WorldWideScience

Sample records for thin silicon solar

  1. Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Beaucarne

    2007-01-01

    with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. In spite of the fundamental limitation of this material due to its disorder and metastability, the technology is now gaining industrial momentum thanks to the entry of equipment manufacturers with experience with large-area PECVD. Microcrystalline Si (also called nanocrystalline Si is a material with crystallites in the nanometer range in an amorphous matrix, and which contains less defects than amorphous silicon. Its lower bandgap makes it particularly appropriate as active material for the bottom cell in tandem and triple junction devices. The combination of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline bottom cell has yielded promising results, but much work is needed to implement it on large-area and to limit light-induced degradation. Finally thin-film polysilicon solar cells, with grain size in the micrometer range, has recently emerged as an alternative photovoltaic technology. The layers have a grain size ranging from 1 μm to several tens of microns, and are formed at a temperature ranging from 600 to more than 1000∘C. Solid Phase Crystallization has yielded the best results so far but there has recently been fast progress with seed layer approaches, particularly those using the aluminum-induced crystallization technique.

  2. Light management in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isabella, O.

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy can fulfil mankind’s energy needs and secure a more balanced distribution of primary sources of energy. Wafer-based and thin-film silicon solar cells dominate todays’ photovoltaic market because silicon is a non-toxic and abundant material and high conversion efficiencies are achieved

  3. Advantages of thin silicon solar cells for use in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A system definition study on the Solar Power Satellite System showed that a thin, 50 micrometers, silicon solar cell has significant advantages. The advantages include a significantly lower performance degradation in a radiation environment and high power-to-mass ratios. The advantages of such cells for an employment in space is further investigated. Basic questions concerning the operation of solar cells are considered along with aspects of radiation induced performance degradation. The question arose in this connection how thin a silicon solar cell had to be to achieve resistance to radiation degradation and still have good initial performance. It was found that single-crystal silicon solar cells could be as thin as 50 micrometers and still develop high conversion efficiencies. It is concluded that the use of 50 micrometer silicon solar cells in space-based photovoltaic power systems would be advantageous.

  4. Thin-film silicon solar cell technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, A. V.; Schade, H.; Vaněček, Milan; Meier, J.; Vallat-Sauvain, E.; Wyrsch, N.; Kroll, U.; Droz, C.; Bailat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), s. 113-142 ISSN 1062-7995 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SN/320/11/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : thin-film silicon modules * hydrogenerated amorphous silicon(a-Si:H) * hydrogenerated microcrystalline (ćc-Si:H) * transparent conductive oxydes(TCOs) * building -integrated photovoltaics(BIPV) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2004

  5. Transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löffler, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses,

  6. Solar cell fabricated on welded thin flexible silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessmann Maik Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell with an AM1.5 efficiency of 11.5% fabricated on welded 50 μm thin silicon foils. The aperture area of the cell is 1.00 cm2. The cell has an open-circuit voltage of 570 mV, a short-circuit current density of 29.9 mA cm-2 and a fill factor of 67.6%. These are the first results ever presented for solar cells on welded silicon foils. The foils were welded together in order to create the first thin flexible monocrystalline band substrate. A flexible band substrate offers the possibility to overcome the area restriction of ingot-based monocrystalline silicon wafers and the feasibility of a roll-to-roll manufacturing. In combination with an epitaxial and layer transfer process a decrease in production costs can be achieved.

  7. Thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funghnan, B. W.; Blanc, J.; Phillips, W.; Redfield, D.

    1980-08-01

    Thirty-four new solar cells were fabricated on Wacker Sislo substrates and the AM-1 parameters were measured. A detailed comparison was made between the measurement of minority carrier diffusion length by the OE method and the penetrating light laser scan grain boundary photoresponse linewidth method. The laser scan method has more experimental uncertainty and agrees within 10 to 50% with the QE method. It allows determination of L over a large area. Atomic hydrogen passivation studies continued on Wacker material by three techniques. A method of determining surface recombination velocity, s, from laser scan data was developed. No change in s in completed solar cells after H-plasma treatment was observed within experimental error. H-passivation of bare silicon cars as measured by the new laser scan photoconductivity technique showed very large effects.

  8. Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.; Liu, Y.; de Jong, M.M.; de Wild, J.; Schuttauf, J.A.; Brinza, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2009-01-01

    Texture etching of ZnO:1%Al layers using diluted HCl solution provides excellent TCOs with crater type surface features for the front contact of superstrate type of thin film silicon solar cells. The texture etched ZnO:Al definitely gives superior performance than Asahi SnO2:F TCO in case of

  9. Low cost thin film poly-silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design and develop a high density plasma based thin-film poly-silicon (TFPS) deposition system based on PQL proprietary advanced plasma technology to produce semiconductor quality TFPS for fabricating a TFPS solar cell. Details are given of the TFPS deposition system, the material development programme, solar cell structure, and cell efficiencies. The reproducibility of the deposition process and prospects for commercial exploitation are discussed.

  10. Characterization of thin-film silicon materials and solar cells through numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    At present most commercially available solar cells are made of crystalline silicon (c-Si). The disadvantages of crystalline silicon solar cells are the high material cost and energy consumption during production. A cheaper alternative can be found in thin-film silicon solar cells. The thin-film

  11. Transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, J.

    2005-04-01

    This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses, the front TCO plays an important role for the light enhancement of thin-film silicon pin type solar cells. If the TCO is rough, light scattering at rough interfaces in the solar cell in combination with a highly reflective back contact leads to an increase in optical path length of the light. Multiple (total) internal reflectance leads to virtual 'trapping' of the light in the solar cell structure, allowing a further decrease in absorber thickness and thus thin-film silicon solar cell devices with higher and more stable efficiency. Here, the optical mechanisms involved in the light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells have been studied, and two types of front TCO materials have been investigated with respect to their suitability as front TCO in thin-film silicon pin type solar cells. Undoped and aluminum doped zinc oxide layers have been fabricated for the first time by the expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition (ETP CVD) technique at substrate temperatures between 150 º C and 350 º C, and successfully implemented as a front electrode material for amorphous silicon pin superstrate type solar cells. Solar cells with efficiencies comparable to cells on Asahi U-type reference TCO have been reproducibly obtained. A higher haze is needed for the ZnO samples studied here than for Asahi U-type TCO in order to achieve comparable long wavelength response of the solar cells. This is attributed to the different angular distribution of the scattered light, showing higher scattering intensities at large angles for the Asahi U-type TCO. A barrier at the TCO/p interface and minor collection problems may explain the slightly lower fill factors obtained for the cells

  12. Light trapping effects in thin film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, FJ; Söderström, T; Dominé, D; Ballif, C

    2009-01-01

    We present advanced light trapping concepts for thin film silicon solar cells. When an amorphous and a microcrystalline absorber layers are combined into a micromorph tandem cell, light trapping becomes a challenge because it should combine the spectral region from 600 to 750 nm for the amorphous top cell and from 800 to 1100 for the microcrystalline bottom cell. Because light trapping is typically achieved by growing on textured substrates, the effect of interface textures on the material an...

  13. Silver Nanoparticle Enhanced Freestanding Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Joshua David

    As the supply of fossil fuels diminishes in quantity the demand for alternative energy sources will consistently increase. Solar cells are an environmentally friendly and proven technology that suffer in sales due to a large upfront cost. In order to help facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to photovoltaics, module costs must be reduced to prices well below $1/Watt. Thin-film solar cells are more affordable because of the reduced materials costs, but lower in efficiency because less light is absorbed before passing through the cell. Silver nanoparticles placed at the front surface of the solar cell absorb and reradiate the energy of the light in ways such that more of the light ends being captured by the silicon. Silver nanoparticles can do this because they have free electron clouds that can take on the energy of an incident photon through collective action. This bulk action of the electrons is called a plasmon. This work begins by discussing the economics driving the need for reduced material use, and the pros and cons of taking this step. Next, the fundamental theory of light-matter interaction is briefly described followed by an introduction to the study of plasmonics. Following that we discuss a traditional method of silver nanoparticle formation and the initial experimental studies of their effects on the ability of thin-film silicon to absorb light. Then, Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation software is used to simulate the effects of nanoparticle morphology and size on the scattering of light at the surface of the thin-film.

  14. High-efficient n-i-p thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we present results of the development of n-i-p thin-film silicon solar cells on randomly textured substrates, aiming for highly efficient micromorph solar cells (i.e., solar cells based on a ?c-Si:H bottom cell and a-Si:H top cell). For the efficiency of n-i-p thin-film silicon solar

  15. Boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon thin films for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, E.; Vygranenko, Y.; Vieira, M.; Sazonov, A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of boron-doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films. The films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) at a substrate temperature of 150 deg. C. Crystalline volume fraction and dark conductivity of the films were determined as a function of trimethylboron-to-silane flow ratio. Optical constants of doped and undoped nc-Si:H were obtained from transmission and reflection spectra. By employing p + nc-Si:H as a window layer combined with a p' a-SiC buffer layer, a-Si:H-based p-p'-i-n solar cells on ZnO:Al-coated glass substrates were fabricated. Device characteristics were obtained from current-voltage and spectral-response measurements.

  16. Doped nanocrystalline silicon oxide for use as (intermediate) reflecting layers in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babal, P.

    2014-01-01

    In summary, this thesis shows the development and nanostructure analysis of doped silicon oxide layers. These layers are applied in thin-film silicon single and double junction solar cells. Concepts of intermediate reflectors (IR), consisting of silicon and/or zinc oxide, are applied in tandem

  17. Laser process for extended silicon thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessmann, M.T.; Kunz, T.; Burkert, I.; Gawehns, N.; Schaefer, L.; Frick, T.; Schmidt, M.; Meidel, B.; Auer, R.; Brabec, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a large area thin film base substrate for the epitaxy of crystalline silicon. The concept of epitaxial growth of silicon on large area thin film substrates overcomes the area restrictions of an ingot based monocrystalline silicon process. Further it opens the possibility for a roll to roll process for crystalline silicon production. This concept suggests a technical pathway to overcome the limitations of silicon ingot production in terms of costs, throughput and completely prevents any sawing losses. The core idea behind these thin film substrates is a laser welding process of individual, thin silicon wafers. In this manuscript we investigate the properties of laser welded monocrystalline silicon foils (100) by micro-Raman mapping and spectroscopy. It is shown that the laser beam changes the crystalline structure of float zone grown silicon along the welding seam. This is illustrated by Raman mapping which visualizes compressive stress as well as tensile stress in a range of - 147.5 to 32.5 MPa along the welding area.

  18. Light Trapping in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Plastic Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, solar energy can fulfil a large part of the growing demand. The biggest threshold for large-scale solar energy harvesting is the solar panel price. For drastic cost reductions, roll-to-roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells using plastic

  19. Large Area Thin Film Silicon: Synergy between Displays and Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    Thin-film silicon technology has changed our society, owing to the rapid advance of its two major application fields in communication (thin-film displays) and sustainable energy (thin-film solar cells). Throughout its development, advances in these application fields have always benefitted each

  20. Quadruple-Junction Thin-Film Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, F.T.

    2017-01-01

    The direct utilization of sunlight is a critical energy source in a sustainable future. One of the options is to convert the solar energy into electricity using thin-film silicon-based solar cells (TFSSCs). Solar cells in a triple-junction configuration have exhibited the highest energy conversion

  1. Thin-film amorphous silicon germanium solar cells with p-and n-type hydrogenated silicon oxide layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, F.T.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Mixed-phase hydrogenated silicon oxide (SiOx:H) is applied to thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium (a-SiGe:H) solar cells serving as both p-doped and n-doped layers. The bandgap of p-SiOx:H is adjusted to achieve a highly-transparent window layer while also providing a strong electric

  2. A thin-film silicon/silicon hetero-junction hybrid solar cell for photoelectrochemical water-reduction applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasudevan, R.A.; Thanawala, Z; Han, L.; Buijs, Thom; Tan, H.; Deligiannis, D.; Perez Rodriguez, P.; Digdaya, I.A.; Smith, W.A.; Zeman, M.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell consisting of a thin-film, nanocrystalline silicon top junction and a siliconheterojunction bottom junction is proposed as a supporting solar cell for photoelectrochemical applications.Tunneling recombination junction engineering is shown to be an important consideration

  3. Effects of excitation intensity on the photocurrent response of thin film silicon solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Q.; Shumka, A.; Trask, J.

    1986-01-01

    Photocurrent responses of amorphous thin film silicon solar modules at room temperature were studied at different excitation intensities using various monochromatic light sources. Photocurrent imaging techniques have been effectively used to locate rapidly, and non-destructively, failure and defect sites in the multilayer thin film device. Differences observed in the photocurrent response characteristics for two different cells in the same amorphous thin film silicon solar module suggest the possibility of the formation of dissimilarly active devices, even though the module is processed in the same fabrication process. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Development of A Thin Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopori, B.; Chen, W.; Zhang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A new design for a single junction, thin film Si solar cell is presented. The cell design is compatible with low-temperature processing required for the use of a low-cost glass substrate, and includes effective light trapping and impurity gettering. Elements of essential process steps are discussed

  5. Materials and Light Management for High-Efficiency Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.

    2015-01-01

    Direct conversion of sunlight into electricity is one of the most promising approaches to provide sufficient renewable energy for humankind. Solar cells are such devices which can efficiently generate electricity from sunlight through the photovoltaic effect. Thin-film silicon solar cells, a type of

  6. Crystalline silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licai Wang

    1999-07-01

    This thesis describes the background, motivation and work carried out towards this PhD programme entitled 'Crystalline Silicon Thin Film Growth by ECR Plasma CVD for Solar Cells'. The fundamental principles of silicon solar cells are introduced with a review of silicon thin film and bulk solar cells. The development and prospects for thin film silicon solar cells are described. Some results of a modelling study on thin film single crystalline solar cells are given which has been carried out using a commercially available solar cell simulation package (PC-1D). This is followed by a description of thin film deposition techniques. These include Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Plasma-Assisted CVD (PACVD). The basic theory and technology of the emerging technique of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) PACVD, which was used in this research, are introduced and the potential advantages summarised. Some of the basic methods of material and cell characterisation are briefly described, together with the work carried out in this research. The growth by ECR PACVD at temperatures 2 illumination. The best efficiency in the ECR grown structures was 13.76% using an epitaxial emitter. Cell performance was analysed in detail and the factors controlling performance identified by fitting self-consistently the fight and dark current-voltage and spectral response data using PC-1D. Finally, the conclusions for this research and suggestions for further work are outlined. (author)

  7. Silicon solar cell performance deposited by diamond like carbon thin film ;Atomic oxygen effects;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Abbas Ail; Eshaghi, Akbar; Karami, Esmaeil

    2017-09-01

    In this research, a diamond-like carbon thin film was deposited on p-type polycrystalline silicon solar cell via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method by using methane and hydrogen gases. The effect of atomic oxygen on the functioning of silicon coated DLC thin film and silicon was investigated. Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the DLC thin film. Photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the silicon solar cell were carried out using a solar simulator. The results showed that atomic oxygen exposure induced the including oxidation, structural changes, cross-linking reactions and bond breaking of the DLC film; thus reducing the optical properties. The photocurrent-voltage characteristics showed that although the properties of the fabricated thin film were decreased after being exposed to destructive rays, when compared with solar cell without any coating, it could protect it in atomic oxygen condition enhancing solar cell efficiency up to 12%. Thus, it can be said that diamond-like carbon thin layer protect the solar cell against atomic oxygen exposure.

  8. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  9. Silicon-Light: a European FP7 Project Aiming at High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soppe, W.; Haug, F.-J.; Couty, P.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon-Light is a European FP7 project, which started January 1st, 2010 and aims at development of low cost, high-efficiency thin film silicon solar cells on foil. Three main routes are explored to achieve these goals: a) advanced light trapping by implementing nanotexturization through UV Nano...... calculations of ideal nanotextures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells; the fabrication of masters and the replication and roll-to-roll fabrication of these nanotextures. Further, results on ITO variants with improved work function are presented. Finally, the status of cell fabrication on foils...... with nanotexture is shown. Microcrystalline and amorphous silicon single junction cells with stable efficiencies with more than 8 % have been made, paving the way towards a-Si/ c-Si tandem cells with more than 11% efficiency....

  10. A COMPARISON OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SOLAR POWER GENERATION USING MULTICRYSTALLINE SILICON AND THIN FILM OF AMORPHOUS SILICON SOLAR CELLS: CASE STUDY IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasin Khaenson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the environmental impact of two different forms of solar power generation in Thailand - that of multicrystalline silicon solar cells, and that of thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. It takes as its study two of the largest solar cell power plants of their kind in Thailand; a multicrystalline silicon plant in the north (generating 90 MW and a thin film amorphous silicon plant in the centre (generating 55 MW. The Life Cycle Assessment tool (LCA was used to assess the environmental impact of each stage of the process, from the manufacture of the cells, through to their transportation, installation and eventual recycling. The functional unit of the study was the generation of 1 kWh of power transmitted and distributed by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT and Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA. The environmental impact results were calculated in terms of eco-points (Pt per functional unit of 1 kWh. The characterised data for 1 kWh of solar power generation was then compared with data for 1 kWh of combined cycle and thermal power generation (both in Thailand, using the same set of characterisation factors. After analyzing the results, both forms of solar power energy generation were found to impact upon the studied categories of Human Health, Ecosystem Quality and Resource Depletion, whilst also highlighting the importance of the solar cell module recycling process in decreasing the overall environmental impact. When the two solar cell technologies were compared, the overall impact of the multicrystalline silicon solar cell was found to be higher than that of the thin film amorphous silicon solar cell. Furthermore, when assessing the overall impact against non-renewable power generating technologies such as combined cycle and thermal power generation, the thin film amorphous silicon solar cells were found to have the lowest environmental impact of all technologies studied.

  11. Annealing of polycrystalline thin film silicon solar cells in water vapour at sub-atmospheric pressures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Píč, Vlastimil; Benda, V.; Fejfar, Antonín

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2014), s. 341-347 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E10061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 240826 - PolySiMode Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101216 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : passivation * water vapour * thin film solar cell * polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) * multicrys- talline silicon (m-Si) * Suns-VOC Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use

  12. Combining light-harvesting with detachability in high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Sanjay K; Desta, Derese; Rizzoli, Rita; Bellettato, Michele; Lyckegaard, Folmer; Jensen, Pia B; Jeppesen, Bjarke R; Chevallier, Jacques; Summonte, Caterina; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Balling, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to realize thin-film solar cells on unconventional substrates face several obstacles in achieving good energy-conversion efficiency and integrating light-management into the solar cell design. In this report a technique to circumvent these obstacles is presented: transferability and an efficient light-harvesting scheme are combined for thin-film silicon solar cells by the incorporation of a NaCl layer. Amorphous silicon solar cells in p-i-n configuration are fabricated on reusable glass substrates coated with an interlayer of NaCl. Subsequently, the solar cells are detached from the substrate by dissolution of the sacrificial NaCl layer in water and then transferred onto a plastic sheet, with a resultant post-transfer efficiency of 9%. The light-trapping effect of the surface nanotextures originating from the NaCl layer on the overlying solar cell is studied theoretically and experimentally. The enhanced light absorption in the solar cells on NaCl-coated substrates leads to significant improvement in the photocurrent and energy-conversion efficiency in solar cells with both 350 and 100 nm thick absorber layers, compared to flat-substrate solar cells. Efficient transferable thin-film solar cells hold a vast potential for widespread deployment of off-grid photovoltaics and cost reduction.

  13. Utilization of geometrci light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells: simulations and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.M.; Sonneveld, P.J.; Baggerman, J.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present a new light absorption enhancement method for p-i-n thin film silicon solar cells using pyramidal surface structures, larger than the wavelength of visible light. Calculations show a maximum possible current enhancement of 45% compared with cells on a flat substrate. We

  14. Utilization of geometric light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells: Simulations and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.M.; Sonneveld, P.J.; Baggerman, J.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a new light absorption enhancement method for p-i-n thin film silicon solar cells using pyramidal surface structures, larger than the wavelength of visible light. Calculations show a maximum possible current enhancement of 45% compared with cells on a flat substrate. We

  15. Carrier transport in polycrystalline silicon thin films solar cells grown on a highly textured structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honda, Shinya; Takakura, H.; Hamakawa, Y.; Muhida, R.; Kawamura, T.; Harano, T.; Toyama, T.; Okamoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, 9A (2004), s. 5955-5959 ISSN 0021-4922 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : polycrystalline silicon thin film * solar cells * substrate texture Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2004

  16. Light management in large area thin-film silicon solar modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Losio, P.A.; Caglar, O.; Cashmore, J.S.; Hötzel, J.E.; Ristau, S.; Holovský, Jakub; Remeš, Zdeněk; Sinicco, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, Dec (2015), s. 375-385 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : micromorph * thin-film silicon solar cells * light management * ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.732, year: 2015

  17. Designing optimized nano textures for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, K.; Fischer, M.; Van Swaaij, R.A.C.M.M.; Zeman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film silicon solar cells (TFSSC), which can be manufactured from abundant materials solely, contain nano-textured interfaces that scatter the incident light. We present an approximate very fast algorithm that allows optimizing the surface morphology of two-dimensional nano-textured interfaces.

  18. Thin Single Crystal Silicon Solar Cells on Ceramic Substrates: November 2009 - November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Ravi, K. V.

    2011-06-01

    In this program we have been developing a technology for fabricating thin (< 50 micrometres) single crystal silicon wafers on foreign substrates. We reverse the conventional approach of depositing or forming silicon on foreign substrates by depositing or forming thick (200 to 400 micrometres) ceramic materials on high quality single crystal silicon films ~ 50 micrometres thick. Our key innovation is the fabrication of thin, refractory, and self-adhering 'handling layers or substrates' on thin epitaxial silicon films in-situ, from powder precursors obtained from low cost raw materials. This 'handling layer' has sufficient strength for device and module processing and fabrication. Successful production of full sized (125 mm X 125 mm) silicon on ceramic wafers with 50 micrometre thick single crystal silicon has been achieved and device process flow developed for solar cell fabrication. Impurity transfer from the ceramic to the silicon during the elevated temperature consolidation process has resulted in very low minority carrier lifetimes and resulting low cell efficiencies. Detailed analysis of minority carrier lifetime, metals analysis and device characterization have been done. A full sized solar cell efficiency of 8% has been demonstrated.

  19. MIS solar cells on thin polycrystalline silicon. Progress report No. 3, September 1-November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, W.A.

    1980-12-01

    The first task of this project involves electron-beam deposition of thin silicon films on low cost substrates. The goal is to obtain 20 ..mu..m thick films having 20 ..mu..m diameter crystallites which may be recrystallized to > 40 ..mu..m. Material characterization and device studies are to be included in efforts to reach a 6% conversion efficiency. The second task deals with MIS solar cell fabrication on various types of silicon including poly-Si, ribbon-Si, silicon on ceramic, and thin film silicon. Conduction mechanism studies, optimum engineering design, and modification of the fabrication process are to be used to achieve 13% efficiency on Xtal-Si and 11% efficiency on poly-Si. The third task involves more detailed test procedures and includes spectral response, interface and grain boundary effects, computer analysis, materials studies, and grain boundary passivation. Progress is detailed. (WHK)

  20. Thin metal layer as transparent electrode in n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theuring Martin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, transparent electrodes, based on a thin silver film and a capping layer, are investigated. Low deposition temperature, flexibility and low material costs are the advantages of this type of electrode. Their applicability in structured n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells is demonstrated in simulation and experiment. The influence of the individual layer thicknesses on the solar cell performance is discussed and approaches for further improvements are given. For the silver film/capping layer electrode, a higher solar cell efficiency could be achieved compared to a reference ZnO:Al front contact.

  1. Advanced APCVD-processes for high-temperature grown crystalline silicon thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Marion; Merkel, Benjamin; Reber, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Crystalline silicon thin film (cSiTF) solar cells based on the epitaxial wafer-equivalent (EpiWE) concept combine advantages of wafer-based and thin film silicon solar cells. In this paper two processes beyond the standard process sequence for cSiTF cell fabrication are described. The first provides an alternative to wet chemical saw damage removal by chemical vapor etching (CVE) with hydrogen chloride in-situ prior to epitaxial deposition. This application decreases the number of process and handling steps. Solar cells fabricated with different etching processes achieved efficiencies up to 14.7%. 1300 degrees C etching temperature led to better cell results than 1200 degrees C. The second investigated process aims for an improvement of cell efficiency by implementation of a reflecting interlayer between substrate and active solar cell. Some characteristics of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of a patterned silicon dioxide film in a lab-type reactor constructed at Fraunhofer ISE are described and first solar cell results are presented.

  2. Sliver{sup (R)} solar cells: A new thin-crystalline silicon photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlinden, P.J.; Kerr, M.J.; Stuckings, M.F.; Gordeev, D.; Stocks, M.J. [Origin Energy Solar, G.P.O Box 1097, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Blakers, A.W.; Weber, K.J.; Babaei, J.; Everett, V. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, ANU, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2006-11-23

    A new technique for producing thin single-crystal silicon solar cells has been developed. The new technology allows for large decreases in silicon usage by a factor of 12 (including kerf losses) compared to conventional crystalline silicon wafer technologies. The new Sliver{sup (R)} cell process uses a micromachining technique to form 60{mu}m-thick solar cells, fully processed while they are still supported by the silicon substrate at the edge of the wafer. The Sliver{sup (R)} solar cells are capable of excellent performance due to their thickness and unique cell design with demonstrated efficiencies over 19.3% and open-circuit voltages of 683mV. In addition, the cells are bifacial (accepts light from either sides) and very flexible. Several prototype modules have been fabricated using a new design approach that introduces a diffuse reflector to the rear of a bi-glass module. To save expensive silicon material, a significant gap is kept between cells. The light striking between cells is scattered from the rear reflector and is directed onto the rear surface of the bifacial Sliver{sup (R)} cells. Module efficiency of 13% (AM1.5, 25C) has been demonstrated with a module presenting a 50% solar-cell coverage fraction, and 18.3% with a 100% Sliver{sup (R)} cell coverage fraction. (author)

  3. Fabricating 40 µm-thin silicon solar cells with different orientations by using SLiM-cut method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng-Yu; Chen, Chien-Hsun; Shiao, Jui-Chung; Chen, Sung-Yu; Du, Chen-Hsun

    2017-10-01

    Thin silicon foils with different crystal orientations were fabricated using the stress induced lift-off (SLiM-cut) method. The thickness of the silicon foils was approximately 40 µm. The ≤ft foil had a smoother surface than the ≤ft foil. With surface passivation, the minority carrier lifetimes of the ≤ft and ≤ft silicon foil were 1.0 µs and 1.6 µs, respectively. In this study, 4 cm2-thin silicon solar cells with heterojunction structures were fabricated. The energy conversion efficiencies were determined to be 10.74% and 14.74% for the ≤ft and ≤ft solar cells, respectively. The surface quality of the silicon foils was determined to affect the solar cell character. This study demonstrated that fabricating the solar cell by using silicon foil obtained from the SLiM-cut method is feasible.

  4. Piecewise simulaton proton test of gallium arsenide and thin silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. G.; Billets, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) solar cells are viewed as a potential primary power source on certain future Earth orbiting satellites. However, the relative merits of gallium arsenide over silicon in a space radiation environment are largely unknown because a general degradation model for gallium arsenide does not exist. The results of a test simulating the proton radiation environment existing in a polar orbit and the concomitant effects on GaAs and thin silicon (Si) solar cells are presented. The objectives and methodology of the simulation test were discussed. The electrical characteristics of GaAs and Si solar cells are given in graph form. It was concluded that GaAs cells are viable for use on satellites in low Earth orbit.

  5. Silicon nitride and intrinsic amorphous silicon double antireflection coatings for thin-film solar cells on foreign substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Da; Kunz, Thomas; Wolf, Nadine; Liebig, Jan Philipp; Wittmann, Stephan; Ahmad, Taimoor; Hessmann, Maik T.; Auer, Richard; Göken, Mathias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) was investigated as a surface passivation method for crystalline silicon thin film solar cells on graphite substrates. The results of the experiments, including quantum efficiency and current density-voltage measurements, show improvements in cell performance. This improvement is due to surface passivation by an a-Si:H(i) layer, which increases the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. In comparison with our previous work, we have achieved an increase of 0.6% absolute cell efficiency for a 40 μm thick 4 cm 2 aperture area on the graphite substrate. The optical properties of the SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stack were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometer techniques. Scanning transmission electron microscopy inside a scanning electron microscope was applied to characterize the cross section of the SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stack using focus ion beam preparation. - Highlights: • We report a 10.8% efficiency for thin-film silicon solar cell on graphite. • Hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon was applied for surface passivation. • SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stacks were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometer techniques. • Cross-section micrograph was obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy. • Quantum efficiency and J-V measurements show improvements in the cell performance

  6. Plasma monitoring and PECVD process control in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Onno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A key process in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD of the active layers. The deposition process can be monitored in situ by plasma diagnostics. Three types of complementary diagnostics, namely optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and non-linear extended electron dynamics are applied to an industrial-type PECVD reactor. We investigated the influence of substrate and chamber wall temperature and chamber history on the PECVD process. The impact of chamber wall conditioning on the solar cell performance is demonstrated.

  7. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55°C – 110°C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  8. Sintered porous silicon. Physical properties and applications for layer-transfer silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.K.

    2007-07-16

    This work focusses on the characterisation of sintered porous silicon and on the development of monocrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells from the Porous Silicon Process (PSI process). For the fabrication of these solar cells, a thin silicon film is epitaxially grown on a monocrystalline silicon growth substrate, that features a layer of porous silicon (PS) at the surface. Due to the thermal activation during the epitaxial growth process, the PS layer reconfigurates and mechanically weakens, which later permits the transfer of the thin-film device to a second carrier substrate. When separating the epitaxial film from the growth substrate, a residual layer of sintered porous silicon (SPS) remains attached to the rear side of the device. So far, the physical properties of this layer and its impact on the performance of PSI solar cells have been poorly investigated. This thesis aims at a comprehensive determination of the physical properties of sintered porous silicon, in particular, its thermal, optical and electrical properties. For the thermal characterisation of the fragile free standing SPS films, a contactless measurement technique based on lock-in thermography is developed and experimentally verified. This analysis identifies a third order power law dependence of the thermal conductivity of SPS on the porosity, in agreement with the predictions of the Looyenga model. Phonon scattering at the pore walls, which is known to drastically reduce the thermal conductivity of as-prepared PS, is also present in the sintered state. The obtained results reveal that, in the case of SPS, this effect is less pronounced, due to the increased structure size of the sintered material compared to the as-prepared state. The effective refractive index of SPS complies with the predictions of effective medium models, whereas Mie's theory successfully describes light scattering by the spherical pores in SPS. An analysis of the measured scattering coefficient shows that the

  9. Deposition and characterization of amorphous silicon with embedded nanocrystals and microcrystalline silicon for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, R., E-mail: rambrosi@uacj.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico); Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, UACJ, C.J., Chihuahua (Mexico); Moreno, M.; Torres, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico); Carrillo, A. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, UACJ, C.J., Chihuahua (Mexico); Vivaldo, I.; Cosme, I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico); Heredia, A. [Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured silicon thin films were deposited by PECVD. • Polymorphous and microcrystalline were obtained varying the pressure and power. • Structural and optoelectronics properties were studied. • The σ{sub dark} changed by 5 order of magnitude under illumination, V{sub d} was at 2.5 A/s. • The evidence of embedded nanocrystals into the amorphous matrix was investigated. - Abstract: Amorphous silicon thin films with embedded nanocrystals and microcrystalline silicon were deposited by the standard Radio Frequency (RF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) technique, from SiH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, Ar gas mixture at substrate temperature of 200 °C. Two series of films were produced varying deposition parameters as chamber pressure and RF power density. The chemical bonding in the films was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, where it was observed a correlation between the hydrogen content and the morphological and electrical properties in the films. Electrical and optical parameters were extracted in both series of films, as room temperature conductivity (σ{sub RT}), activation energy (E{sub a}), and optical band gap (E{sub g}). As well, structural analysis in the films was performed by Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), which gives an indication of the films crystallinity. The photoconductivity changed in a range of 2 and 6 orders of magnitude from dark to AM 1.5 illumination conditions, which is of interest for thin film solar cells applications.

  10. Deposition and characterization of amorphous silicon with embedded nanocrystals and microcrystalline silicon for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, R.; Moreno, M.; Torres, A.; Carrillo, A.; Vivaldo, I.; Cosme, I.; Heredia, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured silicon thin films were deposited by PECVD. • Polymorphous and microcrystalline were obtained varying the pressure and power. • Structural and optoelectronics properties were studied. • The σ dark changed by 5 order of magnitude under illumination, V d was at 2.5 A/s. • The evidence of embedded nanocrystals into the amorphous matrix was investigated. - Abstract: Amorphous silicon thin films with embedded nanocrystals and microcrystalline silicon were deposited by the standard Radio Frequency (RF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) technique, from SiH 4 , H 2 , Ar gas mixture at substrate temperature of 200 °C. Two series of films were produced varying deposition parameters as chamber pressure and RF power density. The chemical bonding in the films was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, where it was observed a correlation between the hydrogen content and the morphological and electrical properties in the films. Electrical and optical parameters were extracted in both series of films, as room temperature conductivity (σ RT ), activation energy (E a ), and optical band gap (E g ). As well, structural analysis in the films was performed by Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), which gives an indication of the films crystallinity. The photoconductivity changed in a range of 2 and 6 orders of magnitude from dark to AM 1.5 illumination conditions, which is of interest for thin film solar cells applications

  11. ZnO transparent conductive oxide for thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, T.; Dominé, D.; Feltrin, A.; Despeisse, M.; Meillaud, F.; Bugnon, G.; Boccard, M.; Cuony, P.; Haug, F.-J.; Faÿ, S.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2010-03-01

    There is general agreement that the future production of electric energy has to be renewable and sustainable in the long term. Photovoltaic (PV) is booming with more than 7GW produced in 2008 and will therefore play an important role in the future electricity supply mix. Currently, crystalline silicon (c-Si) dominates the market with a share of about 90%. Reducing the cost per watt peak and energy pay back time of PV was the major concern of the last decade and remains the main challenge today. For that, thin film silicon solar cells has a strong potential because it allies the strength of c-Si (i.e. durability, abundancy, non toxicity) together with reduced material usage, lower temperature processes and monolithic interconnection. One of the technological key points is the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) used for front contact, barrier layer or intermediate reflector. In this paper, we report on the versatility of ZnO grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (ZnO LP-CVD) and its application in thin film silicon solar cells. In particular, we focus on the transparency, the morphology of the textured surface and its effects on the light in-coupling for micromorph tandem cells in both the substrate (n-i-p) and superstrate (p-i-n) configurations. The stabilized efficiencies achieved in Neuchâtel are 11.2% and 9.8% for p-i-n (without ARC) and n-i-p (plastic substrate), respectively.

  12. Aluminum–Titanium Alloy Back Contact Reducing Production Cost of Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, metal films are fabricated by using an in-line reactive direct current magnetron sputtering system. The aluminum–titanium (AlTi back contacts are prepared by changing the pressure from 10 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The optical, electrical and structural properties of the metal back contacts are investigated. The solar cells with the AlTi had lower contact resistance than those with the silver (Ag back contact, resulting in a higher fill factor. The AlTi contact can achieve a solar cell conversion efficiency as high as that obtained from the Ag contact. These findings encourage the potential adoption of AlTi films as an alternative back contact to silver for silicon thin-film solar cells.

  13. Dual interface gratings design for absorption enhancement in thin crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinqiannan; Yu, Zhongyuan; Liu, Yumin; Chai, Hongyu; Hao, Jing; Ye, Han

    2017-09-01

    We numerically study and analyze the light absorption enhancement in thin crystalline silicon solar cell with dual interface gratings. The structure combines the front dielectric nanowalls and the sinusoidal plasmonic grating at back reflector. We show that having specific interfaces with well-chosen period, fill factor and height can allow more efficient dielectric and plasmonic modes coupling into active layer and can improve the solar cell performance. For 1 μm active layer case, the optimal result for the proposed structure achieves short-circuit current of 23.6 mA/cm2, which performs over 50% better than flat solar cell structure, the short-circuit current of which is 15.5 mA/cm2. In addition, the active layer thickness and angular analysis show that the proposed structure maintains its advantage over flat structure.

  14. Effect of back reflectors on photon absorption in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad I.; Qarony, Wayesh; Hossain, M. Khalid; Debnath, M. K.; Uddin, M. Jalal; Tsang, Yuen Hong

    2017-10-01

    In thin-film solar cells, the photocurrent conversion productivity can be distinctly boosted-up utilizing a proper back reflector. Herein, the impact of different smooth and textured back reflectors was explored and effectuated to study the optical phenomena with interface engineering strategies and characteristics of transparent contacts. A unique type of wet-chemically textured glass-substrate 3D etching mask used in superstrate (p-i-n) amorphous silicon-based solar cell along with legitimated back reflector permits joining the standard light-trapping methodologies, which are utilized to upgrade the energy conversion efficiency (ECE). To investigate the optical and electrical properties of solar cell structure, the optical simulations in three-dimensional measurements (3D) were performed utilizing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. This design methodology allows to determine the power losses, quantum efficiencies, and short-circuit current densities of various layers in such solar cell. The short-circuit current densities for different reflectors were varied from 11.50 to 13.27 and 13.81 to 16.36 mA/cm2 for the smooth and pyramidal textured solar cells, individually. Contrasted with the comparable flat reference cell, the short-circuit current density of textured solar cell was increased by around 24%, and most extreme outer quantum efficiencies rose from 79 to 86.5%. The photon absorption was fundamentally improved in the spectral region from 600 to 800 nm with no decrease of photocurrent shorter than 600-nm wavelength. Therefore, these optimized designs will help to build the effective plans next-generation amorphous silicon-based solar cells.

  15. Carrier collection losses in interface passivated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumüller, A., E-mail: alex.neumueller@next-energy.de; Sergeev, O.; Vehse, M.; Agert, C. [NEXT ENERGY EWE Research Centre for Energy Technology at the University of Oldenburg, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Straße 15, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Bereznev, S.; Volobujeva, O. [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate Tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Ewert, M.; Falta, J. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2016-07-25

    In silicon thin-film solar cells the interface between the i- and p-layer is the most critical. In the case of back diffusion of photogenerated minority carriers to the i/p-interface, recombination occurs mainly on the defect states at the interface. To suppress this effect and to reduce recombination losses, hydrogen plasma treatment (HPT) is usually applied. As an alternative to using state of the art HPT we apply an argon plasma treatment (APT) before the p-layer deposition in n-i-p solar cells. To study the effect of APT, several investigations were applied to compare the results with HPT and no plasma treatment at the interface. Carrier collection losses in resulting solar cells were examined with spectral response measurements with and without bias voltage. To investigate single layers, surface photovoltage and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were conducted. The results with APT at the i/p-interface show a beneficial contribution to the carrier collection compared with HPT and no plasma treatment. Therefore, it can be concluded that APT reduces the recombination centers at the interface. Further, we demonstrate that carrier collection losses of thin-film solar cells are significantly lower with APT.

  16. Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon applied in very thin tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicho, Sandra

    2011-07-28

    Thin-film solar cells are fabricated by low-cost production processes, and are therefore an alternative to conventionally used wafer solar cells based on crystalline silicon. Due to the different band gaps, tandem cells that consist of amorphous (a-Si:H) and microcrystalline ({mu}c-Si:H) single junction solar cells deposited on top of each other use the solar spectrum much more efficient than single junction solar cells. The silicon layers are usually deposited on TCO (Transparent Conductive Oxide)-coated glass and metal- or plastic foils. Compared to the CdTe and CIGS based thin-film technologies, silicon thin-film solar cells have the advantage that no limitation of raw material supply is expected and no toxic elements are used. Nevertheless, the production cost per Wattpeak is the decisive factor concerning competitiveness and can be reduced by, e.g., shorter deposition times or reduced material consumption. Both cost-reducing conceptions are simultaneously achieved by reducing the a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H absorber layer thicknesses in a tandem device. In the work on hand, the influence of an absorber layer thickness reduction up to 77% on the photovoltaic parameters of a-Si:H/{mu}c-Si:H tandem solar cells was investigated. An industry-oriented Radio Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (RF-PECVD) system was used to deposit the solar cells on glass substrates coated with randomly structured TCO layers. The thicknesses of top and bottom cell absorber layers were varied by adjusting the deposition time. Reduced layer thicknesses lead to lower absorption and, hence, to reduced short-circuit current densities which, however, are partially balanced by higher open-circuit voltages and fill factors. Furthermore, by using very thin amorphous top cells, the light-induced degradation decreases tremendously. Accordingly, a thickness reduction of 75% led to an efficiency loss of only 21 %. By adjusting the parameters for the deposition of a-Si:H top cells, a

  17. Photonic and plasmonic structures for enhancing efficiency of thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, Sambit

    Crystalline silicon solar cells use high cost processing techniques as well as thick materials that are ˜ 200µm thick to convert solar energy into electricity. From a cost viewpoint, it is highly advantageous to use thin film solar cells which are generally made in the range of 0.1-3µm in thickness. Due to this low thickness, the quantity of material is greatly reduced and so is the number and complexity of steps involved to complete a device, thereby allowing a continuous processing capability improving the throughput and hence greatly decreasing the cost. This also leads to faster payback time for the end user of the photovoltaic panel. In addition, due to the low thickness and the possibility of deposition on flexible foils, the photovoltaic (PV) modules can be flexible. Such flexible PV modules are well suited for building-integrated applications and for portable, foldable, PV power products. For economical applications of solar cells, high efficiency is an important consideration. Since Si is an indirect bandgap material, a thin film of Si needs efficient light trapping to achieve high optical absorption. The previous work in this field has been mostly based on randomly textured back reflectors. In this work, we have used a novel approach, a periodic photonic and plasmonic structure, to optimize current density of the devices by absorbing longer wavelengths without hampering other properties. The two dimensional diffraction effect generated by a periodic structure with the plasmonic light concentration achieved by silver cones to efficiently propagate light in the plane at the back surface of a solar cell, achieves a significant increase in optical absorption. Using such structures, we achieved a 50%+ increase in short circuit current in a nano-crystalline (nc-Si) solar cell relative to stainless steel. In addition to nc-Si solar cells on stainless steel, we have also used the periodic photonic structure to enhance optical absorption in amorphous cells and

  18. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells with plasmonic-enhanced light-trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, Sergey; Rao, Jing; Soderstrom, Thomas

    2012-07-02

    One of major approaches to cheaper solar cells is reducing the amount of semiconductor material used for their fabrication and making cells thinner. To compensate for lower light absorption such physically thin devices have to incorporate light-trapping which increases their optical thickness. Light scattering by textured surfaces is a common technique but it cannot be universally applied to all solar cell technologies. Some cells, for example those made of evaporated silicon, are planar as produced and they require an alternative light-trapping means suitable for planar devices. Metal nanoparticles formed on planar silicon cell surface and capable of light scattering due to surface plasmon resonance is an effective approach. The paper presents a fabrication procedure of evaporated polycrystalline silicon solar cells with plasmonic light-trapping and demonstrates how the cell quantum efficiency improves due to presence of metal nanoparticles. To fabricate the cells a film consisting of alternative boron and phosphorous doped silicon layers is deposited on glass substrate by electron beam evaporation. An Initially amorphous film is crystallised and electronic defects are mitigated by annealing and hydrogen passivation. Metal grid contacts are applied to the layers of opposite polarity to extract electricity generated by the cell. Typically, such a ~2 μm thick cell has a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 14-16 mA/cm(2), which can be increased up to 17-18 mA/cm(2) (~25% higher) after application of a simple diffuse back reflector made of a white paint. To implement plasmonic light-trapping a silver nanoparticle array is formed on the metallised cell silicon surface. A precursor silver film is deposited on the cell by thermal evaporation and annealed at 23°C to form silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticle size and coverage, which affect plasmonic light-scattering, can be tuned for enhanced cell performance by varying the precursor film thickness and its annealing

  19. Designing High-Efficiency Thin Silicon Solar Cells Using Parabolic-Pore Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sayak; John, Sajeev

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the efficacy of wave-interference-based light trapping and carrier transport in parabolic-pore photonic-crystal, thin-crystalline silicon (c -Si) solar cells to achieve above 29% power conversion efficiencies. Using a rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations through a standard finite-difference time domain scheme, we optimize the design of the vertical-parabolic-pore photonic crystal (PhC) on a 10 -μ m -thick c -Si solar cell to obtain a maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) of 40.6 mA /cm2 beyond the ray-optical, Lambertian light-trapping limit. For a slanted-parabolic-pore PhC that breaks x -y symmetry, improved light trapping occurs due to better coupling into parallel-to-interface refraction modes. We achieve the optimum MAPD of 41.6 mA /cm2 for a tilt angle of 10° with respect to the vertical axis of the pores. This MAPD is further improved to 41.72 mA /cm2 by introducing a 75-nm SiO2 antireflective coating on top of the solar cell. We use this MAPD and the associated charge-carrier generation profile as input for a numerical solution of Poisson's equation coupled with semiconductor drift-diffusion equations using a Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger recombination model. Using experimentally achieved surface recombination velocities of 10 cm /s , we identify semiconductor doping profiles that yield power conversion efficiencies over 29%. Practical considerations of additional upper-contact losses suggest efficiencies close to 28%. This improvement beyond the current world record is largely due to an open-circuit voltage approaching 0.8 V enabled by reduced bulk recombination in our thin silicon architecture while maintaining a high short-circuit current through wave-interference-based light trapping.

  20. Utilization of geometric light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells: simulations and experiments, Progress in Photovoltaics: : Research and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. J. M. van Rijn; J. K. Rath; R. E. I. Schropp; Piet Sonneveld; J. Baggerman; M. M. de Jong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a new light absorption enhancement method for p-i-n thin film silicon solar cells using pyramidal surface structures, larger than the wavelength of visible light. Calculations show a maximum possible current enhancement of 45% compared with cells on a flat substrate. We

  1. Effect of cell thickness on the electrical and optical properties of thin film silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, A. A.; El-Amin, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work Electrical and optical properties of silicon thin films with different thickness were measured. The thickness of the Si films varied from 100 to 800 μm. The optical properties of the cell were studied at different thickness. A maximum achievable current density (MACD) generated by a planar solar cell, was measured for different values of the cell thickness which was performed by using photovoltaic (PV) optics method. It was found that reducing the values of the cell thickness improves the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and the fill factor (FF) of the solar cell. The optical properties were measured for thin film Si (TF-Si) at different thickness by using the double beam UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300-2000 nm. Some of optical parameters such as refractive index with dispersion relation, the dispersion energy, the oscillator energy, optical band gap energy were calculated by using the spectra for the TF-Si with different thickness.

  2. Texture-Etched SnO2 Glasses Applied to Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Rui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent electrodes of tin dioxide (SnO2 on glasses were further wet-etched in the diluted HCl:Cr solution to obtain larger surface roughness and better light-scattering characteristic for thin-film solar cell applications. The process parameters in terms of HCl/Cr mixture ratio, etching temperature, and etching time have been investigated. After etching process, the surface roughness, transmission haze, and sheet resistance of SnO2 glasses were measured. It was found that the etching rate was increased with the additions in etchant concentration of Cr and etching temperature. The optimum texture-etching parameters were 0.15 wt.% Cr in 49% HCl, temperature of 90°C, and time of 30 sec. Moreover, silicon thin-film solar cells with the p-i-n structure were fabricated on the textured SnO2 glasses using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. By optimizing the texture-etching process, the cell efficiency was increased from 4.04% to 4.39%, resulting from the increment of short-circuit current density from 14.14 to 15.58 mA/cm2. This improvement in cell performances can be ascribed to the light-scattering effect induced by surface texturization of SnO2.

  3. Formation of ultra Si/Ti nano thin film for enhancing silicon solar cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T.; Dhahi, T. S.; Mohammed, M.; Al-Hajj, A. M.; Hashim, U.

    2017-10-01

    An alternative electrical source has l has become the major quest of every researchers due to it numerous advantages and applications of power supply and as electronic devices are becoming more and more portable. A highly efficient power supply is become inevitable. Thus. in this study, present ultrasonic based assisted fabrication of electrochemical silicon-Titanium nano thin film by in-house simple technique, uniformly silicon Nano film was fabricated and etched with HF (40%): C2H5OH (99%):1:1, < 20 nm pore diameter of silicon was fabricated. The surface and morphology reveal that the method produce uniform nano silicon porous layer with smaller silicon pores with high etching efficiency. The silicon-Titanium integrated nano porous exhibited excellent observation properties with low reflection index ~ 1.1 compared to silicon alone thin film.

  4. Effect of Grain Boundaries on the Performance of Thin-Film-Based Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: A Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Nikita; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2018-01-01

    Solar cells/photovoltaic, a renewable energy source, is appraised to be the most effective alternative to the conventional electrical energy generator. A cost-effective alternative of crystalline wafer-based solar cell is thin-film polycrystalline-based solar cell. This paper reports the numerical analysis of dependency of the solar cell parameters (i.e., efficiency, fill factor, open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density) on grain size for thin-film-based polycrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. A minority carrier lifetime model is proposed to do a correlation between the grains, grain boundaries and lifetime for thin-film-based polycrystalline Si solar cells in MATLAB environment. As observed, the increment in the grain size diameter results in increase in minority carrier lifetime in polycrystalline Si thin film. A non-equivalent series resistance double-diode model is used to find the dark as well as light (AM1.5) current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for thin-film-based polycrystalline Si solar cells. To optimize the effectiveness of the proposed model, a successive approximation method is used and the corresponding fitting parameters are obtained. The model is validated with the experimentally obtained results reported elsewhere. The experimentally reported solar cell parameters can be found using the proposed model described here.

  5. Effect of p-layer properties on nanocrystalline absorber layer and thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Amartya; Adhikary, Koel; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Ray, Swati

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the p-layer on the crystallinity of the absorber layer and nanocrystalline silicon thin film solar cells has been studied. Boron doped Si : H p-layers of different crystallinities have been prepared under different power pressure conditions using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. The crystalline volume fraction of p-layers increases with the increase in deposition power. Optical absorption of the p-layer reduces as the crystalline volume fraction increases. Structural studies at the p/i interface have been done by Raman scattering studies. The crystalline volume fraction of the i-layer increases as that of the p-layer increases, the effect being more prominent near the p/i interface. Grain sizes of the absorber layer decrease from 9.2 to 7.2 nm and the density of crystallites increases as the crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer increases and its grain size decreases. With increasing crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer solar cell efficiency increases

  6. Photonic Structures for Light Trapping in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells: Design and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ding

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the foremost challenges in designing thin-film silicon solar cells (TFSC is devising efficient light-trapping schemes due to the short optical path length imposed by the thin absorber thickness. The strategy relies on a combination of a high-performance back reflector and an optimized texture surface, which are commonly used to reflect and scatter light effectively within the absorption layer, respectively. In this paper, highly promising light-trapping structures based on a photonic crystal (PC for TFSCs were investigated via simulation and experiment. Firstly, a highly-reflective one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PC was designed and fabricated. Then, two types of 1D-PC-based back reflectors (BRs were proposed: Flat 1D-PC with random-textured aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO or random-textured 1D-PC with AZO. These two newly-designed BRs demonstrated not only high reflectivity and sufficient conductivity, but also a strong light scattering property, which made them efficient candidates as the electrical contact and back reflector since the intrinsic losses due to the surface plasmon modes of the rough metal BRs can be avoided. Secondly, conical two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PC-based BRs were investigated and optimized for amorphous a-SiGe:H solar cells. The maximal absorption value can be obtained with an aspect ratio of 1/2 and a period of 0.75 µm. To improve the full-spectral optical properties of solar cells, a periodically-modulated PC back reflector was proposed and experimentally demonstrated in the a-SiGe:H solar cell. This periodically-modulated PC back reflector, also called the quasi-crystal structure (QCS, consists of a large periodic conical PC and a randomly-textured Ag layer with a feature size of 500–1000 nm. The large periodic conical PC enables conformal growth of the layer, while the small feature size of Ag can further enhance the light scattering. In summary, a comprehensive study of the design, simulation

  7. Diamond-like nanocomposite: a novel promising carbon based thin film as antireflection and passivation coating for silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sukhendu; Das, Sayan; De, Debasish; Mondal, Anup; Gangopadhyay, Utpal

    2018-02-01

    Presently, silicon nitride (SiN x ) is widely used as antireflection coating (ARC) on p-type silicon solar cell. But, two highly toxic gasses ammonia and silane are used. In the present study, the ARC and passivation properties of diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin film on silicon solar cell have been investigated. The DLN thin film has been deposited by rf-PACVD process using liquid precursor HMDSO in argon plasma. The film has been characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties have been estimated by UV–vis–NIR spectroscopy. The minimum reflection has been achieved to 0.75% at 630 nm. Both the short circuit current density and open circuit voltage has been increased significantly from 28.6 mA cm‑2 to 35.5 mA cm‑2 and 0.551 V to 0.613 V respectively. The field effect passivation has been confirmed by dark IV characterization of c-Si /DLN heterojunction structure. All these lead to enhancement of efficiency by almost 4% absolute, which is comparable to SiN x . The ammonia and silane free deposited DLN thin film has a great potential to use as ARC for silicon based solar cell.

  8. MOCVD ZnO/Screen Printed Ag Back Reflector for Flexible Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Limmanee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared Ag back electrode by screen printing technique and developed MOCVD ZnO/screen printed Ag back reflector for flexible thin film silicon solar cell application. A discontinuity and poor contact interface between the MOCVD ZnO and screen printed Ag layers caused poor open circuit voltage (Voc and low fill factor (FF; however, an insertion of a thin sputtered ZnO layer at the interface could solve this problem. The n type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H film is preferable for the deposition on the surface of MOCVD ZnO film rather than the microcrystalline film due to its less sensitivity to textured surface, and this allowed an improvement in the FF. The n-i-p flexible amorphous silicon solar cell using the MOCVD ZnO/screen printed Ag back reflector showed an initial efficiency of 6.2% with Voc=0.86 V, Jsc=12.4 mA/cm2, and FF = 0.58 (1 cm2. The identical quantum efficiency and comparable performance to the cells using conventional sputtered Ag back electrode have verified the potential of the MOCVD ZnO/screen printed Ag back reflector and possible opportunity to use the screen printed Ag thick film for flexible thin film silicon solar cells.

  9. Laser Welding of Silicon Foils for Thin-Film Solar Cell Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Heßmann, Maik

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film solar module manufacturing is one of the most promising recent developments in photovoltaic research and has the potential to reduce production costs. As the necessity for competitive prices on the world market increases and manufacturers endeavor to bring down the cost of solar modules, thin-film technology is becoming more and more attractive. In this work a special technique was investigated which makes solar cell manufacturing more compatible with an industrial roll-to-roll proc...

  10. Light scattering and trapping in thin film silicon solar cells with an n-i-p configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Böttler, Wanjiao

    2015-01-01

    Microcrystalline silicon μc-Si:H thin film solar cells with an n-i-p configuration were set up based on the optimized processes for solar cells with a p-i-n configuration. The deposition processes of window, absorber and front contact layers were optimized. The effects of the thickness and doping ratio of p-type layers, the thickness of the front contact layers and the silane concentration of the absorber layers on the solar cell performance were investigated. For all the optimization and inv...

  11. Surface Passivation for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, D.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) are currently one of the most promising solar cell technologies in the world. The SHJ solar cell is based on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, passivated on both sides with a thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer. Subsequently, p-type

  12. Surface and interface characterization of thin-film silicon solar cell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Dominic

    2013-02-21

    The properties of Si thin films for solar cells, the interaction with different substrates and the influence of dopants are examined with synchrotron based x-ray spectroscopy - primarily X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The films are studied as-deposited (i.e., amorphous, a-Si) and after conversion into polycrystalline (poly-Si) employing solid phase crystallization (SPC). Si L{sub 2,3} XES spectra of thin-film Si samples can be described by a superposition of a-Si and monocrystalline Si-wafer (c-Si) reference spectra. According to a quantification based on that superposition principle, none of the investigated samples are completely crystallized - a measurable a-Si component always remains (5-20 %) regardless of deposition and treatment conditions. Based on additional results from electron back scattering diffraction different models are developed which may explain this finding. According to these models, the remnant a-Si component can be attributed to amorphous/disordered material at the grain boundaries. Using one of these models, the thickness of this grain-surrounding material s could be approximated to be (1.5 {+-} 0.5) nm. Further investigations of the SPC process reveal a faster crystallization for boron-doped samples, and a slower crystallization for phosphorous-doped samples, when compared to the crystallization of undoped a Si:H thin films. The peculiarities of B K XES spectra (and observed changes upon SPC) indicate that boron could act as a nucleation center promoting crystallization. Si L{sub 2,3} XES spectra of a-Si:H and P-doped poly-Si exhibit spectral features above the valence band maximum at 100 eV that could be attributed to a-Si defect states and n{sup +}-dopant states, respectively. The SPC crystallization velocity of Si thin films on ZnO:Al/glass is found to be faster than that on SiNx/glass substrate. Multiple indications for oxidization at the poly-Si/ZnO:Al interface are found based on

  13. Optical simulations of advanced light management for liquid-phase crystallized silicon thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Klaus; Köppel, Grit; Eisenhauer, David; Chen, Duote; Hammerschmidt, Martin; Burger, Sven; Becker, Christiane

    2017-08-01

    Light management is a key issue for highly efficient liquid-phase crystallized silicon (LPC-Si) thin-film solar cells and can be achieved with periodic nanotextures. They are fabricated with nanoimprint lithography and situated between the glass superstrate and the silicon absorber. To combine excellent optical performance and LPC-Si material quality leading to open circuit voltages exceeding 640 mV, the nanotextures must be smooth. Optical simulations of these solar cells can be performed with the finite element method (FEM). Accurately simulating the optics of such layer stacks requires not only to consider the nanotextured glass-silicon interface, but also to adequately account for the air-glass interface on top of this stack. When using rigorous Maxwell solvers like the finite element method (FEM), the air-glass interface has to be taken into account a posteriori, because the solar cells are prepared on thick glass superstrates, in which light is to be treated incoherently. In this contribution we discuss two different incoherent a posteriori corrections, which we test for nanotextures between glass and silicon. A comparison with experimental data reveals that a first-order correction can predict the measured reflectivity of the samples much better than an often-applied zeroth-order correction.

  14. Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis of buried interfaces in periodically structured crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhauer, David; Preidel, Veit; Becker, Christiane; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Baumann, Jonas; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Amkreutz, Daniel; Rech, Bernd; Back, Franziska; Rudigier-Voigt, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    We present grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) experiments on 3D periodically textured interfaces of liquid phase crystallized silicon thin-film solar cells on glass. The influence of functional layers (SiO x or SiO x /SiC x ) - placed between glass substrate and silicon during crystallization - on the final carbon and oxygen contaminations inside the silicon was analyzed. Baring of the buried structured silicon surface prior to GIXRF measurement was achieved by removal of the original nano-imprinted glass substrate by wet-chemical etching. A broad angle of incidence distribution was determined for the X-ray radiation impinging on this textured surface. Optical simulations were performed in order to estimate the incident radiation intensity on the structured surface profile considering total reflection and attenuation effects. The results indicate a much lower contamination level for SiO x compared to the SiO x /SiC x interlayers, and about 25% increased contamination when comparing structured with planar silicon layers, both correlating with the corresponding solar cell performances. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Smooth anti-reflective three-dimensional textures for liquid phase crystallized silicon thin-film solar cells on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, David; Köppel, Grit; Jäger, Klaus; Chen, Duote; Shargaieva, Oleksandra; Sonntag, Paul; Amkreutz, Daniel; Rech, Bernd; Becker, Christiane

    2017-06-01

    Recently, liquid phase crystallization of thin silicon films has emerged as a candidate for thin-film photovoltaics. On 10 μm thin absorbers, wafer-equivalent morphologies and open-circuit voltages were reached, leading to 13.2% record efficiency. However, short-circuit current densities are still limited, mainly due to optical losses at the glass-silicon interface. While nano-structures at this interface have been shown to efficiently reduce reflection, up to now these textures caused a deterioration of electronic silicon material quality. Therefore, optical gains were mitigated due to recombination losses. Here, the SMooth Anti-Reflective Three-dimensional (SMART) texture is introduced to overcome this trade-off. By smoothing nanoimprinted SiO x nano-pillar arrays with spin-coated TiO x layers, light in-coupling into laser-crystallized silicon solar cells is significantly improved as successfully demonstrated in three-dimensional simulations and in experiment. At the same time, electronic silicon material quality is equivalent to that of planar references, allowing to reach V oc values above 630 mV. Furthermore, the short-circuit current density could be increased from 21.0 mA cm -2 for planar reference cells to 24.5 mA cm -2 on SMART textures, a relative increase of 18%. External quantum efficiency measurements yield an increase for wavelengths up to 700 nm compared to a state-of-the-art solar cell with 11.9% efficiency, corresponding to a j sc, EQE gain of 2.8 mA cm -2 .

  16. Realization of dual-heterojunction solar cells on ultra-thin ∼25 μm, flexible silicon substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Onyegam, Emmanuel U.

    2014-04-14

    Silicon heterojunction (HJ) solar cells with different rear passivation and contact designs were fabricated on ∼ 25 μ m semiconductor-on-metal (SOM) exfoliated substrates. It was found that the performance of these cells is limited by recombination at the rear-surface. Employing the dual-HJ architecture resulted in the improvement of open-circuit voltage (Voc) from 605 mV (single-HJ) to 645 mV with no front side intrinsic amorphous silicon (i-layer) passivation. Addition of un-optimized front side i-layer passivation resulted in further enhancement in Voc to 662 mV. Pathways to achieving further improvement in the performance of HJ solar cells on ultra-thin SOM substrates are discussed. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  17. Impact of contamination on hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerdenweber, Jan

    2011-09-26

    This thesis deals with atmospheric contamination and cross-contamination of boron (single-chamber process) of the intrinsic absorber layer (i-layer) of p-i-n thin film solar cells based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The atmospheric contaminations were introduced by means of intentional leaks. Hereby, the focus is on the influence of contamination species (oxygen and nitrogen), quantity of contamination (leak flow), source of contamination (leaks at chamber wall or in the process gas pipe), and plasma power on the properties of solar cells. Thereby, the minimum requirements for the purity of vacuum and process gas as well as leak conditions of the recipient and gas pipe system have been determined. Additionally, deposition regimes were developed, where the incorporation of impurities is significantly suppressed. For standard processes critical levels of nitrogen and oxygen contamination are determined to be {proportional_to} 4 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and {proportional_to} 2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, respectively, for a leak situated at the chamber wall. Above these concentrations the solar cell efficiency deteriorates. In literature, incorporation of oxygen and nitrogen in doping configuration is assumed to be the reason for the cell deterioration. This assumption is supported by additional material studies of contaminated absorber layers done in this work. The difference in critical concentration is due to the higher doping efficiency of nitrogen compared to that for oxygen. Nevertheless, applying an air leak the critical concentrations of O and N are reached almost simultaneously since the incorporation probability of oxygen is about one order of magnitude higher compared to that for nitrogen. Applying a leak in the process gas pipe the critical oxygen contamination level increases to {proportional_to} 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} whereas the critical nitrogen level remains unchanged compared to a chamber wall leak. Applying a deposition regime with a very high

  18. Advanced Light Management Approaches for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeman, M.; Isabella, O.; Jäger, K.; Santbergen, R.; Solntsev, S.; Topic, M.; Krc, J.

    2012-01-01

    Light management is important for improving the performance of thin-film solar cells. Advanced concepts of efficient light scattering and trapping inside the cell structures need to be investigated. An important tool for design and optimisation of the concepts present optical modelling and

  19. Characterization of Lateral Structure of thep-i-nDiode for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaee, Zohreh; Joo, Seung Ki

    2018-03-01

    The lateral structure of the p-i-n diode was characterized for thin-film silicon solar cell application. The structure can benefit from a wide intrinsic layer, which can improve efficiency without increasing cell thickness. Compared with conventional thin-film p-i-n cells, the p-i-n diode lateral structure exploited direct light irradiation on the absorber layer, one-side contact, and bifacial irradiation. Considering the effect of different carrier lifetimes and recombinations, we calculated efficiency parameters by using a commercially available simulation program as a function of intrinsic layer width, as well as the distance between p/i or n/i junctions to contacts. We then obtained excellent parameter values of 706.52 mV open-circuit voltage, 24.16 mA/Cm2 short-circuit current, 82.66% fill factor, and 14.11% efficiency from a lateral cell (thickness = 3 μm; intrinsic layer width = 53 μm) in monofacial irradiation mode (i.e., only sunlight from the front side was considered). Simulation results of the cell without using rear-side reflector in bifacial irradiation mode showed 11.26% front and 9.72% rear efficiencies. Our findings confirmed that the laterally structured p-i-n cell can be a potentially powerful means for producing highly efficient, thin-film silicon solar cells.

  20. A model to analyze strategic products for photovoltaic silicon thin-film solar cell power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Amy H.I. [Department of Technology Management, Chung Hua University, No. 707, Sec. 2, Wu Fu Rd., Hsinchu 300 (China); Chen, Hsing Hung [Faculty of Management and Administration, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenue Wei Long, Taipa, Macau (China); Kang, He-Yau [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, 35, Lane 215, Sec. 1, Chung San Rd., Taiping, Taichung 411 (China)

    2011-02-15

    With natural resource scarcity and environmental protection, the use of renewable energy has become a promise for offering clean and plentiful energy. Photovoltaic (PV) solar cell is one of the emerging renewable energy applications; however, it suffers a large difficulty in high production cost with low conversion efficiency currently. Hence, an urgent pressure to upgrade technology and to formulate product strategy is evident in the solar cell power industry. In order to prosper PV silicone solar cell power industry, the paper develops a conceptual model, which is composed of a fuzzy analytic network process with interpretive structural modeling and benefits, opportunities, costs and risks, to help analyze suitable strategic products. The empirical study shows that the conceptual model can effectively and precisely handle such a complicated problem and can lead to an outstanding performance result. (author)

  1. High-temperature laser annealing for thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cell on glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A.; Schneider, J.; Dore, J.; Mermet, F.; Slaoui, A.

    2012-06-01

    Thin film polycrystalline silicon films grown on glass substrate were irradiated with an infrared continuous wave laser for defects annealing and/or dopants activation. The samples were uniformly scanned using an attachment with the laser system. Substrate temperature, scan speed and laser power were varied to find suitable laser annealing conditions. The Raman spectroscopy and Suns- V oc analysis were carried out to qualify the films quality after laser annealing. A maximum enhancement of the open circuit voltage V oc of about 100 mV is obtained after laser annealing of as-grown polysilicon structures. A strong correlation was found between the full width half maximum of the Si crystalline peak and V oc. It is interpreted as due to defects annealing as well as to dopants activation in the absorbing silicon layer. The maximum V oc reached is 485 mV after laser treatment and plasma hydrogenation, thanks to defects passivation.

  2. Scattering matrix analysis for evaluating the photocurrent in hydrogenated-amorphous-silicon-based thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myunghun; Lee, Seong Hyun; Lim, Jung Wook; Yun, Sun Jin

    2014-11-01

    A scattering matrix (S-matrix) analysis method was developed for evaluating hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)-based thin film solar cells. In this approach, light wave vectors A and B represent the incoming and outgoing behaviors of the incident solar light, respectively, in terms of coherent wave and incoherent intensity components. The S-matrix determines the relation between A and B according to optical effects such as reflection and transmission, as described by the Fresnel equations, scattering at the boundary surfaces, or scattering within the propagation medium, as described by the Beer-Lambert law and the change in the phase of the propagating light wave. This matrix can be used to evaluate the behavior of angle-incident coherent and incoherent light simultaneously, and takes into account not only the light scattering process at material boundaries (haze effects) but also nonlinear optical processes within the material. The optical parameters in the S-matrix were determined by modeling both a 2%-gallium-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting oxide and germanium-compounded a-Si:H (a-SiGe:H). Using the S-matrix equations, the photocurrent for an a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem cell and the optical loss in semitransparent a-Si:H solar cells for use in building-integrated photovoltaic applications were analyzed. The developed S-matrix method can also be used as a general analysis tool for various thin film solar cells.

  3. Matching of Silicon Thin-Film Tandem Solar Cells for Maximum Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ulbrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a meaningful characterization method for tandem solar cells. The experimental method allows for optimizing the output power instead of the current. Furthermore, it enables the extraction of the approximate AM1.5g efficiency when working with noncalibrated spectra. Current matching of tandem solar cells under short-circuit condition maximizes the output current but is disadvantageous for the overall fill factor and as a consequence does not imply an optimization of the output power of the device. We apply the matching condition to the maximum power output; that is, a stack of solar cells is power matched if the power output of each subcell is maximal at equal subcell currents. The new measurement procedure uses additional light-emitting diodes as bias light in the JV characterization of tandem solar cells. Using a characterized reference tandem solar cell, such as a hydrogenated amorphous/microcrystalline silicon tandem, it is possible to extract the AM1.5g efficiency from tandems of the same technology also under noncalibrated spectra.

  4. Plasmonic back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paetzold, Ulrich W.; Meier, Matthias; Moulin, Etienne; Smirnov, Vladimir; Pieters, Bart E.; Rau, Uwe; Carius, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the light trapping of thin-film silicon solar cells which apply plasmonic Ag back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. The measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures in air are well reproduced in reflectance spectra derived from the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. The light–matter interaction of these nanostructures is given by localized surface plasmons and, thus, the measured diffuse reflectance of the back contacts is attributed to plasmon-induced light scattering. A significant plasmonic light-trapping effect in n-i-p substrate-type μc-Si:H thin-film solar cell prototypes which apply a Ag back contact with non-ordered nanostructures is identified when compared with flat reference solar cells

  5. Indium tin oxide thin-films prepared by vapor phase pyrolysis for efficient silicon based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simashkevich, Alexei, E-mail: alexeisimashkevich@hotmail.com [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Serban, Dormidont; Bruc, Leonid; Curmei, Nicolai [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Hinrichs, Volker [Institut für Heterogene Materialsysteme, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Lise-Meitner Campus, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Rusu, Marin [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Institut für Heterogene Materialsysteme, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Lise-Meitner Campus, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The vapor phase pyrolysis deposition method was developed for the preparation of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with thicknesses ranging between 300 and 400 nm with the sheet resistance of 10–15 Ω/sq. and the transparency in the visible region of the spectrum over 80%. The layers were deposited on the (100) surface of the n-type silicon wafers with the charge carriers concentration of ~ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}. The morphology of the ITO layers deposited on Si wafers with different surface morphologies, e.g., smooth (polished), rough (irregularly structured) and textured (by inversed pyramids) was investigated. The as-deposited ITO thin films consist of crystalline columns with the height of 300–400 nm and the width of 50–100 nm. Photovoltaic parameters of mono- and bifacial solar cells of Cu/ITO/SiO{sub 2}/n–n{sup +} Si/Cu prepared on Si (100) wafers with different surface structures were studied and compared. A maximum efficiency of 15.8% was achieved on monofacial solar cell devices with the textured Si surface. Bifacial photovoltaic devices from 100 μm thick Si wafers with the smooth surface have demonstrated efficiencies of 13.0% at frontal illumination and 10% at rear illumination. - Highlights: • ITO thin films prepared by vapor phase pyrolysis on Si (100) wafers with a smooth (polished), rough (irregularly structured) and textured (by inversed pyramids) surface. • Monofacial ITO/SiO2/n-n+Si solar cells with an efficiency of 15.8% prepared and bifacial PV devices with front- and rear-side efficiencies up to 13% demonstrated. • Comparative studies of photovoltaic properties of solar cells with different morphologies of the Si wafer surface presented.

  6. Towards upconversion for amorphous silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, J.; Meijerink, A.; Rath, J.K.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2010-01-01

    Upconversion of subbandgap light of thin film single junction amorphous silicon solar cells may enhance their performance in the near infrared (NIR). In this paper we report on the application of the NIR–vis upconverter β-NaYF4:Yb3+(18%) Er3+(2%) at the back of an amorphous silicon solar cell in

  7. Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    flexible triple junction, amorphous silicon solar cells. At the Malaysia Energy Centre (MEC), we fabricated triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells (up to 12⋅7% efficiency (Wang et al 2002)) and laser-interconnected modules on steel, glass and polyimide substrates. A major issue encountered is the adhesion of thin film ...

  8. Thin film silicon solar cells: advanced processing and characterization - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballif, Ch.

    2008-04-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project carried out at the photovoltaics laboratory at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The project aimed to demonstrate the production of high-efficiency thin-film silicon devices on flexible substrates using low cost processes. New ways of improving processing and characterisation are examined. The process and manufacturing know-how necessary to provide support for industrial partners within the framework of further projects is discussed. The authors state that the efficiency of most devices was significantly improved, both on glass substrates and on flexible plastic foils. The process reproducibility was also improved and the interactions between the different layers in the device are now said to be better understood. The report presents the results obtained and discusses substrate materials, transparent conductors, defect analyses and new characterisation tools. Finally, the laboratory infrastructure is described.

  9. Compensation of decreased ion energy by increased hydrogen dilution in plasma deposition of thin film silicon solar cells at low substrate temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A.D.; de Jong, M.M.; Rath, J.K.; Brinza, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Goedheer, W.J.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Gorbachev, Y.E.; Orlov, K.E.; Khilkevitch, E.M.; Smirnov, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to deposit thin film silicon solar cells on plastics and papers, the deposition process needs to be adapted for low deposition temperatures. In a very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) process, both the gas phase and the surface processes are affected by

  10. Dual-Layer Nanostructured Flexible Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells with Enhanced Light Harvesting and Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yinyue; Xu, Zhen; Yu, Dongliang; Lu, Linfeng; Yin, Min; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Hao, Yuying; Fan, Zhiyong; Cui, Yanxia; Li, Dongdong

    2016-05-04

    Three-dimensional (3-D) structures have triggered tremendous interest for thin-film solar cells since they can dramatically reduce the material usage and incident light reflection. However, the high aspect ratio feature of some 3-D structures leads to deterioration of internal electric field and carrier collection capability, which reduces device power conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, we report high performance flexible thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells with a unique and effective light trapping scheme. In this device structure, a polymer nanopillar membrane is attached on top of a device, which benefits broadband and omnidirectional performances, and a 3-D nanostructure with shallow dent arrays underneath serves as a back reflector on flexible titanium (Ti) foil resulting in an increased optical path length by exciting hybrid optical modes. The efficient light management results in 42.7% and 41.7% remarkable improvements of short-circuit current density and overall efficiency, respectively. Meanwhile, an excellent flexibility has been achieved as PCE remains 97.6% of the initial efficiency even after 10 000 bending cycles. This unique device structure can also be duplicated for other flexible photovoltaic devices based on different active materials such as CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), organohalide lead perovskites, and so forth.

  11. Enhanced efficiency of hybrid amorphous silicon solar cells based on single-walled carbon nanotubes and polymer composite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Pramod M.; Gilshteyn, Evgenia P.; Yagafarov, Timur; Aleekseeva, Alena K.; Anisimov, Anton S.; Neumüller, Alex; Sergeev, Oleg; Bereznev, Sergei; Maricheva, Jelena; Nasibulin, Albert G.

    2018-03-01

    We report a simple approach to fabricate hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film and thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Randomly oriented high-quality SWCNTs with conductivity enhanced by means of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate are used as a window layer and a front electrode. A series of HSCs are fabricated in ambient conditions with varying SWCNT film thicknesses. The polymethylmethacrylate layer drop-casted on fabricated HSCs reduces the reflection fourfold and enhances the short-circuit J sc , open-circuit V oc , and efficiency by nearly 10%. A state-of-the-art J-V performance is shown for SWCNT/a-Si HSC with an open-circuit voltage of 900 mV and an efficiency of 3.4% under simulated one-sun AM 1.5 G direct illumination.

  12. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Annual Subcontract Report, 1 October 2003--30 September 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

    2005-03-01

    The major objectives of this program are to continue the advancement of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The program includes work in the following areas: Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations; developing wire saws to slice 100- m-thick silicon wafers on 290- m centers; developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers; developing cell processes using 100- m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%; expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control; establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology; facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock.

  13. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

    2006-07-01

    The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

  14. Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. A major issue encountered during fabrication of triple junction a-Si solar cells on polyimide sub- strates is the adhesion of the solar cell thin films to the substrates. Here, we present our study of film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells made on different polyimide substrates (Kapton VN, Upilex-S and ...

  15. Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A major issue encountered during fabrication of triple junction -Si solar cells on polyimide substrates is the adhesion of the solar cell thin films to the substrates. Here, we present our study of film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells made on different polyimide substrates (Kapton VN, Upilex-S and Gouldflex), and the ...

  16. Scattering effect of the high-index dielectric nanospheres for high performance hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhai; Gao, Pingqi; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Xiaofeng; Ye, Jichun

    2016-07-26

    Dielectric nanosphere arrays are considered as promising light-trapping designs with the capability of transforming the freely propagated sunlight into guided modes. This kinds of designs are especially beneficial to the ultrathin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells due to the advantages of using lossless material and easily scalable assembly. In this paper, we demonstrate numerically that the front-sided integration of high-index subwavelength titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanosphere arrays can significantly enhance the light absorption in 100 nm-thick a-Si:H thin films and thus the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of related solar cells. The main reason behind is firmly attributed to the strong scattering effect excited by TiO2 nanospheres in the whole waveband, which contributes to coupling the light into a-Si:H layer via two typical ways: 1) in the short-waveband, the forward scattering of TiO2 nanospheres excite the Mie resonance, which focuses the light into the surface of the a-Si:H layer and thus provides a leaky channel; 2) in the long-waveband, the transverse waveguided modes caused by powerful scattering effectively couple the light into almost the whole active layer. Moreover, the finite-element simulations demonstrate that photocurrent density (Jph) can be up to 15.01 mA/cm(2), which is 48.76% higher than that of flat system.

  17. Growth, etching, and stability of sputtered ZnO:Al for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jorj Ian

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) can fulfill many requirements in thin-film solar cells, acting as (1) a transparent contact through which the incident light is transmitted, (2) part of the back reflector, and (3) a source of light scattering. Magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al thin-films are highly transparent, conductive, and are typically texturized by post-deposition etching in a dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to achieve light scattering. The ZnO:Al thin-film electronic and optical properties, as well as the surface texture after etching, depend on the deposition conditions and the post-deposition treatments. Despite having been used in thin-film solar cells for more than a decade, many aspects regarding the growth, effects of heat treatments, environmental stability, and etching of sputtered ZnO:Al are not fully understood. This work endeavors to further the understanding of ZnO:Al for the purpose improving silicon thin-film solar cell efficiency and reducing ZnO:Al production costs. With regard to the growth of ZnO:Al, the influence of various deposition conditions on the resultant electrical and structural properties and their evolution with film thickness were studied. The surface electrical properties extracted from a multilayer model show that while carrier concentration of the surface layer saturates already at film thickness of 100 nm, the surface mobility continues to increases with film thickness, and it is concluded that electronic transport across grain boundaries limits mobility in ZnO:Al thin films. ZnO:Al deposited onto a previously etched ZnO:Al surface grows epitaxially, preserving both the original orientation and grain structure. Further, it is determined that a typical ZnO:Al used in thin-film silicon solar cells grows Zn-terminated on glass substrates. Concerning the affects of heat treatments and stability, it is demonstrated that a layer of amorphous silicon can protect ZnO:Al from degradation during annealing, and the mobility of Zn

  18. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Development of novel technologies for fabrication of high quality silicon thin films for solar cells; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kohinshitsu silicon usumaku sakusei gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for development of novel technologies for fabrication of high quality thin films of silicon for solar cells. The study on the mechanisms and effects of chemical annealing reveals that the film structure greatly varies depending on substrate temperature during the hydrotreatment process, based on the tests with substrate temperature, deposition of superthin film (T1) and hydrotreatment (T2) as the variable parameters. Chemical annealing at low temperature produces a high-quality a-Si:H film of low defect content. The study on fabrication of thin polycrystalline silicon films at low temperature observes on real time the process of deposition of the thin films on polycrystalline silicon substrates, where a natural oxide film is removed beforehand from the substrate. The results indicate that a thin polycrystalline silicon film of 100% crystallinity can be formed even on a polycrystalline silicon substrate by controlling starting gas composition and substrate temperature. The layer-by-layer method is used as the means for forming the seed crystals on a glass substrate, where deposition and hydrotreatment are repeated alternately, to produce the thin crystalline silicon films of high crystallinity. 3 figs.

  19. The investigation of ZnO:Al2O3/metal composite back reflectors in amorphous silicon germanium thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guang-Hong; Zhao Lei; Yan Bao-Jun; Chen Jing-Wei; Wang Ge; Diao Hong-Wei; Wang Wen-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Different aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO)/metal composite thin films, including AZO/Ag/Al, AZO/Ag/nickel—chromium alloy (NiCr), and AZO/Ag/NiCr/Al, are utilized as the back reflectors of p—i—n amorphous silicon germanium thin film solar cells. NiCr is used as diffusion barrier layer between Ag and Al to prevent mutual diffusion, which increases the short circuit current density of solar cell. NiCr and NiCr/Al layers are used as protective layers of Ag layer against oxidation and sulfurization, the higher efficiency of solar cell is achieved. The experimental results show that the performance of a-SiGe solar cell with AZO/Ag/NiCr/Al back reflector is best. The initial conversion efficiency is achieved to be 8.05%

  20. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-01

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×1016 atoms/cm3) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  1. Electron spin resonance investigaton of semiconductor materials for application in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Lihong

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, hydrogenated silicon and its alloys silicon carbide and silicon oxide have been investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). The microstructure of these materials ranges from highly crystalline to amorphous. The correlation between the paramagnetic defects, microstructure, optical and electrical properties has been discussed. Correspondingly, these properties were characterized by the spin density (N{sub S}), g-value and the lineshape of ESR spectra, Infrared (I{sup IR}{sub C}) and/or Raman crystallinity (I{sup RS}{sub C}) as well as optical absorption and electrical dark conductivity ({sigma}{sub D}). 1. As the light absorber, Si layers essentially should have low defect density and good stability against light exposure. The spin density (N{sub S}) measured by ESR is often used as a measure for the paramagnetic defect density (N{sub D}) in the material. However, ESR sample preparation procedures can potentially cause discrepancy between N{sub S} and N{sub D}. Using Mo-foil, Al-foil and ZnO:Al-covered glass as sacrificial substrates, {mu}c-Si:H and a-Si:H films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and ESR powder samples have been prepared with corresponding procedures. Possible preparation-related metastability and instability effects have been investigated in terms of substrate dependence, HCl-etching and atmosphere exposure. A sequence of 'preparation - annealing - air-exposure - annealing' has been designed to investigate the metastability and instability effects. N{sub S} after post-preparation air exposure is higher than in the annealed states, especially for the highly crystalline {mu}c-Si:H material the discrepancy reached one order of magnitude. Low temperature ESR measurements at 40 K indicated that atmospheric exposure leads to a redistribution of the defect states which in turn influence the evaluated N{sub S}. In annealed conditions the samples tend to have lower N{sub S} presumably due

  2. Thin Silicon Solar Cells: A Path to 35% Shockley-Queisser Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Laura; Boccard, Mathieu; Williams, Joshua; Jeffries, April; Gangam, Srikanth; Ghosh, Kunal; Honsberg, Christiana; Bowden, Stuart; Holman, Zachary; Atwater, Harry; Buonassisi, Tonio; Bremner, Stephen; Green, Martin; Balif, Christoph; Bertoni, Mariana

    2014-06-08

    Crystalline silicon technology is expected to remain the leading photovoltaic industry workhorse for decades. We present here the objectives and workplan of a recently launched project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency II (FPACE II), which aims at leading crystalline silicon to an efficiency breakthrough. The project will tackle fundamental approach of materials design, defect engineering, device simulations and materials growth and characterization. Among the main novelties, the implementation of carrier selective contacts made of wide bandgap material or stack of materials is investigated for improved passivation, carrier extraction and carrier transport. Based on an initial selection of candidate materials, preliminary experiments are conducted to verify the suitability of their critical parameters as well as preservation of the silicon substrate surface and bulk properties. The target materials include III-V and metal-oxide materials.

  3. Rapid Thermal Annealing and Hydrogen Passivation of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Low-Temperature Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason L. Terry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in open-circuit voltage (Voc, short-circuit current density (Jsc, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE of aLuminum induced crystallization, ion-assisted deposition (ALICIA polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on low-temperature glass substrates due to rapid thermal anneal (RTA treatment and subsequent remote microwave hydrogen plasma passivation (hydrogenation are examined. Voc improvements from 130 mV to 430 mV, Jsc improvements from 1.2 mA/cm2 to 11.3 mA/cm2, and peak IQE improvements from 16% to > 70% are achieved. A 1-second RTA plateau at 1000°C followed by hydrogenation increases the Jsc by a factor of 5.5. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements are used to determine the concentration profiles of dopants, impurities, and hydrogen. Computer modeling based on simulations of the measured IQE data reveals that the minority carrier lifetime in the absorber region increases by 3 orders of magnitude to about 1 nanosecond (corresponding to a diffusion length of at least 1 μm due to RTA and subsequent hydrogenation. The evaluation of the changes in the quantum efficiency and Voc due to RTA and hydrogenation with computer modeling significantly improves the understanding of the limiting factors to cell performance.

  4. Microcrystalline bottom cells in large area thin film silicon MICROMORPH™ solar modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoetzel, J.E.; Caglar, O.; Cashmore, J.S.; Goury, C.; Kalaš, J.; Klindworth, M.; Kupich, M.; Leu, G.F.; Lindic, M.H.; Losio, P.A.; Mates, Tomáš; Mereu, B.; Roschek, T.; Sinicco, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, Dec (2016), s. 178-189 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : microcrystalline silicon * material quality * PECVD * Raman crystallinity * grading * micromorph Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.784, year: 2016

  5. Wafer-Scale Integration of Inverted Nanopyramid Arrays for Advanced Light Trapping in Crystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Suqiong; Yang, Zhenhai; Gao, Pingqi; Li, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xi; Wang, Dan; He, Jian; Ying, Zhiqin; Ye, Jichun

    2016-12-01

    Crystalline silicon thin film (c-Si TF) solar cells with an active layer thickness of a few micrometers may provide a viable pathway for further sustainable development of photovoltaic technology, because of its potentials in cost reduction and high efficiency. However, the performance of such cells is largely constrained by the deteriorated light absorption of the ultrathin photoactive material. Here, we report an efficient light-trapping strategy in c-Si TFs (~20 μm in thickness) that utilizes two-dimensional (2D) arrays of inverted nanopyramid (INP) as surface texturing. Three types of INP arrays with typical periodicities of 300, 670, and 1400 nm, either on front, rear, or both surfaces of the c-Si TFs, are fabricated by scalable colloidal lithography and anisotropic wet etch technique. With the extra aid of antireflection coating, the sufficient optical absorption of 20-μm-thick c-Si with a double-sided 1400-nm INP arrays yields a photocurrent density of 39.86 mA/cm(2), which is about 76 % higher than the flat counterpart (22.63 mA/cm(2)) and is only 3 % lower than the value of Lambertian limit (41.10 mA/cm(2)). The novel surface texturing scheme with 2D INP arrays has the advantages of excellent antireflection and light-trapping capabilities, an inherent low parasitic surface area, a negligible surface damage, and a good compatibility for subsequent process steps, making it a good alternative for high-performance c-Si TF solar cells.

  6. Reflectance improvement by thermal annealing of sputtered Ag/ZnO back reflectors in a-Si:H thin film silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Franz-Josef; Söderström, Karin; Pahud, Céline

    2011-01-01

    Silver can be used as the back contact and reflector in thin film silicon solar cells. When deposited on textured substrates, silver films often exhibit reduced reflectance due to absorption losses by the excitation of surface plasmon resonances. We show that thermal annealing of the silver back...... reflector increases its reflectance drastically. The process is performed at low temperature (150°C) to allow the use of plastic sheets such as polyethylene naphthalate and increases the efficiency of single junction amorphous solar cells dramatically. We present the best result obtained on a flexible...

  7. Correlation studies between surface tension energy and ionic mobility in silicone - Dammar thin film for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, R.; Ahmad, A. H.; Taib, M. F. Mohamad; Hassan, O. H.; Yahya, M. Z. A.; Ali, A. M. M.

    2017-09-01

    Organic thin film system consisting of Silicone-dammar (SD) polymer resin was prepared and studied with respect to their electrochemical properties. Dammar which is a local plant resin (Dipterocaupacea sp) was mixed with silicone in various compositions and the two components were modified by using a solvent. A thin film layered on glass slaid was obtained by Doctor Blade method and cured at room temperature. Silicone-dammar with a composition ratio of 80:20 (SD20) showed the highest non-wetting angle at 90.13 degrees however the sample with a composition ratio of 90:10 (SD10) showed the highest surface tension energy at 179.80 J in the contact angle test. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis was done to investigate the electron transport and it was found that the SD10 sample provides a good medium for ionic mobility.

  8. Transparent conducting oxide contacts and textured metal back reflectors for thin film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, R.H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    With the growing population and the increasing environmental problems of the 'common' fossil and nuclear energy production, the need for clean and sustainable energy sources is evident. Solar energy conversion, such as in photovoltaic (PV) systems, can play a major role in the urgently needed energy

  9. High efficiency high rate microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells deposited at plasma excitation frequencies larger than 100 MHz

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strobel, C.; Leszczynska, B.; Merkel, U.; Kuske, J.; Fischer, D.D.; Albert, M.; Holovský, Jakub; Michard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, Dec (2015), 347-353 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12029 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283501 - Fast Track Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : VHF * PECVD * microcrystalline silicon * solar cell * high rate * high efficiency Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.732, year: 2015

  10. Two-dimensional high efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with a lateral light trapping architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia; Liu, Bofei; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2014-08-22

    Introducing light trapping structures into thin-film solar cells has the potential to enhance their solar energy harvesting as well as the performance of the cells; however, current strategies have been focused mainly on harvesting photons without considering the light re-escaping from cells in two-dimensional scales. The lateral out-coupled solar energy loss from the marginal areas of cells has reduced the electrical yield indeed. We therefore herein propose a lateral light trapping structure (LLTS) as a means of improving the light-harvesting capacity and performance of cells, achieving a 13.07% initial efficiency and greatly improved current output of a-Si:H single-junction solar cell based on this architecture. Given the unique transparency characteristics of thin-film solar cells, this proposed architecture has great potential for integration into the windows of buildings, microelectronics and other applications requiring transparent components.

  11. On the effects of hydrogenation of thin film polycrystalline silicon: A key factor to improve heterojunction solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qiu, Y.; Kunz, O.; Fejfar, Antonín; Ledinský, Martin; Teik Chan, B.; Gordon, I.; Van Gestel, D.; Venkatachalm, S.; Egan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 122, MAR (2014), s. 31-39 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E10061; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 240826 - PolySiMode Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon * thin films * polycrystalline * hydrogenation * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.337, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927024813006016

  12. Efficient light incoupling into silicon thin-film solar cells by anti-reflecting MgO/high-compact-AZO with air-side textured glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong-Won; Han, Min-Koo; Lee, Heon-Min

    2013-01-01

    Light incoupling effects have been enhanced at front interfaces of silicon (Si) thin-film solar cells. Firstly, a MgO thin film was introduced at glass substrate/Al-doped ZnO (AZO) interface for anti-reflection effect. We additionally found that the surface morphology of AZO films grown on MgO film after texture-etching is dependent on the compactness of AZO. For high-compact AZO films, the texture-etched MgO/AZO double layer exhibited significantly enhanced light-scattering capability. Secondly, we made textured surfaces at air/glass interface through simple plasma-etching without sacrificial layers or masks by optimizing the etching pressure. The additional air-side texture contributed to further improvement of total light scattering from the MgO/AZO-coated glass substrate. Fabricated microcrystalline Si thin-film solar cells employing the MgO coated glass with air-side surface texture showed decreased cell reflectance and increased quantum efficiency. The J sc increased from 21.7 to 26.5 mA cm −2 and final efficiency of 9.49% was achieved. Based on our experimental results, the suggested structure, the MgO coating on glass substrate of which air-side surface is texture-etched, can offer a promising approach to improve the light incoupling and efficiency of Si thin-film solar cells. (paper)

  13. Optimization of charge-carrier generation in amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell backed by two-dimensional metallic surface-relief grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civiletti, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Tom H.; Ahmad, Faiz; Monk, Peter B.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-08-01

    The rigorous coupled-wave approach was implemented in a three-dimensional setting to calculate the chargecarrier-generation rate in a thin-film solar cell with multiple amorphous-silicon p-i-n junctions. The solar cell comprised a front antireflection window; three electrically isolated p-i-n junctions in tandem; and a periodically corrugated silver back-reflector with hillock-shaped corrugations arranged on a hexagonal lattice. The differential evolution algorithm (DEA) was used to maximize the charge-carrier-generation rate over a set of selected optical and electrical parameters. This optimization exercise minimized the bandgap of the topmost i-layer but all other parameters turned out to be uninfluential. More importantly, the exercise led to a configuration that would very likely render the solar cell inefficient. Therefore, another optimization exercise was conducted to maximize power density. The resulting configuration was optimal over all parameters.

  14. Scattering properties of textured TCO substrates in thin-film silicon solar cells; Streuverhalten von texturierten TCO-Substraten in Silizium-Duennschichtsolarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Melanie

    2009-04-27

    In this PhD thesis the scattering properties of textured transparent conducting oxides (TCO) for the application in thin-film silicon solar cells are investigated. The main focus is the correlation between the nanotextured surface and its scattering behaviour. Therefore a ray tracing model based on geometric optics and atomic force microscopy data is developed. Simulation results are compared and discussed with measurements of angle resolved scattering in the far field and experimentally determined scanning near field microscopy data in the near field. Besides, simulation results obtained by applying geometric optics and solutions of the Maxwell equation in the near field are compared and discussed. The scattering properties of TCO-air and TCO-silicon interfaces are considered. (orig.)

  15. Silicon Solar Cell Turns 50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, J.

    2004-08-01

    This short brochure describes a milestone in solar (or photovoltaic, PV) research-namely, the 50th anniversary of the invention of the first viable silicon solar cell by three researchers at Bell Laboratories.

  16. Wet-Chemical Surface Texturing of Sputter-Deposited ZnO:Al Films as Front Electrode for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs play a major role as the front electrodes of thin-film silicon (Si solar cells, as they can provide optical scattering and hence improved photon absorption inside the devices. In this paper we report on the surface texturing of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al or AZO films for improved light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells. The AZO films are deposited onto soda-lime glass sheets via pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. Several promising AZO texturing methods are investigated using diluted hydrochloric (HCl and hydrofluoric acid (HF, through a two-step etching process. The developed texturing procedure combines the advantages of the HCl-induced craters and the smaller and jagged—but laterally more uniform—features created by HF etching. In the two-step process, the second etching step further enhances the optical haze, while simultaneously improving the uniformity of the texture features created by the HCl etch. The resulting AZO films show large haze values of above 40%, good scattering into large angles, and a surface angle distribution that is centred at around 30°, which is known from the literature to provide efficient light trapping for thin-film Si solar cells.

  17. Additives to silane for thin film silicon photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Patrick Timothy; Ridgeway, Robert Gordon; Hutchison, Katherine Anne; Langan, John Giles

    2013-09-17

    Chemical additives are used to increase the rate of deposition for the amorphous silicon film (.alpha.Si:H) and/or the microcrystalline silicon film (.mu.CSi:H). The electrical current is improved to generate solar grade films as photoconductive films used in the manufacturing of Thin Film based Photovoltaic (TFPV) devices.

  18. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  19. Thin epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stab, L.

    1989-01-01

    Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

  20. Thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, 1 April 1980-30 June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, K. R.; Rice, M. J.; Legge, R.; Ellis, R. J.

    1980-06-01

    During this third quarter of the program, the high pressure plasma (hpp) deposition process has been thoroughly evaluated using SiHCl/sub 3/ and SiCl/sub 4/ silicon source gases, by the gas chromatographic analysis of the effluent gases from the reactor. Both the deposition efficiency and reactor throughput rate were found to be consistently higher for hpp mode of operation compared to conventional CVD mode. The figure of merit for various chlorosilanes as a silicon source gas for hpp deposition is discussed. A new continuous silicon film deposition scheme is developed, and system design is initiated. This new system employs gas interlocks and eliminates the need for gas curtains which have been found to be problematic. Solar cells (2 cm x 2 cm area) with AM1 efficiencies of up to 12% were fabricated on RTR grain enhanced hpp deposited films. The parameters of a 12% cell under simulated AM1 illumination were: V/sub OC/ = 0.582 volts, J/sub SC/ = 28.3 mA/cm/sup 2/ and F.F. = 73.0%.

  1. Optimization of Recombination Layer in the Tunnel Junction of Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Tandem Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Shin Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The amorphous silicon/amorphous silicon (a-Si/a-Si tandem solar cells have attracted much attention in recent years, due to the high efficiency and low manufacturing cost compared to the single-junction a-Si solar cells. In this paper, the tandem cells are fabricated by high-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD at 27.1 MHz. The effects of the recombination layer and the i-layer thickness matching on the cell performance have been investigated. The results show that the tandem cell with a p+ recombination layer and i2/i1 thickness ratio of 6 exhibits a maximum efficiency of 9.0% with the open-circuit voltage (Voc of 1.59 V, short-circuit current density (Jsc of 7.96 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF of 0.70. After light-soaking test, our a-Si/a-Si tandem cell with p+ recombination layer shows the excellent stability and the stabilized efficiency of 8.7%.

  2. Silicon bulk growth for solar cells: Science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Koichi; Gao, Bing; Nakano, Satoshi; Harada, Hirofumi; Miyamura, Yoshiji

    2017-02-01

    The photovoltaic industry is in a phase of rapid expansion, growing by more than 30% per annum over the last few decades. Almost all commercial solar cells presently use single-crystalline or multicrystalline silicon wafers similar to those used in microelectronics; meanwhile, thin-film compounds and alloy solar cells are currently under development. The laboratory performance of these cells, at 26% solar energy conversion efficiency, is now approaching thermodynamic limits, with the challenge being to incorporate these improvements into low-cost commercial products. Improvements in the optical design of cells, particularly in their ability to trap weakly absorbed light, have also led to increasing interest in thin-film cells based on polycrystalline silicon; these cells have advantages over other thin-film photovoltaic candidates. This paper provides an overview of silicon-based solar cell research, especially the development of silicon wafers for solar cells, from the viewpoint of growing both single-crystalline and multicrystalline wafers.

  3. Biomimetic spiral grating for stable and highly efficient absorption in crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Jin

    2017-09-12

    By emulating the phyllotaxis structure of natural plants, which has an efficient and stable light capture capability, a two-dimensional spiral grating is introduced on the surface of crystalline silicon solar cells to obtain both efficient and stable light absorption. Using the rigorous coupled wave analysis method, the absorption performance on structural parameter variations of spiral gratings is investigated firstly. Owing to diffraction resonance and excellent superficies antireflection, the integrated absorption of the optimal spiral grating cell is raised by about 77 percent compared with the conventional slab cell. Moreover, though a 15 percent deviation of structural parameters from the optimal spiral grating is applied, only a 5 percent decrease of the absorption is observed. This reveals that the performance of the proposed grating would tolerate large structural variations. Furthermore, the angular and polarization dependence on the absorption of the optimized cell is studied. For average polarizations, a small decrease of only 11 percent from the maximum absorption is observed within an incident angle ranging from −70 to 70 degrees. The results show promising application potentials of the biomimetic spiral grating in the solar cell.

  4. "Silicon millefeuille": From a silicon wafer to multiple thin crystalline films in a single step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, David; Trifonov, Trifon; Garín, Moisés; Alcubilla, Ramon

    2013-04-01

    During the last years, many techniques have been developed to obtain thin crystalline films from commercial silicon ingots. Large market applications are foreseen in the photovoltaic field, where important cost reductions are predicted, and also in advanced microelectronics technologies as three-dimensional integration, system on foil, or silicon interposers [Dross et al., Prog. Photovoltaics 20, 770-784 (2012); R. Brendel, Thin Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany 2003); J. N. Burghartz, Ultra-Thin Chip Technology and Applications (Springer Science + Business Media, NY, USA, 2010)]. Existing methods produce "one at a time" silicon layers, once one thin film is obtained, the complete process is repeated to obtain the next layer. Here, we describe a technology that, from a single crystalline silicon wafer, produces a large number of crystalline films with controlled thickness in a single technological step.

  5. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  6. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  7. On the use of a charged tunnel layer as a hole collector to improve the efficiency of amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Cangming; Peters, Ian Marius; Sahraei, Nasim; Aberle, Armin G.; Stangl, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    A new concept, using a negatively charged tunnel layer as a hole collector, is proposed and theoretically investigated for application in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells. The concept features a glass/transparent conductive oxide/ultra-thin negatively charged tunnel layer/intrinsic a-Si:H/n-doped a-Si:H/metal structure. The key feature of this so called t+-i-n structure is the introduction of a negatively charged tunnel layer (attracting holes from the intrinsic absorber layer), which substitutes the highly recombination active p-doped a-Si:H layer in a conventional p-i-n configuration. Atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide (ALD AlOx) is suggested as a potential candidate for such a tunnel layer. Using typical ALD AlOx parameters, a 27% relative efficiency increase (i.e., from 9.7% to 12.3%) is predicted theoretically for a single-junction a-Si:H solar cell on a textured superstrate. This prediction is based on parameters that reproduce the experimentally obtained external quantum efficiency and current-voltage characteristics of a conventional processed p-i-n a-Si:H solar cell, reaching 9.7% efficiency and serving as a reference. Subsequently, the p-doped a-Si:H layer is replaced by the tunnel layer (studied by means of numerical device simulation). Using a t+-i-n configuration instead of a conventional p-i-n configuration will not only increase the short-circuit current density (from 14.4 to 14.9 mA/cm2, according to our simulations), it also enhances the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor (from 917 mV to 1.0 V and from 74% to 83%, respectively). For this concept to work efficiently, a high work function front electrode material or a high interface charge is needed.

  8. Role of SiNx Barrier Layer on the Performances of Polyimide Ga2O3-doped ZnO p-i-n Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, silicon nitride (SiNx thin films were deposited on polyimide (PI substrates as barrier layers by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system. The gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO thin films were deposited on PI and SiNx/PI substrates at room temperature (RT, 100 and 200 °C by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The thicknesses of the GZO and SiNx thin films were controlled at around 160 ± 12 nm and 150 ± 10 nm, respectively. The optimal deposition parameters for the SiNx thin films were a working pressure of 800 × 10−3 Torr, a deposition power of 20 W, a deposition temperature of 200 °C, and gas flowing rates of SiH4 = 20 sccm and NH3 = 210 sccm, respectively. For the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI structures we had found that the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C had higher crystallinity, higher electron mobility, larger carrier concentration, smaller resistivity, and higher optical transmittance ratio. For that, the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C on PI and SiNx/PI substrates with thickness of ~1000 nm were used to fabricate p-i-n hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si thin film solar cells. 0.5% HCl solution was used to etch the surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates. Finally, PECVD system was used to deposit α-Si thin film onto the etched surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates to fabricate α-Si thin film solar cells, and the solar cells’ properties were also investigated. We had found that substrates to get the optimally solar cells’ efficiency were 200 °C-deposited GZO-SiNx/PI.

  9. Development of Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon-Germanium Alloys for Improving Long-Wavelength Absorption in Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Tang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon-germanium (μc-Si1-xGex:H alloys were developed for application in Si-based thin-film solar cells. The effects of the germane concentration (RGeH4 and the hydrogen ratio (RH2 on the μc-Si1-xGex:H alloys and the corresponding single-junction thin-film solar cells were studied. The behaviors of Ge incorporation in a-Si1-xGex:H and μc-Si1-xGex:H were also compared. Similar to a-Si1-xGex:H, the preferential Ge incorporation was observed in μc-Si1-xGex:H. Moreover, a higher RH2 significantly promoted Ge incorporation for a-Si1-xGex:H, while the Ge content was not affected by RH2 in μc-Si1-xGex:H growth. Furthermore, to eliminate the crystallization effect, the 0.9 μm thick absorbers with a similar crystalline volume fraction were applied. With the increasing RGeH4, the accompanied increase in Ge content of μc-Si1-xGex:H narrowed the bandgap and markedly enhanced the long-wavelength absorption. However, the bias-dependent EQE measurement revealed that too much Ge incorporation in absorber deteriorated carrier collection and cell performance. With the optimization of RH2 and RGeH4, the single-junction μc-Si1-xGex:H cell achieved an efficiency of 5.48%, corresponding to the crystalline volume fraction of 50.5% and Ge content of 13.2 at.%. Compared to μc-Si:H cell, the external quantum efficiency at 800 nm had a relative increase by 33.1%.

  10. Investigation and optimization of series connection of thin-film silicon solar modules; Untersuchung und Optimierung der Serienverschaltung von Silizium-Duennschicht-Solarmodulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    The integrated series connection is an important and elementary part of a thin-film silicon solar module. The series connection leads to a reduction of Ohmic losses and an increase of the module voltage. After their deposition the different functional layers of a solar module must be patterned selectively to form a series connection. First the front contact, then the absorber, and finally the back contact is locally removed. The first step and the last step are needed to separate the contact layers (isolation step), the absorber patterning is used to expose the front contact and prepare the series interconnection. Usually laser ablation is used for patterning. The patterning of the front contact is overall a noncritical step. Therefore, this thesis exclusively investigates mechanisms that limit the process window of the absorber patterning and the back contact patterning. Especially for the absorber patterning on SnO{sub 2}-substrates the process window is very narrow. As too high pulse energies create a barrier layer on the SnO{sub 2}-window layer, which restricts the current flow in a series connected module. This barrier layer probably consists of SiO{sub 2} or an alloy of (Sn,Si)O{sub 2}. It arrises from redeposition of evaporated silicon. Ablation of the absorber without creating a barrier layer is only possible, when the silicon is not evaporated. Here the ablation is induced by the explosive out-diffusion of hydrogen from the silicon layer. On ZnO-substrates no significant barrier formation occurs. For this reason the process window is very broad. Patterning the back contact is the last isolation step. It is mainly restricted by an unavoidable deterioration of the absorber as well as a possible ablation of the window layer. The deterioration of the absorber in the vicinity of the patterning groove leads to parasitic dark currents for amorphous and for microcrystalline solar cells. The parasitic dark currents decrease the efficiency {eta} of a patterned

  11. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  12. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  13. A novel method to achieve selective emitter for silicon solar cell using low cost pattern-able a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent phosphorus diffusion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da Ming; Liang, Zong Cun; Zhuang, Lin; Lin, Yang Huan; Shen, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► a-Si thin films as semitransparent phosphorus diffusion barriers for solar cell. ► a-Si thin films on silicon wafers were patterned by the alkaline solution. ► Selective emitter was formed with patterned a-Si as diffusion barrier for solar cell. -- Abstract: Selective emitter for silicon solar cell was realized by employing a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent diffusion barrier. The a-Si thin films with various thicknesses (∼10–40 nm) were deposited by the electron-beam evaporation technique. Emitters with sheet resistances from 37 to 145 Ω/□ were obtained via POCl 3 diffusion process. The thickness of the a-Si diffusion barrier was optimized to be 15 nm for selective emitter in our work. Homemade mask which can dissolve in ethanol was screen-printed on a-Si film to make pattern. The a-Si film was then patterned in KOH solution to form finger-like design. Selective emitter was obtainable with one-step diffusion with patterned a-Si film on. Combinations of sheet resistances for the high-/low-level doped regions of 39.8/112.1, 36.2/88.8, 35.4/73.9 were obtained. These combinations are suitable for screen-printed solar cells. This preparation method of selective emitter based on a-Si diffusion barrier is a promising approach for low cost industrial manufacturing.

  14. Performance improvement of silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhafarov T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the method is shown to improve the photovoltaic parameters of screen-printed silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon film formation on the frontal surface of the cell using the electrochemical etching. The possible mechanisms responsible for observed improvement of silicon solar cell performance are discussed.

  15. Development of Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Tandem Thin-Film Solar Modules with Low Output Voltage, High Energy Yield, Low Light-Induced Degradation, and High Damp-Heat Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Yi Tsai; Chin-Yao Tsai

    2014-01-01

    In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system w...

  16. Development of textured ZnO-coated low-cost glass substrate with very high haze ratio for silicon-based thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongsingthong, Aswin, E-mail: aswin.hongsingthong@nectec.or.th [Solar Energy Technology Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Krajangsang, Taweewat; Limmanee, Amornrat; Sriprapha, Kobsak; Sritharathikhun, Jaran [Solar Energy Technology Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Konagai, Makoto [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, NE-15, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2013-06-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films with a very high haze ratio and low resistivity were developed on soda–lime glass substrate by using reactive ion etching (RIE) treatment with carbon tetrafluoride (CF{sub 4}) to modify the substrate surface morphology before the deposition of ZnO films. We found that the surface morphology of the ZnO films deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique could be modified by varying the glass treatment conditions and the gas pressure was a key parameter. With increasing glass-etching pressure, the surface morphology of the ZnO films changed from conventional pyramid-like single texture to greater cauliflower-like double texture, leading to significant increases in root mean square roughness and haze ratio of the films. By employing the developed high-haze ZnO films as a front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer in microcrystalline silicon solar cells, an enhancement in the quantum efficiency in the long-wavelength region has been achieved. Experimental results have verified that our unique and original glass etching treatment is a simple and effective technique to improve the light-scattering properties of the ZnO films while preserving their good transparency and electrical properties. Thus, the ZnO films deposited on etched soda–lime glass have a high potential for the use as a front TCO layer in thin-film Si solar cells. - Highlights: • High-haze zinc oxide (ZnO) grown on low cost soda–lime glass has been developed. • Surface of the ZnO can be modified by varying glass-substrate etching conditions. • Glass-etching pressure is a key to increase haze ratio of the ZnO films. • Higher cell efficiency has been achieved from cell using etched glass. • High-haze ZnO coated glass is a promising transparent conductive oxide coated glass.

  17. Radiation resistant passivation of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, R.M.; Gan, J.Y.; Gruenbaum, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a silicon solar cell having improved stability when exposed to concentrated solar radiation. It comprises a body of silicon material having a major surface for receiving radiation, a plurality of p and n conductivity regions in the body for collecting electrons and holes created by impinging radiation, and a passivation layer on the major surface including a first layer of silicon oxide in contact with the body and a polycrystalline silicon layer on the first layer of silicon oxide

  18. Experimental quantification of useful and parasitic absorption of light in plasmon-enhanced thin silicon films for solar cells application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morawiec, S.; Holovský, Jakub; Mendes, M.J.; Müller, Martin; Ganzerová, Kristína; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Ledinský, Martin; Priolo, F.; Fejfar, Antonín; Crupi, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Mar (2016), 1-10, č. článku 22481. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GA14-15357S; GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanoparticles * nanophotonics and plasmonics * solar cells * solar energy and photovoltaic technology Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  19. Laser wafering for silicon solar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

    2011-03-01

    Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W{sub p} (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs ({approx}20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions ({approx}50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 {micro}m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

  20. Laser wafering for silicon solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

    2011-01-01

    Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W p (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs (∼20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions (∼50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 (micro)m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

  1. Development of Tandem Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Large-Area See-Through Color Solar Panels with Reflective Layer and 4-Step Laser Scribing for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film large-area see-through color solar modules were successfully designed and developed for building-integrated photovoltaic applications. Novel and key technologies of reflective layers and 4-step laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to produce solar panels with various colors, such as purple, dark blue, light blue, silver, golden, orange, red wine, and coffee. The highest module power is 105 W and the highest visible light transmittance is near 20%.

  2. Industrial Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Holger Neuhaus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, around 86% of all wafer-based silicon solar cells were produced using screen printing to form the silver front and aluminium rear contacts and chemical vapour deposition to grow silicon nitride as the antireflection coating onto the front surface. This paper reviews this dominant solar cell technology looking into state-of-the-art equipment and corresponding processes for each process step. The main efficiency losses of this type of solar cell are analyzed to demonstrate the future efficiency potential of this technology. In research and development, more various advanced solar cell concepts have demonstrated higher efficiencies. The question which arises is “why are new solar cell concepts not transferred into industrial production more frequently?”. We look into the requirements a new solar cell technology has to fulfill to have an advantage over the current approach. Finally, we give an overview of high-efficiency concepts which have already been transferred into industrial production.

  3. Photovoltaic characteristics of porous silicon /(n+ - p) silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Aslanov, S.S.; Ragimov, S.H.; Sadigov, M.S.; Nabiyeva, A.F.; Yuksel, Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this work is to improve the photovoltaic parameters of the screen-printed silicon solar cells by formation the nano-porous silicon film on the frontal surface of the cell. The photovoltaic characteristics of two type silicon solar cells with and without porous silicon layer were measured and compared. A remarkable increment of short-circuit current density and the efficiency by 48 percent and 20 percent, respectively, have been achieved for PS/(n + - pSi) solar cell comparing to (n + - p)Si solar cell without PS layer

  4. Polycystalline silicon thin films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Christian Claus

    2012-01-15

    with an activation energy of E{sub A}{sup poly-Si}=1.1 eV. By long-lasting tempering or a short high-temperature step finally the stable layer configuration substrate/Al+Si islands(hillocks)/poly-Si can be reached (E{sub A}{sup hillocks}=2.4 eV). The further main topic of this thesis is the study of the applicability of the poly-silicon layers fabricated by means of the ALILE and R-ALILE process for electronic applications. First thin-film transistors were studied. Additionally thin-film solar cells with microcrystalline silicon as absorber material on polycrystalline R-ALILE seed layers were fabricated. Finally the suitedness of the fabricated poly-silicon layers for crytographic applications were studied.

  5. Photovoltaic mechanisms in polycrystalline thin film silicon solar cells. Final report, 30 June 1979-29 June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.

    1980-11-01

    The objectives of this program were: (1) to develop appropriate measurement techniques to facilitate a quantitative study of the electrical activity of structural defects and at a grain boundary (G.B.) in terms of generation-recombination, barrier height, and G.B. conductivity; (2) to characterize G.B.s in terms of physical properties such as angle of misfit and local stress, and to correlate them with the electrical activity; (3) to determine the influence of solar cell processing on the electrical behavior of structural defects and G.B.s; and (4) to evaluate polycrystalline solar cell performance based on the above study, and to compare it with the experimentally measured performance. Progress is reported in detail. (WHK)

  6. Silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, W R; Neitzert, H C

    2006-01-01

    The world of today must face up to two contradictory energy problems: on the one hand, there is the sharply growing consumer demand in countries such as China and India. On the other hand, natural resources are dwindling. Moreover, many of those countries which still possess substantial gas and oil supplies are politically unstable. As a result, renewable natural energy sources have received great attention. Among these, solar-cell technology is one of the most promising candidates. However, there still remains the problem of the manufacturing costs of such cells. Many attempts have been made

  7. A review of recent progress in heterogeneous silicon tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Lee, Kan-Hua; Araki, Kenji; Kojima, Nobuaki

    2018-04-01

    Silicon solar cells are the most established solar cell technology and are expected to dominate the market in the near future. As state-of-the-art silicon solar cells are approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit, stacking silicon solar cells with other photovoltaic materials to form multi-junction devices is an obvious pathway to further raise the efficiency. However, many challenges stand in the way of fully realizing the potential of silicon tandem solar cells because heterogeneously integrating silicon with other materials often degrades their qualities. Recently, above or near 30% silicon tandem solar cell has been demonstrated, showing the promise of achieving high-efficiency and low-cost solar cells via silicon tandem. This paper reviews the recent progress of integrating solar cell with other mainstream solar cell materials. The first part of this review focuses on the integration of silicon with III-V semiconductor solar cells, which is a long-researched topic since the emergence of III-V semiconductors. We will describe the main approaches—heteroepitaxy, wafer bonding and mechanical stacking—as well as other novel approaches. The second part introduces the integration of silicon with polycrystalline thin-film solar cells, mainly perovskites on silicon solar cells because of its rapid progress recently. We will also use an analytical model to compare the material qualities of different types of silicon tandem solar cells and project their practical efficiency limits.

  8. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed by press......In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...... by pressing a silicon stamp containing a mu m size raised grid structure into the TiO2 by use of a hydraulic press (1 ton/50 cm(2)). The performance of these microstructured substrates in a ETA cell sensitized by a thermally evaporated or chemical bath deposited PbS film and completed by a PEDOT:PSS hole...

  9. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  10. A new tevchnique for production of amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.M. de; Pereyra, I.; Sanematsu, M.S.; Corgnier, S.L.L.; Fonseca, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a new technique for the production of amorphous silicon solar cells based on the development of thin films of a-Si in a reactor in which the decomposition of the sylane, induced by capacitively coupled RF, and the film deposition occur in separate chambers. (M.W.O.) [pt

  11. Transmission Electron Microscopy of the Textured Silver Back Reflector of a Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell: From Crystallography to Optical Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchamp, Martial; Söderström, K.; Jeangros, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The study of light trapping in amorphous, microcrystalline and micromorph thin-film Si solar cells is an important and active field of investigation. It has been demonstrated that the use of a rough Ag back-reflector lead to an increase of short circuit current but also to losses through the crea...

  12. Experimental investigation of the excess charge and time constant of minority carriers in the thin diffused layer of 0.1 Ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, M. P.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Lindholm, F. A.; Sah, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    The observed low open-circuit voltage in 0.1 Ohm-cm solar cells is probably related to an excessively high diode saturation current. Theoretical studies conducted by Lindholm et al. (1975) and by Godlewski et al. (1975) have shown that a high saturation current could be produced by either high recombination rates or bandgap narrowing effects. A description is given of an investigation which shows that bandgap narrowing effects have a first order significance in determining the charge carrier transport controlling the open-circuit voltage of 0.1 Ohm-cm silicon solar cells.

  13. Study on the fabrication of back surface reflectors in nano-crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by using random texturing aluminum anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang Sik; Jang, Eunseok; Cho, Jun-Sik; Yoo, Jinsu; Park, Joo Hyung; Byungsung, O.

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, researchers have improved the efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells in many ways. One of the easiest and most practical methods to improve solar-cell efficiency is adopting a back surface reflector (BSR) as the bottom layer or as the substrate. The BSR reflects the incident light back to the absorber layer in a solar cell, thus elongating the light path and causing the so-called "light trapping effect". The elongation of the light path in certain wavelength ranges can be enhanced with the proper scale of BSR surface structure or morphology. An aluminum substrate with a surface modified by aluminum anodizing is used to improve the optical properties for applications in amorphous silicon solar cells as a BSR in this research due to the high reflectivity and the low material cost. The solar cells with a BSR were formed and analyzed by using the following procedures: First, the surface of the aluminum substrate was degreased by using acetone, ethanol and distilled water, and it was chemically polished in a dilute alkali solution. After the cleaning process, the aluminum surface's morphology was modified by using a controlled anodization in a dilute acid solution to form oxide on the surface. The oxidized film was etched off by using an alkali solution to leave an aluminum surface with randomly-ordered dimple-patterns of approximately one micrometer in size. The anodizing conditions and the anodized aluminum surfaces after the oxide layer had been removed were systematically investigated according to the applied voltage. Finally, amorphous silicon solar cells were deposited on a modified aluminum plate by using dc magnetron sputtering. The surfaces of the anodized aluminum were observed by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The total and the diffuse reflectances of the surface-modified aluminum sheets were measured by using UV spectroscopy. We observed that the diffuse reflectances increased with increasing anodizing voltage. The

  14. Thin film solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  15. Development of Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Tandem Thin-Film Solar Modules with Low Output Voltage, High Energy Yield, Low Light-Induced Degradation, and High Damp-Heat Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system with these low-voltage panels was installed and its performance ratio has been simulated and projected to be 92.1%, which is 20% more than the crystalline silicon and CdTe counterparts.

  16. Formation of thin-film crystalline silicon on glass observed by in-situ XRD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, J.M.; Vavrunkova, V.; Sutta, P.; Van Swaaij, R.A.C.M.M.; Zeman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thin-film poly-crystalline silicon (poly c-Si) on glass obtained by crystallization of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) film is a promising material for low cost, high efficiency solar cells. Our approach to obtain this material is to crystallize a-Si films on glass by solid phase crystallization (SPC).

  17. Environmental impact of thin-film GaInP/GaAs and multicrystalline silicon solar modules produced with solar electricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohr, N.; Meijer, A.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope: The environmental burden of photovoltaic (PV) solar modules is currently largely determined by the cumulative input of fossil energy used for module production. However, with an increased focus on limiting the emission of CO2 coming from fossil fuels, it is expected that

  18. Impact of carrier doping on electrical properties of laser-induced liquid-phase-crystallized silicon thin films for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umishio, Hiroshi; Matsui, Takuya; Sai, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takeaki; Matsubara, Koji

    2018-02-01

    Large-grain-size (>1 mm) liquid-phase-crystallized silicon (LPC-Si) films with a wide range of carrier doping levels (1016–1018 cm‑3 either of the n- or p-type) were prepared by irradiating amorphous silicon with a line-shaped 804 nm laser, and characterized for solar cell applications. The LPC-Si films show high electron and hole mobilities with maximum values of ∼800 and ∼200 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, respectively, at a doping level of ∼(2–4) × 1016 cm‑3, while their carrier lifetime monotonically increases with decreasing carrier doping level. A grain-boundary charge-trapping model provides good fits to the measured mobility–carrier density relations, indicating that the potential barrier at the grain boundaries limits the carrier transport in the lowly doped films. The open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density of test LPC-Si solar cells depend strongly on the doping level, peaking at (2–5) × 1016 cm‑3. These results indicate that the solar cell performance is governed by the minority carrier diffusion length for the highly doped films, while it is limited by majority carrier transport as well as by device design for the lowly doped films.

  19. Silicon-Rich Silicon Carbide Hole-Selective Rear Contacts for Crystalline-Silicon-Based Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogay, Gizem; Stuckelberger, Josua; Wyss, Philippe; Jeangros, Quentin; Allebé, Christophe; Niquille, Xavier; Debrot, Fabien; Despeisse, Matthieu; Haug, Franz-Josef; Löper, Philipp; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-12-28

    The use of passivating contacts compatible with typical homojunction thermal processes is one of the most promising approaches to realizing high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In this work, we investigate an alternative rear-passivating contact targeting facile implementation to industrial p-type solar cells. The contact structure consists of a chemically grown thin silicon oxide layer, which is capped with a boron-doped silicon-rich silicon carbide [SiC x (p)] layer and then annealed at 800-900 °C. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the thin chemical oxide layer disappears upon thermal annealing up to 900 °C, leading to degraded surface passivation. We interpret this in terms of a chemical reaction between carbon atoms in the SiC x (p) layer and the adjacent chemical oxide layer. To prevent this reaction, an intrinsic silicon interlayer was introduced between the chemical oxide and the SiC x (p) layer. We show that this intrinsic silicon interlayer is beneficial for surface passivation. Optimized passivation is obtained with a 10-nm-thick intrinsic silicon interlayer, yielding an emitter saturation current density of 17 fA cm -2 on p-type wafers, which translates into an implied open-circuit voltage of 708 mV. The potential of the developed contact at the rear side is further investigated by realizing a proof-of-concept hybrid solar cell, featuring a heterojunction front-side contact made of intrinsic amorphous silicon and phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon. Even though the presented cells are limited by front-side reflection and front-side parasitic absorption, the obtained cell with a V oc of 694.7 mV, a FF of 79.1%, and an efficiency of 20.44% demonstrates the potential of the p + /p-wafer full-side-passivated rear-side scheme shown here.

  20. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  1. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  2. Graphene-Al2O3-silicon heterojunction solar cells on flexible silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaehyun; Chou, Harry; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-04-01

    The quest of obtaining sustainable, clean energy is an ongoing challenge. While silicon-based solar cells have widespread acceptance in practical commercialization, continuous research is important to expand applicability beyond fixed-point generation to other environments while also improving power conversion efficiency (PCE), stability, and cost. In this work, graphene-on-silicon Schottky junction and graphene-insulator-silicon (GIS) solar cells are demonstrated on flexible, thin foils, which utilize the electrical conductivity and optical transparency of graphene as the top transparent contact. Multi-layer graphene was grown by chemical vapor deposition on Cu-Ni foils, followed by p-type doping with Au nanoparticles and encapsulated in poly(methyl methacrylate), which showed high stability with minimal performance degradation over more than one month under ambient conditions. Bendable silicon film substrates were fabricated by a kerf-less exfoliation process based on spalling, where the silicon film thickness could be controlled from 8 to 35 μm based on the process recipe. This method allows for re-exfoliation from the parent Si wafer and incorporates the process for forming the backside metal contact of the solar cell. GIS cells were made with a thin insulating Al2O3 atomic layer deposited film, where the thin Al2O3 film acts as a tunneling barrier for holes, while simultaneously passivating the silicon surface, increasing the minority carrier lifetime from 2 to 27 μs. By controlling the Al2O3 thickness, an optimized cell with 7.4% power conversion efficiency (PCE) on a 35 μm thick silicon absorber was fabricated.

  3. Analysis of IV characteristics of solar cells made of hydrogenated amorphous, polymorphous and microcrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamadeh, H.

    2009-03-01

    The IV characteristics of pin solar cells made of amorphous, polymorphous and microcrystalline silicon were investigated. The temperature dependence was measured in the temperature range between 150 K and 395 K. This range covers the most terrestrial applications condition. Using simplex procedure, the IV parameter of the cells were deduce using line fitting. It has been shown that polymorphous silicon shows electrical properties that are close to properties of microcrystalline silicon but as it is well known, polymorphous silicon shows higher absorption similar to amorphous silicon. The polymorphous silicon solar cells showed higher efficiencies, lower shunting and higher filling factors. In the above mentioned temperature range, polymorphous silicon is the better material for the manufacturing of thin film hydrogenated silicon pin solar cells. More investigations concerning the structural properties are necessary to make stronger conclusions in regards to the stability of the material, what we hope to do in the future. (author)

  4. Advanced Silicon Space Solar Cells Using Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, J.M.; Ruby, D.S.; Zaidi, S.H.

    1999-03-31

    Application of nanotechnology and advanced optical structures offer new possibilities for improved radiation tolerance in silicon solar cells. We describe the application of subwavelength diffractive structures to enhance optical absorption near the surface, and thereby improve the radiation tolerance.

  5. Thin film silicon modules: contributions to low cost industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A. [Universite de Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the research work done during the two-year period 2003-04 at the Thin-Film Solar Cell Laboratory of the Institute of Microtechnology (IMT) at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The transition from fundamental research work to concrete industrialisation issues, and changes within the research staff are discussed. The main results of the work done are presented, including basic techniques for the production of p-i-n solar cells on glass, new technologies for the deposition of n-i-p cells on low-cost flexible substrates and the optimisation of zinc oxide deposition methods. The key role played by substrate chemistry and roughness in the nucleation and growth of micro-crystalline silicon layers is looked at and diagnostic tools for the analysis of micro-crystalline solar cells are discussed.

  6. Selective emitter using porous silicon for crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Inyong; Kim, Kyunghae; Kim, Youngkuk; Han, Kyumin; Kyeong, Doheon; Kwon, Taeyoung; Vinh Ai, Dao; Lee, Jeongchul; Yi, Junsin [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon-City, Kyunggi-Do 440-746 (Korea); Thamilselvan, M. [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon-City, Kyunggi-Do 440-746 (Korea); Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu (India); Ju, Minkyu; Lee, Kyungsoo [KPE Ins. Chunchun-dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon-City, Kyunggi-Do 440-746 (Korea)

    2009-06-15

    This study is devoted to the formation of high-low-level-doped selective emitter for crystalline silicon solar cells for photovoltaic application. We report here the formation of porous silicon under chemical reaction condition. The chemical mixture containing hydrofluoric and nitric acid, with de-ionized water, was used to make porous on the half of the silicon surface of size 125 x 125 cm. Porous and non-porous areas each share half of the whole silicon surface. H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}:methanol gives the best deposited layer with acceptable adherence and uniformity on the non-porous and porous areas of the silicon surface to get high- and low-level-doped regions. The volume concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} does not exceed 10% of the total volume emulsion. Phosphoric acid was used as an n-type doping source to make emitter for silicon solar cells. The measured emitter sheet resistances at the high- and low-level-doped regions were 30-35 and 97-474 {omega}/{open_square} respectively. A simple process for low- and high-level doping has been achieved by forming porous and porous-free silicon surface, in this study, which could be applied for solar cells selective emitter doping. (author)

  7. Light-induced performance increase of silicon heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2016-10-11

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells consist of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers coated with doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) bilayers for passivating-contact formation. Here, we unambiguously demonstrate that carrier injection either due to light soaking or (dark) forward-voltage bias increases the open circuit voltage and fill factor of finished cells, leading to a conversion efficiency gain of up to 0.3% absolute. This phenomenon contrasts markedly with the light-induced degradation known for thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We associate our performance gain with an increase in surface passivation, which we find is specific to doped a-Si:H/c-Si structures. Our experiments suggest that this improvement originates from a reduced density of recombination-active interface states. To understand the time dependence of the observed phenomena, a kinetic model is presented.

  8. Light-induced performance increase of silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eiji; De Wolf, Stefaan; Levrat, Jacques; Christmann, Gabriel; Descoeudres, Antoine; Nicolay, Sylvain; Despeisse, Matthieu; Watabe, Yoshimi; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells consist of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers coated with doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) bilayers for passivating-contact formation. Here, we unambiguously demonstrate that carrier injection either due to light soaking or (dark) forward-voltage bias increases the open circuit voltage and fill factor of finished cells, leading to a conversion efficiency gain of up to 0.3% absolute. This phenomenon contrasts markedly with the light-induced degradation known for thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We associate our performance gain with an increase in surface passivation, which we find is specific to doped a-Si:H/c-Si structures. Our experiments suggest that this improvement originates from a reduced density of recombination-active interface states. To understand the time dependence of the observed phenomena, a kinetic model is presented.

  9. Thin film polycrystalline silicon photoelectric converter and fabricating method; Hakumaku takkesho shirikon koden henkan sochi oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K. [Kobe (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Kobe (Japan); Yoshimi, M. [Kobe (Japan)

    1995-04-07

    This invention relates to a fabricating method for a thin film polycrystalline silicon photoelectric converter which has a large area and can be produced at low cost. Successive formation of mono-conductive polycrystalline silicon thin film and reverse conducting polycrystalline silicon thin film on a translucent substrate requires no vapor phase epitaxial growth, and the film formation temperature for silicon thin film can be lowered. Orientation of the monocrystalline silicon thin film to any of the surface bearings of (100), (111), and (110) results in the function of determining the orientation of the reverse conducting polycrystalline silicon thin film formed thereon. This orientation is effective to obtain excellent characteristics, and results in effective surface orientation of the entire power generating area. In addition, the supporting substrate and the surface protective film of the solar cell can be combined by orienting the translucent substrate side to the light incident side. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. ZnO Films with Very High Haze Value for Use as Front Transparent Conductive Oxide Films in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongsingthong, Aswin; Krajangsang, Taweewat; Afdi Yunaz, Ihsanul; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Konagai, Makoto

    2010-05-01

    We successfully increased the haze value of zinc oxide (ZnO) films fabricated using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) by conducting glass-substrate etching before film deposition. It was found that with increasing the glass treatment time, the surface morphology of ZnO films changed from conventional pyramid-like single texture to greater cauliflower-like multi texture. Further, the rms roughness and the haze value of the films increased remarkably. Using ZnO films with a high haze value as front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si:H) solar cells, we improved the quantum efficiency of these cells particularly in the long-wavelength region.

  11. Hydrogen passivation of silicon sheet solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Milstein, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Significant improvements in the efficiencies of dendritic web and edge-supported-pulling silicon sheet solar cells have been obtained after hydrogen ion beam passivation for a period of ten minutes or less. We have studied the effects of the hydrogen ion beam treatment with respect to silicon material damage, silicon sputter rate, introduction of impurities, and changes in reflectance. The silicon sputter rate for constant ion beam flux of 0.60 +- 0.05 mA/cm 2 exhibits a maximum at approximately 1400-eV ion beam energy

  12. Silicon solar cells with Al2O3 antireflection coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzański, Leszek A.; Szindler, Marek; Drygała, Aleksandra; Szindler, Magdalena M.

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents the possibility of using Al2O3 antireflection coatings deposited by atomic layer deposition ALD. The ALD method is based on alternate pulsing of the precursor gases and vapors onto the substrate surface and then chemisorption or surface reaction of the precursors. The reactor is purged with an inert gas between the precursor pulses. The Al2O3 thin film in structure of the finished solar cells can play the role of both antireflection and passivation layer which will simplify the process. For this research 50×50 mm monocrystalline silicon solar cells with one bus bar have been used. The metallic contacts were prepared by screen printing method and Al2O3 antireflection coating by ALD method. Results and their analysis allow to conclude that the Al2O3 antireflection coating deposited by ALD has a significant impact on the optoelectronic properties of the silicon solar cell. For about 80 nm of Al2O3 the best results were obtained in the wavelength range of 400 to 800 nm reducing the reflection to less than 1%. The difference in the solar cells efficiency between with and without antireflection coating was 5.28%. The LBIC scan measurements may indicate a positive influence of the thin film Al2O3 on the bulk passivation of the silicon.

  13. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  14. Hot wire CVD deposition of nanocrystalline silicon solar cells on rough substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H. B. T.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2009-01-01

    In silicon thin film solar cell technology, frequently rough or textured substrates are used to scatter the light and enhance its absorption. The important issue of the influence of substrate roughness on silicon nanocrystal growth has been investigated through a series of nc-Si:H single junction

  15. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  16. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  17. Sputter-deposited low reflectance vanadium oxide-molybdenum oxide thin films on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Manish Kumar; Esther, A. Carmel Mary; Bera, Parthasarathi; Dey, Arjun

    2017-09-01

    A single layer antireflective, smart, crystalline and nanocolumnar pulsed RF magnetron sputtered vanadium oxide-molybdenum oxide thin film on silicon is proposed for the alternate antireflective material for silicon based futuristic solar cell application. The VO-MO film with 130 nm thickness grown at 200 W shows significant low reflectance (1% within the 500-600 nm region). The VO-MO film with lowest reflectance shows a phase transition at around 55 °C which is beneficial due to film inherent variable IR emittance behaviour which may be helpful for eliminating excess heat load generated during in-service of silicon solar cell.

  18. On the origin of the changes in the opto-electrical properties of boron-doped zinc oxide films after plasma surface treatment for thin-film silicon solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Kim, Youngkuk; Lee, Youn-Jung; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Nguyen, Cam Phu Thi; Lee, Jaehyung; Yi, Junsin

    2018-03-01

    The modification of the steep and sharp valleys on the surface of the boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO) front electrodes by plasma surface treatment is a critical process for avoiding a significant reduction in the electrical performance of thin-film silicon solar cells. In this work, we report the origin of the changes in the electrical and optical properties of the BZO films that occur after this process. On the basis of an analysis of the chemical states, we found an improvement of the carrier concentration along with the treatment time that was mainly due to an increase of the oxygen vacancy. This indicated a deficiency of the oxygen in the BZO films under argon-ion bombardment. The red-shift of the A1 longitudinal optical mode frequency in the Raman spectra that was attributed to the existence of vacancy point defects within the films also strengthened this argument. The significant reduction of the haze ratio as well as the appearance of interference peaks on the transmittance spectra as the treatment time was increased were mainly due to the smoothing of the film surface, which indicated a degradation of the light-scattering capability of the BZO films. We also observed a gain of the visible-region transmittance that was attributed to the decrease of the thickness of the BZO films after the plasma surface treatment, instead of the crystallinity improvement. On the basis of our findings, we have proposed a further design rule of the BZO front electrodes for thin-film silicon solar cell applications.

  19. Enhanced light absorption in an ultrathin silicon solar cell utilizing plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, bringing photovoltaics to the market is mainly limited by high cost of electricity produced by the photovoltaic solar cell. Thin-film photovoltaics offers the potential for a significant cost reduction compared to traditional photovoltaics. However, the performance of thin-film solar...... cells is generally limited by poor light absorption. We propose an ultrathin-film silicon solar cell configuration based on SOI structure, where the light absorption is enhanced by use of plasmonic nanostructures. By placing a one-dimensional plasmonic nanograting on the bottom of the solar cell......, the generated photocurrent for a 200 nm-thickness crystalline silicon solar cell can be enhanced by 90% in the considered wavelength range. These results are paving a promising way for the realization of high-efficiency thin-film solar cells....

  20. Light trapping in silicon-film solar cells with rear pigmented dielectric reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, Jeffrey E.; Hall, Robert B.; Mauk, Michael G.; Barnett, Allen M. [AstroPower Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the novel method of using pigmented dielectric reflectors to provide light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells. This type of reflecting material offers many potential advantages over specular metallic reflectors, including low cost, compatibility with high temperatures common to solar cell processing, and high, broadband and diffuse reflectance. As this is the first time this concept is described, the basic theory of the optical behavior of pigmented materials is presented by connecting the basic material properties of pigment and medium to their light-trapping benefit in thin silicon solar cells. Several general principles leading to maximum light-trapping benefit are identified, and experimental evidence is presented corroborating these general principles. Light trapping is demonstrated in thin silicon solar cells with pigmented dielectric reflectors by measurement and analysis of external quantum efficiency curves. (Author)

  1. Performance potential of low-defect density silicon thin-film solar cells obtained by electron beam evaporation and laser crystallisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A few microns thick silicon films on glass coated with a dielectric intermediate layer can be crystallised by a single pass of a line-focused diode laser beam. Under favorable process conditions relatively large linear grains with low defect density are formed. Most grain boundaries are defect-free low-energy twin-boundaries. Boron-doped laser crystallised films are processed into solar cells by diffusing an emitter from a phosphorous spin-on-dopant source, measuring up to 539 mV open-circuit voltage prior to metallisation. After applying a point-contact metallisation the best cell achieves 7.8% energy conversion efficiency, open-circuit voltage of 526 mV and short-circuit current of 26 mA/cm2. The efficiency is significantly limited by a low fill-factor of 56% due to the simplified metallisation approach. The internal quantum efficiency of laser crystallised cells is consistent with low front surface recombination. By improving cell metallisation and enhancing light-trapping the efficiencies of above 13% can be achieved.

  2. Hot wire CVD deposition of nanocrystalline silicon solar cells on rough substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Li, H. B. T.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2009-01-01

    In silicon thin film solar cell technology, frequently rough or textured substrates are used to scatter the light and enhance its absorption. The important issue of the influence of substrate roughness on silicon nanocrystal growth has been investigated through a series of nc-Si:H single junction p-i-n solar cells containing i-layers deposited with Hot-wire CVD. It is shown that silicon grown on the surface of an unoptimized rough substrate contains structural defects, which deteriorate solar...

  3. 24% efficient PERL structure silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Green, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the performance of silicon solar cells have been significantly improved using an improved PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally-diffused) cell structure. This structure overcomes deficiencies in an earlier PERC (passivated emitter and rear cell) cell structure by locally diffusing boron into contact areas at the rear of the cells. Terrestrial energy conversion efficiencies up to 24% are reported for silicon cells for the first time. Air Mass O efficiencies approach 21%. The first batches of concentrator cells using the new structure have demonstrated significant improvement with 29% efficient concentrator silicon cells expected in the near future

  4. Three-Terminal Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many defects exist within amorphous silicon since it is not crystalline. This provides recombination centers, thus reducing the efficiency of a typical a-Si solar cell. A new structure is presented in this paper: a three-terminal a-Si solar cell. The new back-to-back p-i-n/n-i-p structure increased the average electric field in a solar cell. A typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was also simulated for comparison using the same thickness and material parameters. The 0.28 μm-thick three-terminal a-Si solar cell achieved an efficiency of 11.4%, while the efficiency of a typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was 9.0%. Furthermore, an efficiency of 11.7% was achieved by thickness optimization of the three-terminal solar cell.

  5. Single crystalline silicon solar cells with rib structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Yoshiba

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the conversion efficiency of Si solar cells, we have developed a thin Si wafer-based solar cell that uses a rib structure. The open-circuit voltage of a solar cell is known to increase with deceasing wafer thickness if the cell is adequately passivated. However, it is not easy to handle very thin wafers because they are brittle and are subject to warpage. We fabricated a lattice-shaped rib structure on the rear side of a thin Si wafer to improve the wafer’s strength. A silicon nitride film was deposited on the Si wafer surface and patterned to form a mask to fabricate the lattice-shaped rib, and the wafer was then etched using KOH to reduce the thickness of the active area, except for the rib region. Using this structure in a Si heterojunction cell, we demonstrated that a high open-circuit voltage (VOC could be obtained by thinning the wafer without sacrificing its strength. A wafer with thickness of 30 μm was prepared easily using this structure. We then fabricated Si heterojunction solar cells using these rib wafers, and measured their implied VOC as a function of wafer thickness. The measured values were compared with device simulation results, and we found that the measured VOC agrees well with the simulated results. To optimize the rib and cell design, we also performed device simulations using various wafer thicknesses and rib dimensions.

  6. Silicon nanowires in polymer nanocomposites for photovoltaic hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dkhil, S.; Bourguiga, R.; Davenas, J.; Cornu, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and silicon nanowires have been fabricated. ► We have investigated the charge transfer between PVK and SiNWs by the way of the quenching of the PVK photoluminescence. ► The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between SiNWs and PVK has been examined. ► We have investigated the effects of SiNWs concentration on the photovoltaic characteristics leading to the optimization of a critical SiNWs concentration. - Abstract: Hybrid thin films combining the high optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer film and the electronic properties of silicon fillers have been investigated in the perspective of the development of low cost solar cells. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic materials based on blends of a semiconductor polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as electron acceptor have been studied. Composite PVK/SiNWs films were cast from a common solvent mixture. UV–visible spectrometry and photoluminescence of the composites have been studied as a function of the SiNWs concentration. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) shows the existence of a critical SiNWs concentration of about 10 wt % for PL quenching corresponding to the most efficient charge pair separation. The photovoltaic (PV) effect has been studied under illumination. The optimum open-circuit voltage V oc and short-circuit current density J sc are obtained for 10 wt % SiNWs whereas a degradation of these parameters is observed at higher SiNWs concentrations. These results are correlated to the formation of aggregates in the composite leading to recombination of the photogenerated charge pairs competing with the dissociation mechanism.

  7. Silicon nanowires in polymer nanocomposites for photovoltaic hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Dkhil, S., E-mail: sadok.bendekhil@gmail.com [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bourguiga, R. [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Davenas, J. [Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Cornu, D. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR CNRS 5635, Ecole Nationale superieure de Chimie, Universite de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, F34000 Montpellier (France)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and silicon nanowires have been fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the charge transfer between PVK and SiNWs by the way of the quenching of the PVK photoluminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between SiNWs and PVK has been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the effects of SiNWs concentration on the photovoltaic characteristics leading to the optimization of a critical SiNWs concentration. - Abstract: Hybrid thin films combining the high optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer film and the electronic properties of silicon fillers have been investigated in the perspective of the development of low cost solar cells. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic materials based on blends of a semiconductor polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as electron acceptor have been studied. Composite PVK/SiNWs films were cast from a common solvent mixture. UV-visible spectrometry and photoluminescence of the composites have been studied as a function of the SiNWs concentration. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) shows the existence of a critical SiNWs concentration of about 10 wt % for PL quenching corresponding to the most efficient charge pair separation. The photovoltaic (PV) effect has been studied under illumination. The optimum open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} and short-circuit current density J{sub sc} are obtained for 10 wt % SiNWs whereas a degradation of these parameters is observed at higher SiNWs concentrations. These results are correlated to the formation of aggregates in the composite leading to recombination of the photogenerated charge pairs competing with the dissociation mechanism.

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system /development of technology to manufacture solar cells/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture materials and substrates (development of technology to manufacture silicon crystal based high-quality materials and substrates)); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (silicon kesshokei kohinshitsu zairyo kiban no seizo gujutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is intended to develop thin film solar cells capable of mass production with high photo-stability and at low cost. Thus, the objective of the present research is to analyze the growth process of micro crystal silicon based thin films, the crystal being a high quality silicon crystal based material, and develop technology to manufacture high-quality micro crystal silicon thin films based on the findings therefrom. It was found that, when silicon source is available in cathode, pure hydrogen plasma forms micro crystal silicon films by using the plasma as a result of the chemical transportation effect from the silicon source. It was revealed that the crystal formation due to hydrogen plasma exposure is performed substantially by the crystals forming the films due to the chemical transportation effect, rather than crystallization in the vicinity of the surface. The crystal formation under this experiment was concluded that the formation takes place during film growth accompanied by diffusion of film forming precursors on the surface on which the film grows. According to the result obtained so far, the most important issue in the future is particularly the control of crystal growing azimuth by reducing the initially formed amorphous layer by controlling the stress in the initial phase for film formation, and by controlling the film forming precursors. (NEDO)

  9. Automated assembly of Gallium Arsenide and 50-micron thick silicon solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    The TRW automated solar array assembly equipment was used for the module assembly of 300 GaAs solar cells and 300 50 micron thick silicon solar cells (2 x 4 cm in size). These cells were interconnected with silver plated Invar tabs by means of welding. The GaAs cells were bonded to Kapton graphite aluminum honeycomb graphite substrates and the thin silicon cells were bonded to 0.002 inch thick single layer Kapton substrates. The GaAs solar cell module assembly resulted in a yield of 86% and the thin cell assembly produced a yield of 46% due to intermittent sticking of weld electrodes during the front cell contact welding operation. (Previously assembled thin cell solar modules produced an overall assembly yield of greater than 80%).

  10. Improved protection for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    Fluorinated ethylene propylene /FEP/ film is substituted for epoxy cement in bonding glass covers to silicon solar cells. Insensitivity of FEP to ultraviolet radiation reduces requirement for filtering and does not impair cell performance. Cell costs are reduced and cover mounting is simplified.

  11. Invited Paper: CIGS-based thin film solar cells and modules: Unique material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Tokio

    2012-04-01

    Although CIGS solar cells consist of a polycrystalline thin film grown on a glass substrate, more than 20% conversion efficiency has been achieved. The efficiency has reached the same level as polycrystalline silicon solar cells. This high efficiency has not yet been observed in other thin film solar cells including thin film Si and CdTe. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that allow CIGS solar cells to exhibit high conversion efficiencies. This paper discusses the origin of the high efficiency and demonstrates that it is caused by the unique material properties of CIGS films.

  12. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  13. New Method of Solar Grade Silicon Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadde, V. V.; Pinov, A. B.; Strebkov, D. S.; Belov, E. P.; Efimov, N. K.; Lebedev, E. N.; Korobkov, E. I.; Blake, D.; Touryan, K.

    2002-08-01

    One of the main advantages of photovoltaic solar cells (PVC) is their ecological clarity of direct conversion of solar energy to electricity. For wide spreading of PV technologies it is necessary to ensure that there is no environment pollution at the stage of PVC-s manufacturing, beginning from producing of polysilicon feedstock. The objective of this project is creation of ecologically clean method for production of solar grade polysilicon feedstock (SGPF) as raw material for PVCs, and also raw material for producing monocrystalline silicon, which is used in electronic industry.

  14. Structural characterization of the interface structure of amorphous silicon thin films after post-deposition argon or hydrogen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumüller, Alex; Sergeev, Oleg; Vehse, Martin; Agert, Carsten

    2017-05-01

    The interfaces in silicon thin film solar cells and silicon heterojunction solar cells are considered to be very important for the solar cell conversion efficiency. This work studies the interface properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films deposited on crystalline silicon wafers after post-deposition hydrogen plasma treatment (HPT) or argon plasma treatment (APT). The investigation extends our previous study by examining the structural changes resulting from the post-deposition plasma treatment on silicon thin film solar cells. We analyzed the ellipsometry and infrared spectra of our samples to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental plasma treatment effects. By using post-deposition APT and HPT, we were able to reduce the material stress and improve the structure of these layers. Our results show that APT yields a more compact material with fewer voids and less distinct localized tail states. We discuss the effect of APT and HPT on the most crucial interface in silicon heterojunction solar cells, the i-a-Si:H/c-Si interface. We propose to introduce APT as a post-deposition process step in the fabrication of silicon heterojunction solar cells.

  15. In-situ Raman spectroscopy. A method to study and control the growth of microcrystalline silicon for thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthmann, Stefan

    2012-08-22

    of the in-situ method. The initial phase of deposition is of great importance for the performance of a {mu}cSi:H thin-film solar cell. Hence the dependence of the evolution of the crystalline volume fraction during initial layer growth on the properties of the underlying seed layer was studied in-situ. A seed layer dependent increase and subsequent stabilization of the crystalline volume fraction was observed. By actively controlling the deposition parameters based on these results it was possible to reduce the observed inhomogeneity of the Raman crystallinity in growth direction. A possible application of in-situ Raman spectroscopy as basis of an active process control was studied by testing the ability of in-situ Raman spectroscopy to detect fluctuations of the deposition parameters on the example of a disturbance of the process gas flow. It was possible to detect the reaction of the layer growth on a change of deposition conditions in-situ. By correlating the in-situ measurements to results obtained on solar-cells it was found that - unless the process fluctuation happens during the initial phase of deposition - it is possible to maintain state-of-the art solar cell performance by an active process control. By modulating the plasma emission synchronized to the Raman measurements the signal-to-noise level of the Raman measurements was reduced. Two deposition regimes were distinguished by their characteristic plasma induced temperature increase. In situ measurements show that an active control of the substrate heater results in a stabilized temperature of the growing layer throughout the deposition of a {mu}cSi:H film. (orig.)

  16. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Inverted Metamorphic (IMM) solar cells have achieved high efficiency at very low mass, but integration of the thin crystalline photovoltaic device into a flexible...

  17. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Inverted Metamorphic (IMM) solar cells have achieved high efficiency at very low mass, but integration of the thin crystalline photovoltaic device into a flexible...

  18. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin, flexible, and highly efficient solar arrays are needed that package compactly for launch and deploy into large, structurally stable high power generators....

  19. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  20. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics

  1. Crystallization of HWCVD amorphous silicon thin films at elevated temperatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muller, TFG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) has been used to prepare both hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and nano/ microcrystalline thin layers as intrinsic material at different deposition conditions, in order to establish optimum...

  2. Characterization of Thin Films for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    of solar cells with low embedded time, material, and energy consumption as compared to silicon solar cells. Consequently, different demonstration products of small mobile gadgets based on polymer solar cells have been produced, which are fully competitive with conventional energy technologies, illustrating...... time of the cell is highly increased. An alternative approach is to increase the photo stability of the cell components, and especially the light absorbing conjugated polymer has been subject to extensive attention. The photo stability of conjugated polymers varies by orders of magnitude from type...... to type depending on the chemical structure of the material and consequently, the lifetime is highly influenced by the polymer stability. Photochemical degradation of polymers, i.e. degradation of thin films of polymer in the ambient under light exposure, is a technique normally applied to evaluate...

  3. Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyard, James R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and amorphous silicon alloy solar cells have achieved noteworthy performance and are currently being studied for space power applications. Cadmium sulfide cells had been the subject of much effort but are no longer considered for space applications. A review is presented of what is known about the radiation degradation of thin film solar cells in space. Experimental cadmium telluride and amorphous silicon alloy cells are reviewed. Damage mechanisms and radiation induced defect generation and passivation in the amorphous silicon alloy cell are discussed in detail due to the greater amount of experimental data available.

  4. Silicon-on-ceramic coating process. Silicon sheet growth development for the Large-Area Silicon Sheet and Cell Development Tasks of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Quarterly report No. 8, December 28, 1977--March 28, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, P.W. Zook, J.D.; Heaps, J D; Maclolek, R B; Koepke, B; Butter, C D; Schult, S B

    1978-04-20

    A research program to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by coating inexpensive ceramic substrates with a thin layer of polycrystalline silicon is described. The coating methods to be developed are directed toward a minimum-cost process for producing solar cells with a terrestrial conversion efficiency of 12 percent or greater. By applying a graphite coating to one face of a ceramic substrate, molten silicon can be caused to wet only that graphite-coated face and produce uniform thin layers of large-grain polycrystalline silicon; thus, only a minimal quantity of silicon is consumed. A dip-coating method for putting silicon on ceramic (SOC) has been shown to produce solar-cell-quality sheet silicon. This method and a continuous coating process also being investigated have excellent scale-up potential which offers an outstanding cost-effective way to manufacture large-area solar cells. A variety of ceramic materials have been dip-coated with silicon. The investigation has shown that mullite substrates containing an excess of SiO/sub 2/ best match the thermal expansion coefficient of silicon and hence produce the best SOC layers. With such substrates, smooth and uniform silicon layers 25 cm/sup 2/ in area have been achieved with single-crystal grains as large as 4 mm in width and several cm in length. Solar cells with areas from 1 to 10 cm/sup 2/ have been fabricated from material withas-grown surface. Recently, an antireflection (AR) coating has been applied to SOC cells. Conversion efficiencies greater than 9% have been achieved without optimizing series resistance characteristics. Such cells typically have open-circuit voltages and short-circuit current densities of 0.51 V and 20 mA/cm/sup 2/, respectively.

  5. Photovoltaic Technology: The Case for Thin-Film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Arvind; Torres, Pedro; Tscharner, Reto; Wyrsch, Nicolas; Keppner, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of photovoltaic solar modules for energy generation are reviewed with their operation principles and physical efficiency limits. Although the main materials currently used or investigated and the associated fabrication technologies are individually described, emphasis is on silicon-based solar cells. Wafer-based crystalline silicon solar modules dominate in terms of production, but amorphous silicon solar cells have the potential to undercut costs owing, for exa...

  6. Plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon solar cells. Looking beyond the glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donker, M.N. van den

    2006-07-01

    Microcrystalline silicon emerged in the past decade as highly interesting material for application in efficient and stable thin film silicon solar cells. It consists of nanometer-sized crystallites embedded in a micrometer-sized columnar structure, which gradually evolves during the SiH{sub 4} based deposition process starting from an amorphous incubation layer. Understanding of and control over this transient and multi-scale growth process is essential in the route towards low-cost microcrystalline silicon solar cells. This thesis presents an experimental study on the technologically relevant high rate (5-10 Aa s{sup -1}) parallel plate plasma deposition process of state-of-the-art microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The objective of the work was to explore and understand the physical limits of the plasma deposition process as well as to develop diagnostics suitable for process control in eventual solar cell production. Among the developed non-invasive process diagnostics were a pyrometer, an optical spectrometer, a mass spectrometer and a voltage probe. Complete thin film silicon solar cells and modules were deposited and characterized. (orig.)

  7. Passivated emitters in silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Gruenbaum, P.E.; Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    In high-efficiency silicon solar cells with low metal contact coverage fractions and high bulk lifetimes, cell performance is often dominated by recombination in the oxide-passivated diffusions on the cell surface. Measurements of the emitter saturation current density, J o , of oxide-passivated, boron and phosphorus diffusions are presented, and from these measurements, the dependence of surface recombination velocity on dopant concentration was extracted. The lowest observed values of J o which are stable under UV light are given for both boron- and phosphorus-doped, oxide-passivated diffusions, for both textured and untextured surfaces. Contour plots which incorporate the above data have been applied to two types of backside-contact solar cells with large area (37.5 cm 2 ) and one-sun efficiencies up to 22.7%

  8. Impurities in silicon and their impact on solar cell performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coletti, Gianluca

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy is a rapidly growing technology. More than 80% of global solar cell production is currently based on silicon. The aim of this thesis is to understand the complex relation between impurity content of silicon starting material (“feedstock”) and the resulting

  9. Surface recombination analysis in silicon-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, R.; Gandia, J.J.; Carabe, J.; Gonzalez, N.; Torres, I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Munoz, D.; Voz, C. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The origin of this work is the understanding of the correlation observed between efficiency and emitter-deposition temperature in single silicon-heterojunction solar cells prepared by depositing an n-doped hydrogenated-amorphous-silicon thin film onto a p-type crystalline-silicon wafer. In order to interpret these results, surface-recombination velocities have been determined by two methods, i.e. by fitting the current-voltage characteristics to a theoretical model and by means of the Quasi-Steady-State Photoconductance Technique (QSSPC). In addition, effective diffusion lengths have been estimated from internal quantum efficiencies. The analysis of these data has led to conclude that the performance of the cells studied is limited by back-surface recombination rather than by front-heterojunction quality. A 12%-efficient cell has been prepared by combining optimum emitter-deposition conditions with back-surface-field (BSF) formation by vacuum annealing of the back aluminium contact. This result has been achieved without using any transparent conductive oxide. (author)

  10. Silicon MIS/inversion-layer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1982-10-01

    Silicon Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor/Inversion-Layer (MIS-IL) solar cells were investigated as an approach to low cost terrestrial photovoltaics. Considerable progress was made concerning the development of procedures for SiO deposition for inversion-layer formation, the characterization of the fixed charge in deposited SiO layers, surface state density at the Si-SiO interface, fabrication and characterization of MIS-IL solar cells. Improvements were also made in the theory of MIS-IL solar cells, and utilized to calculate cell performance for a range of insulator charge and base resistivities. Inversion layer formation was studied in several ways. MOS devices was analyzed to determine the magnitude of the net positive charge, Q/sub POS/, vensus surface potential, Psi/sub S/. In situ sheet resistance measurements was made to determine the charge distribution within the deposited SiO layer. Finally, estimates of Q/sub POS/ obtained by comparing experimental results for MIS-IL cells and theory are compared with values of Q/sub POS/ determined for MOS structures fabricated simultaneously with the solar cells. Cell fabrication procedures emphasized low temperature processing.

  11. Al-Si alloy point contact formation and rear surface passivation for silicon solar cells using double layer porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumni, Besma; Ben Jaballah, Abdelkader; Bessais, Brahim

    2012-01-01

    Lowering the rear surface recombination velocities by a dielectric layer has fascinating advantages compared with the standard fully covered Al back-contact silicon solar cells. In this work the passivation effect by double layer porous silicon (PS) (wide band gap) and the formation of Al-Si alloy in narrow p-type Si point contact areas for rear passivated solar cells are analysed. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that a thin passivating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) layer is formed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis performed in cross sections shows that with bilayer PS, liquid Al penetrates into the openings, alloying with the Si substrate at depth and decreasing the contact resistivity. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact area and resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses.

  12. On the Scalar Scattering Theory for Thin-Film Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nano-textured interfaces between two media of different refractive indices scatter light. The angular distribution and the intensity of the scattered light are deter- mined by the geometry of the nano-textures and the difference of the refractive indices of the two media. Thin-film silicon solar

  13. Strategies for doped nanocrystalline silicon integration in silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seif, J.; Descoeudres, A.; Nogay, G.; Hänni, S.; de Nicolas, S.M.; Holm, N.; Geissbühler, J.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Duchamp, M.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.E.; Ledinský, Martin; De Wolf, S.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2016), s. 1132-1140 ISSN 2156-3381 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : microcrystalline silicon * nanocrystalline silicon * silicon heterojunctions (SHJs) * solar cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.712, year: 2016

  14. Studying the noise parameters of thin-film silicon resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, S.V.; Gostilo, V.V.; Yurov, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results of studies on spectral density and energy noise equivalent of thin-film resistors on the base of amorphous silicon and KIM and KVM commercial high-ohmic resistors are presented. Dependence of the active part of impedance on frequency is shown to be the main source of redundant noise in resistors. Dependence of spectral density of noise voltage of current noises of silicon resistors on applied voltage is described by the formula S T =B V 2 /f 1.6 with the values B=(1.4-1.7)x10 -12 Hz 0.6 . As to noise parameters the silicon resistor is superior to commercial resistors

  15. Thin-film silicon for flexible metal-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamoun, Ahmed; Schubert, Markus B; Werner, Jürgen H

    2014-12-01

    Due to its high energy density, theoretical studies propose silicon as a promising candidate material for metal-air batteries. Herein, for the first time, experimental results detail the use of n-type doped amorphous silicon and silicon carbide as fuel in Si-air batteries. Thin-film silicon is particularly interesting for flexible and rolled batteries with high specific energies. Our Si-air batteries exhibit a specific capacity of 269 Ah kg(-1) and an average cell voltage of 0.85 V at a discharge current density of 7.9 μA cm(-2) , corresponding to a specific energy of 229 Wh kg(-1) . Favorably in terms of safety, low concentrated alkaline solution serves as electrolyte. Discharging of the Si-air cells continues as long as there is silicon available for oxidation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SILICON AND CADMIUM TELLURIDE BASED SOLAR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Al QASSEM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A compartive analzsis of silicon solar cells and of those containing a CdTe thin film which are widely used in solar energetics, particullarilly, in photovoltaic modules fabrication, is brought in this paper. The silicon is largely used in solar cells fabrication due to the low cost of solar cells production related to the low cost of the semiconductor fabrication and to the advanced material processing technology, when at the same time cadmium telluride has the wide use due to the fact that its fundamental parameters can provide theoretically a high value of efficiency of solar energy conversion into electrical one of 30%. The structure and photoelectrical parameters of silicon solar cells and of those cotaining a thin cadmium telluride layer are considered.ANALIZA COMPARATIVĂ A CELULELOR SOLARE DIN SILICIU ŞI TELURURA DE CADMIUÎn lucrarea de faţă este prezentată analiza comparativă a celulelor solare fabricate din siliciu şi a celor cu strat subţire de CdTe, care sunt pe larg utilizate în energetica solară, în particular la producerea modulelor fotovoltaice. Siliciul este intens folosit în fabricarea celulelor solare datorită costului redus al materialului semiconductor şi tehnologiei avansate de procesare, pe când telurura de cadmiu are o utilizare tot mai largă care, datorită parametrilor fundamentali, poate asigura teoretic o valoare înaltă a eficienţei conversiei energiei solare în cea electrică de (30%. Sunt considerate structura şi parametrii fotoelectrici ai celulelor solare din siliciu şi ai celor cu strat subţire de telurură de cadmiu.

  17. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo

    2012-06-13

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Study of double porous silicon surfaces for enhancement of silicon solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. S. M.; Rahim, A. F. A.; Radzali, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, design and simulation of double porous silicon surfaces for enhancement of silicon solar cell is carried out. Both single and double porous structures are constructed by using TCAD ATHENA and TCAD DEVEDIT tools of the SILVACO software respectively. After the structures were created, I-V characteristics and spectral response of the solar cell were extracted using ATLAS device simulator. Finally, the performance of the simulated double porous solar cell is compared with the performance of both single porous and bulk-Si solar cell. The results showed that double porous silicon solar cell exhibited 1.8% efficiency compared to 1.3% and 1.2% for single porous silicon and bulk-Si solar cell.

  19. Excess junction current of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, E. Y.; Legge, R. N.; Christidis, N.

    1973-01-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of n(plus)-p silicon solar cells with 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, and 10 ohm-cm p-type base materials have been examined in detail. In addition to the usual I-V measurements, we have studied the temperature dependence of the slope of the I-V curve at the origin by the lock-in technique. The excess junction current coefficient (Iq) deduced from the slope at the origin depends on the square root of the intrinsic carrier concentration. The Iq obtained from the I-V curve fitting over the entire forward bias region at various temperatures shows the same temperature dependence. This result, in addition to the presence of an aging effect, suggest that the surface channel effect is the dominant cause of the excess junction current.

  20. Tantalum Nitride Electron-Selective Contact for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xinbo

    2018-04-19

    Minimizing carrier recombination at contact regions by using carrier‐selective contact materials, instead of heavily doping the silicon, has attracted considerable attention for high‐efficiency, low‐cost crystalline silicon (c‐Si) solar cells. A novel electron‐selective, passivating contact for c‐Si solar cells is presented. Tantalum nitride (TaN x ) thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition are demonstrated to provide excellent electron‐transporting and hole‐blocking properties to the silicon surface, due to their small conduction band offset and large valence band offset. Thin TaNx interlayers provide moderate passivation of the silicon surfaces while simultaneously allowing a low contact resistivity to n‐type silicon. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 20% is demonstrated with c‐Si solar cells featuring a simple full‐area electron‐selective TaNx contact, which significantly improves the fill factor and the open circuit voltage (Voc) and hence provides the higher PCE. The work opens up the possibility of using metal nitrides, instead of metal oxides, as carrier‐selective contacts or electron transport layers for photovoltaic devices.

  1. XPS study of palladium sensitized nano porous silicon thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 33; Issue 6. XPS study of palladium sensitized nano porous silicon thin ... To stabilize the material PS surface was modified by a simple and low cost chemical method using PdCl2 solution at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed to ...

  2. Thin-film resistance thermometers on silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, Kenneth G; Ripple, Dean C; Kimes, William A

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated Pt thin-film resistors directly sputtered on silicon substrates to evaluate their use as resistance thermal detectors (RTDs). This technique was chosen to achieve more accurate temperature measurements of large silicon wafers during semiconductor processing. High-purity (0.999 968 mass fraction) platinum was sputter deposited on silicon test coupons using titanium and zirconium bond coats. These test coupons were annealed, and four-point resistance specimens were prepared for thermal evaluation. Their response was compared with calibrated platinum–palladium thermocouples in a tube furnace. We evaluated the effects of furnace atmosphere, thin-film thickness, bond coats, annealing temperature and peak thermal excursion of the Pt thin films. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was performed to evaluate the effect of impurities on the thermal resistance coefficient, α. We present typical resistance versus temperature curves, hysteresis plots versus temperature and an analysis of the causes of uncertainties in the measurement of seven test coupons. We conclude that sputtered thin-film platinum resistors on silicon wafers can yield temperature measurements with uncertainties of less than 1 °C, k = 1 up to 600 °C. This is comparable to or better than commercially available techniques

  3. Bow in screen-printed back-contact industrial silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilali, Mohamed M.; Gee, James M.; Hacke, Peter [Advent Solar, Inc. Research, 5600 University Boulevard S.E., Albuquerque, NM 87106 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, we present a model of the bow in thin back-contact silicon solar cells with screen-printed (SP) silver grid metallization. A modification of the bimetallic strip model is used to model the bow for the interdigitated back-contact, emitter-wrap-through (EWT) solar cell. It is proposed that the contact area fraction of the thick regions (>100 nm)of the binder glass at the Ag-Si contact interface responsible for metallization adhesion is an important parameter necessary for modeling the bow for SP back-contact solar cells with better accuracy. Techniques for reducing the bow are also proposed. (author)

  4. Thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.

    1987-10-01

    Cadmium telluride, with a room-temperature band-gap energy of 1.5 eV, is a promising thin-film photovoltaic material. The major objective of this research has been to demonstrate thin-film CdTe heterojunction solar cells with a total area greater than 1 sq cm and photovoltaic efficiencies of 13 percent or more. Thin-film p-CdTe/CdS/SnO2:F/glass solar cells with an AM1.5 efficiency of 10.5 percent have been reported previously. This report contains results of work done on: (1) the deposition, resistivity control, and characterization of p-CdTe films by the close-spaced sublimation process; (2) the deposition of large-band-gap window materials; (3) the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions; (4) the formation of stable, reproducible, ohmic contacts (such as p-HgTe) to p-CdTe; and (5) the preparation and evaluation of heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Compositional analysis of silicon oxide/silicon nitride thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meziani Samir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen, amorphous silicon nitride (SiNx:H abbreviated SiNx films were grown on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD in parallel configuration using NH3/SiH4 gas mixtures. The mc-Si wafers were taken from the same column of Si cast ingot. After the deposition process, the layers were oxidized (thermal oxidation in dry oxygen ambient environment at 950 °C to get oxide/nitride (ON structure. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX were employed for analyzing quantitatively the chemical composition and stoichiometry in the oxide-nitride stacked films. The effect of annealing temperature on the chemical composition of ON structure has been investigated. Some species, O, N, Si were redistributed in this structure during the thermal oxidation of SiNx. Indeed, oxygen diffused to the nitride layer into Si2O2N during dry oxidation.

  6. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  7. Infrared analysis of thin films amorphous, hydrogenated carbon on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, W; Schwarz-Selinger, T

    2000-01-01

    The infrared analysis of thin films on a thick substrate is discussed using the example of plasma-deposited, amorphous, hydrogenated carbon layers (a-C:H) on silicon substrates. The framework for the optical analysis of thin films is presented. The main characteristic of thin film optics is the occurrence of interference effects due to the coherent superposition of light multiply reflected at the various internal and external interfaces of the optical system. These interference effects lead to a sinusoidal variation of the transmitted and reflected intensity. As a consequence, the Lambert-Beer law is not applicable for the determination of the absorption coefficient of thin films. Furthermore, observable changes of the transmission and reflection spectra occur in the vicinity of strong absorption bands due to the Kramers-Kronig relation. For a sound data evaluation these effects have to be included in the analysis. To be able to extract the full information contained in a measured optical thin film spectrum, ...

  8. Thin crystalline silicon with double-sided nano-hole array fabricated by soft UV-NIL and RIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Yulian; Lu, Linfeng; Li, Dongdong; Zhu, Xufei

    2017-05-01

    The thin crystalline silicon (c-Si) is deemed to be an alternative material for solar cells, but it is too thin to effectively absorb light on a broad spectrum. Here we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that a double-sided nano-hole array on free-standing thin c-Si (20 µm) by combining soft ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (soft UV-NIL) and reactive ion etching (RIE), which is simple and possible for mass production. This thin c-Si with double-sided nano-hole array proves to show 40% lower light reflectivity than flat silicon at long wavelength range, which is coincident with the simulated results. The thin c-Si with double-sided nano-hole array also has the advantages of good flexibility and uniform thickness, adding feasibility to apply the structure to photonic devices.

  9. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  10. Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with Advanced Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin; Blasi, Benedikt; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Kohlstadt, Markus; Lee, Seunghun; Mastroianni, Simone; Mundt, Laura; Mundus, Markus; Ndione, Paul; Reichel, Christian; Schubert, Martin; Schulze, Patricia S.; Tucher, Nico; Veit, Clemens; Veurman, Welmoed; Wienands, Karl; Winkler, Kristina; Wurfel, Uli; Glunz, Stefan W.; Hermle, Martin

    2016-11-14

    For high efficiency monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells, we develop low-temperature processes for the perovskite top cell, rear-side light trapping, optimized perovskite growth, transparent contacts and adapted characterization methods.

  11. Silicon-on-ceramic process: silicon sheet growth and device development for the Large-Area Silicon Sheet and Cell Development Tasks of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Quarterly report No. 11, January 1-March 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, P.W.; Zook, J.D.; Heaps, J.D.; Grung, B.L.; Koepke, B.; Schuldt, S.B.

    1979-04-30

    The purpose of the research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by coating inexpensive ceramic substrates with a thin layer of polycrystalline silicon. The coating methods to be developed are directed toward a minimum-cost process for producing solar cells with a terrestrial conversion efficiency of 12 percent or greater. By applying a graphite coating to one face of a ceramic substrate, molten silicon can be caused to wet only that graphite-coated face and produce uniform thin layers of large-grain polycrystalline silicon; thus, only a minimal quantity of silicon is consumed. A dip-coating method for putting silicon on ceramic (SOC) has been shown to produce solar-cell-quality sheet silicon. This method and a continuous coating process also being investigated have excellent scale-up potential which offers an outstanding, cost-effective way to manufacture large-area solar cells. Results and accomplishments are described.

  12. Hydrogenation of polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honda, Shinya; Mates, Tomáš; Knížek, Karel; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan; Yamazaki, T.; Uraoka, Y.; Fuyuki, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 501, - (2006), s. 144-148 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 537; GA MŽP(CZ) SM/300/1/03; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010316; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010413; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0789 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : polycrystalline silicon * atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition * hydrogen passivation * photoluminescence * Raman spectroscopy * Si-H 2 bonding * hydrogen molecules Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.666, year: 2006

  13. Process development for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; Buck, M.E.; Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Silva, B.L.; Tingley, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells in an industrial environment requires a different optimization than in a laboratory environment. Strategies are presented for process development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells, with a goal of simplifying technology transfer into an industrial setting. The strategies emphasize the use of statistical experimental design for process optimization, and the use of baseline processes and cells for process monitoring and quality control. 8 refs.

  14. Highly efficient silicon solar cells designed with photon trapping micro/nano structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo-Perez, Cesar; Gao, Yang; Cansizoglu, Hilal; Ghandiparsi, Soroush; Kaya, Ahmet; Mayet, Ahmed; Ponizovskaya Devine, Ekaterina; Yamada, Toshishige; Elrefaie, Aly; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Islam, M. Saif

    2017-08-01

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) remains the most commonly used material for photovoltaic (PV) cells in the current commercial solar cells market. However, current technology requires "thick" silicon due to the relative weak absorption of Si in the solar spectrum. We demonstrate several CMOS compatible fabrication techniques including dry etch, wet etch and their combination to create different photon trapping micro/nanostructures on very thin c-silicon surface for light harvesting of PVs. Both, the simulation and experimental results show that these photon trapping structures are responsible for the enhancement of the visible light absorption which leads to improved efficiency of the PVs. Different designs of micro/nanostructures via different fabrication techniques are correlated with the efficiencies of the PVs. Our method can also drastically reduce the thickness of the c-Si PVs, and has great potential to reduce the cost, and lead to highly efficient and flexible PVs.

  15. Deposition of magnetoelectric hexaferrite thin films on substrates of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Vittoria, Carmine

    2016-12-15

    Magnetoelectric M-type hexaferrite thin films (SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19}) were deposited using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique on Silicon substrate. A conductive oxide layer of Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) was deposited as a buffer layer with the dual purposes of 1) to reduce lattice mismatch between the film and silicon and 2) to lower applied voltages to observe magnetoelectric effects at room temperature on Silicon based devices. The film exhibited magnetoelectric effects as confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques in voltages as low as 0.5 V. Without the oxide conductive layer the required voltages to observe magnetoelectric effects was typically about 1000 times larger. The magnetoelectric thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and ferromagnetic resonance techniques. We measured saturation magnetization of 650 G, and coercive field of about 150 Oe for these thin films. The change in remanence magnetization was measured in the presence of DC voltages and the changes in remanence were in the order of 15% with the application of only 0.5 V (DC voltage). We deduced a magnetoelectric coupling, α, of 1.36×10{sup −9} s m{sup −1} in SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19} thin films.

  16. Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth

    KAUST Repository

    Tomasi, Andrea

    2017-04-24

    For crystalline-silicon solar cells, voltages close to the theoretical limit are nowadays readily achievable when using passivating contacts. Conversely, maximal current generation requires the integration of the electron and hole contacts at the back of the solar cell to liberate its front from any shadowing loss. Recently, the world-record efficiency for crystalline-silicon single-junction solar cells was achieved by merging these two approaches in a single device; however, the complexity of fabricating this class of devices raises concerns about their commercial potential. Here we show a contacting method that substantially simplifies the architecture and fabrication of back-contacted silicon solar cells. We exploit the surface-dependent growth of silicon thin films, deposited by plasma processes, to eliminate the patterning of one of the doped carrier-collecting layers. Then, using only one alignment step for electrode definition, we fabricate a proof-of-concept 9-cm2 tunnel-interdigitated back-contact solar cell with a certified conversion efficiency >22.5%.

  17. Simple processing of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamammu, I.M.; Ibrahim, K.

    2006-01-01

    Cost effective photovoltaic devices have been an area research since the development of the first solar cells, as cost is the major factor in their usage. Silicon solar cells have the biggest share in the photovoltaic market, though silicon os not the optimal material for solar cells. This work introduces a simplified approach for high efficiency silicon solar cell processing, by minimizing the processing steps and thereby reducing cost. The suggested procedure might also allow for the usage of lower quality materials compared to the one used today. The main features of the present work fall into: simplifying the diffusion process, edge shunt isolation and using acidic texturing instead of the standard alkaline processing. Solar cells of 17% efficiency have been produced using this procedure. Investigations on the possibility of improving the efficiency and using less quality material are still underway

  18. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (development of fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cell); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (usumaku takessho silicon kei taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology of high-quality Si thin films, the new equipment was studied which allows uniform stable melting recrystallization over a large area. The new equipment adopted a heating method based on RTP system, and is now under adjustment. (2) On the fabrication technology of light/carrier confinement structure, degradation of hydrogen-treated thin film Si solar cells by light irradiation was examined. As a result, since any characteristic degradation was not found even by long time light irradiation, the high quality of the cells was confirmed regardless of hydrogen-treatment. Fabrication of stable reproducible fine texture structure became possible by using fabrication technology of light confinement structure by texture treatment of cell surfaces. (3) On low-cost process technology, design by VEST process, estimation of cell characteristics by simulation, and characteristics of prototype cells were reported. 33 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Metal nanoparticles for thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Claudia

    Among the different renewable ways to produce energy, photovoltaic cells have a big potential and the research is now focusing on getting higher efficiency and at the same time saving the manufacturing costs improving the performance of thin film solar cells. The spectral distribution in the infr......Among the different renewable ways to produce energy, photovoltaic cells have a big potential and the research is now focusing on getting higher efficiency and at the same time saving the manufacturing costs improving the performance of thin film solar cells. The spectral distribution...... characterized. Spectral responses are measured and in two types of measured GaAs solar cells (with Au and Ag nanoparticles) there was no clear efficiency enhancement in the NIR spectral range. In the case of Au nanoparticles it could be explained in similar way to the absorption data: the effect being broad...... cells spectral response to longer wavelengths, through possibly cheap and simple technologies: EBL can be substituted by colloidal solutions implementation and electroless plating is not expensive and results to be effective within a broad set of parameters (size, shape, density). Another application...

  20. Hybrid heterojunction solar cell based on organic-inorganic silicon nanowire array architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Baoquan; Liu, Dong; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-12-07

    Silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) on a planar silicon wafer can be fabricated by a simple metal-assisted wet chemical etching method. They can offer an excellent light harvesting capability through light scattering and trapping. In this work, we demonstrated that the organic-inorganic solar cell based on hybrid composites of conjugated molecules and SiNWs on a planar substrate yielded an excellent power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.70%. The high efficiency was ascribed to two aspects: one was the improvement of the light absorption by SiNWs structure on the planar components; the other was the enhancement of charge extraction efficiency, resulting from the novel top contact by forming a thin organic layer shell around the individual silicon nanowire. On the contrary, the sole planar junction solar cell only exhibited a PCE of 6.01%, due to the lower light trapping capability and the less hole extraction efficiency. It indicated that both the SiNWs structure and the thin organic layer top contact were critical to achieve a high performance organic/silicon solar cell. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Low cost silicon solar array project silicon materials task

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A program was established to develop a high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant will be injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction is expected to occur and proceed essentially to completion, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection of the molten silicon will be developed using standard engineering approaches, and the salt vapor will later be electrolytically separated into its elemental constituents for recycle. Preliminary technical evaluations and economic projections indicate not only that this process appears to be feasible, but that it also has the advantages of rapid, high capacity production of good quality molten silicon at a nominal cost.

  2. Effects of impurities on the performance of silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, K.A.

    1981-09-01

    The major factors that determine the tolerable concentrations of impurities in silicon feedstock for solar cells used in power generation are discussed. It is concluded that a solar-grade silicon can be defined only for a specific manufacturing process. It is also concluded that it is the electrical effects, efficiency and resistivity, that are dominant in determining tolerable concentrations of impurities in the silicon feedstock. Crystal growth effects may become important when faster growth rates and larger crystal diameters are developed and used.

  3. Interface Optoelectronics Engineering for Mechanically Stacked Tandem Solar Cells Based on Perovskite and Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hiroyuki; Uzum, Abdullah; Nishino, Hitoshi; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Imahori, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ito, Seigo

    2016-12-14

    Engineering of photonics for antireflection and electronics for extraction of the hole using 2.5 nm of a thin Au layer have been performed for two- and four-terminal tandem solar cells using CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite (top cell) and p-type single crystal silicon (c-Si) (bottom cell) by mechanically stacking. Highly transparent connection multilayers of evaporated-Au and sputtered-ITO films were fabricated at the interface to be a point-contact tunneling junction between the rough perovskite and flat silicon solar cells. The mechanically stacked tandem solar cell with an optimized tunneling junction structure was ⟨perovskite for the top cell/Au (2.5 nm)/ITO (154 nm) stacked-on ITO (108 nm)/c-Si for the bottom cell⟩. It was confirmed the best efficiency of 13.7% and 14.4% as two- and four-terminal devices, respectively.

  4. Development of Doped Microcrystalline Silicon Oxide and its Application to Thin‑Film Silicon Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambertz, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the development of doped microcrystalline silicon oxide (µc‑SiOx:H) alloys and its application in thin‑film silicon solar cells. The doped µc‑SiOx:H material was prepared from carbon dioxide (CO2), silane (SiH4), hydrogen (H2) gas mixtures using plasma enhanced

  5. Phosphorus-doped Amorphous Silicon Nitride Films Applied to Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feinäugle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The Photovoltaics Group at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya is investigating silicon carbide (SiC) for the electronic passivation of the surface of crystalline silicon solar cells. The doping of SiC passivation layers with phosphorus resulted in a clear improvement of the minority carrier

  6. Morphological and optical properties of silicon thin films by PLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayouchi, R.; Schwarz, R.; Melo, L.V.; Ramalho, R.; Alves, E.; Marques, C.P.; Santos, L.; Almeida, R.; Conde, O.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon thin films have been prepared on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films were deposited in vacuum from a silicon target at a base pressure of 10 -6 mbar in the temperature range from 400 to 800 deg. C. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 5 ns duration, 10 Hz) at a constant energy density of 2 J x cm -2 has been used. The influence of the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the Si thin films was investigated. Spectral ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the thickness and the surface roughness of the deposited films. Surface roughness values measured by AFM and ellipsometry show the same tendency of increasing roughness with increased deposition temperature

  7. Silicon Solar Cell Process Development, Fabrication and Analysis, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Tanner, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Solar cells from RTR ribbons, EFG (RF and RH) ribbons, dendritic webs, Silso wafers, cast silicon by HEM, silicon on ceramic, and continuous Czochralski ingots were fabricated using a standard process typical of those used currently in the silicon solar cell industry. Back surface field (BSF) processing and other process modifications were included to give preliminary indications of possible improved performance. The parameters measured included open circuit voltage, short circuit current, curve fill factor, and conversion efficiency (all taken under AM0 illumination). Also measured for typical cells were spectral response, dark I-V characteristics, minority carrier diffusion length, and photoresponse by fine light spot scanning. the results were compared to the properties of cells made from conventional single crystalline Czochralski silicon with an emphasis on statistical evaluation. Limited efforts were made to identify growth defects which will influence solar cell performance.

  8. Thin-film silicon detectors for particle detection

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, Nicolas; Dunand, S.; Miazza, C.; Shah, A.; Anelli, G.; Despeisse, M.; Garrigos, A.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon. J.; Moraes, D.; Commichau, S. C.; Dissertori, G.; Viertel, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated particle sensors have been developed using thin-film on ASIC technology. For this purpose, hydrogenated amorphous silicon diodes, in various configurations, have been optimized for particle detection. These devices were first deposited on glass substrates to optimize the material properties and the dark current of very thick diodes (with thickness up to 50 μm). Corresponding diodes were later directly deposited on CMOS readout chips. These integrated particle sensors have been char...

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Aspects of Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovich, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to pressure from the photovoltaic industry to decrease the cost of solar cell production, there is a tendency to reduce the thickness of silicon wafers. Unfortunately, wafers contain defects created by the various processing steps involved in solar cell production, which significantly reduce the

  10. Nanowire decorated, ultra-thin, single crystalline silicon for photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurang, Pantea; Turan, Rasit; Emrah Unalan, Husnu

    2017-10-01

    Reducing silicon (Si) wafer thickness in the photovoltaic industry has always been demanded for lowering the overall cost. Further benefits such as short collection lengths and improved open circuit voltages can also be achieved by Si thickness reduction. However, the problem with thin films is poor light absorption. One way to decrease optical losses in photovoltaic devices is to minimize the front side reflection. This approach can be applied to front contacted ultra-thin crystalline Si solar cells to increase the light absorption. In this work, homojunction solar cells were fabricated using ultra-thin and flexible single crystal Si wafers. A metal assisted chemical etching method was used for the nanowire (NW) texturization of ultra-thin Si wafers to compensate weak light absorption. A relative improvement of 56% in the reflectivity was observed for ultra-thin Si wafers with the thickness of 20 ± 0.2 μm upon NW texturization. NW length and top contact optimization resulted in a relative enhancement of 23% ± 5% in photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

  11. Nanowire decorated, ultra-thin, single crystalline silicon for photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurang, Pantea; Turan, Rasit; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2017-10-06

    Reducing silicon (Si) wafer thickness in the photovoltaic industry has always been demanded for lowering the overall cost. Further benefits such as short collection lengths and improved open circuit voltages can also be achieved by Si thickness reduction. However, the problem with thin films is poor light absorption. One way to decrease optical losses in photovoltaic devices is to minimize the front side reflection. This approach can be applied to front contacted ultra-thin crystalline Si solar cells to increase the light absorption. In this work, homojunction solar cells were fabricated using ultra-thin and flexible single crystal Si wafers. A metal assisted chemical etching method was used for the nanowire (NW) texturization of ultra-thin Si wafers to compensate weak light absorption. A relative improvement of 56% in the reflectivity was observed for ultra-thin Si wafers with the thickness of 20 ± 0.2 μm upon NW texturization. NW length and top contact optimization resulted in a relative enhancement of 23% ± 5% in photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

  12. Review of status developments of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Yao, Yao; Xiao, Shaoqing; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2018-03-01

    In order to further improve cell efficiency and reduce cost in achieving grid parity, a large number of PV manufacturing companies, universities and research institutes have been devoted to a variety of low-cost and high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells. In this article, the cell structures, characteristics and efficiency progresses of several types of high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells that have been in small scale production or are promising in mass production are presented, including passivated emitter rear cell, tunnel oxide passivated contact solar cell, interdigitated back contact cell, heterojunction with intrinsic thin-layer cell, and heterojunction solar cells with interdigitated back contacts. Both the industrialization status and future development trend of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells are also pinpointed.

  13. Silicon materials task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project: Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Davis, J. R.; Rohatgi, A.; Hanes, M. H.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Mollenkopf, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of impurities and processing on the characteristics of silicon and terrestrial silicon solar cells were defined in order to develop cost benefit relationships for the use of cheaper, less pure solar grades of silicon. The amount of concentrations of commonly encountered impurities that can be tolerated in typical p or n base solar cells was established, then a preliminary analytical model from which the cell performance could be projected depending on the kinds and amounts of contaminants in the silicon base material was developed. The impurity data base was expanded to include construction materials, and the impurity performace model was refined to account for additional effects such as base resistivity, grain boundary interactions, thermal processing, synergic behavior, and nonuniform impurity distributions. A preliminary assessment of long term (aging) behavior of impurities was also undertaken.

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells/development of technology to manufacture low-cost large-area modules/development of technology to manufacture next generation thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction); 1997 nendo tiayoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module esizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A thin film single crystal silicon solar cell module is developed, in which a porous silicon layer is formed on the surface of a long-sized single crystal silicon substrate, a single crystal silicon film is integrated on the layer by epitaxially growing the film thereon to form a solar cell, and the solar cell is peeled off from the silicon substrate and transferred to a plastic film substrate. The achievements during this fiscal year may be summarized as follows: simultaneous formation of a porous silicon layer on a silicon substrate, reduction of anode formation current density from 200 mA/cm{sup 2} to 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, development of a silicon epitaxial device using a carbon heater, and attainment of aperture conversion efficiency of 11.8% in a thin film single crystal silicon solar cell. Three kinds of methods were developed to peel off the solar cell. A method was developed to grind silicon substrate surface from which the solar cell has been peeled off. A technology was developed to obtain a long-sized silicon substrate of about 30 cm times 10 cm times 0.1 cm from a 4-inch silicon ingot by using a wire saw. (NEDO)

  15. TXRF analysis of trace metals in thin silicon nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereecke, G.; Arnauts, S.; Verstraeten, K.; Schaekers, M.; Heyrts, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    As critical dimensions of integrated circuits continue to decrease, high dielectric constant materials such as silicon nitride are being considered to replace silicon dioxide in capacitors and transistors. The achievement of low levels of metal contamination in these layers is critical for high performance and reliability. Existing methods of quantitative analysis of trace metals in silicon nitride require high amounts of sample (from about 0.1 to 1 g, compared to a mass of 0.2 mg for a 2 nm thick film on a 8'' silicon wafer), and involve digestion steps not applicable to films on wafers or non-standard techniques such as neutron activation analysis. A novel approach has recently been developed to analyze trace metals in thin films with analytical techniques currently used in the semiconductor industry. Sample preparation consists of three steps: (1) decomposition of the silicon nitride matrix by moist HF condensed at the wafer surface to form ammonium fluosilicate. (2) vaporization of the fluosilicate by a short heat treatment at 300 o C. (3) collection of contaminants by scanning the wafer surface with a solution droplet (VPD-DSC procedure). The determination of trace metals is performed by drying the droplet on the wafer and by analyzing the residue by TXRF, as it offers the advantages of multi-elemental analysis with no dilution of the sample. The lower limits of detection for metals in 2 nm thick films on 8'' silicon wafers range from about 10 to 200 ng/g. The present study will focus on the matrix effects and the possible loss of analyte associated with the evaporation of the fluosilicate salt, in relation with the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The benefits of using an internal standard will be assessed. Results will be presented from both model samples (ammonium fluoride contaminated with metallic salts) and real samples (silicon nitride films from a production tool). (author)

  16. a Study of High Efficiency Thin Thermophotovoltaic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Eduardo Sobrino

    1982-05-01

    High conversion efficiency of solar energy into electrical energy is possible if the incident radiation is first absorbed by an intermediate absorber and then re-emitted onto a photovoltaic (PV) solar cell. This mode of operation is known as solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. This thesis explores the limits on performance of TPV systems based on germanium in which the source temperature and the opto-electronic structure of the germanium PV cell are varied and optimized with respect to overall radiant energy conversion efficiency. The principal characteristic of the optimized high efficiency TPV germanium cells is that they are thin p-n junction solar cells which incorporate minority carrier mirrors (MCM) and optical mirrors (OM) at the front and back surfaces of the device examined. In this study, the role of MCM and OM is studied theoretically by solving the minority carrier diffusion equation in the n- and p-type quasineutral regions of the cell with the appropriate boundary conditions at the end of these regions and an appropriate minority carrier generation function. The high theoretical efficiency calculated for these thin structures derives from the simultaneous use of optical and electronic reflection. The calculations presented here determine the theoretical upper limit to TPV conversion efficiency and show the dependence of this limit on cell geometry, resistivity, surface recombination and input density. In addition, TPV systems based on more than one PV cell, each utilizing a different photovoltaically active semiconductor are also considered. A number of possible TPV systems are treated within this theoretical framework. When blackbody thermal radiation sources having temperatures in the range 1500-2000 C are considered, the upper limit efficiency is found to be about 22% for an optimum design germanium cell 90 microns thick and about 26% for a two-junction silicon-germanium tandem cell arrangement 50 and 90 microns thick, respectively

  17. Fabrication of PIN diode detectors on thinned silicon wafers

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchin, Sabina; Dalla Betta, Gian Franco; Gregori, Paolo; Guarnieri, Vittorio; Piemonte, Claudio; Zorzi, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Thin substrates are one of the possible choices to provide radiation hard detectors for future high-energy physics experiments. Among the advantages of thin detectors are the low full depletion voltage, even after high particle fluences, the improvement of the tracking precision and momentum resolution and the reduced material budget. In the framework of the CERN RD50 Collaboration, we have developed p-n diode detectors on membranes obtained by locally thinning the silicon substrate by means of tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide etching from the wafer backside. Diodes of different shapes and sizes have been fabricated on 57 and 99mum thick membranes. They have been tested, showing a very low leakage current ( less than 0.4nA/cm**2) and, as expected, a very low depletion voltage ( less than 1V for the 57mum membrane). The paper describes the technological approach used for devices fabrication and reports selected results from the electrical characterization.

  18. Chromium Trioxide Hole-Selective Heterocontacts for Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenjie; Wu, Weiliang; Liu, Zongtao; Qiu, Kaifu; Cai, Lun; Yao, Zhirong; Ai, Bin; Liang, Zongcun; Shen, Hui

    2018-04-25

    A high recombination rate and high thermal budget for aluminum (Al) back surface field are found in the industrial p-type silicon solar cells. Direct metallization on lightly doped p-type silicon, however, exhibits a large Schottky barrier for the holes on the silicon surface because of Fermi-level pinning effect. As a result, low-temperature-deposited, dopant-free chromium trioxide (CrO x , x solar cell as a hole-selective contact at the rear surface. By using 4 nm CrO x between the p-type silicon and Ag, we achieve a reduction of the contact resistivity for the contact of Ag directly on p-type silicon. For further improvement, we utilize a CrO x (2 nm)/Ag (30 nm)/CrO x (2 nm) multilayer film on the contact between Ag and p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) to achieve a lower contact resistance (40 mΩ·cm 2 ). The low-resistivity Ohmic contact is attributed to the high work function of the uniform CrO x film and the depinning of the Fermi level of the SiO x layer at the silicon interface. Implementing the advanced hole-selective contacts with CrO x /Ag/CrO x on the p-type silicon solar cell results in a power conversion efficiency of 20.3%, which is 0.1% higher than that of the cell utilizing 4 nm CrO x . Compared with the commercialized p-type solar cell, the novel CrO x -based hole-selective transport material opens up a new possibility for c-Si solar cells using high-efficiency, low-temperature, and dopant-free deposition techniques.

  19. Combined Silicon and Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell UV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willowby, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The near and long-term effect of UV on silicon solar cells is relatively understood. In an effort to learn more about the effects of UV radiation on the performance of GaAs/Ge solar cells, silicon and gallium arsenide on germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells were placed in a vacuum chamber and irradiated with ultraviolet light by a Spectrolab XT 10 solar simulator. Seventeen GaAs/Ge and 8 silicon solar cells were mounted on an 8 inch copper block. By having all the cells on the same test plate we were able to do direct comparison of silicon and GaAs/Ge solar cell degradation. The test article was attached to a cold plate in the vacuum chamber to maintain the cells at 25 degrees Celsius. A silicon solar cell standard was used to measure beam uniformity and any degradation of the ST-10 beam. The solar cell coverings tested included cells with AR-0213 coverglass, fused silica coverglass, BRR-0213 coverglass and cells without coverglass. Of interest in the test is the BRR-0213 coverglass material manufactured by OCLI. It has an added Infrared rejection coating to help reduce the solar cell operating temperature. This coverglass is relatively new and of interest to several current and future programs at Marshall. Due to moves of the laboratory equipment and location only 350 hours of UV degradation have been completed. During this testing a significant leveling off in the rate of degradation was reached. Data from the test and comparisons of the UV effect of the bare cells and cells with coverglass material will be presented.

  20. Improvement in IBC-silicon solar cell performance by insertion of highly doped crystalline layer at heterojunction interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri, Hadi; Azim Karami, Mohammad; Mohammadnejad, Shahramm

    2017-01-01

    By inserting a thin highly doped crystalline silicon layer between the base region and amorphous silicon layer in an interdigitated back-contact (IBC) silicon solar cell, a new passivation layer is investigated. The passivation layer performance is characterized by numerical simulations. Moreover, the dependence of the output parameters of the solar cell on the additional layer parameters (doping concentration and thickness) is studied. By optimizing the additional passivation layer in terms of doping concentration and thickness, the power conversion efficiency could be improved by a factor of 2.5%, open circuit voltage is increased by 30 mV and the fill factor of the solar cell by 7.4%. The performance enhancement is achieved due to the decrease of recombination rate, a decrease in solar cell resistivity and improvement of field effect passivation at heterojunction interface. The above-mentioned results are compared with reported results of the same conventional interdigitated back-contact silicon solar cell structure. Furthermore, the effect of a-Si:H/c-Si interface defect density on IBC silicon solar cell parameters with a new passivation layer is studied. The additional passivation layer also reduces the sensitivity of output parameter of solar cell to interface defect density. (paper)

  1. Semiconductor Grade, Solar Silicon Purification Project. [photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, W. M.; Rosler, R. S.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost by-product, SiF4, is reacted with mg silicon to form SiF2 gas which is polymerized. The (SiF2)x polymer is heated forming volatile SixFy homologues which disproportionate on a silicon particle bed forming silicon and SiF4. The silicon analysis procedure relied heavily on mass spectroscopic and emission spectroscopic analysis. These analyses demonstrated that major purification had occured and some samples were indistinguishable from semiconductor grade silicon (except possibly for phosphorus). However, electrical analysis via crystal growth reveal that the product contains compensated phosphorus and boron.

  2. Development of a lightweight, light-trapped, thin GaAs solar cell for spacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Margaret H.; Dinetta, Louis C.; Dashiell, Michael W.; Cummings, John R.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes ultra-lightweight, high performance, thin, light trapping GaAs solar cells for advanced space power systems. The device designs can achieve 24.5 percent efficiency at AMO and 1X conditions, corresponding to a power density of 330 W/m2. A significant breakthrough lies in the potential for a specific power of 2906 W/kg because the entire device is less than 1.5 microns thick. This represents a 440 percent improvement over conventional 4-mil silicon solar cells. In addition to being lightweight, this thin device design can result in increased radiation tolerance. The attachment of the cover glass support to the front surface has been demonstrated by both silicone and electrostatic bonding techniques. Device parameters of 1.002 volts open-circuit voltage, 80 percent fill factor, and a short-circuit current of 24.3 mA/sq cm have been obtained. This demonstrates a conversion efficiency of 14.4 percent resulting in a specific power of 2240 W/kg. Additionally, this new technology offers an alternative approach for enabling multi-bandgap solar cells and high output space solar power devices. The thin device structure can be applied to any 3-5 based solar cell application, yielding both an increase in specific power and radiation tolerance.

  3. Optimized grid design for thin film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Klerk, L.; Barink, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a gap in efficiency between record thin film cells and mass produced thin film solar panels. In this paper we quantify the effect of monolithic integration on power output for various configurations by modeling and present metallization as a way to improve efficiency of solar panels. Grid

  4. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ledinský, Martin; Moulin, E.; Bugnon, G.; Ganzerová, Kristína; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Meillaud, F.; Fejfar, Antonín; Ballif, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 11 (2014), "111106-1"-"111106-4" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15357S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA MŠk 7E12029 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283501 - FAST TRACK Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : light trapping * microcrystalline silicon * thin film solar cell * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  5. Silicon-on ceramic process. Silicon sheet growth and device developmentt for the Large-Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Quarterly report No. 13, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, P W; Zook, J D; Grung, B L; McHenry, K; Schuldt, S B

    1980-02-15

    Research on the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by coating inexpensive ceramic substrates with a thin layer of polycrystalline silicon is reported. The coating methods to be developed are directed toward a minimum-cost process for producing solar cells with a terrestrial conversion efficiency of 11 percent or greater. By applying a graphite coating to one face of a ceramic substrate, molten silicon can be caused to wet only that graphite-coated face and produce uniform thin layers of large-grain polycrystalline silicon; thus, only a minimal quantity of silicon is consumed. A variety of ceramic materials have been dip coated with silicon. The investigation has shown that mullite substrates containing an excess of SiO/sub 2/ best match the thermal expansion coefficient of silicon and hence produce the best SOC layers. With such substrates, smooth and uniform silicon layers 25 cm/sup 2/ in area have been achieved with single-crystal grains as large as 4 mm in width and several cm in length. Crystal length is limited by the length of the substrate. The thickness of the coating and the size of the crystalline grains are controlled by the temperature of the melt and the rate at which the substrate is withdrawn from the melt. The solar-cell potential of this SOC sheet silicon is promising. To date, solar cells with areas from 1 to 10 cm/sup 2/ have been fabricated from material with an as-grown surface. Conversion efficiencies of about 10 percent with antireflection (AR) coating have been achieved. Such cells typically have open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current densities of 0.55V and 23 mA/cm/sup 2/, respectively.

  6. Transmissive metallic contact for amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, A.

    1984-11-29

    A transmissive metallic contact for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes a thin layer of metal, such as aluminum or other low work function metal, coated on the amorphous silicon with an antireflective layer coated on the metal. A transparent substrate, such as glass, is positioned on the light reflective layer. The metallic layer is preferably thin enough to transmit at least 50% of light incident thereon, yet thick enough to conduct electricity. The antireflection layer is preferably a transparent material that has a refractive index in the range of 1.8 to 2.2 and is approximately 550A to 600A thick.

  7. TCAD analysis of graphene silicon Schottky junction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yawei; Liu, Yushen; Ma, Yulong; Xu, Jing; Yang, Xifeng; Feng, Jinfu

    2015-08-01

    The performance of graphene based Schottky junction solar cell on silicon substrate is studied theoretically by TCAD Silvaco tools. We calculate the current-voltage curves and internal quantum efficiency of this device at different conditions using tow dimensional model. The results show that the power conversion efficiency of Schottky solar cell dependents on the work function of graphene and the physical properties of silicon such as thickness and doping concentration. At higher concentration of 1e17cm-3 for n-type silicon, the dark current got a sharp rise compared with lower doping concentration which implies a convert of electron emission mechanism. The biggest fill factor got at higher phos doping predicts a new direction for higher performance graphene Schottky solar cell design.

  8. Silicon MOS and SIS solar-cell elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmyreva, A. N.; Kirpatenko, L. T.; Iakimenko, Iu. I.

    Consideration is given to the fabrication and properties of silicon solar cells based on MOS (metal-oxide-silicon) and SIS (SnO2-oxide-silicon) structures. The volt-ampere characteristics of an MOS element at various levels of radiation power are presented; and the open-circuit voltage, the short-circuit-current density, and the efficiency of MOS elements are studied as a function of temperature. It is noted that the MOS elements have a heightened sensitivity in the short-wave region of the spectrum. Reasons for the growth of photosensitivity as wavelength decreases are examined.

  9. Interface engineering of Graphene-Silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dikai; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Lifei; Yang, Deren

    2016-11-01

    Graphene has attracted great research interests due to its unique mechanical, electrical and optical properties, which opens up a huge number of opportunities for applications. Recently, Graphene-Silicon (Grsbnd Si) solar cell has been recognized as one interesting candidate for the future photovoltaic. Since the first Grsbnd Si solar cell reported in 2010, Grsbnd Si solar cell has been intensively investigated and the power converse efficiency (PCE) of it has been developed to 15.6%. This review presents and discusses current development of Grsbnd Si solar cell. Firstly, the basic concept and mechanism of Grsbnd Si solar cell are introduced. Then, several key technologies are introduced to improve the performance of Grsbnd Si solar cells, such as chemical doping, annealing, Si surface passivation and interlayer insertion. Particular emphasis is placed on strategies for Grsbnd Si interface engineering. Finally, new pathways and opportunities of "MIS-like structure" Grsbnd Si solar cells are described.

  10. Electrically active defects in solar grade multicrystalline silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Espen

    2013-01-01

    Shortage in high purity silicon feedstock, as a result of the formidable increased demand for solar cell devices during the last two decades, can be mitigated by the introduction of cheaper feedstock of solar grade (So-G) quality. Silicon produced through the metallurgical process route has shown...... the potential to be such a feedstock. However, this feedstock has only few years of active commercial history and the detailed understanding of the nature of structural defects in this material still has fundamental shortcomings. In this thesis the electrical activity of structural defects, commonly associated...

  11. Spectral response of a polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, B.; Kane, M.

    1994-10-01

    A theoretical study of the spectral response of a polycrystalline silicon n-p junction solar cell is presented. The case of a fibrously oriented grain structure, involving grain boundary recombination velocity and grain size effects is discussed. The contribution of the base region on the internal quantum efficiency Q int is computed for different grain sizes and grain boundary recombination velocities in order to examine their influence. Suggestions are also made for the determination of base diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells using the spectral response method. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  12. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Solar Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quantum-well structures embodied on single crystal silicon germanium drastically enhanced carrier mobilities.  The cell-to-cell circuits of quantum-well PV...

  13. Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on the Polycrystalline Compound Semiconductors CIS and CdTe

    OpenAIRE

    Powalla, Michael; Bonnet, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules based on Cu-In-Ga-Se-S (CIS) and CdTe are already being produced with high-quality and solar conversion efficiencies of around 10%, with values up to 14% expected in the near future. The integrated interconnection of single cells into large-area modules of 0.6×1.2m2 enables low-cost mass production, so that thin-film modules will soon be able to compete with conventional silicon-wafer-based modules...

  14. Commercial Development Of Ovonic Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1983-09-01

    subsequent paper) which has clearly demonstrated that the basic barrier to low-cost production has been broken through and that one can now speak realistically of delivering power directly from the sun for under a dollar per peak watt merely by making larger versions of this basic continuous web, large-area thin-film machine. We have made one square foot amorphous silicon alloy PIN devices with conversion efficiencies in the range of 7%, and in the laboratory, we have reported smaller area PIN de-vices in the 10% conversion efficiency range. In addition, much higher energy conversion efficiencies can be obtained within the same process by using multi-cell layered or tandem thin-film solar cell structures (see Figure 1). These devices exhibit enhanced efficiency by utilizing a wider range of the solar spectrum. Since the theoretical maximum efficiency for multi-cell structures is over 60%, one can certainly realistically anticipate the pro-duction of thin-film amorphous photovoltaic devices with efficiencies as high as 30%. Our production device is already a two-cell tandem, as we have solved not only the problems of interfacing the individual cell components but also the difficulties associated with a one foot square format deposited on a continuous web. Figure 2 shows a continuous roll of Ovonic solar cells. Realistic calculations for a three-cell tandem thin-film device using amorphous semiconductor alloys with 1.8eV, 1.5eV, and 1.0eV optical band gaps indicate that solar energy conversion efficiencies of 20-30% can be achieved.

  15. Back-contacted back-junction silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangersnes, Krister

    2010-10-15

    Conventional silicon solar cells have a front-side contacted emitter. Back-contacted back-junction (BC-BJ) silicon solar cells, on the other hand, have both the complete metallization and the active diffused regions of both polarities on the backside. World-record efficiencies have already been demonstrated for this type of cell design in production, both on cell and module level. However, the production of these cells is both complex and costly, and a further cost reduction in fabrication is needed to make electricity from BC-BJ silicon solar cells cost-competitive with electricity on the grid ('grid-parity'). During the work with this thesis, we have investigated several important issues regarding BC-BJ silicon solar cells. The aim has been to reduce production cost and complexity while at the same time maintaining, or increasing, the already high conversion efficiencies demonstrated elsewhere. This has been pursued through experimental work as well as through numerical simulations and modeling. Six papers are appended to this thesis, two of which are still under review in scientific journals. In addition, two patents have been filed based on the work presented herein. Experimentally, we have focused on investigating and optimizing single, central processing steps. A laser has been the key processing tool during most of the work. We have used the same laser both to structure the backside of the cell and to make holes in a double-layer of passivating amorphous silicon and silicon oxide, where the holes were opened with the aim of making local contact to the underlying silicon. The processes developed have the possibility of using a relatively cheap and industrially proven laser and obtain results better than most state-of-the-art laser technologies. During the work with the laser, we also developed a thermodynamic model that was able to predict the outcome from laser interaction with amorphous and crystalline silicon. Alongside the experimental work, we

  16. Crystalline silicon solar cells with high resistivity emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, P.; Drabczyk, K.; Zięba, P.

    2009-06-01

    The paper presents a part of research targeted at the modification of crystalline silicon solar cell production using screen-printing technology. The proposed process is based on diffusion from POCl3 resulting in emitter with a sheet resistance on the level of 70 Ω/□ and then, shaped by high temperature passivation treatment. The study was focused on a shallow emitter of high resistivity and on its influence on output electrical parameters of a solar cell. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been employed for appropriate distinguishing the total donor doped profile. The solar cell parameters were characterized by current-voltage characteristics and spectral response (SR) methods. Some aspects playing a role in suitable manufacturing process were discussed. The situation in a photovoltaic industry with emphasis on silicon supply and current prices of solar cells, modules and photovoltaic (PV) systems are described. The economic and quantitative estimation of the PV world market is shortly discussed.

  17. Enhanced Electroluminescence from Silicon Quantum Dots Embedded in Silicon Nitride Thin Films Coupled with Gold Nanoparticles in Light Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rosas, Ana Luz; Rodríguez-Gómez, Arturo; Alonso-Huitrón, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-22

    Nowadays, the use of plasmonic metal layers to improve the photonic emission characteristics of several semiconductor quantum dots is a booming tool. In this work, we report the use of silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) embedded in a silicon nitride thin film coupled with an ultra-thin gold film (AuNPs) to fabricate light emitting devices. We used the remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (RPECVD) in order to grow two types of silicon nitride thin films. One with an almost stoichiometric composition, acting as non-radiative spacer; the other one, with a silicon excess in its chemical composition, which causes the formation of silicon quantum dots imbibed in the silicon nitride thin film. The ultra-thin gold film was deposited by the direct current (DC)-sputtering technique, and an aluminum doped zinc oxide thin film (AZO) which was deposited by means of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, plays the role of the ohmic metal-like electrode. We found that there is a maximum electroluminescence (EL) enhancement when the appropriate AuNPs-spacer-SiQDs configuration is used. This EL is achieved at a moderate turn-on voltage of 11 V, and the EL enhancement is around four times bigger than the photoluminescence (PL) enhancement of the same AuNPs-spacer-SiQDs configuration. From our experimental results, we surmise that EL enhancement may indeed be due to a plasmonic coupling. This kind of silicon-based LEDs has the potential for technology transfer.

  18. Enhanced Electroluminescence from Silicon Quantum Dots Embedded in Silicon Nitride Thin Films Coupled with Gold Nanoparticles in Light Emitting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luz Muñoz-Rosas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of plasmonic metal layers to improve the photonic emission characteristics of several semiconductor quantum dots is a booming tool. In this work, we report the use of silicon quantum dots (SiQDs embedded in a silicon nitride thin film coupled with an ultra-thin gold film (AuNPs to fabricate light emitting devices. We used the remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (RPECVD in order to grow two types of silicon nitride thin films. One with an almost stoichiometric composition, acting as non-radiative spacer; the other one, with a silicon excess in its chemical composition, which causes the formation of silicon quantum dots imbibed in the silicon nitride thin film. The ultra-thin gold film was deposited by the direct current (DC-sputtering technique, and an aluminum doped zinc oxide thin film (AZO which was deposited by means of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, plays the role of the ohmic metal-like electrode. We found that there is a maximum electroluminescence (EL enhancement when the appropriate AuNPs-spacer-SiQDs configuration is used. This EL is achieved at a moderate turn-on voltage of 11 V, and the EL enhancement is around four times bigger than the photoluminescence (PL enhancement of the same AuNPs-spacer-SiQDs configuration. From our experimental results, we surmise that EL enhancement may indeed be due to a plasmonic coupling. This kind of silicon-based LEDs has the potential for technology transfer.

  19. The challenge of screen printed Ag metallization on nano-scale poly-silicon passivated contacts for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Song, Lixin; Yan, Li; Becht, Gregory; Zhang, Yi; Hoerteis, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Passivated contacts can be used to reduce metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon solar cells, and are obtained increasing attentions by PV industries in recent years. The reported thicknesses of passivated contact layers are mostly within tens of nanometer range, and the corresponding metallization methods are realized mainly by plating/evaporation technology. This high cost metallization cannot compete with the screen printing technology, and may affect its market potential comparing with the presently dominant solar cell technology. Very few works have been reported on screen printing metallization on passivated contact solar cells. Hence, there is a rising demand to realize screen printing metallization technology on this topic. In this work, we investigate applying screen printing metallization pastes on poly-silicon passivated contacts. The critical challenge for us is to build low contact resistance that can be competitive to standard technology while restricting the paste penetrations within the thin nano-scale passivated contact layers. The contact resistivity of 1.1mohm-cm2 and the open circuit voltages > 660mV are achieved, and the most appropriate thickness range is estimated to be around 80 150nm.

  20. The SiNx films process research by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bitao; Zhang, Yingke; Ouyang, Qiuping; Chen, Fei; Zhan, Xinghua; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    SiNx thin film has been widely used in crystalline silicon solar cell production because of the good anti-reflection and passivation effect. We can effectively optimize the cells performance by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method to change deposition conditions such as temperature, gas flow ratio, etc. In this paper, we deposit a new layer of SiNx thin film on the basis of double-layers process. By changing the process parameters, the compactness of thin films is improved effectively. The NH3 passivation technology is augmented in a creative way, which improves the minority carrier lifetime. In sight of this, a significant increase is generated in the photoelectric performance of crystalline silicon solar cell.

  1. Photon management in thin-film solar cells; Photon-Management in Duennschicht-Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahr, Stephan

    2011-11-22

    In this thesis procedures were presented, which modify the propagation of the incident light in such a way that by this the efficiency of thin-film solar cells is increased. The strength of the presented numerical studies lies thereby in the rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations. Fundamental statements concerning the lay-out of an ideal texture could be made, which for present thin-film solar cells over the whole relevant spectral range both suppresses reflection losses and leads to an elongation of the effective path. Object of the thesis was also the design of a spectral- and angular-selective filter, which confines the acceptance angle of a solar cell with the aim of an improved absorption in the long-wave spectral region. Furthermore also tandem cells on the base of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon were studied.

  2. Silicon on ceramic process. Silicon sheet growth development for the Large-Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Annual report No. 2, September 17, 1976--September 19, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, J.D.; Heaps, J.D.; Maciolek, R.B.; Koepke, B.; Butter, C.D.; Schuldt, S.B.

    1977-09-30

    The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon from the melt. In the past year significant progress was made in all areas of the program. The physical and chemical properties of the standard mullite refractory used for the majority of the coating runs (McDanel MV20 and Coors S1SI) have been characterized. A number of experimental compositions have been identified and procured from Coors. Characterization of the standard compositions revealed that the thermal expansion of mullite depends on both relative amounts of glass phase and on the impurity level in the glass. Since the thermal expansion in mullite exceeds that of silicon, the silicon coating should be in a state of compression. This was confirmed by x-ray measurements. After modifying and cleaning the dip-coating facility, silicon on ceramic (SOC) solar cells were fabricated which demonstrate that the SOC process can produce silicon of solar cell quality. SOC cells having 1 cm/sup 2/ active areas demonstrated measured conversion efficiencies as high as 7.2 percent. Typical open-ciruit voltages (V/sub oc/) and short-circuit current densities (J/sub sc/) were 0.51 volt and 20 mA/cm/sup 2/, respectively. Since the active surface of these solar cells is a highly reflective ''as-grown'' surface, one can expect improvement in J/sub sc/ after an anti-reflection (AR) coating is applied. Results of an economic analysis of the SOC process are presented.

  3. Efficient amorphous silicon solar cells: characterization, optimization, and optical loss analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayesh Qarony

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H has been effectively utilized as photoactive and doped layers for quite a while in thin-film solar applications but its energy conversion efficiency is limited due to thinner absorbing layer and light degradation issue. To overcome such confinements, it is expected to adjust better comprehension of device structure, material properties, and qualities since a little enhancement in the photocurrent significantly impacts on the conversion efficiency. Herein, some numerical simulations were performed to characterize and optimize different configuration of amorphous silicon-based thin-film solar cells. For the optical simulation, two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique was used to analyze the superstrate (p-i-n planar amorphous silicon solar cells. Besides, the front transparent contact layer was also inquired by using SnO2:F and ZnO:Al materials to improve the photon absorption in the photoactive layer. The cell was studied for open-circuit voltage, external quantum efficiency, and short-circuit current density, which are building blocks for solar cell conversion efficiency. The optical simulations permit investigating optical losses at the individual layers. The enhancement in both short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage prompts accomplishing more prominent power conversion efficiency. A maximum short-circuit current density of 15.32 mA/cm2 and an energy conversion efficiency of 11.3% were obtained for the optically optimized cell which is the best in class amorphous solar cell. Keywords: Superstrate p-i-n, Power loss, Quantum efficiency, Short circuit current, FDTD

  4. A metallurgical route to solar-grade silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, A.

    1986-02-01

    The aim of the process is to produce silicon for crystallization into ingots that can be sliced to wafers for processing into photovoltaic cells. If the potential purity can be realized, the silicon will also be applicable for ribbon pulling techniques where the purification during crystallization is negligible. The process consists of several steps: selection and purification of raw materials, carbothermic reduction of silica, ladle treatment, casting, crushing, leaching, and melting. The leaching step is crucial for high purity, and the obtainable purity is determined by the solidification before leaching. The most difficult specifications to fulfill are the low contents of boron, phosphorus, and carbon. Boron and phosphorus can be excluded from the raw materials, but the carbothermic reduction will unavoidably saturate the silicon with carbon at high temperature. During cooling carbon will precipitate as silicon carbide crystals, which will be harmful in solar cells. The cost of this solar silicon will depend strongly on the scale of production. It is as yet premature to give exact figures, but with a scale of some thousand tons per year, the cost will only be a few times the cost of ordinary metallurgical silicon.

  5. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  6. Controlled thinning and surface smoothening of silicon nanopillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalem, S; Werner, P; Talalaev, V G; Nilsson, B; Hagberg, M; Arthursson, Oe; Soedervall, U

    2009-01-01

    A convenient method has been developed to thin electron beam fabricated silicon nanopillars under controlled surface manipulation by transforming the surface of the pillars to an oxide shell layer followed by the growth of sacrificial ammonium silicon fluoride coating. The results show the formation of an oxide shell and a silicon core without significantly changing the original length and shape of the pillars. The oxide shell layer thickness can be controlled from a few nanometers up to a few hundred nanometers. While downsizing in diameter, smooth Si pillar surfaces of less than 10 nm roughness within 2 μm were produced after exposure to vapors of HF and HNO 3 mixture as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The attempt to expose for long durations leads to the growth of a thick oxide whose strain effect on pillars can be assessed by coupled LO-TO vibrational modes of Si-O bonds. Photoluminescence (PL) of the pillar structures which have been downsized exhibits visible and infrared emissions, which are attributable to microscopic pillars and to the confinement of excited carriers in the Si core, respectively. The formation of smooth core-shell structures while reducing the diameter of the Si pillars has a potential in fabricating nanoscale electronic devices and functional components.

  7. Improvement of multicrystalline silicon wafer solar cells by post ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    1Silicon Technology Unit (UDTS), 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP. 140, Alger-7 Merveilles, Algiers, Algeria. 2Houari Boumediene University of Science and Technology (USTHB), Bab Ezzouar, Algiers, Algeria. 3SSN-Research Centre, Rajiv ... ally, for solar cells metallization a standard screen print- ing process is applied. Initially ...

  8. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

  9. SiNTO EWT silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fallisch, A.; Keding, R.; Kästner, G.; Bartsch, J.; Werner, S.; Stüwe, D.; Specht, J.; Preu, R.; Biro, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we combine the SiNTO cell process with the EWT cell concept. All masking steps are performed by inkjet printing technology. The via-holes and laser-fired contacts are created by high-speed laser drilling. A new polishing process, which is suitable for inkjet masking, to pattern the interdigitated grid on the rear side is developed. For passivation purposes a thermal silicon oxide is used for the rear surface and a silicon nitride antireflection coating for the front surface. An e...

  10. Effect of light trapping in an amorphous silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftiquar, S.M.; Jung, Juyeon; Park, Hyeongsik; Cho, Jaehyun; Shin, Chonghoon; Park, Jinjoo; Jung, Junhee; Bong, Sungjae; Kim, Sunbo; Yi, Junsin

    2015-01-01

    Light trapping in amorphous silicon based solar cell has been investigated theoretically. The substrate for these cells can be textured, including pyramidally textured c-Si wafer, to improve capture of incident light. A thin silver layer, deposited on the substrate of an n–i–p cell, ultimately goes at the back of the cell structure and can act a back reflector to improve light trapping. The two physical solar cells we investigated had open circuit voltages (V oc ) of 0.87, 0.90 V, short circuit current densities (J sc ) of 14.2, 15.36 mA/cm 2 respectively. The first cell was investigated for the effect on its performance while having and not having light trapping scheme (LT), when thickness of the active layer (d i ) was changed in the range of 100 nm to 800 nm. In both the approaches, for having or not having LT, the short circuit current density increases with d i while the V oc and fill factor, decreases steadily. However, maximum cell efficiency can be obtained when d i = 400 nm, and hence it was considered optimized thickness of the active layer, that was used for further investigation. With the introduction of light trapping to the second cell, it shows a further enhancement in J sc and red response of the external quantum efficiency to 16.6 mA/cm 2 and by 11.1% respectively. Considering multiple passages of light inside the cell, we obtained an improvement in cell efficiency from 9.7% to 10.6%. - Highlights: • A theoretical analysis of light trapping in p–i–n and n–i–p type solar cells • J sc increases and V oc decreases with the increase in i-layer thickness. • Observed optimized thickness of i-layer as 400 nm • J sc improved from 15.4 mA/cm 2 to 16.6 mA/cm 2 due to the light trapping. • Efficiency (η) improved from 9.7% to 10.6% due to better red response of the EQE

  11. Spatially resolved photoconductive properties of profiled polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, Tom J.; van Veenendaal, Patrick A. T. T.; de Haas, Matthijs P.; Warman, John M.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2002-05-01

    To study the mobility and lifetime of charge carriers in thin film polycrystalline silicon deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition, time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements have been performed. Using this technique the change in conductivity in the polycrystalline silicon films after pulsed excitation can be monitored on a nanosecond time scale, without the use of electrodes. Due to the different penetration depths of the laser wavelengths used (320, 500, and 690 nm) combined with illumination from different sides, the photoconductivity in different regions within the sample can be measured. Four different samples of polycrystalline silicon deposited on Corning glass have been studied: Poly1 (highly defective), Poly2 (device quality) and profiled layers of Poly1 and Poly2. For front or back illumination, the conductivity transients for the Poly1 film are very similar and show that lifetimes of the charge carriers generated are less than 1 ns. For the Poly2 film the mobility in the interfacial substrate region (μ=0.17 cm2/V s) is more than 1 order of magnitude lower than in the top region (μ=3.8 cm2/V s). The formation of a thin Poly1 film on the surface of the Corning substrate, acting as a seed layer for the Poly2 layer, followed by the deposition of the Poly2 layer, results in only a relatively small increase in the mobility in the region close to the substrate as compared to the bare Poly2 layer, while the mobility in the top region remains approximately constant.

  12. 14th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells& Modules: Materials and Processes; Extended Abstracts and Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2004-08-01

    The 14th Workshop will provide a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. It will offer an excellent opportunity for researchers in private industry and at universities to prioritize mutual needs for future collaborative research. The workshop is intended to address the fundamental properties of PV silicon, new solar cell designs, advanced solar cell processing techniques, and cell-related module issues. A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions will review recent advances in crystal growth, new cell designs, new processes and process characterization techniques, cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands, and solar cell encapsulation. This year's theme, ''Crystalline Si Solar Cells: Leapfrogging the Barriers,'' reflects the continued success of crystalline Si PV in overcoming technological barriers to improve solar cell performance and lower the cost of Si PV. The workshop will consist of presentations by invited speakers, followed by discussion sessions. In addition, there will be two poster sessions presenting the latest research and development results. Some presentations will address recent technologies in the microelectronics field that may have a direct bearing on PV. The sessions will include: Advances in crystal growth and material issues; Impurities and defects; Dynamics during device processing; Passivation; High-efficiency Si solar cells; Advanced processing; Thin Si solar cells; and Solar cell reliability and module issues.

  13. Wafer scale nano-membrane supported on a silicon microsieve using thin-film transfer technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unnikrishnan, S.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A new micromachining method to fabricate wafer scale nano-membranes is described. The delicate thin-film nano-membrane is supported on a robust silicon microsieve fabricated by plasma etching. The silicon sieve is micromachined independently of the thin-film, which is later transferred onto it by

  14. Gettering improvements of minority-carrier lifetimesin solar grade silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinniy, Viktor; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Dahl, Espen

    2012-01-01

    The minority-carrier lifetime in p-type solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) produced by Elkem Solar was investigated after different types of heat treatment. Two groups of samples differing by the as-grown lifetimes were exposed to internal and phosphorus gettering using constant and variable temperature...... processes. Optimal heat-treatment parameters for each group of samples were then identified which improved the minority-carrier lifetimes to values higher than the minimum value needed for solar cells. Phosphorus gettering using a variable temperature process enhanced in particular the lifetime within each...

  15. Influence of ITO-Silver Wire Electrode Structure on the Performance of Single-Crystal Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wern-Dare Jheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effect of various electrode forms on single-crystal silicon solar cells by changing their front and back electrode structures. The high light penetration depth of the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO and the high conductivity of the silver wire that were coated on the single crystal silicon solar cells increased photoelectron export, thus increasing the efficiency of the solar cell. The experiment utilized a sol-gel solution containing phosphorus that was spin coated on single-crystal silicon wafers; this phosphorus also served as a phosphorus diffusion source. A p-n junction was formed after annealing at high temperature, and the substrate was coated with silver wires and ITO films of various structures to produce the electrodes. This study proposed that applying a heat treatment to the aluminum of back electrodes would result in a higher efficiency for single-crystal silicon solar cells, whereas single-crystal silicon solar cells containing front electrodes with ITO film coated with silver wires would result in efficiencies that are higher than those achieved using pure ITO thin-film electrodes.

  16. Nonvolatile Polycrystalline-Silicon Thin-Film-Transistor Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon Memory with Periodical Finlike Channels Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Henry J. H.; Huang, Chien-Jen

    2013-02-01

    This work addresses the characteristics of a nonvolatile polycrystalline-silicon thin-film-transistor silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) memory with periodical finlike channels fabricated using nanoimprint lithography. The polycrystalline silicon periodical finlike channels were fabricated using ultraviolet (UV) nano-imprint lithography and studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The memories with periodical finlike channels have lower operation voltage, higher programming speed, larger memory window, and better endurance and data retention than those with a single channel. The proposed approach can be utilized to fabricate a high-performance thin-film-transistor memory at a low cost.

  17. Potential of thin-film solar cell module technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.; Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.

    1985-01-01

    During the past five years, thin-film cell technology has made remarkable progress as a potential alternative to crystalline silicon cell technology. The efficiency of a single-junction thin-film cell, which is the most promising for use in flat-plate modules, is now in the range of 11 percent with 1-sq cm cells consisting of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 or CdTe materials. Cell efficiencies higher than 18 percent, suitable for 15 percent-efficient flat plate modules, would require a multijunction configuration such as the CdTe/CuInSe2 and tandem amorphous-silicon (a-Si) alloy cells. Assessments are presented of the technology status of thin-film-cell module research and the potential of achieving the higher efficiencies required for large-scale penetration into the photovoltaic (PV) energy market.

  18. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Solar Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A single crystal SiGe has enormous potentials for high performance chips and solar cells. This project seeks to fabricate a rudimentary but 1st cut quantum-well...

  19. The silicon-silicon oxide multilayers utilization as intrinsic layer on pin solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colder, H.; Marie, P.; Gourbilleau, F.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanostructures are promising candidate for the intrinsic layer on pin solar cells. In this work we report on new material: silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering of a pure silica target and an interesting structure: multilayers consisting of a stack of SRSO and pure silicon oxide layers. Two thicknesses of the SRSO sublayer, t SRSO , are studied 3 nm and 5 nm whereas the thickness of silica sublayer is maintaining at 3 nm. The presence of nanocrystallites of silicon, evidenced by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), leads to photoluminescence (PL) emission at room temperature due to the quantum confinement of the carriers. The PL peak shifts from 1.3 eV to 1.5 eV is correlated to the decreasing of t SRSO from 5 nm down to 3 nm. In the purpose of their potential utilization for i-layer, the optical properties are studied by absorption spectroscopy. The achievement a such structures at promising absorption properties. Moreover by favouring the carriers injection by the tunnel effect between silicon nanograins and silica sublayers, the multilayers seem to be interesting for solar cells

  20. Back scattering involving embedded silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles for c-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Siddiqui, M. S.; Saxena, A. K.; Chaudhuri, Partha; Saha, Hiranmay; Banerjee, Chandan

    2018-04-01

    A novel material, structure and method of synthesis for dielectric light trapping have been presented in this paper. First, the light scattering behaviour of silicon nitride nanoparticles have been theoretically studied in order to find the optimized size for dielectric back scattering by FDTD simulations from Lumerical Inc. The optical results have been used in electrical analysis and thereby, estimate the effect of nanoparticles on efficiency of the solar cells depending on substrate thickness. Experimentally, silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles have been formed using hydrogen plasma treatment on SiN layer deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD). The size and area coverage of the nanoparticles were controlled by varying the working pressure, power density and treatment duration. The nanoparticles were integrated with partial rear contact c-Si solar cells as dielectric back reflector structures for the light trapping in thin silicon solar cells. Experimental results revealed the increases of current density by 2.7% in presence of SiN nanoparticles.

  1. Silicon homo-heterojunction solar cells: A promising candidate to realize high performance more stably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Miao; Zhong, Sihua; Wang, Wenjie; Shen, Wenzhong

    2017-08-01

    We have investigated the influences of diverse physical parameters on the performances of a silicon homo-heterojunction (H-H) solar cell, which encompasses both homojunction and heterojunction, together with their underlying mechanisms by the aid of AFORS-HET simulation. It is found that the performances of H-H solar cell are less sensitive to (i) the work function of the transparent conductive oxide layer, (ii) the interfacial density of states at the front hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interface, (iii) the peak dangling bond defect densities within the p-type a-Si:H (p-a-Si:H) layer, and (iv) the doping concentration of the p-a-Si:H layer, when compared to that of the conventional heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) counterparts. These advantages are due to the fact that the interfacial recombination and the recombination within the a-Si:H region are less affected by all the above parameters, which fundamentally benefit from the field-effect passivation of the homojunction. Therefore, the design of H-H structure can provide an opportunity to produce high-efficiency solar cells more stably.

  2. Silicon homo-heterojunction solar cells: A promising candidate to realize high performance more stably

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Tan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influences of diverse physical parameters on the performances of a silicon homo-heterojunction (H-H solar cell, which encompasses both homojunction and heterojunction, together with their underlying mechanisms by the aid of AFORS-HET simulation. It is found that the performances of H-H solar cell are less sensitive to (i the work function of the transparent conductive oxide layer, (ii the interfacial density of states at the front hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si interface, (iii the peak dangling bond defect densities within the p-type a-Si:H (p-a-Si:H layer, and (iv the doping concentration of the p-a-Si:H layer, when compared to that of the conventional heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT counterparts. These advantages are due to the fact that the interfacial recombination and the recombination within the a-Si:H region are less affected by all the above parameters, which fundamentally benefit from the field-effect passivation of the homojunction. Therefore, the design of H-H structure can provide an opportunity to produce high-efficiency solar cells more stably.

  3. High efficiency thin film solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy (HEFTY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, N.B.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Ballard, I.M.; Zhang, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-04

    The project sought to show the UK as a world leader in the field of thin film crystalline solar cells. A premise was that the cell design be suitable for large-scale manufacturing and provide a basis for industrial exploitation. The study demonstrated (1) that silicon films grown at temperatures suitable for deposition on glass by Gas Phase Molecular Beam Epitaxy gives better PV cells than does Ultra Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition; (2) a conversion energy of 15 per cent was achieved - the project target was 18 per cent and (3) one of the highest reported conversion efficiencies for a 15 micrometre silicon film was achieved. The study was carried out by BP Solar Limited under contract to the DTI.

  4. Photon upconversion for thin film solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this research one of the many possible methods to increase the efficiency of solar cells is described. The method investigated is based on adapting the solar light in such a way that the solar cell can convert more light into electricity. The part of the solar spectrum that is adapted is the part

  5. Efficiency improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells after surface and grain boundaries passivation using vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbali, L.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Evaporation of vanadium pentoxide onto the front surface leads to reduce the surface reflectivity considerably. ► An efficient surface passivation can be obtained after thermal treatment of obtained films. ► Efficiency of the obtained solar cells has been improved noticeably after thermal treatment of deposited thin films. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of vanadium oxide deposition onto the front surface of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrat, without any additional cost in the fabrication process and leading to an efficient surface and grain boundaries (GBs) passivation that have not been reported before. The lowest reflectance of mc-Si coated with vanadium oxide film of 9% was achieved by annealing the deposited film at 600 °C. Vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) were thermally evaporated onto the surface of mc-Si substrates, followed by a short annealing duration at a temperature ranging between 600 °C and 800 °C, under O 2 atmosphere. The chemical composition of the films was analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface and cross-section morphology were determined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The deposited vanadium oxide thin films make the possibility of combining in one processing step an antireflection coating deposition along with efficient surface state passivation, as compared to a reference wafer. Silicon solar cells based on untreated and treated mc-Si wafers were achieved. We showed that mc-silicon solar cells, subjected to the above treatment, have better short circuit currents and open-circuit voltages than those made from untreated wafers. Thus, the efficiency of obtained solar cells has been improved.

  6. Electronic passivation of silicon surfaces by thin films of atomic layer deposited gallium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T. G.; Cuevas, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the application of gallium oxide (Ga 2 O 3 ) thin films to crystalline silicon solar cells. Effective passivation of n- and p-type crystalline silicon surfaces has been achieved by the application of very thin Ga 2 O 3 films prepared by atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ozone (O 3 ) as the reactants. Surface recombination velocities as low as 6.1 cm/s have been recorded with films less than 4.5 nm thick. A range of deposition parameters has been explored, with growth rates of approximately 0.2 Å/cycle providing optimum passivation. The thermal activation energy for passivation of the Si-Ga 2 O 3 interface has been found to be approximately 0.5 eV. Depassivation of the interface was observed for prolonged annealing at increased temperatures. The activation energy for depassivation was measured to be 1.9 eV.

  7. Environmental life cycle assessment of roof-integrated flexible amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon solar cell laminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohr, N.J.; Meijer, A.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Reijnders, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental life cycle assessment of a roof-integrated flexible solar cell laminate with tandem solar cells composed of amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon (a-Si/nc-Si). The a-Si/nc-Si cells are considered to have 10% conversion efficiency. Their expected service life

  8. Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Remote Chemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël DAVENAS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Disordered arrays of silicon nanowires have been produced by the OAG technique. The UV-visible absorption spectrum of the SiNWs shows a main increase of the absorption extending in the near infrared and similar absorption than bulk crystalline silicon below 400 nm. T EMT simulation of the UV absorption of silicon nanowires predicts a main optical absorption for a nanowire orientation parallel to the electric field vector of the incident light, as expected for SiNW lying with a dominant orientation parallel to the substrate. The enhanced optical absorption tail extending above 400 nm has been attributed to the combination of band gap opening shown by the PL emission and high densities of silicon surface states at high surface/volume ratio. Hybrid solar cells have been fabricated through the dispersion of silicon nanowires in a poly(3-hexylthiophene thin film leading to a 1.14 % conversion yield, which was increased to 3.04 % upon SiNW surface functionalization, opening new perspectives for self sufficient power supplies applicable to remote sensing.

  9. Silicon diffusion in aluminum for rear passivated solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrejola, Elias; Peter, Kristian; Plagwitz, Heiko; Schubert, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    We show that the lateral spread of silicon in a screen-printed aluminum layer increases by (1.50±0.06) μm/ deg. C, when increasing the peak firing temperature within an industrially applicable range. In this way, the maximum spread limit of diffused silicon in aluminum is predictable and does not depend on the contact area size but on the firing temperature. Therefore, the geometry of the rear side pattern can influence not only series resistance losses within the solar cell but the process of contact formation itself. In addition, too fast cooling lead to Kirkendall void formations instead of an eutectic layer.

  10. Resource recovery of scrap silicon solar battery cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Hung, Chi-En; Tsai, Shang-Lin; Popuri, Srinivasa R; Liao, Ching-Hua

    2013-05-01

    In order to minimize pollution problems and to conserve limited natural resources, a hydrometallurgical procedure was developed in this study to recover the valuable resources of silicon (Si), silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) from scrap silicon solar battery cells. In this study, several methods of leaching, crystallization, precipitation, electrolysis and replacement were employed to investigate the recovery efficiency of Ag and Al from defective monocrystalline silicon solar battery cells. The defective solar battery cells were ground into powder followed by composition analysis with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The target metals Ag and Al weight percentage were found to be 1.67 and 7.68 respectively. A leaching process was adopted with nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium hydroxide as leaching reagent to recover Ag and Al from a ground solar battery cell. Aluminum was leached 100% with 18N H2SO4 at 70°C and Ag was leached 100% with 6N HNO3. Pure Si of 100% was achieved from the leaching solution after the recovery of Ag and Al, and was analyzed by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy. Aluminum was recovered by crystallization process and silver was recovered by precipitation, electrolysis and replacement processes. These processes were applied successfully in the recovery of valuable metal Ag of 98-100%.

  11. Optical characterisation of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellassi, K.; Chafik El Idrissi, M.; Chouiyakh, A.; Rjeb, A.; Barhdadi, A.

    2000-09-01

    The present work is devoted to the study of some optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films prepared by radio-frequency cathodic sputtering technique. It is essentially focused on investigating separately the effects of increasing partial hydrogen pressure during the deposition stage, and the effects of post deposition thermal annealing on the main optical parameters of the deposited layers (refraction index, optical gap Urbach energy, etc.). We show that low hydrogen pressures allow a saturation of the dangling bonds in the material, while high pressures lead to the creation of new defects. We also show that thermal annealing under moderate temperatures allows a good improvement of the structural quality of deposited films. (author)

  12. Key Success Factors and Future Perspective of Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Binetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, after more than 70 years of continued progress on silicon technology, about 85% of cumulative installed photovolatic (PV modules are based on crystalline silicon (c-Si. PV devices based on silicon are the most common solar cells currently being produced, and it is mainly due to silicon technology that the PV has grown by 40% per year over the last decade. An additional step in the silicon solar cell development is ongoing, and it is related to a further efficiency improvement through defect control, device optimization, surface modification, and nanotechnology approaches. This paper attempts to briefly review the most important advances and current technologies used to produce crystalline silicon solar devices and in the meantime the most challenging and promising strategies acting to increase the efficiency to cost/ratio of silicon solar cells. Eventually, the impact and the potentiality of using a nanotechnology approach in a silicon-based solar cell are also described.

  13. ORGANIC THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS: NEXT GENERATION LOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy has the potential to fulfil an important part of the sustainable energy demand for future power generations. Thereby, low-cost organic photovoltaic systems have come into the international researchfocus during thepast ... polymeric solar cells ultra-thin flexible material can be applied to large surfaces by printing ...

  14. Performance comparison between silicon solar panel and dye-sensitized solar panel in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, N. K. A.; Ahmad, M. K.; Urus, N. S. T.; Mohamad, F.; Nafarizal, N.; Ahmad, N.; Soon, C. F.; Ameruddin, A. S.; Faridah, A. B.; Shimomura, M.; Murakami, K.

    2017-09-01

    In carrying out experimental research in performance between silicon solar panel and dye-sensitive solar panel, we have been developing a device and a system. This system has been developed consisting of controllers, hardware and software. This system is capable to get most of the input sources. If only need to change the main circuit and coding for a different source input value. This device is able to get the ambient temperature, surface temperature, surrounding humidity, voltage with load, current with load, voltage without load and current without load and save the data into external memory. This device is able to withstand the heat and rain as it was fabricated in a waterproof box. This experiment was conducted to examine the performance of both the solar panels which are capable to maintain their stability and performance. A conclusion based on data populated, the distribution of data for dye-sensitized solar panel is much better than silicon solar panel as dye-sensitized solar panel is very sensitive to heat and not depend only on midday where is that is the maximum ambient temperature for both solar panel as silicon solar panel only can give maximum and high output only when midday.

  15. Performance of Thin-Window Silicon Drift Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, , G.A.; Chen, W.; De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister; J.W.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Rehak, P.; Siddons, D.P.

    2008-10-20

    Several sets of hexagonal Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) arrays were produced at BNL and by a commercial vendor, KETEK. Each array consists of 14 independent detectors (pixels) and two additional test pixels at two of the corners. The side of the detector upon which the X-ray radiation is incident (window side) has a thin junction covering the entire active area. The opposite side (device side) contains a drift-field electrode structure in the form of a hexagonal spiral and an electron collecting anode. There are 4 guard rings surrounding the 14-pixel array area on both sides of the detector. Within each array, 7 of the pixels have an aluminum field plate - interrupted spirals that stabilize the electric potential under the Si-SiO2 interface, while the other 7 do not. The drift field in the silicon volume is controlled by three biases: one is applied to a rectifying contact, one to the detector entrance window, and the third to a contact on the outer portion of the spiral common to all pixels in the array. Some arrays have been newly measured in NSLS beam line U3C at BNL. The complete assemblies were installed in the vacuum and cooled to ?27 C. During this run, spectra for energies ranging between 400 and 900 eV were collected in several pixels, some with field plates and others without. The detailed testing results of several arrays are reported here.

  16. Enhancing crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency with SixGe1-x layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adnan; Cheow, S. L.; Azhari, A. W.; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell represents a cost effective, environment-friendly, and proven renewable energy resource. Industrially manufacturing of c-Si solar has now matured in terms of efficiency and cost. Continuing cost-effective efficiency enhancement requires transition towards thinner wafers in near term and thin-films in the long term. Successful implementation of either of these alternatives must address intrinsic optical absorption limitation of Si. Bandgap engineering through integration with SixGe1-x layers offers an attractive, inexpensive option. With the help of PC1D software, role of SixGe1-x layers in conventional c-Si solar cells has been intensively investigated in both wafer and thin film configurations by varying Ge concentration, thickness, and placement. In wafer configuration, increase in Ge concentration leads to enhanced absorption through bandgap broadening with an efficiency enhancement of 8% for Ge concentrations of less than 20%. At higher Ge concentrations, despite enhanced optical absorption, efficiency is reduced due to substantial lowering of open-circuit voltage. In 5-25-μm thickness, thin-film solar cell configurations, efficiency gain in excess of 30% is achievable. Therefore, SixGe1-x based thin-film solar cells with an order of magnitude reduction in costly Si material are ideally-suited both in terms of high efficiency and cost. Recent research has demonstrated significant improvement in epitaxially grown SixGe1-x layers on nanostructured Si substrates, thereby enhancing potential of this approach for next generation of c-Si based photovoltaics.

  17. Acceptable contamination levels in solar grade silicon: From feedstock to solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, J.; Lelievre, J.F.; Canizo, C.; Luque, A. del

    2009-01-01

    Ultimately, alternative ways of silicon purification for photovoltaic applications are developed and applied. There is an ongoing debate about what are the acceptable contamination levels within the purified silicon feedstock to specify the material as solar grade silicon. Applying a simple model and making some additional assumptions, we calculate the acceptable contamination levels of different characteristic impurities for each fabrication step of a typical industrial mc-Si solar cell. The acceptable impurity concentrations within the finished solar cell are calculated for SRH recombination exclusively and under low injection conditions. It is assumed that during solar cell fabrication impurity concentrations are only altered by a gettering step. During the crystallization process, impurity segregation at the solid-liquid interface and at extended defects are taken into account. Finally, the initial contamination levels allowed within the feedstock are deduced. The acceptable concentration of iron in the finished solar cell is determined to be 9.7x10 -3 ppma whereas the concentration in the silicon feedstock can be as high as 12.5 ppma. In comparison, the titanium concentration admitted in the solar cell is calculated to be 2.7x10 -4 ppma and the allowed concentration of 2.2x10 -2 ppma in the feedstock is only two orders of magnitude higher. Finally, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that slow cooling rates can lead to a decrease of the interstitial Fe concentration and thus relax the purity requirements in the feedstock.

  18. N-type compensated silicon: resistivity, crystal growth, carrier lifetime, and relevant application for HIT solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Gao, Wenxiu; Li, Zhen; Cheng, Haoran; Lin, Jinxia; Cheng, Qijin

    2017-05-01

    N-type compensated silicon shows unusual distribution of resistivity as crystal grows compared to the n-type uncompensated silicon. In this paper, evolutions of resistivities with varied concentrations of boron and varied starting resistivities of the n-type silicon are intensively calculated. Moreover, reduction of carrier mobility is taken into account by Schindler’s modified model of carrier mobility for the calculation of resistivity of the compensated silicon. As for substrates of solar cells, optimized starting resistivity and corresponding concentration of boron are suggested for better uniformity of resistivity and higher yield (fraction with ρ >0.5 ~ Ω \\centerdot \\text{cm} ) of the n-type compensated Cz crystal rod. A two-step growth method is investigated to obtain better uniformity of resistivity of crystal rod, and this method is very practical especially for the n-type compensated silicon. Regarding the carrier lifetime, the recombination by shallow energy-level dopants is taken into account for the compensated silicon, and evolution of carrier lifetime is simulated by considering all main recombination centers which agrees well with our measured carrier lifetimes as crystal grows. The n-type compensated silicon shows a larger reduction of carrier lifetime compared to the uncompensated silicon at the beginning of crystal growth, and recombination with a oxygen-related deep defect is sufficient to describe the reduction of degraded lifetime. Finally, standard heterojunction with intrinsic thin-layer (HIT) solar cells are made with substrates from the n-type compensated silicon rod, and a high efficiency of 22.1% is obtained with a high concentration (0.8× {{10}16}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} ) of boron in the n-type compensated silicon feedstock. However, experimental efficiencies of HIT solar cells based on the n-type compensated silicon show an average reduction of 4% along with the crystal length compared to the uncompensated silicon. The

  19. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  20. Selective deposition contact patterning using atomic layer deposition for the fabrication of crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Shin, Woong-Chul; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2014-01-01

    Selective deposition contact (SDC) patterning was applied to fabricate the rear side passivation of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. By this method, using screen printing for contact patterning and atomic layer deposition for the passivation of Si solar cells with Al 2 O 3 , we produced local contacts without photolithography or any laser-based processes. Passivated emitter and rear-contact solar cells passivated with ozone-based Al 2 O 3 showed, for the SDC process, an up-to-0.7% absolute conversion-efficiency improvement. The results of this experiment indicate that the proposed method is feasible for conversion-efficiency improvement of industrial crystalline Si solar cells. - Highlights: • We propose a local contact formation process. • Local contact forms a screen print and an atomic layer deposited-Al 2 O 3 film. • Ozone-based Al 2 O 3 thin film was selectively deposited onto patterned silicon. • Selective deposition contact patterning method can increase cell-efficiency by 0.7%

  1. Flexible concentrator photovoltaics based on microscale silicon solar cells embedded in luminescent waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongseung; Li, Lanfang; Semichaevsky, Andrey V; Ryu, Jae Ha; Johnson, Harley T; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A

    2011-06-14

    Unconventional methods to exploit monocrystalline silicon and other established materials in photovoltaic (PV) systems can create new engineering opportunities, device capabilities and cost structures. Here we show a type of composite luminescent concentrator PV system that embeds large scale, interconnected arrays of microscale silicon solar cells in thin matrix layers doped with luminophores. Photons that strike cells directly generate power in the usual manner; those incident on the matrix launch wavelength-downconverted photons that reflect and waveguide into the sides and bottom surfaces of the cells to increase further their power output, by more than 300% in examples reported here. Unlike conventional luminescent photovoltaics, this unusual design can be implemented in ultrathin, mechanically bendable formats. Detailed studies of design considerations and fabrication aspects for such devices, using both experimental and computational approaches, provide quantitative descriptions of the underlying materials science and optics.

  2. Flexible concentrator photovoltaics based on microscale silicon solar cells embedded in luminescent waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jongseung [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Li, Lanfang [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Lab. (FS-MRL); Semichaevsky, Andrey V. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering; Ryu, Jae Ha [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Lab. (FS-MRL); Johnson, Harley T. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Lab. (FS-MRL); Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Lab. (FS-MRL); Rogers, John A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Depts. of Materials Science and Engineering, Mechanical Science and Engineering, Chemistry and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Lab. (FS-MRL)

    2011-06-14

    Unconventional methods to exploit monocrystalline silicon and other established materials in photovoltaic (PV) systems can create new engineering opportunities, device capabilities and cost structures. Here we show a type of composite luminescent concentrator PV system that embeds large scale, interconnected arrays of microscale silicon solar cells in thin matrix layers doped with luminophores. Photons that strike cells directly generate power in the usual manner; those incident on the matrix launch wavelength-downconverted photons that reflect and waveguide into the sides and bottom surfaces of the cells to increase further their power output, by more than 300% in examples reported here. Unlike conventional luminescent photovoltaics, this unusual design can be implemented in ultrathin, mechanically bendable formats. Detailed studies of design considerations and fabrication aspects for such devices, using both experimental and computational approaches, provide quantitative descriptions of the underlying materials science and optics.

  3. CZTS nanoparticle absorber layer for thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symonowicz, Joanna; Jensen, Kirsten M. Ørnsbjerg; Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells have the potential to revolutionize the solar energy market. They are cheap, non-toxic and present an efficiency up to 9,2% [1]. However, to commercialize CZTS nanoparticle thin films, the efficiency issues must yet be resolved. There are various fabrication...... is furthermore characterized. Photoluminescence measurements indicate which absorber layer are of higher efficiency, which allows us to study why some crystalline configurations enhance the efficiency of resulting solar cells....

  4. Highly conducting p-type nanocrystalline silicon thin films preparation without additional hydrogen dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Chandralina; Das, Debajyoti

    2018-04-01

    Boron doped nanocrystalline silicon thin film has been successfully prepared at a low substrate temperature (250 °C) in planar inductively coupled RF (13.56 MHz) plasma CVD, without any additional hydrogen dilution. The effect of B2H6 flow rate on structural and electrical properties of the films has been studied. The p-type nc-Si:H films prepared at 5 ≤ B2H6 (sccm) ≤ 20 retains considerable amount of nanocrystallites (˜80 %) with high conductivity ˜101 S cm-1 and dominant crystallographic orientation which has been correlated with the associated increased ultra- nanocrystalline component in the network. Such properties together make the material significantly effective for utilization as p-type emitter layer in heterojunction nc-Si solar cells.

  5. Development of Thin Film Amorphous Silicon Tandem Junction Based Photocathodes Providing High Open-Circuit Voltages for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Urbain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film tandem solar cells (a-Si:H/a-Si:H have been developed with focus on high open-circuit voltages for the direct application as photocathodes in photoelectrochemical water splitting devices. By temperature variation during deposition of the intrinsic a-Si:H absorber layers the band gap energy of a-Si:H absorber layers, correlating with the hydrogen content of the material, can be adjusted and combined in a way that a-Si:H/a-Si:H tandem solar cells provide open-circuit voltages up to 1.87 V. The applicability of the tandem solar cells as photocathodes was investigated in a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC measurement set-up. With platinum as a catalyst, the a-Si:H/a-Si:H based photocathodes exhibit a high photocurrent onset potential of 1.76 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE and a photocurrent of 5.3 mA/cm2 at 0 V versus RHE (under halogen lamp illumination. Our results provide evidence that a direct application of thin film silicon based photocathodes fulfills the main thermodynamic requirements to generate hydrogen. Furthermore, the presented approach may provide an efficient and low-cost route to solar hydrogen production.

  6. Silicon on ceramic process. Silicon sheet growth for Large-Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Annual report No. 4, September 29, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, P W; Zook, J D; Heaps, J D; Koepke, B; Grung, B L; Schuldt, S B

    1979-10-31

    The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon from the melt. The effort is divided into several areas of investigation in order to most efficiently meet the goals of the program. These areas include: (1) dip-coating; (2) continuous coating; (3) material characterization; (4) cell fabrication; and (5) theoretical analysis. Progress in all areas of the program is reported in detail. (WHK)

  7. Photoluminescence in large fluence radiation irradiated space silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Osamu; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Tsukamoto, Kazuyoshi

    1997-03-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were carried out for silicon 50{mu}m BSFR space solar cells irradiated with 1MeV electrons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 16} e/cm{sup 2} and 10MeV protons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}. The results were compared with the previous result performed in a relative low fluence region, and the radiation-induced defects which cause anomalous degradation of the cell performance in such large fluence regions were discussed. As far as we know, this is the first report which presents the PL measurement results at 4.2K of the large fluence radiation irradiated silicon solar cells. (author)

  8. Photo stability Assessment in Amorphous-Silicon Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandia, J. J.; Carabe, J.; Fabero, F.; Jimenez, R.; Rivero, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The present status of amorphous-silicon-solar-cell research and development at CIEMAT requires the possibility to characterise the devices prepared from the point of view of their stability against sunlight exposure. Therefore a set of tools providing such a capacity has been developed. Together with an introduction to photovoltaic applications of amorphous silicon and to the photodegradation problem, the present work describes the process of setting up these tools. An indoor controlled photodegradation facility has been designed and built, and a procedure has been developed for the measurement of J-V characterisation in well established conditions. This method is suitable for all kinds of solar cells, even for those for which no model is still available. The photodegradation and characterisation of some cells has allowed to validate both the new testing facility and method. (Author) 14 refs

  9. Method for producing silicon thin-film transistors with enhanced forward current drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1998-01-01

    A method for fabricating amorphous silicon thin film transistors (TFTs) with a polycrystalline silicon surface channel region for enhanced forward current drive. The method is particularly adapted for producing top-gate silicon TFTs which have the advantages of both amorphous and polycrystalline silicon TFTs, but without problem of leakage current of polycrystalline silicon TFTs. This is accomplished by selectively crystallizing a selected region of the amorphous silicon, using a pulsed excimer laser, to create a thin polycrystalline silicon layer at the silicon/gate-insulator surface. The thus created polysilicon layer has an increased mobility compared to the amorphous silicon during forward device operation so that increased drive currents are achieved. In reverse operation the polysilicon layer is relatively thin compared to the amorphous silicon, so that the transistor exhibits the low leakage currents inherent to amorphous silicon. A device made by this method can be used, for example, as a pixel switch in an active-matrix liquid crystal display to improve display refresh rates.

  10. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yangang; Zhang, Xiaohang; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Takeuchi, Ichiro, E-mail: takeuchi@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Yao, Yangyi; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Dagenais, Mario [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  11. Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Löper, P.; Moon, S.J.; de Nicolas, S.M.; Niesen, B.; Ledinský, Martin; Nicolay, S.; Bailat, J.; Yum, J. H.; De Wolf, S.; Ballif, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2015), s. 1619-1629 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : perovskites * solar cells * silicon solar cells * silicon heterojunction solar cells * photovoltaics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.449, year: 2015

  12. Silicon Quantum Dots in a Dielectric Matrix for All-Silicon Tandem Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Green

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We report work progress on the growth of Si quantum dots in different matrices for future photovoltaic applications. The work reported here seeks to engineer a wide-bandgap silicon-based thin-film material by using quantum confinement in silicon quantum dots and to utilize this in complete thin-film silicon-based tandem cell, without the constraints of lattice matching, but which nonetheless gives an enhanced efficiency through the increased spectral collection efficiency. Coherent-sized quantum dots, dispersed in a matrix of silicon carbide, nitride, or oxide, were fabricated by precipitation of Si-rich material deposited by reactive sputtering or PECVD. Bandgap opening of Si QDs in nitride is more blue-shifted than that of Si QD in oxide, while clear evidence of quantum confinement in Si quantum dots in carbide was hard to obtain, probably due to many surface and defect states. The PL decay shows that the lifetimes vary from 10 to 70 microseconds for diameter of 3.4 nm dot with increasing detection wavelength.

  13. Recent progress in thin-film-silicon photovoltaic devices at CIEMAT; Recientes progresos en la tecnologia de dispositivos fotovoltaicos de silicio en lamina delgada en el CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandia, J. J.; Carabe, J.

    2011-07-01

    Solar photovoltaic energy has evolved in the last 50 years on the basis of the co-existence of two fundamental technological paths: that of wafer-based silicon, dominating the market, and that of thin films, representing an important part of the options for the future of this energy-conversion field. More recently new concepts have gained significance, such as concentration photovoltaic (CPV), dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC), organic cells, silicon-heterojunction (SHJ) cells and thin-crystalline silicon devices among others. over 90% of all these PV technologies are based on the use of either of the forms of the most abundant element of the earth crust: silicon. CIEMAT, being aware of the relevant role renewable energies and post-vocalic in particular must play in dinging solutions to the energy and environmental problem, has several action lines within this discipline. Among them is the one developed at the laboratory for Deposited-silicon Devices (DSD), entirely devoted to acquiring by own means the technology required for the fabrication of thin-film-silicon-based PV devices in order to be in conditions to give a maximum support to the Spanish industry in this field. Within the context of the historic evolution of PV technology in the world, this paper describes the progress of the DSD lab in the last years, according to a plan aimed at developing technology of the maximum strategic value. such a working scheme, supported by valuable collaborations, has led the group to a reference position in the areas of thin-film-silicon p-i-n devices on glass, silicon-heterojunction cells and p-i-n devices on flexible substrates. (Author) 5 refs.

  14. Novel concepts for low-cost and high-efficient thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, D.; Menéndez, A.; Sánchez, P.; Martínez, A.; Andrés, L. J.; Menéndez, M. F.; Campos, N.; García, A.; Sánchez, B.

    2011-09-01

    This work presents the activities carried out at ITMA Materials Technology related to the building integration of thin film (TF) photovoltaics (PV). Three different approaches have been developed in order to achieve high efficient solar cells at low manufacturing costs: (i) a new route for manufacturing monolithical silicon based thin film solar cells on building materials, (ii) the use of metallic nanoparticles for light trapping (plasmonic effects and light scattering) and (iii) the luminescent sol-gel coating on glass for solar concentration. In the first case, amorphous silicon modules (single junction) have been successfully manufactured at lab scale on steel and commercial ceramic substrates with efficiencies of 5.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Promising initial attempts have been also made in ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), a polymer with high potential in textile architecture. In a similar way, the development of nanotechnology based coatings (metallic nanoparticles and luminescent materials) represent the most innovative part of the work and some preliminary results are showed.

  15. Towards Cost-Effective Crystalline Silicon Based Flexible Solar Cells: Integration Strategy by Rational Design of Materials, Process, and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.

    2017-11-30

    The solar cells market has an annual growth of more than 30 percent over the past 15 years. At the same time, the cost of the solar modules diminished to meet both of the rapid global demand and the technological improvements. In particular for the crystalline silicon solar cells, the workhorse of this technology. The objective of this doctoral thesis is enhancing the efficiency of c-Si solar cells while exploring the cost reduction via innovative techniques. Contact metallization and ultra-flexible wafer based c-Si solar cells are the main areas under investigation. First, Silicon-based solar cells typically utilize screen printed Silver (Ag) metal contacts which affect the optimal electrical performance. To date, metal silicide-based ohmic contacts are occasionally used for the front contact grid lines. In this work, investigation of the microstructure and the electrical characteristics of nickel monosilicide (NiSi) ohmic contacts on the rear side of c-Si solar cells has been carried out. Significant enhancement in the fill factor leading to increasing the total power conversion efficiency is observed. Second, advanced classes of modern application require a new generation of versatile solar cells showcasing extreme mechanical resilience. However, silicon is a brittle material with a fracture strains <1%. Highly flexible Si-based solar cells are available in the form thin films which seem to be disadvantageous over thick Si solar cells due to the reduction of the optical absorption with less active Si material. Here, a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology based integration strategy is designed where corrugation architecture to enable an ultra-flexible solar cell module from bulk mono-crystalline silicon solar wafer with 17% efficiency. This periodic corrugated array benefits from an interchangeable solar cell segmentation scheme which preserves the active silicon thickness and achieves flexibility via interdigitated back contacts. These cells

  16. The effect of substrate morphological structure on photoelectrical conversion performance of silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongtao; Sun, Xiaomeng; Xia, Yang

    2017-03-01

    A novel method is proposed to evaluate electrical characteristics of silicon solar cell at real operating conditions. Silicon solar cells with different substrate morphological structures have various photoelectrical performances. The effect of substrate morphological structure on photoelectrical conversation performance of silicon solar cell has been investigated by illustration analysis, mathematical model and I-V test system. Results show that the solar cell with the porous-sponge like substrate has better electrical characteristics than those with conical like substrate morphological structure. The output power of porous substrate solar cell can exceed by 11% at 40 degree incident angle of sunlight compared to conical substrate solar cell.

  17. Dyadic Green's functions of thin films: Applications within plasmonic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Jesper; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2011-01-01

    Optimization and design of silicon solar cells by exploiting light scattering frommetal nanoparticles to increase the efficiency is addressed in the small particle limit from a fundamental point of view via the dyadic Green’s function formulation. Based on the dyadic Green’s function (Green’s...... tensor) of a three-layer geometry, light scattering from electric point dipoles (representing small metal scatterers) located within a thin layer sandwiched between a substrate and a superstrate is analyzed. Starting from the full dyadic Green’s function we derive analytical near- and far...

  18. Passivation effect of water vapour on thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Müller, Martin; Becker, C.; Fejfar, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 7 (2016), s. 1969-1975 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) DAAD-16-27 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : passivation, * plasma hydrogenation * silicon * solar cells * thin films * water vapour Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  19. Expanding the versatility of silicon carbide thin films and nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Lunet

    Silicon carbide (SiC) based electronics and sensors hold promise for pushing past the limits of current technology to achieve small, durable devices that can function in high-temperature, high-voltage, corrosive, and biological environments. SiC is an ideal material for such conditions due to its high mechanical strength, excellent chemical stability, and its biocompatibility. Consequently, SiC thin films and nanowires have attracted interest in applications such as micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, biological sensors, field emission cathodes, and energy storage devices. However to fully realize SiC in such technologies, the reliability of metal contacts to SiC at high temperatures must be improved and the nanowire growth mechanism must be understood to enable strict control of nanowire crystal structure and orientation. Here, we present a novel metallization scheme, utilizing solid-state graphitization of SiC, to improve the long-term reliability of Pt/Ti contacts to polycrystalline n-type SiC films at high temperature. The metallization scheme includes an alumina protection layer and exhibits low, stable contact resistivity even after long-term (500 hr) testing in air at 450 ºC. We also report the crystal structure and growth mechanism of Ni-assisted silicon carbide nanowires using single-source precursor, methyltrichlorosilane. The effects of growth parameters, such as substrate and temperature, on the structure and morphology of the resulting nanowires will also be presented. Overall, this study provides new insights towards the realization of novel SiC technologies, enabled by advanced electron microscopy techniques located in the user facilities at the Molecular Foundry in Berkeley, California. This work was performed in part at the Molecular Foundry, supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  20. Silicon Solar Cells on Glass with Power Conversion Efficiency above 13% at Thickness below 15 Micrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Paul; Preissler, Natalie; Bokalič, Matevž; Trahms, Martina; Haschke, Jan; Schlatmann, Rutger; Topič, Marko; Rech, Bernd; Amkreutz, Daniel

    2017-04-13

    Liquid phase crystallized silicon on glass with a thickness of (10-40) μm has the potential to reduce material costs and the environmental impact of crystalline silicon solar cells. Recently, wafer quality open circuit voltages of over 650 mV and remarkable photocurrent densities of over 30 mA/cm 2 have been demonstrated on this material, however, a low fill factor was limiting the performance. In this work we present our latest cell progress on 13 μm thin poly-crystalline silicon fabricated by the liquid phase crystallization directly on glass. The contact system uses passivated back-side silicon hetero-junctions, back-side KOH texture for light-trapping and interdigitated ITO/Ag contacts. The fill factors are up to 74% and efficiencies are 13.2% under AM1.5 g for two different doping densities of 1 · 10 17 /cm 3 and 2 · 10 16 /cm 3 . The former is limited by bulk and interface recombination, leading to a reduced saturation current density, the latter by series resistance causing a lower fill factor. Both are additionally limited by electrical shading and losses at grain boundaries and dislocations. A small 1 × 0.1 cm 2 test structure circumvents limitations of the contact design reaching an efficiency of 15.9% clearly showing the potential of the technology.

  1. Advantages of N-Type Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon Oxide Films for Micromorph Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Limmanee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development and application of n-type hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon oxide films (n μc-SiO:H in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide/hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (a-SiO:H/μc-Si:H micromorph solar cells. The n μc-SiO:H films with high optical bandgap and low refractive index could be obtained when a ratio of carbon dioxide (CO2 to silane (SiH4 flow rate was raised; however, a trade-off against electrical property was observed. We applied the n μc-SiO:H films in the top a-SiO:H cell and investigated the changes in cell performance with respect to the electrical and optical properties of the films. It was found that all photovoltaic parameters of the micromorph silicon solar cells using the n top μc-SiO:H layer enhanced with increasing the CO2/SiH4 ratio up to 0.23, where the highest initial cell efficiency of 10.7% was achieved. The enhancement of the open circuit voltage (Voc was likely to be due to a reduction of reverse bias at subcell connection—n top/p bottom interface—and a better tunnel recombination junction contributed to the improvement in the fill factor (FF. Furthermore, the quantum efficiency (QE results also have demonstrated intermediate-reflector function of the n μc-SiO:H films.

  2. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis fixation technique with ultra thin silicon sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Temporomandibular joint ankylosis is a highly distressing condition in which the joint space is obliterated by scar tissue and the patient has an inability to open the mouth. Different autogenous and alloplastic interposition materials have been used after the resection of the ankylotic bone to achieve desirable and long lasting results. The recurrence of disease is most distressing for both patients and surgeon. We have been using ultra thin silicon sheet as our preferred material for providing proper fixation and cover to the joint. We have been encouraged by good patient compliance, no implant extrusion and favourable outcome. Materials and Methods: The clinical study included 80 patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis, treated between April 2001 and March 2009. In all patients, temporomandibular joint ankylosis had resulted following trauma. Diagnosis was based on clinical assessment supplemented by radiographic examination consisting of a panoramic radiograph, axial and coronal computer tomography. The technique of using ultra thin silicon sheet covering whole of the joint space fixed with non-absorbable nylon 3-0 suture both medially to medial pterygoid muscle and laterally to periosteum of zygomatic arch was employed in all patients. Results: A total of 80 patients were in this study (59 males and 21 females. The aetiology of temporomandibular joint ankylosis was post-traumatic in all cases. The patients′ age ranged from 5 to 45 years. The disease was unilateral in 61 cases and bilateral in 19 cases. Twelve patients, who had previous surgery done in the form of gap arthroplasty in 6 cases, costochondral graft in 4 cases and temporalis muscle in 2 cases, presented with recurrence on the same side. The pre-op inter-incisal mouth opening ranged from 4 to 12 mm. The intraoperative inter-incisal mouth opening ranged from 28 to 46 mm. An additional procedure was done in 13 patients, including placement of costochondral

  3. A theoretical investigation of quantum confinement effects in heterojunction silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, H.; Karami, M. A.; Mohammadnejad, Sh.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of quantum confinement potential on the performance of a silicon-based heterojunction solar cell with an intrinsic thin-layer of a-Si:H is studied using numerical simulations. The presence of defects at c-Si/a-Si:H interface is studied quantitatively and, an analytical solution is investigated to interpret experimental results. Moreover, the impact of defect density at c-Si/a-Si:H interface on the solar cell operation is explained. By the use of a theoretical model, the effect of intrinsic amorphous layer thickness, and interface defect density on quasi-Fermi level are studied and the mechanisms of open circuit voltage ( V oc ) variations, are interpreted successfully. It is shown that the best performance of heterojunction silicon solar cell with a single passivation layer is obtained when the thickness of (i)a-Si:H is 3-9 nm and heterojunction interface defect density is lower than 1010 cm-2 eV-1.

  4. Improved Optics in Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with a Nanocrystalline Silicon Recombination Junction

    KAUST Repository

    Sahli, Florent

    2017-10-09

    Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells are increasingly recognized as promi­sing candidates for next-generation photovoltaics with performance beyond the single-junction limit at potentially low production costs. Current designs for monolithic tandems rely on transparent conductive oxides as an intermediate recombination layer, which lead to optical losses and reduced shunt resistance. An improved recombination junction based on nanocrystalline silicon layers to mitigate these losses is demonstrated. When employed in monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem cells with a planar front side, this junction is found to increase the bottom cell photocurrent by more than 1 mA cm−2. In combination with a cesium-based perovskite top cell, this leads to tandem cell power-conversion efficiencies of up to 22.7% obtained from J–V measurements and steady-state efficiencies of up to 22.0% during maximum power point tracking. Thanks to its low lateral conductivity, the nanocrystalline silicon recombination junction enables upscaling of monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem cells, resulting in a 12.96 cm2 monolithic tandem cell with a steady-state efficiency of 18%.

  5. Frequency dependence of the active impedance component of silicon thin-film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, S.V.; Gostilo, V.V.; Yurov, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    A high-resistant resistor on the silicon thin-film substrate considerably superior in noise and frequency performance than commercial resistors is described. The frequency dependence of the active impedance component is tested for determining noise and frequency dependences of silicon thin-film resistors. The obtained results permit to calculate the energy equivalent of resistor noise in nuclear radiation detection units at any temperature according to its frequency characteristic at room temperature

  6. Silicon-based thin-film transistors with a high stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stannowski, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) are widely applied as pixel-addressing devices in large-area electronics, such as active-matrix liquid-crystal displays (AMLCDs) or sensor arrays. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) are generally used as the semiconductor and the

  7. Water vapor selective thin film nanocomposite membranes prepared by functionalized Silicon nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baig, Muhammad Irshad; Ingole, Pravin G.; Jeon, Jae deok; Hong, Seong Uk; Choi, Won Kil; Jang, Boyun; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we have reported a facile method to improve the water vapor permeation performance of thin film nanocomposite membranes by tailoring the surface properties of Silicon nanoparticles. Inductively coupled plasma technique was utilized to synthesize amorphous Silicon nanoparticles (~. 10.

  8. Charge Transfer from Carbon Nanotubes to Silicon in Flexible Carbon Nanotube/Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaokai; Mariano, Marina; McMillon-Brown, Lyndsey; Huang, Jing-Shun; Sfeir, Matthew Y; Reed, Mark A; Jung, Yeonwoong; Taylor, André D

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical fragility and insufficient light absorption are two major challenges for thin flexible crystalline Si-based solar cells. Flexible hybrid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/Si solar cells are demonstrated by applying scalable room-temperature processes for the fabrication of solar-cell components (e.g., preparation of SWNT thin films and SWNT/Si p-n junctions). The flexible SWNT/Si solar cells present an intrinsic efficiency ≈7.5% without any additional light-trapping structures. By using these solar cells as model systems, the charge transport mechanisms at the SWNT/Si interface are investigated using femtosecond transient absorption. Although primary photon absorption occurs in Si, transient absorption measurements show that SWNTs also generate and inject excited charge carriers to Si. Such effects can be tuned by controlling the thickness of the SWNTs. Findings from this study could open a new pathway for designing and improving the efficiency of photocarrier generation and absorption for high-performance ultrathin hybrid SWNT/Si solar cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Insect Thin Films as Sun Blocks, Not Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Crawford, Andrew B.

    2000-05-01

    We measured the visible reflectance spectra of whole wing sections from three species of iridescent butterflies and moths, for normal incidence, integrated over all reflected angles. In this manner, we separated the optics of the thin films causing the iridescence from the optics of the rest of the scale. We found that iridescence reduces solar absorption by the wing in all cases, typically by approximately 20% or less, in contrast to claims by Miaoulis and Heilman Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 91, 122 (1998) that the thin-film structures that produce iridescence act as solar collectors.

  10. Optimization of the silicon subcell for III-V on silicon multijunction solar cells: Key differences with conventional silicon technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tabarés, Elisa; Martín, Diego; García, Iván; Lelièvre, Jean François; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    Dual-junction solar cells formed by a GaAsP or GaInP top cell and a silicon (Si) bottom cell seem to be attractive candidates to materialize the long sought-for integration of III-V materials on Si for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Such integration would offer a cost breakthrough for PV technology, unifying the low cost of Si and the efficiency potential of III-V multijunction solar cells. The optimization of the Si solar cells properties in flat-plate PV technology is well-known; nevertheless, it has been proven that the behavior of Si substrates is different when processed in an MOVPE reactor In this study, we analyze several factors influencing the bottom subcell performance, namely, 1) the emitter formation as a result of phosphorus diffusion; 2) the passivation quality provided by the GaP nucleation layer; and 3) the process impact on the bottom subcell PV properties.

  11. Efficient colored silicon solar modules using integrated resonant dielectric nanoscatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neder, Verena; Luxembourg, Stefan L.; Polman, Albert

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate photovoltaic modules with a bright green color based on silicon heterojunction solar cells integrated with arrays of light scattering dielectric nanoscatterers. Dense arrays of crystalline silicon nanocylinders, 100-120 nm wide, 240 nm tall, and 325 nm pitch, are made onto module cover slides using substrate-conformal soft-imprint lithography. Strong electric and magnetic dipolar Mie resonances with a narrow linewidth (Q ˜ 30) cause strong (35%-40%) specular light scattering on resonance (˜540 nm). The green color is observed over a wide range of angles (8°-75°). As the resonant nanoscatterers are transparent for the major fraction of the incident solar spectrum, the relative loss in short-circuit current is only 10%-11%. The soft-imprinted nanopatterns can be applied on full-size solar modules and integrated with conventional module encapsulation. The dielectric Mie resonances can be controlled by geometry, opening up a road for designing efficient colorful or white building-integrated photovoltaics.

  12. Effects of impurities on silicon solar-cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Model analyses indicate that sophisticated solar cell designs (back surface fields, optical reflectors, surface passivation, and double layer antireflective coatings) can produce devices with conversion efficiencies above 20%. To realize this potential, the quality of the silicon from which the cells are made must be improved; and these excellent electrical properties must be maintained during device processing. As the cell efficiency rises, the sensitivity to trace contaminants also increases. For example, the threshold Ti impurity concentraion at which cell performance degrades is more than an order of magnitude lower for an 18% cell than for a 16% cell. Similar behavior occurs for numerous other metal species which introduce deep level traps that stimulate the recombination of photogenerated carriers in silicon. Purification via crystal growth in conjunction with gettering steps to preserve the large diffusion length of the as grown material can lead to the production of devices with efficiencies above 18%, as verified experimentally.

  13. Impurity effects in silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Rohatgi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Model analyses indicate that sophisticated solar cell designs including, e.g., back surface fields, optical reflectors, surface passivation, and double layer antireflective coatings can produce devices with conversion efficiencies above 20 percent (AM1). To realize this potential, the quality of the silicon from which the cells are made must be improved; and these excellent electrical properties must be maintained during device processing. As the cell efficiency rises, the sensitivity to trace contaminants also increases. For example, the threshold Ti impurity concentration at which cell performance degrades is more than an order of magnitude lower for an 18-percent cell. Similar behavior occurs for numerous other metal species which introduce deep level traps that stimulate the recombination of photogenerated carriers in silicon. Purification via crystal growth in conjunction with gettering steps to preserve the large diffusion length of the as-grown material can lead to the production of devices with efficiencies aboved 18 percent, as has been verified experimentally.

  14. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite layer properties on silicon solar cells with hybrid 3D scanning force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Kuk; Choi, Beomjoon; Chung, Haseung; Shin, Seungwon; Song, Hee-Eun; Seo, Jung Hwan

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 μm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 μm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties.

  15. High-power, ultralow-mass solar arrays: FY-77 solar arrays technology readiness assessment report, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Young, L. E.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Development efforts are reported in detail for: (1) a lightweight solar array system for solar electric propulsion; (2) a high efficiency thin silicon solar cell; (3) conceptual design of 200 W/kg solar arrays; (4) fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell array; and (5) technology assessment of concentrator solar arrays.

  16. Develop silicone encapsulation systems for terrestrial silicon solar arrays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This work resulted in two basic accomplishments. The first was the identification of DOW CORNING Q1-2577 as a suitable encapsulant material for use in cost effective encapsulation systems. The second was the preparation of a silicon-acrylic cover material containing a durable ultraviolet screening agent for the protection of photo-oxidatively sensitive polymers. The most expeditious method of fabrication is one in which the encapsulant material performs the combined function of adhesive, pottant, and outer cover. The costs of the encapsulant can be minimized by using it as a thin conformal coating. One encapsulation system using silicones was identified which provided protection to photovoltaic cells and survived the JPL qualification tests. This encapsulation system uses DOW CORNING Q1-2577, a conformal coating from Dow Corning, as the combined adhesive, pottant and cover material. The lowest cost encapsulation system using Q1-2577 had Super Dorlux as the substrate structural member. The overall material cost of this encapsulation system is 0.74 cents/ft/sup 2/ (1980 dollars) based on current material prices, which could decrease with increased production of Q1-2577. Subsequent to identifying the best silicone encapsulation system, a silicone acrylic cover material containing a durable ultraviolet screening agent was prepared and its effectiveness in protecting photo-oxidatively sensitive polymers was demonstrated.

  17. Anti-reflective microstructure array and its performance evaluation in thin film flexible solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhan, Xinghua; Gao, Mengyu; Tie, Shengnian; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    The anti-reflective (AR) structure greatly reduces the light reflection. When it is applied on solar cells, it enables more light to be absorbed by the cells, increasing the energy of the incident light and improving the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency. In this study, the optical properties of AR microstructures are investigated followed by the performance evaluation of solar cells. The AR microstructure is arrayed in a uniform and periodic fashion. When it is applied on PMMA, only 1.0% of the light is reflected away while 2.6% of the light is reflected on glass. The angular dependence performance is also improved with AR structure with 9.4% more light absorption, which can increase the effective energy generation duration for the solar cell. The AR structure is applied to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells by nano-imprinting technology. The solar cell with AR structure gained 8.63% more power compared to the conventional solar cells.

  18. Silicon nanomembranes as a means to evaluate stress evolution in deposited thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna M. Clausen; Deborah M. Paskiewicz; Alireza Sadeghirad; Joseph Jakes; Donald E. Savage; Donald S. Stone; Feng Liu; Max G. Lagally

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film deposition on ultra-thin substrates poses unique challenges because of the potential for a dynamic response to the film stress during deposition. While theoretical studies have investigated film stress related changes in bulk substrates, little has been done to learn how stress might evolve in a film growing on a compliant substrate. We use silicon...

  19. Kinetic Properties of Solar Wind Silicon and Iron Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitzek, N. P.; Berger, L.; Drews, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy ions with atomic numbers Z>2 account for less than one percent of the solar wind ions. However, serving as test particles with differing mass and charge, they provide a unique experimental approach to major questions of solar and fundamental plasma physics such as coronal heating, the origin and acceleration of the solar wind and wave-particle interaction in magnetized plasma. Yet the low relative abundances of the heavy ions pose substantial challenges to the instrumentation measuring these species with reliable statistics and sufficient time resolution. As a consequence the numbers of independent measurements and studies are small. The Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer as part of the Charge, ELement and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) onboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer which was operated at Lagrangian point L1 in 1996 for a few months only, before it suffered an instrument failure. Despite its short operation time, the CTOF sensor measured solar wind heavy ions with excellent charge state separation, an unprecedented cadence of 5 minutes and very high counting statistics, exceeding similar state-of-the-art instruments by a factor of ten. In contrast to earlier CTOF studies which were based on reduced onboard post-processed data, in our current studies we use raw Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) data providing a significantly increased mass, mass-per-charge and velocity resolution. Focussing on silicon and iron ion measurements, we present an overview of our findings on (1) short time behavior of heavy ion 1D radial velocity distribution functions, (2) differential streaming between heavy ions and solar wind bulk protons, (3) kinetic temperatures of heavy ions. Finally, we compare the CTOF results with measurements of the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) instrument onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE).

  20. Elongated Nanostructures for Radial Junction Thin Film Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In solar cell technology, the current trend is to thin down the active absorber layer. The main advantage of a thinner absorber layer primarily is the reduced consumption of material and energy during production, but also the increased production rates and lower cost. While this is of interest to

  1. Silicon-on ceramic process. Silicon sheet growth and device development for the large-area silicon sheet and cell development tasks of the low-cost solar array project. Quarterly report No. 12, April 2, 1979-June 29, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, P.W.; Zook, J.D.; Heaps, J.D.; Grung, B.L.; Koepke, B.; Schuldt, S.B.

    1979-07-31

    The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon. We plan to do this by coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon from the melt. During the quarter, significant progress was demonstrated in several areas: (1) a 10-cm/sup 2/ cell having 9.9 percent conversion efficiency (AM1, AR) was fabricated; (2) the Honeywall-sponsored SCIM coating development succeeded in producing a 225-cm/sup 2/ layer of sheet silicon (18 inches x 2 inches); and (3) 100 ..mu..m-thick coatings at pull speed of 0.15 cm/sec wer$obta9ned, although apoproximately 50 percent of the layer exhibited dendritic growth. Other results and accomplishments during the quarter are reported in detail. (WHK)

  2. Thin film solar cell and its production method; Hakumaku taiyo denchi oyobi sono seiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Mishima, T.; Matsuda, T. [Daido Hokusan Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Sakai Lab.

    1997-01-17

    An attempt has been made to replace the single crystal silicon substrate for other inexpensive substrate coated with Si thin film for cost saving in the silicon solar cell production. It was found, however, a big difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the substrate and Si brought about a big warp of the substrate when the Si film was made thick enough for solar cell use. This invention solves the problem. The Si thin film is grown through a mask having many holes with constant interval instead of being grown as a continuous layer. The Si film is, therefore, formed in island structure which rises from many holes. The island structure crystals exist, being separated from each other. They consist of discontinuous points. So that they can expand thermally in accordance with the thermal expansion of the substrate. Even if there is a difference in thermal expansion between the inexpensive substrate and Si crystal film, little warp takes place in the laminate. 8 figs.

  3. Laser Process for Selective Emitter Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Poulain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective emitter solar cells can provide a significant increase in conversion efficiency. However current approaches need many technological steps and alignment procedures. This paper reports on a preliminary attempt to reduce the number of processing steps and therefore the cost of selective emitter cells. In the developed procedure, a phosphorous glass covered with silicon nitride acts as the doping source. A laser is used to open locally the antireflection coating and at the same time achieve local phosphorus diffusion. In this process the standard chemical etching of the phosphorous glass is avoided. Sheet resistance variation from 100 Ω/sq to 40 Ω/sq is demonstrated with a nanosecond UV laser. Numerical simulation of the laser-matter interaction is discussed to understand the dopant diffusion efficiency. Preliminary solar cells results show a 0.5% improvement compared with a homogeneous emitter structure.

  4. Light trapping in horizontally aligned silicon microwire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Fredrik A; Smeltzer, Benjamin K; Ballato, John; Hawkins, Thomas; Jones, Max; Gibson, Ursula J

    2015-11-30

    In this study, we demonstrate a solar cell design based on horizontally aligned microwires fabricated from 99.98% pure silicon via the molten core fiber drawing method. A similar structure consisting of 50 μm diameter close packed wires (≈ 0.97 packing density) on a Lambertian white back-reflector showed 86 % absorption for incident light of wavelengths up to 850 nm. An array with a packing fraction of 0.35 showed an absorption of 58 % over the same range, demonstrating the potential for effective light trapping. Prototype solar cells were fabricated to demonstrate the concept. Horizontal wire cells offer several advantages as they can be flexible, and partially transparent, and absorb light efficiently over a wide range of incident angles.

  5. Enhanced photoluminescence from ring resonators in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ryan J; Wood, Michael G; Reano, Ronald M

    2017-11-01

    We report enhanced photoluminescence in the telecommunications wavelength range in ring resonators patterned in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films deposited via low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The thin films exhibit broadband photoluminescence that is enhanced by up to 5 dB by the resonant modes of the ring resonators due to the Purcell effect. Ellipsometry measurements of the thin films show a refractive index comparable to crystalline silicon and an extinction coefficient on the order of 0.001 from 1300 nm to 1600 nm wavelengths. The results are promising for chip-scale integrated optical light sources.

  6. Thin Film Solar Cells and their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Jurecka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the optical parameters of the semiconductor thin film for solar cell applications determination. The method is based on the dynamical modeling of the spectral reflectance function combined with the stochastic optimization of the initial reflectance model estimation. The spectral dependency of the thin film optical parameters computations is based on the optical transitions modeling. The combination of the dynamical modeling and the stochastic optimization of the initial theoretical model estimation enable comfortable analysis of the spectral dependencies of the optical parameters and incorporation of the microstructure effects on the solar cell properties. The results of the optical parameters ofthe i-a-Si thin film determination are presented.

  7. Luminescent down shifting effect of Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet thin films on solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Guojian; Lou, Chaogang; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) thin films as luminescent down shifting (LDS) materials are introduced into the module of crystalline silicon solar cells. The films are deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on the lower surface of the quartz glass. They convert ultraviolet and blue light into yellow light. Experiments show that the introduction of YAG:Ce films improves the conversion efficiency from 18.45% of the cells to 19.27% of the module. The increasing efficiency is attributed to LDS effect of YAG:Ce films and the reduced reflection of short wavelength photons. Two intentionally selected samples with similar reflectivities are used to evaluate roughly the effect of LDS alone on the solar cells, which leads to a relative increase by 2.68% in the conversion efficiency

  8. Molecular monolayers for electrical passivation and functionalization of silicon-based solar energy devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Firet, Nienke J.; Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, R.; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-01

    Silicon-based solar fuel devices require passivation for optimal performance yet at the same time need functionalization with (photo)catalysts for efficient solar fuel production. Here, we use molecular monolayers to enable electrical passivation and simultaneous functionalization of silicon-based

  9. Crystalline Silicon/Graphene Oxide Hybrid Junction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiming; Wanatabe, Fumiya; Hoshino, Aya; Ishikawa, Ryo; Gotou, Takuya; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime

    2012-10-01

    Soluble graphene oxide (GO) and plasma-reduced (pr-) GO were investigated using crystalline silicon (c-Si) (100)/GO/pr-GO hybrid junction solar cells. Their photovoltaic performances were compared with those of c-Si/GO/pristine conductive poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) heterojunction and c-Si/PEDOT:PSS:GO composite devices. The c-Si/GO/pr-GO and conductive PEDOT:PSS/Al heterojunction solar cells showed power conversion efficiencies of 6.5 and 8.2%, respectively, under illumination with AM 1.5 G 100 mW/cm2 simulated solar light. A higher performance of 10.7% was achieved using the PEDOT:PSS:GO (12.5 wt %) composite device. These findings imply that soluble GO, pr-GO, and the PEDOT:PSS:GO composite are promising materials as hole transport and transparent conductive layers for c-Si/organic hybrid junction solar cells.

  10. Optimization methods and silicon solar cell numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardini, K.; Jacobsen, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    An optimization algorithm for use with numerical silicon solar cell models was developed. By coupling an optimization algorithm with a solar cell model, it is possible to simultaneously vary design variables such as impurity concentrations, front junction depth, back junction depth, and cell thickness to maximize the predicted cell efficiency. An optimization algorithm was developed and interfaced with the Solar Cell Analysis Program in 1 Dimension (SCAP1D). SCAP1D uses finite difference methods to solve the differential equations which, along with several relations from the physics of semiconductors, describe mathematically the performance of a solar cell. A major obstacle is that the numerical methods used in SCAP1D require a significant amount of computer time, and during an optimization the model is called iteratively until the design variables converge to the values associated with the maximum efficiency. This problem was alleviated by designing an optimization code specifically for use with numerically intensive simulations, to reduce the number of times the efficiency has to be calculated to achieve convergence to the optimal solution.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Defects in Silicon. [to predict energy conversion efficiency of silicon samples for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesh, R.; Smith, J. M.; Qidwai, H. A.; Bruce, T.

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation and prediction of the conversion efficiency for a variety of silicon samples with differences in structural defects, such as grain boundaries, twin boundaries, precipitate particles, dislocations, etc. are discussed. Quantitative characterization of these structural defects, which were revealed by etching the surface of silicon samples, is performed by using an image analyzer. Due to different crystal growth and fabrication techniques the various types of silicon contain a variety of trace impurity elements and structural defects. The two most important criteria in evaluating the various silicon types for solar cell applications are cost and conversion efficiency.

  12. Studies on the polycrystalline silicon/SiO2 stack as front surface field for IBC solar cells by two-dimensional simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shuai; Jia Rui; Tao Ke; Hou Caixia; Sun Hengchao; Li Yongtao; Yu Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells can achieve a very high efficiency due to its less optical losses. But IBC solar cells demand for high quality passivation of the front surface. In this paper, a polycrystalline silicon/SiO 2 stack structure as front surface field to passivate the front surface of IBC solar cells is proposed. The passivation quality of this structure is investigated by two dimensional simulations. Polycrystalline silicon layer and SiO 2 layer are optimized to get the best passivation quality of the IBC solar cell. Simulation results indicate that the doping level of polycrystalline silicon should be high enough to allow a very thin polycrystalline silicon layer to ensure an effective passivation and small optical losses at the same time. The thickness of SiO 2 should be neither too thin nor too thick, and the optimal thickness is 1.2 nm. Furthermore, the lateral transport properties of electrons are investigated, and the simulation results indicate that a high doping level and conductivity of polycrystalline silicon can improve the lateral transportation of electrons and then the cell performance. (paper)

  13. XPS study of palladium sensitized nano porous silicon thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stability of the contact was studied for a time period of around 30 days and no significant ageing effect could be observed. Keywords. Porous silicon; passivation ... It has a wide range of applications in photonics and optoelectronics, quantum electronics, silicon-on insulator technology and recently in sensors (Dimitrov 1995; ...

  14. XPS study of palladium sensitized nano porous silicon thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Nano porous silicon (PS) was formed on p-type monocrystalline silicon of 2–5 Ω cm resistivity and (100) orientation by electrochemical anodization method using HF and ethanol as the electrolytes. High density of surface states, arising due to its nano structure, is responsible for the uncontrolled oxidation in air and ...

  15. Simulation and Optimization of Silicon Solar Cell Back Surface Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad TOBBECHE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, TCAD Silvaco (Technology Computer Aided Design software has been used to study the Back Surface Field (BSF effect of a p+ silicon layer for a n+pp+ silicon solar cell. To study this effect, the J-V characteristics and the external quantum efficiency (EQE are simulated under AM 1.5 illumination for two types of cells. The first solar cell is without BSF (n+p structure while the second one is with BSF (n+pp+ structure. The creation of the BSF on the rear face of the cell results in efficiency h of up to 16.06% with a short-circuit current density Jsc = 30.54 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage Voc = 0.631 V, a fill factor FF = 0.832 and a clear improvement of the spectral response obtained in the long wavelengths range. An electric field and a barrier of potential are created by the BSF and located at the junction p+/p with a maximum of 5800 V/cm and 0.15 V, respectively. The optimization of the BSF layer shows that the cell performance improves with the p+ thickness between 0.35 – 0.39 µm, the p+ doping dose is about 2 × 1014 cm-2, the maximum efficiency up to 16.19 %. The cell efficiency is more sensitive to the value of the back surface recombination velocity above a value of 103 cm/s in n+p than n+pp+ solar cell.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9565

  16. An overview of crystalline silicon solar cell technology: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopian, K.; Cheow, S. L.; Zaidi, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell, ever since its inception, has been identified as the only economically and environmentally sustainable renewable resource to replace fossil fuels. Performance c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology has been equal to the task. Its price has been reduced by a factor of 250 over last twenty years (from ˜ 76 USD to ˜ 0.3 USD); its market growth is expected to reach 100 GWP by 2020. Unfortunately, it is still 3-4 times higher than carbon-based fuels. With the matured PV manufacturing technology as it exists today, continuing price reduction poses stiff challenges. Alternate manufacturing approaches in combination with thin wafers, low (equipment and processes.

  17. High efficiency hybrid silicon nanopillar-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Sharma, Manisha; Elam, David; Ponce, Arturo; Ayon, Arturo A

    2013-10-09

    Recently, inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have been considered as a viable alternative for low-cost photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between inorganic and organic materials can be formed employing low temperature processing methods. We present an efficient hybrid solar cell based on highly ordered silicon nanopillars (SiNPs) and poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The proposed device is formed by spin coating the organic polymer PEDOT:PSS on a SiNP array fabricated using metal assisted electroless chemical etching process. The characteristics of the hybrid solar cells are investigated as a function of SiNP height. A maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.65% has been achieved for an optimized SiNP array hybrid solar cell with nanopillar height of 400 nm, despite the absence of a back surface field enhancement. The effect of an ultrathin atomic layer deposition (ALD), grown aluminum oxide (Al2O3), as a passivation layer (recombination barrier) has also been studied for the enhanced electrical performance of the device. With the inclusion of the ultrathin ALD deposited Al2O3 between the SiNP array textured surface and the PEDOT:PSS layer, the PCE of the fabricated device was observed to increase to 10.56%, which is ∼10% greater than the corresponding device without the Al2O3 layer. The device described herein is considered to be promising toward the realization of a low-cost, high-efficiency inorganic/organic hybrid solar cell.

  18. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, Richard M

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it

  19. Thin film solar cells from earth abundant materials growth and characterization of Cu2(ZnSn)(SSe)4 thin films and their solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Kodigala, Subba Ramaiah

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental concept of the book is to explain how to make thin film solar cells from the abundant solar energy materials by low cost. The proper and optimized growth conditions are very essential while sandwiching thin films to make solar cell otherwise secondary phases play a role to undermine the working function of solar cells. The book illustrates growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film absorbers and their solar cells. The fabrication process of absorber layers by either vacuum or non-vacuum process is readily elaborated in the book, which helps for further developm

  20. Porous silicon-based passivation and gettering in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimassi, W.; Bouaiecha, M.; Saadoun, M.; Bessaies, B.; Ezzaouia, H.; Bennaceur, R.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we report on the effect of introducing a superficial porous silicon (PS) layer on the electrical characteristics of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. The PS layer was formed using a vapour etching (VE)-based method. In addition to its known anti-reflecting action, the forming hydrogen-rich PS layer acts as a passivating agent for the surface of the cell. As a result we found an improvement of the I-V characteristics in dark conditions and AM1 illumination. We show that when the formation of a superficial PS layer is followed by a heat treatment, gettering of impurities from the polycrystalline silicon material is possible. After the removal of the PS layer and the formation of the photovoltaic (PV) structure, we observed an increase of the light-beam-induced-current (LBIC) for treatment temperatures not exceeding 900 deg. C. An improvement of the bulk minority carrier diffusion length and the grain boundary (GB) recombination velocity were observed as the temperature rises, although a global decrease of the LBIC current was observed for temperatures greater than 900 deg. C

  1. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanoporous Silicon/Polycrystalline-Silicon Solar Cells by Application of Trenched Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Hsien Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trenched electrodes were proposed to enhance the short-circuit current and conversion efficiency of polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si solar cells with nanoporous silicon (NPS surface layers. NPS films that served as textured surface layers were firstly prepared on heavily doped p+-type (100 poly-Si wafers by anodic etching process. Interdigitated trenches were formed in the NPS layers by a reactive-ion-etch (RIE process and Cr/Al double-layered metal was then deposited to fill the trenches and construct trenched-electrode-contacts (TEC’s. Cells with TEC structures (called “TEC cells” obtained 5.5 times higher short-circuit current than that of cells with planar electrode contacts (called “non-TEC cells”. Most significantly, a TEC cell achieved 8 times higher conversion efficiency than that of a non-TEC cell. The enhanced short-circuit current and conversion efficiency in TEC cells were ascribed to the reduced overall series resistance of devices. In a TEC cell, trenched electrodes provided photocurrent flowing routes that directly access the poly-Si substrates without passing through the high resistive NPS layers. Therefore, the application of NPS surface layers with trenched electrodes is a novel approach to development of highly efficient poly-Si solar cells.

  2. Homojunction silicon solar cells doping by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milési, Frédéric; Coig, Marianne; Lerat, Jean-François; Desrues, Thibaut; Le Perchec, Jérôme; Lanterne, Adeline; Lachal, Laurent; Mazen, Frédéric

    2017-10-01

    Production costs and energy efficiency are the main priorities for the photovoltaic (PV) industry (COP21 conclusions). To lower costs and increase efficiency, we are proposing to reduce the number of processing steps involved in the manufacture of N-type Passivated Rear Totally Diffused (PERT) silicon solar cells. Replacing the conventional thermal diffusion doping steps by ion implantation followed by thermal annealing allows reducing the number of steps from 7 to 3 while maintaining similar efficiency. This alternative approach was investigated in the present work. Beamline and plasma immersion ion implantation (BLII and PIII) methods were used to insert n-(phosphorus) and p-type (boron) dopants into the Si substrate. With higher throughput and lower costs, PIII is a better candidate for the photovoltaic industry, compared to BL. However, the optimization of the plasma conditions is demanding and more complex than the beamline approach. Subsequent annealing was performed on selected samples to activate the dopants on both sides of the solar cell. Two annealing methods were investigated: soak and spike thermal annealing. Best performing solar cells, showing a PV efficiency of about 20%, was obtained using spike annealing with adapted ion implantation conditions.

  3. Nano-photonic Light Trapping In Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Dennis M., Jr.

    Over the last several decades there have been significant advances in the study and understanding of light behavior in nanoscale geometries. Entire fields such as those based on photonic crystals, plasmonics and metamaterials have been developed, accelerating the growth of knowledge related to nanoscale light manipulation. Coupled with recent interest in cheap, reliable renewable energy, a new field has blossomed, that of nanophotonic solar cells. In this thesis, we examine important properties of thin-film solar cells from a nanophotonics perspective. We identify key differences between nanophotonic devices and traditional, thick solar cells. We propose a new way of understanding and describing limits to light trapping and show that certain nanophotonic solar cell designs can have light trapping limits above the so called ray-optic or ergodic limit. We propose that a necessary requisite to exceed the traditional light trapping limit is that the active region of the solar cell must possess a local density of optical states (LDOS) higher than that of the corresponding, bulk material. Additionally, we show that in addition to having an increased density of states, the absorber must have an appropriate incoupling mechanism to transfer light from free space into the optical modes of the device. We outline a portfolio of new solar cell designs that have potential to exceed the traditional light trapping limit and numerically validate our predictions for select cases. We emphasize the importance of thinking about light trapping in terms of maximizing the optical modes of the device and efficiently coupling light into them from free space. To further explore these two concepts, we optimize patterns of superlattices of air holes in thin slabs of Si and show that by adding a roughened incoupling layer the total absorbed current can be increased synergistically. We suggest that the addition of a random scattering surface to a periodic patterning can increase incoupling by

  4. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis. Third quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, H.I.; Iles, P.A.; Tanner, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, develop, and utilize technologies appropriate and necessary for improving the efficiency of solar cells made from various unconventional silicon sheets. Work has progressed in fabrication and characterization of solar cells from cast silicon by heat exchanger method (Crystal Systems), EFG (RH) ribbon (Mobil Tyco) and silicon on ceramic (Honeywell). Silicon blanks (2 x 2 cm) were prepared from the HEM cast silicon and EFG ribbon, using conventional slicing techniques, and fabricated using a standard process typical of those used currently in the silicon solar cell industry. Also a back surface field (BSF) process and other process modifications were included in processing additional slices. Relatively large area (about 15 cm/sup 2/) solar cells were fabricated from silicon on ceramic substrates using a standard process that can be easily adapted to these substrates. Evaluation of the SOC solar cells has not been completed in this reporting period. The performance parameters measured included open circuit voltage, short circuit current, curve fill factor, and conversion efficiency (all taken under AMO illumination). Also measured for typical cells were spectral response, dark I-V characteristics, minority carrier diffusion length, and photoresponse by fine light scanning. The results were compared to the properties of cells made from the conventional single crystalline Czochralski silicon with an emphasis on statistical evaluation. Limited efforts were made to identify defects which will influence solar cell performance.

  5. Growth of YBCO superconducting thin films on CaF sub 2 buffered silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagwat, S S; Patil, J M; Shirodkar, V S

    2000-01-01

    CaF sub 2 films were grown on silicon using the neutral cluster beam deposition technique. These films were highly crystalline and c-axis oriented. Superconducting YBCO thin films were grown on the Ca F sub 2 buffered silicon using the laser ablation technique. These films showed T sub c (onset) at 90 K and Tc(zero) at 86 K. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the YBCO films were also oriented along the c-axis.

  6. Recombination models for defects in silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steingrube, Silke

    2011-07-06

    Rocombination of charge carriers via defects is a substantial loss mechanism in solar cells. In this work, recombination models for three defect types in crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells are developed and analyzed. First, a model is developed to describe the injection dependence of the effective surface recombination velocity S{sub eff} of both SiN{sub x} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivated c-Si surfaces. This model relies on a damaged layer in the silicon close to the interface. A suitable parametrization is given that allows to reproduce the measured effective surface recombination velocity S{sub eff} of the investigated interfaces for all relevant injection densities and dopant densities. With the help of this model, we discuss possible reasons for the damage on a microscopic scale. Second, the interface between amorphous and crystalline silicon is investigated. A Shockley-Read-Hall (SRF) model is suggested to approximate the amphoteric properties of the defects at the interface. In contrast to the exact model, the approximate model has a closed-form-solution and is therefore easily integrated into device simulators. Physically motivated error bounds are derived which can help to decide in which cases the simplified model may be applied. For typical injection densities at interfaces, the error of the SRH model is small if the correlation energy of the donor- und acceptor-like defect distribution is positive and if the properties of charged defects are described by asymmetric capture cross sections for electrons and holes. In addition, the defect distribution must lie in between the quasi-Fermi levels for traps. In low-injection, e.g. when applied to the p-n junction of a solar cell or at low illumination levels, it may fail dramatically. Further, dark current-voltage curves (I-V curves) of c-Si solar cells having diode-ideality factors n{sub D} > 2 in forward direction, i.e. increase sub-exponentially in certain voltage ranges, are analyzed. These &apos

  7. Comparative study. Thin-film technology (si-a) compared to crystalline silicon in real operating conditions; Estudio comparativo. Tecnologia de capa fina (Si-a) frente a silicio cristalino en condiciones reales de funcionamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izard Gomez-Rodulfo, J.; Avellaner, J.; Sanchez, E.; Torreblanca, J.

    2010-07-01

    We present a comparative study of thin film solar modules (amorphous silicon) compared to crystalline silicon modules. This study was conducted in real operating conditions using a test bench able to obtain the characteristic curve of several modules in sequence. defined the parameter efficiency index to characterize the extent to which actual performance is close to ideal. Finally we have calculated the energy that would produce each module in the day and efficiency in relation to the energy which ideally should produce. (Author)

  8. Polymer Substrates For Lightweight, Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    Substrates survive high deposition temperatures. High-temperature-resistant polymers candidate materials for use as substrates of lightweight, flexible, radiation-resistant solar photovoltaic cells. According to proposal, thin films of copper indium diselenide or cadmium telluride deposited on substrates to serve as active semiconductor layers of cells, parts of photovoltaic power arrays having exceptionally high power-to-weight ratios. Flexibility of cells exploited to make arrays rolled up for storage.

  9. Laser scribing integration of polycrystalline thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, Michele; Manilia, Filomena; Antezza, Roberto; Catellani, Cristina; Candiani, Alessandro; Coscelli, Enrico; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Selleri, Stefano; Menossi, Daniele; Bosio, Alessio

    2013-03-01

    The growing demand for high productivity in the thin-film photovoltaic module industry, together with the request for more and more efficient devices, needs high-performance laser-scribing. The results of scribing tests on CdTe and CIGS solar cells samples are here presented. A comparison between the scribes obtained with ns regime fiber lasers, and a ps regime diode pumped solid state laser will be also reported.

  10. 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Extended Abstracts and Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2005-11-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 7-10, 2005. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV silicon, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell designs, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Providing the Scientific Basis for Industrial Success.' Specific sessions during the workshop included: Advances in crystal growth and material issues; Impurities and defects in Si; Advanced processing; High-efficiency Si solar cells; Thin Si solar cells; and Cell design for efficiency and reliability module operation. The topic for the Rump Session was ''Si Feedstock: The Show Stopper'' and featured a panel discussion by representatives from various PV companies.

  11. Multiscale Computational Fluid Dynamics: Methodology and Application to PECVD of Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Crose

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the development of a multiscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation framework with application to plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of thin film solar cells. A macroscopic, CFD model is proposed which is capable of accurately reproducing plasma chemistry and transport phenomena within a 2D axisymmetric reactor geometry. Additionally, the complex interactions that take place on the surface of a-Si:H thin films are coupled with the CFD simulation using a novel kinetic Monte Carlo scheme which describes the thin film growth, leading to a multiscale CFD model. Due to the significant computational challenges imposed by this multiscale CFD model, a parallel computation strategy is presented which allows for reduced processing time via the discretization of both the gas-phase mesh and microscopic thin film growth processes. Finally, the multiscale CFD model has been applied to the PECVD process at industrially relevant operating conditions revealing non-uniformities greater than 20% in the growth rate of amorphous silicon films across the radius of the wafer.

  12. Acoustically driven degradation in single crystalline silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olikh, O. Ya.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of ultrasound on current-voltage characteristics of crystalline silicon solar sell was investigated experimentally. The transverse and longitudinal acoustic waves were used over a temperature range of 290-340 K. It was found that the ultrasound loading leads to the reversible decrease in the photogenerated current, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, carrier lifetime, and shunt resistance as well as the increase in the ideality factor. The experimental results were described by using the models of coupled defect level recombination, Shockley-Read-Hall recombination, and dislocation-induced impedance. The contribution of the boron-oxygen related defects, iron-boron pairs, and oxide precipitates to both the carrier recombination and acousto-defect interaction was discussed. The experimentally observed phenomena are associated with the increase in the distance between coupled defects as well as the extension of the carrier capture coefficient of complex point defects and dislocations.

  13. Dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper B.; Christensen, Erik N.

    2017-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also numerica......We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also...

  14. 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Program, Extended Abstracts, and Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2006-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes held August 6-9, 2006 in Denver, Colorado. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV-Si, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. It provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The Workshop Theme was: "Getting more (Watts) for Less ($i)". A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The special sessions included: Feedstock Issues: Si Refining and Purification; Metal-impurity Engineering; Thin Film Si; and Diagnostic Techniques.

  15. Resistivity and thickness effects in dendritic web silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D. L.; Hwang, J. M.; Greggi, J.; Campbell, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    The decrease of minority carrier lifetime as resistivity decreases in dendritic-web silicon solar cells is addressed. This variation is shown to be consistent with the presence of defect levels in the bandgap which arise from extended defects in the web material. The extended defects are oxide precipitates (SiOx) and the dislocation cores they decorate. Sensitivity to this background distribution of defect levels increases with doping because the Fermi level moves closer to the majority carrier band edge. For high-resistivity dendritic-web silicon, which has a low concentration of these extended defects, cell efficiencies as high as 16.6 percent (4 sq cm, 40 ohm-cm boron-doped base, AM1.5 global, 100 mW/sq cm, 25 C JPL LAPSS1 measurement) and a corresponding electron lifetime of 38 microsec have been obtained. Thickness effects occur in bifacial cell designs and in designs which use light trapping. In some cases, the dislocation/precipitate defect can be passivated through the full thickness of web cells by hydrogen ion implantation.

  16. Photovoltaic solar panels of crystalline silicon: Characterization and separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Pablo Ribeiro; Benevit, Mariana Gonçalves; Veit, Hugo Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Photovoltaic panels have a limited lifespan and estimates show large amounts of solar modules will be discarded as electronic waste in a near future. In order to retrieve important raw materials, reduce production costs and environmental impacts, recycling such devices is important. Initially, this article investigates which silicon photovoltaic module's components are recyclable through their characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersion spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Next, different separation methods are tested to favour further recycling processes. The glass was identified as soda-lime glass, the metallic filaments were identified as tin-lead coated copper, the panel cells were made of silicon and had silver filaments attached to it and the modules' frames were identified as aluminium, all of which are recyclable. Moreover, three different components segregation methods have been studied. Mechanical milling followed by sieving was able to separate silver from copper while chemical separation using sulphuric acid was able to detach the semiconductor material. A thermo gravimetric analysis was performed to evaluate the use of a pyrolysis step prior to the component's removal. The analysis showed all polymeric fractions present degrade at 500 °C. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Characterization of thin film tandem solar cells by radiofrequency pulsed glow discharge - Time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Beatriz; Lobo, Lara; Reininghaus, Nies; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    Beside low production costs and the use of nontoxic and abundant raw materials, silicon based thin-film solar cells have the advantage to be built up as multi junction devices like tandem or triple junction solar cells. Silicon thin film modules made of tandem cells with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) top cell and microcrystalline (μc) Si:H bottom cell are available on the market. In this work, the analytical potential of state-of-the art radiofrequency (rf) pulsed glow discharge (PGD) time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) commercial instrumentation is investigated for depth profiling analysis of tandem-junctions solar cells on 2mm thick glass substrate with 1µm thick ZnO:Al. Depth profile characterization of two thin film tandem photovoltaic devices was compared using millisecond and sub-millisecond rf-PGD regimes, as well as the so-called "low mass mode" available in the commercial instrument used. Two procedures for sample preparation, namely using flat or rough cell substrates, were compared and the distribution of dopant elements (phosphorous, boron and germanium) was investigated in both cases. Experimental results obtained by rf-PGD-TOFMS as well as electrical measurements of the samples showed that a worse depth resolution of dopant elements in the silicon layers (e.g. distribution of boron in a thicker region that suggests a diffusion of this dopant in the coating of the sample) found using a rough sample substrate was related to a higher power conversion efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanostructured silicon carbon thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coscia, U. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” Complesso Universitario MSA, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNISM Unita' di Napoli, Complesso Universitario MSA, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Ambrosone, G., E-mail: ambrosone@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” Complesso Universitario MSA, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); SPIN-CNR, Complesso Universitario MSA, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Basa, D.K. [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004 (India); Rigato, V. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Ferrero, S.; Virga, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    Nanostructured silicon carbon thin films, composed of Si nanocrystallites embedded in hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon matrix, have been prepared by varying rf power in ultra high vacuum plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system using silane and methane gas mixtures diluted in hydrogen. In this paper we have studied the compositional, structural and electrical properties of these films as a function of rf power. It is shown that with increasing rf power the atomic densities of carbon and hydrogen increase while the atomic density of silicon decreases, resulting in a reduction in the mass density. Further, it is demonstrated that carbon is incorporated into amorphous matrix and it is mainly bonded to silicon. The study has also revealed that the crystalline volume fraction decreases with increase in rf power and that the films deposited with low rf power have a size distribution of large and small crystallites while the films deposited with relatively high power have only small crystallites. Finally, the enhanced transport properties of the nanostructured silicon carbon films, as compared to amorphous counterpart, have been attributed to the presence of Si nanocrystallites. - Highlights: • The mass density of silicon carbon films decreases from 2.3 to 2 g/cm{sup 3}. • Carbon is incorporated in the amorphous phase and it is mainly bonded to silicon. • Nanostructured silicon carbon films are deposited at rf power > 40 W. • Si nanocrystallites in amorphous silicon carbon enhance the electrical properties.

  19. Characterization of Nanocrystalline SiGe Thin Film Solar Cell with Double Graded-Dead Absorption Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystalline silicon-germanium (nc-SiGe thin films were deposited by high-frequency (27.12 MHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD. The films were used in a silicon-based thin film solar cell with graded-dead absorption layer. The characterization of the nc-SiGe films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. The band gap of SiGe alloy can be adjusted between 0.8 and 1.7 eV by varying the gas ratio. For thin film solar cell application, using double graded-dead i-SiGe layers mainly leads to an increase in short-circuit current and therefore cell conversion efficiency. An initial conversion efficiency of 5.06% and the stabilized efficiency of 4.63% for an nc-SiGe solar cell were achieved.

  20. 10th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes: Extended Abstracts and Papers from the Workshop, Copper Mountain Resort; August 14-16, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Gee, J.; Kalejs, J.; Saitoh, R.; Stavola, M.; Swanson, D.; Tan, T.; Weber, E.; Werner, J.

    2000-08-11

    The 10th Workshop provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and non-photovoltaic fields. Discussions included the various aspects of impurities and defects in silicon-their properties, the dynamics during device processing, and their application for developing low-cost processes for manufacturing high-efficiency silicon solar cells. Sessions and panel discussions also reviewed thin-film crystalline-silicon PV, advanced cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and future manufacturing requirements to meet the ambitious expansion goals described in the recently released US PV Industry Roadmap. The Workshop also provided an excellent opportunity for researchers in private industry and at universities to recognize a mutual need for future collaborative research. The three-day workshop consisted of presentations by invited speakers, followed by discussion sessions. In addition, there was two poster sessions presenting the latest research and development results. The subjects discussed included: solar cell processing, light-induced degradation, gettering and passivation, crystalline silicon growth, thin-film silicon solar cells, and impurities and defects. Two special sessions featured at this workshop: advanced metallization and interconnections, and characterization methods.

  1. Complex boron redistribution kinetics in strongly doped polycrystalline-silicon/nitrogen-doped-silicon thin bi-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadli, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University Aout 1955, Skikda, 21000 (Algeria); LEMEAMED, Department of Electronics, University Mentouri, Constantine, 25000 (Algeria); Mansour, F. [LEMEAMED, Department of Electronics, University Mentouri, Constantine, 25000 (Algeria); Pereira, E. Bedel [CNRS-LAAS, 7 avenue du colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France)

    2012-10-15

    We have investigated the complex behaviour of boron (B) redistribution process via silicon thin bi-layers interface. It concerns the instantaneous kinetics of B transfer, trapping, clustering and segregation during the thermal B activation annealing. The used silicon bi-layers have been obtained by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method at 480 C, by using in-situ nitrogen-doped-silicon (NiDoS) layer and strongly B doped polycrystalline-silicon (P{sup +}) layer. To avoid long-range B redistributions, thermal annealing was carried out at relatively low-temperatures (600 C and 700 C) for various times ranging between 30 min and 2 h. To investigate the experimental secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) doping profiles, a redistribution model well adapted to the particular structure of two thin layers and to the effects of strong-concentrations has been established. The good adjustment of the simulated profiles with the experimental SIMS profiles allowed a fundamental understanding about the instantaneous physical phenomena giving and disturbing the complex B redistribution profiles-shoulders. The increasing kinetics of the B peak concentration near the bi-layers interface is well reproduced by the established model. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Development of Thin-Window Silicon Drift Detector for X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.; Carini, G.A.; De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister, J.W.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Rehak, P.; Siddons, D.P.

    2009-10-01

    A new set of thin-window silicon drift detectors composed of an array of hexagonal shaped detectors has been designed, constructed and tested for X-ray spectroscopy. Each individual ThinWinSDD has a thin entrance window on one side and a spiral shaped hexagonal cathode around a center anode on the other side. To produce the thin entrance window a 10 keV implantation of boron through a 500 A silicon dioxide was used. The implantation was followed by an annealing at 700 C for 30 min and a reactive ion etching step to ensure the removal of silicon dioxide from the smallest feature (5 mum). An aluminum layer is coated in the same vacuum system after back-sputtering. This step involves removing the native oxide that has formed on the top of the silicon substrate and then sputtering a 1100 A thick layer of aluminum onto the X-ray entrance window. The aluminum layer must be thick enough to block visible light, but thin enough to be transparent to soft X-rays down to 280 eV. We discuss first test results that include detector leakage current measurements and the response for multiple detectors exposed to the National Synchrotron Light Source's UV beam line U3C located at Brookhaven National Laboratory for X-ray energies as low as 280 eV.

  3. Development of Thin-Window Silicon Drift Detector for X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.; Carini, G.; De Geronimo, G; Fried, J.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister, J.W.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Rehak, P.; Siddons, D.P.

    2008-01-22

    A new set of Thin-Window Silicon Drift Detectors composed of an array of hexagonal shaped detectors has been designed, constructed and tested for X-ray spectroscopy. Each individual ThinWinSDD has a thin entrance window on one side and a spiral shaped hexagonal cathode around a center anode on the other side. To produce the thin entrance window a 10 keV implantation of boron through a 500 {angstrom} silicon dioxide was used. The implantation was followed by an annealing at 700 C for 30 min and a reactive ion etching step to ensure the removal of silicon dioxide from the smallest feature (5 {micro}m). An aluminum layer is coated in the same vacuum system after back-sputtering. This step involves removing the native oxide that has formed on the top of the silicon substrate and then sputtering a 1100 {angstrom} thick layer of aluminum onto the X-ray entrance window. The aluminum layer must be thick enough to block visible light, but thin enough to be transparent to soft x-rays down to 280 eV. We discuss first test results that include detector leakage current measurements and the response for multiple detectors exposed to the National Synchrotron Light Source's UV beam line U3C located at Brookhaven National Laboratory for X-ray energies as low as 280 eV.

  4. Nickel silicide thin films as masking and structural layers for silicon bulk micro-machining by potassium hydroxide wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskaran, M; Sriram, S; Sim, L W

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of using titanium and nickel silicide thin films as mask materials for silicon bulk micro-machining. Thin films of nickel silicide were found to be more resistant to wet etching in potassium hydroxide. The use of nickel silicide as a structural material, by fabricating micro-beams of varying dimensions, is demonstrated. The micro-structures were realized using these thin films with wet etching using potassium hydroxide solution on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) silicon substrates. These results show that nickel silicide is a suitable alternative to silicon nitride for silicon bulk micro-machining

  5. Dip coating process. Silicon sheet growth development for the large-area silicon sheet task of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Quarterly report No. 6, March 22, 1977--June 24, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, J.D.; Heaps, J.D.; Maciolek, R.B.; Koepke, B.; Butter, C.D.; Schuldt, S.B.

    1977-06-30

    The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon from the melt. Significant progress was made in silicon on ceramic (SOC) solar cell performance. SOC cells having 1 cm/sup 2/ active areas demonstrated measured conversion efficiencies as high as 7.2 percent. Typical open circuit voltages (V/sub oc/) and short circuit current densities (J/sub sc/) were 0.51 volt and 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ respectively. Since the active surface of these solar cells is a highly reflective ''as-grown'' surface, one can expect improvement in J/sub sc/ after an anti-reflection (AR) coating is applied. It is significant that single-crystal comparison cells, also measured without benefit of an AR coating, had efficiencies in the 8.5 percent range with typical V/sub oc/'s and J/sub sc/'s of 0.54 volt and 23 mA/cm/sup 2/, respectively. Therefore, improvement in cell design and junction diffusion techniques should increase the efficiency of both the SOC and single-crystal cells. During this quarter the dip coating facility was inadvertently contaminated, but has since been restored to a purity level exceeding its original state. With this facility, silicon coatings were grown with a single-crystal seed attached to the substrate. Single-crystal silicon was not forthcoming, but the results were nonetheless encouraging. Several of the carbon coating types tried appear promising, including one which has high purity and can be applied uniformly by swab or airbrush.

  6. Ion beam studied of silicon oxynitride and silicon nitroxide thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oude Elferink, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    In this the processes occurring during high temperature treatments of silicon oxynitride and silicon oxide layers are described. Oxynitride layers with various atomic oxygen to nitrogen concentration ration (O/N) are considered. The high energy ion beam techniques Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection and nuclear reaction analysis have been used to study the layer structures. A detailed discussion of these ion beam techniques is given. Numerical methods used to obtain quantitative data on elemental compositions and depth profiles are described. The electrical compositions and depth profiles are described. The electrical properties of silicon nitride films are known to be influenced by the behaviour of hydrogen in the film during high temperature anneling. Investigations of the behaviour of hydrogen are presented. Oxidation of silicon (oxy)nitride films in O 2 /H 2 0/HCl and nitridation of silicon dioxide films in NH 3 are considered since oxynitrides are applied as an oxidation mask in the LOCOS (Local oxidation of silicon) process. The nitridation of silicon oxide layers in an ammonia ambient is considered. The initial stage and the dependence on the oxide thickness of nitrogen and hydrogen incorporation are discussed. Finally, oxidation of silicon oxynitride layers and of silicon oxide layers are compared. (author). 76 refs.; 48 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Effect of silicon doping on electrical and optical properties of stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huafei; Li, Yan; Guo, Xiaohai; Yuan, Ningyi; Ding, Jianning

    2018-02-01

    To enhance the conversion efficiency of CZTS solar cells, both large grains with few defects and high carrier mobility are important. Here, For improving the grain sizes and hole mobility silicon (Si) was doped into the CZTS films. The influence of the Si doping concentration on the CZTS film macro- and microstructures is examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the optical and electrical properties of the CZTS thin films with different Si doping concentrations are examined. Finally, a 2.53% efficiency was obtained while the Si doping concertation is 0.65%.

  8. Microcrystalline silicon films and solar cells investigatet by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merdzhanova, T.

    2005-07-01

    A systematic investigation on photoluminescence (PL) properties of microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) films with structural composition changing from highly crystalline to predominantly amorphous is presented. The samples were prepared by PECVD and HWCVD with different silane concentration in hydrogen (SC). By using photoluminescence in combination with Raman spectroscopy the relationship between electronic properties and the microstructure of the material is studied. The PL spectra of {mu}c-Si:H reveal a rather broad ({proportional_to}0.13 eV) featureless band at about 1 eV ('{mu}c'-Si-band). In mixed phase material of crystalline and amorphous regions, a band at about 1.3 eV with halfwidth of about 0.3 eV is found in addition to '{mu}c'-Si-band, which is attributed to the amorphous phase ('a'-Si-band). Similarly to amorphous silicon, the '{mu}c'-Si-band is assigned to recombination between electrons and holes in band tail states. An additional PL band centred at about 0.7 eV with halfwidth slightly broader than the '{mu}c'-Si-band is observed only for films prepared at high substrate temperature and it is preliminarily assigned to defect-related transitions as in polycrystalline silicon. With decreasing crystalline volume fraction, the '{mu}c'-Si-band shifts continuously to higher energies for all {mu}c-Si:H films but the linewidth of the PL spectra is almost unaffected. This is valid for all deposition conditions investigated. The results are interpreted, assuming decrease of the density of band tail states with decreasing crystalline volume fraction. A simple model is proposed to simulate PL spectra and V{sub oc} in {mu}c-Si:H solar cells as a function of temperature, based on carrier distributions in quasi-equilibrium conditions. In the model is assumed symmetric density of states distributions for electrons and holes in the conduction and the valence band tail states. The best agreement between

  9. Towards lightweight and flexible high performance nanocrystalline silicon solar cells through light trapping and transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Zachary R.

    This thesis investigates ways to enhance the efficiency of thin film solar cells through the application of both novel nano-element array light trapping architectures and nickel oxide hole transport/electron blocking layers. Experimental results independently demonstrate a 22% enhancement in short circuit current density (JSC) resulting from a nano-element array light trapping architecture and a ˜23% enhancement in fill factor (FF) and ˜16% enhancement in open circuit voltage (VOC) resulting from a nickel oxide transport layer. In each case, the overall efficiency of the device employing the light trapping or transport layer was superior to that of the corresponding control device. Since the efficiency of a solar cell scales with the product of JSC, FF, and VOC, it follows that the results of this thesis suggest high performance thin film solar cells can be realized in the event light trapping architectures and transport layers can be simultaneously optimized. The realizations of these performance enhancements stem from extensive process optimization for numerous light trapping and transport layer fabrication approaches. These approaches were guided by numerical modeling techniques which will also be discussed. Key developments in this thesis include (1) the fabrication of nano-element topographies conducive to light trapping using various fabrication approaches, (2) the deposition of defect free nc-Si:H onto structured topographies by switching from SiH4 to SiF 4 PECVD gas chemistry, and (3) the development of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth conditions for NiO. Keywords: light trapping, nano-element array, hole transport layer, electron blocking layer, nickel oxide, nanocrystalline silicon, aluminum doped zinc oxide, atomic layer deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, electron beam lithography, ANSYS HFSS.

  10. Manipulation of K center charge states in silicon nitride films to achieve excellent surface passivation for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Tracy, Clarence; Schroder, Dieter; Herasimenka, Stanislau; Dauksher, William; Bowden, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    High quality surface passivation (Seff textured p- and n-type solar grade Czochralski silicon substrates by externally injecting and storing positive or negative charges (>±8 × 1012 cm-2) into a dual layer stack of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) Silicon Nitride (SiNx)/PECVD Silicon Oxide (SiO2) films using a corona charging tool. We demonstrate long term stability and uniform charge distribution in the SiNx film by manipulating the charge on K center defects while negating the requirement of a high temperature thermal oxide step.

  11. Comment on “Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations” [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 094501 (2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abenante, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the above paper, an analytical approach including a new solution to the differential diffusion equation in illuminated quasi-neutral regions (QNR) is exploited to calculate the short-circuit current density (J sc ), open-circuit voltage (V oc ), fill factor (FF), and efficiency (η) of light-trapping (LT) c-Si solar cells with a given structure. Comparisons with numerical results calculated by the Silvaco ATLAS device simulator in the same LT cells show that the analytical results are systematically overestimated. According to the authors, the inaccuracies in J sc , V oc , and η are due to the fact that assuming ideal collection from space-charge region (SCR) and using the superposition approximation introduce systematic errors into analytical models. In this comment, an analytical approach using reported solutions to the transport equations in QNR and SCR, where ideal collection from SCR is assumed and the superposition approximation is used, is shown to agree with both the Silvaco and PC1d numerical approaches in calculating J sc , V oc , and η, in the same LT devices as considered in the commented paper. Reasons for the inaccuracies detected in the commented paper are suggested

  12. Comment on “Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations” [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 094501 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abenante, L. [ENEA – UTRINN FVC, S.P. 64, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy)

    2015-01-14

    In the above paper, an analytical approach including a new solution to the differential diffusion equation in illuminated quasi-neutral regions (QNR) is exploited to calculate the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}), open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), fill factor (FF), and efficiency (η) of light-trapping (LT) c-Si solar cells with a given structure. Comparisons with numerical results calculated by the Silvaco ATLAS device simulator in the same LT cells show that the analytical results are systematically overestimated. According to the authors, the inaccuracies in J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and η are due to the fact that assuming ideal collection from space-charge region (SCR) and using the superposition approximation introduce systematic errors into analytical models. In this comment, an analytical approach using reported solutions to the transport equations in QNR and SCR, where ideal collection from SCR is assumed and the superposition approximation is used, is shown to agree with both the Silvaco and PC1d numerical approaches in calculating J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and η, in the same LT devices as considered in the commented paper. Reasons for the inaccuracies detected in the commented paper are suggested.

  13. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanocrystals and polystyrene nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juangsa, Firman Bagja; Muroya, Yoshiki; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Ryu, Meguya; Morikawa, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) are well known for their size-dependent optical and electronic properties; they also have the potential for low yet controllable thermal properties. As a silicon-based low-thermal conductivity material is required in microdevice applications, SiNCs can be utilized for thermal insulation. In this paper, SiNCs and polymer nanocomposites were produced, and their thermal conductivity, including the density and specific heat, was measured. Measurement results were compared with thermal conductivity models for composite materials, and the comparison shows a decreasing value of the thermal conductivity, indicating the effect of the size and presence of the nanostructure on the thermal conductivity. Moreover, employing silicon inks at room temperature during the fabrication process enables a low cost of fabrication and preserves the unique properties of SiNCs. (paper)

  14. Numerical Optimization of a Bifacial Bi-Glass Thin-Film a-Si:H Solar Cell for Higher Conversion Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrian, Djaber; Fathi, Mohamed; Kechouane, Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Bifacial solar cells that maximize the energy output per a square meter have become a new fashion in the field of photovoltaic cells. However, the application of thin-film material on bifacial solar cells, viz., thin-film amorphous hydrogenated silicon ( a- Si:H), is extremely rare. Therefore, this paper presents the optimization and influence of the band gap, thickness and doping on the performance of a glass/glass thin-film a- Si:H ( n- i- p) bifacial solar cell, using a computer-aided simulation tool, Automat for simulation of hetero-structures (AFORS-HET). It is worth mentioning that the thickness and the band gap of the i-layer are the key parameters in achieving higher efficiency and hence it has to be handled carefully during the fabrication process. Furthermore, an efficient thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cell requires thinner and heavily doped n and p emitter layers. On the other hand, the band gap of the p-layer showed a dramatic reduction of the efficiency at 2.3 eV. Moreover, a high bifaciality factor of more than 92% is attained, and top efficiency of 10.9% is revealed under p side illumination. These optimizations demonstrate significant enhancements of the recent experimental work on thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cells and would also be useful for future experimental investigations on an efficient a- Si:H thin-film bifacial solar cell.

  15. Amorphous SiC layers for electrically conductive Rugate filters in silicon based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, S.; Peters, M.; Künle, M.; Gradmann, R.; Suwito, D.

    2010-05-01

    The subject of this work is the development of an electrically conductive Rugate filter for photovoltaic applications. We think that the optical as well as the electrical performance of the filter can be adapted especially to the requirements of crystalline Si thin-film and amorphous/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells. We have deposited amorphous hydrogenated Silicon Carbide layers (a-SixC1-x:H) with the precursor gases methane (CH4), silane (SiH4) and diborane (B2H6) applying Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD). Through changing just the precursor flows a floating refractive index n from 1.9 to 3.5 (at 633 nm) could be achieved quite accurately. Different complex layer stacks (up to 200 layers) with a sinusoidal refractive index variation normal to the incident light were deposited in just 80 min on 100x100 mm2. Transmission measurements show good agreement between simulation and experiment which proofs our ability to control the deposition process, the good knowledge of the optical behaviour of the different SiC single layers and the advanced stage of our simulation model. The doped single layers show lateral conductivities which were extremely dependent on the Si/C ratio.

  16. Design and Optimization of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    OPTIMIZATION OF COPPER INDIUM GALLIUM SELENIDE THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS by Daniel B. Katzman September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Sherif Michael Second...for public release; distribution is unlimited DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF COPPER INDIUM GALLIUM SELENIDE THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS Daniel B...7 A. SOLAR CELL PHYSICS

  17. High efficiency thin-film solar cells for space applications: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leest, R.H. van

    2017-01-01

    In theory high efficiency thin-film III-V solar cells obtained by the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique offer excellent characteristics for application in space solar panels. The thesis describes several studies that investigate the space compatibility of the thin-film solar cell design developed

  18. Optimized scalable stack of fluorescent solar concentrator systems with bifacial silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Díez, Ana Luisa, E-mail: a.martinez@itma.es [Fundación ITMA, Parque Empresarial Principado de Asturias, C/Calafates, Parcela L-3.4, 33417 Avilés (Spain); Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Gutmann, Johannes; Posdziech, Janina; Rist, Tim; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Plaza, David Gómez [Fundación ITMA, Parque Empresarial Principado de Asturias, C/Calafates, Parcela L-3.4, 33417 Avilés (Spain)

    2014-10-21

    In this paper, we present a concentrator system based on a stack of fluorescent concentrators (FCs) and a bifacial solar cell. Coupling bifacial solar cells to a stack of FCs increases the performance of the system and preserves its efficiency when scaled. We used an approach to optimize a fluorescent solar concentrator system design based on a stack of multiple fluorescent concentrators (FC). Seven individual fluorescent collectors (20 mm×20 mm×2 mm) were realized by in-situ polymerization and optically characterized in regard to their ability to guide light to the edges. Then, an optimization procedure based on the experimental data of the individual FCs was carried out to determine the stack configuration that maximizes the total number of photons leaving edges. Finally, two fluorescent concentrator systems were realized by attaching bifacial silicon solar cells to the optimized FC stacks: a conventional system, where FC were attached to one side of the solar cell as a reference, and the proposed bifacial configuration. It was found that for the same overall FC area, the bifacial configuration increases the short-circuit current by a factor of 2.2, which is also in agreement with theoretical considerations.

  19. A simple quality factor for characterization of thin silicon films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočka, Jan; Mates, Tomáš; Ledinský, Martin; Stuchlíková, The-Ha; Stuchlík, Jiří; Fejfar, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 354, 19-25 (2008), s. 2227-2230 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SN/3/172/05 Keywords : microcrystalline silicon * deposition process * high growth rate * quality evaluation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2008

  20. Amorphous silicon-carbon based nano-scale thin film anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Moni Kanchan; Maranchi, Jeffrey; Chung, Sung Jae; Epur, Rigved; Kadakia, Karan; Jampani, Prashanth; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Thin film amorphous C/Si. Good cycling response validates carbon matrix for Silicon anodes. → Thin film amorphous C/Si/C. Good cycling response validates carbon as an interface and matrix. - Abstract: The buffering effect of carbon on the structural stability of amorphous silicon films, used as an anode for lithium ion rechargeable batteries, has been studied during long term discharge/charge cycles. To this extent, the electrochemical performance of a prototype material consisting of amorphous Si thin film (∼250 nm) deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on amorphous carbon (∼50 nm) thin films, denoted as a-C/Si, has been investigated. In comparison to pure amorphous Si thin film (a-Si) which shows a rapid fade in capacity after 30 cycles, the a-C/Si exhibits excellent capacity retention displaying ∼0.03% fade in capacity up to 50 cycles and ∼0.2% after 50 cycles when cycled at a rate of 100 μA/cm 2 (∼C/2) suggesting that the presence of thin amorphous C layer deposited between the Cu substrate and a-Si acts as a buffer layer facilitating the release of the volume induced stresses exhibited by pure a-Si during the charge/discharge cycles. This structural integrity combined with microstructural stability of the a-C/Si thin film during the alloying/dealloying process with lithium has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The buffering capacity of the thin amorphous carbon layer lends credence to its use as the likely compliant matrix to curtail the volume expansion related cracking of silicon validating its choice as the matrix for bulk and thin film battery systems.

  1. Tilted columnar thin film coatings with anisotropic light scattering properties for solar energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Khosravieh, Saba

    The main goal of this thesis is to show the versatility of glancing angle deposition (GLAD) thin films in applications. This research is first focused on studying the effect of select deposition variables in GLAD thin films and secondly, to demonstrate the flexibility of GLAD films to be incorporated in two different applications: (1) as a reflective coating in low-level concentration photovoltaic systems, and (2) as an anode structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). A particular type of microstructure composed of tilted micro-columns of titanium is fabricated by GLAD. The microstructures form elongated and fan-like tilted micro-columns that demonstrate anisotropic scattering. The thin films texture changes from fiber texture to tilted fiber texture by increasing the vapor incidence angle. At very large deposition angles, biaxial texture forms. The morphology of the thin films deposited under extreme shadowing condition and at high temperature (below recrystallization zone) shows a porous and inclined micro-columnar morphology, resulting from the dominance of shadowing over adatom surface diffusion. The anisotropic scattering behavior of the tilted Ti thin film coatings is quantified by bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements and is found to be consistent with reflectance from the microstructure acting as an array of inclined micro-mirrors that redirect the incident light in a non-specular reflection. A silver-coating of the surface of the tilted-Ti micro-columns is performed to enhance the total reflectance of the Ti-thin films while keeping the anisotropic scattering behavior. By using such coating is as a booster reflector in a laboratory-scale low-level concentration photovoltaic system, the short-circuit current of the reference silicon solar cell by 25%. Finally, based on the scattering properties of the tilted microcolumnar microstructure, its scattering effect is studied as a part of titanium dioxide microstructure for the

  2. Laser textured substrates for light in-coupling in thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakanga, Kambulakwao; Siepmann, Ortwin; Sergeev, Oleg; Geißendörfer, Stefan; von Maydell, Karsten; Agert, Carsten

    2014-03-01

    In this work we investigate the use of a picosecond (ps) laser used for monolithic connection to pattern glass substrates to achieve light in-coupling in silicon thin film solar cells. We present our results on the patterning of three commercially available and frequently used multi-component glasses Corning EAGLE XG®, Schott BOROFLOAT® 33 and Saint-Gobain SGG DIAMANT®. We find that the different glass structural components influence the degree of texturing obtained. This can be attributed to the different laser induced electron collision times and recombination rates, and thus the critical electron density evolution leading to ablation. Thus the ablated crater profile is glass composition dependent. The surface texture is altered from periodic to random with decreasing scribing speed. The transmission of the textured substrates gradually decreases while the reflection increases as a consequence of the topological and morphological changes. The angular resolved measurements illustrate that highly textured substrates scatter the light towards greater angles. This demonstrates potential for the application in substrate configuration (nip) thin film solar cells, as the scattering can increase the optical path, and hence the absorption in the absorber layer. Simulations of periodically textured glass substrates demonstrate a focused optical generation rate near the front contact and absorber layer interface. The influence of the modified refractive index region on the optical generation rate and reflection depends on the crater profile. The reflection is generally reduced when a periodic texture in the micrometre range is implemented.

  3. Spin Coated Plasmonic Nanoparticle Interfaces for Photocurrent Enhancement in Thin Film Si Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Israelowitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle (NP arrays of noble metals strongly absorb light in the visible to infrared wavelengths through resonant interactions between the incident electromagnetic field and the metal’s free electron plasma. Such plasmonic interfaces enhance light absorption and photocurrent in solar cells. We report a cost-effective and scalable room temperature/pressure spin-coating route to fabricate broadband plasmonic interfaces consisting of silver NPs. The NP interface yields photocurrent enhancement (PE in thin film silicon devices by up to 200% which is significantly greater than previously reported values. For coatings produced from Ag nanoink containing particles with average diameter of 40 nm, an optimal NP surface coverage ϕ of 7% is observed. Scanning electron microscopy of interface morphologies revealed that for low ϕ, particles are well separated, resulting in broadband PE. At higher ϕ, formation of particle strings and clusters causes red-shifting of the PE peak and a narrower spectral response.

  4. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived thin films deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobianu, C.; Savaniu, Cristian; Buiu, Octavian; Zaharescu, Maria; Parlog, Constanta; van den Berg, Albert; Pecz, Bela; Dascula, Dan

    1996-01-01

    Undoped and Sb-doped SnO2 sol–gel derived thin films have been prepared for the first time from tin (IV) ethoxide precursor and SbCl3 in order to be utilised for gas sensing applications where porous silicon is used as a substrate. Transparent, crack-free and adherent layers were obtained on

  5. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived thin films deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobianu, C.; Savaniu, Cristian; Buiu, Octavian; Dascalu, Dan; Zaharescu, Maria; Parlog, Constanta; van den Berg, Albert; Pecz, Bela

    1997-01-01

    Undoped and Sb-doped SnO2 sol¿gel derived thin films have been prepared for the first time from tin (IV) ethoxide precursor and SbCl3 in order to be utilised for gas sensing applications where porous silicon is used as a substrate. Transparent, crack-free and adherent layers were obtained on

  6. On the oxidation mechanism of microcrystalline silicon thin films studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronneberg, A. C.; Smets, A. H. M.; Creatore, M.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,

    2011-01-01

    Insight into the oxidation mechanism of microcrystalline silicon thin films has been obtained by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The films were deposited by using the expanding thermal plasma and their oxidation upon air exposure was followed in time. Transmission spectra were

  7. Experimentally validated dispersion tailoring in a silicon strip waveguide with alumina thin-film coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Shi, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    We propose a silicon strip waveguide structure with alumina thin-film coating in-between the core and the cladding for group-velocity dispersion tailoring. By carefully designing the core dimension and the coating thickness, a spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous group-velocity dispersion...

  8. Ultrafast terahertz conductivity and transient optical absorption spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystal thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titova, Lyubov V.; Harthy, Rahma Al; Cooke, David

    We use time-resolved THz spectroscopy and transient optical absorption spectroscopy as two complementary techniques to study ultrafast carrier dynamics in silicon nanocrystal thin films. We find that the photoconductive dynamics in these materials is dominated by interface trapping, and we observ...

  9. Thin-Film layers with Interfaces that reduce RF Losses on High-Resistivity Silicon Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evseev, S. B.; Milosavljevic, S.; Nanver, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    Radio-Frequency (RF) losses on High-Resistivity Silicon (HRS) substrates were studied for several different surface passivation layers comprising thin-films of SiC, SiN and SiO2 In many combinations, losses from conductive surface channels were reduced and increasing the number of interfaces between

  10. Development of CIGS2 thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Gade, Vivek S.; Kadam, Ankur A.; Jahagirdar, Anant H.; Kulkarni, Sachin S.; Bet, Sachin M.

    2005-01-01

    Research and development of CuIn 1-x Ga x Se 2-y S y (CIGSS) thin-film solar cells on ultralightweight flexible metallic foil substrates is being carried out at FSEC PV Materials Lab for space applications. Earlier, the substrate size was limited to 3 cm x 2.5 cm. Large-area sputtering systems and scrubber for hydrogen selenide and sulfide have been designed and constructed for preparation of CIGSS thin-films on large (15 cm x 10 cm) substrates. A selenization/sulfurization furnace donated by Shell (formerly Siemens) Solar has also been refurbished and upgraded. The sputtering target assembly design was modified for proper clamping of targets and effective cooling. A new design of the magnetic assembly for large-area magnetron sputtering sources was implemented so as to achieve uniform deposition on large area. Lightweight stainless steel foil and ultralightweight titanium foil substrates were utilized to increase the specific power of solar cells. Sol-gel derived SiO 2 layers were coated on titanium foil by dip coating method. Deposition parameters for the preparation of molybdenum back contact layers were optimized so as to minimize the residual stress as well as reaction with H 2 S. Presently large (15 cm x 10 cm) CuIn 1-x Ga x S 2 (CIGS2) thin film solar cells are being prepared on Mo-coated titanium and stainless steel foil by sulfurization of CuGa/In metallic precursors in diluted Ar:H 2 S(4%). Heterojunction partner CdS layers are deposited by chemical bath deposition. The regeneration sequence of ZnO/ZnO:Al targets was optimized for obtaining consistently good-quality, transparent and conducting ZnO/ZnO:Al bilayer by RF magnetron-sputter deposition. Excellent facilities at FSEC PV Materials Lab are one of its kinds and could serve as a nucleus of a small pilot plant for CIGSS thin film solar cell fabrication

  11. Metallic atomically-thin layered silicon epitaxially grown on silicene/ZrB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tobias G.; Fleurence, Antoine; Warner, Ben; Prüser, Henning; Friedlein, Rainer; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.; Yamada-Takamura, Yukiko

    2017-06-01

    Using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we observe a new two-dimensional (2D) silicon crystal that is formed by depositing additional Si atoms onto spontaneously-formed epitaxial silicene on a ZrB2 thin film. From scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) studies, we find that this atomically-thin layered silicon has distinctly different electronic properties. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) reveals that, in sharp contrast to epitaxial silicene, the layered silicon exhibits significantly enhanced density of states at the Fermi level resulting from newly formed metallic bands. The 2D growth of this material could allow for direct contacting to the silicene surface and demonstrates the dramatic changes in electronic structure that can occur by the addition of even a single monolayer amount of material in 2D systems.

  12. Microhardness studies on thin carbon films grown on P-type, (100) silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecki, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A program to grow thin carbon films and investigate their physical and electrical properties is described. Characteristics of films grown by rf sputtering and vacuum arc deposition on p type, (100) silicon wafers are presented. Microhardness data were obtained from both the films and the silicon via the Vickers diamond indentation technique. These data show that the films are always harder than the silicon, even when the films are thin (of the order of 1000 A). Vacuum arc films were found to contain black carbon inclusions of the order of a few microns in size, and clusters of inclusions of the order of tens of microns. Transmission electron diffraction showed that the films being studied were amorphous in structure.

  13. Effect of thickness on silicon solar cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, C.-T.; Yamakawa, K. A.; Lutwack, R.

    1982-01-01

    A computer-aided-design study on the dependence of the efficiency peak of a back-surface field solar cell on the concentrations of the recombination and dopant impurities is presented. The illuminated current-voltage characteristics of more than 100 cell designs are obtained using the transmission line circuit model to numerically solve the Shockley equations. Using an AM 1 efficiency of 17% as a target value, it is shown that the efficiency versus thickness dependence has a broad maximum which varies by less than 1% over more than a three-to-one range of cell thicknesses from 30 to 100 microns. An optically reflecting back surface will give only a slight improvement of AM 1 efficiency, about 0.7%, in this thickness range. Attention is given to the dependence of the efficiency on patchiness across the back-surface field low-high junction in thin cells.

  14. Radiation resistance of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanak, J.J.; Chen, E.; Myatt, A.; Woodyard, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation resistance of a-Si alloy solar cells when bombarded by high energy particles is reviewed. The results of investigations of high energy proton radiation resistance of a-Si alloy thin film photovoltaic cells are reported. Irradiations were carried out with 200 keV and 1.00 MeV protons with fluences ranging betweeen 1E11 and 1E15 cm-2. Defect generation and passivation mechanisms were studied using the AM1 conversion efficiency and isochronal anneals. It is concluded that the primary defect generation mechanism results from the knock-on of Si and Ge in the intrinsic layer of the cells. The defect passivation proceeds by the complex annealing of Si and Ge defects and not by the simple migration of hydrogen

  15. Recombination rates in heterojunction silicon solar cells analyzed by impedance spectroscopy at forward bias and under illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Sero, Ivan; Luo, Yan; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Bisquert, Juan [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castello (Spain); Munoz, Delfina; Voz, Cristobal; Puigdollers, Joaquim; Alcubilla, Ramon [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    Impedance spectroscopy (at forward bias and under illumination) of solar cells comprised thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films deposited on crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers was analyzed in terms of ac equivalent circuits. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at states on the device interfaces governs the cell dynamic response. Recombination process was modeled by means of simple RC circuits which allow to determine the capture rate of electrons and holes. Carrier lifetime is found to be stated by the electron capture time {tau}{sub SRH}{approx}{tau}{sub n}, and it results in the range of 300 {mu}s. The Al-annealed back contact was regarded as the dominating recombination interface. (author)

  16. Efficiently Harvesting Sun Light for Silicon Solar Cells through Advanced Optical Couplers and A Radial p-n Junction Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Cheng Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-based solar cells (SCs promise to be an alternative energy source mainly due to: (1 a high efficiency-to-cost ratio, (2 the absence of environmental-degradation issues, and (3 great reliability. Transition from wafer-based to thin-film SC significantly reduces the cost of SCs, including the cost from the material itself and the fabrication process. However, as the thickness of the absorption (or the active layer decreases, the energy-conversion efficiency drops dramatically. As a consequence, we discuss here three techniques to increase the efficiency of silicon-based SCs: (1 photonic crystal (PC optical couplers and (2 plasmonic optical couplers to increase efficiency of light absorption in the SCs, and (3 a radial p-n junction structure, decomposing light absorption and diffusion path into two orthogonal directions. The detailed mechanisms and recent research progress regarding these techniques are discussed in this review article.

  17. Thin film cadmium telluride and zinc phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T.

    1984-10-01

    The deposition of cadmium telluride films by direct combination of the cadmium and tellurium vapor on foreign substrates is described. Nearly stoichiometric p-type cadmium telluride films and arsenic-doped p-type films were prepared reproducibly. Major efforts were directed to the deposition and characterization of heterojunction window materials, indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, cadmium oxide, and zinc oxide. A number of heterojunction solar cells were prepared, and the best thin-film ITO/CdTe solar cells had an AMI efficiency of about 7.2%. Zinc phosphide films were deposited on W/steel substrated by the reaction of zinc and phosphine in a hydrogen flow. Films without intentional doping had an electrical resistivity on the order of 10(6) ohm-cm, and this resistivity may be reduced to about 5 x 10(4) ohm-cm by adding hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to the reaction mixture. Lower resistivity films are deposited by adding a controlled amount of silver nitrate solution on to the substrate surface. Major efforts are directed to the deposition of low-resistivity zinc selenide to prepare ZnSe/An3P2 heterojunction thin-film solar cells. The zinc selenide films deposited by vaccum evaporation and chemical vapor deposition techniques are all of high resistivity.

  18. Experimental and Computer Modelling Studies of Metastability of Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyeme, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    We present a combination of experimental and computer modelling studies of the light induced degradation in the performance of amorphous silicon based single junction solar cells. Of particular interest in this study is the degradation kinetics of different types of amorphous silicon single junction

  19. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  20. Environmental aspects and risks of amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Engelenburg, B.C.W.; Alsema, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to identify potential bottlenecks for a number of (future) solar cell technologies and to formulate ensuing recommendations with regard to the photovoltaic (PV) research and development policy in the Netherlands. The potential environmental effects of amorphous silicon PV modules are investigated for their entire life cycle. For the life cycle assessment (LCA) the product life cycle is divided into a number of processes, each of which is described by the typical product input and output flow, secondary materials input, energy input, process yield, emissions to water and air, solid waste production and the output of reusable (secondary) materials. Regarding the development towards future (energy) technologies three possible technology cases are defined: a worst, a base and a best case.In order to facilitate the material flow accounting for LCA, a special LCA computer model has been developed in connection with a data base system, containing process descriptions. Also attention is paid to possible risks concerning occupational health and safety. The overall conclusion is that, from am environmental and from a risk point of view, no serious bottlenecks can be identified in the life cycle of amorphous silicon PV modules. Within these constraints this technology can be called sustainable, when the present developments persevere and the available safety practices will be incorporated in the production processes to a large degree. Recommendations are given for further research on the title subject to fill gaps in the knowledge of parameters of certain processes for PV modules. 5 figs., 20 tabs., 2 appendices, 74 refs

  1. Development of Thin Solar Cells for Space Applications at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, John E.; Hepp, Aloysius; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Harris, Jerry D.; Jin, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    NASA GRC Thin Film Solar Cell program is developing solar cell technologies for space applications which address two critical metrics: higher specific power (power per unit mass) and lower launch stowed volume. To be considered for space applications, an array using thin film solar cells must offer significantly higher specific power while reducing stowed volume compared to the present technologies being flown on space missions, namely crystalline solar cells. The NASA GRC program is developing single-source precursors and the requisite deposition hardware to grow high-efficiency, thin-film solar cells on polymer substrates at low deposition temperatures. Using low deposition temperatures enables the thin film solar cells to be grown on a variety of polymer substrates, many of which would not survive the high temperature processing currently used to fabricate thin film solar cells. The talk will present the latest results of this research program.

  2. Printable nanostructured silicon solar cells for high-performance, large-area flexible photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Biswas, Roshni; Li, Weigu; Kang, Dongseok; Chan, Lesley; Yoon, Jongseung

    2014-10-28

    Nanostructured forms of crystalline silicon represent an attractive materials building block for photovoltaics due to their potential benefits to significantly reduce the consumption of active materials, relax the requirement of materials purity for high performance, and hence achieve greatly improved levelized cost of energy. Despite successful demonstrations for their concepts over the past decade, however, the practical application of nanostructured silicon solar cells for large-scale implementation has been hampered by many existing challenges associated with the consumption of the entire wafer or expensive source materials, difficulties to precisely control materials properties and doping characteristics, or restrictions on substrate materials and scalability. Here we present a highly integrable materials platform of nanostructured silicon solar cells that can overcome these limitations. Ultrathin silicon solar microcells integrated with engineered photonic nanostructures are fabricated directly from wafer-based source materials in configurations that can lower the materials cost and can be compatible with deterministic assembly procedures to allow programmable, large-scale distribution, unlimited choices of module substrates, as well as lightweight, mechanically compliant constructions. Systematic studies on optical and electrical properties, photovoltaic performance in experiments, as well as numerical modeling elucidate important design rules for nanoscale photon management with ultrathin, nanostructured silicon solar cells and their interconnected, mechanically flexible modules, where we demonstrate 12.4% solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency for printed ultrathin (∼ 8 μm) nanostructured silicon solar cells when configured with near-optimal designs of rear-surface nanoposts, antireflection coating, and back-surface reflector.

  3. SIMULATED 8 MeV NEUTRON RESPONSE FUNCTIONS OF A THIN SILICON NEUTRON SENSOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Masuda, Akihiko; Nunomiya, Tomoya; Aoyama, Kei; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-12-22

    Neutron response functions of a thin silicon neutron sensor are simulated using PHITS2 and MCNP6 codes for an 8 MeV neutron beam at angles of incidence of 0°, 30° and 60°. The contributions of alpha particles created from the 28Si(n,α)25Mg reaction and the silicon nuclei scattered elastically by neutrons in the silicon sensor have not been well reproduced using the MCNP6 code. The 8 MeV neutron response functions simulated using the PHITS2 code with an accurate event generator mode are in good agreement with experimental results and include the contributions of the alpha particles and silicon nuclei. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Process parameter impact on properties of sputtered large-area Mo bilayers for CIGS thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badgujar, Amol C.; Dhage, Sanjay R., E-mail: dhage@arci.res.in; Joshi, Shrikant V.

    2015-08-31

    Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) has emerged as a promising candidate for thin film solar cells, with efficiencies approaching those of silicon-based solar cells. To achieve optimum performance in CIGS solar cells, uniform, conductive, stress-free, well-adherent, reflective, crystalline molybdenum (Mo) thin films with preferred orientation (110) are desirable as a back contact on large area glass substrates. The present study focuses on cylindrical rotating DC magnetron sputtered bilayer Mo thin films on 300 mm × 300 mm soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. Key sputtering variables, namely power and Ar gas flow rates, were optimized to achieve best structural, electrical and optical properties. The Mo films were comprehensively characterized and found to possess high degree of thickness uniformity over large area. Best crystallinity, reflectance and sheet resistance was obtained at high sputtering powers and low argon gas flow rates, while mechanical properties like adhesion and residual stress were found to be best at low sputtering power and high argon gas flow rate, thereby indicating a need to arrive at a suitable trade-off during processing. - Highlights: • Sputtering of bilayer molybdenum thin films on soda lime glass • Large area deposition using rotating cylindrical direct current magnetron • Trade of sputter process parameters power and pressure • High uniformity of thickness and best electrical properties obtained • Suitable mechanical and optical properties of molybdenum are achieved for CIGS application.

  5. Thin film silicon on silicon nitride for radiation hardened dielectrically isolated MISFET's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neamen, D.; Shedd, W.; Buchanan, B.

    1975-01-01

    The permanent ionizing radiation effects resulting from charge trapping in a silicon nitride isolation dielectric have been determined for a total ionizing dose up to 10 7 rads (Si). Junction FET's, whose active channel region is directly adjacent to the silicon-silicon nitride interface, were used to measure the effects of the radiation induced charge trapping in the Si 3 N 4 isolation dielectric. The JFET saturation current and channel conductance versus junction gate voltage and substrate voltage were characterized as a function of the total ionizing radiation dose. The experimental results on the Si 3 N 4 are compared to results on similar devices with SiO 2 dielectric isolation. The ramifications of using the silicon nitride for fabricating radiation hardened dielectrically isolated MIS devices are discussed

  6. Coulomb blockade effects in silicon nanoparticles embedded in thin silicon-rich oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, A; Barreto, J; Domínguez, C; Aceves, M; Yu, Z; Luna-López, J A

    2008-04-23

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si-nps) embedded in silicon oxide matrix were created using silicon-rich oxide (SRO) films deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) followed by a thermal annealing at 1100 °C. The electrical properties were studied using metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures with the SRO films as the active layers. Capacitance versus voltage (C-V) exhibited downward and upward peaks in the accumulation region related to charge trapping and de-trapping effects of Si-nps, respectively. Current versus voltage (I-V) measurements showed fluctuations in the form of spike-like peaks and a clear staircase at room temperature. These effects have been related to the Coulomb blockade (CB) effect in the silicon nanoparticles embedded in SRO films. The observed quantum effects are due to 1 nm nanoparticles.

  7. Ion induced segregation in gold nanostructured thin films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, J.; Satyam, P.V.

    2008-01-01

    We report a direct observation of segregation of gold atoms to the near surface regime due to 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ion impact on isolated gold nanostructures deposited on silicon. Irradiation at fluences of 6 x 10 13 , 1 x 10 14 and 5 x 10 14 ions cm -2 at a high beam flux of 6.3 x 10 12 ions cm -2 s -1 show a maximum transported distance of gold atoms into the silicon substrate to be 60, 45 and 23 nm, respectively. At a lower fluence (6 x 10 13 ions cm -2 ) transport has been found to be associated with the formation of gold silicide (Au 5 Si 2 ). At a high fluence value of 5 x 10 14 ions cm -2 , disassociation of gold silicide and out-diffusion lead to the segregation of gold to defect - rich surface and interface regions.

  8. Thermal recrystallization of physical vapor deposition based germanium thin films on bulk silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-08-16

    We demonstrate a simple, low-cost, and scalable process for obtaining uniform, smooth surfaced, high quality mono-crystalline germanium (100) thin films on silicon (100). The germanium thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate using plasma-assisted sputtering based physical vapor deposition. They were crystallized by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 1100 °C. We report that the best quality germanium thin films are obtained above the melting point of germanium (937 °C), thus offering a method for in-situ Czochralski process. We show well-behaved high-κ /metal gate metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using this film. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Microstructure of amorphous-silicon-based solar cell materials by small-angle x-ray scattering. Annual subcontract report, 6 April 1994--5 April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, D.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The general objective of this research is to provide detailed microstructural information on the amorphous-silicon-based, thin-film materials under development for improved multijunction solar cells. The experimental technique used is small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) providing microstructural data on microvoid fractions, sizes, shapes, and their preferred orientations. Other microstructural features such as alloy segregation, hydrogen-rich clusters and alloy short-range order are probed.

  10. Silicon Dioxide Thin Film Mediated Single Cell Nucleic Acid Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Evgeny; Dominova, Irina; Shusharina, Natalia; Botman, Stepan; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Patrushev, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    A limited amount of DNA extracted from single cells, and the development of single cell diagnostics make it necessary to create a new highly effective method for the single cells nucleic acids isolation. In this paper, we propose the DNA isolation method from biomaterials with limited DNA quantity in sample, and from samples with degradable DNA based on the use of solid-phase adsorbent silicon dioxide nanofilm deposited on the inner surface of PCR tube. PMID:23874571

  11. Effect of hydrogen passivation on polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honda, Shinya; Mates, Tomáš; Ledinský, Martin; Oswald, Jiří; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan; Yamazaki, T.; Uraoka, Y.; Fuyuki, T.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 487, - (2005), s. 152-156 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010316; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010413; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hydrogen passivation * polycrystalline silicon * photoluminescence * Raman spectroscopy * Si-H 2 * hydrogen molecules Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.569, year: 2005

  12. Interfacial Properties of CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muhunthan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-deficient CZTS (copper zinc tin sulfide thin films were grown on soda lime as well as molybdenum coated soda lime glass by reactive cosputtering. Polycrystalline CZTS film with kesterite structure was produced by annealing it at 500°C in Ar atmosphere. These films were characterized for compositional, structural, surface morphological, optical, and transport properties using energy dispersive X-ray analysis, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Hall effect measurement. A CZTS solar cell device having conversion efficiency of ~0.11% has been made by depositing CdS, ZnO, ITO, and Al layers over the CZTS thin film deposited on Mo coated soda lime glass. The series resistance of the device was very high. The interfacial properties of device were characterized by cross-sectional SEM and cross-sectional HRTEM.

  13. Fabrication and Photovoltaic Characteristics of Coaxial Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells Prepared by Wet Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Wei Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured solar cells with coaxial p-n junction structures have strong potential to enhance the performances of the silicon-based solar cells. This study demonstrates a radial junction silicon nanowire (RJSNW solar cell that was fabricated simply and at low cost using wet chemical etching. Experimental results reveal that the reflectance of the silicon nanowires (SNWs declines as their length increases. The excellent light trapping was mainly associated with high aspect ratio of the SNW arrays. A conversion efficiency of ∼7.1% and an external quantum efficiency of ∼64.6% at 700 nm were demonstrated. Control of etching time and diffusion conditions holds great promise for the development of future RJSNW solar cells. Improving the electrode/RJSNW contact will promote the collection of carries in coaxial core-shell SNW array solar cells.

  14. GigaTracker, a Thin and Fast Silicon Pixels Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Velghe, Bob; Bonacini, Sandro; Ceccucci, Augusto; Kaplon, Jan; Kluge, Alexander; Mapelli, Alessandro; Morel, Michel; Noël, Jérôme; Noy, Matthew; Perktold, Lukas; Petagna, Paolo; Poltorak, Karolina; Riedler, Petra; Romagnoli, Giulia; Chiozzi, Stefano; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Gianoli, Alberto; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Wahl, Heinrich; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Jarron, Pierre; Marchetto, Flavio; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Nuessle, Georg; Szilasi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    GigaTracker, the NA62’s upstream spectrometer, plays a key role in the kinematically constrained background suppression for the study of the K + ! p + n ̄ n decay. It is made of three independent stations, each of which is a six by three cm 2 hybrid silicon pixels detector. To meet the NA62 physics goals, GigaTracker has to address challenging requirements. The hit time resolution must be better than 200 ps while keeping the total thickness of the sensor to less than 0.5 mm silicon equivalent. The 200 μm thick sensor is divided into 18000 300 μm 300 μm pixels bump-bounded to ten independent read-out chips. The chips use an end-of-column architecture and rely on time-over- threshold discriminators. A station can handle a crossing rate of 750 MHz. Microchannel cooling technology will be used to cool the assembly. It allows us to keep the sensor close to 0 C with 130 μm of silicon in the beam area. The sensor and read-out chip performance were validated using a 45 pixel demonstrator with a laser test setu...

  15. Serially Connected Micro Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells for Compact High-Voltage Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Jiyoon; Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Chang Su; Kim, Hogyoung; Kim, Dong-Ho; Jo, Sungjin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar module to be used as high-voltage power supply. In comparison with the organic solar module, the main advantages of the a-Si solar module are its compatibility with photolithography techniques and relatively high power conversion efficiency. The open circuit voltage of a-Si solar cells can be easily controlled by serially interconnecting a-Si solar cells. Moreover, the a-Si solar module can be easily patterned by photolithography in any ...

  16. Theoretical analysis of improved efficiency of silicon-wafer solar cells with textured nanotriangular grating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoju; Zheng, Jun; Zhao, Xuesong; Ruan, Xiukai; Cui, Guihua; Zhu, Haiyong; Dai, Yuxing

    2018-03-01

    A practical model of crystalline silicon-wafer solar cells is proposed in order to enhance the light absorption and improve the conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells. In the model, the front surface of the silicon photovoltaic film is designed to be a textured-triangular-grating (TTG) structure, and the ITO contact film and the antireflection coating (ARC) of glass are coated on the TTG surface of silicon solar cells. The optical absorption spectrum of solar cells are simulated by applying the finite difference time domain method. Electrical parameters of the solar cells are calculated using two models with and without carrier loss. The effect of structure parameters on the performance of the TTG cell is discussed in detail. It is found that the thickness (tg) of the ARC, period (p) of grating, and base angle (θ) of triangle have a crucial influence on the conversion efficiency. The optimal structure of the TTG cell is designed. The TTG solar cell can produce higher efficiency in a wide range of solar incident angle and the average efficiency of the optimal TTG cell over 7:30-16:30 time of day is 8% higher than that of the optimal plane solar cell. In addition, the study shows that the bulk recombination of carriers has an influence on the conversion efficiency of the cell, the conversion efficiency of the actual solar cell with carrier recombination is reduced by 20.0% of the ideal cell without carrier recombination.

  17. A novel self-cleaning and anti-reflective multi-layer for thin-film solar PV module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.L.; Shiue, J.D. [Kun-Shan Univ., Yung-Kung City, Taiwan (China). Clean Energy Center; Li, M.; Huang, M.C. [NanoWinTechnology Co., Ltd., Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.S.; Wei, S.S. [National Univ. of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2007-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) acts as a photocatalyst, and can accelerate the decomposition of organic particulates and airborne pollutants that gather on solar arrays. In this study, a TiO{sub 2} film was coated on the outside surface of sodium glass in order to increase the self-cleaning ability of solar cells. DC magnetic sputtering was used to coat multi-layer thin films of silicon nitrides in order to increase their antireflective capabilities. The TiO{sub 2} thin film was fabricated using the sol-gel method. Optical properties of the microstructure and composition of the films were characterized using UV-V spectroscopy. Results showed that the best anti-reflection spectrum of the TiO{sub 2} was between 700 and 800 nm. Average transmission rates were 3.54 per cent higher than those observed in slide glass samples. It was concluded that overlapped titanium dioxide/silicon nitride thin films can achieve a very good anti-reflective effect as well as self-cleaning ability in the range of 400-800 nm. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Silicon materials task of the low cost solar array project (Phase III). Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Fifteenth quarterly report, April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Blais, P.D.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R.E.; Mollenkopf, H.C.; McCormick, J.R.

    1979-07-01

    The overall objective of this program is to define the effects of impurities, various thermochemical processes, and any impurity-process interactions on the performance of terrestrial silicon solar cells. The results of the study form a basis for silicon producers, wafer manufacturers, and cell fabricators to develop appropriate cost-benefit relationships for the use of less pure, less costly Solar Grade silicon. The first reported determinations of the segregation coefficients of tungsten, tantalum, and cobalt for the Czochralski pulling of silicon single crystals were performed. Sensitive neutron activation analysis was used to determine the metal impurity content of the silicon (C/sub S/) while atomic absorption was used to measure the metal content of the residual liquid (C/sub L/) from which the doped crystals were grown. Gettering of Ti-doped silicon wafers improves cell performance by 1 to 2% (absolute) for the highest temperatures and longest times. The measured profile for Ti centers formed after an 850/sup 0/C gettering operation was fitted by a mathematical expression for the out-diffusion of an impurity species. By means of cell performance data and the newly-measured segregation coefficients curves were computed to predict the variation in cell efficiency with impurity concentration for Mo, Ta, W, Nb, and Co, materials commonly employed in the construction of high temperature silicon processing equipment. Using data for second and third generation n-base ingots the cell performance curves were updated for single impurities in n-type silicon. Most impurities degrade n-base cells less than p-base devices. The effect is larges for Mo, Al, Mn, Ti, and V while Fe and Cr behave much the same in both types of solar cells. In contrast Ni and Cu both degrade n-base devices (apparently by a junction mechanism) more severely than p-base cells. (WHK)

  19. Dip-coating process. Silicon sheet growth development for the large-area silicon sheet task of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Quarterly report No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, J.D.; Heaps, J.D.; Maciolek, R.B.; Koepke, B.; Butter, C.D.; Schuldt, S.B.

    1977-12-30

    The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon from the melt. During the past quarter, significant progress was demonstrated in several areas. Seeded growth of silicon-on-ceramic (SOC) with an EFG ribbon seed was demonstrated. Different types of mullite received from Coors were successfully coated with silicon. A new method of deriving minority carrier diffusion length, L/sub n/, from spectral response measurements was evaluated. ECOMOD cost projections were found to be in good agreement with the interim SAMIS method proposed by JPL. On the less positive side, there was a decrease in cell performance which is believed to be due to an unidentified source of impurities. Also, operation of the new coating system fell behind schedule but is expected to improve in the coming quarter, since construction has now been completed.

  20. Fabrication of amorphous silicon nanoribbons by atomic force microscope tip-induced local oxidation for thin film device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, L; Rogel, R; Demami, F

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of induced local oxidation of amorphous silicon by atomic force microscopy. The resulting local oxide is used as a mask for the elaboration of a thin film silicon resistor. A thin amorphous silicon layer deposited on a glass substrate is locally oxidized following narrow continuous lines. The corresponding oxide line is then used as a mask during plasma etching of the amorphous layer leading to the formation of a nanoribbon. Such an amorphous silicon nanoribbon is used for the fabrication of the resistor

  1. Textured surface boron-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxides on polyethylene terephthalate substrates for Si-based thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinliang; Lin Quan; Ni Jian; Zhang Dekun; Sun Jian; Zhao Ying; Geng Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    Textured surface boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films were directly grown via low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates at low temperatures and high-efficiency flexible polymer silicon (Si) based thin film solar cells were obtained. High purity diethylzinc and water vapors were used as source materials, and diborane was used as an n-type dopant gas. P-i-n silicon layers were fabricated at ∼ 398 K by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. These textured surface ZnO:B thin films on PET substrates (PET/ZnO:B) exhibit rough pyramid-like morphology with high transparencies (T ∼ 80%) and excellent electrical properties (Rs ∼ 10 Ω at d ∼ 1500 nm). Finally, the PET/ZnO:B thin films were applied in flexible p-i-n type silicon thin film solar cells (device structure: PET/ZnO:B/p-i-n a-Si:H/Al) with a high conversion efficiency of 6.32% (short-circuit current density J SC = 10.62 mA/cm 2 , open-circuit voltage V OC = 0.93 V and fill factor = 64%).

  2. A simple quality factor for characterization of thin silicon films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočka, Jan; Mates, Tomáš; Ledinský, Martin; Stuchlíková, The-Ha; Stuchlík, Jiří; Fejfar, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 354, 19-25 (2008), s. 2227-2230 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA1010413; GA AV ČR IAA1010316; GA MŽP(CZ) SN/3/172/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : microcrystalline silicon * deposition process * high growth rate * quality evaluation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2008

  3. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenbing

    The barrier to utilize solar generated electricity mainly comes from their higher cost relative to fossil fuels. However, innovations with new materials and processing techniques can potentially make cost effective photovoltaics. One such strategy is to develop solution processed photovoltaics which avoid the expensive vacuum processing required by traditional solar cells. The dissertation is mainly focused on two absorber material system for thin film solar cells: chalcopyrite CuIn(S,Se)2 (CISS) and kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S,Se) 4 organized in chronological order. Chalcopyrite CISS is a very promising material. It has been demonstrated to achieve the highest efficiency among thin film solar cells. Scaled-up industry production at present has reached the giga-watt per year level. The process however mainly relies on vacuum systems which account for a significant percentage of the manufacturing cost. In the first section of this dissertation, hydrazine based solution processed CISS has been explored. The focus of the research involves the procedures to fabricate devices from solution. The topics covered in Chapter 2 include: precursor solution synthesis with a focus on understanding the solution chemistry, CISS absorber formation from precursor, properties modification toward favorable device performance, and device structure innovation toward tandem device. For photovoltaics to have a significant impact toward meeting energy demands, the annual production capability needs to be on TW-level. On such a level, raw materials supply of rare elements (indium for CIS or tellurium for CdTe) will be the bottleneck limiting the scalability. Replacing indium with zinc and tin, earth abundant kesterite CZTS exhibits great potential to reach the goal of TW-level with no limitations on raw material availability. Chapter 3 shows pioneering work towards solution processing of CZTS film at low temperature. The solution processed devices show performances which rival vacuum

  4. Silicon wafer wettability and aging behaviors: Impact on gold thin-film morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoming

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports on the wettability and aging behaviors of the silicon wafers that had been cleaned using a piranha (3:1 mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4, 96%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O 2, 30%), 120 °C), SC1 (1:1:5 mixture of NH4OH, H 2O2 and H2O, at 80°C) or HF solution (6 parts of 40% NH4F and 1 part of 49% HF, at room temperature) solution, and treated with gaseous plasma. The silicon wafers cleaned using the piranha or SC1 solution were hydrophilic, and the water contact angles on the surfaces would increase along with aging time, until they reached the saturated points of around 70°. The contact angle increase rate of these wafers in a vacuum was much faster than that in the open air, because of loss of water, which was physically adsorbed on the wafer surfaces. The silicon wafers cleaned with the HF solution were hydrophobic. Their contact angle decreased in the atmosphere, while it increased in the vacuum up to 95°. Gold thin films deposited on the hydrophilic wafers were smoother than that deposited on the hydrophobic wafers, because the numerous oxygen groups formed on the hydrophilic surfaces would react with gold adatoms in the sputtering process to form a continuous thin film at the nucleation stage. The argon, nitrogen, oxygen gas plasma treatments could change the silicon wafer surfaces from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by creating a thin (around 2.5 nm) silicon dioxide film, which could be utilized to improve the roughness and adhesion of the gold thin film. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impurity photovoltaic effect in silicon solar cell doped with sulphur: A numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzouzi, Ghania; Chegaar, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The impurity photovoltaic effect (IPV) has mostly been studied in various semiconductors such as silicon, silicon carbide and GaAs in order to increase infrared absorption and hence cell efficiency. In this work, sulphur is used as the IPV effect impurity incorporated in silicon solar cells. For our simulation we use the numerical device simulator (SCAPS). We calculate the solar cell performances (short circuit current density J sc , open circuit voltage V oc , conversion efficiency η and quantum efficiency QE). We study the influence of light trapping and certain impurity parameters like impurity concentration and position in the gap on the solar cell performances. Simulation results for IPV effect on silicon doped with sulphur show an improvement of the short circuit current and the efficiency for sulphur energy levels located far from the middle of the band gap especially at E c -E t =0.18 eV.

  6. Eliminating Light-Induced Degradation in Commercial p-Type Czochralski Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Hallam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses developments in the mitigation of light-induced degradation caused by boron-oxygen defects in boron-doped Czochralski grown silicon. Particular attention is paid to the fabrication of industrial silicon solar cells with treatments for sensitive materials using illuminated annealing. It highlights the importance and desirability of using hydrogen-containing dielectric layers and a subsequent firing process to inject hydrogen throughout the bulk of the silicon solar cell and subsequent illuminated annealing processes for the formation of the boron-oxygen defects and simultaneously manipulate the charge states of hydrogen to enable defect passivation. For the photovoltaic industry with a current capacity of approximately 100 GW peak, the mitigation of boron-oxygen related light-induced degradation is a necessity to use cost-effective B-doped silicon while benefitting from the high-efficiency potential of new solar cell concepts.

  7. Forward-Biased Current Annealing of Radiation Damaged Gallium Arsenide and Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    4: p. 3.2-21. Variations in R, are caused by humidity, temperature, heavy particle radiation, and manufactoring processes . Large variations in R s can...CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ............................................. 10 II. SO LA R CELLS ............................................... 13 A. ATOM IC...LIW -C ’ - -V 1. INTRODUCTION Silicon solar cells are the primary source of power on nearly all Earth orbiting satellites. Typical solar array

  8. Effect of junction quality on the performance of a silicon solar cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, a modeling study of the effect of the junction quality on the performance of a silicon solar cell is presented. Based on a one dimensional modeling of the solar cell, the continuity equation of excess minority carriers is solved with boundary conditions taking into account the intrinsic junction recombination velocity ...

  9. Electron and photon degradation in aluminum, gallium and boron doped float zone silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahilly, W. P.; Scott-Monck, J.; Anspaugh, B.; Locker, D.

    1976-01-01

    Solar cells fabricated from Al, Ga and B doped Lopex silicon over a range of resistivities were tested under varying conditions of 1 MeV electron fluence, light exposures and thermal cycling. Results indicate that Al and Ga can replace B as a P type dopant to yield improved solar cell performance.

  10. Effect of light intensity on the performance of silicon solar cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work, presents the intense light effect on electrical parameters of silicon solar such as short circuit current, open circuit voltage, series and shunt resistances, maximum power, conversion efficiency, fill factor. After the resolution of the continuity equation which leads to the solar cell photocurrent and photovoltage ...

  11. Measurement of Minority-Carrier Lifetime in Silicon Solar Cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the critical parameters for the overall efficiency of solar cells is the lifetime of minority carriers. This manuscript describes the measurement of minority - carrier lifetime of silicon solar cells, at room temperature, by photoconductive decay method. The Holobeam, Model 655 Double-Pulsed Holographic system, is used ...

  12. Dip coating process. Silicon sheet growth development for the large-area silicon sheet task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Quarterly report No. 5, December 18, 1976--March 21, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, J.D.; Heaps, J.D.; Maciolek, R.B.; Koepke, B.; Butter, C.D.; Schuldt, S.B.

    1977-03-31

    Ceramic substrates can be coated with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon by a dip-coating process. The silicon-on-ceramic (SOC) material appears to be quite promising as a low-cost cell material but requires somewhat special fabrication procedure since the contacts to both the n- and p-layers are now made on the front surface. Solar cells have been made on SOC material and on single-crystal control samples. Photodiodes 0.01 to 0.1 cm/sup 2/ made on substrates coated with vitreous carbon prior to dip coating with silicon showed the best efficiency of SOC material to date, namely over 6 percent uncorrected and about 12 percent inherent efficiency. Etching procedures have indicated that the dislocation density varies from almost 10/sup 7/ cm/sup -2/ to almost dislocation-free material, assuming that all etch pits are due to dislocations. EBIC measurements procedures were also improved, and it was found that diodes appear to be fairly uniform in EBIC response. A new SOC coating facility is being designed which will coat larger substrates in a continuous manner. The purpose is to minimize the contamination problem by reducing the contact area of the substrate with molten silicon. By having much larger throughput, it will also demonstrate the scale-up potential of the silicon-on-ceramic process. Portions of the new facility are under construction. An attempt has been made to model the economics of a large-scale facility for coating ceramic panels with silicon. A first iteration based on available parameters estimates showed that major cost items were poly Si ($2.90 per square meter), labor and burden ($2.50 per square meter), and the ceramic substrate ($2.50 per square meter), for a total price of about $11 per square meter.

  13. Laser structuring of thin-film solar cells on polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gečys, P.; Račiukaitis, G.; Gedvilas, M.; Selskis, A.

    2009-04-01

    A permanent growth of the thin-film electronics market stimulates the development of versatile technologies for patterning thin-film materials on flexible substrates. High repetition rate lasers with a short pulse duration offer new possibilities for high efficiency structuring of conducting, semi-conducting and isolating films. Lasers with the picosecond pulse duration were applied in structuring the complex multilayered Cu(InGa)Se{2} (CIGS) solar cells deposited on the polyimide substrate. The wavelength of laser radiation was adjusted depending on optical properties both of the film and the substrate. A narrow processing window of laser fluence and pulse overlap was estimated with both 1064 nm and 355 nm irradiation to remove the molybdenum backcontact off the substrate. The selective removal of ITO, ZnO and CIGS layers was achieved with 355 nm irradiation in the multilayer structure of CIGS without significant damage to the underneath layers. Use of the flat-top laser beam profile should prevent inhomogeneity in ablation. The EDS analysis did not show residues of molybdenum projected onto the walls of ablated channel due to melt extrusion. Processing with picosecond lasers should not cause degradation of photo-electrical properties of the solar cells but verification is required.

  14. Local photoconductivity of microcrystalline silicon thin films measured by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Stuchlík, Jiří; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kočka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, 10-11 (2011), s. 373-375 ISSN 1862-6254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB061012; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 240826 - PolySiMode Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : amorphous silicon * nanocrystalline silicon * thin films * atomic force microscopy * photoconductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.218, year: 2011

  15. The effect of radiation intensity on diode characteristics of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgerov, Sh.Q; Agayev, M.N; Hasanov, M.H; Pashayev, I.G

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore electro-physical properties of silicon solar cells, diode characteristics and ohmic properties of Al - Ni / (n+) - Si contact has been studied. Diode characteristics have been studied on a wide temperature range and on various radiation intensity, so this gives us the ability to observe the effect of the radiation and the temperature on electro-physical properties of under study solar cells. Volt-Ampere characteristics of the ohmic contacts of the silicon solar cells have been presented. As well as contact resistance and mechanism of current transmission has been identified.

  16. Recent Optical and SEM Characterization of Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Diamond on Silicon Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Ross, D. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McNamara, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the 4 Genesis solar wind concentrator collectors was a silicon substrate coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in which to capture solar wind. This material was designed for analysis of solar nitrogen and noble gases [1, 2]. This particular collector fractured during landing, but about 80% of the surface was recovered, including a large piece which was subdivided in 2012 [3, 4, 5]. The optical and SEM imaging and analysis described below supports the subdivision and allocation of the diamond-on-silicon (DOS) concentrator collector.

  17. Doping optimization of solar grade (SOG silicon ingots for increasing ingot yield and cell efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat A. Betekbaev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, SoG will become the principal material for photovoltaic ingot production as it requires much less energy for purification compared to silicon grades using gas transformation and purification (usually Siemens process or equivalent also used for electronic-grade preparation. In this study, several kinds of silicon have been compared with different dopant contents (mainly boron and phosphorus. Ingot yield and cell efficiency have been optimized for each source of silicon at a commercial level (450 kg ingots using boron or gallium doping. Starting from the resistivity specification given by the cell process, the doping level has been adjusted in order to maximize the ingot silicon yield (weight of silicon bricks used for wafer cutting/weight of silicon ingot. After doping adjustment, ingot quality has been checked, i.e. brick resistivity and lifetime of minority carriers, and wafers have been processed to solar cells. Doping optimization has led to comparable ingot yields and cell efficiencies using SoG and silicon purified by Siemens process or equivalent. The study has been implemented at the Kazakhstan Solar Silicon Plant in Ust-Kamenogorsk using Kazakhstan SoG, SoG has been received from a European manufacturer and polycrystalline silicon has been purified using the Siemens process. Directional solidification furnaces have been manufactured by ECM Technologies, France.

  18. Amorphous silicon passivation for 23.3% laser processed back contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Kai; Dahlinger, Morris; Hoffmann, Erik; Zapf-Gottwick, Renate; Werner, Jürgen H.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents amorphous silicon deposited at temperatures below 200 °C, leading to an excellent passivation layer for boron doped emitter and phosphorus doped back surface field areas in interdigitated back contact solar cells. A higher deposition temperature degrades the passivation of the boron emitter by an increased hydrogen effusion due to lower silicon hydrogen bond energy, proved by hydrogen effusion measurements. The high boron surface doping in crystalline silicon causes a band bending in the amorphous silicon. Under these conditions, at the interface, the intentionally undoped amorphous silicon becomes p-type conducting, with the consequence of an increased dangling bond defect density. For bulk amorphous silicon this effect is described by the defect pool model. We demonstrate, that the defect pool model is also applicable to the interface between amorphous and crystalline silicon. Our simulation shows the shift of the Fermi energy towards the valence band edge to be more pronounced for high temperature deposited amorphous silicon having a small bandgap. Application of optimized amorphous silicon as passivation layer for the boron doped emitter and phosphorus doped back surface field on the rear side of laser processed back contact solar cells, fabricated using four laser processing steps, yields an efficiency of 23.3%.

  19. Broadband light trapping in thin film solar cells with self-organized plasmonic nano-colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Manuel J.; Mateus, Tiago; Lyubchyk, Andriy; Águas, Hugo; Ferreira, Isabel; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Morawiec, Seweryn; Priolo, Francesco; Crupi, Isodiana

    2015-01-01

    The intense light scattered from metal nanoparticles sustaining surface plasmons makes them attractive for light trapping in photovoltaic applications. However, a strong resonant response from nanoparticle ensembles can only be obtained if the particles have monodisperse physical properties. Presently, the chemical synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles is the method that produces the highest monodispersion in geometry and material quality, with the added benefits of being low-temperature, low-cost, easily scalable and of allowing control of the surface coverage of the deposited particles. In this paper, novel plasmonic back-reflector structures were developed using spherical gold colloids with appropriate dimensions for pronounced far-field scattering. The plasmonic back reflectors are incorporated in the rear contact of thin film n-i-p nanocrystalline silicon solar cells to boost their photocurrent generation via optical path length enhancement inside the silicon layer. The quantum efficiency spectra of the devices revealed a remarkable broadband enhancement, resulting from both light scattering from the metal nanoparticles and improved light incoupling caused by the hemispherical corrugations at the cells’ front surface formed from the deposition of material over the spherically shaped colloids. (paper)

  20. Accurate Measurement of New Type Non-silicon Solar Cells’ Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Haifeng; Xiong, Limin; Zhang, Junchao; He, Yingwei; Zhang, Bifeng; Cai, Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Different from traditional silicon solar cells, new type non-silicon solar cells are composed of various kinds of materials, such as organic, perovskite, quantum dots and so on. They always show special performance in spectral responsivity, compatibility and stability, which brought great challenges for the accurate measurement of photoelectric conversion efficiency. We will illustrate a method for accurate efficiency measurement mainly in the view of metrology. Based on effective traceability and calibration of the standard value, a procedure for new type non-silicon solar cells’ efficiency measurement would be proposed. Main influencing factors such as spectral mismatch will also be analysed. Hope to provide a reference method for the accurate characterization of the photo-electric properties of various new types of solar cells.

  1. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Chemical Species in Silicon and Silicon-Rich Nitride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill O. Bugaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational properties of hydrogenated silicon-rich nitride (SiN:H of various stoichiometry (0.6≤≤1.3 and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H films were studied using Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furnace annealing during 5 hours in Ar ambient at 1130∘C and pulse laser annealing were applied to modify the structure of films. Surprisingly, after annealing with such high-thermal budget, according to the FTIR data, the nearly stoichiometric silicon nitride film contains hydrogen in the form of Si–H bonds. From analysis of the FTIR data of the Si–N bond vibrations, one can conclude that silicon nitride is partly crystallized. According to the Raman data a-Si:H films with hydrogen concentration 15% and lower contain mainly Si–H chemical species, and films with hydrogen concentration 30–35% contain mainly Si–H2 chemical species. Nanosecond pulse laser treatments lead to crystallization of the films and its dehydrogenization.

  2. Black silicon laser-doped selective emitter solar cell with 18.1% efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Li, Hongzhao; To, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report fabrication of nanostructured, laser-doped selective emitter (LDSE) silicon solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 18.1% and a fill factor (FF) of 80.1%. The nanostructured solar cells were realized through a single step, mask-less, scalable reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing......-texturing as well as the LDSE process, we consider this specific combination a promising candidate for a cost-efficient process for future Si solar cells....

  3. Corrugation Architecture Enabled Ultraflexible Wafer-Scale High-Efficiency Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.

    2018-01-02

    Advanced classes of modern application require new generation of versatile solar cells showcasing extreme mechanical resilience, large-scale, low cost, and excellent power conversion efficiency. Conventional crystalline silicon-based solar cells offer one of the most highly efficient power sources, but a key challenge remains to attain mechanical resilience while preserving electrical performance. A complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based integration strategy where corrugation architecture enables ultraflexible and low-cost solar cell modules from bulk monocrystalline large-scale (127 × 127 cm) silicon solar wafers with a 17% power conversion efficiency. This periodic corrugated array benefits from an interchangeable solar cell segmentation scheme which preserves the active silicon thickness of 240 μm and achieves flexibility via interdigitated back contacts. These cells can reversibly withstand high mechanical stress and can be deformed to zigzag and bifacial modules. These corrugation silicon-based solar cells offer ultraflexibility with high stability over 1000 bending cycles including convex and concave bending to broaden the application spectrum. Finally, the smallest bending radius of curvature lower than 140 μm of the back contacts is shown that carries the solar cells segments.

  4. Enhanced red photoluminescence of quartz by silicon nanocrystals thin film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, A.; Pourgolestani, M.; Taheri, M.; Mansour, N.

    2018-03-01

    The room-temperature photoluminescence properties of silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) thin film on a quartz substrate were investigated, which presents the red emission enhancement of quartz. We show that the photoluminescence intensity of quartz, in the wavelength range of 640-700 nm, can be enhanced as much as 15-fold in the presence of the SiNCs thin film. Our results reveal that the defect states at the SiNCs/SiO2 interface can be excited more efficiently by indirect excitation via the SiNCs, leading to the prominent red photoluminescence enhancement under the photo-excitation in the range of 440-470 nm. This work suggests a simple pathway to improve silicon-based light emitting devices for photonic applications.

  5. Electrical characteristics of funnel-shaped silicon nanowire solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Ghada Yassin; Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O.; Hussein, Mohamed; Razzak, Maher Abdel; Obayya, Salah S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The electrical characteristics of funnel-shaped silicon nanowire (SiNW) solar cells are introduced and numerically analyzed. The funnel-shaped NW consists of a cylinder over a conical unit. Its aim is to maximize the optical absorption over a large wavelength range and hence the electrical efficiency by increasing the number of resonance wavelengths or by enlarging the resonance wavelength range. The conical part has different radii in the axial direction, which increases the number of resonance wavelengths. Further, the coupling between the supported modes by the upper cylinder and the lower tapered cone offers multiple optical resonances required for broadband absorption. The optical characteristics and generation rates through the studied design are obtained using 3-D finite difference time domain. However, the electrical properties are calculated using finite element via the Lumerical device software package. In this regard, radial and axial junctions are examined for the suggested design and compared with the conventional cylindrical SiNW counterpart. In this investigation, short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) are simulated to quantify the optoelectronic performance of the reported design. Furthermore, the effects of the doping concentration and carrier lifetime on the performance of the funnel-shaped design are reported. The proposed SiNWs offer PCE and short circuit density of 12.7% and 27.6 mA/cm2, respectively, for the axial junction. However, the funnel design with core-shell junction shows an efficiency and short-circuit current (Jsc) of 14.13% and 31.94 mA/cm2, respectively. Therefore, the suggested design has higher efficiency than 6.4% and 9.6% of the conventional cylindrical SiNWs according to the axial and core shell junctions, respectively.

  6. Epitaxial growth of zinc oxide thin films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Chunming; Narayan, Roger; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Zhou Honghui; Kvit, Alex; Narayan, Jagdish

    2005-01-01

    Epitaxial zinc oxide thin films were grown on Si(111) using aluminum nitride and magnesium oxide/titanium nitride buffer layers. The resultant films were examined using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrical conductivity, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The following epitaxial relationships were observed in the ZnO/AlN/Si(111) heterostructure: ZnO[0001] parallel AlN[0001] parallel Si[111] along the growth direction, and ZnO[21-bar 1-bar 0] parallel AlN[21-bar 1-bar 0] parallel Si[011-bar] along the in-plane direction. Domain-matching epitaxial growth of TiN on Si(111) substrate allows successful epitaxial growth of MgO and ZnO layers in a ZnO/MgO/TiN/Si(111) heterostructure. The epitaxial relationships observed for this heterostructure were ZnO[0001] parallel MgO/TiN/Si[111] along the growth direction and ZnO[21-bar 1-bar 0] parallel MgO/TiN/Si[011-bar] along in-plane direction. The resultant ZnO films demonstrate excellent electrical and optical properties. ZnO thin films exhibit extremely bright ultraviolet luminescence with relatively weak green-band emission

  7. Properties of non-stoichiometric nitrogen doped LPCVD silicon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, F.; Mahamdi, R. [Departement d' Electronique, Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Beghoul, M.R. [Departement d' Electronique, Universite de Jijel (Algeria); Temple-Boyer, P. [CNRS, LAAS, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, INP, ISAE, LAAS, Toulouse (France); Bouridah, H.

    2010-02-15

    The influence of nitrogen on the internal structure and so on the electrical properties of silicon thin films obtained by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) was studied using several investigation methods. We found by using Raman spectroscopy and SEM observations that a strong relationship exists between the structural order of the silicon matrix and the nitrogen ratio in film before and after thermal treatment. As a result of the high disorder caused by nitrogen on silicon network during the deposit phase of films, the crystallization phenomena in term of nucleation and crystalline growth were found to depend upon the nitrogen content. Resistivity measurements results show that electrical properties of NIDOS films depend significantly on structural properties. It was appeared that for high nitrogen content, the films tend to acquire an insulator behavior. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Newtech - Comparison of three 1 kW thin-film solar cell installations; Newtech. Vergleich 3 x 1 kWp Duennschichtzellenanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renken, C.; Haeberlin, H.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of tests made on 3 types of thin-film solar cells by the photovoltaics laboratory at the University of Applied Science in Burgdorf, Switzerland. The three 1-kW{sub p} installations are all mounted on the flat roof of an industrial building and deliver the power produced to the local electricity utility. The thin-film technologies tested are described. These include copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) cells, amorphous silicon tandem cells and amorphous silicon triple cells. The measurement equipment used is described and the results obtained are discussed. These showed that the CIS cells had the highest annual specific yield and that the triple cells had a relatively high performance ratio at low irradiance levels. The performance of the thin-film modules is also compared to that of conventional, crystalline modules installed at a nearby location.

  9. Direct bonding of ALD Al2O3 to silicon nitride thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganà, Simone; Mikkelsen, E. K.; Marie, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    microscopy (TEM) by improving low temperature annealing bonding strength when using atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide. We have investigated and characterized bonding of Al2O3-SixNy (low stress silicon rich nitride) and Al2O3-Si3N4 (stoichiometric nitride) thin films annealed from room temperature up......, the current bonding method can be also used for further MEMS applications. ...

  10. Thin PZT-Based Ferroelectric Capacitors on Flexible Silicon for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-04-24

    A flexible version of traditional thin lead zirconium titanate ((Pb1.1Zr0.48Ti0.52O3)-(PZT)) based ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) on silicon shows record performance in flexible arena. The thin PZT layer requires lower operational voltages to achieve coercive electric fields, reduces the sol-gel coating cycles required (i.e., more cost-effective), and, fabrication wise, is more suitable for further scaling of lateral dimensions to the nano-scale due to the larger feature size-to-depth aspect ratio (critical for ultra-high density non-volatile memory applications). Utilizing the inverse proportionality between substrate\\'s thickness and its flexibility, traditional PZT based FeRAM on silicon is transformed through a transfer-less manufacturable process into a flexible form that matches organic electronics\\' flexibility while preserving the superior performance of silicon CMOS electronics. Each memory cell in a FeRAM array consists of two main elements; a select/access transistor, and a storage ferroelectric capacitor. Flexible transistors on silicon have already been reported. In this work, we focus on the storage ferroelectric capacitors, and report, for the first time, its performance after transformation into a flexible version, and assess its key memory parameters while bent at 0.5 cm minimum bending radius.

  11. Optical Absorption Enhancement in CdTe Thin Films by Microstructuration of the Silicon Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rangel-Cárdenas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the reflectance, optical absorption, and band gap have been determined for CdTe thin films grown on planar and microstructured substrates. The treated surface was prepared by laser ablation of a silicon wafer, forming holes in a periodic arrangement. Thin films were grown by pulsed laser ablation on silicon samples kept at 200 °C inside a vacuum chamber. The presence of CdTe was verified with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicating a nanocrystalline zinc blended structure. The optical absorption of thin films was calculated by using the Fresnel laws and the experimental reflectance spectrum. Results show that reflectance of 245 nm films deposited on modified substrates is reduced by up to a factor of two than the obtained on unchanged silicon and the optical absorption is 16% higher at ~456 nm. Additionally, it was determined that the band gap energy for planar and microstructured films is about 1.44 eV for both cases.

  12. Impact of temperature on performance of series and parallel connected mono-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chander

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on impact of temperature on the performance of series and parallel connected mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si solar cell employing solar simulator. The experiment was carried out at constant light intensity 550 W/m2with cell temperature in the range 25–60 oC for single, series and parallel connected mono-Si solar cells. The performance parameters like open circuit voltage, maximum power, fill factor and efficiency are found to decrease with cell temperature while the short circuit current is observed to increase. The experimental results reveal that silicon solar cells connected in series and parallel combinations follow the Kirchhoff’s laws and the temperature has a significant effect on the performance parameters of solar cell.

  13. Modeling and Design of a New Flexible Graphene-on-Silicon Schottky Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Dell’Olio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new graphene-based flexible solar cell with a power conversion efficiency >10% has been designed. The environmental stability and the low complexity of the fabrication process are the two main advantages of the proposed device with respect to other flexible solar cells. The designed solar cell is a graphene/silicon Schottky junction whose performance has been enhanced by a graphene oxide layer deposited on the graphene sheet. The effect of the graphene oxide is to dope the graphene and to act as anti-reflection coating. A silicon dioxide ultrathin layer interposed between the n-Si and the graphene increases the open-circuit voltage of the cell. The solar cell optimization has been achieved through a mathematical model, which has been validated by using experimental data reported in literature. The new flexible photovoltaic device can be integrated in a wide range of microsystems powered by solar energy.

  14. Thin layer modelling of Gelidium sesquipedale solar drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Mohamed, L. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et des Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales, Ecole Normale Superieure, BP 2400, Marrakech (Morocco); Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Ethmane Kane, C.S. [Faculte des Sciences de Tetouan, BP 2121, Tetouan (Morocco); Kouhila, M.; Jamali, A. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et des Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales, Ecole Normale Superieure, BP 2400, Marrakech (Morocco); Mahrouz, M. [Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Kechaou, N. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BPW 3038 (Tunisia)

    2008-05-15

    The effect of air temperature and air flow rate on the drying kinetics of Gelidium sesquipedale was investigated in convective solar drying. Drying was conducted at 40, 50 and 60 C. The relative humidity was varied from 50% to 57%, and the drying air flow rate was varied from 0.0277 to 0.0833 m{sup 3}/s. The expression for the drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Thirteen mathematical models of thin layer drying are selected in order to estimate the suitable model for describing the drying curves. The two term model gives the best prediction of the drying curves and satisfactorily describes the drying characteristics of G. sesquipedale with a correlation coefficient R of 0.9999 and chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) of 3.381 x 10{sup -6}. (author)

  15. Circuit analysis method for thin-film solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a thin-film solar cell module is dependent on the probability of occurrence of pinhole shunt defects. Using known or assumed defect density data, dichotomous population statistics can be used to calculate the number of defects expected in a module. Probability theory is then used to assign the defective cells to individual strings in a selected series-parallel circuit design. Iterative numerical calculation is used to calcuate I-V curves using cell test values or assumed defective cell values as inputs. Good and shunted cell I-V curves are added to determine the module output power and I-V curve. Different levels of shunt resistance can be selected to model different defect levels.

  16. Thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyan, Y.S.; Perez-Albuerne, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    A thin-film solar cell with the configuration soda-lime glass ITO/CdS/CdTe/Au was reported earlier to have more than 10% conversion efficiency. To further improve the low-cost potential of the device, an SnO/sub 2/ layer was developed to replace ITO, and a new contact to CdTe using Ni or stainless steel to replace Au. The contact also improves the stability of the device. A low-cost method for monolithic integration of these cells to make a module is discussed. By this method, a module of 32 cm/sup 2/ area and 8.5% efficiency was fabricated. A simple and effective ''cross-cut'' method for minimizing the effects of shorting defects is also described

  17. Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules

    KAUST Repository

    Rowell, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The transparent conductor (TC) layer in thin film solar cell modules has a significant impact on the power conversion efficiency. Reflection, absorption, resistive losses and lost active area either from the scribed interconnect region in monolithically integrated modules or from the shadow losses of a metal grid in standard modules typically reduce the efficiency by 10-25%. Here, we perform calculations to show that a competitive TC must have a transparency of at least 90% at a sheet resistance of less than 10 Ω/sq (conductivity/absorptivity ≥ 1 Ω -1) for monolithically integrated modules. For standard modules, losses are much lower and the performance of alternative lower cost TC materials may already be sufficient to replace conducting oxides in this geometry. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Device physics underlying silicon heterojunction and passivating-contact solar cells: A topical review

    KAUST Repository

    Chavali, Raghu V. K.

    2018-01-15

    The device physics of commercially dominant diffused-junction silicon solar cells is well understood, allowing sophisticated optimization of this class of devices. Recently, so-called passivating-contact solar cell technologies have become prominent, with Kaneka setting the world\\'s silicon solar cell efficiency record of 26.63% using silicon heterojunction contacts in an interdigitated configuration. Although passivating-contact solar cells are remarkably efficient, their underlying device physics is not yet completely understood, not in the least because they are constructed from diverse materials that may introduce electronic barriers in the current flow. To bridge this gap in understanding, we explore the device physics of passivating contact silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. Here, we identify the key properties of heterojunctions that affect cell efficiency, analyze the dependence of key heterojunction properties on carrier transport under light and dark conditions, provide a self-consistent multiprobe approach to extract heterojunction parameters using several characterization techniques (including dark J-V, light J-V, C-V, admittance spectroscopy, and Suns-Voc), propose design guidelines to address bottlenecks in energy production in SHJ cells, and develop a process-to-module modeling framework to establish the module\\'s performance limits. We expect that our proposed guidelines resulting from this multiscale and self-consistent framework will improve the performance of future SHJ cells as well as other passivating contact-based solar cells.

  19. Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sunghyun; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Youngjo; Heo, Junseok; Lee, Jaejin

    2016-07-01

    There has been much interest in developing a thin-film solar cell because it is lightweight and flexible. The GaAs thin-film solar cell is a top contender in the thin-film solar cell market in that it has a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to that of other thin-film solar cells. There are two common structures for the GaAs solar cell: n (emitter)-on-p (base) and p-on-n. The former performs better due to its high collection efficiency because the electron diffusion length of the p-type base region is much longer than the hole diffusion length of the n-type base region. However, it has been limited to fabricate highly efficient n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin film solar cell on a flexible substrate due to technical obstacles. We investigated a simple and fast epitaxial lift-off (ELO) method that uses a stress originating from a Cr/Au bilayer on a 125-μm-thick flexible substrate. A metal combination of AuBe/Pt/Au is employed as a new p-type ohmic contact with which an n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate was successfully fabricated. The PCE of the fabricated single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cells reached 22.08% under air mass 1.5 global illumination.

  20. Suppression of interfacial voids formation during silane (SiH4)-based silicon oxide bonding with a thin silicon nitride capping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Yue; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Seng Tan, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The material properties and bonding behavior of silane-based silicon oxide layers deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to determine the chemical composition of the silicon oxide films. The incorporation of hydroxyl (-OH) groups and moisture absorption demonstrates a strong correlation with the storage duration for both as-deposited and annealed silicon oxide films. It is observed that moisture absorption is prevalent in the silane-based silicon oxide film due to its porous nature. The incorporation of -OH groups and moisture absorption in the silicon oxide films increase with the storage time (even in clean-room environments) for both as-deposited and annealed silicon oxide films. Due to silanol condensation and silicon oxidation reactions that take place at the bonding interface and in the bulk silicon, hydrogen (a byproduct of these reactions) is released and diffused towards the bonding interface. The trapped hydrogen forms voids over time. Additionally, the absorbed moisture could evaporate during the post-bond annealing of the bonded wafer pair. As a consequence, defects, such as voids, form at the bonding interface. To address the problem, a thin silicon nitride capping film was deposited on the silicon oxide layer before bonding to serve as a diffusion barrier to prevent moisture absorption and incorporation of -OH groups from the ambient. This process results in defect-free bonded wafers.