tension and cyclic tension. Four groups of BSP specimens with four different BFRP layers and one control group of steel plate specimens were prepared. A uniaxial tensile test and a cyclic tensile test were conducted to determine the initial elastic modulus, postyield stiffness, yield strength, ultimate bearing capacity and residual deformation. Test results indicated that the stress-strain curve of the BSP specimen was bilinear prior to the fracture of the outer BFRP, and the BSP specimen had stable postyield stiffness and small residual deformation after the yielding of the inner steel plate. The postyield modulus of BSP specimens increased almost linearly with the increasing number of outer BFRP layers, as well as the ultimate bearing capacity. Moreover, the predicted results from the selected models under both monotonic tension and cyclic tension were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. The Effect of the Width of an Aluminum Plate on a Bouncing Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hathaway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the distance between clamping supports of an aluminum alloy plate on the coefficient of restitution of a bouncing steel ball was investigated. The plate was supported on two wooden blocks with a meter stick secured on either side. A steel ball was dropped from a constant height and a motion detector was used to find the coefficient of restitution. Measurements were made with the wooden blocks at a range of distances. It was found that as the distance between the wooden blocks increased, the coefficient of restitution decreased linearly

  10. Design proposal for ultimate shear strength of tapered steel plate girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bedynek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental and numerical studies on prismatic plate girders subjected to shear can be found in the literature. However, the real structures are frequently designed as non-uniform structural elements. The main objective of the research is the development of a new proposal for the calculation of the ultimate shear resistance of tapered steel plate girders taking into account the specific behaviour of such members. A new mechanical model is presented in the paper and it is used to show the differences between the behaviour of uniform and tapered web panels subjected to shear. EN 1993-1-5 design specifications for the determination of the shear strength for rectangular plates are improved in order to assess the shear strength of tapered elements. Numerical studies carried out on tapered steel plate girders subjected to shear lead to confirm the suitability of the mechanical model and the proposed design expression.

  11. Evaluation of wall thinning of piping with reinforcing plates using ECT with controlled exciting field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Toshiaki; Xie, Shejuan; Uchimoto, Tetsuya; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    No effective inspection method exists at present for detection and evaluation of wall thinning under the reinforcing plates to T-tubes in nuclear power plants, and the establishment of the inspection method is highly required. In this study, eddy current testing (ECT) with controlled exciting field is applied to evaluation of wall thinning under the reinforcing plates of T-tubes, and their feasibility is discussed. In order to induce eddy current field in deep region of doubled plates, pulse excitation and probe structures are investigated. Through experiments using specimens simulating tubes with reinforcing plates, it is shown that pulsed ECT and conventional TR type eddy current probe with optimized configuration have a capability of detecting and sizing the wall thinning under reinforcing plates. (author)

  12. Experimental observations and modelling of thermal history within a steel plate during water jet impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.D.; Fraser, D.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Lockhart, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate heat transfer of steel plates under a water jet impingement and to further simulate runout table operation in a hot strip mill, a full-scale pilot runout table facility was designed and constructed at the University of British Columbia (UBC). This paper describes the experimental details, data acquisition and data handling techniques for steel plates during water jet impingement by one circular water jet from an industrial header. Recorded visual observations at the impinging surface were obtained. The effects of cooling water temperature and impingement velocity on the heat transfer from a steel plate were studied. A two-dimensional finite element method-based transient inverse heat conduction model was developed. With the help of the model, heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients along the impinging surface under various cooling conditions were calculated. The microstructural evolution of the steel plate was also investigated for the varying cooling conditions. Samples were obtained from each plate, polished, etched and then photographed. (author)

  13. Review on Electroless Plating Ni-P Coatings for Improving Surface Performance of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Zou, Jiaojuan; Lin, Naiming; Tang, Bin

    2014-04-01

    Electroless plating has been considered as an effective approach to provide protection and enhancement for metallic materials with many excellent properties in engineering field. This paper begins with a brief introduction of the fundamental aspects underlying the technological principles and conventional process of electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coatings. Then this paper discusses different electroless nickel plating, including binary plating, ternary composite plating and nickel plating with nanoparticles and rare earth, with the intention of improving the surface performance on steel substrate in recent years in detail. Based on different coating process, the varied features depending on the processing parameters are highlighted. Separately, diverse preparation techniques aiming at improvement of plating efficiency are summarized. Moreover, in view of the outstanding performance, such as corrosion resistance, abrasive resistance and fatigue resistance, this paper critically reviews the behaviors and features of various electroless coatings under different conditions.

  14. Fracture toughness and crack growth resistance of pressure vessel plate and weld metal steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskovic, R.

    1988-01-01

    Compact tension specimens were used to measure the initiation fracture toughness and crack growth resistance of pressure vessel steel plates and submerged arc weld metal. Plate test specimens were manufactured from four different casts of steel comprising: aluminium killed C-Mn-Mo-Cu and C-Mn steel and two silicon killed C-Mn steels. Unionmelt No. 2 weld metal test specimens were extracted from welds of double V butt geometry having either the C-Mn-Mo-Cu steel (three weld joints) or one particular silicon killed C-Mn steel (two weld joints) as parent plate. A multiple specimen test technique was used to obtain crack growth data which were analysed by simple linear regression to determine the crack growth resistance lines and to derive the initiation fracture toughness values for each test temperature. These regression lines were highly scattered with respect to temperature and it was very difficult to determine precisely the temperature dependence of the initiation fracture toughness and crack growth resistance. The data were re-analysed, using a multiple linear regression method, to obtain a relationship between the materials' crack growth resistance and toughness, and the principal independent variables (temperature, crack growth, weld joint code and strain ageing). (author)

  15. Thermal Stress Cracking of Slide-Gate Plates in Steel Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung-Jun; Thomas, Brian G.; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-04-01

    The slide-gate plates in a cassette assembly control the steel flow through the tundish nozzle, and may experience through-thickness cracks, caused by thermal expansion and/or mechanical constraint, leading to air aspiration and safety concerns. Different mechanisms for common and rare crack formation are investigated with the aid of a three-dimensional finite-element model of thermal mechanical behavior of the slide-gate plate assembly during bolt pretensioning, preheating, tundish filling, casting, and cooling stages. The model was validated with previous plant temperature measurements of a ladle plate during preheating and casting, and then applied to a typical tundish-nozzle slide-gate assembly. The formation mechanisms of different types of cracks in the slide-gate plates are investigated using the model and evaluated with actual slide-gate plates at POSCO. Common through-thickness radial cracks, found in every plate, are caused during casting by high tensile stress on the outside surfaces of the plates, due to internal thermal expansion. In the upper plate, these cracks may also arise during preheating or tundish filling. Excessive bolt tightening, combined with thermal expansion during casting may cause rare radial cracks in the upper and lower plates. Rare radial and transverse cracks in middle plate appear to be caused during tundish filling by impingement of molten steel on the middle of the middle plate that generates tensile stress in the surrounding refractory. The mechanical properties of the refractory, the bolt tightening conditions, and the cassette/plate design are all important to service life.

  16. Effect of Al and N on the toughness of heavy section steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikutake, Tetsuo; Tokunaga, Yoshikuni; Nakao, Hitoji; Ito, Kametaro; Takaishi, Shogo.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of Al and N on the notch toughness and tensile strength of heavy section pressure vessel steel plates is investigated. Notch toughness of steel A533B (Mn-Mo-Ni), which has mixed microstructure of ferrite and bainite, is drastically changed by the ratio of sol.N/sol.Al. With metallurgical observations, it is revealed that AlN morphology is influenced by the ratio of sol.N/sol.Al through the level of solute Al(C Al ). At the heat treatment of heavy section steel plate, AlN shows OSTWALD ripening and its speed depends upon C Al . When Al is added (Al ≥ 0.010%) in steel and sol.N/sol.Al ≤ 0.5, C Al remains low. This prevents AlN ripening, and brings fine austenite grain size and high toughness. On the other hand, when sol.N/sol.Al Al becomes high and this gives poor toughness through coarse AlN precipitates and coarse austenite grain. Therefore, controll of sol.N/sol.Al over 0.5 is favorable to keep high toughness in A533B steel. In steel A387-22 (Cr-Mo) which has full bainitic microstructure, too fine austenite grain brings about poor hardenability, and polygonal ferrite, which brings about both poor strength and tughness, appears in microstructure. Then sol.N/sol.Al < 0.5 is better to give high hardenability in steel A387-22. (author)

  17. Capacity limits in columns pulsed with stain steel perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maset, E.R.; Acosta, E.; Di Piano, M.; Maymo, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper includes part of the second stage of the pulsed columns development program, using a water-nitric acid system as continuous phase and tri-n-butyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene at 30% v/v as disperse phase. Two kits of different geometry perforated plates (different diameter of perforation and free area percentage) were used. Due to the affinity importance of the plates' material with the continuous phase, in all the cases the continuous aqueous phase was used. The relation of flows varied, thus obtaining in each case a curve of characteristic 'flood'. The influence of the geometrical variables, the relation of flows, the medium acidity and the pulse's amplitude was applied in the capacity of the column. Besides, the dimensional correlation of Swift W.H. on the results obtained from 'flood' with both kits of plates to relate flows 1:1 and a minimum deviation was observed. (Author)

  18. 75 FR 4779 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ...-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon- quality steel plate products... that the Department conduct an administrative review of its sales and entries of subject merchandise...

  19. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...-831, and A-583-830] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and... steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan, pursuant to... sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on SSPC from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and...

  20. Charging of carbon thin films in scanning and phase-plate transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hettler, Simon; Kano, Emi; Dries, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    A systematic study on charging of carbon thin films under intense electron-beam irradiation was performed in a transmission electron microscope to identify the underlying physics for the functionality of hole-free phase plates. Thin amorphous carbon films fabricated by different deposition techni...

  1. Effects of commercial cladding on the fracture behavior of pressure vessel steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Alexander, D.J.; Bolt, S.E.; Cook, K.V.; Corwin, W.R.; Oland, B.C.; Nanstad, R.K.; Robinson, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this program is to determine the effect, if any, of stainless steel cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states similar to those produced by thermal shock conditions. Preliminary results from testing at temperature 10 deg. C and 60 deg. C below NDT have shown that (1) a tough surface layer (cladding and/or HAZ) has arrested running flaws under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured, and (2) the residual load-bearing capacity of clad plates with large subclad flaws significantly exceeded that of an unclad plate. (author)

  2. Air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission thickness measurements of steel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Grunde; Hoff, Lars; Norli, Petter

    2015-02-01

    Non-destructive ultrasonic testing of steel structures provide valuable information in e.g. inspection of pipes, ships and offshore structures. In many practical applications, contact measurements are cumbersome or not possible, and air-coupled ultrasound can provide a solution. This paper presents air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission measurements on a steel plate with thicknesses 10.15 mm; 10.0 mm; 9.8 mm. Ultrasound pulses were transmitted from a piezoelectric transducer at normal incidence, through the steel plate, and were received at the opposite side. The S1, A2 and A3 modes of the plate are excited, with resonance frequencies that depend on the material properties and the thickness of the plate. The results show that the resonances could be clearly identified after transmission through the steel plate, and that the frequencies of the resonances could be used to distinguish between the three plate thicknesses. The S1-mode resonance was observed to be shifted 10% down compared to a simple plane wave half-wave resonance model, while the A2 and S2 modes were found approximately at the corresponding plane-wave resonance frequencies. A model based on the angular spectrum method was used to predict the response of the through-transmission setup. This model included the finite aperture of the transmitter and receiver, and compressional and shear waves in the solid. The model predicts the frequencies of the observed modes of the plate to within 1%, including the down-shift of the S1-mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Free Vibration Analyses of FGM Thin Plates by Isogeometric Analysis Based on Classical Plate Theory and Physical Neutral Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuohui Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The isogeometric analysis with nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS based on the classical plate theory (CPT is developed for free vibration analyses of functionally graded material (FGM thin plates. The objective of this work is to provide an efficient and accurate numerical simulation approach for the nonhomogeneous thin plates and shells. Higher order basis functions can be easily obtained in IGA, thus the formulation of CPT based on the IGA can be simplified. For the FGM thin plates, material property gradient in the thickness direction is unsymmetrical about the midplane, so effects of midplane displacements cannot be ignored, whereas the CPT neglects midplane displacements. To eliminate the effects of midplane displacements without introducing new unknown variables, the physical neutral surface is introduced into the CPT. The approximation of the deflection field and the geometric description are performed by using the NURBS basis functions. Compared with the first-order shear deformation theory, the present method has lower memory consumption and higher efficiency. Several numerical results show that the present method yields highly accurate solutions.

  4. Evaluation of Steel Shear Walls Behavior with Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Corrugated Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Hosseinpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of structures aims to control the input energy of unnatural and natural forces. In the past four decades, steel shear walls are utilized in huge constructions in some seismic countries such as Japan, United States, and Canada to lessen the risk of destructive forces. The steel shear walls are divided into two types: unstiffened and stiffened. In the former, a series of plates (sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated with light thickness are used that have the postbuckling field property under overall buckling. In the latter, steel profile belt series are employed as stiffeners with different arrangement: horizontal, vertical, or diagonal in one side or both sides of wall. In the unstiffened walls, increasing the thickness causes an increase in the wall capacity under large forces in tall structures. In the stiffened walls, joining the stiffeners to the wall is costly and time consuming. The ANSYS software was used to analyze the different models of unstiffened one-story steel walls with sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates under lateral load. The obtained results demonstrated that, in the walls with the same dimensions, the trapezoidal corrugated plates showed higher ductility and ultimate bearing compared to the sinusoidal corrugated plates.

  5. 76 FR 53882 - Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Coils From Belgium, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: Import Administration... steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, the Republic of Korea (Korea), South Africa, and Taiwan would... and CVD orders would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in...

  6. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Review] Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the... Africa, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time.\\2\\ The Commission further determines...

  7. 76 FR 54207 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Italy: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. See Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 76 FR 50495..., Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation. On July 20...

  8. Mechanical System Analysis of C-Frame for Steel Plate Thickness Gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear base instrument is not only applied in the area of research such as medical and agriculture sciences, but also in the field of industry especially for thickness gauge. To the present at the steel industry, the gauge that is applied to cut plate thickness using infra-red ray method, it cannot result in accurately data. To solve that case, it is developed a thickness gauge of steel plate by using gamma ray method that it is named C-Frame. This thickness gauge is hoped that it could control in cutting the steel plate by on-line, accurate, and safe, therefore, it could socialize the advanced technology in the nuclear field to support the production process in domestic industries (national industries). The present study yields the calculations of mechanical system of that C-Frame including structure, detector support, source container of radioisotope, and transmission system, be also computed by running Professional Microsoft Fortran Version 5.10, NISA-II program, and AutoCAD program. From the obtained results could be known that the design meets the requirement, so that could be employed properly to measure the thickness of plate in the steel industries. (author)

  9. Modeling of laser welding of steel and titanium plates with a composite insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, V. I.; Cherepanov, A. N.; Shapeev, V. P.

    2017-10-01

    A 3D model of laser welding proposed before by the authors was extended to the case of welding of metallic plates made of dissimilar materials with a composite multilayer intermediate insert. The model simulates heat transfer in the welded plates and takes into account phase transitions. It was proposed to select the composition of several metals and dimensions of the insert to avoid the formation of brittle intermetallic phases in the weld joint negatively affecting its strength properties. The model accounts for key physical phenomena occurring during the complex process of laser welding. It is capable to calculate temperature regimes at each point of the plates. The model can be used to select the welding parameters reducing the risk of formation of intermetallic plates. It can forecast the dimensions and crystalline structure of the solidified melt. Based on the proposed model a numerical algorithm was constructed. Simulations were carried out for the welding of titanium and steel plates with a composite insert comprising four different metals: copper and niobium (intermediate plates) with steel and titanium (outer plates). The insert is produced by explosion welding. Temperature fields and the processes of melting, evaporation, and solidification were studied.

  10. Hydriding of steel in cyanide electrolytes of cadmium plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol'skaya, N.B.; Maksimchuk, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Hydrogenation of steel in cyanide electrolytes for cadmium deposition has been studied in a wide range of compositions. Also investigated have been the scattering capacity and polarization parameters of these electrolytes. The basic components are Cd 2+ and CH - ; besides that, Na 2 SO 4 x10H 2 O, NaOH and NiSO 4 x7H 2 O have been added to the electrolytes. Hydrogenation upon cadmium electrolytic deposition has been determined by the rate of hydrogen penetration through a steel membrane 0.5 mm thick. At the NaCN/Cd(CN) 2 ratio more than 2 the increase in sodium cyanide concentration in the electrolyte appreciably increases neither its hydrogenating and scattering capacity, nor cathodic polarization. The greatest scattering capacity and the highest hydrogenation is exhibited by diluted cadmium deposition elecctrolytes (CdO concentration 9-12 g/1), which prove particularly effective for deposition of regular coatings on complex shape articles. Cadmium deposition on high strength steels, however, should rather involve cyanide electrolytes with high cadmium concentration (50-60 g/1) in order to reduce hydrogenation

  11. Multilayer graphene for long-term corrosion protection of stainless steel bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Spiegelhauer, Susie Ann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Motivated by similar investigations recently published (Pu et al., 2015), we report a comparative corrosion study of three sets of samples relevant as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: stainless steel, stainless steel with a nickel seed layer (Ni/SS) and stainless steel...

  12. Development and Technology of Large Thickness TMCP Steel Plate with 390MPA Grade Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Peng

    Recently, with the rapid upgrading of the equipment in the steel Corp, the rolling technology of TMCP has been rapidly developed and widely applied. A large amount of steel plate has been produced by using the TMCP technology. The TMCP processes have been used more and more widely and replaced the heat treatment technology of normalizing, quenching and tempering heat process. In this paper, low financial input is considered in steel plate production and the composition of the steel has been designed with low C component, a limited alloy element of the Nb, and certain amounts of Mn element. During the continuous casting process, the size of the continuous casting slab section is 300 mm × 2400 mm. The rolling technology of TMCP is controlled at a lower rolling and red temperature to control the transformation of the microstructure. Four different rolling treatments are chosen to test its effects on the 390MPa grade low carbon steel of bainitic microstructure and properties. This test manages to produce a proper steel plate fulfilling the standard mechanical properties. Specifically, low carbon bainite is observed in the microstructure of the steel plate and the maximum thickness of steel plate under this TMCP technology is up to 80mm. The mechanical property of the steel plate is excellent and the KV2 at -40 °C performs more than 200 J. Moreover, the production costs are greatly reduced when the steel plate is produced by this TMCP technology when replacing the current production process of quenching and tempering. The low cost steel plate could well meet the requirements of producing engineering machinery in the steel market.

  13. Characterization of thin Zn-Ni alloy coatings electrodeposited on low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajjami, A.; Gigandet, M.P.; De Petris-Wery, M.; Catonne, J.C.; Duprat, J.J.; Thiery, L.; Raulin, F.; Pommier, N.; Starck, B.; Remy, P.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of initial layer formation in alkaline bath for Zn-Ni (12-15%) alloy electrodeposition on low carbon steel plates are detected in a nanometric thickness range by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), with both bulk sample and thin film on substrate correction procedure, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and gracing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The Zn-Ni coatings were elaborated using either intensiostatic or potentiostatic mode. A preferential deposition of Ni, in the initial thin layer, is detected by these analyses; according to EPMA and GDOES measurements, a layer rich in nickel at the interface substrate/deposit is observed (90 wt.% Ni) and approved by GIXRD; the thin layer of Ni formed in the first moments of electrolysis greatly inhibits the Zn deposition. The initial layer depends upon the relative ease of hydrogen and metal discharge and on the different substrate surfaces involved. The electrodeposition of zinc-nickel alloys in the first stage is a normal phenomenon of codeposition, whereby nickel - the more noble metal - is deposited preferentially

  14. Prediction of deformations of steel plate by artificial neural network in forming process with induction heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Truong Thinh; Yang, Young Soo; Bae, Kang Yul; Choi, Sung Nam

    2009-01-01

    To control a heat source easily in the forming process of steel plate with heating, the electro-magnetic induction process has been used as a substitute of the flame heating process. However, only few studies have analyzed the deformation of a workpiece in the induction heating process by using a mathematical model. This is mainly due to the difficulty of modeling the heat flux from the inductor traveling on the conductive plate during the induction process. In this study, the heat flux distribution over a steel plate during the induction process is first analyzed by a numerical method with the assumption that the process is in a quasi-stationary state around the inductor and also that the heat flux itself greatly depends on the temperature of the workpiece. With the heat flux, heat flow and thermo-mechanical analyses on the plate to obtain deformations during the heating process are then performed with a commercial FEM program for 34 combinations of heating parameters. An artificial neural network is proposed to build a simplified relationship between deformations and heating parameters that can be easily utilized to predict deformations of steel plate with a wide range of heating parameters in the heating process. After its architecture is optimized, the artificial neural network is trained with the deformations obtained from the FEM analyses as outputs and the related heating parameters as inputs. The predicted outputs from the neural network are compared with those of the experiments and the numerical results. They are in good agreement

  15. Numerical simulation of projectile impact on mild steel armour plates using LS-DYNA, Part II: Parametric studies

    OpenAIRE

    Raguraman, M; Deb, A; Gupta, NK; Kharat, DK

    2008-01-01

    In Part I of the current two-part series, a comprehensive simulation-based study of impact of Jacketed projectiles on mild steel armour plates has been presented. Using the modelling procedures developed in Part I, a number of parametric studies have been carried out for the same mild steel plates considered in Part I and reported here in Part II. The current investigation includes determination of ballistic limits of a given target plate for different projectile diameters and impact velociti...

  16. The Development and Microstructure Analysis of High Strength Steel Plate NVE36 for Large Heat Input Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhang; Liangfa, Xie; Ming, Wei; Jianli, Li

    In the shipbuilding industry, the welding efficiency of the ship plate not only has a great effect on the construction cost of the ship, but also affects the construction speed and determines the delivery cycle. The steel plate used for large heat input welding was developed sufficiently. In this paper, the composition of the steel with a small amount of Nb, Ti and large amount of Mn had been designed in micro-alloyed route. The content of C and the carbon equivalent were also designed to a low level. The technology of oxide metallurgy was used during the smelting process of the steel. The rolling technology of TMCP was controlled at a low rolling temperature and ultra-fast cooling technology was used, for the purpose of controlling the transformation of the microstructure. The microstructure of the steel plate was controlled to be the mixed microstructure of low carbon bainite and ferrite. Large amount of oxide particles dispersed in the microstructure of steel, which had a positive effects on the mechanical property and welding performance of the steel. The mechanical property of the steel plate was excellent and the value of longitudinal Akv at -60 °C is more than 200 J. The toughness of WM and HAZ were excellent after the steel plate was welded with a large heat input of 100-250 kJ/cm. The steel plate processed by mentioned above can meet the requirement of large heat input welding.

  17. Experimental study and calculation of boiling heat transfer on steel plates during runout table operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.D.; Fraser, D.; Samarasekera, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    Within a hot strip steel mill, red hot steel is hot rolled into a long continuous slab that is led onto what is called the runout table. Temperatures of the steel at the beginning of this table are around 900 o C. Above and below the runout table are banks of water jets, sprays or water curtains that rapidly cool the steel slab. The heat transfer process itself may be considered one of the most complicated in the industrial world. The cooling process that occurs on the runout table is crucial and governs the final mechanical properties and flatness of a steel strip. However, very limited data of industrial conditions has been available and that which is available is poorly understood. To study heat transfer during runout table cooling, an industrial scale pilot runout table facility was constructed at the University of British Columbia (UBC). This paper describes the experimental details, data acquisition and data handling techniques for steel plates during water jet impingement cooling by one circular water jet from industrial headers. The effect of cooling water temperature and initial steel plate temperature as well as varying water jet diameters on heat transfer was systematically investigated. A two-dimensional finite element scheme based inverse heat conduction model was developed to calculate surface heat transfer coefficients along the impinging surface. Heat flux curves at the stagnation area were obtained for selected tests. A quantitative relationship between adjustable processing parameters and heat transfer coefficients along the impinging surface during runout table operation is discussed. The results of the study were used to upgrade an extensive process model developed at UBC. The model ties in the cooling rate and hence two dimensional temperature gradients to the resulting microstructure and final mechanical properties of the steel. This process model is widely used by major steel industries in Canada and the United States. (author)

  18. Surface effects on the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate with nanoscale thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhi; Jiang Liying

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate under mechanical and electrical loads with the consideration of surface effects. Surface effects, including surface elasticity, residual surface stress and surface piezoelectricity, are incorporated into the conventional Kirchhoff plate theory for a piezoelectric plate via the surface piezoelectricity model and the generalized Young-Laplace equations. Different from the results predicted by the conventional plate theory ignoring the surface effects, the proposed model predicts size-dependent behaviours of the piezoelectric thin plate with nanoscale thickness. It is found that surface effects have significant influence on the electroelastic responses of the piezoelectric nanoplate. This work is expected to provide more accurate predictions on characterizing nanofilm or nanoribbon based piezoelectric devices in nanoelectromechanical systems. (paper)

  19. Preliminary experiments using light-initiated high explosive for driving thin flyer plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benham, R.A.

    1980-02-01

    Light-initiated high explosive, silver acelytide - silver-nitrate (SASN), has been used to produce simulated x ray blow-off impulse loading on reentry vehicles to study the system structural response. SASN can be used to accelerate thin flyer plates to high terminal velocities which, in turn, can deliver a pressure pulse that can be tailored to the target material. This process is important for impulse tests where both structural and material response is desired. The theories used to calculate the dynamic state of the flyer plate prior to impact are summarized. Data from several experiments are presented which indicate that thin flyer plates can be properly accelerated and that there are predictive techniques available which are adequate to calculate the motion of the flyer plate. Recommendations are made for future study that must be undertaken to make the SASN flyer plate technique usable

  20. Simplified description of out-of-plane waves in thin annular elastic plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Maziyar Nesari; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion relations are derived for the out-of-plane wave propagation in planar elastic plates with constant curvature using the classical Kirchhoff thin plate theory. The dispersion diagrams and the mode shapes are compared with their counterparts for a straight plate strip and the role...... of curvature is assessed for plates with unconstrained edges. Elementary Bernoulli–Euler theory for a beam of rectangular cross-section with the circular shape of its axis is also employed to analyze the wave guide properties of this structure in its out-of-plane deformation. The applicability range...... of the elementary beam theory is validated. The wave finite element method in the formulation of the three-dimensional elasticity theory is used to ensure that the comparison of dispersion diagrams is performed in the frequency range, where the classical thin plate theory is valid. Thus, the paper summarizes...

  1. Development and Application of TMCP Steel Plate in Coal Mining Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqing, Zhang; Liandeng, Yao; aimin, Guo; Sixin, Zhao; Guofa, Wang

    Coal, as the most major energy in China, accounted for about 70% of China's primary energy production and consumption. While the percentage of coal as the primary energy mix would drop in the future due to serious smog pollution partly resulted from coal-burning, the market demand of coal will maintain because the progressive process of urbanization. In order to improve productivity and simultaneously decrease safety accidents, fully-mechanized underground mining technology based on complete equipment of powered support, armored face conveyor, shearer, belt conveyor and road-header have obtained quick development in recent years, of which powered support made of high strength steel plate accounts for 65 percent of total equipment investment, so, the integrated mechanical properties, in particular strength level and weldability, have a significant effects on working service life and productivity. Take hydraulic powered supports as example, this paper places priority to introduce the latest development of high strength steel plates of Q550, Q690 and Q890 for powered supports, as well as metallurgical design conception and production cost-benefits analysis between QT plate and TMCP plate. Through production and application practice, TMCP or DQ plate demonstrate great economic advantages compared with traditional QT plate.

  2. Fatigue in Welded High-Strength Steel Plate Elements under Stochastic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Martinez, L. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    The present project is a part of an investigation on fatigue in offshore structures in high-strength steel. The fatigue life of plate elements with welded attachments is studied. The material used has a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa, and high weldability and toughness properties. Fatigue test...... series with constant amplitude loading and with various types of stochastic loading have been carried through on test specimens in high-strength steel, and - for a comparison - on test specimens in conventional offshore structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa.A comparison between constant...... amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results shows shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, in general longer fatigue lives were obtained for the test specimens in high-strength steel than those...

  3. stability analysis of ssss thin rectangular plate using multi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The stability analysis of all four edges simply supported (SSSS) thin ... average percentage difference of K – values from two previous works and the present study when compared with ... freedom eigen value problem of the elastic buckling of.

  4. The precision cutting control research of automotive stainless steel thin wall pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel thin-walled tube are widely used in automobile industry at present, but as a result of thin wall pipe is poor strength and poor rigidity,which lead to deformation, shaped differencer and other problems in the process, it is hard to ensure the processing quality of parts. This paper proposes a method of thin stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting process in vehicle, greatly improved the problems and technical difficulties in the traditional process, the main research is about the cutting system and the hydraulic fixture design, obtained under low cost circumstances, it can realize high precision stainless steel pipes, high degree of automation to automatic cutting,simplified operation steps at the same time, increased the applicability of the system, provided a kind of advanced stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting device for the small and medium-sized enterprises.

  5. Experimental and numerical study of guided wave propagation in a thin metamaterial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, R.; Huang, G.L.; Huang, H.H.; Sun, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, both in-plane and out-of-plane guided waves in a thin plate with local resonators are studied numerically and experimentally. Through the numerical simulation, a new metamaterial plate design is achieved for a low-frequency bandgap in both in-plane and out-of-plane guided waves. Experiments were conducted to validate the numerical design. In the experiment, piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive guided wave signals. The results show that the numerical predictions are in very good agreement with the experimental measurements. Specifically, the connection between the local resonance in the thin plate and its wave attenuation mechanism was discussed. -- Highlights: → Both in-plane and out-of-plane guided waves in a thin plate with local resonators are studied numerically and experimentally. → A new metamaterial plate design is achieved for a low-frequency bandgap in both in-plane and out-of-plane guided waves. → Experiments were conducted to validate the numerical design. → The connection between the local resonance in the thin plate and its wave attenuation mechanism was investigated.

  6. Radiographic testing methods for welds of thin titanium plates and thin wall tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This standard stipulates the testing method by X-ray radiography for the welded parts of titanium plates and titanium tubes with thickness not exceeding 8 mm. The other items than those stipulated here shall be in accordance with JIS Z 3107-1973 ''Testing method by radiography for the welded part of titanium and method of grade classification of radiographs''. As the photographing method of radiographs, the performance of the equipment and materials for testing, the direction of X-ray irradiation, the thickness of parent materials and welds, the use of penetrameters, the arrangement for photographing, the requirement for radiographs and the observation of radiographs are specified. The X-ray apparatuses, photo-sensitive materials and the tools for photographing and observation must be such that the radiographs clearly showing the defects in the welds being tested can be taken or observed. The JIS Z 3107 is insufficient for the test of thin materials like titanium, therefore, this standard was set down. As the thickness of welds, the thickness of parent materials was taken. In this standard, the titanium penetrameters were adopted because they can be made and they conform to practical state. If magnified photographing is carried out with microfocus X-ray apparatuses, precise photographing can be made. (Kako, I.)

  7. Antibacterial Properties of Titanate Nano fiber Thin Films Formed on a Titanium Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yada, M.; Inoue, Y.; Morita, T.; Torikai, T.; Watari, T.; Noda, I.; Hotokebuchi, T.

    2013-01-01

    A sodium titanate nano fiber thin film and a silver nanoparticle/silver titanate nano fiber thin film formed on the surface of a titanium plate exhibited strong antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is one of the major bacteria causing in-hospital infections. Exposure of the sodium titanate nano fiber thin film to ultraviolet rays generated a high antibacterial activity due to photo catalysis and the sodium titanate nano fiber thin film immediately after its synthesis possessed a high antibacterial activity even without exposure to ultraviolet rays. Elution of silver from the silver nanoparticle/silver titanate nano fiber thin film caused by the silver ion exchange reaction was considered to contribute substantially to the strong antibacterial activity. The titanate nano fiber thin films adhered firmly to titanium. Therefore, these titanate nano fiber thin film/titanium composites will be extremely useful as implant materials that have excellent antibacterial activities.

  8. Characteristics of fundamental acoustic wave modes in thin piezoelectric plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S G; Zaitsev, B D; Kuznetsova, I E; Teplykh, A A; Pasachhe, A

    2006-12-22

    The characteristics of the three lowest order plate waves (A(0), S(0), and SH(0)) propagating in piezoelectric plates whose thickness h is much less than the acoustic wavelength lambda are theoretically analyzed. It is found that these waves can provide much higher values of electromechanical coupling coefficient K(2) and lower values of temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) than is possible with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). For example, in 30Y-X lithium niobate, the SH(0) mode has K(2)=0.46 and TCD=55 ppm/degrees C. The corresponding values for SAW in the widely used, strong coupling material of 128Y-X lithium niobate are K(2)=0.053 and TCD=75 ppm/degrees C. Another important advantage of plate waves is that, unlike the case of SAWs, they can operate satisfactorily in contact with a liquid medium, thus making possible their use in liquid phase sensors.

  9. Studies on the temperature distribution of steel plates with different paints under solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Binbin; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaodun

    2014-01-01

    Thermal effects on steel structures exposed to solar radiation are significant and complicated. Furthermore, the solar radiation absorption coefficient of steel surface with different paintings is the main factor affecting the non-uniform temperature of spatial structures under solar radiation. In this paper, nearly two hundreds steel specimens with different paintings were designed and measured to obtain their solar radiation absorption coefficients using spectrophotometer. Based on the test results, the effect of surface color, painting type, painting thickness on the solar radiation absorption coefficient was analyzed. The actual temperatures under solar radiation for all specimens were also measured in summer not only to verify the absorption coefficient but also provide insight for the temperature distribution of steel structures with different paintings. A numerical simulation and simplified formula were also conducted and verified by test, in order to study the temperature distribution of steel plates with different paints under solar radiation. The results have given an important reference in the future research of thermal effect of steel structures exposed to solar radiation. - Highlights: • Solar radiation absorptions for steel with different paintings were measured. • The temperatures of all specimens under solar radiation were measured. • The effect of color, thickness and painting type on solar absorption was analyzed. • A numerical analysis was conducted and verified by test data. • A simplified formula was deduced and verified by test data

  10. Numerical Study on Ultimate Behaviour of Bolted End-Plate Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.S. Ismail

    Full Text Available Abstract Bolted end-plate steel connections have become more popular due to ease of fabrication. This paper presents a three dimension Finite Element Model (FEM, using the multi-purpose software ABAQUS, to study the effect of different geometrical parameters on the ultimate behavior of the connection. The proposed model takes into account material and geometrical non-linearities, initial imperfection, contact between adjacent surfaces and the pretension force in the bolts. The Finite Element results are calibrated with published experimental results ''briefly reviewed in this paper'' and verified that the numerical model can simulate and analyze the overall and detailed behavior of different types of bolted end-plate steel connections. Using verified FEM, parametric study is then carried out to study the ultimate behavior with variations in: bolt diameter, end-plate thickness, length of column stiffener, angle of rib stiffener. The results are examined with respect to the failure modes, the evolution of the resistance, the initial stiffness, and the rotation capacity. Finally, the ultimate behavior of the bolted end-plate steel connection is discussed in detail, and recommendations for the design purpose are made.

  11. Improving electron beam weldability of heavy steel plates for PWR-steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yukio; Mabuchi, Hidesato; Koyama, Kunio

    1996-01-01

    Installation and replacement of many PWR-steam generators are planned inside and outside Japan. The steel plates for steam generators are heavy in thickness, and increase the number of welding passes and prolong the welding time. Electron beam welding (EBW) can greatly reduce the welding period compared with conventional welding methods (narrow-gap gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and submerged arc welding (SAW)). The problems in applying EBW are to prevent weld defects and to improve the toughness of the weld metal. Defect-free welding procedures were successfully established even in thick steel plates. The factors that deteriorate weld-metal (WM) toughness of EBW were investigated. The manufacturing process, which utilizes a new secondary refining process at steelmaking and a high-torque mill at plate mill in actual mass-production, were established. EBW base metal and WM have better properties including fracture toughness than those of conventional welding processes. As a result, an application of EBW to the fabrication of PWR-steam generators has become possible. Large amounts of ASTM A533 Gr B Cl 2 (JIS SQV2B) steel plates in actual PWR-steam generators have come to be produced (more than 1,500 ton) by applying EBW. (author)

  12. Anatomical Thin Titanium Mesh Plate Structural Optimization for Zygomatic-Maxillary Complex Fracture under Fatigue Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study performs a structural optimization of anatomical thin titanium mesh (ATTM plate and optimal designed ATTM plate fabricated using additive manufacturing (AM to verify its stabilization under fatigue testing. Finite element (FE analysis was used to simulate the structural bending resistance of a regular ATTM plate. The Taguchi method was employed to identify the significance of each design factor in controlling the deflection and determine an optimal combination of designed factors. The optimal designed ATTM plate with patient-matched facial contour was fabricated using AM and applied to a ZMC comminuted fracture to evaluate the resting maxillary micromotion/strain under fatigue testing. The Taguchi analysis found that the ATTM plate required a designed internal hole distance to be 0.9 mm, internal hole diameter to be 1 mm, plate thickness to be 0.8 mm, and plate height to be 10 mm. The designed plate thickness factor primarily dominated the bending resistance up to 78% importance. The averaged micromotion (displacement and strain of the maxillary bone showed that ZMC fracture fixation using the miniplate was significantly higher than those using the AM optimal designed ATTM plate. This study concluded that the optimal designed ATTM plate with enough strength to resist the bending effect can be obtained by combining FE and Taguchi analyses. The optimal designed ATTM plate with patient-matched facial contour fabricated using AM provides superior stabilization for ZMC comminuted fractured bone segments.

  13. Effect of length of thinning area on the failure behavior of carbon steel pipe containing a defect of wall thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Park, Chi Yong

    2003-01-01

    The present study performed pipe failure tests using 102 mm-Sch. 80 carbon steel pipe with various simulated wall thinning defects, to investigate the effect of axial length of wall thinning and internal pressure on the failure behavior of pipe thinned by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). The tests were conducted under loading conditions of four-point bending with and without internal pressure. The results showed that a failure mode of pipe with a defect depended on the magnitude of internal pressure and axial thinning length as well as stress type and thinning depth and circumferential angle. Both load carrying capability (LCC) and deformation capability (DC) were depended on stress type in the thinning area and dimensions of thinning defect. For applying tensile stress to the thinned area, the dependence of LCC on the axial length of wall thinning was determined by circumferential thinning angle, and the DC was proportionally increased with increase in axial length of wall thinning regardless of the circumferential angle. For applying compressive stress to thinned area, however, the LCC was decreased with increase in axial length of the thinned area. Also, the effect of internal pressure on failure behavior was characterized by failure mode of thinned pipe, and it promoted crack occurrence and mitigated a local buckling of the thinned area

  14. Laser cut hole matrices in novel armour plate steel for appliqué battlefield vehicle protection

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    During this research, experimental rolled homogeneous armour steel was cast, annealed and laser cut to form an appliqué plate. This Martensitic–Bainitic microstructure steel grade was used to test a novel means of engineering lightweight armour. It was determined that a laser cutting speed of 1200 mm/min produced optimum hole formations with limited distortion. The array of holes acts as a double-edged solution, in that they provide weight saving of 45%, providing a protective advantage and i...

  15. [Non-rigid medical image registration based on mutual information and thin-plate spline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guo-gang; Luo, Li-min

    2009-01-01

    To get precise and complete details, the contrast in different images is needed in medical diagnosis and computer assisted treatment. The image registration is the basis of contrast, but the regular rigid registration does not satisfy the clinic requirements. A non-rigid medical image registration method based on mutual information and thin-plate spline was present. Firstly, registering two images globally based on mutual information; secondly, dividing reference image and global-registered image into blocks and registering them; then getting the thin-plate spline transformation according to the shift of blocks' center; finally, applying the transformation to the global-registered image. The results show that the method is more precise than the global rigid registration based on mutual information and it reduces the complexity of getting control points and satisfy the clinic requirements better by getting control points of the thin-plate transformation automatically.

  16. Measurement errors for thermocouples attached to thin plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolik, K.B.; Keltner, N.R.; Beck, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses Unsteady Surface Element (USE) methods which are applied to a model of a thermocouple wire attached to a thin disk. Green's functions are used to develop the integral equations for the wire and the disk. The model can be used to evaluate transient and steady state responses for many types of heat flux measurement devices including thin skin calorimeters and circular foil (Gardon) head flux gauges. The model can accommodate either surface or volumetric heating of the disk. The boundary condition at the outer radius of the disk can be either insulated or constant temperature. Effect on the errors of geometrical and thermal factors can be assessed. Examples are given

  17. Difference in metallic wear distribution released from commercially pure titanium compared with stainless steel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischak, G D; Gebhard, F; Mohr, W; Krivan, V; Ignatius, A; Beck, A; Wachter, N J; Reuter, P; Arand, M; Kinzl, L; Claes, L E

    2004-03-01

    Stainless steel and commercially pure titanium are widely used materials in orthopedic implants. However, it is still being controversially discussed whether there are significant differences in tissue reaction and metallic release, which should result in a recommendation for preferred use in clinical practice. A comparative study was performed using 14 stainless steel and 8 commercially pure titanium plates retrieved after a 12-month implantation period. To avoid contamination of the tissue with the elements under investigation, surgical instruments made of zirconium dioxide were used. The tissue samples were analyzed histologically and by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for accumulation of the metals Fe, Cr, Mo, Ni, and Ti in the local tissues. Implant corrosion was determined by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With grades 2 or higher in 9 implants, steel plates revealed a higher extent of corrosion in the SEM compared with titanium, where only one implant showed corrosion grade 2. Metal uptake of all measured ions (Fe, Cr, Mo, Ni) was significantly increased after stainless steel implantation, whereas titanium revealed only high concentrations for Ti. For the two implant materials, a different distribution of the accumulated metals was found by histological examination. Whereas specimens after steel implantation revealed a diffuse siderosis of connective tissue cells, those after titanium exhibited occasionally a focal siderosis due to implantation-associated bleeding. Neither titanium- nor stainless steel-loaded tissues revealed any signs of foreign-body reaction. We conclude from the increased release of toxic, allergic, and potentially carcinogenic ions adjacent to stainless steel that commercially pure Ti should be treated as the preferred material for osteosyntheses if a removal of the implant is not intended. However, neither material provoked a foreign-body reaction in the local tissues, thus cpTi cannot be

  18. Cytotoxicity difference of 316L stainless steel and titanium reconstruction plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Mira Sumarta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pure titanium is the most biocompatible material today and used as a gold standard for metallic implants. However, stainless steel is still being used as implants because of its strength, ductility, lower price, corrosion resistant and biocompatibility. Purpose: This study was done to revealed the cytotoxicity difference between reconstruction plate made of 316L stainless steel and of commercially pure (CP titanium in baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21 fibroblast culture through MTT assay. Methods: Eight samples were prepared from reconstruction plates made of stainless steel type 316L grade 2 (Coen’s reconstruction plate® that had been cut into cylindrical form of 2 mm in diameter and 3 mm long. The other one were made of CP titanium (STEMA Gmbh® of 2 mm in diameter and 2,2 mm long; and had been cleaned with silica paper and ultrasonic cleaner, and sterilized in autoclave at 121° C for 20 minutes.9 Both samples were bathed into microplate well containing 50 μl of fibroblast cells with 2 x 105 density in Rosewell Park Memorial Institute-1640 (RPMI-1640 media, spinned at 30 rpm for 5 minutes. Microplate well was incubated for 24 and 48 hours in 37° C. After 24 hours, each well that will be read at 24 hour were added with 50 μl solution containing 5mg/ml MTT reagent in phosphate buffer saline (PBS solutions, then reincubated for 4 hours in CO2 10% and 37° C. Colorometric assay with MTT was used to evaluate viability of the cells population after 24 hours. Then, each well were added with 50 μl dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and reincubated for 5 minutes in 37° C. the wells were read using Elisa reader in 620 nm wave length. Same steps were done for the wells that will be read in 48 hours. Each data were tabulated and analyzed using independent T-test with significance of 5%. Results: This study showed that the percentage of living fibroblast after exposure to 316L stainless steel reconstruction plate was 61.58% after 24 hours and 62

  19. Underwater cutting of stainless steel plate and pipe for dismantling reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, M.; Tateiwa, F.; Kanatani, F.; Yamashita, S.

    1982-01-01

    A consumable electrode water jet cutting technique is described. Satisfactory underwater cutting of 80mm stainless steel plate using a current of 2000A and at a water depth of 200mm has been demonstrated. The electrical requirements for this arc welding method applied to cutting were found to be approximately one third those required for conventional plasma arc cutting for the same thickness plate. An application of this technique might be found in the dismantling of atomic reactor pressure vessels, and parts of commercial atomic reactors. (author)

  20. An Experimental Study on the Shear Hysteresis and Energy Dissipation of the Steel Frame with a Trapezoidal-Corrugated Steel Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Sudeok; Yoo, Mina; Lee, Seungjae

    2017-03-06

    The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in the deformation along the corrugation. In this paper, a cyclic loading test of this steel frame reinforced with trapezoidal-corrugated steel plate was performed to evaluate the structural performance. The hysteresis behavior and the energy dissipation capacity of the steel frame were also compared according to the corrugated direction of the plate. For the test, one simple frame model without the wall and two frame models reinforced with the plate are considered and designed. The test results showed that the model reinforced with the corrugated steel plate had a greater accumulated energy dissipation capacity than the experimental result of the non-reinforced model. Furthermore, the energy dissipation curves of two reinforced frame models, which have different corrugated directions, produced similar results.

  1. The Nonlinear Dynamic Response of an Elastic-Plastic Thin Plate under Impulsive Loading,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-11

    Among those numerical methods, the finite element method is the most effective one. The method presented in this paper is an " influence function " numerical...computational time is much less than the finite element method. Its precision is higher also. II. Basic Assumption and the Influence Function of a Simple...calculation. Fig. 1 3 2. The Influence function of a Simple Supported Plate The motion differential equation of a thin plate can be written as DV’w+ _.eluq() (1

  2. [Medical image elastic registration smoothed by unconstrained optimized thin-plate spline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Shuxiang; Chen, Wufan; Liu, Zhexing

    2003-12-01

    Elastic registration of medical image is an important subject in medical image processing. Previous work has concentrated on selecting the corresponding landmarks manually and then using thin-plate spline interpolating to gain the elastic transformation. However, the landmarks extraction is always prone to error, which will influence the registration results. Localizing the landmarks manually is also difficult and time-consuming. We the optimization theory to improve the thin-plate spline interpolation, and based on it, used an automatic method to extract the landmarks. Combining these two steps, we have proposed an automatic, exact and robust registration method and have gained satisfactory registration results.

  3. Development of quadrilateral spline thin plate elements using the B-net method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Li, Chong-Jun

    2013-08-01

    The quadrilateral discrete Kirchhoff thin plate bending element DKQ is based on the isoparametric element Q8, however, the accuracy of the isoparametric quadrilateral elements will drop significantly due to mesh distortions. In a previouswork, we constructed an 8-node quadrilateral spline element L8 using the triangular area coordinates and the B-net method, which can be insensitive to mesh distortions and possess the second order completeness in the Cartesian coordinates. In this paper, a thin plate spline element is developed based on the spline element L8 and the refined technique. Numerical examples show that the present element indeed possesses higher accuracy than the DKQ element for distorted meshes.

  4. The directional propagation characteristics of elastic wave in two-dimensional thin plate phononic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wang Gang; Zhao Honggang; Liu Yaozong; Wen Xisen

    2007-01-01

    The directional propagation characteristics of elastic wave during pass bands in two-dimensional thin plate phononic crystals are analyzed by using the lumped-mass method to yield the phase constant surface. The directions and regions of wave propagation in phononic crystals for certain frequencies during pass bands are predicted with the iso-frequency contour lines of the phase constant surface, which are then validated with the harmonic responses of a finite two-dimensional thin plate phononic crystals with 16x16 unit cells. These results are useful for controlling the wave propagation in the pass bands of phononic crystals

  5. Method of applying a coating to a steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T; Murakami, S; Chihara, Y; Iijima, K

    1968-07-19

    An application of a coating material containing a radically or ionically polymerizable monomer that can be changed into a high molecular compound by irradiation with ionizing radiations is provided to protect steel from corrosion and the adhesion of organic material. In this irradiation, the radiation doses are not more than 30 Mrad. The coating material is at least one kind of vehicle selected from the group consisting of a radically or ionically polymerizable monomer, polymer, copolymer, or compound of this monomer. They are, for example, styrene, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl pyridine and their derivatives, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, and other vinyl compounds, etc. The absorption doses may be 30 or less Mrad, but preferably in the range of from 10 to 1 Mrad. Advantages are that the auxiliary heating can be performed below 100/sup 0/C, and that hardening can be carried out below 50/sup 0/C. Furthermore, the irradiation time is shorter than 30 seconds; may kinds of vehicles can be used; and solvent is unnecessary. In one example, 15 parts of acrylamide, 40 parts of styrene and 45 parts of ethyl acrylate are copolymerized. This copolymer is dissolved into 100 parts of styrene and is mixed with 50 parts of rutile and 50 parts of yellow lead. The obtained vehicle is hardened with 10 Mrad. The coated film 30..mu.. thick shows no defects due to weathering after 3 months. In another example, a mixture of 80 parts of unsaturated polyester and 20 parts of ethylene dimethacrylate gives 3H by irradiation with 6 Mrad in inert gas.

  6. The ion plating of optical thin films for the infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, I.M.; Macleod, H.A.; Carter, M.J.; Henderson, E.

    1979-01-01

    Although excellent humidity resistance was achieved with diode ion plated zinc sulphide antireflection films on germanium substrates the abrasion resistance was found to be poor. This could be attributed to an intense columnar structure with very loose packing. To improve the abrasion resistance it was found necessary to add a third electrode which allowed the discharge to be sustained at lower pressures, and to heat the substrates during deposition. (author)

  7. Steel Plate Shear Walls: Efficient Structural Solution for Slender High-Rise in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Neville; Long, Eric; Sarkisian, Mark; Huang Zhihui

    2008-01-01

    The 329.6 meter tall 74-story Jinta Tower in Tianjin, China, is expected, when complete, to be the tallest building in the world with slender steel plate shear walls used as the primary lateral load resisting system. The tower has an overall aspect ratio close to 1:8, and the main design challenge was to develop an efficient lateral system capable of resisting significant wind and seismic lateral loads, while simultaneously keeping wind induced oscillations under acceptable perception limits. This paper describes the process of selection of steel plate shear walls as the structural system, and presents the design philosophy, criteria and procedures that were arrived at by integrating the relevant requirements and recommendations of US and Chinese codes and standards, and current on-going research

  8. Time-of-flight neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging of microstructures in bent steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuhua, E-mail: yuhua.su@j-parc.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Oikawa, Kenichi; Harjo, Stefanus; Shinohara, Takenao; Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Hiroi, Kosuke [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Zhang, Shuoyuan; Parker, Joseph Don [Neutron R& D Division, CROSS-Tokai, 162-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Sato, Hirotaka [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Shiota, Yoshinori; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Tomota, Yo [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging makes it possible to quantitatively visualize the two-dimensional distribution of microstructure within a sample. In order to examine its application to engineering products, time-of-flight Bragg-edge transmission imaging experiments using a pulsed neutron source were performed for plastically bent plates composed of a ferritic steel and a duplex stainless steel. The non-homogeneous microstructure distributions, such as texture, crystalline size, phase volume fraction and residual elastic strain, were evaluated for the cross sections of the bent plates. The obtained results were compared with those by neutron diffraction and electron back scatter diffraction, showing that the Bragg-edge transmission imaging is powerful for engineering use.

  9. Development of a surface topography instrument for automotive textured steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Shenghuai; Chen, Yurong; Xie, Tiebang

    2010-08-01

    The surface topography of automotive steel plate is decisive to its stamping, painting and image clarity performances. For measuring this kind of surface topography, an instrument has been developed based on the principle of vertical scanning white light microscopy interference principle. The microscopy interference system of this instrument is designed based on the structure of Linnik interference microscopy. The 1D worktable of Z direction is designed and introduced in details. The work principle of this instrument is analyzed. In measuring process, the interference microscopy is derived as a whole and the measured surface is scanned in vertical direction. The measurement accuracy and validity is verified by templates. Surface topography of textured steel plate is also measured by this instrument.

  10. Analytical model development of an eddy-current-based non-contacting steel plate conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-T.; Lin, S.-Y.; Yang, Y.-Y.; Hwang, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    A concise model for analyzing and predicting the quasi-static electromagnetic characteristics of an eddy-current-based non-contacting steel plate conveyance system has been developed. Confirmed by three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA), adequacy of the analytical model can be demonstrated. Such an effective approach, which can be conveniently used by the potential industries for preliminary system operational performance evaluations, will be essential for designers and on-site engineers

  11. Nonlinear vibrations of thin arbitrarily laminated composite plates subjected to harmonic excitations using DKT elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C. K.; Xue, David Y.; Mei, Chuh

    1993-04-01

    A finite element formulation is presented for determining the large-amplitude free and steady-state forced vibration response of arbitrarily laminated anisotropic composite thin plates using the Discrete Kirchhoff Theory (DKT) triangular elements. The nonlinear stiffness and harmonic force matrices of an arbitrarily laminated composite triangular plate element are developed for nonlinear free and forced vibration analyses. The linearized updated-mode method with nonlinear time function approximation is employed for the solution of the system nonlinear eigenvalue equations. The amplitude-frequency relations for convergence with gridwork refinement, triangular plates, different boundary conditions, lamination angles, number of plies, and uniform versus concentrated loads are presented.

  12. Structural design of nuclear power plant using stiffened steel plate concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ilhwan; Kim, Sungmin; Mun, Taeyoup; Kim, Keunkyeong; Sun, Wonsang

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power is an alternative energy source that is conducive to mitigate the environmental strains. The countries having nuclear power plants are encouraging research and development sector to find ways to construct safer and more economically feasible nuclear power plants. Modularization using Steel Plate Concrete(SC) structure has been proposed as a solution to these efforts. A study of structural modules using SC structure has been performed for shortening of construction period and enhancement of structural safety of NPP structures in Korea. As a result of the research, the design code and design techniques based on limit state design method has been developed. The design code has been developed through various structural tests and theoretical studies, and it has been modified by application design of SC structure for NPP buildings. The code consists of unstiffened SC wall design, stiffened SC wall design, Half-SC slab design, stud design, connection design and so on. The stiffened steel plate concrete(SSC) wall is SC structure whose steel plates with ribs are composed on both sides of the concrete wall, and this structure was developed for improved constructability and safety of SC structure. This paper explains a design application of SC structure for a sample building specially devised to reflect all of major structural properties of main buildings of APR1400. In addition, Stiffening effect of SSC structure is evaluated and structural efficiency of SSC structure is verified in comparison with that of unstiffened SC structure. (author)

  13. Centralized Gap Clearance Control for Maglev Based Steel-Plate Conveyance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUNEY, O. F.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The conveyance of steel-plates is one of the potential uses of the magnetic levitation technology in industry. However, the electromagnetic levitation systems inherently show nonlinear feature and are unstable without an active control. Well-known U-shaped or E-shaped electromagnets cannot provide redundant levitation with multiple degrees of freedom. In this paper, to achieve the full redundant levitation of the steel plate, a quadruple configuration of U shaped electromagnets has been proposed. To resolve the issue of instability and attain more robust levitation, a centralized control algorithm based on a modified PID controller (I PD is designed for each degree of freedom by using the Manabe canonical polynomial technique. The model of the system is carried out using electromechanical energy conversion princi¬ples and verified by 3-D FEM analysis. An experimental bench is built up to test the system performance under trajectory tracking and external disturbance excitation. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system and the control approach to obtain a full redundant levitation even in case of disturbances. The paper demonstrates the feasibility of the con¬veyance of steel plates by using the quadruple configuration of U-shaped electromagnets and shows the merits of I-PD controller both in stabilization and increased robust levitation.

  14. Evaluation of AISI 316L stainless steel welded plates in heavy petroleum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Silva, Cleiton; Pereira Farias, Jesualdo; Batista de Sant'Ana, Hosiberto

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the study done on the effect of welding heating cycle on AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel corrosion resistance in a medium containing Brazilian heavy petroleum. AISI 316L stainless steel plates were welded using three levels of welding heat input. Thermal treatments were carried out at two levels of temperatures (200 and 300 deg. C). The period of treatment in all the trials was 30 h. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and analysis of X-rays dispersive energy (EDX) were used to characterize the samples. Weight loss was evaluated to determine the corrosion rate. The results show that welding heating cycle is sufficient to cause susceptibility to corrosion caused by heavy petroleum to the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel

  15. Internal stresses in steel plate generated by shape memory alloy inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malard, B.; Pilch, J.; Sittner, P.; Davydov, V.; Sedlák, P.; Konstantinidis, K.; Hughes, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Thermoresponsive internal stresses introduced into steel by embedding SMA inclusions. ► Neutron strain scanning on steel plate coupons with NiTi inserts at 21 °C and 130 °C. ► Internal stress field in steel evaluated directly from strains and by FE simulation. ► Internal stress generation by SMA insert resistant to thermal and mechanical fatigue. - Abstract: Neutron strain scanning was employed to investigate the internal stress fields in steel plate coupons with embedded prestrained superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy inserts. Strain fields in steel were evaluated at T = 21 °C and 130 °C on virgin coupons as well as on mechanically and thermally fatigued coupons. Internal stress fields were evaluated by direct calculation of principal stress components from the experimentally measured lattice strains as well as by employing an inverse finite element modeling approach. It is shown that if the NiTi inserts are embedded into the elastic steel matrix following a carefully designed technological procedure, the internal stress fields vary with temperature in a reproducible and predictable way. It is estimated that this mechanism of internal stress generation can be safely applied in the temperature range from −20 °C to 150 °C and is relatively resistant to thermal and mechanical fatigue. The predictability and fatigue endurance of the mechanism are of essential importance for the development of future smart metal matrix composites or smart structures with embedded shape memory alloy components.

  16. A study on the effect of stainless steel plate position on neutron multiplication factor in spent fuel storage racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Hee Dong

    2012-02-15

    In spent fuel storage racks, which are just composed of stainless steel plates without neutron absorbing materials, neutron multiplication factors are investigated as the variation of the water gap that exists between the fuel assembly and the stainless steel plates. The stainless steel plate has a low moderating power compared with water because it has a lower elastic scattering cross section, as well as far less change of lethargy in an elastic collision than water. Thus, if stainless steel plates are installed around the fuel assembly instead of water, it is hard for neutrons to be thermalized properly. Therefore, the neutron multiplication factor can be decreased because the thermal neutron fluence and the total neutron production rate in fuel rods are decreased. A stainless steel plate has also has a thermal neutron absorption cross section. Thus, it can absorb thermal neutrons around the fuel assembly. The dominant factor which can cause a decrease in the neutron multiplication factor is the interruption of neutron moderation by stainless steel plates. Therefore, the neutron multiplication factor should always be kept at its lowest point, if stainless steel plates are installed on the specific position where interruptions of the neutron moderation occur most often, allowing for thermal neutrons to be absorbed. The stainless steel plate position is 7 mm away from the outermost surface of the fuel assembly with a pitch of 280mm. The specific position appearing the lowest neutron multiplication factor as the pitch variation from 260mm to 290mm with 10mm interval is also investigated. The lowest neutron multiplication factor also occurs 7mm or 8mm away from the outermost surface of the fuel assembly

  17. A study on the effect of stainless steel plate position on neutron multiplication factor in spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hee Dong

    2012-02-01

    In spent fuel storage racks, which are just composed of stainless steel plates without neutron absorbing materials, neutron multiplication factors are investigated as the variation of the water gap that exists between the fuel assembly and the stainless steel plates. The stainless steel plate has a low moderating power compared with water because it has a lower elastic scattering cross section, as well as far less change of lethargy in an elastic collision than water. Thus, if stainless steel plates are installed around the fuel assembly instead of water, it is hard for neutrons to be thermalized properly. Therefore, the neutron multiplication factor can be decreased because the thermal neutron fluence and the total neutron production rate in fuel rods are decreased. A stainless steel plate has also has a thermal neutron absorption cross section. Thus, it can absorb thermal neutrons around the fuel assembly. The dominant factor which can cause a decrease in the neutron multiplication factor is the interruption of neutron moderation by stainless steel plates. Therefore, the neutron multiplication factor should always be kept at its lowest point, if stainless steel plates are installed on the specific position where interruptions of the neutron moderation occur most often, allowing for thermal neutrons to be absorbed. The stainless steel plate position is 7 mm away from the outermost surface of the fuel assembly with a pitch of 280mm. The specific position appearing the lowest neutron multiplication factor as the pitch variation from 260mm to 290mm with 10mm interval is also investigated. The lowest neutron multiplication factor also occurs 7mm or 8mm away from the outermost surface of the fuel assembly

  18. Residual strains in a stainless steel perforated plate subjected to reverse loading at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durelli, A.J.; Buitrago, J.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine strains in a stainless steel perforated plate subjected to a temperature of 1100 0 F and to a successively applied tensile and compressive in-plane loading sufficiently large to produce creep and plastic strains. The duration of the test was 1000 hours. Square grids of lines (at distance of 0.25 in.) and crossed-gratings (500 lines-per-inch) were engraved on both surfaces of the plate before the test. After the plate was unloaded and brought back to room temperature the grids were analyzed using traveling microscopes, and the gratings using the moire effect. Both Cartesian strains were determined from the moire isothetics along the axes of the plate, along the two lines tangent to the hole and parallel to those axes and along the edges of the plate. Grid measurements were made at specific points. The deformed shapes of the hole and of the plate are also given. It is estimated that strains larger than 0.001 can be determined with the techniques and methods used. (U.S.)

  19. Hydrogen permeation inhibition by zinc-nickel alloy plating on steel XC68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajjami, A.; Gigandet, M.P.; De Petris-Wery, M.; Catonne, J.C.; Duprat, J.J.; Thiery, L.; Raulin, F.; Starck, B.; Remy, P.

    2008-01-01

    The inhibition of hydrogen permeation and barrier effect by zinc-nickel plating was investigated using the Devanathan-Stachurski permeation technique. The hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion for the zinc-nickel (12-15%) plating on steel XC68 is compared with zinc and nickel. Hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion were followed as functions of time at current density applied (cathodic side) and potential permanent (anodic side). The hydrogen permeation inhibition for zinc-nickel is intermediate to that of nickel and zinc. This inhibition was due to nickel-rich layer effects at the Zn-Ni alloy/substrate interface, is shown by GDOES. Zinc-nickel plating inhibited the hydrogen diffusion greater as compared to zinc. This diffusion resistance was due to the barrier effect caused by the nickel which is present at the interface and transformed the hydrogen atomic to Ni 2 H compound, as shown by GIXRD.

  20. Hydrogen permeation inhibition by zinc-nickel alloy plating on steel XC68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajjami, A. [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Sonochimie et Reactivite des Surfaces, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Coventya S.A.S., 51 rue Pierre, 92588 Clichy Cedex (France); Gigandet, M.P. [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Sonochimie et Reactivite des Surfaces, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)], E-mail: marie-pierre.gigandet@univ-fcomte.fr; De Petris-Wery, M. [Institut Universitaire de Technologie d' Orsay, Universite Paris XI, Plateau de Moulon, 91400 Orsay (France); Catonne, J.C. [Professeur Honoraire du Conservatoire national des arts et metiers (CNAM), Paris (France); Duprat, J.J.; Thiery, L.; Raulin, F. [Coventya S.A.S., 51 rue Pierre, 92588 Clichy Cedex (France); Starck, B.; Remy, P. [Lisi Automotive, 28 faubourg de Belfort, BP 19, 90101 Delle Cedex (France)

    2008-12-30

    The inhibition of hydrogen permeation and barrier effect by zinc-nickel plating was investigated using the Devanathan-Stachurski permeation technique. The hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion for the zinc-nickel (12-15%) plating on steel XC68 is compared with zinc and nickel. Hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion were followed as functions of time at current density applied (cathodic side) and potential permanent (anodic side). The hydrogen permeation inhibition for zinc-nickel is intermediate to that of nickel and zinc. This inhibition was due to nickel-rich layer effects at the Zn-Ni alloy/substrate interface, is shown by GDOES. Zinc-nickel plating inhibited the hydrogen diffusion greater as compared to zinc. This diffusion resistance was due to the barrier effect caused by the nickel which is present at the interface and transformed the hydrogen atomic to Ni{sub 2}H compound, as shown by GIXRD.

  1. Fingerprint Matching by Thin-plate Spline Modelling of Elastic Deformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Gerez, Sabih H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel minutiae matching method that describes elastic distortions in fingerprints by means of a thin-plate spline model, which is estimated using a local and a global matching stage. After registration of the fingerprints according to the estimated model, the number of matching

  2. Spectral and directional radiation characteristics of thin-film coated isothermal semitransparent plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R P; Viskanta, R

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented for predicting the effective spectral directional radiation characteristics of an isothermal, semitransparent sheet surrounded on both sides by massive dielectrics. The sheet can be coated with an optically thin film and used as selective cover plates for solar collectors. Directional and polarization effects and the spectral transmittance and reflectance are considered. Sample results for candidate materials are presented.

  3. Flow influence on a mode of flow choking in the airfoil cascade of the thin plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л.Г. Волянська

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  Flow of viscous compressible gas is considered in the airfoil cascade of the thin plates with great negative angle of attack. Influence of wall boundary layer upon a mode of  flow choking in the airfoil cascade is estimated in the article.

  4. 76 FR 25666 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium: Final Results of Full Sunset Review and Revocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Corporation and the United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and... included in the scope of the AD orders on SSPC from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, the Republic of Korea... Certain Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, and the...

  5. Employment of fluorine doped zinc tin oxide (ZnSnOx:F) coating layer on stainless steel 316 for a bipolar plate for PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Hun; Byun, Dongjin; Lee, Joong Kee

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Preparation of fluorine doped tin oxide (SnOx:F) and fluorine doped zinc tin oxide (ZnSnOx:F) coating layer on the surface of stainless steel 316 bipolar plate for PEMFCs (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells). → Evaluations of the corrosion resistance and the interfacial contact resistance of the bare, SnOx:F and ZnSnOx:F thin film coated stainless steel 316 bipolar plates. → Evaluation of single cell performance such as cell voltage and power density using bare stainless steel, SnOx:F and ZnSnOx:F film coated bipolar plates. - Abstract: The investigation of the electrochemical characteristics of the fluorine doped tin oxide (SnOx:F) and fluorine doped zinc tin oxide (ZnSnOx:F) was carried out in the simulated PEMFC environment and bare stainless steel 316 was used as a reference. The results showed that the ZnSnOx:F coating enhanced both the corrosion resistance and interfacial contact resistance (ICR). The corrosion current for ZnSnOx:F was 1.2 μA cm -2 which was much lower than that of bare stainless steel of 50.16 μA cm -2 . The ZnSnOx:F coated film had the smallest corrosion current due to the formation of a tight surface morphology with very few pin-holes. The ZnSnOx:F coated film exhibited the highest values of the cell voltage and power density due to its having the lowest ICR values.

  6. Preparation of diamond like carbon thin film on stainless steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diamond-like carbon; buffer layer; plasma CVD; surface characterization; biomedical applications. Abstract. We report the formation of a very smooth, continuous and homogeneous diamond-like carbon DLC thin coating over a bare stainless steel surface without the need for a thin Si/Cr/Ni/Mo/W/TiN/TiC interfacial layer.

  7. Analysis of the Behaviour of Semi Rigid Steel End Plate Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaz A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of steel-framed building structures with full strength beam to column joints is quite standard nowadays. Buildings utilizing such framing systems are widely used in design practice. However, there is a growing recognition of significant benefits in designing joints as partial strength/semi-rigid. The design of joints within this partial strength/semi-rigid approach is becoming more and more popular. This requires the knowledge of the full nonlinear moment-rotation behaviour of the joint, which is also a design parameter. The rotational behaviour of steel semi rigid connections can be studied using the finite element method for the following three reasons: i such models are inexpensive; ii they allow the understanding of local effects, which are difficult to measure accurately physically, and iii they can be used to generate extensive parametric studies. This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element model using ABAQUS software in order to identify the effect of different parameters on the behaviour of semi rigid steel beam to column end plate connections. Contact and sliding between different elements, bolt pretension and geometric and material non-linearity are included in this model. A parametric study is conducted using a model of two end-plate configurations: flush and extended end plates. The studied parameters were as follows: bolts type, end plate thickness and column web stiffener. Then, the model was calibrated and validated with experimental results taken from the literature and with the model proposed by Eurocode3. The procedure for determining the moment–rotation curve using finite element analysis is also given together with a brief explanation of how the design moment resistance and the initial rotational stiffness of the joint are obtained.

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of wall thinning occurred under reinforced plate by MFL method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Hiroaki; Sato, Kaito; Shimizu, Isamu

    2013-01-01

    Basic study on applying magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method using ac excitation to a nondestructive evaluation of wall thinning occurred under reinforcing plates in nuclear power plants were performed. Frequently, MFL method by means of dc field for exciting specimens is adopted, and only intensity of magnetic flux density is evaluated. On the other hand, MFL with alternating current enable us to utilize not only amplitude of magnetic flux density but also phase difference, which contributes to evaluation with higher accuracy. Here, specimens with slit and pipe with imitated wall thinning are prepared and magnetized using magnetic yoke with ac field, and then the leakage magnetic flux density and the phase difference on the specimen surface are investigated. Additionally, specimens imitated wall thinning occurred under reinforcing plates were investigated by MFL with ac excitation. (author)

  9. Sorption and movement of pesticides on thin layer plates of Brazilain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, K.A.; Helene, C.G.; Andrea, M.M. de; Ruegg, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption from aqueous solution, and movement in water on thin layers plates of 7 soils of 3 organochlorine, 2 organophosphorus and 1 carbamate insecticide was determined in the laboratory. Generally, all substances were sorbed most and moved least on soils richest in organic matter. However, sorption was not a function of organic matter content alone. Aldrin and DDT were most strongly sorbed and did not move from the point of application on the thin layer plates of any soil. On all 7 soils, carbaryl was the least strongly sorbed insecticide. On 5 soils, lindane, parathion and malathion were increasingly strongly sorbed, but on the other 2 soils lindane was mostly strongly sorbed. The apparent greater mobility of 14 C-labelled malathion on thin layers of soils repeatedly leached could be explained by the formation of more polar substances. (author) [pt

  10. Wetting Behavior of Molten AZ61 Magnesium Alloy on Two Different Steel Plates Under the Cold Metal Transfer Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZENG Cheng-zong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The wetting behavior and interfacial microstructures of molten magnesium AZ61 alloy on the surface of two different Q235 and galvanized steel plates under the condition of cold metal transfer were investigated by using dynamic sessile drop method. The results show that the wetting behavior is closely related to the wire feed speed. Al-Fe intermetallic layer was observed whether the substrate is Q235 steel or galvanized steel, and the formation of Al-Fe intermetallic layer should satisfy the thermodynamic condition of such Mg-Al/Fe system. The wettability of molten AZ61 magnesium alloy is improved with the increase of wire feed speed whether on Q235 steel surface or on galvanized steel surface, good wettability on Q235 steel surface is due to severe interface reaction when wire feed speed increases, good wettability on galvanized steel surface is attributed to the aggravating zinc volatilization. When the wire feed speed is ≤10.5m·min-1, the wettability of Mg alloy on Q235 steel plate is better than on galvanized steel plate. However, Zn vapor will result in instability for metal transfer process.

  11. Corrosion resistance of a magnetic stainless steel ion-plated with titanium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, K; Sawase, T; Matsumura, H; Atsuta, M; Baba, K; Hatada, R

    2000-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the corrosion resistance of a titanium nitride (TiN) ion-plated magnetic stainless steel (447J1) for the purpose of applying a magnetic attachment system to implant-supported prostheses made of titanium. The surface hardness of the TiN ion-plated 447J1 alloy with varying TiN thickness was determined prior to the corrosion testing, and 2 micrometers thickness was confirmed to be appropriate. Ions released from the 447J1 alloy, TiN ion-plated 447J1 alloy, and titanium into a 2% lactic acid aqueous solution and 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were determined by means of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Long-term corrosion behaviour was evaluated using a multisweep cyclic voltammetry. The ICP-AES results revealed that the 447J1 alloy released ferric ions into both media, and that the amount of released ions increased when the alloy was coupled with titanium. Although both titanium and the TiN-plated 447J1 alloy released titanium ions into lactic acid solution, ferric and chromium ions were not released from the alloy specimen for all conditions. Cyclic voltamograms indicated that the long-term corrosion resistance of the 447J1 alloy was considerably improved by ion-plating with TiN.

  12. Experiment and simulation analysis of roll-bonded Q235 steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, G.; Huang, Q.; Zhou, C.; Zhang, Z.; Ma, L.; Wang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-gauge Q235 steel plate was roll bonded, and the process was simulated using MARC software. Ultrasonic testing results revealed the presence of cracks and lamination defects in an 80-mm clad steel sheet, especially at the head and tail of the steel plate. There were non-uniform ferrite + pearlite microstructures and unbound areas at a bond interface. Through scanning electron microscopy analysis, long cracks and additional inclusions in the cracks were observed at the interface. A fracture analysis revealed non-uniform inclusions that pervaded the interface. Moreover, MARC simulations demonstrated that there was little equivalent strain at the centre of the slab during the first rolling pass. The equivalent centre increased to 0.5 by the fourth rolling pass. Prior to the final pass, the equivalent strain was not consistent across the thickness direction, preventing bonding interfaces from forming consistent deformation and decreasing the residual stress. The initial rolling reduction rate should not be very small (e.g. 5%) as it is averse to the coordination of rolling deformation. Such rolling processes are averse to the rolling bond. (Author)

  13. Modeling of damage evaluation in thin composite plate loaded by pressure loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudinský M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of numerical analysis of elastic damage of thin laminated long fiber-reinforced composite plate consisting of unidirectional layers which is loaded by uniformly distributed pressure. The analysis has been performed by means of the finite element method (FEM. The numerical implementation uses layered plate finite elements based on the Kirchhoff plate theory. System of nonlinear equations has been solved by means of the Newton- Raphson procedure. Evolution of damage has been solved using the return-mapping algorithm based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM. The analysis was performed using own program created in MATLAB. Problem of laminated fiber-reinforced composite plate fixed on edges for two different materials and three different laminate stacking sequences (LSS was simulated. Evolution of stresses vs. strains and also evolution of damage variables in critical points of the structure are shown.

  14. Degradation of the compressive strength of unstiffened/stiffened steel plates due to both-sides randomly distributed corrosion wastage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorareh Hadj Mohammad

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of the influence of randomly distributed corrosion wastage on the collapse strength and behaviour of unstiffened/stiffened steel plates in longitudinal compression. A series of elastic-plastic large deflection finite element analyses is performed on both-sides randomly corroded steel plates and stiffened plates. The effects of general corrosion are introduced into the finite element models using a novel random thickness surface model. Buckling strength, post-buckling behaviour, ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of the models are investigated as results of both-sides random corrosion.

  15. X-Ray diffraction technique applied to study of residual stresses after welding of duplex stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monin, Vladimir Ivanovitch; Assis, Joaquim Teixeira de; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Turibus, Sergio Noleto; Payao Filho, Joao C.

    2014-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel is an example of composite material with approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite phases. Difference of physical and mechanical properties of component is additional factor that contributes appearance of residual stresses after welding of duplex steel plates. Measurements of stress distributions in weld region were made by X-ray diffraction method both in ferrite and austenite phases. Duplex Steel plates were joined by GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) technology. There were studied longitudinal and transverse stress components in welded butt joint, in heat affected zone (HAZ) and in points of base metal 10 mm from the weld. Residual stresses measured in duplex steel plates jointed by welding are caused by temperature gradients between weld zone and base metal and by difference of thermal expansion coefficients of ferrite and austenite phases. Proposed analytical model allows evaluating of residual stress distribution over the cross section in the weld region. (author)

  16. A preliminary study on the local impact behavior of Steel-plate Concrete walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kap-sun; Moon, Il-hwan; Choi, Hyung-jin; Nam, Deok-woo

    2017-01-01

    International regulations for nuclear power plants strictly prescribe the design requirements for local impact loads, such as aircraft engine impact, and internal and external missile impact. However, the local impact characteristics of Steel-plate Concrete (SC) walls are not easy to evaluate precisely because the dynamic impact behavior of SC walls which include external steel plate, internal concrete, tie-bars, and studs, is so complex. In this study, dynamic impact characteristics of SC walls subjected to local missile impact load are investigated via actual high-speed impact test and numerical simulation. Three velocity checkout tests and four SC wall tests were performed at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) site in the USA. Initial and residual velocity of the missile, strain and acceleration of the back plate, local failure mode (penetration, bulging, splitting and perforation) and deformation size, etc. were measured to study the local behavior of the specimen using high speed cameras and various other instrumentation devices. In addition, a more advanced and applicable numerical simulation method using the finite element (FE) method is proposed and verified by the experimental results. Finally, the experimental results are compared with the local failure evaluation formula for SC walls recently proposed, and future research directions for the development of a refined design method for SC walls are reviewed.

  17. Development of Analytical Method for Predicting Residual Mechanical Properties of Corroded Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. R. S. Appuhamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge infrastructure maintenance and assurance of adequate safety is of paramount importance in transportation engineering and maintenance management industry. Corrosion causes strength deterioration, leading to impairment of its operation and progressive weakening of the structure. Since the actual corroded surfaces are different from each other, only experimental approach is not enough to estimate the remaining strength of corroded members. However, in modern practices, numerical simulation is being used to replace the time-consuming and expensive experimental work and to comprehend on the lack of knowledge on mechanical behavior, stress distribution, ultimate behavior, and so on. This paper presents the nonlinear FEM analyses results of many corroded steel plates and compares them with their respective tensile coupon tests. Further, the feasibility of establishing an accurate analytical methodology to predict the residual strength capacities of a corroded steel member with lesser number of measuring points is also discussed.

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Burnishing Force on Service Properties of AISI 1010 Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, F.; Sghaier, S.; Morel, F.; Benameur, T.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results obtained with a new ball burnishing tool developed for the mechanical treatment of large flat surfaces. Several parameters can affect the mechanical behavior and fatigue of workpiece. Our study focused on the effect of the burnishing force on the surface quality and on the service properties (mechanical behavior, fatigue) of AISI 1010 steel hot-rolled plates. Experimental results assert that burnishing force not exceeding 300 N causes an increase in the ductility. In addition, results indicated that the effect of the burnishing force on the residual surface stress was greater in the direction of advance than in the cross-feed direction. Furthermore, the flat burnishing surfaces did not improve the fatigue strength of AISI 1010 steel flat specimens.

  19. Creep crack growth behaviour of an AISI 316 steel plate for fast reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, D.; Regis, V.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses creep crack growth data obtained at 550, 600 and 650 0 C in air with SENT and CT specimens on type 316 stainless steel plate for LMFBR applications. Crack initiation and crack growth are tentatively correlated to K, sigmasub(net) and J* taking into account the constraint conditions due to specimen geometry. The validity of these parameters is discussed following the concept of transition time from small scale creep at the crack tip to extensive creep within the ligament. Post exposure microstructural and fractographic investigations do evidence that grain deformation processes are mainly responsible for cavity evolution. (orig.)

  20. Stable and unstable crack growth in Type 304 stainless steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, G.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results on stable as well as unstable fractures for Type 304 stainless steel plates with a central crack subjected to tension force are given. In the experiment using a testing machine with a special spring for high compliance, the transition points from the stable to the unstable crack growth are observed and comparisons are made between the test results and the finite element solutions. A round robin calculation for the elastic-plastic stable crack growth using one of the specimens mentioned above is also given. (orig.)

  1. STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF PRECAST BEAM COLUMN JOINT USING STEEL PLATE CONNECTION (JPSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Parung, H.

    2012-01-01

    Joint beam column connection is the most critical part for a structure subjected to earthquake loading. This part should be designed such that any possible failure can be prevented. For a cast in situ structure, any failure in this joint can be prevented if all requirements in the design code are obeyed. For pre-cast construction, structural failure usually occurs at the beam-column connection. The research aimed at studying the strength of precast beam-column joint using steel plate as conne...

  2. The crack growth resistance of thin steel sheets under eccentric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ľ AMBRIŠKO

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... of zinc-coated automotive steel sheets (IF – deep drawing interstitial free steel ..... to determine; therefore, the Ji was determined for observ- able crack initiation .... M R S, da Silva L F M and de Castro P M S T 2011. Analysis of ...

  3. Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from deformable steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woong; Lee, Heon-Joo; Shin, Hyunho

    2002-01-01

    Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from oblique steel plates with a finite thickness was investigated numerically using a full three-dimensional explicit finite element method. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated for various impact velocities and strengths of the target plates. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocities and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models. Experiments were also carried out and the results supported the predictions of the numerical analysis

  4. Vibration-response due to thickness loss on steel plate excited by resonance frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudus, S. A.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Sugiura, K.

    2018-04-01

    The degradation of steel structure due to corrosion is a common problem found especially in the marine structure due to exposure to the harsh marine environment. In order to ensure safety and reliability of marine structure, the damage assessment is an indispensable prerequisite for plan of remedial action on damaged structure. The main goal of this paper is to discuss simple vibration measurement on plated structure to give image on overview condition of the monitored structure. The changes of vibration response when damage was introduced in the plate structure were investigated. The damage on plate was simulated in finite element method as loss of thickness section. The size of damage and depth of loss of thickness were varied for different damage cases. The plate was excited with lower order of resonance frequency in accordance estimate the average remaining thickness based on displacement response obtain in the dynamic analysis. Significant reduction of natural frequency and increasing amplitude of vibration can be observed in the presence of severe damage. The vibration analysis summarized in this study can serve as benchmark and reference for researcher and design engineer.

  5. Nanosized TiN-SBR hybrid coating of stainless steel as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Masanobu; Myung, Seung-Taek; Asaishi, Ryo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Yashiro, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    In attempt to improve interfacial electrical conductivity of stainless steel for bipolar plates of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, TiN nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited on the surface of stainless steel with elastic styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) particles. From transmission electron microscopic observation, it was found that the TiN nanoparticles (ca. 50 nm) surrounded the spherical SBR particles (ca. 300-600 nm), forming agglomerates. They were well adhered on the surface of the type 310S stainless steel. With help of elasticity of SBR, the agglomerates were well fitted into the interfacial gap between gas diffusion layer (GDL) and stainless steel bipolar plate, and the interfacial contact resistance (ICR), simultaneously, was successfully reduced. A single cell using the TiN nanoparticles-coated bipolar plates, consequently, showed comparable cell performance with the graphite employing cell at a current density of 0.5 A cm -2 (12.5 A). Inexpensive TiN nanoparticle-coated type 310S stainless steel bipolar plates would become a possible alternate for the expensive graphite bipolar plates as use in fuel cell applications

  6. Hydrodynamic resistance of the friction plates with longitudinal mikroborizdkamy and thin elastic coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.І. Коробов

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available  Weight measurements in a water tunnel have shown that there exist a range of parameters of longitudinally fine-ribbed surface such that turbulent friction in flow over the surface is less then that over a smooth flat plate of the same projected area. Damping coating made from the thin layer of an elastic material and have interior longitudinal ribs of rigidity (overturn riblets is more effective than usual riblets.

  7. Thin-plate spline (TPS) graphical analysis of the mandible on cephalometric radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H P; Liu, P H; Chang, H F; Chang, C H

    2002-03-01

    We describe two cases of Class III malocclusion with and without orthodontic treatment. A thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs was used to visualize transformations of the mandible. The actual sites of mandibular skeletal change are not detectable with conventional cephalometric analysis. These case analyses indicate that specific patterns of mandibular transformation are associated with Class III malocclusion with or without orthopaedic therapy, and visualization of these deformations is feasible using TPS graphical analysis.

  8. Thin layer chromatography of glucose and sorbitol on Cu(II)-impregnated silica gel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadzija, O. (Ruder Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)); Spoljar, B. (Ruder Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)); Sesartic, L. (Inst. of Immunology, Zagreb (Croatia))

    1994-04-01

    A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separation of glucose and sorbitol on CU(II)-impregnated silica gel plates with n-propanol: Water (4:1) v/v as developer and potassium permanganate as detecting reagent has been worked out. The new impregnant is completely insoluble in water and thus enables the use of an aqueous developer. The R[sub f]-values are 55 and 10 for glucose and sorbitol, respectively. (orig.)

  9. Landmark-based elastic registration using approximating thin-plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, K; Stiehl, H S; Sprengel, R; Buzug, T M; Weese, J; Kuhn, M H

    2001-06-01

    We consider elastic image registration based on a set of corresponding anatomical point landmarks and approximating thin-plate splines. This approach is an extension of the original interpolating thin-plate spline approach and allows to take into account landmark localization errors. The extension is important for clinical applications since landmark extraction is always prone to error. Our approach is based on a minimizing functional and can cope with isotropic as well as anisotropic landmark errors. In particular, in the latter case it is possible to include different types of landmarks, e.g., unique point landmarks as well as arbitrary edge points. Also, the scheme is general with respect to the image dimension and the order of smoothness of the underlying functional. Optimal affine transformations as well as interpolating thin-plate splines are special cases of this scheme. To localize landmarks we use a semi-automatic approach which is based on three-dimensional (3-D) differential operators. Experimental results are presented for two-dimensional as well as 3-D tomographic images of the human brain.

  10. Investigation of phase transformation for ferrite–austenite structure in stainless steel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merakeb, Noureddine [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy and Property of Materials (LM2PM), Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Badji Mokhtar University, P.O. Box 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria); Messai, Amel [Laboratoire d' Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux Avancés (ISMA), Institut des Sciences et Technologie, Abbès Laghrour University, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Ayesh, Ahmad I., E-mail: ayesh@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-05-01

    In this work we report on phase transformation of 304 stainless steel thin films due to heat treatment. Ex-situ annealing was applied for evaporated 304 stainless steel thin films inside an ultra-high vacuum chamber with a pressure of 3 × 10{sup −7} Pa at temperatures of 500 °C and 600 °C. The structure of thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) techniques. The results revealed a transformation from α-phase that exhibits a body-centered cubic structure (BCC) to γ-phase that exhibits a face-centered cubic (FCC) due to annealing. In addition, the percentage of γ-phase structure increased with the increase of annealing temperature. Annealing thin films increased the crystal size of both phases (α and γ), however, the increase was nonlinear. The results also showed that phase transformation was produced by recrystallization of α and γ crystals with a temporal evolution at each annealing temperature. The texture degree of thin films was investigated by XRD rocking curve method, while residual stress was evaluated using curvature method. - Highlights: • Stainless steel thin films were fabricated by thermal evaporation on quartz. • Alpha to gamma phase transformation of thin films was investigated. • Annealing of thin films reduces disruption in crystal lattice. • The stress of as-grown thin films was independent on the thin film thickness. • The stress of the thin films was reduced due to annealing.

  11. A pinned or free-floating rigid plate on a thin viscous film

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Philippe  H.; Wilson, Stephen  K.; Stone, Howard  A.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Cambridge University Press. A pinned or free-floating rigid plate lying on the free surface of a thin film of viscous fluid, which itself lies on top of a horizontal substrate that is moving to the right at a constant speed is considered. The focus of the present work is to describe how the competing effects of the speed of the substrate, surface tension, viscosity, and, in the case of a pinned plate, the prescribed pressure in the reservoir of fluid at its upstream end, determine the possible equilibrium positions of the plate, the free surface, and the flow within the film. The present problems are of interest both in their own right as paradigms for a range of fluid-structure interaction problems in which viscosity and surface tension both play an important role, and as a first step towards the study of elastic effects.

  12. A pinned or free-floating rigid plate on a thin viscous film

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Philippe H.

    2014-11-11

    © 2014 Cambridge University Press. A pinned or free-floating rigid plate lying on the free surface of a thin film of viscous fluid, which itself lies on top of a horizontal substrate that is moving to the right at a constant speed is considered. The focus of the present work is to describe how the competing effects of the speed of the substrate, surface tension, viscosity, and, in the case of a pinned plate, the prescribed pressure in the reservoir of fluid at its upstream end, determine the possible equilibrium positions of the plate, the free surface, and the flow within the film. The present problems are of interest both in their own right as paradigms for a range of fluid-structure interaction problems in which viscosity and surface tension both play an important role, and as a first step towards the study of elastic effects.

  13. Treatment of Industrial Liquid Waste of Steel Plating by Coagulation-Flocculation Using Sodium Biphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subiarto; Herlan Martono

    2007-01-01

    Research about treatment of industrial liquid waste of steel plating by coagulation-flocculation using sodium biphosphate have been conducted. The purpose of the treatment was the content reduction of Cr, Ni, and Cu in the liquid waste, so that produced effluent with Cr, Ni, and Cu content until they laid under mutual standard. The variables studied in this process were the solution pH, the coagulant/waste volume comparison, the speed of the fast stirring, and the time of the fast stirring. Optimum separation efficiency on coagulation-flocculation process of liquid waste of steel plating using sodium biphosphate at the condition of solution ph 9, coagulant/waste volume comparation 1.50, the speed of the fast stirring 400 rpm, and the time of fast stirring is 5 minute. Low stirring was conducted at 60 rpm for 60 minute. The yields of optimum separation efficiency in this condition were 99.48 % for Cr, 99.51 % for Ni, and 99.03 % for Cu. (author)

  14. Modeling Fragment Simulating Projectile Penetration into Steel Plates Using Finite Elements and Meshfree Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O’Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulating fragment penetration into steel involves complicated modeling of severe behavior of the materials through multiple phases of response. Penetration of a fragment-like projectile was simulated using finite element (FE and meshfree particle formulations. Extreme deformation and failure of the material during the penetration event were modeled with several approaches to evaluate each as to how well it represents the actual physics of the material and structural response. A steel Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP – designed to simulate a fragment of metal from a weapon casing – was simulated for normal impact into a flat square plate. A range of impact velocities was used to examine levels of exit velocity ranging from relatively small to one on the same level as the impact velocity. The numerical code EPIC, used for all the simulations presented herein, contains the element and particle formulations, as well as the explicit methodology and constitutive models needed to perform these simulations. These simulations were compared against experimental data, evaluating the damage caused to the projectile and the target plates, as well as comparing the residual velocity when the projectile perforated the target.

  15. Effects of multi-pass arc welding on mechanical properties of carbon steel C25 plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adedayo, S.M.; Babatunde, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of multi-pass welding on mechanical properties of C25 carbon steel plate were examined. Mild steel plate workpieces of 90 x 55 mm 2 area and 10 mm thickness with a 30 degrees vee weld-grooves were subjected to single and multi-pass welding. Toughness, hardness and tensile tests of single and multi-pass welds were conducted. Toughness values of the welds under double pass welds were higher than both single pass and unwelded alloy, at respective maximum values of 2464, 2342 and 2170 kN/m. Hardness values were reduced under double pass relative to single pass welding with both being lower than the value for unwelded alloy; the values were 40.5, 43.2 and 48.5 Rs respectively at 12 mm from the weld line. The tensile strength of 347 N/mm 2 under multi-pass weld was higher than single pass weld with value of 314 N/mm 2 . Therefore, the temperature distribution and apparent pre-heating during multi-pass welding increased the toughness and tensile strength of the weldments, but reduced the hardness. (au)

  16. Characterization and cytotoxic assessment of ballistic aerosol particulates for tungsten alloy penetrators into steel target plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Brenda I; Murr, Lawrence E; Suro, Raquel M; Gaytan, Sara M; Ramirez, Diana A; Garza, Kristine M; Schuster, Brian E

    2010-09-01

    The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co) perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military vehicle penetration, are of concern for potential health effects, especially as a consequence of being inhaled. In a controlled volume containing 10 equispaced steel target plates, particulates were systematically collected onto special filters. Filter collections were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) which included energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry (EDS). Dark-field TEM identified a significant nanoparticle concentration while EDS in the SEM identified the propensity of mass fraction particulates to consist of Fe and FeO, representing target erosion and formation of an accumulating debris field. Direct exposure of human epithelial cells (A549), a model for lung tissue, to particulates (especially nanoparticulates) collected on individual filters demonstrated induction of rapid and global cell death to the extent that production of inflammatory cytokines was entirely inhibited. These observations along with comparisons of a wide range of other nanoparticulate species exhibiting cell death in A549 culture may suggest severe human toxicity potential for inhaled ballistic aerosol, but the complexity of the aerosol (particulate) mix has not yet allowed any particular chemical composition to be identified.

  17. Characterization and Cytotoxic Assessment of Ballistic Aerosol Particulates for Tungsten Alloy Penetrators into Steel Target Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Schuster

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military vehicle penetration, are of concern for potential health effects, especially as a consequence of being inhaled. In a controlled volume containing 10 equispaced steel target plates, particulates were systematically collected onto special filters. Filter collections were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM which included energy-dispersive (X-ray spectrometry (EDS. Dark-field TEM identified a significant nanoparticle concentration while EDS in the SEM identified the propensity of mass fraction particulates to consist of Fe and FeO, representing target erosion and formation of an accumulating debris field. Direct exposure of human epithelial cells (A549, a model for lung tissue, to particulates (especially nanoparticulates collected on individual filters demonstrated induction of rapid and global cell death to the extent that production of inflammatory cytokines was entirely inhibited. These observations along with comparisons of a wide range of other nanoparticulate species exhibiting cell death in A549 culture may suggest severe human toxicity potential for inhaled ballistic aerosol, but the complexity of the aerosol (particulate mix has not yet allowed any particular chemical composition to be identified.

  18. Investigation of the Section Thickness Measurement in Tomosynthesis by Thin Metal Plate Edge Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Kaoru; Akita, Tsunemichi; Hanai, Kozo; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa

    When performing tomosynthesis, the section thickness needs to be set depending on a radiographic part and its diagnostic purpose. However, the section thickness in tomosynthesis has not been clearly defined and its measurement method has not been established yet. In this study, we devised the alternative measurement method to diagnose the section thickness using an edge of thin metal plate, and compared with the simulation results, the wire and bead method reported in the previous papers. The tomographic image of the thin metal plate positioned on the table top inclining 30 degrees, which showed the edge spread function (ESF) of each tomographic height, was taken, and then the line spread function (LSF) was obtained by differentiating the ESF image. For the next, a profile curve was plotted by maximum values of LSF of each tomographic height, and a section thickness was calculated using the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the profile curve. The edge method derived the section thickness close to the simulation results than the other methods. Further, the section thickness depends on the thickness of the metal plate and not the material. The thickness of the metal plate suitable for the evaluation of section thickness is 0.3 mm that is equivalent to pixel size of the flat panel detector (FPD). We conducted quantitative verification to establish the measurement method of the section thickness. The edge method is a useful technique as well as the wire and bead method for grasping basic characteristics of an imaging system.

  19. Vortex Shedding Characteristics of the Wake of a Thin Flat Plate with a Circular Trailing Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2018-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a thin flat plate with a circular trailing edge are investigated with direct numerical simulations (DNS). Data obtained for two different Reynolds numbers (based on plate thickness, D) are the main focus of this study. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in both cases. An earlier investigation of one of the cases (Case F) showed shed vortices in the wake that were about 1.0 D to 4.0 D in spanwise length. Considerable variation in both the strength and frequency of these shed vortices was observed. One objective of the present investigation is to determine the important contributors to this variability in strength and frequency of shed vortices and their finite spanwise extent. Analysis of the data shows that streamwise vortices in the separating boundary layer play an important role in strengthening/weakening of the shed vortices and that high/low-speed streaks in the boundary layer are important contributors to variability in shedding frequency. Both these features of the boundary layer contribute to the finite extent of the vortices in the spanwise direction. The second plate DNS (Case G, with 40 percent of the plate thickness of Case F) shows that while shedding intensity is weaker than obtained in Case F, many of the wake features are similar to that of Case F. This is important in understanding the path to the wake of the thin plate with a sharp trailing edge where shedding is absent. Here we also test the efficacy of a functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers based on the boundary layer momentum thickness (Re (sub theta) and D (Re (sub D)); data for developing this behavioral model is from Cases F & G and five earlier DNSs of the flat plate wake.

  20. Assessment of wall-thinning in carbon steel pipe by using laser-generated guided wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Yong; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun [Pusan National University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this research is to estimate the crack location and size of a carbon steel pipe by using a laser ultrasound guided wave for the wall thinning evaluation of an elbow. The wall thinning of the carbon steel pipe is one of the most serious problems in nuclear power plants, especially the wall thinning of the carbon steel elbow caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Therefore, a non-destructive inspection method of elbow is essential for the nuclear power plants to operate safely. The specimens used in this study were carbon steel elbows, which represented the main elements of real nuclear power plants. The shape of the wall thinning was an oval with a width of 120mm, a length of 80mm, and a depth of 5mm. The L(0,1) and L(0,2) modes variation of the ultrasound guided wave signal is obtained from the response of the laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic hybrid system represent the characteristics of the defect. The trends of these characteristics and signal processing were use dto estimate the size and location of wall thinning

  1. Assessment of wall-thinning in carbon steel pipe by using laser-generated guided wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Yong; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to estimate the crack location and size of a carbon steel pipe by using a laser ultrasound guided wave for the wall thinning evaluation of an elbow. The wall thinning of the carbon steel pipe is one of the most serious problems in nuclear power plants, especially the wall thinning of the carbon steel elbow caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Therefore, a non-destructive inspection method of elbow is essential for the nuclear power plants to operate safely. The specimens used in this study were carbon steel elbows, which represented the main elements of real nuclear power plants. The shape of the wall thinning was an oval with a width of 120mm, a length of 80mm, and a depth of 5mm. The L(0,1) and L(0,2) modes variation of the ultrasound guided wave signal is obtained from the response of the laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic hybrid system represent the characteristics of the defect. The trends of these characteristics and signal processing were use dto estimate the size and location of wall thinning

  2. Correcting bias in the rational polynomial coefficients of satellite imagery using thin-plate smoothing splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiang; Liu, Bin; Li, Qing-Quan

    2017-03-01

    The Rational Function Model (RFM) has proven to be a viable alternative to the rigorous sensor models used for geo-processing of high-resolution satellite imagery. Because of various errors in the satellite ephemeris and instrument calibration, the Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs) supplied by image vendors are often not sufficiently accurate, and there is therefore a clear need to correct the systematic biases in order to meet the requirements of high-precision topographic mapping. In this paper, we propose a new RPC bias-correction method using the thin-plate spline modeling technique. Benefiting from its excellent performance and high flexibility in data fitting, the thin-plate spline model has the potential to remove complex distortions in vendor-provided RPCs, such as the errors caused by short-period orbital perturbations. The performance of the new method was evaluated by using Ziyuan-3 satellite images and was compared against the recently developed least-squares collocation approach, as well as the classical affine-transformation and quadratic-polynomial based methods. The results show that the accuracies of the thin-plate spline and the least-squares collocation approaches were better than the other two methods, which indicates that strong non-rigid deformations exist in the test data because they cannot be adequately modeled by simple polynomial-based methods. The performance of the thin-plate spline method was close to that of the least-squares collocation approach when only a few Ground Control Points (GCPs) were used, and it improved more rapidly with an increase in the number of redundant observations. In the test scenario using 21 GCPs (some of them located at the four corners of the scene), the correction residuals of the thin-plate spline method were about 36%, 37%, and 19% smaller than those of the affine transformation method, the quadratic polynomial method, and the least-squares collocation algorithm, respectively, which demonstrates

  3. Complexing agent and heavy metal removals from metal plating effluent by electrocoagulation with stainless steel electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabdaşli, Işik; Arslan, Tülin; Olmez-Hanci, Tuğba; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Tünay, Olcay

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, the treatability of a metal plating wastewater containing complexed metals originating from the nickel and zinc plating process by electrocoagulation using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The study focused on the effect of important operation parameters on electrocoagulation process performance in terms of organic complex former, nickel and zinc removals as well as sludge production and specific energy consumption. The results indicated that increasing the applied current density from 2.25 to 9.0 mA/cm(2) appreciably enhanced TOC removal efficiency from 20% to 66%, but a further increase in the applied current density to 56.25 mA/cm(2) did not accelerate TOC removal rates. Electrolyte concentration did not affect the process performance significantly and the highest TOC reduction (66%) accompanied with complete heavy metal removals were achieved at the original chloride content ( approximately 1500 mg Cl/L) of the wastewater sample. Nickel removal performance was adversely affected by the decrease of initial pH from its original value of 6. Optimum working conditions for electrocoagulation of metal plating effluent were established as follows: an applied current density of 9 mA/cm(2), the effluent's original electrolyte concentration and pH of the composite sample. TOC removal rates obtained for all electrocoagulation runs fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well (R(2)>92-99).

  4. Non-linear analysis of skew thin plate by finite difference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chi Kyung; Hwang, Myung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a discrete analysis capability for predicting the geometrically nonlinear behavior of skew thin plate subjected to uniform pressure. The differential equations are discretized by means of the finite difference method which are used to determine the deflections and the in-plane stress functions of plates and reduced to several sets of linear algebraic simultaneous equations. For the geometrically non-linear, large deflection behavior of the plate, the non-linear plate theory is used for the analysis. An iterative scheme is employed to solve these quasi-linear algebraic equations. Several problems are solved which illustrate the potential of the method for predicting the finite deflection and stress. For increasing lateral pressures, the maximum principal tensile stress occurs at the center of the plate and migrates toward the corners as the load increases. It was deemed important to describe the locations of the maximum principal tensile stress as it occurs. The load-deflection relations and the maximum bending and membrane stresses for each case are presented and discussed

  5. Moessbauer and XRD study of pulse plated Fe-P and Fe-Ni thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miko, Annamaria [Bay Zoltan Institute for Material Science (Hungary); Kuzmann, Erno, E-mail: kuzmann@para.chem.elte.hu [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry (Hungary); Lakatos-Varsanyi, Magda [Bay Zoltan Institute for Material Science (Hungary); Kakay, Attila [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics (Hungary); Nagy, Ferenc [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry (Hungary); Varga, Lajos Karoly [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics (Hungary)

    2005-09-15

    {sup 57}Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical and magnetic measurements were used to study pulse electroplated Fe-P and Ni-Fe coatings. XRD and {sup 57}Fe CEMS measurements revealed the amorphous character of the novel pulse plated Fe-P alloys. CEM spectra indicated significant differences in the short range order and in the magnetic anisotropy between the Fe-P deposits pulse plated at medium long deposition time (t{sub on} = 2 ms), with short relaxation time (t{sub off} = 9 ms) and low current density (I{sub p} = 0.05 Acm{sup -2}) or at short deposition time (t{sub on} = 1 ms) with long relaxation time (t{sub off} = 250 ms) and high current density (I{sub p} = 1.0 Acm{sup -2}). The broad peaks centred around the fcc reflections in XRD of the pulse plated Ni-22 wt.% Fe deposit reflected a microcrystalline Ni-Fe alloy with a very fine, 5-8 nm, grain size. The CEM spectrum of the pulse plated Ni-22 wt.% Fe coating corresponded to a highly disordered solid solution alloy containing a minute amount of ferrihydrite. Extreme favourable soft magnetic properties were observed with these Ni-Fe and Fe-P pulse plated thin layers.

  6. Moessbauer and XRD study of pulse plated Fe-P and Fe-Ni thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miko, Annamaria; Kuzmann, Erno; Lakatos-Varsanyi, Magda; Kakay, Attila; Nagy, Ferenc; Varga, Lajos Karoly

    2005-01-01

    57 Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical and magnetic measurements were used to study pulse electroplated Fe-P and Ni-Fe coatings. XRD and 57 Fe CEMS measurements revealed the amorphous character of the novel pulse plated Fe-P alloys. CEM spectra indicated significant differences in the short range order and in the magnetic anisotropy between the Fe-P deposits pulse plated at medium long deposition time (t on = 2 ms), with short relaxation time (t off = 9 ms) and low current density (I p = 0.05 Acm -2 ) or at short deposition time (t on = 1 ms) with long relaxation time (t off = 250 ms) and high current density (I p = 1.0 Acm -2 ). The broad peaks centred around the fcc reflections in XRD of the pulse plated Ni-22 wt.% Fe deposit reflected a microcrystalline Ni-Fe alloy with a very fine, 5-8 nm, grain size. The CEM spectrum of the pulse plated Ni-22 wt.% Fe coating corresponded to a highly disordered solid solution alloy containing a minute amount of ferrihydrite. Extreme favourable soft magnetic properties were observed with these Ni-Fe and Fe-P pulse plated thin layers.

  7. The effects of deoxidation practice on the quality of thin foil low-carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Batista R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In converter steelmaking of AISI 1006 steel for thin foil products, two tapping practices are used with respect to deoxidation: silicon and manganese additions during tapping and aluminum deoxidation after complete tapping (“semikilled practice” and aluminum deoxidation during tapping, “fully killed practice”. There is a perception that the semikilled practice may be more economical and result in the same quality as the fully killed practice. In this work, the effects of the tapping practice on steel quality and cost variables were evaluated for thin foils of AISI 1006 steel. Oxygen and aluminum content, aluminum and ferro-alloy yield, the type of alumina inclusions formed, and the quality of the steel during thin foil rolling were evaluated and compared. It is shown that the fully killed practice leads to less reoxidation from slag, lower soluble oxygen, and lower total oxygen at the caster as well as better morphology of the remaining alumina inclusions than the semi-killed practice. Thus, the higher quality of the steel produced via the fully killed tapping deoxidation practice when compared with semi-killed tapping is demonstrated. It is also shown that a complete cost evaluation favors this practice in the case of products rolled for tin foil production.

  8. 75 FR 10207 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...-Quality Steel Plate From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate from the Republic of Korea and the intent to rescind the... 1, 2008, through January 31, 2009. We have rescinded the review with respect to one company and we...

  9. Finite Element Modelling of Bends and Creases during Folding Ultra Thin Stainless Steel Foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Akagi, H.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han

    2003-01-01

    Finite Element Modelling of an ultra thin foil of SUS 304 stainless steel is carried out. These foils are 20 mm and below in thickness. The development of stresses and strains during folding of these foils is studied. The objective of this study is to induce qualities of paper in the foils of

  10. Identification and measurement of dirt composition of manufactured steel plates using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzi, Daniel J O; Bilmes, Gabriel M

    2004-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used for the characterization of the main components of the surface residual dirt produced in cold-rolled steel plates as a consequence of the manufacturing stages. At laser fluences between 0.05 J/cm(2) manufacturing process carbon residuals can also be found. By measuring light emission from the lambda = 495.9 nm line of Fe(I) after laser ablation, we developed a real-time on-line method for the determination of the concentration of iron particles present in the surface dirt. The obtained results open new possibilities in the design of real-time instruments for industrial applications as a quality control of products and processes.

  11. Fabrication and properties of strip casting 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu, Guoqing, E-mail: gz854@uowmail.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Zhang, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhao, Jingwei [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang, Yuqian [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yan, Yi [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Li, Chengang; Cao, Guangming [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiang, Zhengyi [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2017-02-15

    Three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with different thicknesses were efficiently fabricated by twin-roll strip casting, warm rolling and cold rolling followed by final annealing. A comprehensive investigation from the workability of the as-cast strip to the magnetic property of the produces was performed to illustrate the superiority of the new materials. The results show that the as-cast strip, which has a much lower Vickers hardness than that of the 6.5 wt% Si steel, is suitable for rolling processing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm that no ordering phase exists in the as-cast strip. The cold-rolled thin sheets exhibit good surface quality without edge cracks. Furthermore, all the three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets possess relative strong <100>//ND texture and present high magnetic inductions and low iron losses after finial annealing. - Highlights: • 4.5 wt% Si as-cast sheet with excellent workability was produced by strip casting. • Three 4.5 wt% Si thin sheets were effectively fabricated by warm and cold rolling. • The microstructure and macro-texture of the thin sheets were elucidated. • High magnetic inductions and low iron losses were achieved simultaneously.

  12. Development of wear resistant zirconium oxide thin films on stainless steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Then, I.K.; Mujahid, M.; Zhang, B.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals specifically with the development of zirconium oxide thin film coatings on the stainless steel orthodontic bracket system by sputtering technique. Thin films of zirconium oxide have been deposited on injection molded stainless steel substrates using sputtering under controlled temperature and environment conditions. The deposited films, 1.5 μm in thickness, were found to have a predominantly tetragonal structure with grain size of about 5 nm. The grain size was found to increase only slightly with increasing heat treatment time at 650 C. It has been shown that thin-film zirconia coatings with stable structure and good adhesion along with very low friction coefficient could be produced. (orig.)

  13. Development of wear resistant zirconium oxide thin films on stainless steel substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Then, I.K.; Mujahid, M. [School of Materials Engineering, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore); Zhang, B. [Dou Yee Technologies Pte Ltd, Bedok Industrial Park C (Singapore)

    2005-07-01

    The present work deals specifically with the development of zirconium oxide thin film coatings on the stainless steel orthodontic bracket system by sputtering technique. Thin films of zirconium oxide have been deposited on injection molded stainless steel substrates using sputtering under controlled temperature and environment conditions. The deposited films, 1.5 {mu}m in thickness, were found to have a predominantly tetragonal structure with grain size of about 5 nm. The grain size was found to increase only slightly with increasing heat treatment time at 650 C. It has been shown that thin-film zirconia coatings with stable structure and good adhesion along with very low friction coefficient could be produced. (orig.)

  14. Single-electron pulse-height spectra in thin-gap parallel-plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Fonte, Paulo J R; Peskov, Vladimir; Policarpo, Armando

    1999-01-01

    Single-electron pulse-height spectra were measured in 0.6 and 1.2 mm parallel-plate chambers developed for the TOF system of the ALICE /LHC-HI experiment. Mixtures of Ar with ethane, isobutane, and SF/sub 6/ were studied. The observed spectrum shows a clear peak for all gases, suggesting efficient single-electron detection in thin parallel-plate structures. The pulse-height spectrum can be described by the weighted sum of an exponential and a Polya distribution, the Polya contribution becoming more important at higher gains. Additionally, it was found that the maximum gain, above 10/sup 6/, is limited by the appearance of streamers and depends weakly on the gas composition. The suitability of each mixture for single-electron detection is also quantitatively assessed. (8 refs).

  15. Optimizing the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem Using a Two Stage Planning/Scheduling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    This paper presents the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem. The task is to generate a schedule for two gantry cranes sharing tracks. The schedule must comply with a number of constraints and at the same time be cost efficient. We propose some ideas for a two stage planning...

  16. 75 FR 8301 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...\\ Inadvertently, the scope listed in the Preliminary Results included the following language: ``{a{time} lso... Duty Investigations on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 74 FR 57994 (November 10, 2009). Accordingly, this language is removed from the scope for these final...

  17. Relation between the amount of dissolved water and metals dissolved from stainless steel or aluminum plate in safflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasago, Masahisa; Takaoka, Kyo

    1986-12-01

    The amount of water dissolved in safflower oil at the frying temperature (180 deg C) was 518 -- 1012 ppM, allowing water to drop continuously (0.035 g/2 min) into the oil for 1 -- 3 h. When the oil was heated with metal plates under the same conditions, the amount of dissolved water in the oil increased more than in the absence of the metal plates. In case of stainless steel, the amount was 1.26 to 1.33 times, and with aluminum plates, 1.06 to 1.13 times the amount without plates. When these metal plates were heated with the oil under the above conditions, the water dissolved the metal of the plates into the oil. In case of stainless steel, iron dissolved from 0.17 to 0.77 ppM, nickel, 0.04 ppM and chromium, from 0.02 to 0.03 ppM. Similarly, the amount of aluminum dissolved from the aluminum plate was from 0.10 to 0.45 ppM.

  18. The relation between the amount of dissolved water and metals dissolved from stainless steel or aluminum plate in safflower oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasago, Masahisa; Takaoka, Kyo

    1986-01-01

    The amount of water dissolved in safflower oil at the frying temperature (180 deg C) was 518 ∼ 1012 ppm, allowing water to drop continuously (0.035 g/2 min) into the oil for 1 ∼ 3 h. When the oil was heated with metal plates under the same conditions, the amount of dissolved water in the oil increased more than in the absence of the metal plates. In case of stainless steel, the amount was 1.26 to 1.33 times, and with aluminum plates, 1.06 to 1.13 times the amount without plates. When these metal plates were heated with the oil under the above conditions, the water dissolved the metal of the plates into the oil. In case of stainless steel, iron dissolved from 0.17 to 0.77 ppm, nickel, 0.04 ppm and chromium, from 0.02 to 0.03 ppm. Similarly, the amount of aluminum dissolved from the aluminum plate was from 0.10 to 0.45 ppm. (author)

  19. Laser cut hole matrices in novel armour plate steel for appliqué battlefield vehicle protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During this research, experimental rolled homogeneous armour steel was cast, annealed and laser cut to form an appliqué plate. This Martensitic–Bainitic microstructure steel grade was used to test a novel means of engineering lightweight armour. It was determined that a laser cutting speed of 1200 mm/min produced optimum hole formations with limited distortion. The array of holes acts as a double-edged solution, in that they provide weight saving of 45%, providing a protective advantage and increasing the surface area. Data collected were used to generate laser cut-edge hole projections in order to identify the optimum cutting speed, edge condition, cost and deformation performance. These parameters resulted in the generation of a surface, with less stress raising features. This can result in a distribution of stress across the wider surface. Provided that appropriate process parameters are used to generate laser cut edges, then the hardness properties of the surface can be controlled. This is due to compressive residual stresses produced in the near edge region as a result of metallurgical transformations. This way the traverse cutting speed parameter can be adjusted to alter critical surface characteristics and microstructural properties in close proximity to the cut-edge. A relationship was identified between the width of the laser HAZ and the hardness of the cut edge. It is the thickness of the HAZ that is affected by the laser process parameters which can be manipulated with adjusting the traverse cutting speed.

  20. Process stability during fiber laser-arc hybrid welding of thick steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaziv, Ivan; Frostevarg, Jan; Akselsen, Odd M.; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2018-03-01

    Thick steel plates are frequently used in shipbuilding, pipelines and other related heavy industries, and are usually joined by arc welding. Deep penetration laser-arc hybrid welding could increase productivity but has not been thoroughly investigated, and is therefore usually limited to applications with medium thickness (5-15 mm) sections. A major concern is process stability, especially when using modern welding consumables such as metal-cored wire and advanced welding equipment. High speed imaging allows direct observation of the process so that process behavior and phenomena can be studied. In this paper, 45 mm thick high strength steel was welded (butt joint double-sided) using the fiber laser-MAG hybrid process utilizing a metal-cored wire without pre-heating. Process stability was monitored under a wide range of welding parameters. It was found that the technique can be used successfully to weld thick sections with appropriate quality when the parameters are optimized. When comparing conventional pulsed and the more advanced cold metal transfer pulse (CMT+P) arc modes, it was found that both can provide high quality welds. CMT+P arc mode can provide more stable droplet transfer over a limited range of travel speeds. At higher travel speeds, an unstable metal transfer mechanism was observed. Comparing leading arc and trailing arc arrangements, the leading arc configuration can provide higher quality welds and more stable processing at longer inter-distances between the heat sources.

  1. Analysis and seismic tests of composite shear walls with CFST columns and steel plate deep beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Xu, Fangfang

    2013-12-01

    A composite shear wall concept based on concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns and steel plate (SP) deep beams is proposed and examined in this study. The new wall is composed of three different energy dissipation elements: CFST columns; SP deep beams; and reinforced concrete (RC) strips. The RC strips are intended to allow the core structural elements — the CFST columns and SP deep beams — to work as a single structure to consume energy. Six specimens of different configurations were tested under cyclic loading. The resulting data are analyzed herein. In addition, numerical simulations of the stress and damage processes for each specimen were carried out, and simulations were completed for a range of location and span-height ratio variations for the SP beams. The simulations show good agreement with the test results. The core structure exhibits a ductile yielding mechanism characteristic of strong column-weak beam structures, hysteretic curves are plump and the composite shear wall exhibits several seismic defense lines. The deformation of the shear wall specimens with encased CFST column and SP deep beam design appears to be closer to that of entire shear walls. Establishing optimal design parameters for the configuration of SP deep beams is pivotal to the best seismic behavior of the wall. The new composite shear wall is therefore suitable for use in the seismic design of building structures.

  2. Effect of direct quenching on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the lean-chemistry HSLA-100 steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhua, S.K.; Sen, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Direct-quenched and tempered (DQT) steels gives better mechanical properties. → Fine Cu and Nb (C, N) precipitates enhance matrix strengthening and tempering resistance. → Boron promotes hardenability, but low temperature Charpy impact toughness gets affected. → Mechanical properties equivalent to HSLA-100 steel is achieved by directly quenched leaner chemistry alloys. - Abstract: The influence of direct quenching on structure-property behavior of lean chemistry HSLA-100 steels was studied. Two laboratory heats, one containing Cu and Nb (C:0.052, Mn:0.99, Cu:1.08, Nb:0.043, Cr:0.57, Ni:1.76, Mo:0.55 pct) and the other containing Cu, Nb and B (C:0.04, Mn:1.02, Cu:1.06, Nb:0.036, Cr:0.87, Ni:1.32, Mo:0.41, B:0.002 percent) were hot-rolled into 25 and 12.5 mm thick plates by varying finish-rolling temperatures. The plates were heat-treated by conventional reheat quenching and tempering (RQT), as well as by direct quenching and tempering (DQT) techniques. In general, direct-quench and tempered plates of Nb-Cu heat exhibited good strength (yield strength ∼ 900 MPa) and low-temperature impact toughness (average: 74 J at -85 deg. C); the Charpy V-notch impact energies were marginally lower than conventional HSLA-100 steel. In Nb-Cu-B heat, impact toughness at low-temperature was inferior owing to boron segregation at grain boundaries. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning auger microprobe (SAM) analysis confirmed existence of borocarbides at grain boundaries in this steel. In general, for both the steels, the mechanical properties of the direct-quench and tempered plates were found to be superior to reheat quench and tempered plates. A detailed transmission electron microscopy study revealed presence of fine Cu and Nb (C, N) precipitates in these steels. It was also observed that smaller martensite inter-lath spacing, finer grains and precipitates in direct-quench and tempered plates compared to the reheat quench and tempered plates

  3. Static resistance function for steel-plate composite (SC) walls subject to impactive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhl, Jakob C., E-mail: jbruhl@purdue.edu; Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu; Kim, Joo Min, E-mail: kim1493@purdue.edu

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An idealized static resistance function for SC walls is proposed. • The influence of design parameters on static resistance is explained. • SDOF models can accurately estimate global response of SC walls to missile impact. - Abstract: Steel-plate composite (SC) walls consist of a plain concrete core reinforced with two steel faceplates on the surfaces. Modules (consisting of steel faceplates, shear connectors and tie-bars) can be shop-fabricated and shipped to the site for erection and concrete casting, which expedites construction schedule and thus economy. SC structures have recently been used in nuclear power plant designs and are being considered for the next generation of small modular reactors. Design for impactive and impulsive loading is an important consideration for SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities. The authors have previously developed design methods to prevent local failure (perforation) of SC walls due to missile impact. This paper presents the development of static resistance functions for use in single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses to predict the maximum displacement response of SC walls subjected to missile impact and designed to resist local failure (perforation). The static resistance function for SC walls is developed using results of numerical analyses and parametric studies conducted using benchmarked 3D finite element (FE) models. The influence of various design parameters are discussed and used to develop idealized bilinear resistance functions for SC walls with fixed edges and simply supported edges. Results from dynamic non-linear FE analysis of SC panels subjected to rigid missile impact are compared with the maximum displacements predicted by SDOF analyses using the bilinear resistance function.

  4. Static resistance function for steel-plate composite (SC) walls subject to impactive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhl, Jakob C.; Varma, Amit H.; Kim, Joo Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An idealized static resistance function for SC walls is proposed. • The influence of design parameters on static resistance is explained. • SDOF models can accurately estimate global response of SC walls to missile impact. - Abstract: Steel-plate composite (SC) walls consist of a plain concrete core reinforced with two steel faceplates on the surfaces. Modules (consisting of steel faceplates, shear connectors and tie-bars) can be shop-fabricated and shipped to the site for erection and concrete casting, which expedites construction schedule and thus economy. SC structures have recently been used in nuclear power plant designs and are being considered for the next generation of small modular reactors. Design for impactive and impulsive loading is an important consideration for SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities. The authors have previously developed design methods to prevent local failure (perforation) of SC walls due to missile impact. This paper presents the development of static resistance functions for use in single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses to predict the maximum displacement response of SC walls subjected to missile impact and designed to resist local failure (perforation). The static resistance function for SC walls is developed using results of numerical analyses and parametric studies conducted using benchmarked 3D finite element (FE) models. The influence of various design parameters are discussed and used to develop idealized bilinear resistance functions for SC walls with fixed edges and simply supported edges. Results from dynamic non-linear FE analysis of SC panels subjected to rigid missile impact are compared with the maximum displacements predicted by SDOF analyses using the bilinear resistance function.

  5. Analysis of thin plates with holes by using exact geometrical representation within XFEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Logah; Tso, C P; Leng, Lim Thong

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents analysis of thin plates with holes within the context of XFEM. New integration techniques are developed for exact geometrical representation of the holes. Numerical and exact integration techniques are presented, with some limitations for the exact integration technique. Simulation results show that the proposed techniques help to reduce the solution error, due to the exact geometrical representation of the holes and utilization of appropriate quadrature rules. Discussion on minimum order of integration order needed to achieve good accuracy and convergence for the techniques presented in this work is also included.

  6. Alternate model of Chladni figures for the circular homogenous thin plate case with open boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejo-Mandujano, H A; Mijares-Bernal, G; Ordoñez-Casanova, E G

    2015-01-01

    The wave equation is a direct but a complex approach to solve analytically for the Chladni figures, mainly because of the complications that non-smooth and open boundary conditions impose. In this paper, we present an alternate solution model based on the principle of Huygens-Fresnel and on the ideas of Bohr for the hydrogen atom. The proposed model has been implemented numerically and compared, with good agreement, to our own experimental results for the case of a thin homogenous circular plate with open boundaries

  7. Pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline method for analyzing experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crecy, F de

    1994-12-31

    A mathematical tool, using pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline, has been developed for analysis of experimental data points. The main purpose is to obtain, without any a priori given model, a mathematical predictor with related uncertainties, usable at any point in the multidimensional parameter space. The smoothing parameter is determined by a generalized cross validation method. The residual standard deviation obtained is significantly smaller than that of a least square regression. An example of use is given with critical heat flux data, showing a significant decrease of the conception criterion (minimum allowable value of the DNB ratio). (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  8. Registration of segmented histological images using thin plate splines and belief propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kybic, Jan

    2014-03-01

    We register images based on their multiclass segmentations, for cases when correspondence of local features cannot be established. A discrete mutual information is used as a similarity criterion. It is evaluated at a sparse set of location on the interfaces between classes. A thin-plate spline regularization is approximated by pairwise interactions. The problem is cast into a discrete setting and solved efficiently by belief propagation. Further speedup and robustness is provided by a multiresolution framework. Preliminary experiments suggest that our method can provide similar registration quality to standard methods at a fraction of the computational cost.

  9. Pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline method for analyzing experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crecy, F. de.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical tool, using pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline, has been developed for analysis of experimental data points. The main purpose is to obtain, without any a priori given model, a mathematical predictor with related uncertainties, usable at any point in the multidimensional parameter space. The smoothing parameter is determined by a generalized cross validation method. The residual standard deviation obtained is significantly smaller than that of a least square regression. An example of use is given with critical heat flux data, showing a significant decrease of the conception criterion (minimum allowable value of the DNB ratio). (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  10. Topological valley-chiral edge states of Lamb waves in elastic thin plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Mei, Jun

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the nontrivial topology of the band structure of Lamb waves in a thin phononic crystal plate. When inversion symmetry is broken, a valley pseudospin degree of freedom is formed around K and K‧ valleys for the A0 Lamb mode, which is decoupled from the S0 and SH0 modes in the low-frequency regime. Chiral edge states are explicitly demonstrated, which are immune to defects and exhibit unidirectional transport behaviors when intervalley scattering is weak. The quantum valley Hall effect is thus simulated in a simple way in the context of Lamb waves.

  11. Interpretation of moving EM dipole-dipole measurements using thin plate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksama, M.; Suppala, I.

    1998-01-01

    The three dimensional inversion of electromagnetic data is still rather problematic, because forward modelling programs are usually time consuming. They are based on numerical methods like finite element or integral equation methods. In the study a specific model for interpretation: two thin plates, which are located in a horizontally layered earth with two layers has been chosen. The model is rather limited, but in a few geological cases it is relevant. This interpretation method has been applied for two geophysical EM-systems, the slingram-system and the airborne electromagnetic system of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK)

  12. Interpretation of moving EM dipole-dipole measurements using thin plate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksama, M.; Suppala, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-09-01

    The three dimensional inversion of electromagnetic data is still rather problematic, because forward modelling programs are usually time consuming. They are based on numerical methods like finite element or integral equation methods. In the study a specific model for interpretation: two thin plates, which are located in a horizontally layered earth with two layers has been chosen. The model is rather limited, but in a few geological cases it is relevant. This interpretation method has been applied for two geophysical EM-systems, the slingram-system and the airborne electromagnetic system of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) 5 refs.

  13. Indium oxide thin film as potential photoanodes for corrosion protection of stainless steel under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yu, Jianqiang, E-mail: jianqyu@qdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Sun, Kai; Zhu, Yukun [Key Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Bu, Yuyu; Chen, Zhuoyuan [National Engineering Center of Marine Corrosion Protection, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: If the conduction band potential of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} is more negative than the corrosion potential of stainless steel, photo-induced electrons will be transferred from In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the steel, thus shifting the potential of the steel into a corrosion immunity region and preventing the steel from the corrosion. - Highlights: • Indium oxide performed novel application under visible light. • Indium oxide by sol–gel method behaved better photoelectrochemical properties. • Electrons were transferred to stainless steel from indium oxide once light on. - Abstract: This paper reports the photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of 304 stainless steel by In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-film under visible-light. The films were fabricated with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, synthesized by both sol–gel (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg) and solid-state (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss) processes. The photo-induced open circuit potential and the photo-to-current efficiency measurements suggested that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} could be a promising candidate material for photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of metallic alloys under visible light. Moreover, the polarization curve experimental results indicated that In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film can mitigate the corrosion potential of 304 stainless steel to much more negative values with a higher photocurrent density than the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss film under visible-light illumination. All the results demonstrated that the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film provides a better photoelectrochemical cathodic protection for 304 stainless steel than In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss thin-film under visible-light illumination. The higher photoelectrochemical efficiency is possibly due to the uniform thin films produced with the smaller particle size of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg, which facilitates the transfer of the photo-induced electrons from bulk to the surface and suppresses the charge recombination of the electrons and holes.

  14. Numerical analysis of thermal deformation in laser beam heating of a steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Kim, Yong-Rae; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Line heating is a widely used process for plate forming or thermal straightening. Flame heating and induction heating are the traditional heating processes used by industry for line heating. However, these two heating processes are ineffective when used on small steel plates. Thus, the laser beam heating with various power profiles were carried out in this study. A comparison of numerical simulation results and experimental results found a significant difference in the thermal deformation when apply a different power profile of laser beam heating. The one-sinusoid power profile produced largest thermal deformation in this study. The laser beam heating process was simulated by established a combined heat source model, and simulated results were compared with experimental results to confirm the model’s accuracy. The mechanism of thermal deformation was investigated and the effects of model parameters were studied intensively with the finite element method. Thermal deformation was found to have a significant relationship with the amount of central zone plastic deformation. Scientists and engineers could use this study’s verified model to select appropriate parameters in laser beam heating process. Moreover, by using the developed laser beam model, the analysis of welding residual stress or hardness could also be investigated from a power profile point of view.

  15. Numerical Study on the Structural Performance of Steel Beams with Slant End-plate Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Zahmatkesh

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermal effects can be one of the most harmful conditions that any steel structure should expect throughout its service life. To counteract this effect, a new beam, with a capability to dissipate thermally induced axial force by slanting of end-plate connection at both ends, is proposed. The beam was examined in terms of its elastic mechanical behavior under symmetric transverse load in presence of an elevated temperature by means of direct stiffness finite element model. The performance of such connection is defined under two resisting mechanisms; by friction force dissipation between faces of slant connection and by small upward crawling on slant plane. The presented numerical method is relatively easy and useful to evaluate the behavior of the proposed beam of various dimensions at different temperatures. Its applicability is evident through satisfactory results verification with those from experimental, analytical and commercially available finite element software. Based on the good agreement between theoretical and experimental methods, a series of design curves were developed as a safe-practical range for the slant end-plate connections which are depend on the conditions of the connection.

  16. Contribution of apparently non-operating loadings to the buckling of thin shells and plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaigue, Didier.

    1980-02-01

    This work includes four parts: in the first part, the Kirchhoff-Love theory of thin shells is described, a theory taken up and developed by Koiter and whose modelling seems to meet the problems of engineers. The second part deals with the buckling of a thin plate subjected to a load along a part of its edge, of which a part or all is seemingly inoperative. In the third part the study is extended to shells of any shape subjected to a conservative loading of the ''dead-loading'' type along part of their edges. On the basis of the results of the previous study, a study is then made on the taking into account of any load applied to the edge of a thin shell. In the fourth part the previous results are applied to the study of the buckling of a thin shell with a circular base subjected along a part of its edge to a normal prestress and to twisting moments linear density [fr

  17. Tribology of Ge Thin Films on Stainless Steel.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krabáč, Lubomír; Pejaković, V.; Dřínek, Vladislav; Dörr, N.; Badisch, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2017), s. 182-189 ISSN 0036-8792 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-08842J Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : germanium * thin films * nanovires Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 0.605, year: 2016

  18. The effect of different rutile electrodes on mechanical properties of underwater wet welded AH-36 steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Purnama, Dewin; Churniawan, Iwan

    2018-04-01

    Underwater welding is an important role in the rescue of ships and underwater structures, in case of emergency. In this study, the marine steel plates used are AH-36 steel as parent material. This type of steel is included in the High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA). Electrodes used for welding AH-36 steel plates are commonly the E6013 and E 7024 which are the type of based rutile electrodes. Those electrodes are widely available on the market and they would be compared with the original electrode for underwater which is the type of E7014 with the trade name of Broco UW-CS-1. Welding method used is Shielding Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) with the variation of 5 m and 10 m underwater depth and also varied with the electric current of 120A, 140A and 250A. It was found that hardness value of increased in the area of weld metal and HAZ. HAZ also tends to have the highest hardness compared to both of weld metal and base metal. Non destructive test by radiographed test (RT) on welds showed that there are found welding defects in the form of incomplete penetration on all variations of welding parameters, but there is no porosity defect detected. The results of the hardness tests of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the hardness value of both rutile electrodes (E6013 and E 7024) is apparently similar hardness value compared with the existing commercial electrode (E7014 of Broco UW-CS- 1). The tensile test results of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the use of rutile electrode of E6013 gives a better tensile properties than other rutile electrodes.

  19. Surface composition effect of nitriding Ni-free stainless steel as bipolar plate of polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nakatsuyama, Kunio [Nakatsuyama Heat Treatment Co., Ltd., 1-1089-10, Nanyou, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-1164 (Japan); Souma, Kenichi [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Hitachi Industrial Equipment Systems Co., Ltd., 3 Kanda Neribei, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0022 (Japan); Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: The anodic current densities in the passive region of nitrided SUS445-N stainless steel are lower than those of a non heat-treated SUS445 stainless steel and heat-treated SUS445-Ar stainless steel under an Ar atmosphere. It shows a better corrosion resistance for the SUS445 stainless steel after the nitriding heat treatment. - Highlights: • The nitriding heat treatment was carried out using Ni-free SUS445 stainless steel. • The corrosion resistance of the nitrided SUS445-N stainless steel was improved. • The structure of the nitrided SUS445-N stainless steel changed from α-Fe to γ-Fe. • The surface elemental components present in the steels affect the corrosion resistance. - Abstract: In order to increase the corrosion resistance of low cost Ni-free SUS445 stainless steel as the bipolar plate of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, a nitriding surface treatment experiment was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere under vacuum conditions, while an Ar atmosphere was used for comparison. The electrochemical performance, microstructure, surface chemical composition and morphology of the sample before and after the electrochemical measurements were investigated using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDS) and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) measurements. The results confirmed that the nitriding heat treatment not only increased the corrosion resistance, but also improved the surface conductivity of the Ni-free SUS445 stainless steel. In contrast, the corrosion resistance of the SUS445 stainless steel decreased after heat treatment in an Ar atmosphere. These results could be explained by the different surface compositions between these samples.

  20. Development of carbon steel with superior resistance to wall thinning and fracture for nuclear piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju

    2010-07-01

    Carbon steel is usually used for piping for secondary coolant system in nuclear power plant because of low cost and good machinability. However, it is generally reported that carbon steel was failed catastrophically because of its low resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness. Especially, flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is one of main problems of the wall thinning of piping in the nuclear power plant. Therefore, in this project, fabrication technology of new advanced carbon steel materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide ceramics into the matrix is developed first in order to improve the resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness drastically compared to the conventional one. In order to get highly wettable fine TiC ceramic particles into molten metal, the micro-sized TiC particles were first mechanically milled by Fe (MMed TiC/Fe) in a high energy ball mill machine in Ar gas atmosphere, and then mixed with surfactant metal elements (Sn, Cr, Ni) to obtain better wettability, as this lowered surface tension of the carbon steel melt. According to microscopic images revealed that an addition of MMed TiC/Fe-surfactant mixed powders favorably disperses the fine TiC particles in the carbon steel matrix. It was also found that the grain size refinement of the cast matrix is achieved remarkably when fine TiC particles were added due to the fact that they act as nucleation sites during the solidification process. As a results, a cast carbon steel dispersed with fine TiC particles shows improved mechanical properties such as hardness, tensile strength and cavitation resistance compared to that of without particles. However, the slight decrease of toughness was found

  1. Photo-induced hydrophilicity of TiO2-xNx thin films on PET plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, H.-Y.; Lee, E.-K.; You, J.-W.; Yu, S.-S.

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2-x N x thin films were deposited on PET (polyethylene terephthalate) plates by sputtering a TiN target in a N 2 /O 2 plasma and without heating. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the N 1s, Ti 2p core levels and the nitrogen composition in the TiO 2-x N x films. The results indicate that Ti-O-N bonds are formed in the thin films. Two nitrogen states, substitution and interstitial nitrogen atoms, were attributed to peaks at 396 and 399 eV, respectively. It was observed that the nitrogen atoms occupy both the substitutive and interstitial sites in respective of the nitrogen content in the thin films. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy of PET coated thin films shows a significant shift of the absorption edge to lower energy in the visible-light region. UV and visible-light irradiation are used to activate PET coated thin films for the development of hydrophilicity. The photo-induced surface wettability conversion reaction of the thin films has been investigated by means of water contact angle measurement. PET plates coated with TiO 2-x N x thin films are found to exhibit lower water contact angle than non-coated plates when the surface is illuminated with UV and visible light. The effects of nitrogen doping on photo-generated hydrophilicity of the thin films are investigated in this work

  2. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Copper HSLA-100 Steel in 2-inch Plate Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    CCT diagram . Increasing copper in HSLA-100 steel also increases the toughness as well as the strength, though the dynamics of this process are not clear. Steel, High Copper HSLA-100 Steel, mechanical property, microstructure.

  3. Thermo-mechanical treatment of the Cr-Mo constructional steel plates with Nb, Ti and B additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk, J.; Opiela, M.

    2002-01-01

    Results of investigations of the influence of parameters of thermomechanical treatment, carried out by rolling with controlled recrystallization, on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-Mo constructional steel with Nb, Ti and B microadditions, destined for the manufacturing of weldable heavy plates, are presented. These plates show a yield point of over 960 MPa after heat treatment. Two variants of thermomechanical treatment were worked out, based on the obtained results of investigations, when rolling a plate 40 mm thick in several passes to a plate 15 mm thick in a temperature range from 1100 to 900 o C. It was found that the lack of complete recrystallization of the austenite in the first rolling variant, leads to localization of plastic deformation in form of shear bands. There exists a segregation of MC-type carbides and alloying elements in these bands, causing a distinctive reduction of the crack resistance of the steel, as also a disadvantageous anisotropy of plastic properties of plate after tempering. For plates rolled under the same conditions, using a retention shield, a nearly three times higher impact energy in - 40 o C was obtained, as also only a slight anisotropy of plastic properties, saving the required mechanical properties. (author)

  4. A study on the welding characteristics of Mn-Ni-Mo type A302-C steel plate for pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byoung Hyun; Chang, Woong Seong; Kweon, Young Gak

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop ASTM A302 grade C type steel plate with excellent weldability, several steels with different chemistry have been manufactured and evaluated their mechanical properties and weldability. Trial A302-C steels have revealed tensile strength in the range of 61-67kg/mm 2 and elongation in the range of 27∼32%, depending on chemical compositions within the ASTM specification range. In case of impact toughness, trial steels showed in the range of 58-70J at 0 .deg. C. From the weldability test, the minimum preheat temperature was found to be about 150 .deg. C, and automatic welding condition satisfied the requirements of both ASTM specification and users

  5. Experimental Studies on the Fire Behaviour of High Performance Concrete Thin Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the use of structural high performance concrete (HPC) sandwich panels made with thin plates has increased as a response to modern environmental challenges. Fire endurance is a requirement in structural HPC elements, as for most structural elements. This paper presents experimen......In recent decades, the use of structural high performance concrete (HPC) sandwich panels made with thin plates has increased as a response to modern environmental challenges. Fire endurance is a requirement in structural HPC elements, as for most structural elements. This paper presents....... The parametric assessment of the specimen performance included: thickness of the specimen, testing apparatus, and concrete mix (both with and without polypropylene fibres). The results verified the ability of H-TRIS to impose an equivalent thermal boundary condition to that imposed during a standard furnace test......, with good repeatability, and at comparatively low economic and temporal costs. The results demonstrated that heat induced concrete spalling occurred 1 to 5 min earlier, and in a more destructive manner, for thinner specimens. An analysis is presented combining the thermal material degradation, vapour pore...

  6. RGB color calibration for quantitative image analysis: the "3D thin-plate spline" warping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesatti, Paolo; Angelini, Claudio; Pallottino, Federico; Antonucci, Francesca; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado

    2012-01-01

    In the last years the need to numerically define color by its coordinates in n-dimensional space has increased strongly. Colorimetric calibration is fundamental in food processing and other biological disciplines to quantitatively compare samples' color during workflow with many devices. Several software programmes are available to perform standardized colorimetric procedures, but they are often too imprecise for scientific purposes. In this study, we applied the Thin-Plate Spline interpolation algorithm to calibrate colours in sRGB space (the corresponding Matlab code is reported in the Appendix). This was compared with other two approaches. The first is based on a commercial calibration system (ProfileMaker) and the second on a Partial Least Square analysis. Moreover, to explore device variability and resolution two different cameras were adopted and for each sensor, three consecutive pictures were acquired under four different light conditions. According to our results, the Thin-Plate Spline approach reported a very high efficiency of calibration allowing the possibility to create a revolution in the in-field applicative context of colour quantification not only in food sciences, but also in other biological disciplines. These results are of great importance for scientific color evaluation when lighting conditions are not controlled. Moreover, it allows the use of low cost instruments while still returning scientifically sound quantitative data.

  7. Quantification of the spatial strain distribution of scoliosis using a thin-plate spline method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriyama, Yoshimori; Watanabe, Kota; Matsumoto, Morio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Nagura, Takeo

    2014-01-03

    The objective of this study was to quantify the three-dimensional spatial strain distribution of a scoliotic spine by nonhomogeneous transformation without using a statistically averaged reference spine. The shape of the scoliotic spine was determined from computed tomography images from a female patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The shape of the scoliotic spine was enclosed in a rectangular grid, and symmetrized using a thin-plate spline method according to the node positions of the grid. The node positions of the grid were determined by numerical optimization to satisfy symmetry. The obtained symmetric spinal shape was enclosed within a new rectangular grid and distorted back to the original scoliotic shape using a thin-plate spline method. The distorted grid was compared to the rectangular grid that surrounded the symmetrical spine. Cobb's angle was reduced from 35° in the scoliotic spine to 7° in the symmetrized spine, and the scoliotic shape was almost fully symmetrized. The scoliotic spine showed a complex Green-Lagrange strain distribution in three dimensions. The vertical and transverse compressive/tensile strains in the frontal plane were consistent with the major scoliotic deformation. The compressive, tensile and shear strains on the convex side of the apical vertebra were opposite to those on the concave side. These results indicate that the proposed method can be used to quantify the three-dimensional spatial strain distribution of a scoliotic spine, and may be useful in quantifying the deformity of scoliosis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yucong; Zhao, Junli; Deng, Qingqiong; Duan, Fuqing

    2017-01-01

    Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF) for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST) is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP) is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  9. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Chen

    Full Text Available Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  10. Nonlinear periodic wavetrains in thin liquid films falling on a uniformly heated horizontal plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issokolo, Remi J. Noumana; Dikandé, Alain M.

    2018-05-01

    A thin liquid film falling on a uniformly heated horizontal plate spreads into fingering ripples that can display a complex dynamics ranging from continuous waves, nonlinear spatially localized periodic wave patterns (i.e., rivulet structures) to modulated nonlinear wavetrain structures. Some of these structures have been observed experimentally; however, conditions under which they form are still not well understood. In this work, we examine profiles of nonlinear wave patterns formed by a thin liquid film falling on a uniformly heated horizontal plate. For this purpose, the Benney model is considered assuming a uniform temperature distribution along the film propagation on the horizontal surface. It is shown that for strong surface tension but a relatively small Biot number, spatially localized periodic-wave structures can be analytically obtained by solving the governing equation under appropriate conditions. In the regime of weak nonlinearity, a multiple-scale expansion combined with the reductive perturbation method leads to a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation: the solutions of which are modulated periodic pulse trains which amplitude and width and period are expressed in terms of characteristic parameters of the model.

  11. The power flow angle of acoustic waves in thin piezoelectric plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Iren E; Zaitsev, Boris D; Teplykh, Andrei A; Joshi, Shrinivas G; Kuznetsova, Anastasia S

    2008-09-01

    The curves of slowness and power flow angle (PFA) of quasi-antisymmetric (A(0)) and quasi-symmetric (S(0)) Lamb waves as well as quasi-shear-horizontal (SH(0)) acoustic waves in thin plates of lithium niobate and potassium niobate of X-,Y-, and Z-cuts for various propagation directions and the influence of electrical shorting of one plate surface on these curves and PFA have been theoretically investigated. It has been found that the group velocity of such waves does not coincide with the phase velocity for the most directions of propagation. It has been also shown that S(0) and SH(0) wave are characterized by record high values of PFA and its change due to electrical shorting of the plate surface in comparison with surface and bulk acoustic waves in the same material. The most interesting results have been verified by experiment. As a whole, the results obtained may be useful for development of various devices for signal processing, for example, electrically controlled acoustic switchers.

  12. Determination of stress multipliers for thin perforated plates with square array of holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Murli, B.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    The peak stress multipliers are required to determine the maximum stresses in perforated plates for the realistic evaluation of their fatigue life. The Section III of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code does not provide any information about such multipliers to be used in thin perforated plates with square penetration pattern. Although such multipliers for membrane loadings are available in literature, they were obtained either by classical analysis or by photoelastic experiments and there is no significant finite element analysis in this area. Also it has been a common practice among designers to apply the same multipliers for loads producing bending type of stress. The stress multipliers in bending are lower than those in membrane. Therefore a reduction of resultant peak stress occurs if proper stress multipliers are used for bending. The present paper is aimed at developing a finite element technique which can be used for determining the peak stress multipliers in thin plates for membrane as well as bending loads. A quarter symmetric part of a 3 x 3 square array was chosen for the analysis. The results were obtained by computer programs PAFEC and COSMOS/M using 2-D plane stress elements for the membrane and degenerated 3-D shell element for the bending part. The results for the membrane are compared with Bailey, Hicks and Hulbert and with Meijers' finite element results for the bending part. A study was made at the initial stage by analysing a 6 x 6 square array to see the effect of holes beyond one pitch, which were left out by the 3 x 3 array and the effect of additional holes was found to be negligible. Therefore it was decided to carry out further analysis with 3 x 3 square array. Photoelastic experiments were also performed to validate the results obtained by theoretical analysis. (author)

  13. Corrosion Characterization in Nickel Plated 110 ksi Low Alloy Steel and Incoloy 925: An Experimental Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kiran; Vincent, S.; Barbadikar, Dipika; Kumar, Shresh; Anwar, Rebin; Fernandes, Nevil

    2018-04-01

    Incoloy 925 is an age hardenable Nickel-Iron-Chromium alloy with the addition of Molybdenum, Copper, Titanium and Aluminium used in many applications in oil and gas industry. Nickel alloys are preferred mostly in corrosive environments where there is high concentration of H2S, CO2, chlorides and free Sulphur as sufficient nickel content provides protection against chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking. But unfortunately, Nickel alloys are very expensive. Plating an alloy steel part with nickel would cost much lesser than a part make of nickel alloy for large quantities. A brief study will be carried out to compare the performance of nickel plated alloy steel with that of an Incoloy 925 part by conducting corrosion tests. Tests will be carried out using different coating thicknesses of Nickel on low alloy steel in 0.1 M NaCl solution and results will be verified. From the test results we can confirm that Nickel plated low alloy steel is found to exhibit fairly good corrosion in comparison with Incoloy 925 and thus can be an excellent candidate to replace Incoloy materials.

  14. Laser cutting of steel plates up to 100 mm in thickness with a 6-kW fiber laser for application to dismantling of nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Oh, Seong Yong; Park, Hyunmin; Chung, Chin-Man; Seon, Sangwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Lim; Lee, Jonghwan

    2018-01-01

    A cutting study with a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber laser was conducted for the dismantling of nuclear facilities. Stainless steel and carbon steel plates of various thicknesses were cut at a laser power of 6-kW. Despite the use of a low output of 6-kW, the cutting was successful for both stainless steel and carbon steel plates of up to 100 mm in thickness. In addition, the maximum cutting speeds against the thicknesses were obtained to evaluate the cutting performance. As representative results, the maximum cutting speeds for a 60-mm thickness were 72 mm/min for the stainless steel plates and 35 mm/min for the carbon steel plates, and those for a 100-mm thickness were 7 mm/min for stainless steel and 5 mm/min for carbon steel plates. These results show an efficient cutting capability of about 16.7 mm by kW, whereas other groups have shown cutting capabilities of ∼10 mm by kW. Moreover, the maximum cutting speeds were faster for the same thicknesses than those from other groups. In addition, the kerf widths of 60-mm and 100-mm thick steels were also obtained as another important parameter determining the amount of secondary waste. The front kerf widths were ∼1.0 mm and the rear kerf widths were larger than the front kerf widths but as small as a few millimeters.

  15. MLEP-Fail calibration for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the work presented in this memo was to calibrate the Sierra material model Multilinear Elastic-Plastic Hardening Model with Failure (MLEP-Fail) for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel. The calibration approach is essentially the same as that recently used in a previous memo using data from smooth and notched tensile specimens. The notched specimens were manufactured with three notch radii R = 1=8, 1/32 and 1/64 inches. The dimensions of the smooth and notched specimens are given in the prints in Appendix A. Two cast plates, Plate 3 and Plate 4, with nominally identical properties were considered.

  16. Study of the penetration of a plate made of titanium alloy VT6 with a steel ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzyurkin, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this work is the development and verification of mathematical relationships, adapted to the package of finite element analysis LS-DYNA and describing the deformation and destruction of a titanium plate in a high-speed collision. Using data from experiments on the interaction of a steel ball with a titanium plate made of VT6 alloy, verification of the available constants necessary for describing the behavior of the material using the Johnson-Cook relationships was performed, as well as verification of the parameters of the fracture model used in the numerical modeling of the collision process. An analysis of experimental data on the interaction of a spherical impactor with a plate showed that the data accepted for VT6 alloy in the first approximation for deformation hardening in the Johnson-Cook model give too high results on the residual velocities of the impactor when piercing the plate.

  17. Flexural behavior and design of steel-plate composite (SC) walls for accident thermal loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Peter N., E-mail: boothpn@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sener, Kadir C., E-mail: ksener@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Malushte, Sanjeev R. [Bechtel Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Modular steel-plate composite (SC) safety-related nuclear power plant structures must be designed to resist accident thermal and mechanical loads. The design accident thermal load represents the condition where high pressure and temperature steam is released as result of a mechanical failure and applied against the surfaces of power plant structural walls. The effect of heating and pressure can have both short and long term effects on the mechanical integrity of SC structures including degradation and cracking of concrete infill, residual stresses, and out-of-plane deformations. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of thermal and mechanical loads on the out-of-plane flexural response of SC walls and to develop simplified equations that can be used to predict behavior. Four experimental beam tests are reported that represent full-scale cross-sections of SC walls subjected to combinations of mechanical and thermal loads. The study determined that thermal loads reduce the out-of-plane flexural stiffness of SC walls. For the ambient condition, the flexural stiffness closely matches a conventional elastic cracked-transformed model, and at elevated temperatures, the stiffness is reduced to a fully-cracked flexural stiffness that only takes into account the stiffness of the steel faceplates. A method is presented for estimating the thermal curvature, ϕ{sub th}, and thermal moment, M{sub th}, resulting from unequal heating of opposing faces of an SC wall. Based on the tests in this study, the application of accident thermal loads did not result in a reduction of the flexural strength of the SC section.

  18. Propagation of semi-elliptical surface cracks in ferritic and austenitic steel plates under thermal cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.

    1989-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of crack growth under thermal and thermomechanical fatigue loading are presented. The experiments were performed with a ferritic reactor pressure vessel steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5 and an austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNi 18 11. A plate containing a semi-elliptical surface crack is heated up to a homogeneous temperature and cyclically cooled down by a jet of cold water. On the basis of linear elastic fracture mechanics stress-intensity factors are calculated with the weight function method. The prediction of crack growth under thermal fatigue loading using data from mechanical fatigue tests is compared with the experimental result. (orig.) [de

  19. Hydrogen effect on mechanical properties and flake formation in the 10KhSND steel rolled plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradova, R G; Zakharov, V A; Kuzin, A P; Gol' tsov, V A; Podgajskij, M S [Donetskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR); Donetskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii (Ukrainian SSR))

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of the 10KhSND steel rolled plates during natural aging is studied. Optimum period of metal acceptance tests, which are advisable to conduct after 5-7 day natural aging of finished products, are found out. The technique is worked out and a safe hydrogen content to prevent flake formation in the 10KhSND steel is determined. It is shown that a safe hydrogen content is dependent on the experiment conditions (sample dimensions, conditions of cooling, and prehistory).

  20. Hydrogen effect on mechanical properties and flake formation in the 10KhSND steel rolled plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muradova, R.G.; Zakharov, V.A.; Kuzin, A.P.; Gol'tsov, V.A.; Podgajskij, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of the 10KhSND steel rolled plates during natural aging is studied. Optimum period of metal acceptance tests, which are advisable to conduct after 5-7 day natural aging of finished products, are found out. The technique is worked out and a safe hydrogen content to prevent flake formation in the 10KhSND steel is determined. It is shown that a safe hydrogen content is dependent on the experiment conditions (sample dimensions, conditions of cooling, and prehistory)

  1. Texture evolution in thin-sheets on AISI 301 metastable stainless steel under dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.Y. [Posco Steels, Pohan, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kozaczek, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kulkarni, S.M. [TRW Vehicle Safety Systems, Mesa, AZ (United States); Bastias, P.C.; Hahn, G.T. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1995-05-08

    The evolution of texture in thin sheets of metastable austenitic stainless steel AISI 301 is affected by external conditions such as loading rate and temperature, by inhomogeneous deformation phenomena such as twinning and shear band formation, and by the concurent strain induced phase transformation of the retained austenitc ({gamma}) into martensite ({alpha}). The present paper describes texture measurements on different gauges of AISI 301 prior and after uniaxial stretching under different conditions.

  2. Ag-polytetrafluoroethylene composite coating on stainless steel as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yu. [Laboratory of Fuel Cells, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hou, Ming; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian [Laboratory of Fuel Cells, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Xu, Hongfeng; Hou, Zhongjun; Ming, Pingwen [Sunrise Power Co., Ltd., Dalian 116025 (China)

    2008-08-01

    Forming a coating on metals by surface treatment is a good way to get high performance bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In our research, Ag-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was electrodeposited with silver-gilt solution of nicotinic acid by a bi-pulse electroplating power supply on 316 L stainless steel bipolar plate of PEMFC. Surface topography, contact angle, interfacial conductivity and corrosion resistance of the bipolar plate samples were investigated. Results showed that the defects on the Ag-PTFE composite coating are greatly reduced compared with those on the pure Ag coating fabricated under the same condition; and the contact angle of the Ag-PTFE composite coating with water is 114 , which is much bigger than that of the pure Ag coating (73 ). In addition, the interfacial contact resistance of the composite coating stays as low as the pure Ag coating; and the bipolar plate sample with composite coating shows a close corrosion resistance to the pure Ag coating sample in potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests. Coated 316 L stainless steel plate with Ag-PTFE composite coating exhibits well hydrophobic characteristic, less defects, high interfacial conductivity and good corrosion resistance, which shows a great potential of the application in PEMFC. (author)

  3. A high-quality narrow passband filter for elastic SV waves via aligned parallel separated thin polymethylmethacrylate plates

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Zhang; Yaolu Liu; Wensheng Yan; Ning Hu

    2017-01-01

    We designed a high-quality filter that consists of aligned parallel polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin plates with small gaps for elastic SV waves propagate in metals. Both the theoretical model and the full numerical simulation show the transmission spectrum of the elastic SV waves through such a filter has several sharp peaks with flawless transmission within the investigated frequencies. These peaks can be readily tuned by manipulating the geometry parameters of the PMMA plates. Our invest...

  4. An ad-hoc fretting wear tribotester design for thin steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llavori Iñigo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel wire ropes experience fretting wear damage when the rope runs over a sheave promoting an oscillatory motion between the wires. Consequently, wear scars appear between the contacting wires leading to an increase of the stress field and the following rupture of the wires due to fatigue. That is why the understanding and prediction of the fretting wear phenomena of thin wires is fundamental in order to improve the performance of steel wire ropes. The present research deals with the design of an ad-hoc fretting wear test machine for thin wires. The test apparatus is designed for testing thin wires with a maximum diameter of 1.0 mm, at slip amplitudes ranging from 5 to 300 μm, crossing angle between 0-90°, and contacting force ranging from 0,5 to 5 N. The working principle of displacement amplitude and contacting force as well as the crossing angle between the wires are described. Preliminary studies for understanding the fretting wear characteristics are presented, analysing 0.45 mm diameter cold-drawn eutectoid carbon steel (0.8% C wires (tensile strength higher than 3000 MPa.

  5. Fixation of the stressed state of glass plates by coating them with thin films using a plasma focus installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokoltsev, V. N.; Degtiarev, V. F.; Borovitskaya, I. V.; Nikulin, V. Ya.; Peregudova, E. N.; Silin, P. V.; Eriskin, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Elastic deformation in transparent mediums is usually studied by the photoelasticity method. For opaque mediums the method of film coating and strain gauge method are used. After the external load was removed, the interference pattern corresponding to elastic deformation of the material disappears. It is found that the elastic deformation state of the thin glass plate under the action of concentrated load can be fixed during the deposition of a thin metal film. Deposition of thin copper films was carried out by passing of plasma through the copper tube installed inside the Plasma Focus installation. After removing of the load, interference pattern on the glass plates was observed in the form of Newton’s rings and isogers in non-monochromatic light on the CCD scanners which uses uorescent lamps with cold cathode. It is supposed that the copper film fixes the relief of the surface of the glass plate at the time of deformation and saves it when the load is removed. In the case of a concentrated load, this relief has the shape of a thin lens of large radius. For this reason, the interference of coherent light rays in a thin air gap between the glass of the scanners atbed and the lens surface has the shape of Newton's rings. In this case, when scanning the back side of the plate, isogyres are observed. The presented method can be used in the analysis of the mechanical stress in a various optical elements.

  6. High-Power Laser Cutting of Steel Plates: Heat Affected Zone Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Miraoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal effect of CO2 high-power laser cutting on cut surface of steel plates is investigated. The effect of the input laser cutting parameters on the melted zone depth (MZ, the heat affected zone depth (HAZ, and the microhardness beneath the cut surface is analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to relate the output process parameters to the input laser cutting parameters. Three input process parameters such as laser beam diameter, cutting speed, and laser power are investigated. Mathematical models for the melted zone and the heat affected zone depth are developed by using design of experiment approach (DOE. The results indicate that the input laser cutting parameters have major effect on melted zone, heat affected zone, and microhardness beneath cut surface. The MZ depth, the HAZ depth, and the microhardness beneath cut surface increase as laser power increases, but they decrease with increasing cutting speed. Laser beam diameter has a negligible effect on HAZ depth but it has a remarkable effect on MZ depth and HAZ microhardness. The melted zone depth and the heat affected zone depth can be reduced by increasing laser cutting speed and decreasing laser power and laser beam diameter.

  7. Surface strengthening using a self-protective diffusion paste and its application for ballistic protection of steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, D.C.; Solberg, J.K.; Borvik, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with surface strengthening of steel plates using a self-protective diffusion paste. During the surface strengthening process, a paste containing carbon, boron or similar is applied on the steel surface. In addition to serving as a source for the various diffusion ingredients, the paste protects the steel against contact with the environment, so no packing or gas protection is necessary. Thus, the handling is in general very simple, and the surface strengthening process can be performed in a conventional air furnace. The method provides the same type of surface strengthening that is obtained by more conventional methods. In this work, the main focus will be surface strengthening by carburizing, but also boronizing and boronizing followed by carburizing have been tested out. The methods have been applied to increase the ballistic resistance of the low-strength carbon steel NVE36 (with nominal yield stress of 355 MPa) against impacts from small-arms bullets. An empirical model combining diffusion depth, heat-treatment temperature and soaking time was established on the basis of a series of experimental data. By means of this equation, the various heat-treatment parameters can be predicted when others are chosen. Ballistic perforation tests using 7.62 mm APM2 bullets showed that the low-strength carbon steel after surface strengthening obtained a ballistic limit higher than that of Hardox 400, which is a wear steel with a yield stress of about 1200 MPa.

  8. Full title: Biomechanical comparison between stainless steel, titanium and carbon-fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone volar locking plates for distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Raffaele; Tarallo, Luigi; Capra, Francesco; Catani, Fabio

    2018-05-25

    As the popularity of volar locked plate fixation for distal radius fractures has increased, so have the number and variety of implants, including variations in plate design, the size and angle of the screws, the locking screw mechanism, and the material of the plates. carbon-fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plate features similar biomechanical properties to metallic plates, representing, therefore, an optimal alternative for the treatment of distal radius fractures. three different materials-composed plates were evaluated: stainless steel volar lateral column (Zimmer); titanium DVR (Hand Innovations); CFR-PEEK DiPHOS-RM (Lima Corporate). Six plates for each type were implanted in sawbones and an extra-articular rectangular osteotomy was created. Three plates for each material were tested for load to failure and bending stiffness in axial compression. Moreover, 3 constructs for each plate were evaluated after dynamically loading for 6000 cycles of fatigue. the mean bending stiffness pre-fatigue was significantly higher for the stainless steel plate. The titanium plate yielded the higher load to failure both pre and post fatigue. After cyclic loading, the bending stiffness increased by a mean of 24% for the stainless steel plate; 33% for the titanium; and 17% for the CFR-PEEK plate. The mean load to failure post-fatigue increased by a mean of 10% for the stainless steel and 14% for CFR-PEEK plates, whereas it decreased (-16%) for the titanium plate. Statistical analysis between groups reported significant values (p plastic deformation, and lower load to failure. N/A. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Deposition of indium tin oxide thin films by cathodic arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.-H.; Wen, J.-C.; Chen, K.-L.; Chen, S.-Y.; Leu, M.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited by cathodic arc ion plating (CAIP) using sintered oxide target as the source material. In an oxygen atmosphere of 200 deg. C, ITO films with a lowest resistivity of 2.2x10 -4 Ω-cm were obtained at a deposition rate higher than 450 nm/min. The carrier mobility of ITO shows a maximum at some medium pressures. Although morphologically ITO films with a very fine nanometer-sized structure were observed to possess the lowest resistivity, more detailed analyses based on X-ray diffraction are attempted to gain more insight into the factors that govern electron mobility in this investigation

  10. Automatic lung lobe segmentation using particles, thin plate splines, and maximum a posteriori estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Rail; Kindlmann, Gordon; Díaz, Alejandro; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Silverman, Edwin K; Washko, George R

    2010-01-01

    We present a fully automatic lung lobe segmentation algorithm that is effective in high resolution computed tomography (CT) datasets in the presence of confounding factors such as incomplete fissures (anatomical structures indicating lobe boundaries), advanced disease states, high body mass index (BMI), and low-dose scanning protocols. In contrast to other algorithms that leverage segmentations of auxiliary structures (esp. vessels and airways), we rely only upon image features indicating fissure locations. We employ a particle system that samples the image domain and provides a set of candidate fissure locations. We follow this stage with maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation to eliminate poor candidates and then perform a post-processing operation to remove remaining noise particles. We then fit a thin plate spline (TPS) interpolating surface to the fissure particles to form the final lung lobe segmentation. Results indicate that our algorithm performs comparably to pulmonologist-generated lung lobe segmentations on a set of challenging cases.

  11. Site-selective electroless nickel plating on patterned thin films of macromolecular metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mutsumi; Yamagiwa, Hiroki; Asakawa, Daisuke; Noguchi, Makoto; Kurashina, Tadashi; Fukawa, Tadashi; Shirai, Hirofusa

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate a simple route to depositing nickel layer patterns using photocross-linked polymer thin films containing palladium catalysts, which can be used as adhesive interlayers for fabrication of nickel patterns on glass and plastic substrates. Electroless nickel patterns can be obtained in three steps: (i) the pattern formation of partially quaterized poly(vinyl pyridine) by UV irradiation, (ii) the formation of macromolecular metal complex with palladium, and (iii) the nickel metallization using electroless plating bath. Metallization is site-selective and allows for a high resolution. And the resulting nickel layered structure shows good adhesion with glass and plastic substrates. The direct patterning of metallic layers onto insulating substrates indicates a great potential for fabricating micro/nano devices.

  12. Tailoring diffraction technique Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-can oiled 304 stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Killen, P.; Anis, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tailoring of diffraction technique-Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates assuming the material is isotopic, the residual stress measurements using X-ray powder diffraction is just performed for a plane lying in a large angle. For anisotropic materials, the real measurements will not be represented by the methods. By Utilizing of all diffraction peaks in the observation region, tailoring diffraction technique-Rietveld analysis is able to cover the limitations. The residual stress measurement using X-ray powder diffraction tailored by Rietveld method, in a series of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates deforming; 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175, and 196 % reduction in thickness, have been reported. The diffraction data were analyzed by using Rietveld structure refinement method. Also, for all cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates cuplikans, the diffraction peaks are broader than the uncanailed one, indicating that the strains in these cuplikans are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was calculated. Finally, the average residual stresses in cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates were shown to be a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of martensite particles and austenite matrix. The average residual stresses were evaluated from the experimentally determined average lattice strains in each phase. It was found the tensile residual stress in a cuplikan was maximum, reaching 442 MPa, for a cuplikan reducing 34% in thickness and minimum for a 196% cuplikan

  13. Thin-plate spline analysis of the cranial base in subjects with Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1997-08-01

    The role of the cranial base in the emergence of Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. This study determines deformations that contribute to a Class III cranial base morphology, employing thin-plate spline analysis on lateral cephalographs. A total of 73 children of European-American descent aged between 5 and 11 years of age with Class III malocclusion were compared with an equivalent group of subjects with a normal, untreated, Class I molar occlusion. The cephalographs were traced, checked and subdivided into seven age- and sex-matched groups. Thirteen points on the cranial base were identified and digitized. The datasets were scaled to an equivalent size, and statistical analysis indicated significant differences between average Class I and Class III cranial base morphologies for each group. Thin-plate spline analysis indicated that both affine (uniform) and non-affine transformations contribute toward the total spline for each average cranial base morphology at each age group analysed. For non-affine transformations, Partial warps 10, 8 and 7 had high magnitudes, indicating large-scale deformations affecting Bolton point, basion, pterygo-maxillare, Ricketts' point and articulare. In contrast, high eigenvalues associated with Partial warps 1-3, indicating localized shape changes, were found at tuberculum sellae, sella, and the frontonasomaxillary suture. It is concluded that large spatial-scale deformations affect the occipital complex of the cranial base and sphenoidal region, in combination with localized distortions at the frontonasal suture. These deformations may contribute to reduced orthocephalization or deficient flattening of the cranial base antero-posteriorly that, in turn, leads to the formation of a Class III malocclusion.

  14. Creating high-resolution digital elevation model using thin plate spline interpolation and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T.

    2009-07-01

    In this report creation of the digital elevation model of Olkiluoto area incorporating a large area of seabed is described. The modeled area covers 960 square kilometers and the apparent resolution of the created elevation model was specified to be 2.5 x 2.5 meters. Various elevation data like contour lines and irregular elevation measurements were used as source data in the process. The precision and reliability of the available source data varied largely. Digital elevation model (DEM) comprises a representation of the elevation of the surface of the earth in particular area in digital format. DEM is an essential component of geographic information systems designed for the analysis and visualization of the location-related data. DEM is most often represented either in raster or Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) format. After testing several methods the thin plate spline interpolation was found to be best suited for the creation of the elevation model. The thin plate spline method gave the smallest error in the test where certain amount of points was removed from the data and the resulting model looked most natural. In addition to the elevation data the confidence interval at each point of the new model was required. The Monte Carlo simulation method was selected for this purpose. The source data points were assigned probability distributions according to what was known about their measurement procedure and from these distributions 1 000 (20 000 in the first version) values were drawn for each data point. Each point of the newly created DEM had thus as many realizations. The resulting high resolution DEM will be used in modeling the effects of land uplift and evolution of the landscape in the time range of 10 000 years from the present. This time range comes from the requirements set for the spent nuclear fuel repository site. (orig.)

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jian; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Zhixiong; Barbaro, Frank; Jiang, Laizhu; Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We focus on friction stir welding of 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate. • We produce high-quality joints with special tool and optimised welding parameters. • We compare microstructure and mechanical properties of steel and joint. • Friction stir welding is a method that can maintain the properties of joint. - Abstract: In this study, microstructure and mechanical properties of a friction stir welded 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate were investigated. The 5.4 mm thick plates with excellent properties were welded at a constant rotational speed and a changeable welding speed using a composite tool featuring a chosen volume fraction of cubic boron nitride (cBN) in a W–Re matrix. The high-quality welds were successfully produced with optimised welding parameters, and studied by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and standard hardness and impact toughness testing. The results show that microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints are affected greatly, which is mainly related to the remarkably fine-grained microstructure of equiaxed ferrite that is observed in the friction stir welded joint. Meanwhile, the ratios of low-angle grain boundary in the stir zone regions significantly increase, and the texture turns strong. Compared with the base material, mechanical properties of the joint are maintained in a comparatively high level

  16. Surface enhanced Raman scattering imaging of developed thin-layer chromatography plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freye, Chris E; Crane, Nichole A; Kirchner, Teresa B; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2013-04-16

    A method for hyphenating surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is presented that employs silver-polymer nanocomposites as an interface. Through the process of conformal blotting, analytes are transferred from TLC plates to nanocomposite films before being imaged via SERS. A procedure leading to maximum blotting efficiency was established by investigating various parameters such as time, pressure, and type and amount of blotting solvent. Additionally, limits of detection were established for test analytes malachite green isothiocyanate, 4-aminothiophenol, and Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-6) M. Band broadening due to blotting was minimal (∼10%) as examined by comparing the spatial extent of TLC-spotted Rh6G via fluorescence and then the SERS-based spot size on the nanocomposite after the blotting process. Finally, a separation of the test analytes was carried out on a TLC plate followed by blotting and the acquisition of distance × wavenumber × intensity three-dimensional TLC-SERS plots.

  17. Corrosion kinetics of 316L stainless steel bipolar plate with chromiumcarbide coating in simulated PEMFC cathodic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Huang

    Full Text Available Stainless steel with chromium carbide coating is an ideal candidate for bipolar plates. However, the coating still cannot resist the corrosion of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC environment. In this work, the corrosion kinetics of 316L stainless steel with chromium carbide is investigated in simulated PEMFC cathodic environment by combining electrochemical tests with morphology and microstructure analysis. SEM results reveal that the steel’s surface is completely coated by Cr and chromium carbide but there are pinholes in the coating. After the coated 316L stainless steel is polarized, the diffraction peak of Fe oxide is found. EIS results indicate that the capacitive resistance and the reaction resistance first slowly decrease (2–32 h and then increase. The potentiostatic transient curve declines sharply within 2000 s and then decreases slightly. The pinholes, which exist in the coating, result in pitting corrosion. The corrosion kinetics of the coated 316L stainless steel are modeled and accords the following equation: i0 = 7.6341t−0.5, with the corrosion rate controlled by ion migration in the pinholes. Keywords: PEMFC, Metal bipolar plate, Chromium carbide coating, Corrosion kinetics, Pitting corrosion

  18. Korn inequalities for elastic junctions of massive bodies, thin plates, and rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, S A

    2008-01-01

    Korn inequalities have been obtained for junctions of massive elastic bodies, thin plates, and rods in many different combinations. These inequalities are asymptotically sharp thanks to the introduction of various weight factors in the L 2 -norms of the displacements and their derivatives. Since thin bodies display different reactions to stretching and bending, such Korn inequalities are necessarily anisotropic. Junctions of elastic bodies with contrasting stiffness are allowed, but the constants in the inequalities obtained are independent of both the relative thickness h element of (0,1] and the relative rigidity μ element of (0,+∞). The norms corresponding to rigidly clamped elements of a structure are essentially different from the norms corresponding to hard-movable or movable elements that are not fastened directly, but only by means of neighbouring elements; therefore, an adequate structure of the weighted anisotropic norms is determined by the geometry of the whole junction. Each variant of Korn inequality is supplied with an example confirming the optimal choice of the weight factors

  19. Simulation analysis of impact tests of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs against aircraft impact and its validation with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, Muhammad; Xiu Yun, Zhu; Rong, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation analysis is carried out with two constitutive concrete models. • Winfrith model can better simulate nonlinear response of concrete than CSCM model. • Performance of steel plate concrete is better than reinforced concrete. • Thickness of safety related structures can be reduced by adopting steel plates. • Analysis results, mainly concrete material models should be validated. - Abstract: The steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete structures are used in nuclear power plants for protection against impact of an aircraft. In order to compare the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs panels, simulation analysis of 1/7.5 scale model impact tests is carried out by using finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The damage modes of all finite element models, velocity time history curves of the aircraft engine and damage to aircraft model are compared with the impact test results of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slab panels. The results indicate that finite element simulation results correlate well with the experimental results especially for constitutive winfrith concrete model. Also, the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete slab panels is better than reinforced concrete slab panels, particularly the rear face steel plate is very effective in preventing the perforation and scabbing of concrete than conventional reinforced concrete structures. In this way, the thickness of steel plate reinforced concrete structures can be reduced in important structures like nuclear power plants against impact of aircraft. It also demonstrates the methodology to validate the analysis procedure with experimental and analytical studies. It may be effectively employed to predict the precise response of safety related structures against aircraft impact

  20. Ballistic Limit of High-Strength Steel and Al7075-T6 Multi-Layered Plates Under 7.62-mm Armour Piercing Projectile Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, N. A.; Abdullah, S.; Zamri, W. F. H.; Abdullah, M. F.; Omar, M. Z.; Sajuri, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the computational-based ballistic limit of laminated metal panels comprised of high strength steel and aluminium alloy Al7075-T6 plate at different thickness combinations to necessitate the weight reduction of existing armour steel plate. The numerical models of monolithic configuration, double-layered configuration and triple-layered configuration were developed using a commercial explicit finite element code and were impacted by 7.62 mm armour piercing projectil...

  1. Electroplating of Ni-Mo Coating on Stainless Steel for Application in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rashtchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel bipolar plates are preferred choice for use in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs. However, regarding the working temperature of 80 °C and corrosive and acidic environment of PEMFC, it is necessary to apply conductive protective coatings resistant to corrosion on metallic bipolar plate surfaces to enhance its chemical stability and performance. In the present study, by applying Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P alloy coatings via electroplating technique, corrosion resistance was improved, oxid layers formation on substrates which led to increased electrical conductivity of the surface was reduced and consequently bipolar plates fuction was enhanced. Evaluation tests included microstructural and phase characterizations for evaluating coating components; cyclic voltammetry test for electrochemical behavior investigations; wettability test for measuring hydrophobicity characterizations of the coatings surfaces; interfacial contact resistance measurements of the coatings for evaluating the composition of applied coatings; and polarization tests of fuel cells for evaluating bipolar plates function in working conditions. Finally, the results showed that the above-mentioned coatings considerably decreased the corrosion and electrical resistance of the stainless steel.

  2. Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam in Shear Zone by Compensation the Stirrups with Equivalent External Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamail Abdul-Mahdi Mosheer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on reinforced concrete beams strengthened with external steel plates instead of shear stirrups has been held in this paper. Eight samples of the same dimensions and properties were used. Two of them were tested up to failure and specified as references beams; one with shear reinforcement and the other without shear reinforcement. Another samples without shear reinforcement were tested until the first shear crack occurs, then the samples strengthened on both sides with external steel plates as equivalent area of removed stirrups. The strengthened beams were divided into three groups according to the thickness of plates (1, 1.5, 2 mm, each group involved two beams; one bonded using epoxy and the other bonded using epoxy with anchored bolts. Finally, the strengthened beams tested when using anchored bolts with epoxy glue to bond plates. Where the increasing in maximum load is higher than that in reference beam with no internal stirrups reach to (75.46 –106.13% and has a good agreement with the control beam with shear reinforcement reach to (76.06 – 89.36% of ultimate load.

  3. Fracture toughness of welded joints of ASTM A543 steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susukida, H.; Uebayashi, T.; Yoshida, K.; Ando, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Fracture toughness and weldability tests have been performed on a high strength steel which is a modification of ASTM A543 Grade B Class 1 steel, with a view to using it for nuclear reactor containment vessels. The results showed that fracture toughness of welded joints of ASTM A543 modified high strength steel is superior and the steel is suitable for manufacturing the containment vessels

  4. Spacer grid for fuel assembly of nuclear reactor comprising opposite support points made with elastic thin plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feutrel, C.

    1983-01-01

    Two series of thin walls form square cells, each containing a fuel pencil. Support points are made in the cells walls. Splines obtained by two parallel slots in the length of the cells. The reaction of fuel pencil produce a deformation of the elastic splines made in the plate, for compensation of the tolerance allowed on the diameter of the pencils [fr

  5. The laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectra of some methylated xanthines and the laser desorption of caffeine and theophylline from thin layer chromatography plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kevin; Milnes, John; Gormally, John

    1993-02-01

    Laser desorption/laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and xanthine are reported. These mass spectra are compared with published spectra obtained using electron impact ionization. Mass spectra of caffeine and theophylline obtained by IR laser desorption from thin layer chromatography plates are also described. The laser desorption of materials from thin layer chromatography plates is discussed.

  6. Experimental studies on the deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pengwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading are studied by using high-speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC. An equivalent device consist of a gas gun and a water anvil tube was used to supplying an exponentially decaying pressure in lieu of explosive detonation which acted on the panel specimen. The thin metal plate is clamped on the end of the shock tube by a flange. The deformation and rupture process of the metal plates subject to underwater shock waves are recorded by two high-speed cameras. The shape, displacement fields and strain fields of the metal plates under dynamic loading are obtained by using VIC-3D digital image correlation software. The strain gauges also were used to monitor the structural response on the selected position for comparison. The DIC data and the strain gauges results show a high level of correlation, and 3D-DIC is proven to be an effective method to measure 3D full-field dynamic response of structures under underwater impact loading. The effects of pre-notches on the failure modes of thin circular plate were also discussed.

  7. Drilling and cutting of thin metal plates in water with radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glova, A F; Lysikov, A Yu [State Research Center of Russian Federation ' Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research' , Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    The conditions of drilling and cutting of 0.15-mm-thick titanium and stainless steel plates in water with the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser having the mean power up to 30 W are studied experimentally in the absence of water and gas jets. Dependences of the maximal cutting speed in water on the radiation power are obtained, the cutting efficiency is determined, and the comparison with the conditions of drilling and cutting of plates in air is carried out.

  8. A Study on the Low Temperature Brittleness by Cyclic Cooling-Heating of Low Carbon Hot Rolled Steel Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyo Bok

    1979-01-01

    The ductile-brittle transition phenomenon of low carbon steel has been investigated using the standard Charpy V-notch specimen. Dry ice and acetone were used as refrigerants. Notched specimens were cut from the hot rolled plate produced at POSCO for the Olsen impact test. The effect of cyclic cooling and heating of 0.14% carbon steel on the embrittlement was extensively examined. The ductile-brittle transition temperature was found to be approximately-30 .deg. C. The transition temperature was gradually increased as the number of cooling-heating cycles increased. On a typical V-notch fracture surface it was found that the ductile fracture surface showed a thick and fibrous structure, while the brittle fracture surface a small and light grain with irregular disposition. As expected, the transition temperature was also increased as the carbon content of steel increased. Compared with the case of 0.14% carbon steel, the transition temperature of 0.17% carbon steel was found to be increased about 12 .deg. C

  9. Design development of steel plate concrete modularization for the advanced PWR in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Taeyoup; Kim, Keunkyeong; Sun, Wonsang; Kim, Taeyoung; Hwang, Geunha

    2008-01-01

    APR1400 TM - an advanced PWR - has been developed in Korea since 1992. Four APR1400 units - Shin Kori no.3,4 and Shin Uljin no.1,2 - are going to be built in a next decade. As for economical efficiency, construction cost per power generation Unit(W) is improved more than 10% compared to the former 1,000 MWe PWRs. Moreover, life-cycle maintenance cost is reduced to the world's most level. For construction period from first concrete pouring to commercial operation, 54 months for APR1400 and 36 months for n-th unit have been projected. Reduction of the construction term of the Nuclear Power Plant has been emphasized increasingly for the NPP construction Project because it would reduce the interest cost and uncertainty of the project. The reduction can also advance the return of investment. Some of the PPM(Prefabrication, Preassembly, and Modularization) techniques have been studied for the shortening the construction period of nuclear power plant. Especially for the internal structure of reactor containment building (RCB) in PWR whose term of construction is critical to the whole project, Steel Plate Concrete(SC) structure has been studied as one of alternative structural systems to the conventional Reinforced Concrete(RC) structure in APR1400. SC structure is considered appropriate for the modularization of the structure with its self-supporting. In addition, formwork can be dramatically eliminated when SC structural modules are used. The MKE (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) and KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.) initiated the research and development of SC Structure in 2005. This paper presents design examples along with Codes and Standards of SC structure in nuclear power plant. (author)

  10. Doping properties of ZnO thin films for photovoltaic devices grown by URT-IP (ion plating) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, K.; Sakemi, T.; Yamada, A.; Fons, P.; Awai, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsubara, M.; Tampo, H.; Sakurai, K.; Ishizuka, S.; Niki, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Uramoto-gun with Tanaka magnetic field (URT)-ion plating (IP) method is a novel ion plating technique for thin film deposition. This method offers the advantage of low-ion damage, low deposition temperatures, large area deposition and high growth rates. Ga-doped ZnO thin films were grown using the URT-IP method, and the doping properties were evaluated. The opposing goals of low Ga composition and low resistivity are required for industrial applications of transparent conductive oxide (TCO). We have carried out a comparison between the carrier concentration and Ga atomic concentration in Ga-doped ZnO thin films and found the trade-off point for optimal TCO performance. The optimum growth conditions were obtained using a 3% Ga 2 O 3 content ZnO target

  11. Characterisation of organic thin film coatings on automobile steel sheets by photothermal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, T. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Fluegge, W. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Gibkes, J. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). AG FestKoerperSpektroskopie

    2006-07-01

    In the nineties, the first generation of organic thin film coatings for corrosion protection of zinc-coated thin sheet steel have been introduced. The coating typically consists of a suspension of small zinc particles, embedded in a polymer matrix. In the scope of quality control, the characterisation of the resulting layer structure is of great interest, comprising not only a constant layer thickness and a local homogeneity of the coating, but also the depth distribution of the particles within the layer. Especially the latter parameter does have a direct influence on the spot weldability of the steel sheets. The present work shows, how photothermal methods like modulated infrared radiometry and photoacoustics can be used for a successful depth profiling of the thin film coatings. The sample surface is periodically heated using an intensitymodulated laser beam, and a thermal wave is induced in the layer system. By variation of the modulation frequency of the laser beam, the thermal diffusion length and, as a consequence, the penetration depth of the thermal wave can be adjusted. By a suitable evaluation of the amplitude and phase lag signals as a function of the modulation frequency, accurate depth profiling has been realized which can be used for a very reliable prediction of the welding properties of the product. In the first investigations, artificial samples with well defined extreme distributions of the particles have been analyzed, and in a second step, an evaluation strategy has been developed for real production samples. (orig.)

  12. Effects of ion beam bombardment of carbon thin films deposited onto tungsten carbide and tool steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki [Industrial Research Inst. of Ishikawa (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshi [Gakushuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Iwaki, Masaya; Guzman, L [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan)

    1992-04-15

    A study was made of the effects of argon ion bombardment of carbon thin films deposited onto WC and tool steels. Carbon thin film deposition was performed at various temperatures ranging from 200degC to 350degC, using C{sub 6}H{sub 6} gas. Argon ion beam bombardment of the films was carried out at an energy of 150 keV with a dose of 1x10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. The hardness and adhesion of the films were measured by means of Knoop hardness and scratch tests respectively. The structure of the carbon films was estimated by laser Raman spectroscopy, and the relations were investigated between the mechanical properties and the structure of the films. The hardness of carbon thin films increases as their deposition temperature decreases; this tendency corresponds to the increase in amorphous structure estimated by Raman spectra. Argon ion bombardment results in constant hardness and fraction of amorphous structure. Argon ion beam bombardment of films prior to additional carbon deposition may cause the adhesion of the subsequently deposited films to improve. It is concluded that argon ion beam bombardment is useful for improving the properties of carbon films deposited onto WC and tool steels. (orig.).

  13. Effects of ion beam bombardment of carbon thin films deposited onto tungsten carbide and tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Masaya; Guzman, L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of argon ion bombardment of carbon thin films deposited onto WC and tool steels. Carbon thin film deposition was performed at various temperatures ranging from 200degC to 350degC, using C 6 H 6 gas. Argon ion beam bombardment of the films was carried out at an energy of 150 keV with a dose of 1x10 16 ions cm -2 . The hardness and adhesion of the films were measured by means of Knoop hardness and scratch tests respectively. The structure of the carbon films was estimated by laser Raman spectroscopy, and the relations were investigated between the mechanical properties and the structure of the films. The hardness of carbon thin films increases as their deposition temperature decreases; this tendency corresponds to the increase in amorphous structure estimated by Raman spectra. Argon ion bombardment results in constant hardness and fraction of amorphous structure. Argon ion beam bombardment of films prior to additional carbon deposition may cause the adhesion of the subsequently deposited films to improve. It is concluded that argon ion beam bombardment is useful for improving the properties of carbon films deposited onto WC and tool steels. (orig.)

  14. Ductile Tearing of Thin Aluminum Plates Under Blast Loading. Predictions with Fully Coupled Models and Biaxial Material Response Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gullerud, Arne S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haulenbeek, Kimberly K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The work presented in this report concerns the response and failure of thin 2024- T3 aluminum alloy circular plates to a blast load produced by the detonation of a nearby spherical charge. The plates were fully clamped around the circumference and the explosive charge was located centrally with respect to the plate. The principal objective was to conduct a numerical model validation study by comparing the results of predictions to experimental measurements of plate deformation and failure for charges with masses in the vicinity of the threshold between no tearing and tearing of the plates. Stereo digital image correlation data was acquired for all tests to measure the deflection and strains in the plates. The size of the virtual strain gage in the measurements, however, was relatively large, so the strain measurements have to be interpreted accordingly as lower bounds of the actual strains in the plate and of the severity of the strain gradients. A fully coupled interaction model between the blast and the deflection of the structure was considered. The results of the validation exercise indicated that the model predicted the deflection of the plates reasonably accurately as well as the distribution of strain on the plate. The estimation of the threshold charge based on a critical value of equivalent plastic strain measured in a bulge test, however, was not accurate. This in spite of efforts to determine the failure strain of the aluminum sheet under biaxial stress conditions. Further work is needed to be able to predict plate tearing with some degree of confidence. Given the current technology, at least one test under the actual blast conditions where the plate tears is needed to calibrate the value of equivalent plastic strain when failure occurs in the numerical model. Once that has been determined, the question of the explosive mass value at the threshold could be addressed with more confidence.

  15. Perforation of Thin Aluminum Alloy Plates by Blunt Projectiles - Experimental and Numerical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gang; Zhang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Reducing the armor weight has become a research focus in terms of armored material with the increasing requirement of the mobility and flexibility of tanks and armored vehicles in modern local wars. Due to high strength-to-density ratio, aluminum alloy has become a potential light armored material. In this study, both lab-scale ballistic test and finite element simulation were adopted to examine the ballistic resistance of aluminum alloy targets. Blunt high strength steel projectiles with 12.7 mm diameter were launched by light gas gun against 3.3 mm thick aluminum alloy plates at velocity of 90 ~ 170 m/s. The ballistic limit velocity was obtained. Plugging failure and obvious structure deformation of targets were observed, and with the impact velocity increasing, the target structure deformation decrease gradually. Corresponding 2D finite element simulations were conducted by ABAQUS/EXPLICIT combined with material performance testing. Good agreement between the numerical simulations and the experimental results was found. National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.: 11072072).

  16. THIN-WALLED CROSS SECTION SHAPE INFLUENCE ON STEEL MEMBER RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Urbańska-Galewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes why trending thin-walled technology is achieving popularity in steel construction sector. A purpose of this article is to present the influence of the cold-formed element cross-section shape on an axial compression and a bending moment resistance. The authors have considered four different shapes assuming constant section area and thickness. Calculations were based on three different steel grades taking into account local, distortional and overall buckling. The results are presented in a tabular and a graphical way and clearly confirm that cross-section forming distinctly impact the cold-formed member resistance. The authors choose these cross-sections that work better in compression state and the other (those slender and high that function more efficiently are subjected to bending.

  17. Study Of The Wet Multipass Drawing Process Applied On High Strength Thin Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimont, J.; Felder, E.; Bobadilla, C.; Buessler, P.; Persem, N.; Vaubourg, JP.

    2011-05-01

    Many kinds of high strength thin steel wires are involved in so many applications. Most of the time, these wires are made of a pearlitic steel grade. The current developments mainly concern the wire last drawing operation: after a patenting treatment several reduction passes are performed on a slip-type multipass drawing machine. This paper focuses on modeling this multipass drawing process: a constitutive law based on the wire microstructure evolutions is created, a mechanical study is performed, a set of experiments which enables determining the process friction coefficients is suggested and finally the related analytical model is introduced. This model provides several general results about the process and can be used in order to set the drawing machines.

  18. The Influence of Vanadium Microalloying on the Production of Thin Slab Casting and Direct Rolled Steel Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Milbourn, David

    Vanadium microalloying is highly effective in high strength strip steels produced by thin slab casting and direct rolled process. Because of the high solubility of V(C,N) in austenite, vanadium is likely to remain in solution during casting, equalisation and rolling. Vanadium microalloyed steels have better hot ductility and are less prone to transverse cracking than niobium containing steels. Despite a coarse as-cast austenite grain size before rolling, significant grain refinement can be achieved in vanadium microalloyed steels by repeated recrystallization during rolling, resulting in a fine uniform ferrite microstructure in final strip. Almost all vanadium present in microalloyed steels is available to precipitate in ferrite as very fine particles, contributing to precipitation strengthening. Vanadium microalloyed steels show less sensitivity to rolling process variables and exhibit excellent combination of strength and toughness.

  19. Mandibular transformations in prepubertal patients following treatment for craniofacial microsomia: thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, A D; Singh, G D

    2000-01-01

    To analyze correction of mandibular deformity using an inverted L osteotomy and autogenous bone graft in patients exhibiting unilateral craniofacial microsomia (CFM), thin-plate spline analysis was undertaken. Preoperative, early postoperative, and approximately 3.5-year postoperative posteroanterior cephalographs of 15 children (age 10+/-3 years) with CFM were scanned, and eight homologous mandibular landmarks digitized. Average mandibular geometries, scaled to an equivalent size, were generated using Procrustes superimposition. Results indicated that the mean pre- and postoperative mandibular configurations differed statistically (PThin-plate spline analysis indicated that the total spline (Cartesian transformation grid) of the pre- to early postoperative configuration showed mandibular body elongation on the treated side and inferior symphyseal displacement. The affine component of the total spline revealed a clockwise rotation of the preoperative configuration, whereas the nonaffine component was responsible for ramus, body, and symphyseal displacements. The transformation grid for the early and late postoperative comparison showed bilateral ramus elongation. A superior symphyseal displacement contrasted with its earlier inferior displacement, the affine component had translocated the symphyseal landmarks towards the midline. The nonaffine component demonstrated bilateral ramus lengthening, and partial warps suggested that these elongations were slightly greater on the nontreated side. The affine component of the pre- and late postoperative comparison also demonstrated a clockwise rotation. The nonaffine component produced the bilateral ramus elongations-the nontreated side ramus lengthening slightly more than the treated side. It is concluded that an inverted L osteotomy improves mandibular morphology significantly in CFM patients and permits continued bilateral ramus growth. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Characterizing kernels of operators related to thin-plate magnetizations via generalizations of Hodge decompositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratchart, L; Hardin, D P; Saff, E B; Lima, E A; Weiss, B P

    2013-01-01

    Recently developed scanning magnetic microscopes measure the magnetic field in a plane above a thin-plate magnetization distribution. These instruments have broad applications in geoscience and materials science, but are limited by the requirement that the sample magnetization must be retrieved from measured field data, which is a generically nonunique inverse problem. This problem leads to an analysis of the kernel of the related magnetization operators, which also has relevance to the ‘equivalent source problem’ in the case of measurements taken from just one side of the magnetization. We characterize the kernel of the operator relating planar magnetization distributions to planar magnetic field maps in various function and distribution spaces (e.g., sums of derivatives of L p (Lebesgue spaces) or bounded mean oscillation (BMO) functions). For this purpose, we present a generalization of the Hodge decomposition in terms of Riesz transforms and utilize it to characterize sources that do not produce a magnetic field either above or below the sample, or that are magnetically silent (i.e. no magnetic field anywhere outside the sample). For example, we show that a thin-plate magnetization is silent (i.e. in the kernel) when its normal component is zero and its tangential component is divergence free. In addition, we show that compactly supported magnetizations (i.e. magnetizations that are zero outside of a bounded set in the source plane) that do not produce magnetic fields either above or below the sample are necessarily silent. In particular, neither a nontrivial planar magnetization with fixed direction (unidimensional) compact support nor a bidimensional planar magnetization (i.e. a sum of two unidimensional magnetizations) that is nontangential can be silent. We prove that any planar magnetization distribution is equivalent to a unidimensional one. We also discuss the advantages of mapping the field on both sides of a magnetization, whenever experimentally

  1. Tensile Stress-Strain Results for 304L and 316L Stainless-Steel Plate at Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. K. Blandford; D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl

    2007-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting moderate strain rate (10 to 200 per second) research on stainless steel materials in support of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). For this research, strain rate effects are characterized by comparison to quasi-static tensile test results. Considerable tensile testing has been conducted resulting in the generation of a large amount of basic material data expressed as engineering and true stress-strain curves. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of quasi-static tensile testing of 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steels in order to add to the existing data pool for these materials and make the data more readily available to other researchers, engineers, and interested parties. Standard tensile testing of round specimens in accordance with ASTM procedure A 370-03a were conducted on 304L and 316L stainless-steel plate materials at temperatures ranging from -20 F to 600 F. Two plate thicknesses, eight material heats, and both base and weld metal were tested. Material yield strength, Young's modulus, ultimate strength, ultimate strain, failure strength and failure strain were determined, engineering and true stress-strain curves to failure were developed, and comparisons to ASME Code minimums were made. The procedures used during testing and the typical results obtained are described in this paper

  2. Investigation of Microstructure and Corrosion Propagation Behaviour of Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin Kamal Ariff Zainal; Ismail Elya Atikah; Zainuddin Azman; Hussain Patthi

    2014-01-01

    Martensitic stainless steels are commonly used for fabricating components. For many applications, an increase in surface hardness and wear resistance can be beneficial to improve performance and extend service life. However, the improvement in hardness of martensitic steels is usually accompanied by a reduction in corrosion strength. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of nitriding on AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, in terms of microstructure and corrosion propagat...

  3. The effect of filler metal thickness on residual stress and creep for stainless-steel plate-fin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Wenchun [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)], E-mail: jiangwenchun@126.com; Gong Jianming; Chen Hu; Tu, S.T. [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Stainless-steel plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE) has been used as a high-temperature recuperator in microturbine for its excellent qualities in compact structure, high-temperature and pressure resistance. Plate-fin structure, as the core of PFHE, is fabricated by vacuum brazing. The main component fins and the parting sheets are joined by fusion of a brazing alloy cladded to the surface of parting sheets. Owing to the material mismatching between the filler metal and the base metal, residual stresses can arise and decrease the structure strength greatly. The recuperator serves at high temperature and the creep would happen. The thickness of the filler metal plays an important role in the joint strength. Hence this paper presented a finite element (FE) analysis of the brazed residual stresses and creep for a counterflow stainless-steel plate-fin structure. The effect of the filler metal thickness on residual stress and creep was investigated, which provides a reference for strength design.

  4. Thin-Sheet zinc-coated and carbon steels laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecas, P.; Gouveia, H.; Quintino, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research on CO 2 laser welding of thin-sheet carbon steels (Zinc-coated and uncoated), at several thicknesses combinations. Laser welding has an high potential to be applied on sub-assemblies welding before forming to the automotive industry-tailored blanks. The welding process is studied through the analysis of parameters optimization, metallurgical quality and induced distortions by the welding process. The clamping system and the gas protection system developed are fully described. These systems allow the minimization of common thin-sheet laser welding defects like misalignment, and zinc-coated laser welding defects like porous and zinc ventilation. The laser welding quality is accessed by DIN 8563 standard, and by tensile, microhardness and corrosion test. (Author) 8 refs

  5. A thin-lip rupture of carbon steel superheater boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, E.O.; Alzoye, K.S.; Elwaer, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    A ruptured A 42 medium carbon steel tube was collected by the engineering department in one of our steam power stations. Inspection of ruptured tube revealed a thin - lip fracture with brownish thin layer of oxide film on inner tube surfaces. There was no evidence of pitting, the outer surfaces of the tube exhibited a general oxidized conditions. A micro section taken near the fracture surface consists of ferrite and martensite, the amount of martensite decreased as we away from the fracture surface. Presence of martensite phase in the microstructure indicates that the tube material has been overheated. An erosion corrosion mechanism in conjunction with overheated. An erosion corrosion mechanism in conjunction with overheating resulted in strength deterioration with consequent premature failure. 4 fig., 1 tab

  6. Stable, microfabricated thin layer chromatography plates without volume distortion on patterned, carbon and Al₂O₃-primed carbon nanotube forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David S; Kanyal, Supriya S; Gupta, Vipul; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew E; Engelhard, Mark; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert C; Linford, Matthew R

    2012-09-28

    Some of us recently described the fabrication of thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates from patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests via direct infiltration/coating of the CNTs by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of silicon from SiH₄, followed by high temperature oxidation of the CNTs and Si. Herein we present an improved microfabrication process for the preparation of these TLC plates. First, a few nanometers of carbon and/or a thin film of Al₂O₃ is deposited on the CNTs. This method of priming the CNTs for subsequent depositions appears to be new. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of additional oxygen after carbon deposition. After priming, the plates are coated by rapid, conformal deposition of an inorganic material that does not require subsequent oxidation, i.e., by a fast pseudo atomic layer deposition (ψ-ALD) of SiO₂ from trimethylaluminum and tris(tert-butoxy)silanol. Unlike devices described previously, faithful reproduction of the features in the masks is still observed after oxidation. A bonded, amino phase on the resulting plates shows fast, highly efficient separations of fluorescent dyes (plate heights in the range of 1.6-7.7 μm). Extensive characterization of the new materials by TEM, SEM, EDAX, DRIFT, and XPS is reported. A substantially lower process temperature for the removal of the CNT scaffold is possible as a result of the already oxidized materials used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Digital elevation model production from scanned topographic contour maps via thin plate spline interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soycan, Arzu; Soycan, Metin

    2009-01-01

    GIS (Geographical Information System) is one of the most striking innovation for mapping applications supplied by the developing computer and software technology to users. GIS is a very effective tool which can show visually combination of the geographical and non-geographical data by recording these to allow interpretations and analysis. DEM (Digital Elevation Model) is an inalienable component of the GIS. The existing TM (Topographic Map) can be used as the main data source for generating DEM by amanual digitizing or vectorization process for the contours polylines. The aim of this study is to examine the DEM accuracies, which were obtained by TMs, as depending on the number of sampling points and grid size. For these purposes, the contours of the several 1/1000 scaled scanned topographical maps were vectorized. The different DEMs of relevant area have been created by using several datasets with different numbers of sampling points. We focused on the DEM creation from contour lines using gridding with RBF (Radial Basis Function) interpolation techniques, namely TPS as the surface fitting model. The solution algorithm and a short review of the mathematical model of TPS (Thin Plate Spline) interpolation techniques are given. In the test study, results of the application and the obtained accuracies are drawn and discussed. The initial object of this research is to discuss the requirement of DEM in GIS, urban planning, surveying engineering and the other applications with high accuracy (a few deci meters). (author)

  8. Thin-plate spline graphical analysis of the mandible in mandibular prognathism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Fu; Chang, Hong-Po; Liu, Pao-Hsin; Chang, Chih-Han

    2002-11-01

    The chin cup has been used to treat skeletal mandibular prognathism in growing patients for 200 years. The pull on the orthopedic-force chin cup is oriented along a line from the mandibular symphysis to the mandibular condyle. Various levels of success have been reported with this restraining device. The vertical chin cup produces strong vertical compression stress on the maxillary molar regions when the direction of traction is 20 degrees more vertical than the chin-condyle line. This treatment strategy may prevent relapse due to counter-clockwise rotation of the mandible. In this report, we describe a new strategy for using chin-cup therapy involving thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis of lateral cephalometric roentgenograms to visualize transformation of the mandible. The actual sites of mandibular skeletal change are not detectable with conventional cephalometric analysis. A case of mandibular prognathism treated with a chin cup and a case of dental Class III malocclusion without orthodontic treatment are described. The case analysis illustrates that specific patterns of mandibular transformation are associated with Class III malocclusion with or without orthopedic therapy, and that visualization of these deformations is feasible using TPS graphical analysis.

  9. Ethnicity and skeletal Class III morphology: a pubertal growth analysis using thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamrah, B; Terada, K; Yamaki, M; Ali, I M; Hanada, K

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal retrospective study using thin-plate spline analysis was used to investigate skeletal Class III etiology in Japanese female adolescents. Headfilms of 40 subjects were chosen from the archives of the Orthodontic department at Niigata University Dental Hospital, and were traced at IIIB and IVA Hellman dental ages. Twenty-eight homologous landmarks, representing hard and soft tissue, were digitized. These were used to reproduce a consensus for the profilogram, craniomaxillary complex, mandible, and soft tissue for each age and skeletal group. Generalized least-square analysis revealed a significant shape difference between age-matched groups (P spline and partial warps (PW)3 and 2 showed a maxillary retrusion at stage IIIB opposite an acute cranial base at stage IVA. Mandibular total spline and PW4, 5 showed changes affecting most landmarks and their spatial interrelationship, especially a stretch along the articulare-pogonion axis. In soft tissue analysis, PW8 showed large and local changes which paralleled the underlying hard tissue components. Allometry of the mandible and anisotropy of the cranial base, the maxilla, and the mandible asserted the complexity of craniofacial growth and the difficulty of predicting its outcome.

  10. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial morphology in subjects with adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Michela; Ballanti, Fabiana; Polimeni, Antonella; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cozza, Paola

    2011-04-01

    To compare the skeletal features of subjects with adenoid hypertrophy with those of children with tonsillar hypertrophy using thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis. A group of 20 subjects (9 girls and 11 boys; mean age 8.4 ± 0.9 years) with adenoid hypertrophy (AG) was compared with a group of 20 subjects (10 girls and 10 boys; mean age 8.2 ± 1.1 years) with tonsillar hypertrophy (TG). Craniofacial morphology was analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of TPS analysis. A cross-sectional comparison was performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. AG exhibited statistically significant shape and size differences in craniofacial configuration with respect to TG. Subjects with adenoid hypertrophy showed an upward dislocation of the anterior region of the maxilla, a more downward/backward position of the anterior region of the mandibular body and an upward/backward displacement of the condylar region. Conversely, subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy showed a downward dislocation of the anterior region of the maxilla, a more upward/forward position of the anterior region of the mandibular body and a downward/forward displacement of the condylar region. Subjects with adenoid hypertrophy exhibited features suggesting a more retrognathic mandible while subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy showed features suggesting a more prognathic mandible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial growth in Class I and Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2007-07-01

    To compare the craniofacial growth characteristics of untreated subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion with those of subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from the prepubertal through the postpubertal stages of development. The Class II division 1 sample consisted of 17 subjects (11 boys and six girls). The Class I sample also consisted of 17 subjects (13 boys and four girls). Three craniofacial regions (cranial base, maxilla, and mandible) were analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of thin-plate spline analysis at T1 (prepubertal) and T2 (postpubertal). Both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons were performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. The results showed an increased cranial base angulation as a morphological feature of Class II malocclusion at the prepubertal developmental phase. Maxillary changes in either shape or size were not significant. Subjects with Class II malocclusion exhibited a significant deficiency in the size of the mandible at the completion of active craniofacial growth as compared with Class I subjects. A significant deficiency in the size of the mandible became apparent in Class II subjects during the circumpubertal period and it was still present at the completion of active craniofacial growth.

  12. Applying Emax model and bivariate thin plate splines to assess drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Maiying; Lee, J Jack

    2010-01-01

    We review the semiparametric approach previously proposed by Kong and Lee and extend it to a case in which the dose-effect curves follow the Emax model instead of the median effect equation. When the maximum effects for the investigated drugs are different, we provide a procedure to obtain the additive effect based on the Loewe additivity model. Then, we apply a bivariate thin plate spline approach to estimate the effect beyond additivity along with its 95 per cent point-wise confidence interval as well as its 95 per cent simultaneous confidence interval for any combination dose. Thus, synergy, additivity, and antagonism can be identified. The advantages of the method are that it provides an overall assessment of the combination effect on the entire two-dimensional dose space spanned by the experimental doses, and it enables us to identify complex patterns of drug interaction in combination studies. In addition, this approach is robust to outliers. To illustrate this procedure, we analyzed data from two case studies.

  13. Thin plate spline feature point matching for organ surfaces in minimally invasive surgery imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning

    2013-03-01

    Robust feature point matching for images with large view angle changes in Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a challenging task due to low texture and specular reflections in these images. This paper presents a new approach that can improve feature matching performance by exploiting the inherent geometric property of the organ surfaces. Recently, intensity based template image tracking using a Thin Plate Spline (TPS) model has been extended for 3D surface tracking with stereo cameras. The intensity based tracking is also used here for 3D reconstruction of internal organ surfaces. To overcome the small displacement requirement of intensity based tracking, feature point correspondences are used for proper initialization of the nonlinear optimization in the intensity based method. Second, we generate simulated images from the reconstructed 3D surfaces under all potential view positions and orientations, and then extract feature points from these simulated images. The obtained feature points are then filtered and re-projected to the common reference image. The descriptors of the feature points under different view angles are stored to ensure that the proposed method can tolerate a large range of view angles. We evaluate the proposed method with silicon phantoms and in vivo images. The experimental results show that our method is much more robust with respect to the view angle changes than other state-of-the-art methods.

  14. A thin-plate spline analysis of the face and tongue in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, E K; Lowe, A A; Fleetham, J A

    1997-12-01

    The shape characteristics of the face and tongue in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients were investigated using thin-plate (TP) splines. A relatively new analytic tool, the TP spline method, provides a means of size normalization and image analysis. When shape is one's main concern, various sizes of a biologic structure may be a source of statistical noise. More seriously, the strong size effect could mask underlying, actual attributes of the disease. A set of size normalized data in the form of coordinates was generated from cephalograms of 80 male subjects. The TP spline method envisioned the differences in the shape of the face and tongue between OSA patients and nonapneic subjects and those between the upright and supine body positions. In accordance with OSA severity, the hyoid bone and the submental region positioned inferiorly and the fourth vertebra relocated posteriorly with respect to the mandible. This caused a fanlike configuration of the lower part of the face and neck in the sagittal plane in both upright and supine body positions. TP splines revealed tongue deformations caused by a body position change. Overall, the new morphometric tool adopted here was found to be viable in the analysis of morphologic changes.

  15. Boundary integral equation methods and numerical solutions thin plates on an elastic foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian; Hamill, William

    2016-01-01

    This book presents and explains a general, efficient, and elegant method for solving the Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary value problems for the extensional deformation of a thin plate on an elastic foundation. The solutions of these problems are obtained both analytically—by means of direct and indirect boundary integral equation methods (BIEMs)—and numerically, through the application of a boundary element technique. The text discusses the methodology for constructing a BIEM, deriving all the attending mathematical properties with full rigor. The model investigated in the book can serve as a template for the study of any linear elliptic two-dimensional problem with constant coefficients. The representation of the solution in terms of single-layer and double-layer potentials is pivotal in the development of a BIEM, which, in turn, forms the basis for the second part of the book, where approximate solutions are computed with a high degree of accuracy. The book is intended for graduate students and r...

  16. A high-quality narrow passband filter for elastic SV waves via aligned parallel separated thin polymethylmethacrylate plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We designed a high-quality filter that consists of aligned parallel polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA thin plates with small gaps for elastic SV waves propagate in metals. Both the theoretical model and the full numerical simulation show the transmission spectrum of the elastic SV waves through such a filter has several sharp peaks with flawless transmission within the investigated frequencies. These peaks can be readily tuned by manipulating the geometry parameters of the PMMA plates. Our investigation finds that the same filter performs well for different metals where the elastic SV waves propagated.

  17. Welding procedure specification for arc welding of St 52-3N steel plates with covered electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovski, S.; Slavkov, D.; Magdeski, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the results of approval welding technology for arc welding of plates made of St 52-3N steel are presented. Metal arc welding with covered electrode is used welding process. Test specimens are butt welded in different welding positions P A , P F , P C and P D . Before start welding preliminary welding procedure was prepared. After welding of test specimens non destructive and destructive testing was performed. Obtained results were compared with standard DIN 17100 which concerns to chemical composition and mechanical properties of base material. It was confirmed that in all cases mechanical properties of welded joint are higher than those of base material, so preliminary welding procedure (pWTS) can be accepted as welding procedure specification WPS for metal arc welding of St52-3N steel. (Original)

  18. Economic aspect comparison between steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete technique in reactor containment wall construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliastuti; Sriyana

    2008-01-01

    Construction costs of nuclear power plant were high due to the construction delays, regulatory delays, redesign requirement, and difficulties in construction management. Based on US DOE (United States Department of Energy) study in 2004, there were thirteen advanced construction technologies which were potential to reduce the construction time of nuclear power plant. Among these technologies was the application of steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) on reactor containment construction. The conventional reinforced concrete (RC) technique were built in place and require more time to remove framework since the external form is temporary. Meanwhile, the SC technique offered a more efficient way to placing concrete by using a permanent external form made of steel. The objective of this study was to calculate construction duration and economic comparison between RC and SC technique. The result of this study showed that SC technique could reduce the construction time by 60% and 29,7% cost reduced compare to the RC technique. (author)

  19. Seismic behavior and design of a primary shield structure consisting of steel-plate composite (SC) walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Peter N., E-mail: boothpn@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN (United States); Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN (United States); Sener, Kadir C., E-mail: ksener@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN (United States); Mori, Kentaro, E-mail: kentaro_mori@mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Kobe (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents an analytical evaluation of the seismic behavior and design of a unique primary shield (PSW) structure consisting of steel-plate composite (SC) walls designed for a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. Researchers in Japan have previously conducted a reduced (1/6th) scale test of a PSW structure to evaluate its seismic (lateral) load-deformation behavior. This paper presents the development and benchmarking of a detailed 3D nonlinear inelastic finite element (NIFE) model to predict the lateral load-deformation response and behavior of the 1/6th scale test structure. The PSW structure consists of thick SC wall segments with complex and irregular geometry that surround the central reactor vessel cavity. The wall segments have three layers of steel plates (one each on the interior and exterior surfaces and one embedded in the middle) that are anchored to the concrete infill with stud anchors. The results from the 3D NIFE analyses include: (i) the lateral load-deformation behavior of the PSW structure, (ii) the progression of yielding in the steel plates, concrete cracking, formation of compression struts, and (iii) the final failure mode. These results are compared and benchmarked using experimental measurements and observations reported by Shodo et al. (2003). The analytical results provide significant insight into the lateral behavior and strength of the PSW structure, and are used for developing a design approach. This design approach starts with ACI 349 code equations for reinforced concrete shear walls and modifies them for application to the PSW structure. A simplified 3D linear elastic finite element (LEFE) model of the PSW structure is also proposed as a conventional structural analysis tool for estimating the design force demands for various load combinations.

  20. Seismic behavior and design of a primary shield structure consisting of steel-plate composite (SC) walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Peter N.; Varma, Amit H.; Sener, Kadir C.; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical evaluation of the seismic behavior and design of a unique primary shield (PSW) structure consisting of steel-plate composite (SC) walls designed for a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. Researchers in Japan have previously conducted a reduced (1/6th) scale test of a PSW structure to evaluate its seismic (lateral) load-deformation behavior. This paper presents the development and benchmarking of a detailed 3D nonlinear inelastic finite element (NIFE) model to predict the lateral load-deformation response and behavior of the 1/6th scale test structure. The PSW structure consists of thick SC wall segments with complex and irregular geometry that surround the central reactor vessel cavity. The wall segments have three layers of steel plates (one each on the interior and exterior surfaces and one embedded in the middle) that are anchored to the concrete infill with stud anchors. The results from the 3D NIFE analyses include: (i) the lateral load-deformation behavior of the PSW structure, (ii) the progression of yielding in the steel plates, concrete cracking, formation of compression struts, and (iii) the final failure mode. These results are compared and benchmarked using experimental measurements and observations reported by Shodo et al. (2003). The analytical results provide significant insight into the lateral behavior and strength of the PSW structure, and are used for developing a design approach. This design approach starts with ACI 349 code equations for reinforced concrete shear walls and modifies them for application to the PSW structure. A simplified 3D linear elastic finite element (LEFE) model of the PSW structure is also proposed as a conventional structural analysis tool for estimating the design force demands for various load combinations.

  1. Chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence, of niobium in high-strength plate steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iozzi, F.B.; Dias, M.J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in quantitative analysis of niobium in steels, as an alternative solution for optical emission spectrometry, in the rapid chemical control of steel fabrication by LD type converters, is presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Analysis of the Mechanism of Longitudinal Bending Deformation Due to Welding in a Steel Plate by Using a Numerical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Yan, Jieshen; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu Yeong [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, Yeongcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Welding deformation is a permanent deformation that is caused in structures by welding heat. Welding distortion is the primary cause of reduced productivity, due to welded structural strength degradation, low dimensional accuracy, and appearance. As a result, research and numerous experiments are being carried out to control welding deformation. The aim of this study is to analyze the mechanism of longitudinal bending deformation due to welding. Welding experiments and numerical analyses were performed for this study. The welding experiments were performed on 4 mm and 8.5 mm thickness steel plates, and the numerical analysis was conducted on the welding deformation using the FE software MSC.marc.

  3. A Flat Solar Collector Built from Galvanized Steel Plate, Working by Thermosyphonic Flow, Optimized for Mexican Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Marroquín de Jesús, Á.; Olivares-Ramírez, J.M.; Ramos-López, G.A.; Pless, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Design, construction, and testing of the thermal performance of a flat solar collector for domestic water heating are described. The absorbing plate is built from readily available materials: two sheets of galvanized steel, one of the channelled type, the other one flat, which are joined by electric welding. The absorber is connected to a 198-L thermotank, insulated with polyurethane foam. In terms of receiving surface, the prototype tested here has an area of 1.35 m², about 20% smaller than ...

  4. A Flat Solar Collector Built from Galvanized Steel Plate, Working by Thermosyphonic Flow, Optimized for Mexican Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Á. Marroquín de Jesús; J.M. Olivares–Ramírez; G.A. Ramos–López; R.C. Pless

    2009-01-01

    Design, construction, and testing of the thermal performance of a flat solar collector for domestic water heating are described. The absorbing plate is built from readily available materials: two sheets of galvanized steel, one of the channelled type, the other one flat, which are joined by electric welding. The absorber is connected to a 198–L thermotank, insulated with polyurethane foam. In terms of receiving surface, the prototype tested here has an area of 1.35 m2, about 20% smaller than ...

  5. Thin-Walled CFST Columns for Enhancing Seismic Collapse Performance of High-Rise Steel Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtao Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper numerically studied the collapse capacity of high-rise steel moment-resisting frames (SMRFs using various width-to-thickness members subjected to successive earthquakes. It was found that the long-period component of earthquakes obviously correlates with the first-mode period of high-rises controlled by the total number of stories. A higher building tends to produce more significant component deterioration to enlarge the maximum story drift angle at lower stories. The width-to-thickness ratio of beam and column components overtly affects the collapse capacity when the plastic deformation extensively develops. The ratio of residual to maximum story drift angle is significantly sensitive to the collapse capacity of various building models. A thin-walled concrete filled steel tubular (CFST column is proposed as one efficient alternative to enhance the overall stiffness and deformation capacity of the high-rise SMRFs with fragile collapse performance. With the equivalent flexural stiffness, CFST-MRF buildings with thin-walled members demonstrate higher capacity to avoid collapse, and the greater collapse margin indicates that CFST-MRFs are a reasonable system for high-rises in seismic prone regions.

  6. Laboratory procedure for sizing and electroless nickel plating assembled steel bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.R.; Petit, G.S.

    1976-01-01

    The bearing is placed in a holder and degreased in methyl chloroform. The entire bearing is etched in hydrochloric acid and sized in an ammonium bifluoride-hydrogen peroxide solution (NH 4 F.HF--H 2 O 2 ). The bearing is removed from the holder, activated in hydrochloric acid and plated with 0.001 in. of nickel in a plating tumbler immersed in a heated electroless nickel plating bath. The bearing is water-rinsed and air-dried

  7. Outdoor corrosion of zinc coated carbon steel, determined by thin layer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M.L.; Laguzzi, G.; De Cristofaro, N.; Stroosnijder, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Thin Layer Activation was applied in the frame of a European programme addressed to the evaluation of the corrosion the behaviour of different steels. This included outdoor exposure of zinc coated carbon steel in a rural-marine climatic environment, for a period of several months. The zinc layer of specimens was 10 micrometers thick. For the TLA studies 65Zn radio nuclides were produced along the full depth of the coating, by a cyclotron accelerated deuteron beam. For quantification of the material release, activity versus depth was determined using different thickness of Zn coatings on top the carbon steel. After exposure corrosion product were removed from the surface using a pickling solution and the residual activity was determined by gamma spectrometry. The high sensitivity of the method allowed the evaluation of relatively small thickness losses (i.e. 1.2 micrometer). Thickness loss results, obtained by the TLA method, were compared with those arising from the Atomic Absorption analysis of zinc detected in the pickling solutions. A good agreement was observed between the different methods

  8. Bacteriocidal activity of sanitizers against Enterococcus faecium attached to stainless steel as determined by plate count and impedance methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, N J; Bridgeman, T A; Zottola, E A

    1998-07-01

    Enterococcus faecium attached to stainless steel chips (100 mm2) was treated with the following sanitizers: sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid (PA), peracetic acid plus an organic acid (PAS), quaternary ammonium, organic acid, and anionic acid. The effectiveness of sanitizer solutions on planktonic cells (not attached) was evaluated by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) suspension test. The number of attached cells was determined by impedance measurement and plate count method after vortexing. The decimal reduction (DR) in numbers of the E. faecium population was determined for the three methods and was analyzed by analysis of variance (P plate count method after vortexing, and impedance measurement, respectively. Plate count and impedance methods showed a difference (P measurement was the best method to measure adherent cells. Impedance measurement required the development of a quadratic regression. The equation developed from 82 samples is as follows: log CFU/chip = 0.2385T2-0.96T + 9.35, r2 = 0.92, P plate count method after vortexing. These data suggest that impedance measurement is the method of choice when evaluating the number of bacterial cells adhered to a surface.

  9. Hierarchical and successive approximate registration of the non-rigid medical image based on thin-plate splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinyan; Li, Li; Yang, Yunfeng

    2017-06-01

    The hierarchical and successive approximate registration method of non-rigid medical image based on the thin-plate splines is proposed in the paper. There are two major novelties in the proposed method. First, the hierarchical registration based on Wavelet transform is used. The approximate image of Wavelet transform is selected as the registered object. Second, the successive approximation registration method is used to accomplish the non-rigid medical images registration, i.e. the local regions of the couple images are registered roughly based on the thin-plate splines, then, the current rough registration result is selected as the object to be registered in the following registration procedure. Experiments show that the proposed method is effective in the registration process of the non-rigid medical images.

  10. Experimental Tests on Steel Plate-to-Plate Splices Bonded by C-FRPS Laminas with and without Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario D’Aniello

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experimental investigation carried out on steel splices bonded by (Carbon-Fiber–Reinforced Polymers C-FRPs are presented in this paper. The main aim of the study is to examine the influence of different parameters on the type of failure and on the ductility of splices. Different configurations of the specimens were considered, including butt and lapped joints using different arrangements for end anchorage of the bonded C-FRP laminas, such as (i external bonding; and (ii anchored jacketing with C-FRP sheets transversally wrapped to the longitudinal axis of the joints. The results in terms of failure modes and response curves are described and discussed, highlighting the potentiality of these types of bonded connections for metal structures. In particular, experimental results showed that (i the failure modes exhibited by both butt and lapped wrapped splices were substantially similar; (ii the wrapped anchoring is beneficial in order to achieve large deformations prior to failure, thus allowing a satisfactory ductility, even though a more timely installation process is necessary.

  11. Development of austenitic stainless steel plate (316MN) for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Takanori; Abo, Hideo; Tanino, Mitsuru; Komatsu, Hazime.

    1989-01-01

    High creep-fatigue resistance is required for the structural materials for fast breeder reactors. As creep-fatigue life is closely related to creep-rupture ductility, the effects of C, N and Mo on creep-rupture properties were investigated with a view to improving the creep-fatigue resistance of stainless steel. Strengthening by the addition of C has a great adverse effect on rupture ductility, but N can strengthen the steel without decreasing rupture ductility. Strengthening by Mo decreases rupture ductility but this effect is small. The low-C-medium-N (0.01%C - 0.07%N) stainless steel 316 MN developed based on the findings described above exhibits only a small decrease in creep-rupture strength in long-time periods compared with the conventional 316 steel. This steel offers excellent rupture ductility and the 10,000-hour rupture strength which is about 1.2 times that of conventional steel. Moreover, this steel exhibits excellent properties in creep fatigue test. (author)

  12. Energy-Dissipation Performance of Combined Low Yield Point Steel Plate Damper Based on Topology Optimization and Its Application in Structural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the disadvantages such as higher yield stress and inadequate adjustability, a combined low yield point steel plate damper involving low yield point steel plates and common steel plates is proposed. Three types of combined plate dampers with new hollow shapes are proposed, and the specific forms include interior hollow, boundary hollow, and ellipse hollow. The “maximum stiffness” and “full stress state” are used as the optimization objectives, and the topology optimization of different hollow forms by alternating optimization method is to obtain the optimal shape. Various combined steel plate dampers are calculated by finite element simulation, the results indicate that the initial stiffness of the boundary optimized damper and interior optimized damper is lager, the hysteresis curves are full, and there is no stress concentration. These two types of optimization models made in different materials rations are studied by numerical simulation, and the adjustability of yield stress of these combined dampers is verified. The nonlinear dynamic responses, seismic capacity, and damping effect of steel frame structures with different combined dampers are analyzed. The results show that the boundary optimized damper has better energy-dissipation capacity and is suitable for engineering application.

  13. Combined visualization for noise mapping of industrial facilities based on ray-tracing and thin plate splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikov, Mikhail; Ovsiannikov, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the combined approach to noise mapping and visualizing of industrial facilities sound pollution using forward ray tracing method and thin-plate spline interpolation. It is suggested to cauterize industrial area in separate zones with similar sound levels. Equivalent local source is defined for range computation of sanitary zones based on ray tracing algorithm. Computation of sound pressure levels within clustered zones are based on two-dimension spline interpolation of measured data on perimeter and inside the zone.

  14. Thin-plate Spline Analysis of the Effects of Face Mask Treatment in Children with Maxillary Retrognathism

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Zwei-Chieng Chang; Yi-Jane Chen; Jane Chung-Chen Yao; Frank Hsin-Fu Chang

    2006-01-01

    Face mask therapy is indicated for growing patients who suffer from maxillary retrognathia. Most previous studies used conventional cephalometric analysis to evaluate the effects of face mask treatment. Cephalometric analysis has been shown to be insufficient for complex craniofacial configurations. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the craniofacial structure of children with maxillary retrognathism following face mask treatment by means of thin-plate spline analysis. ...

  15. Investigation of Microstructure and Corrosion Propagation Behaviour of Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin Kamal Ariff Zainal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Martensitic stainless steels are commonly used for fabricating components. For many applications, an increase in surface hardness and wear resistance can be beneficial to improve performance and extend service life. However, the improvement in hardness of martensitic steels is usually accompanied by a reduction in corrosion strength. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of nitriding on AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, in terms of microstructure and corrosion propagation behavior. The results indicate that the microstructure and phase composition as well as corrosion resistance were influenced by nitriding temperatures.

  16. Effects of early activator treatment in patients with class II malocclusion evaluated by thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, C J; Rübel, J; Starke, J; Conradt, C; Stellzig, P A; Komposch, P G

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal cephalometric study was to evaluate the dentofacial shape changes induced by activator treatment between 9.5 and 11.5 years in male Class II patients. For a rigorous morphometric analysis, a thin-plate spline analysis was performed to assess and visualize dental and skeletal craniofacial changes. Twenty male patients with a skeletal Class II malrelationship and increased overjet who had been treated at the University of Heidelberg with a modified Andresen-Häupl-type activator were compared with a control group of 15 untreated male subjects of the Belfast Growth Study. The shape changes for each group were visualized on thin-plate splines with one spline comprising all 13 landmarks to show all the craniofacial shape changes, including skeletal and dento-alveolar reactions, and a second spline based on 7 landmarks to visualize only the skeletal changes. In the activator group, the grid deformation of the total spline pointed to a strong activator-induced reduction of the overjet that was caused both by a tipping of the incisors and by a moderation of sagittal discrepancies, particularly a slight advancement of the mandible. In contrast with this, in the control group, only slight localized shape changes could be detected. Both in the 7- and 13-landmark configurations, the shape changes between the groups differed significantly at P thin-plate spline analysis turned out to be a useful morphometric supplement to conventional cephalometrics because the complex patterns of shape change could be suggestively visualized.

  17. Thin-plate spline analysis of the effects of face mask treatment in children with maxillary retrognathism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Liu, Pao-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Jane; Yao, Jane Chung-Chen; Chang, Hong-Po; Chang, Chih-Han; Chang, Frank Hsin-Fu

    2006-02-01

    Face mask therapy is indicated for growing patients who suffer from maxillary retrognathia. Most previous studies used conventional cephalometric analysis to evaluate the effects of face mask treatment. Cephalometric analysis has been shown to be insufficient for complex craniofacial configurations. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the craniofacial structure of children with maxillary retrognathism following face mask treatment by means of thin-plate spline analysis. Thirty children with skeletal Class III malocclusions who had been treated with face masks were compared with a group of 30 untreated gender-matched, age-matched, observation period-matched, and craniofacial configuration-matched subjects. Average geometries, scaled to an equivalent size, were generated by means of Procrustes analysis. Thin-plate spline analysis was then performed for localization of the shape changes. Face mask treatment induced a forward displacement of the maxilla, a counterclockwise rotation of the palatal plane, a horizontal compression of the anterior border of the symphysis and the condylar region, and a downward deformation of the menton. The cranial base exhibited a counterclockwise deformation as a whole. We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis is a valuable supplement to conventional cephalometric analysis.

  18. A 680 V LDMOS on a thin SOI with an improved field oxide structure and dual field plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongjian; Cheng Xinhong; Xia Chao; Xu Dawei; Cao Duo; Song Zhaorui; Yu Yuehui; Shen Dashen

    2012-01-01

    A 680 V LDMOS on a thin SOI with an improved field oxide (FOX) and dual field plate was studied experimentally. The FOX structure was formed by an 'oxidation-etch-oxidation' process, which took much less time to form, and had a low protrusion profile. A polysilicon field plate extended to the FOX and a long metal field plate was used to improve the specific on-resistance. An optimized drift region implant for linear-gradient doping was adopted to achieve a uniform lateral electric field. Using a SimBond SOI wafer with a 1.5 μm top silicon and a 3 μm buried oxide layer, CMOS compatible SOI LDMOS processes are designed and implemented successfully. The off-state breakdown voltage reached 680 V, and the specific on-resistance was 8.2 Ω·mm 2 . (semiconductor devices)

  19. Exploring the resonant vibration of thin plates: Reconstruction of Chladni patterns and determination of resonant wave numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, P H; Wen, C P; Chiang, P Y; Yu, Y T; Liang, H C; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F

    2015-04-01

    The Chladni nodal line patterns and resonant frequencies for a thin plate excited by an electronically controlled mechanical oscillator are experimentally measured. Experimental results reveal that the resonant frequencies can be fairly obtained by means of probing the variation of the effective impedance of the exciter with and without the thin plate. The influence of the extra mass from the central exciter is confirmed to be insignificant in measuring the resonant frequencies of the present system. In the theoretical aspect, the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation is exploited to derive the response function as a function of the driving wave number for reconstructing experimental Chladni patterns. The resonant wave numbers are theoretically identified with the maximum coupling efficiency as well as the maximum entropy principle. Substituting the theoretical resonant wave numbers into the derived response function, all experimental Chladni patterns can be excellently reconstructed. More importantly, the dispersion relationship for the flexural wave of the vibrating plate can be determined with the experimental resonant frequencies and the theoretical resonant wave numbers. The determined dispersion relationship is confirmed to agree very well with the formula of the Kirchhoff-Love plate theory.

  20. Influence of inclined Lorentz force on micropolar fluids in a square cavity with uniform and nonuniform heated thin plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periyadurai, K. [Department of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthtamilselvan, M., E-mail: muthtamill@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Doh, Deog-Hee [Division of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering,Korea Maritime Ocean University, Busan 606781 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In the present study, the effect of inclined magnetic field on natural convection of micro-polar fluid in a square cavity with uniform and nonuniform heated thin plate built in centrally is investigated numerically. The vertical walls are cooled while the top and bottom walls are insulated. The thin plate is assumed to be isothermal with a linearly varying temperature. The governing equations were solved by finite volume method using second order central difference scheme and upwind differencing scheme. The numerical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely, the Hartmann number, inclination angle of magnetic field, Rayleigh number, vortex viscosity and source non-uniformity parameters. The result shows that the heat transfer rate is decreased when increasing Hartmann number, inclination angle of magnetic field and vortex viscosity parameter. It is found that the non-uniformity parameter affects the fluid flow and temperature distribution especially for the high Rayleigh numbers. Finally, the overall heat transfer rate of micro-polar fluids is found to be smaller than that of Newtonian fluid. - Highlights: • We investigate the effect of inclined magnetic field on micropolar fluid in a cavity. • The effects of uniform and non-uniform heated plate are studied. • The present numerical results are compared with the experimental results. • The addition of vortex viscosity parameter declines the heat transfer performance. • The high heat transfer rate occurs in the vertical plate compared to the horizontal one.

  1. Processing of low carbon steel plate and hot strip—an overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    hybrid computer modelling is used for production of strip products with tailor made properties. Although there ..... Thanks are due to the management of SAIL for support and to ... Houdremont E 1956 Handbook of special steels (Berlin: Springer ...

  2. Mutual Inductance Problem for a System Consisting of a Current Sheet and a Thin Metal Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.

    1993-01-01

    Rapid inspection of aircraft structures for flaws is of vital importance to the commercial and defense aircraft industry. In particular, inspecting thin aluminum structures for flaws is the focus of a large scale R&D effort in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community. Traditional eddy current methods used today are effective, but require long inspection times. New electromagnetic techniques which monitor the normal component of the magnetic field above a sample due to a sheet of current as the excitation, seem to be promising. This paper is an attempt to understand and analyze the magnetic field distribution due to a current sheet above an aluminum test sample. A simple theoretical model, coupled with a two dimensional finite element model (FEM) and experimental data will be presented in the next few sections. A current sheet above a conducting sample generates eddy currents in the material, while a sensor above the current sheet or in between the two plates monitors the normal component of the magnetic field. A rivet or a surface flaw near a rivet in an aircraft aluminum skin will disturb the magnetic field, which is imaged by the sensor. Initial results showed a strong dependence of the flaw induced normal magnetic field strength on the thickness and conductivity of the current-sheet that could not be accounted for by skin depth attenuation alone. It was believed that the eddy current imaging method explained the dependence of the thickness and conductivity of the flaw induced normal magnetic field. Further investigation, suggested the complexity associated with the mutual inductance of the system needed to be studied. The next section gives an analytical model to better understand the phenomenon.

  3. A robust method of thin plate spline and its application to DEM construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanfa; Li, Yanyan

    2012-11-01

    In order to avoid the ill-conditioning problem of thin plate spline (TPS), the orthogonal least squares (OLS) method was introduced, and a modified OLS (MOLS) was developed. The MOLS of TPS (TPS-M) can not only select significant points, termed knots, from large and dense sampling data sets, but also easily compute the weights of the knots in terms of back-substitution. For interpolating large sampling points, we developed a local TPS-M, where some neighbor sampling points around the point being estimated are selected for computation. Numerical tests indicate that irrespective of sampling noise level, the average performance of TPS-M can advantage with smoothing TPS. Under the same simulation accuracy, the computational time of TPS-M decreases with the increase of the number of sampling points. The smooth fitting results on lidar-derived noise data indicate that TPS-M has an obvious smoothing effect, which is on par with smoothing TPS. The example of constructing a series of large scale DEMs, located in Shandong province, China, was employed to comparatively analyze the estimation accuracies of the two versions of TPS and the classical interpolation methods including inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK) and universal kriging with the second-order drift function (UK). Results show that regardless of sampling interval and spatial resolution, TPS-M is more accurate than the classical interpolation methods, except for the smoothing TPS at the finest sampling interval of 20 m, and the two versions of kriging at the spatial resolution of 15 m. In conclusion, TPS-M, which avoids the ill-conditioning problem, is considered as a robust method for DEM construction.

  4. Interactive deformation registration of endorectal prostate MRI using ITK thin plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M Rex; Krishnan, Karthik

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging with an endorectal coil allows high-resolution imaging of prostate cancer and the surrounding normal organs. These anatomic details can be used to direct radiotherapy. However, organ deformation introduced by the endorectal coil makes it difficult to register magnetic resonance images for treatment planning. In this study, plug-ins for the volume visualization software VolView were implemented on the basis of algorithms from the National Library of Medicine's Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK). Magnetic resonance images of a phantom simulating human pelvic structures were obtained with and without the endorectal coil balloon inflated. The prostate not deformed by the endorectal balloon was registered to the deformed prostate using an ITK thin plate spline (TPS). This plug-in allows the use of crop planes to limit the deformable registration in the region of interest around the prostate. These crop planes restricted the support of the TPS to the area around the prostate, where most of the deformation occurred. The region outside the crop planes was anchored by grid points. The TPS was more accurate in registering the local deformation of the prostate compared with a TPS variant, the elastic body spline. The TPS was also applied to register an in vivo T(2)-weighted endorectal magnetic resonance image. The intraprostatic tumor was accurately registered. This could potentially guide the boosting of intraprostatic targets. The source and target landmarks were placed graphically. This TPS plug-in allows the registration to be undone. The landmarks could be added, removed, and adjusted in real time and in three dimensions between repeated registrations. This interactive TPS plug-in allows a user to obtain a high level of accuracy satisfactory to a specific application efficiently. Because it is open-source software, the imaging community will be able to validate and improve the algorithm.

  5. Application of thin plate splines for accurate regional ionosphere modeling with multi-GNSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krypiak-Gregorczyk, Anna; Wielgosz, Pawel; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    GNSS-derived regional ionosphere models are widely used in both precise positioning, ionosphere and space weather studies. However, their accuracy is often not sufficient to support precise positioning, RTK in particular. In this paper, we presented new approach that uses solely carrier phase multi-GNSS observables and thin plate splines (TPS) for accurate ionospheric TEC modeling. TPS is a closed solution of a variational problem minimizing both the sum of squared second derivatives of a smoothing function and the deviation between data points and this function. This approach is used in UWM-rt1 regional ionosphere model developed at UWM in Olsztyn. The model allows for providing ionospheric TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolutions - 0.2x0.2 degrees and 2.5 minutes, respectively. For TEC estimation, EPN and EUPOS reference station data is used. The maps are available with delay of 15-60 minutes. In this paper we compare the performance of UWM-rt1 model with IGS global and CODE regional ionosphere maps during ionospheric storm that took place on March 17th, 2015. During this storm, the TEC level over Europe doubled comparing to earlier quiet days. The performance of the UWM-rt1 model was validated by (a) comparison to reference double-differenced ionospheric corrections over selected baselines, and (b) analysis of post-fit residuals to calibrated carrier phase geometry-free observational arcs at selected test stations. The results show a very good performance of UWM-rt1 model. The obtained post-fit residuals in case of UWM maps are lower by one order of magnitude comparing to IGS maps. The accuracy of UWM-rt1 -derived TEC maps is estimated at 0.5 TECU. This may be directly translated to the user positioning domain.

  6. 3D shape recovery of a newborn skull using thin-plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeer, R J; Prager, R W

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to construct a mesh-model of a newborn skull for finite element analysis to study its deformation when subjected to the forces present during labour. The current state of medical imaging technology has reached a level which allows accurate visualisation and shape recovery of biological organs and body-parts. However, a sufficiently large set of medical images cannot always be obtained, often because of practical or ethical reasons, and the requirement to recover the shape of the biological object of interest has to be met by other means. Such is the case for a newborn skull. A method to recover the three-dimensional (3D) shape from (minimum) two orthogonal atlas images of the object of interest and a homologous object is described. This method is based on matching landmarks and curves on the orthogonal images of the object of interest with corresponding landmarks and curves on the homologous or 'master'-object which is fully defined in 3D space. On the basis of this set of corresponding landmarks, a thin-plate spline function can be derived to warp from the 'master'-object space to the 'slave'-object space. This method is applied to recover the 3D shape of a newborn skull. Images from orthogonal view-planes are obtained from an atlas. The homologous object is an adult skull, obtained from CT-images made available by the Visible Human Project. After shape recovery, a mesh-model of the newborn skull is generated.

  7. Thin-plate spline analysis of allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus

    2002-03-01

    The relationship between allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex was analyzed using geometric morphometric methods. Thin-plate splines (TPS) analysis has been applied to investigate the lateral profile of complete adult skulls of known sex. Twenty-nine three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial and mandibular landmark coordinates were recorded from a sample of 52 adult females and 52 adult males of known age and sex. No difference in the influence of size on shape was detected between sexes. Both size and sex had significant influences on shape. As expected, the influence of centroid size on shape (allometry) revealed a shift in the proportions of the neurocranium and the viscerocranium, with a marked allometric variation of the lower face. Adjusted for centroid size, males presented a relatively larger size of the nasopharyngeal space than females. A mean-male TPS transformation revealed a larger piriform aperture, achieved by an increase of the angulation of the nasal bones and a downward rotation of the anterior nasal floor. Male pharynx expansion was also reflected by larger choanae and a more posteriorly inclined basilar part of the occipital clivus. Male muscle attachment sites appeared more pronounced. In contrast, the mean-female TPS transformation was characterized by a relatively small nasal aperture. The occipital clivus inclined anteriorly, and muscle insertion areas became smoothed. Besides these variations, both maxillary and mandibular alveolar regions became prognathic. The sex-specific TPS deformation patterns are hypothesized to be associated with sexual differences in body composition and energetic requirements. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Depth profiling of hydrogen in ferritic/martensitic steels by means of a tritium imaging plate technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Teppei; Tanabe, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We applied a tritium imaging plate technique to depth profiling of hydrogen in bulk. ► Changes of hydrogen depth profiles in the steel by thermal annealing were examined. ► We proposed a release model of plasma-loaded hydrogen in the steel. ► Hydrogen is trapped at trapping sites newly developed by plasma loading. ► Hydrogen is also trapped at surface oxides and hardly desorbed by thermal annealing. -- Abstract: In order to understand how hydrogen loaded by plasma in F82H is removed by annealing at elevated temperatures in vacuum, depth profiles of plasma-loaded hydrogen were examined by means of a tritium imaging plate technique. Owing to large hydrogen diffusion coefficients in F82H, the plasma-loaded hydrogen easily penetrates into a deeper region becoming solute hydrogen and desorbs by thermal annealing in vacuum. However the plasma-loading creates new hydrogen trapping sites having larger trapping energy than that for the intrinsic sites beyond the projected range of the loaded hydrogen. Some surface oxides also trap an appreciable amount of hydrogen which is more difficult to remove by the thermal annealing

  9. Super-low-frequency wireless power transfer with lightweight coils for passing through a stainless steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroki; Kyoden, Tomoaki; Furukawa, Hiroto

    2018-03-01

    To achieve wireless power transfer (WPT) through a stainless-steel plate, a super-low frequency (SLF) was used as a resonance frequency. In our previous study of SLF-WPT, heavy coils were prepared. In this study, we designed lightweight coils using a WPT simulator that we developed previously. As a result, the weight was reduced to 1.69 kg from 11.9 kg, the previous coil weight. At a resonance frequency of 400 Hz, the transmission efficiency and output power of advanced SLF-WPT reached 91% and 426 W, respectively, over a transmission distance of 30 mm. Furthermore, 80% efficiency and 317 W output were achieved when transmitting power through a 1 mm-thick stainless-steel plate. This performance is much better than that in previous reports. We show using both calculations and experimental results that a power-to-weight ratio of 252 W/kg is possible even when using a 400 Hz power supply frequency.

  10. Optimization of electrical conduction and passivity properties of stainless steels used for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, J.

    2007-10-01

    Among the new technologies for energy for sustainable development, PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) offer seducing aspects. However, in order to make this technology fit large scale application requirements, it has to comply with stringent cost, performance, and durability criteria. In such a frame, the goal of this work was to optimize electrical conduction properties and passivity of stainless steels for the conception of PEMFC bipolar plates, used instead of graphite, the reference material. This work presents the possible ways of performance loss when using stainless steels and some methods to solve this problem. Passive film properties were studied, as well as their modifications by low cost industrial surface treatments, without deposition. Ex situ characterizations of corrosion resistance and electrical conduction were performed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water analysis, surface analysis by microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy allowed to study the impact of ageing on two alloys in different states, and several conditions representative of an exposure to PEMFC media. Correlations between semi-conductivity properties, composition, and structure of passive layers were considered, but not leading to clear identification of all parameters responsible for electrical conduction and passivity. The plate industrial state is not convenient for direct use in fuel cell to comply with durability and performance requirements. A surface modification studied improves widely electrical conduction at initial state. The performance is degraded with ageing, but maintaining a level higher than the initial industrial state. This treatment increases also corrosion resistance, particularly on the anode side. (author)

  11. Application of MMC model on simulation of shearing process of thick hot-rolled high strength steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Bing; Gao, Yongsheng [Automotive Steel Research Institute, R and D Center, BaoShan Iron and Steel Co.,Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China)

    2013-12-16

    Shear operation is widely used as the first step in sheet metal forming to cut the sheet or plate into the required size. The shear of thick hot-rolled High Strength Steel (HSS) requires large shearing force and the sheared edge quality is relatively poor because of the large thickness and high strength compared with the traditional low carbon steel. Bad sheared edge quality will easily lead to edge cracking during the post-forming process. This study investigates the shearing process of thick hot-rolled HSS plate metal, which is generally exploited as the beam of heavy trucks. The Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture criterion (MMC) is employed in numerical simulation to calculate the initiation and propagation of cracks during the process evolution. Tensile specimens are designed to obtain various stress states in tension. Equivalent fracture strains are measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) equipment to constitute the fracture locus. Simulation of the tension test is carried out to check the fracture model. Then the MMC model is applied to the simulation of the shearing process, and the simulation results show that the MMC model predicts the ductile fracture successfully.

  12. Application of MMC model on simulation of shearing process of thick hot-rolled high strength steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui; Yang, Bing; Gao, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Shear operation is widely used as the first step in sheet metal forming to cut the sheet or plate into the required size. The shear of thick hot-rolled High Strength Steel (HSS) requires large shearing force and the sheared edge quality is relatively poor because of the large thickness and high strength compared with the traditional low carbon steel. Bad sheared edge quality will easily lead to edge cracking during the post-forming process. This study investigates the shearing process of thick hot-rolled HSS plate metal, which is generally exploited as the beam of heavy trucks. The Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture criterion (MMC) is employed in numerical simulation to calculate the initiation and propagation of cracks during the process evolution. Tensile specimens are designed to obtain various stress states in tension. Equivalent fracture strains are measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) equipment to constitute the fracture locus. Simulation of the tension test is carried out to check the fracture model. Then the MMC model is applied to the simulation of the shearing process, and the simulation results show that the MMC model predicts the ductile fracture successfully

  13. Flow patterns of GaInSn liquid on inclined stainless steel plate under a range of magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Juan-Cheng, E-mail: yangjc@xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Qi, Tian-Yu [School of Engineering Sciences, University of Chinese Academy and Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ni, Ming-Jiu, E-mail: mjni@ucas.ac.cn [School of Engineering Sciences, University of Chinese Academy and Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zeng-Hui [School of Engineering Sciences, University of Chinese Academy and Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The liquid GaInSn metal flow loop was built to study some fusion related liquid metal MHD phenomenon. • The flow patterns of GaInSn free surface flow with the change of Re number and Ha number were got by lot of experiments. • Some detailed descriptions of these flow patterns were also made, and a solid conclusion which agreed with some previous studies was got. - Abstract: In the present paper, some preliminary experimental studies have been conducted to show the flow pattern of liquid metal flow using visualization method. For the convenience of experiments in lab, Ga{sup 67}In{sup 20.5}Sn{sup 12.5} in liquid state at room temperature is used. A test section made by stainless steel is inserted in a traverse magnetic field with strength (B{sub 0}) varies from 0 to 1.28 T. The inclined angle of stainless steel plate in test section is about 9°. Visualization results obtained by high-speed camera (Phantom M/LC 310) shown that GaInSn liquid flow on inclined stainless steel plate behaved unstable liquid column flow pattern in the low flow rate, while behaved large area spreading flow pattern with small waves on the free surface in the large flow rate. However, in the magnetic field, under the action of electromagnetic force, the flow patterns of GaInSn liquid have some significant changes on the spreading width and surface structure of free surface. Some detailed analyses on these changes have been also showed in the present paper. Plans for future work are also presented.

  14. Steel shear strength of anchors with stand-off base plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Sign and signal structures are often connected to concrete foundations through a stand-off annular base plate with a double-nut anchor bolt connection, which leaves exposed anchor bolt lengths below leveling nuts used in these connections. Cantilever...

  15. Effect of the Process Parameters on the Formability, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Thin Plates Fabricated by Rheology Forging Process with Electromagnetic Stirring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chul Kyu; Jang, Chang Hyun; Kang, Chung Gil

    2014-01-01

    A thin plate (150 × 150 × 1.2 mm) with embedded corrugation is fabricated using the rheoforming method. Semisolid slurry is created using the electromagnetic stirring (EMS) system, and the thin plate is made with the forging die at the 200-ton hydraulic press. The cross sections and microstructures of the slurry with and without stirring are examined. To investigate the effect of the process parameters on the formability, microstructure, and mechanical properties of thin plate the slurry is subjected to 16 types of condition for the forging experiment. The 16 types included the following conditions: Whether the EMS is applied or not, three fractions of the solid phase at 35, 45 and 55 pct; two compression velocities at 30 and 300 mm s-1; and four different compression pressures—100, 150, 200 and 250 MPa. The thin plate's formability is enhanced at higher punch velocity for compressing the slurry, and fine solid particles are uniformly distributed, which in turn, enhances the plate's mechanical properties. The pressure between 150 and 200 MPa is an appropriate condition to form thin plates. A thin plate without defects can be created when the slurry at 35 pct of the solid fraction (f s) was applied at the compression velocity of 300 mm s-1 and 150 MPa of pressure. The surface state of thin plate is excellent with 220 MPa of tensile strength and 13.5 pct of elongation. The primary particles are fine over the entire plate, and there are no liquid segregation-related defects.

  16. Validation of the CQUAD4 element for vibration and shock analysis of thin laminated composite plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesar, Douglas E.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the NASTRAN CQUAD4 membrane and plate element in the analysis of undamped natural vibration modes of thin fiber reinforced composite plates was evaluated. The element provides natural frequency estimates that are comparable in accuracy to alternative formulations, and, in most cases, deviate by less than 10 percent from experimentally measured frequencies. The predictions lie within roughly equal accuracy bounds for the two material types treated (GFRP and CFRP), and for the ply layups considered (unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply). Effective elastic lamina moduli had to be adjusted for fiber volume fraction to attain this level of frequency. The lumped mass option provides more accurate frequencies than the consistent mass option. This evaluation concerned only plates with L/t ratios on the order of 100 to 150. Since the CQUAD4 utilizes first-order corrections for transverse laminate shear stiffness, the element should provide useful frequency estimates for plate-like structures with lower L/t. For plates with L/t below 20, consideration should be given to idealizing with 3-D solid elements. Based on the observation that natural frequencies and mode shapes are predicted with acceptable engineering accuracy, it is concluded that CQUAD4 should be a useful and accurate element for transient shock and steady state vibration analysis of naval ship

  17. Ductile fracture toughness of heavy section pressure vessel steel plate. A specimen-size study of ASTM A 533 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.A.

    1979-09-01

    The ductile fracture toughness, J/sub Ic/, of ASTM A 533, Grade B, Class 1 and ASTM A 533, heat treated to simulate irradiation, was determined for 10- to 100-mm thick compact specimens. The toughness at maximum specimen load was also measured to determine the conservatism of J/sub Ic/. The toughness of ASTM A 533, Grade B, Class 1 steel was 349 kJ/m 2 and at the equivalent upper shelf temperature, the heat treated material exhibited 87 kJ/m 2 . The maximum load fracture toughness was found to be linearly proportional to specimen size, and only specimens which failed to meet ASTM size criteria exhibited maximum load toughness less than J/sub Ic/

  18. Flexural strength using Steel Plate, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) on reinforced concrete beam in building technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Patra, Fadel Muhammad; Sitorus, Torang

    2018-03-01

    Reinforced concrete structures are very commonly used in buildings because they are cheaper than the steel structures. But in reality, many concrete structures are damaged, so there are several ways to overcome this problem, by providing reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and reinforcement with steel plates. Each type of reinforcements has its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, researchers discuss the comparison between flexural strength of reinforced concrete beam using steel plates and Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). In this case, the researchers use Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as external reinforcements. The dimension of the beams is 15 x 25 cm with the length of 320 cm. Based on the analytical results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.991 times its initial, GFRP is 1.877 times while with the steel plate is 1.646 times. Based on test results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.444 times its initial, GFRP is 1.333 times while the steel plate is 1.167 times. Based on these test results, the authors conclude that beam with CFRP is the best choice for external reinforcement in building technology than the others.

  19. Effect of Heat Input During Disk Laser Bead-On-Plate Welding of Thermomechanically Rolled Steel on Penetration Characteristics and Porosity Formation in the Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of heat input during laser bead-on-plate welding of 5.0 mm thick plates of S700MC steel by modern Disk laser on the mechanism of steel penetration, shape and depth of penetration, and also on tendency to weld porosity formation. Based on the investigations performed in a wide range of laser welding parameters the relationship between laser power and welding speed, thus heat input, required for full penetration was determined. Additionally the relationship between the laser welding parameters and weld quality was determined.

  20. Dispersion and thermal interactions of molten metal fuel settling on a horizontal steel plate through a sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Purviance, R.T.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Spencer, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    Although the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) possesses inherent safety features, an assessment of the consequences of melting of the metal fuel is necessary for risk analysis. As part of this effort an experimental study was conducted to determine the depths of sodium at 600 C required for pour streams of various molten uranium alloys (U, U-5 wt % Zr, U-10 wt % Zr, and U-10 wt % Fe) to break up and solidify. The quenched particulate material, which was in the shape of filaments and sheets, formed coolable beds because of the high voidage (∼0.9) and large particle size (∼10 mm). In a test with a 0.15-m sodium depth, the fragments from a pure uranium pour stream did not completely solidify but formed an agglomerated mass which did not fuse to the base plate. However, the agglomerated fragments of U-10 wt % Fe eutectic fused to the stainless steel base plate. An analysis of the temperature response of a 25-mm thick base plate was made by volume averaging the properties of the sodium and metal particle phases and assuming two semi-infinite solids coming into contact. Good agreement was obtained with the data during the initial 5 to 10 s of the contact period. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Enhancement of bioactivity of titanium carbonitride nanocomposite thin films on steels with biosynthesized hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, V V Anusha; Dhandapani, P; Manivasagam, Geetha; Subramanian, B

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of titanium carbonitride (TiCN) were fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering on medical grade steel. The biocompatibility of the coating was further enhanced by growing hydroxyapatite crystals over the TiCN-coated substrates using biologically activated ammonia from synthetic urine. The coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the coatings was determined in simulated body fluid. In addition, hemocompatibility was assessed by monitoring the attachment of platelets on the coating using SEM. The wettability of the coatings was measured in order to correlate with biocompatibility results. Formation of a coating with granular morphology and the preferred orientation was confirmed by SEM and X-ray diffraction results. The hydroxyapatite coating led to a decrease in thrombogenicity, resulting in controlled blood clot formation, hence demonstrating the hemocompatibility of the coating.

  2. Analysis of ductile-brittle transition shifts for standard and miniature bending specimens of irradiated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, M.E.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Krasikov, E.A.; Gabuev, N.N.; Tykhmeev, D.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    A study is made to reveal if there is a correlation between shifts in temperature curves obtained when testing thin plates and standard specimens on impact bending and fracture toughness. The tests were carried out using steel 25Kh3NM specimens irradiated by 6 x 10 19 cm -2 neutron fluence. A conclusion is made about the possibility to evaluate the degree of radiation-induced embrittlement of reactor steels on the basis of thin plate testing under quasistatic loads [ru

  3. The bipolar plate of AISI 1045 steel with chromized coatings prepared by low-temperature pack cementation for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ching-Yuan; Wen, Tse-Min; Hou, Kung-Hsu; Ger, Ming-Der

    The low-temperature pack chromization, a reforming pack cementation process, is employed to modify AISI 1045 steel for the application of bipolar plates in PEMFC. The process is conducted to yield a coating, containing major Cr-carbides and minor Cr-nitrides, on the substrate in view of enhancing the steel's corrosion resistance and lowering interfacial contact resistance between the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer. Electrical discharge machining and rolling approach are used as the pretreatment to produce an activated surface on the steel before pack chromization process to reduce operating temperatures and increase deposition rates. The rolled-chromized steel shows the lowest corrosion current density, 3 × 10 -8 A cm -2, and the smallest interfacial contact resistance, 5.9 mΩ cm 2, at 140 N cm -2 among all tested steels. This study clearly states the performance of 1045 carbon steel modified by activated and low-temperature pack chromization processes, which possess the potential to be bipolar plates in the application of PEMFC.

  4. The bipolar plate of AISI 1045 steel with chromized coatings prepared by low-temperature pack cementation for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Ching-Yuan; Ger, Ming-Der [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tau-Yuan 335 (China); Wen, Tse-Min [School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tao-Yuan 335 (China); Hou, Kung-Hsu [Department of Power Vehicles and System Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tao-Yuan 335 (China)

    2010-02-01

    The low-temperature pack chromization, a reforming pack cementation process, is employed to modify AISI 1045 steel for the application of bipolar plates in PEMFC. The process is conducted to yield a coating, containing major Cr-carbides and minor Cr-nitrides, on the substrate in view of enhancing the steel's corrosion resistance and lowering interfacial contact resistance between the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer. Electrical discharge machining and rolling approach are used as the pretreatment to produce an activated surface on the steel before pack chromization process to reduce operating temperatures and increase deposition rates. The rolled-chromized steel shows the lowest corrosion current density, 3 x 10{sup -8} A cm{sup -2}, and the smallest interfacial contact resistance, 5.9 m{omega} cm{sup 2}, at 140 N cm{sup -2} among all tested steels. This study clearly states the performance of 1045 carbon steel modified by activated and low-temperature pack chromization processes, which possess the potential to be bipolar plates in the application of PEMFC. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Thin Plate Hydrodynamic Stability through a Combined Numerical Modeling and Experimental Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Feldman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wilson, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solbrekken, G [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Jesse, C. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Kennedy, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Rivers, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Schnieders, G. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    An experimental and computational effort was undertaken in order to evaluate the capability of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation tools to describe the deflection of a Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) fuel element plate redesigned for conversion to lowenriched uranium (LEU) fuel due to hydrodynamic forces. Experiments involving both flat plates and curved plates were conducted in a water flow test loop located at the University of Missouri (MU), at conditions and geometries that can be related to the MURR LEU fuel element. A wider channel gap on one side of the test plate, and a narrower on the other represent the differences that could be encountered in a MURR element due to allowed fabrication variability. The difference in the channel gaps leads to a pressure differential across the plate, leading to plate deflection. The induced plate deflection the pressure difference induces in the plate was measured at specified locations using a laser measurement technique. High fidelity 3-D simulations of the experiments were performed at MU using the computational fluid dynamics code STAR-CCM+ coupled with the structural mechanics code ABAQUS. Independent simulations of the experiments were performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) using the STAR-CCM+ code and its built-in structural mechanics solver. The simulation results obtained at MU and ANL were compared with the corresponding measured plate deflections.

  6. Irradiated dynamic fracture toughness of ASTM A533, Grade B, Class 1 steel plate and submerged arc weldment. Heavy section steel technology program technical report No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.A.; Ceschini, L.J.; Shogan, R.P.; Rao, G.V.

    1976-10-01

    As a result of the Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST), sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Westinghouse Electric Corporation conducted dynamic fracture toughness tests on irradiated HSST Plate 02 and submerged arc weldment material. Testing performed at the Westinghouse Research and Development Laboratory in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, included 0.394T compact tension, 1.9T compact tension, and 4T compact tension specimens. This data showed that, in the transition region, dynamic test procedures resulted in lower (compared to static) fracture toughness results, and that weak direction (WR) oriented specimen data were lower than the strong direction (RW) oriented specimen results. Irradiated lower-bound fracture toughness results of the HSST Program material were well above the adjusted ASME Section III K/sub IR/ curve. An irradiated and nonirradiated 4T-CT specimen was tested during a fracture toughness test as a preliminary study to determine the effect of irradiation on the acoustic emission-stress intensity factor relation in pressure vessel grade steel. The results indicated higher levels of acoustic emission activity from the irradiated sample as compared to the unirradiated one at a given stress intensity factor (K) level

  7. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steels. Part 2: Water flow rate effects in high-sulfur plate steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high-sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O 2 < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243 C, under loading conditions (ΔK, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/s or 4.7 m/s was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi-stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/s and 5.0 m/s parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity

  8. Investigation of thin film deposition on stainless steel 304 substrates under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M A; Nuruzzaman, D M

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, friction and wear in relation to the deposited carbon films on the steel substrates are important issues for industrial applications. In this research study, solid thin films were deposited on the stainless steel 304 (SS 304) substrates under different operating conditions. In the experiments, natural gas (97.14% methane) was used as a precursor gas in a hot filament thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. Deposition rates on SS 304 substrates were investigated under gas flow rates 0.5 - 3.0 l/min, pressure 20 - 50 torr, gap between activation heater and substrate 3.0 - 6.0 mm and deposition duration 30 - 120 minutes. The obtained results show that there are significant effects of these parameters on the deposition rates on SS 304 within the observed range. Friction coefficient of SS 304 sliding against SS 314 was also investigated under normal loads 5 - 10 N and sliding velocities 0.5 - m/s before and after deposition. The experimental results reveal that in general, frictional values are lower after deposition than that of before deposition. (paper)

  9. Molecular plating of thin lanthanide layers with improved material properties for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascon, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    This work describes experiments to gain an improved understanding of the processes associated with the electrochemical production of thin lanthanide layers for nuclear science investigations, i.e., nuclear targets. Nd, Sm, and Gd layers were prepared by means of the so-called molecular plating (MP) technique, where electrodeposition from an organic medium is usually performed in the constant current mode using two-electrode cells. The obtained results allowed the identification of optimized production conditions, which led to a significantly improved layer quality. Constant current density MP is a mass-transport controlled process. The applied current is maintained constant by constant fluxes of electroactive species towards the cathode - where the layer is grown - and the anode. The investigations showed the cell potentials of the electrodeposition systems to be always dominated by the ohmic drop produced by the resistance of the solutions used for the studies. This allowed to derive an expression relating cell potential with concentration of the electroactive species. This expression is able to explain the trends recorded with different electrolyte concentrations and it serves as a basis to get towards a full understanding of the reasons leading to the characteristic minima observed in the evolution of the cell potential curves with time. The minima were found to correspond to an almost complete depletion of the Nd ions obtained by dissolution of the model salt used for the investigations. Nd was confirmed to be deposited at the cathode as derivatives of Nd 3+ - possibly as carboxylate, oxide or hydroxide. This fact was interpreted on the basis of the highly negative values of the standard redox potentials typical for lanthanide cations. Among the different electroactive species present in the complex MP solutions, the Nd 3+ ions were found to contribute to less than 20% to the total current. Because of electrolysis, also the mixed solvent contributed to the

  10. Effect of Temperature Variation on Bond Characteristics between CFRP and Steel Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, application of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composite materials in the strengthening of existing reinforced concrete structures has gained widespread attention, but the retrofitting of metallic buildings and bridges with CFRP is still in its early stages. In real life, these structures are possibly subjected to dry and hot climate. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the bond behavior between CFRP and steel at different temperatures. To examine the bond between CFRP and steel under hot climate, a total of twenty-one double strap joints divided into 7 groups were tested to failure at constant temperatures from 27°C to 120°C in this paper. The results showed that the joint failure mode changed from debonding along between steel and adhesive interface failure to debonding along between CFRP and adhesive interface failure as the temperature increased beyond the glass transition temperature (Tg of the adhesive. The load carrying capacity decreased significantly at temperatures approaching or exceeding Tg. The interfacial fracture energy showed a similar degradation trend. Analytical models of the ultimate bearing capacity, interfacial fracture energy, and bond-slip relationship of CFRP-steel interface at elevated temperatures were presented.

  11. Microstructure analysis of AISI 304 stainless steel produced by twin-roll thin strip casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure of AISI 304 austenite stainless steel fabricated by the thin strip casting process were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The microstructures of the casting strips show a duplex structure consisting of delta ferrite and austenite. The volume fraction of the delta ferrite is about 9.74vol% at the center and 6.77vol% at the surface of the casting thin strip, in vermicular and band shapes. On account of rapid cooling and solidification in the continuous casting process, many kinds of inclusions and precipitates have been found. Most of the inclusions and precipitates are spherical complex compounds consisting of oxides, such as, SiO2, MnO, Al2O3,Cr2O3,and FeO or their multiplicity oxides of MnO·Al2O3,2FeO·SiO2, and 2MnO·SiO2. Many defects including dislocations and stacking faults have also formed during the rapid cooling and solidification process, which is helpful to improve the mechanical properties of the casting strips.

  12. Enhancement of bioactivity of titanium carbonitride nanocomposite thin films on steels with biosynthesized hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thampi VV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available VV Anusha Thampi,1 P Dhandapani,2 Geetha Manivasagam, B Subramanian11Electrochemical Materials Science Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, 2Corrosion and Materials Protection Division, Central Electrochemical Reserach Institute, Karaikudi, 3Centre for Bio-Materials Science and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, IndiaAbstract: Thin films of titanium carbonitride (TiCN were fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering on medical grade steel. The biocompatibility of the coating was further enhanced by growing hydroxyapatite crystals over the TiCN-coated substrates using biologically activated ammonia from synthetic urine. The coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the coatings was determined in simulated body fluid. In addition, hemocompatibility was assessed by monitoring the attachment of platelets on the coating using SEM. The wettability of the coatings was measured in order to correlate with biocompatibility results. Formation of a coating with granular morphology and the preferred orientation was confirmed by SEM and X-ray diffraction results. The hydroxyapatite coating led to a decrease in thrombogenicity, resulting in controlled blood clot formation, hence demonstrating the hemocompatibility of the coating.Keywords: titanium carbonitride thin films, magnetron sputtering, ureolytic bacteria, biocompatibility

  13. Post-buckling capacity of bi-axially loaded rectangular steel plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    slenderness and edge displacement ratio are included in the investigations presented. Capacity interaction curves are established in the bi-axial stress domain. It turns out that for certain stress ratios the imperfections dominating the ultimate capacity are not affine to the lowest classical buckling mode...... for biaxial stress. It is of great interest that short wave imperfections of a lower magnitude compared to conventionally used imperfections are seen to lower the capacity of the bi-axially loaded plates. The topic is of major concern in the flange plates of long span bridges with multi box girder...

  14. The application of LA-ICP-MS in the examination of the thin plating layers found in late Roman coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlachou-Mogire, C. [Numismatic Museum, 12 El. Venizelou Avenue, 106 71 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: vlachou_mogire@yahoo.co.uk; Stern, B.; McDonnell, J.G. [Department of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1RD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    During the late Roman period the production of complex copper alloy (Cu-Sn-Pb-Ag) coins with a silvered surface, became common practice. Previous analyses of these coins did not solve key technological issues and in particular, the silvering process. Two methods have been suggested for the production of the thin plating layers in late Roman coins the dipping in molten silver chloride and the use of silvering pastes. However, there are questions about their use. More recent research showed that hot-dipping methods, such as the dipping in molten silver chloride, were not really suitable for mass production. Also, the earliest references to the use of silvering pastes dated to 17th century AD. A review of ancient sources and historic literature indicated silver amalgam plating as the possible method for the production of the plating in late Roman coins. Results derived from non-destructive LA-ICP-MS analysis have demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of Hg in the surface layers of these coins. The optimization of the method and the factors influenced the analyses results, are discussed. The examination of the coins by means of EPMA confirmed the ICP-MS results. The introduction of a new technique for the examination of plating layers, helped in the identification of amalgam silvering as the method used in the production of the coins.

  15. The effect of plasma arc process parameters on the properties of dissimilar AISI 1040/AISI 304 steel plate welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Musa; Kirik, Ihsan; Orhan, Nuri [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey); Celik, Ferkan [Science Industry and Technology Ministry of Turkey (Turkey)

    2012-11-01

    In this study, 10 mm thick AISI 1040 and AISI 304 steel plates were welded in the butt position without pretreatment by plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding technique. Therefore, mechanical behaviour, microstructure, penetration depth and length were investigated. After welding, microstructural changes in the interface regions of the welded specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Micro-hardness as well as V-notch Charpy tests were performed to determine the mechanical properties of the welds. The influence of the welding parameters on the dimension and shape of the joints has been found out. From the results, it was derived that with the parameters used, a partly keyhole weld bead formed with a penetration depth of 10 mm and a width of 11 mm in butt position. (orig.)

  16. The influence of plate thickness on the welding residual stresses from submerged arc welding in offshore steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Yu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Welding-induced residual tensile stresses and distortion have become a major concern in relation to the structural integrity of welded structures within the offshore wind industry. The stresses have a negative impact on the integrity of the welded joint, as they promote distortion, reduce fatigue...... leading to a better understanding of the distribution and development of the welding residual stresses. This can later be used to optimize the fatigue design, providing a more efficient and improved design. In this context, the current research is expected to benefit the offshore industry by leading...... to an improved design, which consequently may be included in future norms and standards. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) was used to make a fully penetrated butt weld in 10 mm and 40 mm thick steel plates with the same welding parameters as used in the production procedures. The base material is thermomechanical hot...

  17. Comparison of the Time Domain Windows Specified in the ISO 18431 Standards Used to Estimate Modal Parameters in Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonatan Camacho-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedures used to estimate structural modal parameters as natural frequency, damping ratios, and mode shapes are generally based on frequency methods. However, methods of time-frequency analysis are highly sensible to the parameters used to calculate the discrete Fourier transform: windowing, resolution, and preprocessing. Thus, the uncertainty of the modal parameters is increased if a proper parameter selection is not considered. In this work, the influence of three different time domain windows functions (Hanning, flat-top, and rectangular used to estimate modal parameters are discussed in the framework of ISO 18431 standard. Experimental results are conducted over an AISI 1020 steel plate, which is excited by means of a hammer element. Vibration response is acquired by using acceleration records according to the ISO 7626-5 reference guides. The results are compared with a theoretical method and it is obtained that the flat-top window is the best function for experimental modal analysis.

  18. A Study on Effect of Local Wall Thinning in Carbon Steel Elbow Pipe on Elastic Stress Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Seo, Jae Seok

    2009-01-01

    Feeder pipes that connect the inlet and outlet headers to the reactor core in CANDU nuclear power plants are considered as safety Class 1 piping items. Therefore, fatigue of feeder pipes should be assessed at design stage in order to verify structural integrity during design lifetime. In accordance with the fatigue assessment result, cumulative usage factors of some feeder pipes have significant values. The feeder pipes made of SA-106 Grade B or C carbon steel have some elbows and bends. An active degradation mechanism for the carbon steel outlet feeder piping is local wall thinning due to flow-accelerated corrosion. Inspection results from plants and metallurgical examinations of removed feeders indicated the presence of localized thinning in the vicinity of the welds in the lower portion of outlet feeders, such as Grayloc hub-to-bend weld, Grayloc hub-to-elbow weld, elbow-to-elbow, and elbow-to-pipe weld. This local wall thinning can cause increase of peak stress due to stress concentration by notch effect. The increase of peak stress results in increase of cumulative usage factor. However, present fatigue assessment doesn't consider the stress concentration due to local wall-thinning. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effect of local wall thinning on stress concentration. This study investigates the effect of local wall thinning geometry on stress concentration by performing finite element elastic stress analysis

  19. Rectangular Gusset Plate Behaviour in Cold-Formed I-Type Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bučmys Ž.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed structure connections utilizing gusset plates are usually semi-rigid. This paper investigates the behaviours of rectangular gusset plates in cold-formed connections of elements whose columns and beams are made with lipped back-to-back C-sections. Methods of calculating strength and stiffness are necessary for such semi-rigid joints. The main task of this paper is to determine a method capable of calculating these characteristics. The proposed analytical method could then be easily adapted to the component method that is described in part 1993-1-8 of the Eurocode. This method allows us to calculate both the strength and stiffness of rectangular gusset plates, assuming that the joint deforms only in plane. This method of design moment resistance calculation was presented taking into account that an entire cross-section shall reach its yield stress. A technique of stiffness calculation was presented investigating the sum of deformations acquired at the bending moment and from shear forces which are transmitted from each beam bolt group. Calculation results according to the suggested method show good agreement of laboratory experimental results of specimens with numerical simulations. Two specimens of beam-to-column connections were tested in the laboratory. Lateral supports were used on the specimens to prevent lateral displacements in order to better investigate the behaviour of the rectangular gusset plate in plane. Experiments were simulated by modelling rectangular gusset plates using standard finite element software ANSYS Workbench 14.0. Three-dimensional solid elements were used for modelling and both geometric and material nonlinear analysis was performed.

  20. Microstructure Evolution During Stainless Steel-Copper Vacuum Brazing with a Ag/Cu/Pd Filler Alloy: Effect of Nickel Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Laik, A.; Mishra, P.

    2017-03-01

    Vacuum brazing of stainless steel and copper plates was done using a silver-based filler alloy. In one set of experiments, around 30-µm-thick nickel coatings were electrochemically applied on stainless steel plates before carrying out the brazing runs and its effect in making changes in the braze-zone microstructure was studied. For brazing temperature of 830 °C, scanning electron microscopy examination of the braze-zone revealed that relatively sound joints were obtained when brazing was done with nickel-coated stainless steel than with uncoated one. However, when brazing of nickel-coated stainless steel and copper plates was done at 860 °C, a wide crack appeared in the braze-zone adjacent to copper side. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and electron microprobe analysis confirmed that at higher temperature, the diffusion of Cu atoms from copper plate towards the braze-zone was faster than that of Ni atoms from nickel coating. Helium leak rate of the order 10-11 Pa m3/s was obtained for the crack-free joint, whereas this value was higher than 10-4 Pa m3/s for the joint having crack. The shear strength of the joint was found to decrease considerably due to the presence of crack.

  1. Coating stainless steel plates with Ag/TiO2 for chlorpyrifos decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Fattah, Wafa I.; Gobara, Mohammed M.; El-Hotaby, Walid; Mostafa, Sherif F. M.; Ali, Ghareib W.

    2016-05-01

    Spray coatings of either nanosilver (Ag), titanium (TiO2) or nanosilver titanium (Ag/TiO2) on stainless steel substrates prepared by sol-gel process were successfully achieved. The efficiency of the Ag/TiO2 coat onto 316 stainless steel surface towards cloropyrifos degradation as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) was proved. The crystalline structure and morphological characterization, as well as surface roughness measurements, were assessed. X-ray diffraction results proved the crystalline TiO2 anatase phase. The uniform distribution of Ag along with TiO2 nanoparticles was evidenced through transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy mapping. The hydrophilic nature of individual Ag, TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 coats was proved by contact angle measurements. The loading of Ag nanoparticles influenced positively the Ag/TiO2 coats surface roughness. The photocatalytic cloropyrifos degradation achieved about 50% within one-hour post UV treatment proving, therefore, the promising Ag/TiO2 continued decontamination efficiency. In conclusion, tuning the physical and morphological properties of TiO2 coated on stainless steel surface could be significantly enhanced by Ag nanoparticles incorporation. The developed Ag/TiO2 coat could be conveniently applied as CWA decontaminant.

  2. Effect of analysis parameters on non-linear implicit finite element analysis of marine corroded steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad Rabiul; Sakib-Ul-Alam, Md.; Nazat, Kazi Kaarima; Hassan, M. Munir

    2017-12-01

    FEA results greatly depend on analysis parameters. MSC NASTRAN nonlinear implicit analysis code has been used in large deformation finite element analysis of pitted marine SM490A steel rectangular plate. The effect of two types actual pit shape on parameters of integrity of structure has been analyzed. For 3-D modeling, a proposed method for simulation of pitted surface by probabilistic corrosion model has been used. The result has been verified with the empirical formula proposed by finite element analysis of steel surface generated with different pitted data where analyses have been carried out by the code of LS-DYNA 971. In the both solver, an elasto-plastic material has been used where an arbitrary stress versus strain curve can be defined. In the later one, the material model is based on the J2 flow theory with isotropic hardening where a radial return algorithm is used. The comparison shows good agreement between the two results which ensures successful simulation with comparatively less energy and time.

  3. Titanium and steel fracture fixation plates with different surface topographies: Influence on infection rate in a rabbit fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsemakers, W J; Schmid, Tanja; Zeiter, Stephan; Ernst, Manuela; Keller, Iris; Cosmelli, Nicolo; Arens, Daniel; Moriarty, T Fintan; Richards, R Geoff

    2016-03-01

    Implant-related infection is a challenging complication in musculoskeletal trauma surgery. In the present study, we examined the role of implant material and surface topography as influencing factors on the development of infection in an experimental model of plating osteosynthesis in the rabbit. The implants included in this experimental study were composed of: standard Electropolished Stainless Steel (EPSS), standard titanium (Ti-S), roughened stainless steel (RSS) and surface polished titanium (Ti-P). Construct stability and load-to-failure of Ti-P implants was compared to that of Ti-S implants in a rabbit cadaveric model. In an in vivo study, a rabbit humeral fracture model was used. Each rabbit received one of three Staphylococcus aureus inocula, aimed at determining the infection rate at a low, medium and high dose of bacteria. Outcome measures were quantification of bacteria on the implant and in the surrounding tissues, and determination of the infectious dose 50 (ID50). No significant differences were observed between Ti-S and Ti-P regarding stiffness or failure load in the cadaver study. Of the 72 rabbits eventually included in the in vivo study, 50 developed an infection. The ID50 was found to be: EPSS 3.89×10(3) colony forming units (CFU); RSS 8.23×10(3) CFU; Ti-S 5.66×10(3) CFU; Ti-P 3.41×10(3) CFU. Significantly lower bacterial counts were found on the Ti-S implants samples compared with RSS implants (ptitanium and steel implants with conventional or modified topographies. Ti-P implants, which have previously been shown in preclinical studies to reduce complications associated with tissue adherence, do not affect infection rate in this preclinical fracture model. Therefore, Ti-P implants are not expected to affect the infection rate, or influence implant stability in the clinical situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Electrochemical Characteristics on Graphene Coated Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steels for Metallic Bipolar Plates in PEMFC Fabricated with Hydrazine Reduction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seong-Yun; Lee, Jae-Bong [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Graphene was coated on austenitic and martensitic stainless steels to simulate the metallic bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and was reduced to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via a hydrazine process. rGO was confirmed by FE-SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Interfacial contact resistance (ICR) between the bipolar plate and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) was measured to confirm the electrical conductivity. Both ICR and corrosion current density decreased on graphene coated stainless steels. Corrosion resistance was also improved with immersion time in cathodic environments and satisfied the criteria of the Department of Energy (DOE), USA. The total concentrations of metal ions dissolved from graphene coated stainless steels were reduced. Furthermore hydrophobicity was improved by increasing the contact angle.

  5. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic study on surface products of thin iron plates exposed to ambient atmosphere as a means of environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Motoyuki; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    1993-01-01

    Conversion electron and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy were applied to the analysis of thin iron plates exposed to the ambient atmosphere. The degree of corrosion of the iron plates was classified into three categories according to the kind and thickness of rust evaluated by Moessbauer spectra. The severe corrosion took place in seaside and roadside areas. The medium corrosion was observed in urban areas, and the weak corrosion occurred in suburban and mountainous areas. This fact implies that the surface products of iron plates can successfully reflect the ambient atmosphere to which the plates were exposed. (orig.)

  6. Fretting corrosion tests on orthopedic plates and screws made of ASTM F138 stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Claudio Teodoro dos; Barbosa,Cássio; Monteiro,Maurício de Jesus; Abud,Ibrahim de Cerqueira; Caminha,Ieda Maria Vieira; Roesler,Carlos Rodrigo de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although there has been significant progress in the design of implants for osteosynthesis, the occurrence of failures in these medical devices are still frequent. These implants are prone to suffer from fretting corrosion due to micromotion that takes place between the screw heads and plate holes. Consequently, fretting corrosion has been the subject of research in order to understand its influence on the structural integrity of osteosynthesis implants. The aim of this paper is t...

  7. Investigation of the ductile fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel plate, welds, and 4-inch pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilaros, M.G.; Hays, R.A.; Gudas, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    J-integral fracture toughness tests were performed on welded 304 stainless steel 2-inch plate and 4-inch diameter pipe. The 2-inch plate was welded using a hot-wire automatic gas tungsten arc process. The tests were performed at 550 0 F, 300 0 F and room temperature. The results of the J-integral tests indicate that the Jsub(Ic) of the base plate ranged from 4400 to 6100 in lbs/in 2 at 550 0 F. The Jsub(Ic) values for the tests performed at 300 0 F and room temperature were beyond the measurement capacity of the specimens and appear to indicate that Jsub(Ic) was greater than 8000 in lb/in 2 . The J-integral tests performed on the weld metal specimens indicate that the Jsub(Ic) values ranged from 930 to 2150 in lbs/in 2 at 550 0 F. The Jsub(Ic) values of the weld metal specimens tested at 300 0 F and room temperature were 2300 and 3000 in lbs/in 2 respectively. One HAZ specimen was tested at 550 0 F and found to have a Jsub(Ic) value of 2980 in lbs/in 2 which indicates that the HAZ is an average of the base metal and weld metal toughness. These test results indicate that there is a significant reduction in the initiation fracture toughness as a result of welding. The second phase of this task dealt with the fracture toughness testing of 4-inch diameter 304 stainless steel pipes containing a gas tungsten arc weld. The pipes were tested at 550 0 F in four point bending. Three tests were performed, two with a through wall flaw growing circumferentially and the third pipe had a part through radial flaw in combination with the circumferential flaw. These tests were performed using unloading compliance and d.c. potential drop crack length estimate methods. The results of these tests indicate that the presence of a complex crack (radial and circumferential) reduces in the initiation toughness and the tearing modulus of the pipe material compared to a pipe with only a circumferentially growing crack. (orig.)

  8. The Influence of TIG Welding Thermal Cycles on HSLA-100 Steel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    8217 1.0’ 1,i 1.0’ 10’ TZ•ME. Secznas Figure 15. CCT diagram for a HSLA-100 steel with composition similar to that of the present work from Wilson...cooling rate through the transformation and ends up with a HAZ hardness of 345 HV which indicates a predominantly martensitic structure, on the CCT ... diagram . This is confirmed by the TEM micrograph of the HAZ taken close to fusion boundary, figure 14. On the other hand, the high heat input weld 1, with

  9. Numerical modeling of the destruction of steel plates with a gradient substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. Yu.; Glazyrin, V. P.; Orlov, Yu. N.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical simulation of the shock loading process of steel barriers with a gradient substrate. In an elastic plastic axisymmetric statement, a shock is simulated along the normal in the range of initial velocities up to 300 m / s. A range of initial velocities was revealed, in which the presence of a substrate "saved" the obstacle from spallation. New tasks were announced to deepen scientific knowledge about the behavior of unidirectional gradient barriers at impact. The results of calculations are obtained in the form of graphs, calculated configurations of the "impact - barrier" and tables.

  10. Cortical surface registration using spherical thin-plate spline with sulcal lines and mean curvature as features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Park, Jun-Sung; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Na, Duk L; Lee, Jong-Min

    2012-04-30

    Analysis of cortical patterns requires accurate cortical surface registration. Many researchers map the cortical surface onto a unit sphere and perform registration of two images defined on the unit sphere. Here we have developed a novel registration framework for the cortical surface based on spherical thin-plate splines. Small-scale composition of spherical thin-plate splines was used as the geometric interpolant to avoid folding in the geometric transform. Using an automatic algorithm based on anisotropic skeletons, we extracted seven sulcal lines, which we then incorporated as landmark information. Mean curvature was chosen as an additional feature for matching between spherical maps. We employed a two-term cost function to encourage matching of both sulcal lines and the mean curvature between the spherical maps. Application of our registration framework to fifty pairwise registrations of T1-weighted MRI scans resulted in improved registration accuracy, which was computed from sulcal lines. Our registration approach was tested as an additional procedure to improve an existing surface registration algorithm. Our registration framework maintained an accurate registration over the sulcal lines while significantly increasing the cross-correlation of mean curvature between the spherical maps being registered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RGB Color Calibration for Quantitative Image Analysis: The “3D Thin-Plate Spline” Warping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesatti, Paolo; Angelini, Claudio; Pallottino, Federico; Antonucci, Francesca; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado

    2012-01-01

    In the last years the need to numerically define color by its coordinates in n-dimensional space has increased strongly. Colorimetric calibration is fundamental in food processing and other biological disciplines to quantitatively compare samples' color during workflow with many devices. Several software programmes are available to perform standardized colorimetric procedures, but they are often too imprecise for scientific purposes. In this study, we applied the Thin-Plate Spline interpolation algorithm to calibrate colours in sRGB space (the corresponding Matlab code is reported in the Appendix). This was compared with other two approaches. The first is based on a commercial calibration system (ProfileMaker) and the second on a Partial Least Square analysis. Moreover, to explore device variability and resolution two different cameras were adopted and for each sensor, three consecutive pictures were acquired under four different light conditions. According to our results, the Thin-Plate Spline approach reported a very high efficiency of calibration allowing the possibility to create a revolution in the in-field applicative context of colour quantification not only in food sciences, but also in other biological disciplines. These results are of great importance for scientific color evaluation when lighting conditions are not controlled. Moreover, it allows the use of low cost instruments while still returning scientifically sound quantitative data. PMID:22969337

  12. RGB Color Calibration for Quantitative Image Analysis: The “3D Thin-Plate Spline” Warping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Costa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the need to numerically define color by its coordinates in n-dimensional space has increased strongly. Colorimetric calibration is fundamental in food processing and other biological disciplines to quantitatively compare samples’ color during workflow with many devices. Several software programmes are available to perform standardized colorimetric procedures, but they are often too imprecise for scientific purposes. In this study, we applied the Thin-Plate Spline interpolation algorithm to calibrate colours in sRGB space (the corresponding Matlab code is reported in the Appendix. This was compared with other two approaches. The first is based on a commercial calibration system (ProfileMaker and the second on a Partial Least Square analysis. Moreover, to explore device variability and resolution two different cameras were adopted and for each sensor, three consecutive pictures were acquired under four different light conditions. According to our results, the Thin-Plate Spline approach reported a very high efficiency of calibration allowing the possibility to create a revolution in the in-field applicative context of colour quantification not only in food sciences, but also in other biological disciplines. These results are of great importance for scientific color evaluation when lighting conditions are not controlled. Moreover, it allows the use of low cost instruments while still returning scientifically sound quantitative data.

  13. Experimental, numerical, and analytical studies on the seismic response of steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epackachi, Siamak

    The seismic performance of rectangular steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls is assessed for application to buildings and mission-critical infrastructure. The SC walls considered in this study were composed of two steel faceplates and infill concrete. The steel faceplates were connected together and to the infill concrete using tie rods and headed studs, respectively. The research focused on the in-plane behavior of flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. An experimental program was executed in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo and was followed by numerical and analytical studies. In the experimental program, four large-size specimens were tested under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. The design variables considered in the testing program included wall thickness, reinforcement ratio, and slenderness ratio. The aspect ratio (height-to-length) of the four walls was 1.0. Each SC wall was installed on top of a re-usable foundation block. A bolted baseplate to RC foundation connection was used for all four walls. The walls were identified to be flexure- and flexure-shear critical. The progression of damage in the four walls was identical, namely, cracking and crushing of the infill concrete at the toes of the walls, outward buckling and yielding of the steel faceplates near the base of the wall, and tearing of the faceplates at their junctions with the baseplate. A robust finite element model was developed in LS-DYNA for nonlinear cyclic analysis of the flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. The DYNA model was validated using the results of the cyclic tests of the four SC walls. The validated and benchmarked models were then used to conduct a parametric study, which investigated the effects of wall aspect ratio, reinforcement ratio, wall thickness, and uniaxial concrete compressive strength on the in-plane response of SC walls. Simplified analytical models, suitable for preliminary analysis and design of SC walls, were

  14. Fiber Laser Welding of Dissimilar 2205/304 Stainless Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghusoon Ridha Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt on pulsed-fiber laser welding on an austenitic-duplex stainless steel butt joint configuration was investigated. The influence of various welding parameters, such as beam diameter, peak power, pulse repetition rate, and pulse width on the weld beads geometry was studied by checking the width and depth of the welds after each round of welding parameters combination. The weld bead dimensions and microstructural progression of the weld joints were observed microscopically. Finally, the full penetration specimens were subjected to tensile tests, which were coupled with the analysis of the fracture surfaces. From the results, combination of the selected weld parameters resulted in robust weldments with similar features to those of duplex and austenitic weld metals. The weld depth and width were found to increase proportionally to the laser power. Furthermore, the weld bead geometry was found to be positively affected by the pulse width. Microstructural studies revealed the presence of dendritic and fine grain structures within the weld zone at low peak power, while ferritic microstructures were found on the sides of the weld metal near the SS 304 and austenitic-ferritic microstructure beside the duplex 2205 boundary. Regarding the micro-hardness tests, there was an improvement when compared to the hardness of duplex and austenitic stainless steels base metals. Additionally, the tensile strength of the fiber laser welded joints was found to be higher when compared to the tensile strength of the base metals (duplex and austenitic in all of the joints.

  15. Simulation of crack propagation in steel plate with strain softening model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, O.B.; Elwi, A.E.; Grondin, G.Y.

    2006-05-15

    A new material model for simulating the fracture behaviour of structural steel was presented. Recent research on crack initiation and continuum damage mechanics was presented. A modified continuum damage model was also evaluated. Strain softening elements were then used to simulate material cracks in a steel structure. The analysis then compared load versus displacement and load versus clip-gauge displacement curves from various different experimental and numerical studies. A finite element analysis technique was used to simulate the fracture behaviour of 3-points bending specimens. Results of the analysis showed that the model predicted 90 per cent of the load and stress intensity factor at fracture initiation. A BE 365 electric shovel boom was used in the study to simulate fracture behaviour. Coupon test specimens were used to validate analysis predictions. It was concluded that the model was able to reduce the stiffness of the boom when the softening element reached yield strength limits during fracture initiation. 29 refs., 12 tabs., 58 figs.

  16. Fabrication and Characteristics of High Capacitance Al Thin Films Capacitor Using a Polymer Inhibitor Bath in Electroless Plating Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Lae; Lee, Jung-Woo; Lee, Chang-Hyoung; Choi, Hyung-Seon; Kim, Sung-Su; Song, Young Il; Park, Chan; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-10-01

    An aluminum (Al) thin film capacitor was fabricated for a high capacitance capacitor using electrochemical etching, barrier-type anodizing, and electroless Ni-P plating. In this study, we focused on the bottom-up filling of Ni-P electrodes on Al2O3/Al with etched tunnels. The Al tunnel pits were irregularly distributed on the Al foil, diameters were in the range of about 0.5~1 μm, the depth of the tunnel pits was approximately 35~40 μm, and the complex structure was made full filled hard metal. To control the plating rate, the experiment was performed by adding polyethyleneimine (PEI, C2H5N), a high molecular substance. PEI forms a cross-link at the etching tunnel inlet, playing the role of delaying the inlet plating. When the PEI solution bath was used after activation, the Ni-P layer was deposited selectively on the bottoms of the tunnels. The characteristics were analyzed by adding the PEI addition quantity rate of 100~600 mg/L into the DI water. The capacitance of the Ni-P/Al2O3 (650~700 nm)/Al film was measured at 1 kHz using an impedance/gain phase analyzer. For the plane film without etch tunnels the capacitance was 12.5 nF/cm2 and for the etch film with Ni-P bottom-up filling the capacitance was 92 nF/cm2. These results illustrate a remarkable maximization of capacitance for thin film metal capacitors.

  17. Modeling the influence of the parameters the diffusion of chromium plating on operational and physical and mechanical properties of steels for stamping tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Петрович Чейлях

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion hardening steel can be produced in any plant having a thermal equipment, besides, it is more economical than obtaining an alloy steel with similar properties. The influence of the parameters of the diffusion of chromium plating (the composition of the steel, powder mixture on the structure and mechanical properties of structural and tool steels was investigated. Results of X-ray analysis showed that the diffusion zone in the samples consists of two layers. First layer is predominantly carbides Cr7C3, Cr23C6, Fe3C. An intermediate layer composed of carbon-free solid solution of chromium in the iron. The maximum total thickness of the diffusion zone is observed in the steel 130Cr12V1 and 130Cr12Mo1 (~80 µm, minimum – in carbon steels 45, U10 (~10-30 µm. The thickness of carbide layer is approximately the same – 1-3 µm. Analyzing of data micro-hardness measurement across the thickness of the diffusion zone it must be noted that the diffusion layers of the samples of the tool steels have a high micro-hardness 6000-10000. The maximum HV=10200 was in steel 30Cr2W8V1. Chromium saturation of steel surface significantly increases its wear resistance. A much greater effect of increase of coefficient of relative wear resistance (3 fold increase was observed in steels 30Cr2W8V1, 130Cr12V1 and 130Cr12Mo1. The mathematical models relating the micro-hardness, wear resistance, the thickness of the diffusion layer were obtained. In view of the analytical relationships ascertained that the wear resistance of hardened steels substantially depend on the thickness of the diffusion coating, the micro-hardness of the layer and the core of steel and alloy steels has increased more than two times. For hardening steel punching tool 30Cr2W8V1 can be recommended composition of the powder mixture: 50% FeCr + 48% Al2O3 + 2% NaF, and for steel 130Cr12V1 preferably used as activator NH4F

  18. Discussion about effecting of stiffener in four bolts in a row end plate connection for long span and heavy load steel structures in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Khang T.; Nguyen, Cung H.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, steel structure industry in Vietnam is in strong development. The construction of steel structure becomes larger span and heavier load. The issue spawned a number of issues arise from optimizing connections. Typical of steel connections in prefabricated steel structure that is an end plate (face plate) bolted connection. When the connection carried a heavy load, then the number of bolts is required much more. Increasing the number of rows bolts will less effective because can still not enough strength requirements, the bolts in row near rotational center will level arm reduction, then it cannot carry heavy loads. The current solution is doing multiple bolts in a row. Current standards such as EN [1], AISC [2] are no specific guidelines for calculating the connection four bolts in a row that primarily assumes the way works like a T-stub of the two bolts a row. Some articles studied T-stub four bolts in a row [3], [4], [5], [6] by component method but it has some components which weren’t considered. In this paper, in order to provide a contribution to improve the T-stub four bolts in a row, the stiffener component in T-stub will be added and compared with T-stub without stiffener by the finite element model to demonstrate effectiveness in reducing stress and displacement of T-stub. It gives ideas for the economic design of four bolts in a row end plate connection in Vietnam for future.

  19. Determining frustum depth of 304 stainless steel plates with various diameters and thicknesses by incremental forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Sa' id [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khazaali, Hossain [Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays incremental forming is more popular because of its flexibility and cost saving. However, no engineering data is available for manufacturers for forming simple shapes like a frustum by incremental forming, and either expensive experimental tests or finite element analysis (FEA) should be employed to determine the depth of a frustum considering: thickness, material, cone diameter, wall angle, feed rate, tool diameter, etc. In this study, finite element technique, confirmed by experimental study, was employed for developing applicable curves for determining the depth of frustums made from 304 stainless steel (SS304) sheet with various cone angles, thicknesses from 0.3 to 1 mm and major diameters from 50 to 200 mm using incremental forming. Using these curves, the frustum angle and its depth knowing its thickness and major diameter can be predicted. The effects of feed rate, vertical pitch and tool diameter on frustum depth and surface quality were also addressed in this study.

  20. Testing of Ni-plated ferritic steel interconnect in SOFC stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dinesen, A.R.; Korcakova, L.

    2006-01-01

    heating to 1,030 °C. During this time, 20–70 μm thick surface layers of austenitic steel were formed, which were covered by a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the anode side and by a layer of mixed Cr-Fe-Ni-spinels over a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the cathode side. The microstructure and composition...... of the protective scale on the cathode side was susceptible to pitting-type corrosion patterns, which may limit the life expectancy to less than 2,000 hours for the 200 μm thick interconnect tested. The initial area-specific resistances (ASR) at the interconnect/cathode current collector interface...

  1. Interfacial Microstructure and Its Influence on Resistivity of Thin Layers Copper Cladding Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjuan; Ding, Zhimin; Zhao, Ruirong

    2018-04-01

    The interfacial microstructure and resistivity of cold-drawn and annealed thin layers copper cladding steel (CCS) wires have been systematically investigated by the methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and resistivity testing. The results showed that the Cu and Fe atoms near interface diffused into each other matrixes. The Fe atoms diffused into Cu matrixes and formed a solid solution. The mechanism of solid solution is of substitution type. When the quantity of Fe atoms exceeds the maximum solubility, the supersaturated solid solution would form Fe clusters and decompose into base Cu and α-Fe precipitated phases under certain conditions. A few of α-Fe precipitates was observed in the copper near Cu/Fe interfaces of cold-drawn CCS wires, with 1-5 nm in size. A number of α-Fe precipitates of 1-20 nm in size can be detected in copper near Cu/Fe interfaces of CCS wires annealed at 850°C. When annealing temperature was less than 750°C, the resistivity of CCS wires annealed was lower than that of cold-drawn CCS wires. However, when annealing temperature was above 750°C, the resistivity of CCS wires was greater than that of cold-drawn CCS wires and increased with rising the annealing temperature. The relationship between nanoscale α-Fe precipitation and resistivity of CCS wires has been well discussed.

  2. Application of thin layer activation technique for monitoring corrosion of carbon steel in hydrocarbon processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R C; Biswal, Jayashree; Pant, H J; Samantray, J S; Sharma, S C; Gupta, A K; Ray, S S

    2018-05-01

    Acidic crude oil transportation and processing in petroleum refining and petrochemical operations cause corrosion in the pipelines and associated components. Corrosion monitoring is invariably required to test and prove operational reliability. Thin Layer Activation (TLA) technique is a nuclear technique used for measurement of corrosion and erosion of materials. The technique involves irradiation of material with high energy ion beam from an accelerator and measurement of loss of radioactivity after the material is subjected to corrosive environment. In the present study, TLA technique has been used to monitor corrosion of carbon steel (CS) in crude oil environment at high temperature. Different CS coupons were irradiated with a 13 MeV proton beam to produce Cobalt-56 radioisotope on the surface of the coupons. The corrosion studies were carried out by subjecting the irradiated coupons to a corrosive environment, i.e, uninhibited straight run gas oil (SRGO) containing known amount of naphthenic acid (NA) at high temperature. The effects of different parameters, such as, concentration of NA, temperature and fluid velocity (rpm) on corrosion behaviour of CS were studied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Weathering resistance of thin plasma polymer films on pre-coated steel =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Ricardo Gil Henriques

    O trabalho apresentado teve origem no projecto de investigacao “Tailored Thin Plasma Polymers Films for Surface Engineering of Coil Coated Steel”, financiado pelo Programa Europeu ECSC Steel Research. Sistemas de aco galvanizado pre-pintado em banda a base de poliester e poliuretano foram submetidos a um processo de polimerizacao por plasma onde um filme fino foi depositado de modo a modificar as propriedades de superficie. Foram usados reactores de catodo oco, microondas e radio frequencia para a deposicao do polimero fino. Os sistemas preparados foram analisados de modo a verificar a influencia do processo de polimerizacao por plasma na alteracao das propriedades barreira dos sistemas pre-pintados em banda. Foi estudado o efeito dos diferentes passos do processo de polimerizacao por plasma, bem como o efeito de diferentes variaveis operatorias. A mistura precursora foi variada de modo a modificar as propriedades da superficie de modo a poder vir a obter maior hidrofobicidade, maior resistencia a marcas digitais, bem como maior facilidade de limpeza. Os testes foram conduzidos em solucao de NaCl 0,5 M. Para o trabalho foram usadas tecnicas de analise da morfologia da superficie como Microscopia de Forca Atomica e Microscopia Electronica de Varrimento. As propriedades electroquimicas dos sistemas foram estudadas por Espectroscopia de Impedancia Electroquimica. A estrutura dos filmes gerados no processo de polimerizacao por plasma foi caracterizada por Microscopia de Transmissao Electronica. A modificacao das propriedades opticas devido ao processo de polimerizacao por plasma foi tambem obtida.

  4. The prediction of failure of welded steel plates for pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulvin, T.F.; Terry, P.; Webster, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The avoidance of brittle fracture in pressure vessels and other welded steel fabrications is a matter of considerable importance. The application of fracture mechanics to this problem has led to the evolution of a philosophy which, among other things, permits estimation of tolerable crack sizes so that practical working limits can be set on inspection procedures and on material and welded joint toughness levels. The use of small-scale fracture mechanics tests, particularly crack opening displacement (COD) tests, to make the necessary material and/or joint property assessments is now commonplace. A number of possible analytical techniques have been considered. Initially, the COD data have been used with the Burdekin-Dawes design curve approach taking into account all the possible stress conditions and, it can be demonstrated, that consistently safe predictions of allowable flaw sizes can be made. Also considered, is the fracture analysis diagram approach of Harrison, Loosemore, and Milne in which a combination of fracture toughness data and mechanical property data is used to assess the probability of failure. Similarly the approach defined by Irvine and Quirk which makes use of mechanical property data without resorting to fracture mechanics and finally, a simple approach using uniaxial tensile property data only has also been examined. Comparisons have been made between these four approaches using, initially, the body of data referring to fracture tests on a single material with various defect sizes and aspect ratios, etc. and latterly, to the specific cases in the body of data on high strength steels. The results are discussed. (author)

  5. Analytical and numerical description of the PELE fragmentation upon impact with thin target plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.

    2015-01-01

    The PELE ammunition is characterized by a low-density filling material surrounded by a high-density brittle jacket material. An analytical model describing the fragmentation of this ammunition behind a target plate is presented. This model assumes uniaxial strain in the filling and uses the

  6. The Transition from Thick to Thin Plate Wake Physics: Whither Vortex Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. Computations were performed for six different combinations of the Reynolds numbers based on plate thickness (D) and boundary layer momentum thickness upstream of the trailing edge (theta). Unlike the case of the cylinder, these Reynolds numbers are independent parameters for the flat plate. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in all the cases investigated. One objective of the study is to understand the changes in the wake vortex shedding process as the plate thickness is reduced (increasing theta/D). The value of D varies by a factor of 16 and that of theta by approximately 5 in the computations. Vortex shedding is vigorous in the low theta/D cases with a substantial decrease in shedding intensity in the large theta/D cases. Other shedding characteristics are also significantly altered with increasing theta/D. A visualization of the shedding process in the different cases is provided and discussed. The basic shedding mechanism is explored in depth. The effect of changing theta/D on the time-averaged, near-wake velocity statistics is also discussed. A functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers mentioned above is obtained.

  7. Auto-ignition of methane-air mixtures flowing along an array of thin catalytic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, C.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the heterogeneous ignition of a methane-air mixture flowing along an infinite array of catalytic parallel plates has been studied by inclusion of gas expansion effects and the finite heat conduction on the plates. The system of equations considers the full compressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the energy equations of the plates. The gas expansion effects which arise from temperature changes have been considered. The heterogeneous kinetics considers the adsorption and desorption reactions for both reactants. The limits of large and small longitudinal thermal conductance of the plate material are analyzed and the critical conditions for ignition are obtained in closed form. The governing equations are solved numerically using finite differences. The results show that ignition is more easily produced as the longitudinal wall thermal conductance increases, and the effects of the gas expansion on the catalytic ignition process are rather small due to the large value of the activation energy of the desorption reaction of adsorbed oxygen atoms.

  8. Ballistic Limit of High-Strength Steel and Al7075-T6 Multi-Layered Plates Under 7.62-mm Armour Piercing Projectile Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Rahman

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the computational-based ballistic limit of laminated metal panels comprised of high strength steel and aluminium alloy Al7075-T6 plate at different thickness combinations to necessitate the weight reduction of existing armour steel plate. The numerical models of monolithic configuration, double-layered configuration and triple-layered configuration were developed using a commercial explicit finite element code and were impacted by 7.62 mm armour piercing projectile at velocity range of 900 to 950 m/s. The ballistic performance of each configuration plate in terms of ballistic limit velocity, penetration process and permanent deformation was quantified and considered. It was found that the monolithic panel of high-strength steel has the best ballistic performance among all panels, yet it has not caused any weight reduction in existing armour plate. As the weight reduction was increased from 20-30%, the double-layered configuration panels became less resistance to ballistic impact where only at 20% and 23.2% of weight reduction panel could stop the 950m/s projectile. The triple-layered configuration panels with similar areal density performed much better where all panels subjected to 20-30% weight reductions successfully stopped the 950 m/s projectile. Thus, triple-layered configurations are interesting option in designing a protective structure without sacrificing the performance in achieving weight reduction.

  9. The study of electroplating trivalent CrC alloy coatings with different current densities on stainless steel 304 as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Cheng; Hou, Kung-Hsu; Lu, Chen-En; Ger, Ming-Der

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the trivalent Cr–C coatings were electroplated on stainless steel 304 (SS304) substrates for an application in bipolar plates (BPPs) that was because of coating's excellent electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. The images of scanning electron microscope showed that the thickness of the coatings was between 1.4 and 11.4 μm, which increased with increase of coating current density. The surface morphology of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 was smooth, crack- and pinhole-free, while cracks and pinholes appearing in networks were observed apparently in the deposits plated at a higher coating current density. Additionally, the C content in the coating decreased with increasing the coating current density. Moreover, the polarization curve with different coating current densities (10, 30, 50 A/dm 2 ) exhibited the coating prepared at 10 A/dm 2 and 10 min possessing the best corrosion resistance (I corr = 9.360 × 10 −8 A/cm 2 ). The contact resistance of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 was the lowest (16.54 mΩ cm 2 at 150 N cm −2 ), which showed great potential of application. The single cell test with Cr–C coated SS304 prepared at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 as BPPs showed the highest current density (about 791.532 mA/cm 2 ) and power density (about 270.150 mW/cm 2 ). - Highlights: • The Cr–C coatings on steel are electroplated for utilization as bipolar plate. • The electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance increase with carbon content. • The power density of Cr–C coated steel is superior to the bare steel

  10. The study of electroplating trivalent CrC alloy coatings with different current densities on stainless steel 304 as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsiang-Cheng [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hou, Kung-Hsu, E-mail: khou@ndu.edu.tw [Department of Power Vehicle and Systems Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lu, Chen-En [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ger, Ming-Der [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    In this study, the trivalent Cr–C coatings were electroplated on stainless steel 304 (SS304) substrates for an application in bipolar plates (BPPs) that was because of coating's excellent electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. The images of scanning electron microscope showed that the thickness of the coatings was between 1.4 and 11.4 μm, which increased with increase of coating current density. The surface morphology of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} was smooth, crack- and pinhole-free, while cracks and pinholes appearing in networks were observed apparently in the deposits plated at a higher coating current density. Additionally, the C content in the coating decreased with increasing the coating current density. Moreover, the polarization curve with different coating current densities (10, 30, 50 A/dm{sup 2}) exhibited the coating prepared at 10 A/dm{sup 2} and 10 min possessing the best corrosion resistance (I{sub corr} = 9.360 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}). The contact resistance of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} was the lowest (16.54 mΩ cm{sup 2} at 150 N cm{sup −2}), which showed great potential of application. The single cell test with Cr–C coated SS304 prepared at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} as BPPs showed the highest current density (about 791.532 mA/cm{sup 2}) and power density (about 270.150 mW/cm{sup 2}). - Highlights: • The Cr–C coatings on steel are electroplated for utilization as bipolar plate. • The electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance increase with carbon content. • The power density of Cr–C coated steel is superior to the bare steel.

  11. Effect of stainless steel and titanium low-contact dynamic compression plate application on the vascularity and mechanical properties of cortical bone after fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R; Podworny, N; Hearn, T; Anderson, G I; Schemitsch, E H

    1997-10-01

    Comparison of the effect of stainless steel and titanium low-contact dynamic compression plate application on the vascularity and mechanical properties of cortical bone after fracture. Randomized, prospective. Orthopaedic research laboratory. Ten large (greater than twenty-five kilogram) adult dogs. A short, midshaft spiral tibial fracture was created, followed by lag screw fixation and neutralization with an eight-hole, 3.5-millimeter, low-contact dynamic compression plate (LCDCP) made of either 316L stainless steel (n = five) or commercially pure titanium (n = five). After surgery, animals were kept with unrestricted weight-bearing in individual stalls for ten weeks. Cortical bone blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry using a standard metalshafted probe (Periflux Pf303, Perimed, Jarfalla, Sweden) applied through holes in the custom-made LCDCPs at five sites. Bone blood flow was determined at four times: (a) prefracture, (b) postfracture, (c) postplating, and (d) ten weeks postplating. After the dogs were killed, the implant was removed and both the treated tibia and contralateral tibia were tested for bending stiffness and load to failure. Fracture creation decreased cortical perfusion in both groups at the fracture site (p = 0.02). The application of neither stainless steel nor titanium LCDCPs further decreased cortical bone blood flow after fracture creation. However, at ten weeks postplating, cortical perfusion significantly increased compared with acute postplating levels in the stainless steel (p = 0.003) and titanium (p = 0.001) groups. Cortical bone blood flow ten weeks postplating was not significantly different between the titanium group and the stainless steel group. Biomechanical tests performed on the tibiae with the plates removed did not reveal any differences in bending stiffness nor load required to cause failure between the two groups. Both titanium and stainless steel LCDCPs were equally effective in allowing revascularization, and

  12. Investigation on the Interface Morphologies of Explosive Welding of Inconel 625 to Steel A516 Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Zareie, H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce composite plates by explosive cladding process. This is a process in which the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallic bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. The welding conditions were tailored through parallel geometry route with different operational parameters. In this investigation, a two-pronged study was adopted to establish the conditions required for producing successful solid state welding: (a) Analytical calculations to determine the weldability domain or welding window; (b) Metallurgical investigations of explosive welding experiments carried out under different explosive ratios to produce both wavy and straight interfaces. The analytical calculations confirm the experimental results. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth to wavy interface occurs with an increase in explosive ratio. SEM studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials.

  13. Instabilities of convection patterns in a shear-thinning fluid between plates of finite conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varé, Thomas; Nouar, Chérif; Métivier, Christel

    2017-10-01

    Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a horizontal layer of a non-Newtonian fluid between slabs of arbitrary thickness and finite thermal conductivity is considered. The first part of the paper deals with the primary bifurcation and the relative stability of convective patterns at threshold. Weakly nonlinear analysis combined with Stuart-Landau equation is used. The competition between squares and rolls, as a function of the shear-thinning degree of the fluid, the slabs' thickness, and the ratio of the thermal conductivity of the slabs to that of the fluid is investigated. Computations of heat transfer coefficients are in agreement with the maximum heat transfer principle. The second part of the paper concerns the stability of the convective patterns toward spatial perturbations and the determination of the band width of the stable wave number in the neighborhood of the critical Rayleigh number. The approach used is based on the Ginzburg-Landau equations. The study of rolls stability shows that: (i) for low shear-thinning effects, the band of stable wave numbers is bounded by zigzag instability and cross-roll instability. Furthermore, the marginal cross-roll stability boundary enlarges with increasing shear-thinning properties; (ii) for high shear-thinning effects, Eckhaus instability becomes more dangerous than cross-roll instability. For square patterns, the wave number selection is always restricted by zigzag instability and by "rectangular Eckhaus" instability. In addition, the width of the stable wave number decreases with increasing shear-thinning effects. Numerical simulations of the planform evolution are also presented to illustrate the different instabilities considered in the paper.

  14. Optimization of a functionally graded circular plate with inner rigid thin obstacles. I. Continuous problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Ivan; Lovíšek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 9 (2011), s. 711-723 ISSN 0044-2267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : functionally graded plate * optimal design Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.863, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/zamm.201000119/abstract

  15. Low friction slip-rolling contacts. Influences of alternative steels, high performance thin film coatings and lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Due to the growing environmental awareness worldwide, containment provisions for CO{sub 2} emissions in mobility systems and increasing performance requirements the demands on mechanical systems and their materials continuously rise. These high demands require the implementation of new technical approaches, for example of light-weight strategies in automotive powertrains, and directly raise questions about the suitability of the most promising technical solution. Two basic parameters, the surface hardness of the tooth flanks and the core fatigue strength of the tooth root, illustrate exemplarily increasing demands on material grades used for gear wheels in automotive powertrains. In addition to light-weight strategies, a reduction in friction and an increase of the fatigue lifetime are two other major development directions to strive the mentioned targets. It is clear that any kind of solution must show an equal application profile, preferably an improvement, compared to the state-of-the-art solutions. For tribological systems, the following paths may offer lower friction and higher load carrying capabilities: 1. Alternative base oils and additives (such as esters, polyglycols), 2. Thin film coatings (e.g. DLC) and/or 3. Novel steel metallurgies. In previous investigations on the slip-rolling resistance of thin film coatings (a-C, ta-C, Zr(C,N)) the substrates were mainly made of the bearing steels 100Cr6H and Cronidur 30. Applying contact pressures of up to P{sub 0max} = 2.9 GPa (F{sub N} = 2,000 N), the samples were tested up to 10 million load cycles in endurance tests. The aim of the present work is to broaden the research by varying the input parameters. Newly developed engine oil mixtures, high performance thin film coatings and alternative steel solutions are intensively investigated in highly stressed slip-rolling contacts at lubricant temperatures of 120 C. Specifically, in using new steel metallurgies, i.e. the high toughness and high strength steels V300

  16. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  17. The analysis of bainitic ferrite microstructure in microalloyed plate steels through quantitative characterization of intervariant boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Singon, E-mail: sikang@mines.edu [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Speer, John G.; Regier, Ryan W. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Nako, Hidenori [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Kennett, Shane C. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Findley, Kip O. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed to investigate the bainitic ferrite microstructure in low-carbon, microalloyed steels with varying C and Mn contents. Fully austenitized samples were isothermally heat treated at temperatures ranging from 450 to 550 °C to form bainitic ferrite. The bainitic ferrite microstructures and boundary characteristics obtained from the EBSD measurements were analyzed based on an inferred Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship. The heat treated samples exhibit a microstructure composed of laths and the lath aspect ratio tends to increase at lower isothermal heat treatment temperatures. High fractions of boundary misorientation angles below 5° are observed, which are due to lath boundaries in the microstructure. Additionally, misorientations of approximately 7°, 53° and 60° are observed, which are related to the sub-block, packet, and block boundaries, respectively. With decreasing isothermal heat treatment temperature, there is an increase of block boundaries; these boundaries are intervariant boundaries between different blocks within a packet, most of which have the misorientation angle of 60°. The specimens with a higher carbon level contained increased length of block boundaries, whereas the addition of Mn moderated the dependence of block boundary length on the heat treatment temperature within the experimental temperature range. Meanwhile, the length of intervariant boundaries of both packet and sub-block character did not vary much with heat treatment temperature and alloy composition.

  18. On the Gas Dynamics of Inert-Gas-Assisted Laser Cutting of Steel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A. D.; Settles, G. S.; Scroggs, S. D.

    1996-11-01

    Laser beam cutting of sheet metal requires an assist gas to blow away the molten material. Since the assist-gas dynamics influences the quality and speed of the cut, the orientation of the gas nozzle with respect to the kerf is also expected to be important. A 1 kW cw CO2 laser with nitrogen assist gas was used to cut mild steel sheet of 1 to 4 mm thickness, using a sonic coaxial nozzle as a baseline. Off-axis nozzles were oriented from 20 deg to 60 deg from normal with exit Mach numbers from 1 to 2.4. Results showed maximum cutting speed at a 40 deg nozzle orientation. Shadowgrams of a geometrically-similar model kerf then revealed a separated shock wave-boundary layer interaction within the kerf for the (untilted) coaxial nozzle case. This was alleviated, resulting in a uniform supersonic flow throughout the kerf and consequent higher cutting speeds, by tilting the nozzle between 20 deg and 45 deg from the normal. This result did not depend upon the exit Mach number of the nozzle. (Research supported by NSF Grant DMI-9400119.)

  19. Enhancement of as-sputtered silver-tantalum oxide thin film coating on biomaterial stainless steel by surface thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Rodianah; Mahmoodian, Reza; Shukor, Mohd Hamdi Abd; Yew, Been Seok; Muhamad, Martini

    2018-04-01

    Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) is extensively used as surgical/clinical tools due to its low carbon content and excellent mechanical characteristic. The fabrication of metal ceramic based on this metallic biomaterial favor its biofunctionality properties. However, instability phase of amorphous thin film lead to degradation, corrosion and oxidation. Thus, thin film coating requires elevated adhesion strength and higher surface hardness to meet clinical tools criteria. In this study, the SS316L was deposited with micron thickness of Ag-TaO thin film by using magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, elemental analysis and phase identification of Ag-TaO thin film were characterized by using FESEM, EDX and XRD, respectively; whereas the micro scratch test and micro hardness test were performed by using Micro Scratch Testing System and Vickers Micro Hardness Tester, respectively. It was found that the coating thin film's adhesion and hardness strength were improved from 672 to 2749 mN and 142 to 158 Hv respectively. It was found that the as-deposited surface were treated at 500 °C of temperatures with 2 °C/min ramping rate enhance 4.1 times of the adhesion strength value. Furthermore, FESEM characterization revealed coarsening structure of the thin film coating which can provide high durability service.

  20. The study of fix composite panel and steel plates on testing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Wachna, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the practical possibilities of strength verification analysis of composite materials used in the manufacture of selected components of railway wagons are presented. Real laboratory stand for measurements in a scale controlled by PLC controller were made. The study of different types of connections of composite materials with sheet metal is presented. In one of the chapter of this paper principles construction of testing stand with pneumatic cylinder were presented. Mainly checking of displacements and stresses generated on the sheet as a result of pneumatic actuators load for composite boards was carried out. The use of the controller with operating panel allows to easy programming testing cycle. The user can define the force generated by the actuator by change of air pressure in cylinder. Additionally the location of acting cylinders and their jump can be changed by operator. The examination of the volume displacements was done by displacement sensor, and the tensile strain gauge. All parameters are written in CatmanEasy - data acquisition software. This article presents the study of stresses and displacements in the composite plates joined with sheet metal, in summary of this article, the authors compare the obtained results with the computer simulation results in the article: "Simulation of stresses in an innovative combination of composite with sheet".

  1. Surface residual stress evaluation in double-electrode butt welded steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estefen, S.F.; Gurova, T.; Castello, X.; Leontiev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Surface residual stress evaluation for double-electrode welding was studied. The stresses were monitored after each operational step: positioning, implementing of constraints, welding and constraints removal. The measurements were performed at the deposited metal, heat affected zone, base metal close to the weld joint and along the plate using the X-ray diffraction method. It was observed differences in the stress evaluations for double-electrode welding which resulted in lower bending distortions and higher values of surface residual stresses, compared with single-electrode welding. This behavior is associated with the stress distribution just after the welding processes in both heat affected zone and base metal close to the fillet for double-electrode welding. The main results from the laboratorial tests indicated lower values of the bending distortions for double-electrode welding compared with the single-electrode. In relation to the residual stress, the double-electrode welding generated, in general, higher stress values in both longitudinal and transversal directions.

  2. Shock-induced thermal wave propagation and response analysis of a viscoelastic thin plate under transient heating loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenlin; Guo, Huili; Tian, Xiaogeng

    2018-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the thermal shock analysis for viscoelastic materials under transient heating loads. The governing coupled equations with time-delay parameter and nonlocal scale parameter are derived based on the generalized thermo-viscoelasticity theory. The problem of a thin plate composed of viscoelastic material, subjected to a sudden temperature rise at the boundary plane, is solved by employing Laplace transformation techniques. The transient responses, i.e. temperature, displacement, stresses, heat flux as well as strain, are obtained and discussed. The effects of time-delay and nonlocal scale parameter on the transient responses are analyzed and discussed. It can be observed that: the propagation of thermal wave is dynamically smoothed and changed with the variation of time-delay; while the displacement, strain, and stress can be rapidly reduced by nonlocal scale parameter, which can be viewed as an important indicator for predicting the stiffness softening behavior for viscoelastic materials.

  3. A novel model of photothermal diffusion (PTD) for polymer nano-composite semiconducting of thin circular plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Kh.

    2018-05-01

    In this article, theoretical discussions for a novel mathematical-physical Photothermal diffusion (PTD) model in the generalized thermoelasticity theory with photothermal processes and chemical action are introduced. The mean idea of this model depends on the interaction between quasi-particles (plasma waves) that depends on the kind of the used materials, the mechanical forces acting on the surface, the generalized thermo and mass diffusion (due to coupling of temperature fields with thermal waves and chemical potential) and the elastic waves. The one dimensional Laplace transforms is used to obtain the exact solution for some physical and chemical quantities for a thin circular plate of a semiconducting polymer nanocomposite such as silicon (Si). New variables are deduced and discussed. The obtained results of the physical quantities are presented analytically and illustrated graphically with some important applications.

  4. Continuous cooling transformations and microstructures in a low-carbon, high-strength low-alloy plate steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. W.; Vin, D. J., Col; Krauss, G.

    1990-06-01

    A continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram was determined for a high-strength low-alloy plate steel containing (in weight percent) 0.06 C, 1.45 Mn, 1.25 Cu, 0.97 Ni, 0.72 Cr, and 0.42 Mo. Dilatometric measurements were supplemented by microhardness testing, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The CCT diagram showed significant suppression of polygonal ferrite formation and a prominent transformation region, normally attributed to bainite formation, at temperatures intermediate to those of polygonal ferrite and martensite formation. In the intermediate region, ferrite formation in groups of similarly oriented crystals about 1 μm in size and containing a high density of dislocations dominated the transformation of austenite during continuous cooling. The ferrite grains assumed two morphologies, elongated or acicular and equiaxed or granular, leading to the terms “acicular ferrite” and “granular ferrite,” respectively, to describe these structures. Austenite regions, some transformed to martensite, were enriched in carbon and retained at interfaces between ferrite grains. Coarse interfacial ledges and the nonacicular morphology of the granular ferrite grains provided evidence for a phase transformation mechanism involving reconstructive diffusion of substitutional atoms. At slow cooling rates, polygonal ferrite and Widmanstätten ferrite formed. These latter structures contained low dislocation densities and e-copper precipitates formed by an interphase transformation mechanism.

  5. A Flat Solar Collector Built from Galvanized Steel Plate, Working by Thermosyphonic Flow, Optimized for Mexican Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Marroquín de Jesús

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Design, construction, and testing of the thermal performance of a flat solar collector for domestic water heating are described. The absorbing plate is built from readily available materials: two sheets of galvanized steel, one of the channelled type, the other one flat, which are joined by electric welding. The absorber is connected to a 198–L thermotank, insulated with polyurethane foam. In terms of receiving surface, the prototype tested here has an area of 1.35 m2, about 20% smaller than comparable copper–tube–based collectors offered in the market. Temperature measurements conducted over a 30–day period gave values which were a few degrees lower than the theoretically calculated water temperatures. Momentary thermal efficiency values between 35% and 77% were observed. The water temperature achieved in the tank at the end of the day aver ages 65°C in winter weather conditions in the central Mexican highland. This design of solar water heater is well suited to Mexican conditions, as it makes use of the high local intensity of the solar radiation, and as the channel shape of the ducts minimizes bursting during the rare occurrences of freezing temperatures in the region; it also has the advantage of being manufacturable at low cost from simple materials.

  6. Effect of Abrasive Waterjet Peening Surface Treatment of Steel Plates on the Strength of Single-Lap Adhesive Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Anasiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of comparative study of shear strength of single–lap adhesive joints, depending on the method of surface preparation of steel plates with increased corrosion resistance. The method of preparing adherend surfaces is often one of the most important factors determining the strength of adhesive joints. Appropriate geometric surface development and cleaning of the surface enhances adhesion forces between adherend material and adhesive. One of the methods of shaping engineering materials is waterjet cutting, which in the AWJP – abrasive waterjet peening variant, serves to shape flat surfaces of the material by changing the roughness and introducing stresses into the surface layer. These changes are valuable when preparing adhesive joints. In the study, surface roughness parameters obtained with AWJP treatment, were analyzed in direct relation to the strength of the adhesive joint. As a consequence of the experimental results analysis, the increase in the strength of the adhesive joints was observed in a certain range of parameters used for AWJP treatment. A decrease in shear strength of adhesive joint with the most modified topography of overlap surface was observed.

  7. Theoretical and experimental study on unstable fracture for type 304 stainless steel plates with a soft tensile testing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, G.; Takahashi, Y.; Ando, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The object of this paper is to show experimental results on stable as well as unstable fractures for Type 304 stainless steel plates with a central crack using a soft tensile testing machine. The test machine was installed specially for the safety study of nuclear piping systems and its maximum loading capacity and maximum displacement are 600 ton and 500 mm, respectively. The compliance of the machine is 1.0 x 10 -4 (mm/N). The transition points from the stable to the unstable crack growth observed in the test were theoretically determined by using three methods. In the first method, the 'applied' value of T was calculated with the simple expression based on the dimensional analysis. In the second method, the fully-plastic solutions were used to calculate the nonlinear value of J, which was added to the linear value of J, thus the 'applied' values of T was determined by differentiating the total value of J, which was obtained for the material with the Ramberg-Osgood type stress-strain relation. In the final method, the finite element method was fully utilized to determine the 'applied' value of T. The value of J in the finite element method was obtained with the use of the path-integral. (orig./GL)

  8. Independency of Elasticity on Residual Stress of Room Temperature Rolled Stainless Steel 304 Plates for Structure Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikin Parikin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical strengths of materials are widely expected in general constructions of any building. These properties depend on its formation (cold/hot forming during fabrication. This research was carried out on cold-rolled stainless steel (SS 304 plates, which were deformed to 0, 34, 84, and 152% reduction in thickness. The tests were conducted using Vickers method. Ultra micro indentation system (UMIS 2000 was used to determine the mechanical properties of the material, i.e.: hardness, modulus elasticity, and residual stresses. The microstructures showed lengthening outcropping due to stress corrosion cracking for all specimens. It was found that the tensile residual stress in a specimen was maximum, reaching 442 MPa, for a sample reducing 34% in thickness and minimum; and about 10 MPa for a 196% sample. The quantities showed that the biggest residual stress caused lowering of the proportional limit of material in stress-strain curves. The proportional modulus elasticity varied between 187 GPa and of about 215 GPa and was free from residual stresses.

  9. A Study of Stress Wave Propagation in Thin Plate Loaded by an Oblique Impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Kolman, Radek; Dvořáková, Pavla; Veselý, Eduard

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2009), s. 322-331 ISSN 1970-8734 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/0588; GA ČR GA101/06/0914 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : Stress wave propagation * Thin-wall structures * Double-pulse holointerferometry * Finite Element Method Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  10. Thin-sheet zinc-coated and carbon steels laser welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peças, P.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a research on CO2 laser welding of thin-sheet carbon steels (zinccoated and uncoated, at several thicknesses combinations. Laser welding has an high potential to be applied on sub-assemblies welding before forming to the automotive industry-tailored blanks. The welding process is studied through the analysis of parameters optimization, metallurgical quality and induced distortions by the welding process. The clamping system and the gas protection system developed are fully described. These systems allow the minimization of common thin-sheet laser welding defects like misalignement, and zinc-coated laser welding defects like porous and zinc volatilization. The laser welding quality is accessed by DIN 8563 standard, and by tensile, microhardness and corrosion tests.

    Este artigo descreve os resultados da investigação da soldadura laser de CO2 de chapa fina de acó carbono (simples e galvanizado, em diferentes combinações de espessura. A soldadura laser é um processo de elevado potencial no fabrico de tailored-blanks (sub-conjuntos para posterior enformação, constituidos por varias partes de diferentes materiais e espessuras para a indústria automóvel. São analisados os aspectos de optimização paramétrica, de qualidade metalúrgica da junta soldada e das deformações resultantes da soldadura. São descritos os mecanismos desenvolvidos de fixação das chapas e protecção gasosa, por forma a minimizar os defeitos típicos na soldadura laser de chapa fina como o desalinhamento e da soldadura laser de chapa galvanizada como os poros e a volatilização do zinco. Por fim apresentam-se resultados da avaliação da qualidade da soldadura do ponto de vista qualitativo através da norma DIN 8563, e do pontos de vista quantitativo através de ensaios de tracção, dureza e corrosão.

  11. Mutual information based CT registration of the lung at exhale and inhale breathing states using thin-plate splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coselmon, Martha M.; Balter, James M.; McShan, Daniel L.; Kessler, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    The advent of dynamic radiotherapy modeling and treatment techniques requires an infrastructure to weigh the merits of various interventions (breath holding, gating, tracking). The creation of treatment planning models that account for motion and deformation can allow the relative worth of such techniques to be evaluated. In order to develop a treatment planning model of a moving and deforming organ such as the lung, registration tools that account for deformation are required. We tested the accuracy of a mutual information based image registration tool using thin-plate splines driven by the selection of control points and iterative alignment according to a simplex algorithm. Eleven patients each had sequential CT scans at breath-held normal inhale and exhale states. The exhale right lung was segmented from CT and served as the reference model. For each patient, thirty control points were used to align the inhale CT right lung to the exhale CT right lung. Alignment accuracy (the standard deviation of the difference in the actual and predicted inhale position) was determined from locations of vascular and bronchial bifurcations, and found to be 1.7, 3.1, and 3.6 mm about the RL, AP, and IS directions. The alignment accuracy was significantly different from the amount of measured movement during breathing only in the AP and IS directions. The accuracy of alignment including thin-plate splines was more accurate than using affine transformations and the same iteration and scoring methodology. This technique shows promise for the future development of dynamic models of the lung for use in four-dimensional (4-D) treatment planning

  12. Corrosion behaviors and contact resistances of the low-carbon steel bipolar plate with a chromized coating containing carbides and nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Ching-Yuan; Ger, Ming-Der [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan, 335 (China); Wu, Min-Sheng [Department of Weapon System Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan, 335 (China)

    2009-08-15

    This work improved the surface performance of low-carbon steel AISI 1020 by a reforming pack chromization process at low temperature (700 C) and investigated the possibility that the modified steels are used as metal bipolar plates (BPP) of PEMFCs. The steel surface was activated by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with different currents before the chromizing procedure. Experimental results indicate that a dense and homogenous Cr-rich layer is formed on the EDM carbon steels by pack chromization. The chromized coating pretreated with electrical discharge currents of 2 A has the lowest corrosion current density, 5.78 x 10{sup -8} Acm{sup -2}, evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and the smallest interfacial contact resistance (ICR), 11.8 m{omega}-cm{sup 2}, at 140 N/cm{sup 2}. The carbon steel with a coating containing carbides and nitrides is promising for application as metal BPPs, and this report presents the first research in producing BPPs with carbon steels. (author)

  13. Development of dual PZT transducers for reference-free crack detection in thin plate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hoon; Kim, Seuno Bum

    2010-01-01

    A new Lamb-wave-based nondestructive testing (NDT) technique, which does not rely on previously stored baseline data, is developed for crack monitoring in plate structures. Commonly, the presence of damage is identified by comparing "current data" measured from a potentially damaged stage of a structure with "baseline data" previously obtained at the intact condition of the structure. In practice, structural defects typically take place long after collection of the baseline data, and the baseline data can be also affected by external loading, temperature variations, and changing boundary conditions. To eliminate the dependence on the baseline data comparison, the authors previously developed a reference-free NDT technique using 2 pairs of collocated lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers placed on both sides of a plate. This reference-free technique is further advanced in the present study by the necessity of attaching transducers only on a single surface of a structure for certain applications such as aircraft. To achieve this goal, a new design of PZT transducers called dual PZT transducers is proposed. Crack formation creates Lamb wave mode conversion due to a sudden thickness change of the structure. This crack appearance is instantly detected from the measured Lamb wave signals using the dual PZT transducers. This study also suggests a reference-free statistical approach that enables damage classification using only the currently measured data set. Numerical simulations and experiments were conducted using an aluminum plate with uniform thickness and fundamental Lamb waves modes to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique to reference-free crack detection.

  14. Functionalized Antimicrobial Composite Thin Films Printing for Stainless Steel Implant Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Floroian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we try to address the large interest existing nowadays in the better understanding of the interaction between microbial biofilms and metallic implants. Our aimed was to identify a new preventive strategy to control drug release, biofilm formation and contamination of medical devices with microbes. The transfer and printing of novel bioactive glass-polymer-antibiotic composites by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation into uniform thin films onto 316 L stainless steel substrates of the type used in implants are reported. The targets were prepared by freezing in liquid nitrogen mixtures containing polymer and antibiotic reinforced with bioglass powder. The cryogenic targets were submitted to multipulse evaporation by irradiation with an UV KrF* (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM ≤ 25 ns excimer laser source. The prepared structures were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and profilometry, before and after immersion in physiological fluids. The bioactivity and the release of the antibiotic have been evaluated. We showed that the incorporated antibiotic underwent a gradually dissolution in physiological fluids thus supporting a high local treatment efficiency. Electrochemical measurements including linear sweep voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy studies were carried out to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coatings in physiological environments. The in vitro biocompatibility assay using the MG63 mammalian cell line revealed that the obtained nanostructured composite films are non-cytotoxic. The antimicrobial effect of the coatings was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains, usually present in implant-associated infections. An anti-biofilm activity was evidenced, stronger against E. coli than the S. aureus strain. The results proved that the applied method allows for the fabrication of implantable biomaterials which shield metal ion release

  15. Functionalized Antimicrobial Composite Thin Films Printing for Stainless Steel Implant Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floroian, Laura; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Natalia; Negut, Irina; Badea, Mihaela; Ursutiu, Doru; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Urzica, Iuliana; Dyia, Hussien Mohammed; Bleotu, Coralia; Mihailescu, Ion N

    2016-06-09

    In this work we try to address the large interest existing nowadays in the better understanding of the interaction between microbial biofilms and metallic implants. Our aimed was to identify a new preventive strategy to control drug release, biofilm formation and contamination of medical devices with microbes. The transfer and printing of novel bioactive glass-polymer-antibiotic composites by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation into uniform thin films onto 316 L stainless steel substrates of the type used in implants are reported. The targets were prepared by freezing in liquid nitrogen mixtures containing polymer and antibiotic reinforced with bioglass powder. The cryogenic targets were submitted to multipulse evaporation by irradiation with an UV KrF* (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM ≤ 25 ns) excimer laser source. The prepared structures were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and profilometry, before and after immersion in physiological fluids. The bioactivity and the release of the antibiotic have been evaluated. We showed that the incorporated antibiotic underwent a gradually dissolution in physiological fluids thus supporting a high local treatment efficiency. Electrochemical measurements including linear sweep voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy studies were carried out to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coatings in physiological environments. The in vitro biocompatibility assay using the MG63 mammalian cell line revealed that the obtained nanostructured composite films are non-cytotoxic. The antimicrobial effect of the coatings was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains, usually present in implant-associated infections. An anti-biofilm activity was evidenced, stronger against E. coli than the S. aureus strain. The results proved that the applied method allows for the fabrication of implantable biomaterials which shield metal ion release and possess

  16. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masanori, E-mail: ando.masanori@jaea.go.jp; Takaya, Shigeru, E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  17. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masanori; Takaya, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  18. Imaging flaws in thin metal plates using a magneto-optic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, B.; Prabhu, D. R.; Namkung, M.; Birt, E. A.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the capabilities of the magnetooptic/eddy-current imager (MEI) apparatus in the case of aging aircraft structure-type flaws in 2024-T3 Al alloy plates. Attention is given to images of cyclically grown fatigue cracks from rivetted joints in fabricated lap-joint structures, electrical discharge machining notches, and corrosion spots. Although conventional eddy-current methods could have been used, the speed and ease of MEI's use in these tests is unmatched by such means. Results are displayed in real time as a test piece is scanned, furnishing easily interpreted flaw images.

  19. Tuneable surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy hyphenated to chemically derivatized thin-layer chromatography plates for screening histamine in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengjun; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yisheng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Ding, Yunlian; Yang, Na; Wu, Fengfeng

    2017-09-01

    Reliable screening of histamine in fish was of urgent importance for food safety. This work presented a highly selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method mediated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), which was tailored for identification and quantitation of histamine. Following separation and derivatization with fluram, plates were assayed with SERS, jointly using silver nanoparticle and NaCl. The latter dramatically suppressed the masking effect caused by excessive fluram throughout the plate, thus offering clear baseline and intensive Raman fingerprints specific to the analyte. Under optimized conditions, the usability of this method was validated by identifying the structural fingerprints of both targeted and unknown compounds in fish samples. Meanwhile, the quantitative results of this method agreed with those by an HPLC method officially suggested by EU for histamine determination. Showing remarkable cost-efficiency and user-friendliness, this facile TLC-SERS method was indeed screening-oriented and may be more attractive to controlling laboratories of limited resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A New Approach for Studying Nonlinear Dynamic Response of a Thin Plate with Internal Resonance in a Fractional Viscoelastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Rossikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous analysis, the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear plate embedded into a fractional derivative viscoelastic medium has been studied by the method of multiple time scales under the conditions of the internal resonances two-to-one and one-to-one, as well as the internal combinational resonances for the case when the linear parts of nonlinear equations of motion occur to be coupled. A new approach proposed in this paper allows one to uncouple the linear parts of equations of motion of the plate, while the same method, the method of multiple time scales, has been utilized for solving nonlinear equations. The influence of viscosity on the energy exchange mechanism between interacting nonlinear modes has been analyzed. It has been shown that for some internal resonances there exist such particular cases when it is possible to obtain two first integrals, namely, the energy integral and the stream function, which allows one to reduce the problem to the calculation of elliptic integrals. The new approach enables one to solve the problems of vibrations of thin bodies more efficiently.

  1. Finite element analysis of plate rolling of duplex-layer steels for long-period fast reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jungki; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-01-01

    With same roll speed and same friction coefficient, curvature is formed on rolled product from FEA result. To reduce this curvature and plastic strain which cause reduction in fabricability, two ways are selected; (i) controlling upper/lower roll speed, and (ii) adjusting upper/lower friction coefficient and contacts. Both results shows it can reduce the curvature and equivalent plastic strain of the plate after the rolling. It can be applied in real plate rolling processing and also the next research for pilgering process for tube and pipe production. The FEA results of equivalent stress and plastic deformation distribution are showed in figure 5. The von-Mises equivalent stress distribution showed that the stress is still concentrated on upper Fe-12Cr-2Si layer, however, it also shows that equivalent plastic strain is distributed uniformly comparing with upper and lower roll speed ratio is 1.0. In high temperature liquid metal environment, there are usually two types of corrosion; one is corrosion by dissolution of alloy elements into liquid metal, and another is corrosion by chemical reaction among impurities in liquid metal and structural alloy. There have been some researches to develop new alloys that can form more dense scale on the surface even in wider impurity range and higher temperature range . M.P Short et al. devised functionally graded composite which is composed of two layers . one is a thin corrosion resistant layer and another is thick structural layer which guarantees mechanical strength, creep rupture strength and shows less irradiation swelling

  2. [Confirmation of an excess of cancer mortality in a cohort of workers of a chromium thin-layer plating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Bressan, Vittoria; Mabilia, Tommy; Merler, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    to extend up to year 2013 the follow-up for mortality of a cohort of workers in a chromium and nickel plating plant, where an excess of lung cancers was already identified. 10 years after the first study about cancer mortality in a cohort of workers involved in the chromium thin-layer plating, published in 2006, we updated the evaluation of themortality of a cohort ofworkers employed in the same chromiumthin-layer plating factory with at least 6 months of work between 1968 and 1994.The mortality rates are compared with those of the Italian and Veneto Region (Northern Italy) populations.The dose-response relationship between work duration and lung cancer is assessed by adjusted Poisson regression. 127 unskilled or skilled workers involved in the production process. in the updated follow-up, 35 deaths occurred among the subjects under study: 19 for cancer (of which 11 for lung cancer and 3 for pancreatic cancer). A marked excess ofmortality due to lung cancer is observed. In addition, the newfollowup shows a significant excess of pancreatic cancer mortality. Lung cancer mortality is positively associated with work duration and the risk increases by 13%(95%CI 1-26) for each additional year of work. the extension of followup confirms that this cohort expresses an increased mortality from cancer deaths, due to a marked excess of lung and pancreatic cancers. The effect of smoking has only a secondary effect in the cancer onset expressed by this cohort. The risk of lung cancer increased with work duration and thus with occupational exposure to chromium and nickel.

  3. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaohu [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Li, Xiaojun, E-mail: beerli@vip.sina.com [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  4. Investigation on impact resistance of steel plate reinforced concrete barriers against aircraft impact. Pt.3: Analyses of full-scale aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Mizuno; Norihide Koshika; Eiichi Tanaka; Atsushi Suzuki; Yoshinori Mihara; Isao Nishimura

    2005-01-01

    Steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) walls and slabs are structural members in which the rebars of reinforced concrete are replaced by steel plates. Steel plate reinforced concrete structures are more attractive structural design alternatives to reinforced concrete structures, especially with thick, heavily reinforced walls and slabs such as nuclear structures, because they enable a much shorter construction period, greater earthquake resistant and more cost effectiveness. Experimental and analytical studies performed by the authors have also shown that SC structures are much more effective in mitigating damage against scaled aircraft models , as described in Parts 1 and 2 of this study. The objective of Part 3 was to determine the protective capability of SC walls and roofs against a full-scale aircraft impact by conducting numerical experiments to investigate the fracture behaviors and limit thicknesses of SC panels and to examine the effectiveness of SC panels in detail under design conditions. Furthermore, a simplified method is proposed for evaluating the localized damage induced by a full-scale engine impact. (authors)

  5. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaohu; Li, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  6. The annal of british RPV steel plates for first nuclear power station in Japan (1). Unforseen accidents araised before nuclear power plant open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    This article described the author's experiences of reactor vessel steel plates for the first nuclear power station, Tokai-mura reactor. The station is an advanced Calder Hall type. The electrical output is 166 MWe. The reactor vessel was spherical with internal diameter of 189 cm and wall thickness of 83 mm. Material was a fine-grain, aluminum-killed steel. Each part of pressure vessel, bottom cap, belt 1, 2, 3, 4 and top cap, were prefabricated with welding of plates, then lifted into the reactor building and assembled with welding. Steel plates were imported from UK, press formed to spherical segments in Japan and transferred to the site. Ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle testing of groove face (crack detection), sizing of groove and sulfur print tests were performed as an on-site acceptance testing. Inclusions and lamination openings were observed at groove faces due to gas flame cutting. White spot was observed at rupture face of tensile test specimen. At the liquid penetration testing after back gauging of extra seam, a crack-like indication with length of less than 3 mm was observed. Reexamination of groove face by magnetic particles testing showed indications of inclusion cloud or alumina cloud. These would be cracks caused by hydrogen embrittlement. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Influence of specimen thickness on the fatigue behavior of notched steel plates subjected to laser shock peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Alejo, V.; Rubio-González, C.; Vázquez-Jiménez, C. A.; Banderas, J. A.; Gómez-Rosas, G.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of specimen thickness on the fatigue crack initiation of 2205 duplex stainless steel notched specimens subjected to laser shock peening (LSP) was investigated. The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of LSP on flat components with different thicknesses. For the LSP treatment a Nd:YAG pulsed laser operating at 10 Hz with 1064 nm of wavelength was used; pulse density was 2500 pulses/cm2. The LSP setup was the waterjet arrangement without sample coating. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth was determined by the hole drilling method. Notched specimens 2, 3 and 4 mm thick were LSP treated on both faces and then fatigue loading was applied with R = 0.1. Experimental fatigue lives were compared with life predictions from finite element simulation. A good comparison of the predicted and experimental fatigue lives was observed. LSP finite element simulation helps in explaining the influence of thickness on fatigue lives in terms of equivalent plastic strain distribution variations associated with the change in thickness. It is demonstrated that specimen size effect is an important issue in applying LSP on real components. Reducing the specimen thickness, the fatigue life improvement induced by LSP is significantly increased. Fatigue life extension up to 300% is observed on thin specimens with LSP.

  8. Biharmonic split ring resonator metamaterial: Artificially dispersive effective density in thin periodically perforated plates

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    We present in this paper a theoretical and numerical analysis of bending waves localized on the boundary of a platonic crystal whose building blocks are Split Ring Resonators (SRR). We first derive the homogenized parameters of the structured plate using a three-scale asymptotic expansion in the linearized biharmonic equation. In the limit when the wavelength of the bending wave is much larger than the typical heterogeneity size of the platonic crystal, we show that it behaves as an artificial plate with an anisotropic effective Young modulus and a dispersive effective mass density. We then analyze dispersion diagrams associated with bending waves propagating within an infinite array of SRR, for which eigen-solutions are sought in the form of Floquet-Bloch waves. We finally demonstrate that this structure displays the hallmarks of All-Angle Negative Refraction (AANR) and it leads to superlensing and ultrarefraction effects, interpreted thanks to our homogenization model as a consequence of negative and vanishing effective density, respectively. © EPLA, 2014.

  9. Biharmonic split ring resonator metamaterial: Artificially dispersive effective density in thin periodically perforated plates

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sé bastien

    2014-01-01

    We present in this paper a theoretical and numerical analysis of bending waves localized on the boundary of a platonic crystal whose building blocks are Split Ring Resonators (SRR). We first derive the homogenized parameters of the structured plate using a three-scale asymptotic expansion in the linearized biharmonic equation. In the limit when the wavelength of the bending wave is much larger than the typical heterogeneity size of the platonic crystal, we show that it behaves as an artificial plate with an anisotropic effective Young modulus and a dispersive effective mass density. We then analyze dispersion diagrams associated with bending waves propagating within an infinite array of SRR, for which eigen-solutions are sought in the form of Floquet-Bloch waves. We finally demonstrate that this structure displays the hallmarks of All-Angle Negative Refraction (AANR) and it leads to superlensing and ultrarefraction effects, interpreted thanks to our homogenization model as a consequence of negative and vanishing effective density, respectively. © EPLA, 2014.

  10. Improvement of the Surface Hardness of Stainless Steel with the TitaniumCarbonitride Ti(CN) Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus-Purwadi; Tri-Mardji Atmono; Widdi-Usada; Lely-Susita; Yunanto

    2000-01-01

    Fabrication of the T i (CN) thin films with methods of implantation and RFsputtering for improving the surfaces hardness of stainless steel (SS) hasbeen done. Some kinds of T i C thin films which made individually by varyingof RF sputtering power from 0 up to 160 watt are implanted by the nitrogenion beams on the doses and energy ion optimum of 6.107 x 10 17 ion/cm 2 and100 keV, also fabrication of T i (CN) thin films use RF sputtering method withT i target and reaction gases as argon, silene and nitrogen on the optimum ofsputtering parameter condition. The thin films yields are characterized byusing Microhardness Tester MX 170, obtained SS hardness which layered T i (CN)as 402.5 KHN from its initial of 215.54 KHN and 371.74 KHN (layered T i C), itmeans that the SS surface hardness improve 1.867 times cumulatively. From theX-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis yield showed that the microstructure ofT i (CN) films on the SS substrates are dominated by characteristic cubiccrystal structure with Miller plane orientation (111) on the scattering angleof 2 θ = 44 o . Morphology visualization of T i (CN) thin films crosssection on the SS substrate is realized by Spectroscopy Electron Microscope(SEM). (author)

  11. Band structure analysis of a thin plate with periodic arrangements of slender beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Ó.; Zaera, R.; Fernández-Sáez, J.

    2018-04-01

    This work analyzes the wave propagation in structures composed of a periodic arrangement of vertical beams rigidly joined to a plate substrate. Three different configurations for the distribution of the beams have been analyzed: square, triangular, and hexagonal. A dimensional analysis of the problem indicates the presence of three dimensionless groups of parameters controlling the response of the system. The main features of the wave propagation have been found using numerical procedures based on the Finite Element Method, through the application of the Bloch's theorem for the corresponding primitive unit cells. Illustrative examples of the effect of the different dimensionless parameters on the dynamic behavior of the system are presented, providing information relevant for design.

  12. Thin resolver using the easy magnetization axis of the grain-oriented silicon steel as an angle indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisho Oshino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new type of thin resolver is presented, in which the easy axis of the magnetic anisotropy in the grain-oriented silicon steel is used as an angle indicator. The total thickness including a rotor, PCB coils and a back yoke can be made less than 4 mm. With a rotor of 50 mm diameter, a good linear response (non-linearity error < 0.4% between the mechanical angle input and the electrical angle output has been obtained. The influence of a weak magnetic anisotropy in the non-grain-oriented silicon steel used for the back yoke on the accuracy of the resolver can be deleted by the method proposed in this paper.

  13. Experimental study comparing the behaviour of steel truss plates and birch plywood inserts in ridge joints on glued laminated rafters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gayarre, F.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on an analysis of the mechanical performance of two flat joining systems used in roof members made of glued laminated timber.Six pairs of laminated timber rafters for a double-pitched roof with a 100x180-mm cross-section, a 6.00-m span and a height of 1.00 m were subjected to full-scale four-point bending. In three of the specimens the rafters were joined at the ridge with a birch plywood insert, while in the other three the connection was secured with a fitting consisting in a standard flat steel truss plate. The objective pursued was to evaluate the possibility of replacing the steel fittings with birch plywood inserts. The approach adopted to reach this objective was to compare the strength of the two joint pieces and the deformation generated in the overall structure during strength tests.The results proved to be highly satisfactory in terms of both the bearing capacity and the stiffness of the structures tested.El presente trabajo tiene por objeto llevar a cabo un análisis experimental del comportamiento mecánico de ciertos sistemas planos de unión para elementos estructurales de madera laminada empleados en la construcción de cubiertas.El estudio incluye los ensayos a escala real de seis din-teles a dos aguas de madera laminada, de 6 m de luz, 1 m de altura y una sección de 100 mm x 180 mm, sometidos a flexión en cuatro puntos. En tres dinteles el elemento de unión es una pieza de tablero contra-chapado de abedul, mientras que en los otros tres se ha utilizado un herraje de acero. La finalidad es valorar la posibilidad de sustituir los elementos de unión, realizados mediante herrajes, por otros constituidos por piezas de tablero contrachapado de abedul. Este objetivo se logra comparando el comportamiento resistente mostrado por ambos dispositivos de unión, y las deformaciones en cada caso de las estructuras completas.Los resultados resultaron muy satisfactorios tanto en la capacidad portante como en la

  14. Anticorrosion Coating of Carbon Nanotube/Polytetrafluoroethylene Composite Film on the Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Show

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite film of carbon nanotube (CNT and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE was formed from dispersion fluids of CNT and PTFE. The composite film showed high electrical conductivity in the range of 0.1–13 S/cm and hydrophobic nature. This composite film was applied to stainless steel (SS bipolar plates of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC as anticorrosion film. This coating decreased the contact resistance between the surface of the bipolar plate and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA of the PEMFC. The output power of the fuel cell is increased by 1.6 times because the decrease in the contact resistance decreases the series resistance of the PEMFC. Moreover, the coating of this composite film protects the bipolar plate from the surface corrosion.

  15. Computational simulation of the microstructure of irradiation damaged regions for the plate type fuel of UO2 microspheres dispersed in stainless steel matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, S.C. dos; Lage, A.F.; Braga, D.; Ferraz, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Plate type fuel elements have high efficiency of thermal transference what benefits the heat flux with high rates of power output. In reactor cores, fuel elements, in general, are subject to a high neutrons flux, high working temperatures, severe corrosion conditions, direct interference of fission products that result from nuclear reactions and radiation interaction-matter. For plate type fuels composed of ceramic particles dispersed in metallic matrix, one can observe the damage regions that arise due to the interaction fission products in the metallic matrix. Aiming at evaluating the extension of the damage regions in function of the particles and its diameters, in this paper, computational geometric simulations structure of plate type fuel cores, composed of UO 2 microspheres dispersed in stainless steel in several fractions of volume and diameters were carried out. The results of the simulations were exported to AutoCAD R where it was possible its visualization and analysis. (author)

  16. Microstructure and mechanical performance of depositing CuSi3 Cu alloy onto 30CrMnSi steel plate by the novel consumable and non-consumable electrodes indirect arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Jian; Feng, Jicai

    2010-01-01

    A novel consumable and non-consumable electrodes indirect arc welding (CNC-IAW) with low heat input was successfully applied in depositing CuSi 3 Cu alloy onto 30CrMnSi steel plate. The indirect arc was generated between the consumable and non-consumable welding torch. The microstructure of the deposited weld was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). The results showed that the dilution ratio of the bead-on-plate weld was controlled no higher than 5% and the deleterious iron picking up was effectively restrained. The deposited metal mainly consisted of ε-Cu solid solution and a small amount of Fe 2 Si phase. In the interfacial zone between the deposited metal and base metal, the thickness of the zone changed from thick to thin and the microstructure changed from complex to simple from the middle to both sides. In the middle of the interfacial zone, the microstructure presented three sub-layers consisting of Fe 3 Si (L)/Fe 3 Si (S) + ε-Cu/α-Fe. In the both sides of the interfacial zone, the microstructure presented single α-Fe layer. The formation mechanism of the interfacial zone could be successfully explained by the formation of the Fe liquid-solid phase zone adjacent to the Fe base metal and the interfusion between Fe and Si. The average compressive shear strength reached 321 MPa and its fracture morphology mainly belonged to ductile fracture.

  17. Electron pulsed beam induced processing of thin film surface by Nb3Ge deposited into a stainless steel tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, I.; Korenev, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    A surface of superconductive thin film of Nb 3 Ge deposited onto a stainless steel tape was processed using the electron beam technique. The electron beam used had the following parameters: beam current density from 400 to 1000 A/cm 2 ; beam energy 100 keV; beam impulse length 300 ns. By theoretical analysis it is shown that the heating of film surface is an adiabatic process. It corresponds to our experimental data and pictures showing a surface remelting due to electron beam influence. After beam processing the superconductive parameters of the film remain unchanged. Roentgenograms have been analysed of Nb 3 Ge film surface recrystallized due to electron beam influence

  18. An experimental study on the flexural and shear behavior of steel plate concrete—reinforced concrete connected structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K.M.; Lee, K.J.; Yang, H.J.; Kim, W.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper confirmed the structural behavior of the connection plane between a RC and a SC member. ► Out-of-plane flexural load tests verified the appropriateness of the ductile non-contact splice length. ► The test results for the in-plane shear load showed the needlessness of horizontal bars in the SC member. ► In order to consider dynamic loads such as earthquakes, cyclic loading tests were carried out. ► Numerical analysis was carried out to verify test results and its results was compared with them. -- Abstract: This paper describes an experimental study on the structural behavior of the joint plane between a RC (reinforced concrete) wall and a SC (steel plate concrete) wall under out-of-plane flexural loads and in-plane shear loads. L- and I-shaped test specimens were produced to efficiently assess the flexural and shear behavior of the structures. In order to consider dynamic loads such as earthquakes, cyclic loading tests were carried out. The out-of-plane flexural test conducted on the short development length L-shaped specimen with a non-contact splice length exhibited a ductile failure mode that surpassed the nominal strength, verifying the validity of the splice length used in its design. The in-plane shear test was conducted on two I-shaped specimens varying the compositional presence of horizontal bars in the SC member. The test results showed that the capacity of the specimens was more than their nominal strength regardless of the compositional presence of horizontal bars. The shear friction tests of the RC–SC member connection conducted on the other L-shaped specimen caused the failure of the SC member and verified a shear resistance of at least 85.5% compared to the theoretical value

  19. Review of corrosion phenomena on zirconium alloys, niobium, titanium, inconel, stainless steel, and nickel plate under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The role of nuclear fluxes in corrosion processes was investigated in ATR, ETR, PRTR, and in Hanford production reactors. Major effort was directed to zirconium alloy corrosion parameter studies. Corrosion and hydriding results are reported as a function of oxygen concentration in the coolant, flux level, alloy composition, surface pretreatment, and metallurgical condition. Localized corrosion and hydriding at sites of bonding to dissimilar metals are described. Corrosion behavior on specimens transferred from oxygenated to low-oxygen coolants in ETR and ATR experiments is compared. Mechanism studies suggest that a depression in the corrosion of the Zr--2.5Nb alloy under irradiation is due to radiation-induced aging. The radiation-induced onset of transition on several alloys is in general a gradual process which nucleates locally, causing areas of oxide prosity which eventually encompass the surface. Examination of Zry-2 process tubes reveals that accelerated corrosion has occurred in low-oxygen coolants. Hydrogen contents are relatively low, but show some localized profiles. Gross hydriding has occurred on process tubes containing aluminum spacers, apparently by a galvanic charging mechanism. Titanium paralleled Zry-2 in corrosion behavior under irradiation. Niobium corrosion was variable, but did not appear to be strongly influenced by radiation. Corrosion rates on Inconel and stainless steel were only slightly higher in-flux than out-of-reactor. Corrosion rates on nickel-plated aluminum appeared to vary substantially with preexposure treatments, but the rates generally were accelerated compared to rates on unirradiated coupons. (59 references, 11 tables, 12 figs.)

  20. Characterization of interference thin films grown on stainless steel surface by alternate pulse current in a sulphochromic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Rabelo Junqueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize thin interference films grown on the surface of AISI 304 stainless steel for decorative purposes. Films were grown in a sulphochromic solution at room temperature by an alternating pulse current method. The morphology and chemical state of the elements in the films were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES, and infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR. Depth-sensing indentation (DSI experiments and wear abrasion tests were employed to assess the mechanical resistance of the films. The coloration process resulted in porous thin films which increased the surface roughness of the substrate. The interference films mainly consisted of hydrated chromium oxide containing iron. Increasing film thickness produced different colors and affected the mechanical properties of the coating-substrate system. Thicker films, such as those producing gold and green colors, were softer but more abrasion resistant.

  1. Simulation of shear plugging through thin plates using the GRIM Eulerian hydrocode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, P.; Cornish, R.; Cullis, I.; Lynch, N.

    2000-03-01

    Ballistic experiments have been performed using aluminum spheres against 10-mm rolled homogenous armour (RHA), MARS270, MARS300, and titanium alloy plates to investigate the influence of the plugging mechanism on material properties. The experiments have measured the threshold for plug mass and velocity as well as the recovered aluminum sphere mass over a range of velocities. Some of the experiments have been simulated using the in-house second generation Eulerian hydrocode GRIM. The calculations feature advanced material algorithms derived from interrupted tensile testing techniques and a triaxial failure model derived from notched tensile tests over a range of strain rates and temperatures. The effect of mesh resolution on the results has been investigated and understood. The simulation results illustrate the importance of the constitutive model in the shear localization process and the subsequent plugging phenomena. The stress triaxiality is seen as the dominant feature in controlling the onset and subsequent propagation of the crack leading to the shear plug. The simulations have demonstrated that accurate numerics coupled with accurate constitutive and fracture algorithms can successfully reproduce the observed experimental features. However, extrapolation of the fracture data leads to the simulations overpredicting the plug damage. The reasons for this are discussed.

  2. Comparison of high temperature wear behaviour of plasma sprayed WC–Co coated and hard chromium plated AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balamurugan, G.M.; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan; Anandakrishnan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► WC–12wt.%Co powders were deposited to a thickness of 300 μm on to steel substrates. ► The micro hardness of the above coatings was lower than that of chromium plating. ► Wear resistance of chromium coating was increased up to five times of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel. ► Wear resistance of chromium coat higher than plasma coat at different temperatures. -- Abstract: The wear behaviour of plasma sprayed coating and hard chrome plating on AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel substrate is experimentally investigated in unlubricated conditions. Experiments were conducted at different temperatures (room temp, 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C) with 50 N load and 1 m/s sliding velocity. Wear tests were carried out by dry sliding contact of EN-24 medium carbon steel pin as counterpart on a pin-on-disc wear testing machine. In both coatings, specimens were characterised by hardness, microstructure, coating density and sliding wear resistance. Wear studies showed that the hard chromium coating exhibited improved tribological performance than that of the plasma sprayed WC–Co coating. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) of the coatings showed that the better wear resistance at high temperature has been attributed to the formation of a protective oxide layer at the surface during sliding. The wear mechanisms were investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XRD. It was observed that the chromium coating provided higher hardness, good adhesion with the substrate and nearly five times the wear resistance than that obtained by uncoated AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel.

  3. Biaxial Loading Tests for steel containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, T. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Wright, D.J.; Arai, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has conducted a 1/10 scale of the steel containment vessel (SCV) test for the understanding of ultimate structural behavior beyond the design pressure condition. Biaxial Loading Tests were supporting tests for the 1/10 scale SCV model to evaluate the method of estimating failure conditions of thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions. The tentative material models of SGV480 and SPV490 were obtained. And the behavior of SGV480 and SPV490 thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions could be well simulated by FE-Analyses with the tentative material models and Mises constitutive law. This paper describes the results and the evaluations of these tests. (author)

  4. Biaxial Loading Tests for steel containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, T.; Wright, D.J.; Arai, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has conducted a 1/10 scale of the steel containment vessel (SCV) test for the understanding of ultimate structural behavior beyond the design pressure condition. Biaxial Loading Tests were supporting tests for the 1/10 scale SCV model to evaluate the method of estimating failure conditions of thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions. The tentative material models of SGV480 and SPV490 were obtained. And the behavior of SGV480 and SPV490 thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions could be well simulated by FE-Analyses with the tentative material models and Mises constitutive law. This paper describes the results and the evaluations of these tests. (author)

  5. Photoacoustic signal and noise analysis for Si thin plate: signal correction in frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markushev, D D; Rabasović, M D; Todorović, D M; Galović, S; Bialkowski, S E

    2015-03-01

    Methods for photoacoustic signal measurement, rectification, and analysis for 85 μm thin Si samples in the 20-20 000 Hz modulation frequency range are presented. Methods for frequency-dependent amplitude and phase signal rectification in the presence of coherent and incoherent noise as well as distortion due to microphone characteristics are presented. Signal correction is accomplished using inverse system response functions deduced by comparing real to ideal signals for a sample with well-known bulk parameters and dimensions. The system response is a piece-wise construction, each component being due to a particular effect of the measurement system. Heat transfer and elastic effects are modeled using standard Rosencweig-Gersho and elastic-bending theories. Thermal diffusion, thermoelastic, and plasmaelastic signal components are calculated and compared to measurements. The differences between theory and experiment are used to detect and correct signal distortion and to determine detector and sound-card characteristics. Corrected signal analysis is found to faithfully reflect known sample parameters.

  6. Advancements in ion beam figuring of very thin glass plates (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Hołyszko, J.; Vecchi, G.; Basso, S.; Cotroneo, V.; DeRoo, C. T.; Schwartz, E. D.; Reid, P. B.

    2017-09-01

    The high-quality surface characteristics, both in terms of figure error and of micro-roughness, required on the mirrors of a high angular resolution x-ray telescope are challenging, but in principle well suited with a deterministic and non-contact process like the ion beam figuring. This process has been recently proven to be compatible even with very thin (thickness around 0.4mm) sheet of glasses (like D263 and Eagle). In the last decade, these types of glass have been investigated as substrates for hot slumping, with residual figure errors of hundreds of nanometres. In this view, the mirrors segments fabrication could be envisaged as a simple two phases process: a first replica step based on hot slumping (direct/indirect) followed by an ion beam figuring which can be considered as a post-fabrication correction method. The first ion beam figuring trials, realized on flat samples, showed that the micro-roughness is not damaged but a deeper analysis is necessary to characterize and eventually control/compensate the glass shape variations. In this paper, we present the advancements in the process definition, both on flat and slumped glass samples.

  7. Nitride and carbide thin films as hydrogen permeation barrier on Manet steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamati, G.; Checchetto, R.; Bonelli, M.; Gratton, L.M.; Guzman, L.; Miotello, A.; Terlain, A.

    1995-01-01

    TiC / TiN bilayers, ∼ 1.2 μm thick, were deposited on Manet II steel by the ion beam assisted deposition technique to investigate the possible use of this ceramic coating as hydrogen barrier. Hydrogen permeation experiments in the temperature range 470-570 K showed indeed that this coating is a very efficient barrier to the hydrogen permeation being able to reduce the hydrogen flux up to two order of magnitude with respect to the uncoated steel. Preliminary compatibility tests between coated Manet II and Pb-17Li showed no attack of Pb-17Li to the steel. (orig.)

  8. Nitride and carbide thin films as hydrogen permeation barrier on MANET steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamati, G.

    1994-01-01

    TiC/TiN bilayers, - 1.2 μm thick, were deposited on Manet II steel by the ion beam assisted deposition technique to investigate the possible use of this ceramic coating as hydrogen barrier. Hydrogen permeation experiments in the temperature range 470-570 K showed indeed that this coating is a very efficient barrier to the hydrogen permeation being able to reduce the hydrogen flux up to two order of magnitude with respect to the uncoated steel. Preliminary compatibility tests between coated Manet II and Pb-17Li showed no attack of Pb-17Li to the steel. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Design of a thin-plate based tunable high-quality narrow passband filter for elastic transverse waves propagate in metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For the elastic SV (transverse waves in metals, a high-quality narrow passband filter that consists of aligned parallel thin plates with small gaps is designed. In order to obtain a good performance, the thin plates should be constituted by materials with a smaller mass density and Young’s modulus, such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, compared to the embedded materials in which the elastic SV waves propagate. Both the theoretical model and the full numerical simulation show that the transmission spectrum of the designed filter demonstrates several peaks with flawless transmission within 0 KHz ∼20 KHz frequency range. The peaks can be readily tuned by manipulating the geometrical parameters of the plates. Therefore, the current design works well for both low and high frequencies with a controllable size. Even for low frequencies on the order of kilohertz, the size of this filter can be still limited to the order of centimeters, which significantly benefits the real applications. The investigation also finds that the same filter is valid when using different metals and the reason behind this is explained theoretically. Additionally, the effect of bonding conditions of interfaces between thin plates and the base material is investigated using a spring model.

  10. Design of a thin-plate based tunable high-quality narrow passband filter for elastic transverse waves propagate in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zeng, L. H.; Hu, C. L.; Yan, W. S.; Pennec, Yan; Hu, N.

    2018-03-01

    For the elastic SV (transverse) waves in metals, a high-quality narrow passband filter that consists of aligned parallel thin plates with small gaps is designed. In order to obtain a good performance, the thin plates should be constituted by materials with a smaller mass density and Young's modulus, such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), compared to the embedded materials in which the elastic SV waves propagate. Both the theoretical model and the full numerical simulation show that the transmission spectrum of the designed filter demonstrates several peaks with flawless transmission within 0 KHz ˜20 KHz frequency range. The peaks can be readily tuned by manipulating the geometrical parameters of the plates. Therefore, the current design works well for both low and high frequencies with a controllable size. Even for low frequencies on the order of kilohertz, the size of this filter can be still limited to the order of centimeters, which significantly benefits the real applications. The investigation also finds that the same filter is valid when using different metals and the reason behind this is explained theoretically. Additionally, the effect of bonding conditions of interfaces between thin plates and the base material is investigated using a spring model.

  11. Required grades of hull steel plates in consideration of fracture toughness; Hakai jinsei wo koryoshita sentaiyo koban shiyo kubun ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, H; Yamamoto, M; Ogaki, Y [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the required grades of hull steel plates based on the steel ship rule of Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NK). The minimum value of the allowable crack length in NK rule (critical safety crack length at 0degC just before brittle unstable crack causing fatal fracture) was estimated. In the case where the estimated crack tip exists in a matrix, the crack length was a minimum of 200-210mm, while nearly 60mm in a fusion line at high-heat-input welded joint. The allowable crack lengths estimated from a specified value in the NK rule were fairly different. The allowable crack length at 0degC was also estimated from the minimum value in V-notch Charpy impact test. The private proposal on the required grades of hull steel plates in consideration of fracture toughness was discussed. Thirty-five percent of crack lengths found in real ships is 100mm or less, however, cracks of 250-400mm long are frequently found suggesting the allowable crack length of 400mm. The required grade integrally considering required values and design conditions is demanded to secure the reliability of hull strength. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Measurements of Residual Stresses In Cold-Rolled 304 Stainless Steel Plates Using X-Ray Diffraction with Rietveld Refinement Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Killen, P; Rafterry, A.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of the residual stresses using X-ray powder diffraction in a series of cold-rolled 304 stainless steel plates, deforming 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175 and 196 % reduction in thickness has been carried out. The diffraction data were analyzed using the Rietveld structure refinement method. The analysis shows that for all specimens, the martensite particles are closely in compression and the austenite matrix is in tension. Both the martensite and austenite, for a sample reducing 34% in thickness (containing of about 1% martensite phase) the average lattice strains are anisotropic and decrease approximately exponential with an increase in the corresponding percent reduction (essentially phase content). It is shown that this feature can be qualitatively understood by taking into consideration the thermal expansion mismatch between the martensite and austenite grains. Also, for all cold-rolled stainless steel specimens, the diffraction peaks are broader than the unrolled one (instrumental resolution), indicating that the strains in these specimens are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was predicted. The average residual stresses in cold-rolled 304 stainless steel plates showed a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of the martensite particles and the austenite matrix. (author)

  13. Low upper-shelf toughness, high transition temperature test insert in HSST [Heavy Section Steel Technology] PTSE-2 [Pressurized Thermal Shock Experiment-2] vessel and wide plate test specimens: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domian, H.A.

    1987-02-01

    A piece of A387, Grade 22 Class 2 (2-1/4 Cr - 1 Mo) steel plate specially heat treated to produce low upper-shelf (LUS) toughness and high transition temperature was installed in the side wall of Heavy Section Steel Technology (HHST) vessel V-8. This vessel is to be tested by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the Pressurized Thermal Shock Experiment-2 (PTSE-2) project of the HSST program. Comparable pieces of the plate were made into six wide plate specimens and other samples. These samples underwent tensile tests, Charpy tests, and J-integral tests. The results of these tests are given in this report

  14. Morphology and Precipitation Kinetics of MnS in Low-Carbon Steel During Thin Slab Continuous Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hao; KANG Yong-lin; ZHAO Zheng-zhi; SUN Hao

    2006-01-01

    The morphology of manganese sulfide formed during thin slab continuous casting process in low-carbon steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) technique was investigated. Using transmission electron microscopy analysis, it was seen that a majority of manganese sulfides precipitated at austenite grain boundaries, the morphologies of which were spherical or close to the spherical shape and the size of MnS precipitates ranged from 30 nm to 100 nm. A mathematical model of the manganese sulfide precipitation in this process was developed based on classical nucleation theory. Under the given conditions, the starting and finishing precipitation temperatures of MnS in the continuous casting thin slab of the studied low-carbon steel are 1 189 ℃ and 1 171 ℃, respectively, and the average diameter of MnS precipitates is about 48 nm within this precipitation temperature range. The influences of chemical components and thermo-mechanical processing conditions on the precipitation behavior of MnS in the same process were also discussed.

  15. Design of welding parameters for laser welding of thin-walled stainless steel tubes using numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, M.; Behúlová, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the laser technology is used in a wide spectrum of applications, especially in engineering, electronics, medicine, automotive, aeronautic or military industries. In the field of mechanical engineering, the laser technology reaches the biggest increase in the automotive industry, mainly due to the introduction of automation utilizing 5-axial movements. Modelling and numerical simulation of laser welding processes has been exploited with many advantages for the investigation of physical principles and complex phenomena connected with this joining technology. The paper is focused on the application of numerical simulation to the design of welding parameters for the circumferential laser welding of thin-walled exhaust pipes from theAISI 304 steel for automotive industry. Using the developed and experimentally verified simulation model for laser welding of tubes, the influence of welding parameters including the laser velocity from 30 mm.s-1 to 60 mm.s-1 and the laser power from 500 W to 1200 W on the temperature fields and dimensions of fusion zone was investigated using the program code ANSYS. Based on obtained results, the welding schedule for the laser beam welding of thin-walled tubes from the AISI 304 steel was suggested.

  16. Galvanic corrosion study of aluminium alloy plates mounted to stainless and mild steel bolts by accelerated exposure test

    OpenAIRE

    MREMA, Emmanuel; ITOH, Yoshito; KANEKO, Akira; HIROHATA, Mikihito

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that aluminium alloy members have a proven durability over stainless steel members, their joint fasteners like bolts, nuts and washers are drawn from steel material due to aluminium alloy inferior mechanical properties. Bare contact between aluminium alloy members and stainless steel fasteners results to galvanic corrosion of aluminium alloy members. A corrosion behaviour study was carried out on different aluminium alloy types with different surface treatments mounted to sta...

  17. Effects of Cold Rolling Reduction and Initial Goss Grains Orientation on Texture Evolution and Magnetic Performance of Ultra-thin Grain-oriented Silicon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Rui-yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel strips with a thickness of 0.06-0.12mm were produced by one-step-rolling methods with different Goss-orientation of grain-oriented silicon steel sheets. The effect of cold rolling reduction and initial Goss-orientation of samples on texture evolution and magnetic performance of ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel strips was studied by EBSD. The result shows that with the increase of cold rolling reduction and decrease of strips thickness, the recrystallization texture is enhanced after annealing.When the cold rolling reduction is 70%,RD//〈001〉 recrystallization texture is the sharpest, and the magnetic performance is the best. The higher degree of Goss orientation in initial sample is, the better magnetic performance of ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel.Therefore, for producing an ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel with high performance, a material with a concentrated orientation of Goss grains can be used.

  18. An assessment of Raman spectroscopy to detect iodine deposited on thin oxide films formed on Type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Tyler, J.W.

    1989-04-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most important volatile fission product elements with respect to radiobiological impact, and the characterisation of its chemical state and distribution on reactor surfaces is required for reactor safety assessments. To this end, duplicate samples of Type 316 (17%Cr/12%Ni) stainless steel oxidised in Co 2 /CH 3 I gas mixtures and previously characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been examined using Raman spectroscopy. The aim is to improve our understanding of the way in which iodine is distributed throughout the oxide scale and to identify its chemical state. In this report we present Raman spectra recorded from a series of stainless steel specimens together with spectra recorded from a number of standard iodine compounds. It is demonstrated that the technique is well suited as a fingerprint method of species identification, can differentiate between the chemical state of iodine as iodide and iodate and can analyse thin oxide films (5-50 nm). Identification of iodine deposits in these oxide films at concentrations of ≤1 At% was not achieved however, there being insufficient iodine present to distinguish any peaks present from the background signal. It is concluded that local concentrations of iodine in oxide inclusions of different composition/morphology on the steel surface does not occur to any extent. (author)

  19. The Effect of Nb on the Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Ultra-Thin Strip CASTRIP© Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Carpenter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nb on the hardenability of ultra-thin cast strip (UCS steels produced via the unique regime of rapid solidification, large austenite grain size, and inclusion engineering of the CASTRIP© process was investigated. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams were constructed for 0, 0.014, 0.024, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 wt% Nb containing UCS steels. Phase nomenclature for the identification of lower transformation product in low carbon steels was reviewed. Even a small addition of 0.014 wt% Nb showed a potent effect on hardenability, shifting the ferrite C-curve to the right and expanding the bainitic ferrite and acicular ferrite phase fields. Higher Nb additions increased hardenability further, suppressed the formation of ferrite to even lower cooling rates, progressively lowered the transformation start and finish temperatures and promoted the transformation of bainite instead of acicular ferrite. The latter was due to Nb suppressing the formation of allotriomorphic ferrite and allowing bainite to nucleate at prior austenite grain boundaries, a lower energy site than that for the intragranular nucleation of acicular ferrite at inclusions. Strength and hardness increased with increasing Nb additions, largely due to microstructural strengthening and solid solution hardening, but not from precipitation hardening.

  20. TPS-HAMMER: improving HAMMER registration algorithm by soft correspondence matching and thin-plate splines based deformation interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Yap, Pew-Thian; Kim, Minjeong; Shen, Dinggang

    2010-02-01

    We present an improved MR brain image registration algorithm, called TPS-HAMMER, which is based on the concepts of attribute vectors and hierarchical landmark selection scheme proposed in the highly successful HAMMER registration algorithm. We demonstrate that TPS-HAMMER algorithm yields better registration accuracy, robustness, and speed over HAMMER owing to (1) the employment of soft correspondence matching and (2) the utilization of thin-plate splines (TPS) for sparse-to-dense deformation field generation. These two aspects can be integrated into a unified framework to refine the registration iteratively by alternating between soft correspondence matching and dense deformation field estimation. Compared with HAMMER, TPS-HAMMER affords several advantages: (1) unlike the Gaussian propagation mechanism employed in HAMMER, which can be slow and often leaves unreached blotches in the deformation field, the deformation interpolation in the non-landmark points can be obtained immediately with TPS in our algorithm; (2) the smoothness of deformation field is preserved due to the nice properties of TPS; (3) possible misalignments can be alleviated by allowing the matching of the landmarks with a number of possible candidate points and enforcing more exact matches in the final stages of the registration. Extensive experiments have been conducted, using the original HAMMER as a comparison baseline, to validate the merits of TPS-HAMMER. The results show that TPS-HAMMER yields significant improvement in both accuracy and speed, indicating high applicability for the clinical scenario. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.