WorldWideScience

Sample records for thin films crystallized

  1. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  2. On dewetting of thin films due to crystallization (crystallization dewetting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehran; Rahimzadeh, Amin; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-03-01

    Drying and crystallization of a thin liquid film of an ionic or a similar solution can cause dewetting in the resulting thin solid film. This paper aims at investigating this type of dewetting, herein termed "crystallization dewetting", using PbI2 dissolved in organic solvents as the model solution. PbI2 solid films are usually used in X-ray detection and lead halide perovskite solar cells. In this work, PbI2 films are fabricated using spin coating and the effect of major parameters influencing the crystallization dewetting, including the type of the solvent, solution concentration, drying temperature, spin speed, as well as imposed vibration on the substrate are studied on dewetting, surface profile and coverage, using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Simplified hydrodynamic governing equations of crystallization in thin films are presented and using a mathematical representation of the process, it is phenomenologically demonstrated that crystallization dewetting occurs due to the absorption and consumption of the solution surrounding a growing crystal. Among the results, it is found that a low spin speed (high thickness), a high solution concentration and a low drying temperature promote crystal growth, and therefore crystallization dewetting. It is also shown that imposed vibration on the substrate can affect the crystal size and crystallization dewetting.

  3. Lasing in liquid crystal thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: palto@online.ru

    2006-09-15

    A lasing condition is formulated in matrix form for optically anisotropic thin films. Lasing behavior of liquid-crystal slabs is analyzed. In particular, it is shown that if the spatial extent of a liquid crystal slab is much larger than its thickness, then laser emission is feasible not only along the normal to the slab, but also in the entire angular sector. The generated laser light can be observed experimentally as a spot or as concentric rings on a screen. The lowest lasing threshold corresponds to in-plane sliding modes leaking into the substrate. The feedback required for lasing is provided by reflection from the interfaces, rather than edges, of the liquid-crystal slab operating as a planar Fabry-Perot cavity. For cholesteric liquid crystals, it is shown that energy loss to the sliding modes leaking into the substrates and escaping through their edges is a key factor that limits the efficiency of band-edge emission along the normal to the slab.

  4. Crystallization kinetics of amorphous aluminum-tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Car, T.; Radic, N. [Rugjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia). Div. of Mater. Sci.; Ivkov, J. [Institute of Physics, Bijenicka 46, P.O.B. 304, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Babic, E.; Tonejc, A. [Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, Bijenicka 32, P.O.B. 162, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    1999-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics of the amorphous Al-W thin films under non-isothermal conditions was examined by continuous in situ electrical resistance measurements in vacuum. The estimated crystallization temperature of amorphous films in the composition series of the Al{sub 82}W{sub 18} to Al{sub 62}W{sub 38} compounds ranged from 800 K to 920 K. The activation energy for the crystallization and the Avrami exponent were determined. The results indicated that the crystallization mechanism in films with higher tungsten content was a diffusion-controlled process, whereas in films with the composition similar to the stoichiometric compound (Al{sub 4}W), the interface-controlled crystallization probably occurred. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 26 refs.

  5. Crystallization kinetics of a-Se, part 4: thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Roman; Gutwirth, Jan; Málek, Jiří

    2014-09-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the crystallization behaviour of selenium thin films in dependence on film thickness and deposition rate. In the current work, which is the fourth in a sequence of articles dealing with crystallization kinetics of a-Se, the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics was described in terms of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami nucleation-growth model. Two-dimensional crystallite growth, consistent with the idea of sterically restricted crystallization in a thin layer, was confirmed for all data. It was found that neither the film thickness (tested within the 100-2350 nm range) nor the deposition rate appears to have any significant influence on the crystallization kinetics. However, the higher amount of intrinsic defects possibly produced by a higher deposition rate seems to accelerate the crystallization, shifting it towards lower temperatures. Very good correlation between the results obtained for thin films and those for fine powders was found. Based on the obtained results, interpretations of relevant literature data were made.

  6. Applications of thin-film sandwich crystallization platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axford, Danny, E-mail: danny.axford@diamond.ac.uk; Aller, Pierre; Sanchez-Weatherby, Juan; Sandy, James [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Crystallization via sandwiches of thin polymer films is presented and discussed. Examples are shown of protein crystallization in, and data collection from, solutions sandwiched between thin polymer films using vapour-diffusion and batch methods. The crystallization platform is optimal for both visualization and in situ data collection, with the need for traditional harvesting being eliminated. In wells constructed from the thinnest plastic and with a minimum of aqueous liquid, flash-cooling to 100 K is possible without significant ice formation and without any degradation in crystal quality. The approach is simple; it utilizes low-cost consumables but yields high-quality data with minimal sample intervention and, with the very low levels of background X-ray scatter that are observed, is optimal for microcrystals.

  7. Liquid crystals for organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Hiroaki; Usui, Takayuki; Hanna, Jun-Ichi

    2015-04-01

    Crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors are a good candidate for field effect transistor (FET) materials in printed electronics. However, there are currently two main problems, which are associated with inhomogeneity and poor thermal durability of these films. Here we report that liquid crystalline materials exhibiting a highly ordered liquid crystal phase of smectic E (SmE) can solve both these problems. We design a SmE liquid crystalline material, 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-10), for FETs and synthesize it. This material provides uniform and molecularly flat polycrystalline thin films reproducibly when SmE precursor thin films are crystallized, and also exhibits high durability of films up to 200 °C. In addition, the mobility of FETs is dramatically enhanced by about one order of magnitude (over 10 cm2 V-1 s-1) after thermal annealing at 120 °C in bottom-gate-bottom-contact FETs. We anticipate the use of SmE liquid crystals in solution-processed FETs may help overcome upcoming difficulties with novel technologies for printed electronics.

  8. Crystal structure and thin film morphology of BBL ladder polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, H H [Department of Macromolecular Science, Han Nam University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Fratini, A V [Department of Chemistry, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Chabinyc, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Price, G E [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Agrawal, A K [Systran Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States); Wang, C S [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Burkette, J [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Dudis, D S [Materials Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Arnold, F E [Materials Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Crystal structure and morphology of poly[7-oxo-7H-benz(d,e)imidazo(4`,5`:5,6)-benzimidazo(2,1-a)isoquinoline-3,4:10,11-tetrayl-10-carbonyl] (BBL) ladder-like polymer were studied. The polymer forms a two-dimensional lattice of nematic liquid crystalline structure. An orthorhombic unit cell with cell parameters of a=7.87 b=3.37 c=11.97A was determined from the fiber diffraction pattern. In thin films, the rigid chains spontaneously form a layered structure across the film thickness, but in a very unusual manner, i.e. the very large molecular plane is standing perpendicularly to the film surface plane. The results are identical to our recent results of poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBT) film [7]. The polymer, however, lost its anisotropic order upon extrusion into a film and resulted in a fiber-like structure. (orig.)

  9. Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mastura Shafinaz Zainal; Matsumura, Ryo; Anisuzzaman, Mohammad; Park, Jong-Hyeok; Muta, Shunpei; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Sadoh, Taizoh; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2013-11-06

    We report the crystallization of electrodeposited germanium (Ge) thin films on n-silicon (Si) (100) by rapid melting process. The electrodeposition was carried out in germanium (IV) chloride: propylene glycol (GeCl₄:C₃H₈O₂) electrolyte with constant current of 50 mA for 30 min. The measured Raman spectra and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) images show that the as-deposited Ge thin film was amorphous. The crystallization of deposited Ge was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 980 °C for 1 s. The EBSD images confirm that the orientations of the annealed Ge are similar to that of the Si substrate. The highly intense peak of Raman spectra at 300 cm -1 corresponding to Ge-Ge vibration mode was observed, indicating good crystal quality of Ge. An additional sub peak near to 390 cm -1 corresponding to the Si-Ge vibration mode was also observed, indicating the Ge-Si mixing at Ge/Si interface. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveals that the intermixing depth was around 60 nm. The calculated Si fraction from Raman spectra was found to be in good agreement with the value estimated from Ge-Si equilibrium phase diagram. The proposed technique is expected to be an effective way to crystallize Ge films for various device applications as well as to create strain at the Ge-Si interface for enhancement of mobility.

  10. Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manaf Hashim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the crystallization of electrodeposited germanium (Ge thin films on n-silicon (Si (100 by rapid melting process. The electrodeposition was carried out in germanium (IV chloride: propylene glycol (GeCl4:C3H8O2 electrolyte with constant current of 50 mA for 30 min. The measured Raman spectra and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD images show that the as-deposited Ge thin film was amorphous. The crystallization of deposited Ge was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA at 980 °C for 1 s. The EBSD images confirm that the orientations of the annealed Ge are similar to that of the Si substrate. The highly intense peak of Raman spectra at 300 cm−1 corresponding to Ge-Ge vibration mode was observed, indicating good crystal quality of Ge. An additional sub peak near to 390 cm−1 corresponding to the Si-Ge vibration mode was also observed, indicating the Ge-Si mixing at Ge/Si interface. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES reveals that the intermixing depth was around 60 nm. The calculated Si fraction from Raman spectra was found to be in good agreement with the value estimated from Ge-Si equilibrium phase diagram. The proposed technique is expected to be an effective way to crystallize Ge films for various device applications as well as to create strain at the Ge-Si interface for enhancement of mobility.

  11. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.; Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature

  12. Carrier mobility and crystal perfection of tetracene thin film FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, N.; Nishikawa, T.; Anezaki, T.; Unno, A.; Tachibana, M.; Kojima, K.

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that the carrier mobility of an organic field effect semiconductor (FET) depended on the crystal quality and/or the crystal perfection of the organic thin films [T.W. Kelly, D.V. Muyres, P.F. Baude, T.P. Smith, T.D. Jones, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 771 (2003) L6.5.1; D.J. Gundlach, J.A. Nichols, L. Zhou, T.N. Jackson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 (2002) 2925; H.K. Lauk, M. Halik, U. Zschieschang, G. Schmid, W. Radlik, J. Appl. Phys. 92 (2002) 5259; M. Shtein, J. Mapel, J.B. Benziger, S.R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 (2002) 268; D. Knipp, R.A. Street, A.R. Volkel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) 3907; R. Ruiz, A.C. Mayer, G.G. Malliaras, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 (2004) 4926; R.W.I. de Boer, M.E. Gershenson, A.F. Morpurgo, V. Podzorov, Phys. Stat. Sol. A 201 (2004) 1031]. To improve the crystal quality of the thin film many efforts were made. One of the important improvements was the surface treatment of the substrate. The tetracene thin film FET (top contact structure) was fabricated using the substrate, which was coated by a spin-coating method with a 0.1% poly α-methylstyrene (AMS) solution. The crystal quality was improved by this treatment so that the carrier mobility was higher than that of non-treatment. The maximum mobility of the AMS-treated sample was obtained to be 0.12 cm 2 /V s

  13. Thin aligned organic polymer films for liquid crystal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Kathryn Ellen

    1997-01-01

    This project was designed to investigate the possibility of producing alignment layers for liquid crystal devices by cross-linking thin films containing anisotropic polymer bound chromophores via irradiation with polarised ultraviolet light. Photocross-linkable polymers find use in microelectronics, liquid crystal displays, printing and UV curable lacquers and inks; so there is an increasing incentive for the development of new varieties of photopolymers in general. The synthesis and characterisation of two new photopolymers that are suitable as potential alignment layers for liquid crystal devices are reported in this thesis. The first polymer contains the anthracene chromophore attached via a spacer unit to a methacrylate backbone and the second used a similarly attached aryl azide group. Copolymers of the new monomers with methyl methacrylate were investigated to establish reactivity ratios in order to understand composition drift during polymerisation. (author)

  14. Crystal structures of sol-gel deposited zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Cheary, R.W.; Rice, M.; Ben-Nissan, B.; Cocking, J.L.; Johnstone, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reports on the crystal structure of zirconia thin films by high temperature x-ray diffraction. The films were deposited by sol-gel processing onto polished stainless steel substrates, and dried at 200 deg C. X-ray diffraction at temperatures between 400 deg C and 800 deg C was carried out using an APEX diffractometer with a position sensitive detector. Previous results indicated that there was a transformation between the tetragonal phase and the monoclinic phase at approximately 770 deg C. Two experiments have been carried out: temperature runs, where the structure evolution is studied as a function of temperature; and time evolution of the structure at fixed temperatures. The results for both experiments, including structural analysis of the different phases found in the thin zirconia films and an analysis of the kinetics of the phase transformation(s) from the time evolution work are presented. This will include a comparison with theories of nucleation and crystallisation in single element films. Impurity phases introduced by interaction of the zirconia with the substrate have been observed, and the effect of increasing annealing time on the substrate-film interaction will also be discussed. 17 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  15. Unique Crystal Orientation of Poly(ethylene oxide) Thin Films by Crystallization Using a Thermal Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbabode, Gabin; Delvaux, Maxime; Schweicher, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO), thin films of different thicknesses (220, 450, and 1500 nm) and molecular masses (4000, 8000, and 20000 g/mol) have been fabricated by spin-coating of methanol solutions onto glass substrates. All these samples have been recrystallized from the melt using a directional......, to significantly decrease the distribution of crystal orientation obtained after crystallization using the thermal gradient technique....

  16. Stepwise crystallization and the layered distribution in crystallization kinetics of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Biao, E-mail: chemizuo@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: wxinping@yahoo.com; Xu, Jianquan; Sun, Shuzheng; Liu, Yue; Yang, Juping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xinping, E-mail: chemizuo@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: wxinping@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of the Education Ministry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-06-21

    Crystallization is an important property of polymeric materials. In conventional viewpoint, the transformation of disordered chains into crystals is usually a spatially homogeneous process (i.e., it occurs simultaneously throughout the sample), that is, the crystallization rate at each local position within the sample is almost the same. Here, we show that crystallization of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films can occur in the heterogeneous way, exhibiting a stepwise crystallization process. We found that the layered distribution of glass transition dynamics of thin film modifies the corresponding crystallization behavior, giving rise to the layered distribution of the crystallization kinetics of PET films, with an 11-nm-thick surface layer having faster crystallization rate and the underlying layer showing bulk-like behavior. The layered distribution in crystallization kinetics results in a particular stepwise crystallization behavior during heating the sample, with the two cold-crystallization temperatures separated by up to 20 K. Meanwhile, interfacial interaction is crucial for the occurrence of the heterogeneous crystallization, as the thin film crystallizes simultaneously if the interfacial interaction is relatively strong. We anticipate that this mechanism of stepwise crystallization of thin polymeric films will allow new insight into the chain organization in confined environments and permit independent manipulation of localized properties of nanomaterials.

  17. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus with optimized thermal contact and crystal strain for coherence preservation x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Shvydko, Yury; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je

    2018-05-08

    A method and mechanical design for a thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain are provided. The novel thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus mounts a thin-film diamond crystal supported by a thick chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond film spacer with a thickness slightly thicker than the thin-film diamond crystal, and two groups of thin film thermal conductors, such as thin CVD diamond film thermal conductor groups separated by the thick CVD diamond spacer. The two groups of thin CVD film thermal conductors provide thermal conducting interface media with the thin-film diamond crystal. A piezoelectric actuator is integrated into a flexural clamping mechanism generating clamping force from zero to an optimal level.

  18. Stress-Induced Crystallization of Ge-Doped Sb Phase-Change Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, Gert; Pauza, Andrew; Kooi, Bart J.

    The large effects of moderate stresses on the crystal growth rate in Ge-doped Sb phase-change thin films are demonstrated using direct optical imaging. For Ge6Sb94 and Ge7Sb93 phase-change films, a large increase in crystallization temperature is found when using a polycarbonate substrate instead of

  19. Parylene-C microfibrous thin films as phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Awadelkarim, Osama O.

    2017-07-01

    Phononic bandgaps of Parylene-C microfibrous thin films ( μ\\text{FTF} s) were computationally determined by treating them as phononic crystals comprising identical microfibers arranged either on a square or a hexagonal lattice. The microfibers could be columnar, chevronic, or helical in shape, and the host medium could be either water or air. All bandgaps were observed to lie in the 0.01-162.9-MHz regime, for microfibers of realistically chosen dimensions. The upper limit of the frequency of bandgaps was the highest for the columnar μ\\text{FTF} and the lowest for the chiral μ\\text{FTF} . More bandgaps exist when the host medium is water than air. Complete bandgaps were observed for the columnar μ\\text{FTF} with microfibers arranged on a hexagonal lattice in air, the chevronic μ\\text{FTF} with microfibers arranged on a square lattice in water, and the chiral μ\\text{FTF} with microfibers arranged on a hexagonal lattice in either air or water. The softness of the Parylene-C μ\\text{FTF} s makes them mechanically tunable, and their bandgaps can be exploited in multiband ultrasonic filters.

  20. Analysis of thin-film photonic crystal microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottage, John Mark

    2003-01-01

    Optical-scale microstructures containing thin-film photonic crystals (TFPCs) are modelled by transfer/scattering matrix methods, based on Fourier-series expansion of the optical Bloch eigenmodes. The majority of the TFPCs considered consist of 2D arrays of holes arranged in a triangular lattice, etched into high-index Al x Ga 1-x As and placed on a low-index oxidised substrate. These TFPCs can be easily fabricated by standard electron-beam lithography techniques. Unlike most photonic crystal devices that have been proposed, our 'intra-pass-band' TFPCs would work by exploiting the somewhat surprising properties of propagating optical Bloch waves rather than directly relying on photonic bandgaps. By numerical modelling, it is demonstrated that 2D-patterned TFPCs can support highly dispersive high-Q quasi-guided and truly-guided resonant modes, and the unusual properties of these modes are explained in terms of their Bloch-wave compositions. Modal dispersion diagrams of TFPCs, showing the loci of the resonant modes in in-plane wavevector space at fixed frequency, are calculated. These so-called 'resonance diagrams' and variants thereof, are shown to be a useful design tool for TFPC-based integrated optical components. It is suggested that TFPCs may be a viable alternative to distributed Bragg reflectors in semiconductor vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers, possessing potential advantages in terms of compactness and ease of fabrication. The high angular and spectral dispersion of the resonant modes implies that TFPCs could form the basis of a new family of compact devices for performing such functions as wavelength-division multiplexing/demultiplexing, beam-steering and frequency-selective filtering. Enhancement of nonlinear effects could also be achieved in TFPC resonators, because in them a high cavity Q-factor and a low in-plane group-velocity can be attained simultaneously. (author)

  1. Investigating the crystal growth behavior of biodegradable polymer blend thin films using in situ atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the crystal growth behavior of biodegradable polylactide (PLA)/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) blend thin films using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Currently, polymer thin films have received increased research...

  2. Precipitation of thin-film organic single crystals by a novel crystal growth method using electrospray and ionic liquid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Keita; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2018-04-01

    We report an organic single crystal growth technique, which uses a nonvolatile liquid thin film as a crystal growth field and supplies fine droplets containing solute from the surface of the liquid thin film uniformly and continuously by electrospray deposition. Here, we investigated the relationships between the solute concentration of the supplied solution and the morphology and size of precipitated crystals for four types of fluorescent organic low molecule material [tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3), 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD), N,N‧-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N‧-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), and N,N-bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)] using an ionic liquid as the nonvolatile liquid. As the concentration of the supplied solution decreased, the morphology of precipitated crystals changed from dendritic or leaf shape to platelike one. At the solution concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, relatively large platelike single crystals with a diagonal length of over 100 µm were obtained for all types of material. In the experiment using ionic liquid and dioctyl sebacate as nonvolatile liquids, it was confirmed that there is a clear positive correlation between the maximum volume of the precipitated single crystal and the solubility of solute under the same solution supply conditions.

  3. Diffusion and crystal growth in plasma deposed thin ITO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, H.; Wulff, H.; Quaas, M.; Tun, Tin Maung.; Hipple, R.

    2000-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited by means of DC-planar magnetron sputtering. A metallic In/Sn (90/10) target an Ar/O 2 gas mixture were used. The oxygen flow was varied between 0 and 2 sccm. Substrate voltages between 0 and -100 V were used. With increasing oxygen flow film structure and composition change from crystalline metallic In/Sn to amorphous ITO. Simultaneously the deposition rate decreases and the film density increases. The diffusion of oxygen into metallic In/Sn films and the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of ITO were studied using in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), grazing incidence reflectometry (GIXR), and AFM. From the X-ray integral intensities diffusion constants, activation energies of the diffusion, reaction order and activation energy of the crystal growth were extracted. (authors)

  4. Ion irradiation enhanced crystal nucleation in amorphous Si thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, J.S.; Atwater, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleation kinetics of the amorphous-to-crystal transition of Si films under 1.5 MeV Xe + irradiation have been investigated by means of in situ transmission electron microscopy in the temperature range T=500--580 degree C. After an incubation period during which negligible nucleation occurs, a constant nucleation rate was observed in steady state, suggesting that homogeneous nucleation occurred. Compared to thermal crystallization, a significant enhancement in the nucleation rate during high-energy ion irradiation (five to seven orders of magnitude) was observed with an apparent activation energy of 3.9±0.75 eV

  5. Crystal structure of red lead titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng, J.L.; Jiang, B. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Li, X. [Jilin Univ., Changchun, JL (China). Dept of Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    Orange-red lead titanate thin films are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and diffraction. It is remarkable that the structure is based on that of tetragonal-tungsten-bronze (TTB) rather than perovskite-type. The chemical basis for this result is examined. It is deduced that the TTB structure is stabilized by inclusion of hydroxyl ions during synthesis by a sol-gel route involving hydrolysis of n-Butyl titanate 7 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. Crystal structure of red lead titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng, J.L.; Jiang, B.; Li, X.

    1998-01-01

    Orange-red lead titanate thin films are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and diffraction. It is remarkable that the structure is based on that of tetragonal-tungsten-bronze (TTB) rather than perovskite-type. The chemical basis for this result is examined. It is deduced that the TTB structure is stabilized by inclusion of hydroxyl ions during synthesis by a sol-gel route involving hydrolysis of n-Butyl titanate

  7. Single-Crystal Mesoporous ZnO Thin Films Composed of Nanowalls

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xudong; Ding, Yong; Li, Zhou; Song, Jinhui; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a controlled, large scale fabrication of mesoporous ZnO thin films. The entire ZnO mesoporous film is one piece of a single crystal, while high porosity made of nanowalls is present. The growth mechanism was proposed

  8. Thin film polarizer and color filter based on photo-polymerizable nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadimasoudi, Mohammad; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen

    2015-03-01

    We present a method to fabricate a thin film color filter based on a mixture of photo-polymerizable liquid crystal and chiral dopant. A chiral nematic liquid crystal layer reflects light for a certain wavelength interval Δλ (= Δn.P) with the period and Δn the birefringence of the liquid crystal. The reflection band is determined by the chiral dopant concentration. The bandwidth is limited to 80nm and the reflectance is at most 50% for unpolarized incident light. The thin color filter is interesting for innovative applications like polarizer-free reflective displays, polarization-independent devices, stealth technologies, or smart switchable reflective windows to control solar light and heat. The reflected light has strong color saturation without absorption because of the sharp band edges. A thin film polarizer is developed by using a mixture of photo-polymerizable liquid crystal and color-neutral dye. The fabricated thin film absorbs light that is polarized parallel to the c axis of the LC. The obtained polarization ratio is 80% for a film of only 12 μm. The thin film polarizer and the color filter feature excellent film characteristics without domains and can be detached from the substrate which is useful for e.g. flexible substrates.

  9. Crystal structure and phase composition of aluminium thin films with holmium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koleshko, V.M.; Belitskij, V.F.; Obukhov, V.E.; Rumak, N.V.; Urban, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of holmium additions on the crystal structure and phase composition of thin aluminium films has been studied. A regularity in grain size changes in aluminium thin films versus the holmium content in them is established. The holmium introduction is shown to result in the appearance of axial texture in the aluminium films, the texture axis being determined by the quantity of the addition. During heat treatment of the aluminium films, containing holmium additions, in the range of low ( approximately 100-200 deg C) annealing temperatures holmium monohydroxide is formed, and at annealing temperatures 300 deg C 0 3 is formed

  10. Single-Crystal Mesoporous ZnO Thin Films Composed of Nanowalls

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xudong

    2009-02-05

    This paper presents a controlled, large scale fabrication of mesoporous ZnO thin films. The entire ZnO mesoporous film is one piece of a single crystal, while high porosity made of nanowalls is present. The growth mechanism was proposed in comparison with the growth of ZnO nanowires. The ZnO mesoporous film was successfully applied as a gas sensor. The fabrication and growth analysis of the mesoporous ZnO thin film gi ve general guidance for the controlled growth of nanostructures. It also pro vides a unique structure with a superhigh surface-to-volume ratio for surface-related applications. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. Crystallization characteristic and scaling behavior of germanium antimony thin films for phase change memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weihua; Zhao, Zihan; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2018-04-19

    Amorphous Ge8Sb92 thin films with various thicknesses were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The crystallization kinetics and optical properties of the Ge8Sb92 thin films and related scaling effects were investigated by an in situ thermally induced method and an optical technique. With a decrease in film thickness, the crystallization temperature, crystallization activation energy and data retention ability increased significantly. The changed crystallization behavior may be ascribed to the smaller grain size and larger surface-to-volume ratio as the film thickness decreased. Regardless of whether the state was amorphous or crystalline, the film resistance increased remarkably as the film thickness decreased to 3 nm. The optical band gap calculated from the reflection spectra increases distinctly with a reduction in film thickness. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the scaling of the Ge8Sb92 thin film can inhibit the crystallization process and reduce the grain size. The values of exponent indices that were obtained indicate that the crystallization mechanism experiences a series of changes with scaling of the film thickness. The crystallization time was estimated to determine the scaling effect on the phase change speed. The scaling effect on the electrical switching performance of a phase change memory cell was also determined. The current-voltage and resistance-voltage characteristics indicate that phase change memory cells based on a thinner Ge8Sb92 film will exhibit a higher threshold voltage, lower RESET operational voltage and greater pulse width, which implies higher thermal stability, lower power consumption and relatively lower switching velocity.

  12. Fabrication of high-quality single-crystal Cu thin films using radio-frequency sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Tae-Woo; Kim, Won-Kyung; Kim, Bum-Su; Park, Ji Hun; Bae, Jong-Seong; Cho, Yong Chan; Kim, Jungdae; Oh, Min-Wook; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Se-Young

    2014-08-29

    Copper (Cu) thin films have been widely used as electrodes and interconnection wires in integrated electronic circuits, and more recently as substrates for the synthesis of graphene. However, the ultra-high vacuum processes required for high-quality Cu film fabrication, such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), restricts mass production with low cost. In this work, we demonstrated high-quality Cu thin films using a single-crystal Cu target and radio-frequency (RF) sputtering technique; the resulting film quality was comparable to that produced using MBE, even under unfavorable conditions for pure Cu film growth. The Cu thin film was epitaxially grown on an Al2O3 (sapphire) (0001) substrate, and had high crystalline orientation along the (111) direction. Despite the 10(-3) Pa vacuum conditions, the resulting thin film was oxygen free due to the high chemical stability of the sputtered specimen from a single-crystal target; moreover, the deposited film had >5× higher adhesion force than that produced using a polycrystalline target. This fabrication method enabled Cu films to be obtained using a simple, manufacturing-friendly process on a large-area substrate, making our findings relevant for industrial applications.

  13. Effect of the Ultrasonic Substrate Vibration on Nucleation and Crystallization of PbI2 Crystals and Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zabihi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of defect-free and well-controlled solution-processed crystalline thin films is highly desirable for emerging technologies, such as perovskite solar cells. In this work, using PbI2 as a model solution with a vast variety of applications, we demonstrate that the excitation of a liquid thin film by imposed ultrasonic vibration on the film substrate significantly affects the nucleation and crystallization kinetics of PbI2 and the morphology of the resulting solid thin film. It is found that by applying ultrasonic vibration to PbI2 solution spun onto an ITO substrate with a moderate power and excitation duration (5 W and 1 min for the 40 kHz transducer used in this study, the nucleation rate increases and the crystals transform from 2D or planar to epitaxial 3D columnar structures, resulting in the suppression of crystallization dewetting. The effects of various induced physical phenomena as a result of the excitation by ultrasonic vibration are discussed, including microstreaming and micromixing, increased heat transfer and local temperature, a change in the thermodynamic state of the solution, and a decrease in the supersaturation point. It is shown that the ultrasonic-assisted solution deposition of the PbI2 thin films is controllable and reproducible, a process which is low-cost and in line with the large-scale fabrication of such solution-processed thin films.

  14. Effect of crystal structure on optical properties of sol–gel derived zirconia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xiaodong_wang@tongji.edu.cn [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Guangming; Zhou, Bin [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shen, Jun, E-mail: shenjun67@tongji.edu.cn [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► ZrO{sub 2} films were deposited by sol–gel method. ► Crystal structures of the films were tuned by different thermal annealing methods. ► The refractive indices vary with the crystal structures of the films. ► Lattice-mismatch was found to reduce the refractive index of ZrO{sub 2} films. -- Abstract: The optical properties of sol–gel derived zirconia thin films and their relation to the crystal structure are studied in this paper. ZrO{sub 2} films were deposited on quartz glass and silicon wafer substrates by sol–gel method with conventional furnace annealing (CFA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Crystal structures of the films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while refractive indices of the films were determined from the reflectance and transmittance spectra. The refractive indices vary with the function of crystal structure and density of the films, which depends on annealing temperature and annealing technique. Lattice-mismatch between monoclinic phase and tetragonal phase was found to reduce the refractive index of ZrO{sub 2} films.

  15. Stress and stability of sputter deposited A-15 and bcc crystal structure tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, M.J.; Stutz, C.E.

    1997-07-01

    Magnetron sputter deposition was used to fabricate body centered cubic (bcc) and A-15 crystal structure W thin films. Previous work demonstrated that the as-deposited crystal structure of the films was dependent on the deposition parameters and that the formation of a metastable A-15 structure was favored over the thermodynamically stable bcc phase when the films contained a few atomic percent oxygen. However, the A-15 phase was shown to irreversibly transform into the bcc phase between 500 C and 650 C and that a significant decrease in the resistivity of the metallic films was measured after the transformation. The current investigation of 150 nm thick, sputter deposited A-15 and bcc tungsten thin films on silicon wafers consisted of a series of experiments in which the stress, resistivity and crystal structure of the films was measured as a function of temperatures cycles in a Flexus 2900 thin film stress measurement system. The as-deposited film stress was found to be a function of the sputtering pressure and presputter time; under conditions in which the as-deposited stress of the film was {approximately}1.5 GPa compressive delamination of the W film from the substrate was observed. Data from the thermal studies indicated that bcc film stress was not affected by annealing but transformation of the A-15 structure resulted in a large tensile increase in the stress of the film, regardless of the as-deposited stress of the film. In several instances, complete transformation of the A-15 structure into the bcc phase resulted in {ge}1 GPa tensile increase in film stress.

  16. Stress and stability of sputter deposited A-15 and bcc crystal structure tungsten thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Keefe, M.J.; Stutz, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetron sputter deposition was used to fabricate body centered cubic (bcc) and A-15 crystal structure W thin films. Previous work demonstrated that the as-deposited crystal structure of the films was dependent on the deposition parameters and that the formation of a metastable A-15 structure was favored over the thermodynamically stable bcc phase when the films contained a few atomic percent oxygen. However, the A-15 phase was shown to irreversibly transform into the bcc phase between 500 C and 650 C and that a significant decrease in the resistivity of the metallic films was measured after the transformation. The current investigation of 150 nm thick, sputter deposited A-15 and bcc tungsten thin films on silicon wafers consisted of a series of experiments in which the stress, resistivity and crystal structure of the films was measured as a function of temperatures cycles in a Flexus 2900 thin film stress measurement system. The as-deposited film stress was found to be a function of the sputtering pressure and presputter time; under conditions in which the as-deposited stress of the film was approximately1.5 GPa compressive delamination of the W film from the substrate was observed. Data from the thermal studies indicated that bcc film stress was not affected by annealing but transformation of the A-15 structure resulted in a large tensile increase in the stress of the film, regardless of the as-deposited stress of the film. In several instances, complete transformation of the A-15 structure into the bcc phase resulted in ge1 GPa tensile increase in film stress

  17. Effect of medium range order on pulsed laser crystallization of amorphous germanium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. T., E-mail: li48@llnl.gov; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Heo, T. W.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Campbell, G. H. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Santala, M. K. [Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, 204 Rogers Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2016-05-30

    Sputter deposited amorphous Ge thin films had their nanostructure altered by irradiation with high-energy Ar{sup +} ions. The change in the structure resulted in a reduction in medium range order (MRO) characterized using fluctuation electron microscopy. The pulsed laser crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited versus irradiated materials were investigated using the dynamic transmission electron microscope operated in the multi-frame movie mode. The propagation rate of the crystallization front for the irradiated material was lower; the changes were correlated to the MRO difference and formation of a thin liquid layer during crystallization.

  18. Effect of medium range order on pulsed laser crystallization of amorphous germanium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T. T.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Heo, T. W.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Campbell, G. H.; Santala, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Sputter deposited amorphous Ge thin films had their nanostructure altered by irradiation with high-energy Ar"+ ions. The change in the structure resulted in a reduction in medium range order (MRO) characterized using fluctuation electron microscopy. The pulsed laser crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited versus irradiated materials were investigated using the dynamic transmission electron microscope operated in the multi-frame movie mode. The propagation rate of the crystallization front for the irradiated material was lower; the changes were correlated to the MRO difference and formation of a thin liquid layer during crystallization.

  19. Experiment-scale molecular simulation study of liquid crystal thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dac; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Matheson, Michael A.; Brown, W. Michael

    2014-03-01

    Supercomputers have now reached a performance level adequate for studying thin films with molecular detail at the relevant scales. By exploiting the power of GPU accelerators on Titan, we have been able to perform simulations of characteristic liquid crystal films that provide remarkable qualitative agreement with experimental images. We have demonstrated that key features of spinodal instability can only be observed with sufficiently large system sizes, which were not accessible with previous simulation studies. Our study emphasizes the capability and significance of petascale simulations in providing molecular-level insights in thin film systems as well as other interfacial phenomena.

  20. Epitaxial Growth of Permalloy Thin Films on MgO Single-Crystal Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Permalloy (Py: Ni - 20 at. % Fe) thin films were prepared on MgO single-crystal substrates of (100), (110), and (111) orientations by molecular beam epitaxy. Py crystals consisting of fcc(100) and hcp(112-bar 0) orientations epitaxially nucleate on MgO(100) substrates. With increasing the substrate temperature, the volume ratio of fcc(100) to hcp(112-bar 0) crystal increases. The metastable hcp(112-bar 0) structure transforms into more stable fcc(110) structure with increasing the film thickness. Py(110) fcc single-crystal films are obtained on MgO(110) substrates, whereas Py films epitaxially grow on MgO(111) substrates with two types of fcc(111) variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of these fcc-Py films agree within ±0.4% with the values of bulk fcc-Py crystal, suggesting that the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the films around the Py/MgO(100) and the Py/MgO(110) interfaces to reduce the lattice mismatches. The magnetic properties are considered to be reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropies of bulk fcc-Py and/or metastable hcp-Py crystals and the shape anisotropy caused by the surface undulations.

  1. Epitaxial Growth of Permalloy Thin Films on MgO Single-Crystal Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2011-07-06

    Permalloy (Py: Ni - 20 at. % Fe) thin films were prepared on MgO single-crystal substrates of (100), (110), and (111) orientations by molecular beam epitaxy. Py crystals consisting of fcc(100) and hcp(112-bar 0) orientations epitaxially nucleate on MgO(100) substrates. With increasing the substrate temperature, the volume ratio of fcc(100) to hcp(112-bar 0) crystal increases. The metastable hcp(112-bar 0) structure transforms into more stable fcc(110) structure with increasing the film thickness. Py(110){sub fcc} single-crystal films are obtained on MgO(110) substrates, whereas Py films epitaxially grow on MgO(111) substrates with two types of fcc(111) variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of these fcc-Py films agree within {+-}0.4% with the values of bulk fcc-Py crystal, suggesting that the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the films around the Py/MgO(100) and the Py/MgO(110) interfaces to reduce the lattice mismatches. The magnetic properties are considered to be reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropies of bulk fcc-Py and/or metastable hcp-Py crystals and the shape anisotropy caused by the surface undulations.

  2. Solution Coating of Superior Large-Area Flexible Perovskite Thin Films with Controlled Crystal Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo

    2017-05-08

    Solution coating of organohalide lead perovskites offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area flexible optoelectronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of crystal packing. Herein, this study reports using solution shearing to confine crystal nucleation and growth in large-area printed MAPbI3 thin films. Near single-crystalline perovskite microarrays are demonstrated with a high degree of controlled macroscopic alignment and crystal orientation, which exhibit significant improvements in optical and optoelectronic properties comparing with their random counterparts, spherulitic, and nanograined films. In particular, photodetectors based on the confined films showing intense anisotropy in charge transport are fabricated, and the device exhibits significantly improved performance in all aspects by one more orders of magnitude relative to their random counterparts. It is anticipated that perovskite films with controlled crystal packing may find applications in high-performance, large-area printed optoelectronics, and solar cells.

  3. Solution Coating of Superior Large-Area Flexible Perovskite Thin Films with Controlled Crystal Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo; Liu, Yucheng; Ren, Xiaodong; Yang, Zhou; Li, Ruipeng; Su, Hang; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Junzhuo; Xu, Hua; Hu, Jian-Yong; Amassian, Aram; Zhao, Kui; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2017-01-01

    Solution coating of organohalide lead perovskites offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area flexible optoelectronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of crystal packing. Herein, this study reports using solution shearing to confine crystal nucleation and growth in large-area printed MAPbI3 thin films. Near single-crystalline perovskite microarrays are demonstrated with a high degree of controlled macroscopic alignment and crystal orientation, which exhibit significant improvements in optical and optoelectronic properties comparing with their random counterparts, spherulitic, and nanograined films. In particular, photodetectors based on the confined films showing intense anisotropy in charge transport are fabricated, and the device exhibits significantly improved performance in all aspects by one more orders of magnitude relative to their random counterparts. It is anticipated that perovskite films with controlled crystal packing may find applications in high-performance, large-area printed optoelectronics, and solar cells.

  4. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2013-02-06

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature of the laser deposition process on LaAlO3 (100) substrates. The change in surface termination of the LaAlO3 substrate with temperature induces a change in AZO film orientation. The anisotropic nature of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the AZO films showed a favored thermoelectric performance in c-axis oriented films. These films gave the highest power factor of 0.26 W m−1 K−1 at 740 K.

  5. Mechanism of Crystallization and Implications for Charge Transport in Poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene) Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Duc T.

    2014-04-09

    In this work, crystallization kinetics and aggregate growth of poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene) (P3EHT) thin films are studied as a function of film thickness. X-ray diffraction and optical absorption show that individual aggregates and crystallites grow anisotropically and mostly along only two packing directions: the alkyl stacking and the polymer chain backbone direction. Further, it is also determined that crystallization kinetics is limited by the reorganization of polymer chains and depends strongly on the film thickness and average molecular weight. Time-dependent, field-effect hole mobilities in thin films reveal a percolation threshold for both low and high molecular weight P3EHT. Structural analysis reveals that charge percolation requires bridged aggregates separated by a distance of ≈2-3 nm, which is on the order of the polymer persistence length. These results thus highlight the importance of tie molecules and inter-aggregate distance in supporting charge percolation in semiconducting polymer thin films. The study as a whole also demonstrates that P3EHT is an ideal model system for polythiophenes and should prove to be useful for future investigations into crystallization kinetics. Recrystallization kinetics and its relationship to charge transport in poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene) (P3EHT) thin films are investigated using a combination of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, and field-effect transistor measurements. These results show that thin film crystallization kinetics is limited by polymer chain reorganization and that charge percolation depends strongly on the edge-to-edge distance between aggregates. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Residual stress and Young's modulus of pulsed laser deposited PZT thin films: Effect of thin film composition and crystal direction of Si cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Abelmann, Leon; Sardan Sukas, Ö.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the residual stress and Young's modulus of Pb(ZrxTi1 - x)O3 (PZT) thin films with a (110) preferred orientation and a composition x ranging from 0.2 to 0.8. The films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on silicon cantilevers aligned along the <110> and <100> silicon crystal

  7. Grain Boundaries Act as Solid Walls for Charge Carrier Diffusion in Large Crystal MAPI Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Richard; Schäfer, Frank; Hartmann, Nicolai F; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Bein, Thomas; Docampo, Pablo; Hartschuh, Achim

    2018-03-07

    Micro- and nanocrystalline methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI)-based thin-film solar cells today reach power conversion efficiencies of over 20%. We investigate the impact of grain boundaries on charge carrier transport in large crystal MAPI thin films using time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and numerical model calculations. Crystal sizes in the range of several tens of micrometers allow for the spatially and time resolved study of boundary effects. Whereas long-ranged diffusive charge carrier transport is observed within single crystals, no detectable diffusive transport occurs across grain boundaries. The observed PL transients are found to crucially depend on the microscopic geometry of the crystal and the point of observation. In particular, spatially restricted diffusion of charge carriers leads to slower PL decay near crystal edges as compared to the crystal center. In contrast to many reports in the literature, our experimental results show no quenching or additional loss channels due to grain boundaries for the studied material, which thus do not negatively affect the performance of the derived thin-film devices.

  8. Crystallization kinetics of GeTe phase-change thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinxing; Thelander, Erik; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Pulsed laser deposition was employed to the growth of GeTe thin films on Silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the critical crystallization temperature lies between 220 and 240 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited films, determining the activation energy to be 3.14 eV. Optical reflectivity and in situ resistance measurements exhibited a high reflectivity contrast of ~21% and 3-4 orders of magnitude drop in resistivity of the films upon crystallization. The results show that pulsed laser deposited GeTe films can be a promising candidate for phase-change applications.

  9. Crystallization kinetics of GeTe phase-change thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xinxing; Thelander, Erik; Gerlach, Jürgen W; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition was employed to the growth of GeTe thin films on Silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the critical crystallization temperature lies between 220 and 240 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited films, determining the activation energy to be 3.14 eV. Optical reflectivity and in situ resistance measurements exhibited a high reflectivity contrast of ∼21% and 3–4 orders of magnitude drop in resistivity of the films upon crystallization. The results show that pulsed laser deposited GeTe films can be a promising candidate for phase-change applications. (paper)

  10. Measurement of positron reemission from thin single-crystal W(100) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.M.; Lynn, K.G.; Pareja, R.; Nielsen, B.

    1985-01-01

    Epitaxial thin single-crystal (100) tungsten films 1000, 2500, and 5000 A thick have been fabricated by high-vacuum electron-beam evaporation. These films were subsequently used as thin-film moderators for the study of the positron-transmission-reemission process with a variable-energy (0--80 keV) monoenergetic positron beam in an ultrahigh-vacuum system. The films were shown to be routinely cleanable by heating first in oxygen (10 -6 Torr) and then in vacuum (10 -9 Torr). Transmission and back reemission of slow positrons from these surfaces was observed. The positron work function, phi/sub +/ has been determined to be approx. =3.0 eV ( +- 0.3 eV). The transmission slow positrons were emitted in a narrow cone with a full width at half maximum of approx. =30 0 consistent with the angular distribution of back-reemission positrons. The reemitted yields as a function of incident positron energy were found to be very different between forward reemission and back reemission. The maximum forward-reemission yields were 18% for 1000-A-thick W film and 12% for 2500-A-thick W film at 5 and 10 keV optimum incident positron energies, respectively. These results show that one can use thin single-crystal tungsten films as positron moderators or remoderators

  11. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  12. Understanding Nickel Thin Film crystallization using X-Ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microstructures of these Ni films were studied using X-ray diffractometry technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns depicted 100% and 42% relative intensity (RI) peaks identified for normal and helical deposited Ni films but none for the zigzag deposited Ni film. Higher degree of crystallinity of Ni was demonstrated ...

  13. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  14. Picosecond laser pulse-driven crystallization behavior of SiSb phase change memory thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Li Simian; Zhai Fengxiao; Wang Yang; Lai Tianshu; Wu Yiqun; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We reported crystallization dynamics of a novel SiSb phase change material. → We measured optical constants of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb areas. → Optical properties of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb thin film were compared. → Crystallization of irradiated SiSb was confirmed by using AFM and micro-Raman spectra. → The heat conduction effect of lower metal layer of multi-layer films was studied. - Abstract: Transient phase change crystallization process of SiSb phase change thin films under the irradiation of picosecond (ps) laser pulse was studied using time-resolved reflectivity measurements. The ps laser pulse-crystallized domains were characterized by atomic force microscope, Raman spectra and ellipsometrical spectra measurements. A reflectivity contrast of about 15% can be achieved by ps laser pulse-induced crystallization. A minimum crystallization time of 11 ns was achieved by a low-fluence single ps laser pulse after pre-irradiation. SiSb was shown to be very promising for fast phase change memory applications.

  15. Polarized Raman scattering study of PSN single crystals and epitaxial thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pokorný

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a detailed analysis of the dependence of Raman scattering intensity on the polarization of the incident and inelastically scattered light in PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 (PSN single crystals and epitaxially compressed thin films grown on (100-oriented MgO substrates. It is found that there are significant differences between the properties of the crystals and films, and that these differences can be attributed to the anticipated structural differences between these two forms of the same material. In particular, the scattering characteristics of the oxygen octahedra breathing mode near 810 cm-1 indicate a ferroelectric state for the crystals and a relaxor state for the films, which is consistent with the dielectric behaviors of these materials.

  16. Effects of flexible substrate thickness on Al-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Naoki [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Toko, Kaoru, E-mail: toko@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Saitoh, Noriyuki; Yoshizawa, Noriko [Electron Microscope Facility, TIA, AIST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan); Suemasu, Takashi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2015-05-29

    Amorphous germanium (a-Ge) thin films were directly crystallized on flexible plastic substrates at 325 °C using Al-induced crystallization. The thickness of the plastic substrate strongly influenced the crystal quality of the resulting polycrystalline Ge layers. Using a thicker substrate lowered the stress on the a-Ge layer during annealing, which increased the grain size and fraction of (111)-oriented grains within the Ge layer. Employing a 125-μm-thick substrate led to 95% (111)-oriented Ge with grains having an average size of 100 μm. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the Ge grains had a low-defect density. Production of high-quality Ge films on plastic substrates allows for the possibility for developing Ge-based electronic and optical devices on inexpensive flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Ge thin films are directly formed on flexible plastic substrates. • Al-induced crystallization allows the low-temperature growth (325 °C) of amorphous Ge. • The substrate bending during annealing strongly influences the crystal quality of poly-Ge. • A thick substrate (125 μm) leads to 95% (111)-oriented Ge with grains 100 μm in size.

  17. Crystallization of HWCVD amorphous silicon thin films at elevated temperatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muller, TFG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available conditions where the hydrogen content would be minimal and the films would still exhibit good optical properties. Experimental data shows that by varying deposition conditions the transition to the nano/microcrystalline phase can be achieved. Transitional...

  18. Photonic-Crystal-Based Thin Film Sensor for Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hyung Kwan; Park, Jung Yul [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Early detection of toxic gases, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), is important for safety and environmental protection. However, the conventional detection methods require long-term measurement times and expensive equipment. In this study, we propose a thin-film-type chemical sensor for VOCs, which consists of self assembled monosize nanoparticles for 3-D photonic crystal structures and polydimthylsiloxane (PDMS) film. It is operated without any external power source, is truly portable, and has a fast response time. The structure color of the sensor changes when it is exposed to VOCs, because VOCs induce a swelling of the PDMS. Therefore, using this principle of color change, we can create a thin-film sensor for immediate detection of various types of VOCs. The proposed device evidences that a fast response time of just seconds, along with a clear color change, are successfully observed when the sensor is exposed to gas-phase VOCs.

  19. Influence of metal induced crystallization parameters on the performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.; Barquinha, P.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, metal induced crystallization using nickel was employed to obtain polycrystalline silicon by crystallization of amorphous films for thin film transistor applications. The devices were produced through only one lithographic process with a bottom gate configuration using a new gate dielectric consisting of a multi-layer of aluminum oxide/titanium oxide produced by atomic layer deposition. The best results were obtained for TFTs with the active layer of poly-Si crystallized for 20 h at 500 deg. C using a nickel layer of 0.5 nm where the effective mobility is 45.5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The threshold voltage, the on/off current ratio and the sub-threshold voltage are, respectively, 11.9 V, 5.55x10 4 and 2.49 V/dec

  20. Giant coercivity in ferromagnetic Co doped ZnO single crystal thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukya, B.; Negi, D.S.; Dileep, K.; Kumar, N.; Ghatak, Jay; Datta, R.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of ferromagnetism in ZnO doped with transition metal impurities has been discussed extensively and appeared to be a highly controversial and challenging topic in today's solid state physics. Magnetism observed in this system is generally weak and soft. We have grown Co:ZnO up to 30 at% Co in single crystal thin film form on c-plane sapphire. A composition dependent coercivity is observed in this system which reaches peak value at 25 at% Co, the values are 860 Oe and 1149 Oe with applied field along parallel and perpendicular to the film substrate interface respectively. This giant coercivity might pave the way to exploit this material as a magnetic semiconductor with novel logic functionalities. The findings are explained based on defect band itinerant ferromagnetism and its partial interaction with localized d electrons of Co through charge transfer. Besides large coercivity, an increase in the band gap with Co concentration has also been observed along with blue emission peak with long tail confirming the formation of extended point defect levels in the host lattice band gap. - Highlights: • Co doped ZnO ferromagnetic single crystal thin film. • Giant coercivity in Co:ZnO thin film which may help to turn this material into application. • Cathodoluminescence (CL) data showing increase in band gap with Co concentrations. • A theoretical proposal is made to explain the observed giant coercivity

  1. Properties of laser-crystallized polycrystalline SiGe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, Moshe

    2008-06-06

    In this thesis, structural, electrical, and optical properties of laser-crystallized polycrystalline Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0crystallization of amorphous Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0.3film, which is directly coupled to a periodic compositional variation. - Amorphous SiGe samples that are exposed to a single laser pulse exhibit a ripple structure that evolves into a hillock structure when the samples are irradiated with additional laser pulses. - It is maintained that the main mechanism behind the structure formation is an instability of the propagating solid-liquid interface during solidification. - The study of defects with electron spin resonance showed that laser-crystallized poly-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0crystallization method and Ge content. The defect density for solid-phase crystallized SiGe films was lower and amounted to N{sub s}=7 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. - Germanium-rich laser-crystallized poly-SiGe thin films exhibited mostly a broad atypical electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) signal that was accompanied by a nearly temperature-independent electrical conductivity in the range 20-100 K. - Most likely, the origin of the grain boundary conductance is due to dangling-bond defects and not impurities. Metallic-like conductance occurs when the dangling-bond defect density is above a critical value of about N{sub C} {approx} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. - Laser crystallized poly-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with x{>=}0.5 exhibit optical absorption behavior that is characteristic for disordered SiGe, implying that the absorption occurs primarily at the grain boundaries. A sub-band-gap absorption peak was found for

  2. Influence of the additive Ag for crystallization of amorphous Ge-Sb-Te thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki-Ho; Kim, Sung-Won; Seo, Jae-Hee [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Yong, E-mail: hyleee@chonnam.ac.k [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    We have investigated the optical and amorphous-to-crystalline transition properties in four-types of chalcogenide thin films; Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11}, Ag-Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and Ag-Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11}. Crystallization was caused by nano-pulse illumination ({lambda} = 658 nm) with power (P) of 1-17 mW and pulse duration (t) of 10-460 ns, and the morphologies of crystallized spots were observed by SEM and microscope. It was found that the crystallized spot nearby linearly increases in size with increasing the illuminating energy (E = P {center_dot} t) and eventually ablated out by over illumination. Changes in the optical transmittance of as-deposited and annealed films were measured using a UV-vis-IR spectrophotometer. In addition, a speed of amorphous-to-crystalline transition was evaluated by detecting the reflection response signals for the nano-pulse scanning. Conclusively, the Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11} film has a faster crystallization speed than the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film despite its higher crystallization temperature. The crystallization speed was largely improved by adding Ag in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film but not in Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11} film. To explain these results, we considered a heat confinement by electron hopping.

  3. Crystallization and growth of Ni-Si alloy thin films on inert and on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, I.; Weiss, B. Z.

    1995-04-01

    The crystallization kinetics and thermal stability of NiSi2±0.2 alloy thin films coevaporated on two different substrates were studied. The substrates were: silicon single crystal [Si(100)] and thermally oxidized silicon single crystal. In situ resistance measurements, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used. The postdeposition microstructure consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases. The amorphous phase, independent of the composition, crystallizes homogeneously to NiSi2 at temperatures lower than 200 °C. The activation energy, determined in the range of 1.4-2.54 eV, depends on the type of the substrate and on the composition of the alloyed films. The activation energy for the alloys deposited on the inert substrate was found to be lower than for the alloys deposited on silicon single crystal. The lowest activation energy was obtained for nonstoichiometric NiSi2.2, the highest for NiSi2—on both substrates. The crystallization mode depends on the structure of the as-deposited films, especially the density of the existing crystalline nuclei. Substantial differences were observed in the thermal stability of the NiSi2 compound on both substrates. With the alloy films deposited on the Si substrate, only the NiSi2 phase was identified after annealing to temperatures up to 800 °C. In the films deposited on the inert substrate, NiSi and NiSi2 phases were identified when the Ni content in the alloy exceeded 33 at. %. The effects of composition and the type of substrate on the crystallization kinetics and thermal stability are discussed.

  4. Thin film pc-Si by aluminium induced crystallization on metallic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayron C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si on flexible metallic substrates is promising for low cost production of photovoltaic solar cells. One of the attractive methods to produce pc-Si solar cells consists in thickening a large-grained seed layer by epitaxy. In this work, the deposited seed layer is made by aluminium induced crystallization (AIC of an amorphous silicon (a-Si thin film on metallic substrates (Ni/Fe alloy initially coated with a tantalum nitride (TaN conductive diffusion barrier layer. Effect of the thermal budget on the AIC grown pc-Si seed layer was investigated in order to optimize the process (i.e. the quality of the pc-Si thin film. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out using optical microscopy, μ-Raman and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD. At optimal thermal annealing conditions, the continuous AIC grown pc-Si thin film showed an average grain size around 15 μm. The grains were preferably (001 oriented which is favorable for its epitaxial thickening. This work proves the feasibility of the AIC method to grow large grains pc-Si seed layer on TaN coated metal substrates. These results are, in terms of grains size, the finest obtained by AIC on metallic substrates.

  5. Nano-crystallization in ZnO-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films via excimer laser annealing for thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Mami N., E-mail: f-mami@ms.naist.jp; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Bermundo, Juan Paolo Soria; Uraoka, Yukiharu [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Ishihara, Ryoichi; Cingel, Johan van der; Mofrad, Mohammad R. T. [Delft University of Technology, Feldmannweg 17, P.O. Box 5053, 2600 GB Delft (Netherlands); Kawashima, Emi; Tomai, Shigekazu; Yano, Koki [Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., 1280 Kami-izumi, Sodegaura, Chiba, 299-0293 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    In a previous work, we reported the high field effect mobility of ZnO-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) irradiated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) [M. Fujii et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 122107 (2013)]. However, a deeper understanding of the effect of ELA on the IZO film characteristics based on crystallinity, carrier concentrations, and optical properties is needed to control localized carrier concentrations for fabricating self-aligned structures in the same oxide film and to adequately explain the physical characteristics. In the case of as-deposited IZO film used as the channel, a high carrier concentration due to a high density of oxygen vacancies was observed; such a film does not show the required TFT characteristics but can act as a conductive film. We achieved a decrease in the carrier concentration of IZO films by crystallization using ELA. This means that ELA can form localized conductive or semi-conductive areas on the IZO film. We confirmed that the reason for the carrier concentration decrease was the decrease of oxygen-deficient regions and film crystallization. The annealed IZO films showed nano-crystalline phase, and the temperature at the substrate was substantially less than the temperature limit for flexible films such as plastic, which is 50°C. This paves the way for the formation of self-aligned structures and separately formed conductive and semi-conductive regions in the same oxide film.

  6. Nano-crystallization in ZnO-doped In_2O_3 thin films via excimer laser annealing for thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Bermundo, Juan Paolo Soria; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Cingel, Johan van der; Mofrad, Mohammad R. T.; Kawashima, Emi; Tomai, Shigekazu; Yano, Koki

    2016-01-01

    In a previous work, we reported the high field effect mobility of ZnO-doped In_2O_3 (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) irradiated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) [M. Fujii et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 122107 (2013)]. However, a deeper understanding of the effect of ELA on the IZO film characteristics based on crystallinity, carrier concentrations, and optical properties is needed to control localized carrier concentrations for fabricating self-aligned structures in the same oxide film and to adequately explain the physical characteristics. In the case of as-deposited IZO film used as the channel, a high carrier concentration due to a high density of oxygen vacancies was observed; such a film does not show the required TFT characteristics but can act as a conductive film. We achieved a decrease in the carrier concentration of IZO films by crystallization using ELA. This means that ELA can form localized conductive or semi-conductive areas on the IZO film. We confirmed that the reason for the carrier concentration decrease was the decrease of oxygen-deficient regions and film crystallization. The annealed IZO films showed nano-crystalline phase, and the temperature at the substrate was substantially less than the temperature limit for flexible films such as plastic, which is 50°C. This paves the way for the formation of self-aligned structures and separately formed conductive and semi-conductive regions in the same oxide film.

  7. Positron reemission: measurement of thin single crystal W(100) films to be used as transmission moderator or re-moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.M.; Lynn, K.G.; Pareja, R.; Nielsen, B.

    1984-11-01

    It has been shown that one can produce thin single crystal W films capable of reemitting positrons at a sufficiently high fraction to be used either as a moderator or as a re-moderator. Both the impurities and the defects could be removed by the appropriate cleaning and annealing procedures, and narrow beam emission could be attained when the films were cleaned. This technique would also be a good method for characterizing defect concentration at interfaces or in thin films

  8. Reduction of crystallization temperature of the Nd-Fe-B thin films by Cu addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yungui; Yang Zheng; Matsumoto, M.; Morisako, A.; Takei, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nonmagnetic Cu element has been doped into the sputtered Nd-Fe-B thin films. It is found that the introduction of suitable amount of copper atoms could reduce the crystallization temperature of the 2:14:1 phase by near 100 deg. C, compared with that without Cu. For the 15 nm Nd 16 Fe 70.2 Cu 1.8 B 12 film deposited at 340 deg. C, perpendicular coercivity and remanent magnetization ratio of 350 kA/m and 0.96 have been successfully obtained. Cu addition would lead to the grain growth, but the average grain size in the films could be greatly decreased through lowering the deposition temperature. These results are compared with those found in the fabrication of FePtCu films

  9. Self-assembly morphology effects on the crystallization of semicrystalline block copolymer thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuhan; Pan, Caiyuan; Li, Binyao; Han, Yanchun

    2007-03-01

    Self-assembly morphology effects on the crystalline behavior of asymmetric semicrystalline block copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(L-lactic acid) thin film were investigated. Firstly, a series of distinctive self-assembly aggregates, from spherical to ellipsoid and rhombic lamellar micelles (two different kinds of rhombic micelles, defined as rhomb 1 and rhomb 2) was prepared by means of promoting the solvent selectivity. Then, the effects of these self-assembly aggregates on crystallization at the early stage of film evolution were investigated by in situ hot stage atomic force microscopy. Heterogeneous nucleation initiated from the spherical micelles and dendrites with flat on crystals appeared with increasing temperature. At high temperature, protruding structures were observed due to the thickening of the flat-on crystals and finally more thermodynamically stable crystallization formed. Annealing the rhombic lamellar micelles resulted in different phenomena. Turtle-shell-like crystalline structure initiated from the periphery of the rhombic micelle 1 and spread over the whole film surface in the presence of mostly noncrystalline domain interior. Erosion and small hole appeared at the surface of the rhombic lamellar micelle 2; no crystallization like that in rhomb 1 occurred. It indicated that the chain-folding degree was different in these two micelles, which resulted in different annealing behaviors.

  10. Progress in thin-film silicon solar cells based on photonic-crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Kenji; De Zoysa, Menaka; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Jeon, Seung-Woo; Noda, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    We review the recent progress in thin-film silicon solar cells with photonic crystals, where absorption enhancement is achieved by using large-area resonant effects in photonic crystals. First, a definitive guideline for enhancing light absorption in a wide wavelength range (600–1100 nm) is introduced, showing that the formation of multiple band edges utilizing higher-order modes confined in the thickness direction and the introduction of photonic superlattice structures enable significant absorption enhancement, exceeding that observed for conventional random scatterers. Subsequently, experimental evidence of this enhancement is demonstrated for a variety of thin-film Si solar cells: ∼500-nm-thick ultrathin microcrystalline silicon cells, few-µm-thick microcrystalline silicon cells, and ∼20-µm-thick thin single-crystalline silicon cells. The high short-circuit current densities and/or efficiencies observed for each cell structure confirm the effectiveness of using multiple band-edge resonant modes of photonic crystals for enhancing broadband absorption in actual solar cells.

  11. Solid phase crystallized polycrystalline thin-films on glass from evaporated silicon for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Dengyuan; Inns, Daniel; Straub, Axel; Terry, Mason L.; Campbell, Patrick; Aberle, Armin G.

    2006-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-films are made on planar and textured glass substrates by solid phase crystallization (SPC) of in situ doped amorphous silicon (a-Si) deposited by electron-beam evaporation. These materials are referred to by us as EVA materials (SPC of evaporated a-Si). The properties of EVA poly-Si films are characterised by Raman microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A narrow and symmetrical Raman peak at a wave number of about 520 cm -1 is observed for all samples, showing that the films are fully crystallized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the films are preferentially (111)-oriented. Furthermore, the full width at half maximum of the dominant (111) XRD peaks indicates that the structural quality of the films is affected by the a-Si deposition temperature and the surface morphology of the glass substrates. A-Si deposition at 200 instead of 400 deg. C leads to an enhanced poly-Si grain size. On textured glass, the addition of a SiN barrier layer between the glass and the Si improves the poly-Si material quality. No such effect occurs on planar glass. Mesa-type solar cells are made from these EVA films on planar and textured glass. A strong correlation between the cells' current-voltage characteristics and their crystalline material quality is observed

  12. Solid-phase crystallization of amorphous silicon on ZnO:Al for thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.; Conrad, E.; Dogan, P.; Fenske, F.; Gorka, B.; Haenel, T.; Lee, K.Y.; Rau, B.; Ruske, F.; Weber, T.; Gall, S.; Rech, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (formerly Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin), Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Berginski, M.; Huepkes, J. [Institute of Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The suitability of ZnO:Al thin films for polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film solar cell fabrication was investigated. The electrical and optical properties of 700 -nm-thick ZnO:Al films on glass were analyzed after typical annealing steps occurring during poly-Si film preparation. If the ZnO:Al layer is covered by a 30 nm thin silicon film, the initial sheet resistance of ZnO:Al drops from 4.2 to 2.2 {omega} after 22 h annealing at 600 C and only slightly increases for a 200 s heat treatment at 900 C. A thin-film solar cell concept consisting of poly-Si films on ZnO:Al coated glass is introduced. First solar cell results will be presented using absorber layers either prepared by solid-phase crystallization (SPC) or by direct deposition at 600 C. (author)

  13. Visualization of nanosecond laser-induced dewetting, ablation and crystallization processes in thin silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dongfeng; Zhang, Zifeng; Yu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yawen

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, nanosecond pulsed laser crystallization, dewetting and ablation of thin amorphous silicon films are investigated by time-resolved imaging. Laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength and 7 ns temporal width are irradiated on silicon film. Below the dewetting threshold, crystallization process happens after 400 ns laser irradiation in the spot central region. With the increasing of laser fluence, it is observed that the dewetting process does not conclude until 300 ns after the laser irradiation, forming droplet-like particles in the spot central region. At higher laser intensities, ablative material removal occurs in the spot center. Cylindrical rims are formed in the peripheral dewetting zone due to solidification of transported matter at about 500 ns following the laser pulse exposure.

  14. Chemical state analysis of oxide thin films using a high resolution double crystal X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hirohisa; Morinaga, Kenji; Ohta, Yoshio.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical state analysis of r.f.-sputtered amorphous oxide thin films was determined by a high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with double crystals. The polymerization degree of silicate anions in the silicate film was as same as a target (α-Quartz). The oxygen coordination number of Al 3+ ions in the aluminate film was different from a target (α-Al 2 O 3 ), and it was a mixture of 4 and 6 in a spinel-like structure. In CaO-SiO 2 and CaO-Al 2 O 3 films, when the film thickness is thin at the beginning of sputtering, the composition of films are in the shortage of CaO. But when the film thickness become thicker, the composition of films become as same as the target. From the results above, the chemical state of films and their variations with film thickness can be clarified by using the apparatus. (author)

  15. A sensor of alcohol vapours based on thin polyaniline base film and quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamad M; El-Hefnawey, Gad; Torad, Nagy L

    2009-08-30

    Thin films of polyaniline base, emeraldine base (EB), coating on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode were used as a sensitive layer for the detection of a number of primary aliphatic alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol and 1-propanol vapours. The frequency shifts (Deltaf) of the QCM were increased due to the vapour adsorption into the EB film. Deltaf were found to be linearly correlated with the concentrations of alcohols vapour in part per million (ppm). The sensitivity of the sensor was found to be governed by the chemical structure of the alcohol. The sensor shows a good reproducibility and reversibility. The diffusions of different alcohols vapour were studied and the diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated. It is concluded that the diffusion of the vapours into the EB film follows Fickian kinetics.

  16. Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang-Bae; Park, Sucheol; Hong, Jin-Who

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymers exhibit good mechanical and interfacial compatibility with plastic substrates. We prepared an optimized coating formulation based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl acrylate and fabricated a transparent electrode on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. The surface resistances and transmittance of the prepared thin films were 500-600 Ω/□ and 87% at 500 nm, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the conducting polymer electrode, we fabricated a five-layer flexible polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) device as a PET-PEDOT-PDLC-PEDOT-PET flexible film. The prepared PDLC device exhibited a low driving voltage (15 VAC), high contrast ratio (60:1), and high transmittance in the ON state (60%), characteristics that are comparable with those of conventional PDLC film based on indium tin oxide electrodes. The fabrication of conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes in this study showed that such films can be used as a substitute for an indium tin oxide electrode, which further enhances the flexibility of PDLC film

  17. Crystallization of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin films in argon and oxygen atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopic techniques are applied to reveal the mechanisms of crystallization of 75 nm thin films of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Sol-gel methods, followed by pyrolysis at 350 deg C, were used to provide a common starting point after which a variety of rapid-thermal annealing (RTA) experiments in the temperature range 400-700 deg C were made in argon, oxygen and nitrogen/hydrogen atmospheres. The results are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemical analysis, which points out that partial pressure of oxygen and heating rate are important experimental parameters which must be controlled if ferroelectric perovskite-type Pb 2 ZrTiO 6 , rather than pyrochlore-type Pb 2 ZrTiO 6+x , where O < X < 1 or -1 < X < O, is to be obtained after the RTA step. Thus significant improvements in the crystallization of perovskite-type PZT were clearly demonstrated by using argon atmospheres for the RTA step. The results have significance for the production of high-quality ferroelectric thin films, with improved switching and fatigue characteristics, since even small amounts of the pyrochlore phase prove detrimental for these properties. 18 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  18. Crystallization of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin films in argon and oxygen atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Brooks, K G [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopic techniques are applied to reveal the mechanisms of crystallization of 75 nm thin films of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Sol-gel methods, followed by pyrolysis at 350 deg C, were used to provide a common starting point after which a variety of rapid-thermal annealing (RTA) experiments in the temperature range 400-700 deg C were made in argon, oxygen and nitrogen/hydrogen atmospheres. The results are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemical analysis, which points out that partial pressure of oxygen and heating rate are important experimental parameters which must be controlled if ferroelectric perovskite-type Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 6}, rather than pyrochlore-type Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 6+x}, where O < X < 1 or -1 < X < O, is to be obtained after the RTA step. Thus significant improvements in the crystallization of perovskite-type PZT were clearly demonstrated by using argon atmospheres for the RTA step. The results have significance for the production of high-quality ferroelectric thin films, with improved switching and fatigue characteristics, since even small amounts of the pyrochlore phase prove detrimental for these properties. 18 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  19. Quasi van der Waals epitaxy of copper thin film on single-crystal graphene monolayer buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zonghuan; Sun, Xin; Washington, Morris A.; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2018-03-01

    Quasi van der Waals epitaxial growth of face-centered cubic Cu (~100 nm) thin films on single-crystal monolayer graphene is demonstrated using thermal evaporation at an elevated substrate temperature of 250 °C. The single-crystal graphene was transferred to amorphous (glass) and crystalline (quartz) SiO2 substrates for epitaxy study. Raman analysis showed that the thermal evaporation method had minimal damage to the graphene lattice during the Cu deposition. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction analyses revealed that both Cu films are single-crystal with (1 1 1) out-of-plane orientation and in-plane Σ3 twin domains of 60° rotation. The crystallinity of the SiO2 substrates has a negligible effect on the Cu crystal orientation during the epitaxial growth, implying the strong screening effect of graphene. We also demonstrate the epitaxial growth of polycrystalline Cu on a commercial polycrystalline monolayer graphene consisting of two orientation domains offset 30° to each other. It confirms that the crystal orientation of the epitaxial Cu film follows that of graphene, i.e. the Cu film consists of two orientation domains offset 30° to each other when deposited on polycrystalline graphene. Finally, on the contrary to the report in the literature, we show that the direct current and radio frequency flip sputtering method causes significant damage to the graphene lattice during the Cu deposition process, and therefore neither is a suitable method for Cu epitaxial growth on graphene.

  20. Thin films of metal oxides on metal single crystals: Structure and growth by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed studies of the growth and structure of thin films of metal oxides grown on metal single crystal surfaces using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) are presented. The oxide overlayer systems studied are iron oxide and titanium oxide on the Pt(III) surface. The complexity of the metal oxides and large lattice mismatches often lead to surface structures with large unit cells. These are particularly suited to a local real space technique such as scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the symmetry that is directly observed with the STM elucidates the relationship of the oxide overlayers to the substrate as well as distinguishing, the structures of different oxides

  1. Comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikoglu, A. T.; Jia, Q. X.; Kwon, C.; Reagor, D. W.; Kaduchak, G.; Rasmussen, K. Oe.; Bishop, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used a coplanar waveguide structure to study broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate. We have incorporated both time- and frequency-domain measurements to determine small-signal effective refractive index and loss tangent as functions of frequency (up to 4 GHz), dc bias (up to 10 6 V/m), and cryogenic temperature (17 and 60 K). The large-signal impulse response of the devices and the associated phenomenological nonlinear wave equation illustrate how dissipation and nonlinearity combine to produce the overall response in the large-signal regime. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics

  2. Transient phases during crystallization of solution-processed organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jing; Li, Yang; Ulbrandt, Jeffery; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Hollin, Jonathan; Whalley, Adam; Headrick, Randall

    We report an in-situ study of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) organic semiconductor thin film deposition from solution via hollow pen writing, which exhibits multiple transient phases during crystallization. Under high writing speed (25 mm/s) the films have an isotropic morphology, although the mobilities range up to 3.0 cm2/V.s. To understand the crystallization in this highly non-equilibrium regime, we employ in-situ microbeam grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering combined with optical video microscopy at different deposition temperatures. A sequence of crystallization was observed in which a layered liquid-crystalline (LC) phase of C8-BTBT precedes inter-layer ordering. For films deposited above 80ºC, a transition from LC phase to a transient crystalline state that we denote as Cr1 occurs after a temperature-dependent incubation time, which is consistent with classical nucleation theory. After an additional ~ 0.5s, Cr1 transforms to the final stable structure Cr2. Based on these results, we demonstrate a method to produce large crystalline grain size and high carrier mobility during high-speed processing by controlling the nucleation rate during the transformation from the LC phase. Nsf DMR-1307017, NSF DMR-1332208.

  3. Crystallized InBiS3 thin films with enhanced optoelectronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N.; Hussain, Arshad; Ahmed, R.; Omar, M. Firdaus Bin; Sultan, M.; Fu, Yong Qing

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a one-step thermal evaporation approach was used for fabrication of indium bismuth sulphide thin films, and the synergetic effects of co-evaporation of two sources (indium granules and Bi2S3 powders) were investigated using different characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the crystalline orthorhombic structure for the post-annealed samples. Surface roughness and crystal size of the obtained film samples were increased with increasing annealing temperatures. Analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the formation of the InBiS3 structure for the obtained films, which is also confirmed by the XRD results. The optical absorption coefficient value of the annealed samples was found to be in the order of 105 cm-1 in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The optical band gap energy and electrical resistivity of the fabricated samples were observed to decrease (from 2.2 to 1.3 eV, and from 0.3 to 0.01 Ω-cm, respectively) with increasing annealing temperatures (from 200 to 350 °C), indicating the suitability of the prepared InBiS3 thin films for solar cell applications.

  4. Influence of Substrate on Crystal Orientation of Large-Grained Si Thin Films Formed by Metal-Induced Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Toko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Producing large-grained polycrystalline Si (poly-Si film on glass substrates coated with conducting layers is essential for fabricating Si thin-film solar cells with high efficiency and low cost. We investigated how the choice of conducting underlayer affected the poly-Si layer formed on it by low-temperature (500°C Al-induced crystallization (AIC. The crystal orientation of the resulting poly-Si layer strongly depended on the underlayer material: (100 was preferred for Al-doped-ZnO (AZO and indium-tin-oxide (ITO; (111 was preferred for TiN. This result suggests Si heterogeneously nucleated on the underlayer. The average grain size of the poly-Si layer reached nearly 20 µm for the AZO and ITO samples and no less than 60 µm for the TiN sample. Thus, properly electing the underlayer material is essential in AIC and allows large-grained Si films to be formed at low temperatures with a set crystal orientation. These highly oriented Si layers with large grains appear promising for use as seed layers for Si light-absorption layers as well as for advanced functional materials.

  5. Tips pentacene crystal alignment for improving performance of solution processed organic thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengran

    A newly-developed p-type organic semiconductor 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS pentacene) demonstrates various advantages such as high mobility, air stability and solution processibility, but at the same time its application is restricted by major issues, such as crystal misorientation and performance variation of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). This dissertation demonstrates several different approaches to address these issues. As a result, both crystal orientation and areal coverage can be effectively improved, leading to an enhancement of average mobility and performance consistency of OTFTs. Chapter 1 presents an introduction and background of this dissertation. Chapter 2 explores the usage of inorganic silica nanoparticles to manipulate the morphology of TIPS pentacene thin films and the performance of solution-processed organic OTFTs. The resultant drop-cast films yield improved morphological uniformity at ~10% SiO2 loading, which also leads to a 3-fold increase in average mobility and nearly 4-times reduction in the ratio of standard deviation of mobility (μStdev) to average mobility (μAvg). The experimental results suggest that the SiO2 nanoparticles mostly aggregate at TIPS pentacene grain boundaries, and that 10% nanoparticle concentration effectively reduces the undesirable crystal misorientation without considerably compromising TIPS pentacene crystallinity. Chapter 3 discusses the utilization of air flow to effectively reduce the TIPS pentacene crystal anisotropy and enhance performance consistency in OTFTs. Under air-flow navigation (AFN), TIPS pentacene forms thin films with improved crystal orientation and increased areal coverage, which subsequently lead to a four-fold increase of average hole mobility and one order of magnitude enhancement in performance consistency. Chapter 4 investigates the critical roles of lateral and vertical phase separation in the performance of the next-generation organic and hybrid electronic

  6. Structural characterization of metastable hcp-Ni thin films epitaxially grown on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Ni(1120) epitaxial thin films with hcp structure were prepared on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers at 100 deg. C by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The detailed film structure is studied by in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The hcp-Ni film consists of two types of variants whose c-axes are rotated around the film normal by 90 deg. each other. An atomically sharp boundary is recognized between the film and the underlayer, where misfit dislocations are introduced. Presence of such dislocations seems to relieve the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the underlayer.

  7. Perovskite single crystals and thin films for optoelectronic devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Han, Qifeng; Yang, Yang; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Sun, Pengyu

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid organolead trihalide perovskite (OTP) solar cells have developed as a promising candidate in photovoltaics due to their excellent properties including a direct bandgap, strong absorption coefficient, long carrier lifetime, and high mobility. Most recently, formamidinium (NH2CH=NH2+ or FA) lead iodide (FAPbI3) has attracted significant attention due to several advantages: (1) the larger organic FA cation can replace the MA cation and form a more symmetric crystal structure, (2) the smaller bandgap of FAPbI3 allows for near infrared (NIR) absorption, and (3) FAPbI3 has an elevated decomposition temperature and thus potential to improve stability. Single crystals provide an excellent model system to study the intrinsic electrical and optical properties of these materials due to their high purity, which is particularly important to understand the limits of these materials. In this work, we report the growth of large ( 5 millimeter size) single crystal FAPbI3 using a novel liquid based crystallization method. The single crystal FAPbI3 demonstrated a δ-phase to α-phase transition with a color change from yellow to black when heated to 185°C within approximately two minutes. The crystal structures of the two phases were identified and the PL emission peak of the α-phase FAPbI3 (820 nm) shows clear red-shift compared to the FAPbI3 thin film (805 nm). The FAPbI3 single crystal shows a long carrier lifetime of 484 ns, a high carrier mobility of 4.4 cm2·V-1·s-1, and even more interestingly a conductivity of 1.1 × 10-7(ohm·cm)-1, which is approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of the MAPbI3 single crystal. Finally, high performance photoconductivity type photodetectors were successfully demonstrated using the single crystal FAPbI3.

  8. Photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beijiao; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tengyu; Zeng, Jianghui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Guoxiang; Xu, Peipeng; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Shixun

    2016-11-10

    A three-port phase-change photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide thin film was proposed. The chalcogenide material used was determined to have a high refractive index and fast phase-change speed by using laser radiation. The structure with a T-junction cavity was used to achieve three switch functions: switching "ON" in only one output port, switching "OFF" in both output ports, and dividing signals into two output ports. The transmission properties of the designed device at 2.0 μm were studied by the finite difference time domain method, which showed that the switch divider can achieve very high switching efficiency by optimizing T-junction cavity parameters. The scaling laws of photonic crystals revealed that the operating wavelength of the designed structure can be easily extended to another wavelength in the midinfrared region.

  9. Improved photovoltaic performance from inorganic perovskite oxide thin films with mixed crystal phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabartty, Joyprokash; Harnagea, Catalin; Celikin, Mert; Rosei, Federico; Nechache, Riad

    2018-05-01

    Inorganic ferroelectric perovskites are attracting attention for the realization of highly stable photovoltaic cells with large open-circuit voltages. However, the power conversion efficiencies of devices have been limited so far. Here, we report a power conversion efficiency of 4.20% under 1 sun illumination from Bi-Mn-O composite thin films with mixed BiMnO3 and BiMn2O5 crystal phases. We show that the photocurrent density and photovoltage mainly develop across grain boundaries and interfaces rather than within the grains. We also experimentally demonstrate that the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit photocurrent measured in the films are tunable by varying the electrical resistance of the device, which in turn is controlled by externally applying voltage pulses. The exploitation of multifunctional properties of composite oxides provides an alternative route towards achieving highly stable, high-efficiency photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

  10. Alcohol vapours sensor based on thin polyaniline salt film and quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamad M; Torad, Nagy L

    2009-06-15

    A sensor based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was developed for detection of a number of primary aliphatic alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol vapours. Detection was based on a sensitive and a thin film of polyaniline, emeraldine salt (ES), coated the QCM electrode. The frequency shifts (Delta f) of the QCM were increased due to the vapour absorption into the ES film. The values of Delta f were found to be linearly correlated with the concentrations of alcohols vapour in mg L(-1). The changes in frequency are due to the hydrophilic character of the ES and the electrostatic interaction as well as the type of the alcohol. The sensor shows a good reproducibility and reversibility. The diffusion and diffusion coefficient (D) of different alcohols vapour were determined. It was found that the sensor follows Fickian kinetics.

  11. X-ray beam monitor made by thin-film CVD single-crystal diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Angelone, M; Pillon, M; Kachkanov, V; Tartoni, N; Benetti, M; Cannatà, D; Di Pietrantonio, F

    2012-11-01

    A novel beam position monitor, operated at zero bias voltage, based on high-quality chemical-vapor-deposition single-crystal Schottky diamond for use under intense synchrotron X-ray beams was fabricated and tested. The total thickness of the diamond thin-film beam monitor is about 60 µm. The diamond beam monitor was inserted in the B16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (UK). The device was characterized under monochromatic high-flux X-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV and a micro-focused 10 keV beam with a spot size of approximately 2 µm × 3 µm square. Time response, linearity and position sensitivity were investigated. Device response uniformity was measured by a raster scan of the diamond surface with the micro-focused beam. Transmissivity and spectral responsivity versus beam energy were also measured, showing excellent performance of the new thin-film single-crystal diamond beam monitor.

  12. Primary and aggregate color centers in proton irradiated LiF crystals and thin films for luminescent solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinini, M; Ambrosini, F; Ampollini, A; Bonfigli, F; Libera, S; Picardi, L; Ronsivalle, C; Vincenti, M A; Montereali, R M

    2015-01-01

    Proton beams of 3 MeV energy, produced by the injector of a linear accelerator for proton therapy, were used to irradiate at room temperature lithium fluoride crystals and polycrystalline thin films grown by thermal evaporation. The irradiation fluence range was 10 11 -10 15 protons/cm 2 . The proton irradiation induced the stable formation of primary and aggregate color centers. Their formation was investigated by optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The F 2 and F 3 + photoluminescence intensities, carefully measured in LiF crystals and thin films, show linear behaviours up to different maximum values of the irradiation fluence, after which a quenching is observed, depending on the nature of the samples (crystals and films). The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the absorption spectra of colored crystals, allowed to clearly identify the formation of more complex aggregate defects in samples irradiated at highest fluences. (paper)

  13. Primary and aggregate color centers in proton irradiated LiF crystals and thin films for luminescent solid state detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, M.; Ambrosini, F.; Ampollini, A.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    Proton beams of 3 MeV energy, produced by the injector of a linear accelerator for proton therapy, were used to irradiate at room temperature lithium fluoride crystals and polycrystalline thin films grown by thermal evaporation. The irradiation fluence range was 1011-1015 protons/cm2. The proton irradiation induced the stable formation of primary and aggregate color centers. Their formation was investigated by optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The F2 and F3+ photoluminescence intensities, carefully measured in LiF crystals and thin films, show linear behaviours up to different maximum values of the irradiation fluence, after which a quenching is observed, depending on the nature of the samples (crystals and films). The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the absorption spectra of colored crystals, allowed to clearly identify the formation of more complex aggregate defects in samples irradiated at highest fluences.

  14. Effect of annealing ambient on anisotropic retraction of film edges during solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye Hyun; Thompson, Carl V., E-mail: cthomp@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Ma, Wen [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Yildiz, Bilge [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    During solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films, film edges retract at a rate that is strongly dependent on their crystallographic orientations. Edges with kinetically stable in-plane orientations remain straight as they retract, while those with other in-plane orientations develop in-plane facets as they retract. Kinetically stable edges have retraction rates that are lower than edges with other orientations and thus determine the shape of the natural holes that form during solid-state dewetting. In this paper, measurements of the retraction rates of kinetically stable edges for single crystal (110) and (100) Ni films on MgO are presented. Relative retraction rates of kinetically stable edges with different crystallographic orientations are observed to change under different annealing conditions, and this accordingly changes the initial shapes of growing holes. The surfaces of (110) and (100) films were also characterized using low energy electron diffraction, and different surface reconstructions were observed under different ambient conditions. The observed surface structures were found to correlate with the observed changes in the relative retraction rates of the kinetically stable edges.

  15. Microstructure and magnetic properties of FeCo epitaxial thin films grown on MgO single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikada, Kouhei; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(100), MgO(110), and MgO(111) substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. FeCo thin films with (100), (211), and (110) planes parallel to the substrate surface grow on respective MgO substrates. FeCo/MgO interface structures are studied by high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and the epitaxial growth mechanism is discussed. Atomically sharp boundaries are recognized between the FeCo thin films and the MgO substrates where misfit dislocations are introduced in the FeCo thin films presumably to decrease the lattice misfits. Misfit dislocations are observed approximately every 9 and 1.4 nm in FeCo thin film at the FeCo/MgO(100) and the FeCo/MgO(110) interfaces, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the lattice spacing measured parallel to the single-crystal substrate surfaces are in agreement within 0.1% with those of the respective bulk values of Fe 50 Co 50 alloy crystal, showing that the FeCo film strain is very small. The magnetic anisotropies of these epitaxial films basically reflect the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bulk FeCo alloy crystal

  16. Application of Thin Films of Conjugated Polymers in Novel LED's and Liquid Crystal 'Light Valves'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacDiarmid, A

    1997-01-01

    .... Flexible, completely organic polymer dispersed liquid crystal light valves have been fabricated from transparent plastic substrates on which a conducting film of polypyrrole has been deposited...

  17. Effects of Crystal Morphology on Singlet Exciton Fission in Diketopyrrolopyrrole Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Patrick E; Margulies, Eric A; Mauck, Catherine M; Miller, Stephen A; Wu, Yilei; Wu, Yi-Lin; Marks, Tobin J; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2016-02-25

    Singlet exciton fission (SF) is a promising strategy for increasing photovoltaic efficiency, but in order for SF to be useful in solar cells, it should take place in a chromophore that is air-stable, highly absorptive, solution processable, and inexpensive. Unlike many SF chromophores, diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) conforms to these criteria, and here we investigate SF in DPP for the first time. SF yields in thin films of DPP derivatives, which are widely used in organic electronics and photovoltaics, are shown to depend critically on crystal morphology. Time-resolved spectroscopy of three DPP derivatives with phenyl (3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione, PhDPP), thienyl (3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione, TDPP), and phenylthienyl (3,6-di(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione, PhTDPP) aromatic substituents in 100-200 nm thin films reveals that efficient SF occurs only in TDPP and PhTDPP (τSF = 220 ± 20 ps), despite the fact that SF is most exoergic in PhDPP. This result correlates well with the greater degree of π-overlap and closer π-stacking in TDPP (3.50 Å) and PhTDPP (3.59 Å) relative to PhDPP (3.90 Å) and demonstrates that SF in DPP is highly sensitive to the electronic coupling between adjacent chromophores. The triplet yield in PhTDPP films is determined to be 210 ± 35% by the singlet depletion method and 165 ± 30% by the energy transfer method, showing that SF is nearly quantitative in these films and that DPP derivatives are a promising class of SF chromophores for enhancing photovoltaic performance.

  18. Three-dimensional photonic crystals as intermediate filter for thin-film tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawny, Andreas; Miclea, Paul T.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.; Lee, Seung-Mo; Knez, Mato; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lisca, Marian; Lederer, Falk L.; Carius, Reinhard

    2008-04-01

    The concept of a 3D photonic crystal structure as diffractive and spectrally selective intermediate filter within 'micromorphous' (a-Si/μc-Si) tandem solar cells has been investigated numerically and experimentally. Our device aims for the enhancement of the optical pathway of incident light within the amorphous silicon top cell in its spectral region of low absorption. From our previous simulations, we expect a significant improvement of the tandem cell efficiency of about absolutely 1.3%. This increases the efficiency for a typical a-Si / μc-Si tandem cell from 11.1% to 12.4%, as a result of the optical current-matching of the two junctions. We suggest as wavelength-selective optical element a 3D-structured optical thin-film, prepared by self-organized artificial opal templates and replicated with atomic layer deposition. The resulting samples are highly periodic thin-film inverted opals made of conducting and transparent zinc-oxide. We describe the fabrication processes and compare experimental data on the optical properties in reflection and transmission with our simulations and photonic band structure calculations.

  19. Fabrication and Crystal Structure of Sol-Gel Deposited BST Thin Films with Compositional Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czekaj D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present research technology of compositionally graded barium strontium titanate Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films deposited on stainless steel substrates by sol-gel spin coating followed with thermal annealing at T = 650°C is reported. Results of thermal behavior of the sol-gel derived powders with compositions used for fabrication of graded structure (i.e. with Sr mole fraction x = 0.5, 0.4 and 0.3 are described. X-ray diffraction studies of the phase composition and crystal structure of such complex thin film configuration are given. It was found that gel powders exhibited a large total weight loss of about Δm ≈ 44-47%. Three stages of weight loss took place at temperature ranges: below T ≈ 300°C, at ΔT ≈ 300-500°C and between T = 600°C and T = 800°C. Phase analysis has shown that the dominating phase is Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 compound while the second phase is Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 or Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 for “up-graded” and “down-graded” structure, respectively.

  20. Two-dimensional photonic crystal bandedge laser with hybrid perovskite thin film for optical gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyungrae [Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Seunghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myungjae [Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heonsu, E-mail: hsjeon@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-02

    We report optically pumped room temperature single mode laser that contains a thin film of hybrid perovskite, an emerging photonic material, as gain medium. Two-dimensional square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) backbone structure enables single mode laser operation via a photonic bandedge mode, while a thin film of methyl-ammonium lead iodide (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) spin-coated atop provides optical gain for lasing. Two kinds of bandedge modes, Γ and M, are employed, and both devices laser in single mode at similar laser thresholds of ∼200 μJ/cm{sup 2} in pulse energy density. Polarization dependence measurements reveal a clear difference between the two kinds of bandedge lasers: isotropic for the Γ-point laser and highly anisotropic for the M-point laser. These observations are consistent with expected modal properties, confirming that the lasing actions indeed originate from the corresponding PhC bandedge modes.

  1. A coupled atomistics and discrete dislocation plasticity simulation of nanoindentation into single crystal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ronald E.; Shilkrot, L.E.; Curtin, William A.

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of 2D nanoindentation of circular 'Brinell' indenter into a single crystal metal thin film bonded to a rigid substrate is investigated. The simulation method is the coupled atomistics and discrete dislocation (CADD) model recently developed by the authors. The CADD model couples a continuum region containing any number of discrete dislocations to an atomistic region, and permits accurate, automatic detection and passing of dislocations between the atomistic and continuum regions. The CADD model allows for a detailed study of nanoindentation to large penetration depths (up to 60 A here) using only a small region of atoms just underneath the indenter where dislocation nucleation, cross-slip, and annihilation occur. Indentation of a model hexagonal aluminum crystal shows: (i) the onset of homogeneous dislocation nucleation at points away from the points of maximum resolved shear stress; (ii) size-dependence of the material hardness, (iii) the role of dislocation dissociation on deformation; (iv) reverse plasticity, including nucleation of dislocations on unloading and annihilation; (v) permanent deformation, including surface uplift, after full unloading; (vi) the effects of film thickness on the load-displacement response; and (vii) the differences between displacement and force controlled loading. This application demonstrates the power of the CADD method in capturing both long-range dislocation plasticity and short-range atomistic phenomena. The use of CADD permits for a clear study of the physical and mechanical influence of both complex plastic flow and non-continuum atomistic-level processes on the macroscopic response of material under indentation loading

  2. Effect of deposition temperature on electron-beam evaporated polycrystalline silicon thin-film and crystallized by diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J., E-mail: j.yun@unsw.edu.au; Varalmov, S.; Huang, J.; Green, M. A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Kim, K. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Suntech R and D Australia, Botany, New South Wales 2019 (Australia)

    2014-06-16

    The effects of the deposition temperature on the microstructure, crystallographic orientation, and electrical properties of a 10-μm thick evaporated Si thin-film deposited on glass and crystallized using a diode laser, are investigated. The crystallization of the Si thin-film is initiated at a deposition temperature between 450 and 550 °C, and the predominant (110) orientation in the normal direction is found. Pole figure maps confirm that all films have a fiber texture and that it becomes stronger with increasing deposition temperature. Diode laser crystallization is performed, resulting in the formation of lateral grains along the laser scan direction. The laser power required to form lateral grains is higher in case of films deposited below 450 °C for all scan speeds. Pole figure maps show 75% occupancies of the (110) orientation in the normal direction when the laser crystallized film is deposited above 550 °C. A higher density of grain boundaries is obtained when the laser crystallized film is deposited below 450 °C, which limits the solar cell performance by n = 2 recombination, and a performance degradation is expected due to severe shunting.

  3. Transient phases during fast crystallization of organic thin films from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jing; Li, Yang; Ulbrandt, Jeffrey G.; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Hollin, Jonathan; Whalley, Adam C.; Headrick, Randall L.

    2016-01-01

    We report an in situ microbeam grazing incidence X-ray scattering study of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) organic semiconductor thin film deposition by hollow pen writing. Multiple transient phases are observed during the crystallization for substrate temperatures up to ≈93 °C. The layered smectic liquid-crystalline phase of C8-BTBT initially forms and preceedes inter-layer ordering, followed by a transient crystalline phase for temperature >60 °C, and ultimately the stable phase. Based on these results, we demonstrate a method to produce extremely large grain size and high carrier mobility during high-speed processing. For high writing speed (25 mm/s), mobility up to 3.0 cm2/V-s has been observed.

  4. Transient phases during fast crystallization of organic thin films from solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an in situ microbeam grazing incidence X-ray scattering study of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT organic semiconductor thin film deposition by hollow pen writing. Multiple transient phases are observed during the crystallization for substrate temperatures up to ≈93 °C. The layered smectic liquid-crystalline phase of C8-BTBT initially forms and preceedes inter-layer ordering, followed by a transient crystalline phase for temperature >60 °C, and ultimately the stable phase. Based on these results, we demonstrate a method to produce extremely large grain size and high carrier mobility during high-speed processing. For high writing speed (25 mm/s, mobility up to 3.0 cm2/V-s has been observed.

  5. The ergonomics approach for thin film transistor-liquid crystal display manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Wei; Yao, Chia-Chun; Kuo, Chein-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) has been used all over the world. Although the manufacture process of TFT-LCD was highly automated, employees are hired to do manual job in module assembly process. The operators may have high risk of musculoskeletal disorders because of the long work hours and the repetitive activities in an unfitted work station. The tools of this study were questionnaire, checklist and to evaluate the work place design. The result shows that the participants reported high musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in shoulder (59.8%), neck (49.5%), wrist (39.5%), and upper back (30.6%). And, to reduce the ergonomic risk factors, revising the height of the work benches, chairs and redesigning the truck to decrease the chance of unsuitable positions were recommended and to reduce other ergonomics hazards and seta good human machine interface and appropriate job design.

  6. The Effect of Type and Concentration of Modifier in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide on Crystallization of Nanocrystalline Titania Thin Films.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Cerhová, Marie; Jandová, Věra; Dřínek, Vladislav; Daniš, E.; Matějová, L.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 133, MAR 2018 (2018), s. 211-217 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23274S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : titania thin film * supercritical carbon dioxide * crystallization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  7. Strain-induced alignment and phase behavior of blue phase liquid crystals confined to thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose A; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Ye; de Pablo, Juan J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2017-12-06

    We report on the influence of surface confinement on the phase behavior and strain-induced alignment of thin films of blue phase liquid crystals (BPs). Confining surfaces comprised of bare glass, dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] ammonium chloride (DMOAP)-functionalized glass, or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated glass were used with or without mechanically rubbing to influence the azimuthal anchoring of the BPs. These experiments reveal that confinement can change the phase behavior of the BP films. For example, in experiments performed with rubbed-PVA surfaces, we measured the elastic strain of the BPs to change the isotropic-BPII phase boundary, suppressing formation of BPII for film thicknesses incommensurate with the BPII lattice. In addition, we observed strain-induced alignment of the BPs to exhibit a complex dependence on both the surface chemistry and azimuthal alignment of the BPs. For example, when using bare glass surfaces causing azimuthally degenerate and planar anchoring, BPI oriented with (110) planes of the unit cell parallel to the contacting surfaces for thicknesses below 3 μm but transitioned to an orientation with (200) planes aligned parallel to the contacting surfaces for thicknesses above 4 μm. In contrast, BPI aligned with (110) planes parallel to confining surfaces for all other thicknesses and surface treatments, including bare glass with uniform azimuthal alignment. Complementary simulations based on minimization of the total free energy (Landau-de Gennes formalism) confirmed a thickness-dependent reorientation due to strain of BPI unit cells within a window of surface anchoring energies and in the absence of uniform azimuthal alignment. In contrast to BPI, BPII did not exhibit thickness-dependent orientations but did exhibit orientations that were dependent on the surface chemistry, a result that was also captured in simulations by varying the anchoring energies. Overall, the results in this paper reveal that the orientations

  8. Crystal Structure of AgBi2I7 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zewen; Meng, Weiwei; Mitzi, David B; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-10-06

    Synthesis of cubic-phase AgBi 2 I 7 iodobismuthate thin films and fabrication of air-stable Pb-free solar cells using the AgBi 2 I 7 absorber have recently been reported. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and nominal composition, it was suggested that the synthesized films have a cubic ThZr 2 H 7 crystal structure with AgBi 2 I 7 stoichiometry. Through careful examination of the proposed structure and computational evaluation of the phase stability and bandgap, we find that the reported "AgBi 2 I 7 " films cannot be forming with the ThZr 2 H 7 -type structure, but rather more likely adopt an Ag-deficient AgBiI 4 type. Both the experimental X-ray diffraction pattern and bandgap can be better explained by the AgBiI 4 structure. Additionally, the proposed AgBiI 4 structure, with octahedral bismuth coordination, removes unphysically short Bi-I bonding within the [BiI 8 ] hexahedra of the ThZr 2 I 7 model. Our results provide critical insights for assessing the photovoltaic properties of AgBi 2 I 7 iodobismuthate materials.

  9. Preparation of TiO2 thin films from autoclaved sol containing needle-like anatase crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Lei; Xu Mingxia; Fang Haibo; Sun Ming

    2006-01-01

    A new inorganic sol-gel method was introduced in this paper to prepare TiO 2 thin films. The autoclaved sol with needle-like anatase crystals was synthesized using titanyl sulfate (TiOSO 4 ) and peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as starting materials. The transparent anatase TiO 2 thin films were prepared on glass slides from the autoclaved sol by sol-gel dip-coating method. A wide range of techniques such as Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrum were applied to characterize the autoclaved sol and TiO 2 thin films. The results indicate that the autoclaved sol is flavescent, semitransparent and stable at room temperature. The anatase crystals of TiO 2 films connect together to form net-like structure after calcined and the films become uniform with increasing heating temperature. The surface of the TiO 2 films contain not only Ti and O elements, but also a small amount of N and Na elements diffused from substrates during heat treatment. The TiO 2 films are transparent and their maximal light transmittances exceed 80% under visible light region

  10. Surface structure determinations of crystalline ionic thin films grown on transition metal single crystal surfaces by low energy electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joel Glenn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The surface structures of NaCl(100), LiF(100) and alpha-MgCl2(0001) adsorbed on various metal single crystals have been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Thin films of these salts were grown on metal substrates by exposing the heated metal surface to a molecular flux of salt emitted from a Knudsen cell. This method of investigating thin films of insulators (ionic salts) on a conducting substrate (metal) circumvents surface charging problems that plagued bulk studies, thereby allowing the use of electron-based techniques to characterize the surface.

  11. Observation of two regions of selective light reflection from a thin film of a cholesteric liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaverdyan, R B; Dadalyan, T K; Chilingaryan, Yurii S

    2013-01-01

    Two regions of selective light reflection (in the short- and long- wavelength parts of the visible spectrum) from a thin film of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), consisting of the mixture of two CLCs with opposite chirality and a nematic liquid crystal, are experimentally found for the first time. The spectral position of the reflection regions and the separation between them varies depending on the CLC composition and the temperature. The long-wavelength region of reflection corresponds to the region of Bragg reflection from the CLC helix, while the short-wavelength region is probably due to the defects in the structure of the CLC film. (letters)

  12. Formation of SmFe5(0001) ordered alloy thin films on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuhara, Osamu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    SmFe 5 (0001) single-crystal thin films are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy employing Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers on MgO(111) substrates. The Cu atoms diffuse into the Sm-Fe layer and substitute the Fe sites in SmFe 5 structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Fe,Cu) 5 . The Sm(Fe,Cu) 5 film is more Cu enriched with increasing the substrate temperature. The Cu underlayer plays an important role in assisting the formation of the ordered phase.

  13. Formation of SmFe{sub 5}(0001) ordered alloy thin films on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuhara, Osamu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: yabuhara@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    SmFe{sub 5}(0001) single-crystal thin films are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy employing Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers on MgO(111) substrates. The Cu atoms diffuse into the Sm-Fe layer and substitute the Fe sites in SmFe{sub 5} structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Fe,Cu){sub 5}. The Sm(Fe,Cu){sub 5} film is more Cu enriched with increasing the substrate temperature. The Cu underlayer plays an important role in assisting the formation of the ordered phase.

  14. On crystallization of bisphenol-A polycarbonate thin films upon annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chunhong; Li, Qichao; Mao, Wenfeng; Wang, Peng; He, Chunqing, E-mail: hecq@whu.edu.cn

    2015-10-16

    Crystallization of polycarbonate (PC) films as a function of annealing time has been investigated by various methods. A distinct diffraction peak at 17.56°, a sharp decrease of film thickness, an increase of refractive index and branch-type structures on the surface are found merely for the film after crystallization. Interestingly, positron annihilation parameters demonstrate fractional free-volumes in PC films vary significantly not only before crystallization but also at the early stage of annealing, which are not found by other methods. The results show that free-volumes in PC film must be increased remarkably before crystallization, which enables the occurrence of molecule rearrangement. - Highlights: • Fractional free-volume in PC film decreased of early stage of annealing. • Crystallization of PC film on Si substrate occurred after annealed for ∼48 hours. • Fractional free-volume in PC film increased remarkably before crystallization. • Positron diffusion length and S parameter revealed the variation of free volumes.

  15. On crystallization of bisphenol-A polycarbonate thin films upon annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chunhong; Li, Qichao; Mao, Wenfeng; Wang, Peng; He, Chunqing

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization of polycarbonate (PC) films as a function of annealing time has been investigated by various methods. A distinct diffraction peak at 17.56°, a sharp decrease of film thickness, an increase of refractive index and branch-type structures on the surface are found merely for the film after crystallization. Interestingly, positron annihilation parameters demonstrate fractional free-volumes in PC films vary significantly not only before crystallization but also at the early stage of annealing, which are not found by other methods. The results show that free-volumes in PC film must be increased remarkably before crystallization, which enables the occurrence of molecule rearrangement. - Highlights: • Fractional free-volume in PC film decreased of early stage of annealing. • Crystallization of PC film on Si substrate occurred after annealed for ∼48 hours. • Fractional free-volume in PC film increased remarkably before crystallization. • Positron diffusion length and S parameter revealed the variation of free volumes

  16. Highly polarized single-c-domain single-crystal Pb(Mn,Nb)O(3)-PZT thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka; Adachi, Hideaki; Nishida, Ken; Yamamoto, Takashi; Matsushima, Tomoaki; Kanno, Isaku; Kotera, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    In-plane unstrained single-c-domain/single-crystal thin films of PZT-based ternary ferroelectric perovskite, ξPb(Mn,Nb)O3-(1 - ξ)PZT, were grown on SrRuO(3)/Pt/MgO substrates using magnetron sputtering followed by quenching. The sputtered unstrained thin films exhibit unique ferroelectric properties: high coercive field, Ec > 180 kV/cm, large remanent polarization, P(r) = 100 μC/cm(2), small relative dielectric constants, ε* = 100 to 150, high Curie temperature, Tc = ~600 °C, and bulk-like large transverse piezoelectric constants, e31,f = -12.0 C/m(2) for PZT(48/52) at ξ = 0.06. The unstrained thin films are an ideal structure to extract the bulk ferroelectric properties. Their micro-structures and ferroelectric properties are discussed in relation to the potential applications for piezoelectric MEMS. © 2012 IEEE

  17. Solvent-induced crystallization for hybrid perovskite thin-film photodetector with high-performance and low working voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wei; Yang, Shuzhen; Fan, Peng; Pan, Anlian; Wu, Runsheng; Yang, Junliang

    2017-01-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskites have emerged as a class of solution-processed semiconductors exhibiting remarkable optoelectronic properties. Using a high-quality perovskite thin film prepared by solvent-induced crystallization method and adopting a novel device configuration based on photon recycling effect, a perovskite thin-film photodetector has been constructed with the highest external quantum efficiency of 4.1  ×  10 4 % and responsivity of 219 A W −1 at a low bias of 1 V so far. The device working mechanism was further disclosed based on energy band bending model. The high-performance and low working-voltage perovskite thin-film photodetector will find potential applications in photodetection and optoelectronic integrated circuits. (paper)

  18. Microstructure of Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films, grown on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nukaga, Yuri; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: nukaga@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films with hcp structure were prepared on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 {sup 0}C by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The microstructure is investigated by employing X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The film consists of two types of domains whose c-axes are rotated around the film normal by 90{sup 0} each other. Stacking faults are observed for the film along the Co[0001] direction. An atomically sharp boundary is recognized between the film and the substrate, where some misfit dislocations are introduced in the film at the Co/MgO interface. Dislocations are also observed in the film up to 15 nm thickness from the interface. Presence of such stacking faults and misfit dislocations seem to relieve the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of the film are in agreement within 0.5% and 0.1%, respectively, with those of the bulk hcp-Co crystal, suggesting the strain in the film is very small.

  19. Microstructure of Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films, grown on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukaga, Yuri; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films with hcp structure were prepared on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 0 C by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The microstructure is investigated by employing X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The film consists of two types of domains whose c-axes are rotated around the film normal by 90 0 each other. Stacking faults are observed for the film along the Co[0001] direction. An atomically sharp boundary is recognized between the film and the substrate, where some misfit dislocations are introduced in the film at the Co/MgO interface. Dislocations are also observed in the film up to 15 nm thickness from the interface. Presence of such stacking faults and misfit dislocations seem to relieve the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of the film are in agreement within 0.5% and 0.1%, respectively, with those of the bulk hcp-Co crystal, suggesting the strain in the film is very small.

  20. Epitaxial growth of fcc-CoxNi100-x thin films on MgO(110) single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Sato, Yoichi; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Co x Ni 100-x (x=100, 80, 20, 0 at. %) epitaxial thin films were prepared on MgO(110) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 deg. C by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The growth mechanism is discussed based on lattice strain and crystallographic defects. CoNi(110) single-crystal films with a fcc structure are obtained for all compositions. Co x Ni 100-x film growth follows the Volmer-Weber mode. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of the Co x Ni 100-x films are in agreement within ±0.5% with the values of the respective bulk Co x Ni 100-x crystals, suggesting that the strain in the film is very small. High-resolution cross-sectional transmission microscopy shows that an atomically sharp boundary is formed between a Co(110) fcc film and a MgO(110) substrate, where periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the film at the Co/MgO interface. The presence of such periodical misfit dislocations relieves the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate.

  1. Mechanism of Crystallization and Implications for Charge Transport in Poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene) Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Duc T.; Ho, Victor; Shang, Zhengrong; Mollinger, Sonya; Mannsfeld, Stefan C.B.; Dacuñ a, Javier; Toney, Michael F.; Segalman, Rachel; Salleo, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    on the film thickness and average molecular weight. Time-dependent, field-effect hole mobilities in thin films reveal a percolation threshold for both low and high molecular weight P3EHT. Structural analysis reveals that charge percolation requires bridged

  2. Analysis of Crystal Structure of Fe3O4 Thin Films Based on Iron Sand Growth by Spin Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianto, D.; Yulfriska, N.; Murti, F.; Hidayati, H.; Ramli, R.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, iron sand used as one of base materials in the steel industry. However, the content of iron sand can be used as starting materials in sensor technology in the form of thin films. In this paper, we report the analysis of crystal structure of magnetite thin film based on iron sand from Tiram’s Beach. The magnetic content of sand separated by a permanent magnet, then it was milled at 30 hours milling time. In order to increase the purity of magnetite, it washed after milling using aquades under magnetic separation by a magnet permanent. The thin film has been prepared using iron (III) nitrate by sol–gel technique. The precursor is resulted by dissolving magnetite in oxalic acid and nitric acid. Then, solution of iron (III) nitrate dissolved in ethylene glycol was applied on glass substrates by spin coating. The X-Ray Diffraction is operated thin film characterization. The structure of magnetite has been studied based on X-Ray Peaks that correspond to magnetite content of thin films.

  3. Surface phase separation, dewetting feature size, and crystal morphology in thin films of polystyrene/poly(ε-caprolactone) blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; He, Zhoukun; Li, Yuhan; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qing; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Thin films of polystyrene (PS)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends were prepared by spin-coating and characterized by tapping mode force microscopy (AFM). Effects of the relative concentration of PS in polymer solution on the surface phase separation and dewetting feature size of the blend films were systematically studied. Due to the coupling of phase separation, dewetting, and crystallization of the blend films with the evaporation of solvent during spin-coating, different size of PS islands decorated with various PCL crystal structures including spherulite-like, flat-on individual lamellae, and flat-on dendritic crystal were obtained in the blend films by changing the film composition. The average distance of PS islands was shown to increase with the relative concentration of PS in casting solution. For a given ratio of PS/PCL, the feature size of PS appeared to increase linearly with the square of PS concentration while the PCL concentration only determined the crystal morphology of the blend films with no influence on the upper PS domain features. This is explained in terms of vertical phase separation and spinodal dewetting of the PS rich layer from the underlying PCL rich layer, leading to the upper PS dewetting process and the underlying PCL crystalline process to be mutually independent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrochemically modified crystal orientation, surface morphology and optical properties using CTAB on Cu2O thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karupanan Periyanan Ganesan

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin films with different crystal orientations were electrochemically deposited in the presence of various molar concentrations of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate using standard three electrodes system. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies reveal cubic structure of Cu2O with (111 plane orientation, after addition of CTAB in deposition solution, the orientation of crystal changes from (111 into (200 plane. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images explored significant variation on morphology of Cu2O thin films deposited with addition of CTAB compared to without addition of CTAB. Photoluminescence (PL spectra illustrate that the emission peak around at 650 nm is attributed to near band edge emission, and the film prepared at the 3 mM of CTAB exhibits much higher intensity than that of the all other films. UV–Visible spectra show optical absorption in the range of 480–610 nm and the highest transparency of Cu2O film prepared at the concentration of 3 mM CTAB. The optical band gap is increased in the range between 2.16 and 2.45 eV with increasing the CTAB concentrations. Keywords: Cuprous oxide, Crystal orientation, Electrodeposition and cubic structure

  5. Intercalation crystallization of phase-pure α-HC(NH₂)₂PbI₃ upon microstructurally engineered PbI₂ thin films for planar perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Kwun, Joonsuh; Game, Onkar S; Zhao, Yixin; Pang, Shuping; Padture, Nitin P; Zhu, Kai

    2016-03-28

    The microstructure of the solid-PbI2 precursor thin film plays an important role in the intercalation crystallization of the formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite (α-HC(NH2)2PbI3). It is shown that microstructurally engineered PbI2 thin films with porosity and low crystallinity are the most favorable for conversion into uniform-coverage, phase-pure α-HC(NH2)2PbI3 perovskite thin films. Planar perovskite solar cells fabricated using these thin films deliver power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 13.8%.

  6. Manufacture of Bi-cuprate thin films on MgO single crystal substrates by chemical solution deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Bertelsen, Christian Vinther; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2014-01-01

    Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 thin films have been deposited on MgO single crystal substrates by spin-coating a solution based on 2-ethylhexanoate precursors dissolved in xylene. Pyrolysis takes place between 200°C and 450°C and is accompanied by the release of 2-ethylhexanoic acid, CO2 and H2O vapour. Highly c...

  7. Effects of DC gate and drain bias stresses on the degradation of excimer laser crystallized polysilicon thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouvatsos, D N; Michalas, L; Voutsas, A T; Papaioannou, G J

    2005-01-01

    The effects of gate and drain bias stresses on thin film transistors fabricated in polysilicon films crystallized using the advanced sequential lateral solidification excimer laser annealing (SLS ELA) process, which yields very elongated polysilicon grains and allows the fabrication of TFTs without grain boundary barriers to current flow, are investigated as a function of the active layer thickness and of the TFT orientation relative to the grains. The application of hot carrier stress, with a condition of V GS = V DS /2, was determined to induce threshold voltage, subthreshold swing and transconductance degradation for TFTs in thicker polysilicon films and the associated stress-induced increase in the active layer trap density was evaluated. However, this device degradation was drastically reduced for TFTs fabricated in ultra-thin films. Furthermore, the application of the same stress condition to TFTs oriented vertically to the elongated grains resulted in similar threshold voltage shift but in substantially decreased subthreshold swing and transconductance degradation. The immunity of ultra-thin active layer devices to degradation under hot carrier stress clearly suggests the implementation of ultra thin SLS ELA polysilicon films for the fabrication of TFTs exhibiting not only high performance but, especially, the high reliability needed for integrated systems on panel

  8. Thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongin, M.; Miller, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews the phenomena that occur in films from the point of view of a solid state physicist. Films form the basis for many established and developing technologies. Metal layers have always been important for optical coatings and as protective coatings. In the most sophisticated cases, films and their interaction on silicon surfaces form the basis of modern electronic technology. Films of silicon, GaAs and composites of these materials promise to lead to practical photovoltaic devices

  9. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Sol-gel-derived Thin Films as Gas Sensor for NO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. O’Shea

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibilities and properties of Indium tin oxide (ITO-covered quartz crystal as a NOx toxic gas-sensor. The starting sol-gel solution was prepared by mixing indium chloride dissolved in acetylacetone and tin chloride dissolved in ethanol (0-20% by weight. The ITO thin films were deposited on the gold electrodes of quartz crystal by spin-coating technique and subsequently followed a standard photolithography to pattern the derived films to ensure all sensors with the same sensing areas. All heat treatment processes were controlled below 500°C in order to avoid the piezoelectric characteristics degradation of quartz crystal (Quartz will lose its piezoelectricity at ~573°C due to the phase change from α to β. The electrical and structural properties of ITO thin films were characterized with Hall analysis system, TG/DTA, XRD, XPS, SEM and etc. The gas sensor had featured with ITO thin films of ~100nm as the receptor to sense the toxic gas NO and quartz crystal with frequency of 10MHz as the transducer to transfer the surface reactions (mass loading, etc into the frequency shift. A homemade setup had been employed to measure the sensor response under the static mode. The experimental results had indicated that the ITO-coated QCM had a good sensitivity for NO gas, ~12Hz/100ppm within 5mins. These results prove that the ITO-covered quartz crystals are usable as a gas sensor and as an analytical device.

  10. Electron microscopy study of Ni induced crystallization in amorphous Si thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radnóczi, G. Z.; Battistig, G.; Pécz, B.; Dodony, E.; Vouroutzis, N.; Stoemenos, J.; Frangis, N.; Kovács, A.

    2015-01-01

    The crystallization of amorphous silicon is studied by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of Ni on the crystallization is studied in a wide temperature range heating thinned samples in-situ inside the microscope. Two cases of limited Ni source and unlimited Ni source are studied and compared. NiSi 2 phase started to form at a temperature as low as 250°C in the limited Ni source case. In-situ observation gives a clear view on the crystallization of silicon through small NiSi 2 grain formation. The same phase is observed at the crystallization front in the unlimited Ni source case, where a second region is also observed with large grains of Ni 3 Si 2 . Low temperature experiments show, that long annealing of amorphous silicon at 410 °C already results in large crystallized Si regions due to the Ni induced crystallization

  11. Praseodymium Cuprate Thin Film Cathodes for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Roles of Doping, Orientation, and Crystal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kunal; Hayamizu, Yoshiaki; Kim, Chang Sub; Kolchina, Liudmila M; Mazo, Galina N; Istomin, Sergey Ya; Bishop, Sean R; Tuller, Harry L

    2016-12-21

    Highly textured thin films of undoped, Ce-doped, and Sr-doped Pr 2 CuO 4 were synthesized on single crystal YSZ substrates using pulsed laser deposition to investigate their area-specific resistance (ASR) as cathodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The effects of T' and T* crystal structures, donor and acceptor doping, and a-axis and c-axis orientation on ASR were systematically studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on half cells. The addition of both Ce and Sr dopants resulted in improvements in ASR in c-axis oriented films, as did the T* crystal structure with the a-axis orientation. Pr 1.6 Sr 0.4 CuO 4 is identified as a potential cathode material with nearly an order of magnitude faster oxygen reduction reaction kinetics at 600 °C compared to thin films of the commonly studied cathode material La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.8 Fe 0.2 O 3-δ . Orientation control of the cuprate films on YSZ was achieved using seed layers, and the anisotropy in the ASR was found to be less than an order of magnitude. The rare-earth doped cuprate was found to be a versatile system for study of relationships between bulk properties and the oxygen reduction reaction, critical for improving SOFC performance.

  12. Thin Film Microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    aerosol spray coating, for one or more components of the battery. The active materials used for the thin film cathodes and anodes are familiar intercalation compounds, but the microstructures and often the cycling properties of the thin films may be quite distinct from those of battery electrodes formed from powders. The thin film cathodes are dense and homogeneous with no added phases such as binders or electrolytes. When deposited at ambient temperatures, the films of cathodes, such as LiCoO 2 , V 2 O 5 , LiMn 2 O4 , LiFePO 4 are amorphous or nanocrystalline. But even in this form, they often act as excellent cathodes with large specific capacities and good stability for hundreds to thousands of cycles. Annealing the cathode films at temperatures of 300 to 800 C may be used to induce crystallization and grain growth of the desired intercalation compound. Crystallizing the cathode film generally improves the Li chemical diffusivity in the electrode material, and hence the power delivered by the battery, by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The microstructure is also tailored by the deposition and heat treatment. Figure 3 shows a fracture edge of an annealed LiCoO 2 cathode film on an alumina substrate. The columnar microstructure, which is typical of a vapor deposited film, sinters at high temperatures leaving small fissures between the dense columns. Such crystalline films also may have a preferred crystallographic orientation. For LiCoO 2 films the crystallographic texture differs for films deposited by sputtering versus pulse laser ablation processes. To improve the manufacturability of the thin film batteries, it would be beneficial to eliminate or minimize the temperature or duration of the annealing step. Several efforts have lead to low temperature fabrication of thin film batteries on polyimide substrates, but the battery capacity and rate are lower than those treated at high temperatures. For the battery anode, many designs use a vapor-deposited metallic lithium film as

  13. Thin-film photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The high material and processing costs associated with single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon wafers that are commonly used in photovoltaic cells render these modules expensive. This presentation described thin-film solar cell technology as a promising alternative to silicon solar cell technology. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films along with copper, indium, gallium, and selenium (CIGS) thin films have become the leaders in this field. Their large optical absorption coefficient can be attributed to a direct energy gap that allows the use of thin layers (1-2 {mu}m) of active material. The efficiency of thin-film solar cell devices based on CIGS is 20 per cent, compared to 16.7 per cent for thin-film solar cell devices based on CdTe. IBM recently reported an efficiency of 9.7 per cent for a new type of inorganic thin-film solar cell based on a Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S, Se){sub 4} compound. The efficiency of an organic thin-film solar cell is 7.9 per cent. This presentation included a graph of PV device efficiencies and discussed technological advances in non-vacuum deposited, CIGS-based thin-film solar cells. 1 fig.

  14. Crystal structure and band gap determination of HfO2 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheynet, M.C.; Pokrant, S.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Rouvière, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Valence electron energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) are performed on three different HfO2 thin films grown on Si (001) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or atomic layer deposition (ALD). For each sample the band gap (Eg) is determined by

  15. Crystallization in diblock copolymer thin films at different degrees of supercooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darko, C.; Botiz, I.; Reiter, G.

    2009-01-01

    The crystalline structures in thin films of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymers were studied in dependence on the degree of supercooling. Atomic force microscopy showed that the crystalline domains (lamellae) consist of grains, which are macroscopic at low and interme...

  16. Periodic domain inversion in x-cut single-crystal lithium niobate thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackwitz, P., E-mail: peterm@mail.upb.de; Rüsing, M.; Berth, G.; Zrenner, A. [Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Center for Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Widhalm, A.; Müller, K. [Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany)

    2016-04-11

    We report the fabrication of periodically poled domain patterns in x-cut lithium niobate thin-film. Here, thin films on insulator have drawn particular attention due to their intrinsic waveguiding properties offering high mode confinement and smaller devices compared to in-diffused waveguides in bulk material. In contrast to z-cut thin film lithium niobate, the x-cut geometry does not require back electrodes for poling. Further, the x-cut geometry grants direct access to the largest nonlinear and electro-optical tensor element, which overall promises smaller devices. The domain inversion was realized via electric field poling utilizing deposited aluminum top electrodes on a stack of LN thin film/SiO{sub 2} layer/Bulk LN, which were patterned by optical lithography. The periodic domain inversion was verified by non-invasive confocal second harmonic microscopy. Our results show domain patterns in accordance to the electrode mask layout. The second harmonic signatures can be interpreted in terms of spatially, overlapping domain filaments which start their growth on the +z side.

  17. Crystal plasticity based modeling of time and scale dependent behavior of thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erturk, I.; Gao, K.; Bielen, J.A.; Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The micro and sub-micro scale dimensions of the components of modern high-tech products pose challenging engineering problems that require advanced tools to tackle them. An example hereof is time dependent strain recovery, here referred to as anelasticity, which is observed in metallic thin film

  18. Effect of crystal structure on strontium titanate thin films and their dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampangkeaw, Satreerat

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3 or STO) has application in radio and microwave-frequency tunable capacitor devices particularly at low temperatures due to its high dielectric constant, low loss and the electric field tunability of its dielectric constant. The main goal of improving the performance in these devices is to increase the tunability and decrease the dielectric loss at the same time, especially at microwave frequencies. Thin films of STO however, show dramatic differences compared to the bulk. The dielectric constant of bulk STO increases nonlinearly from 300 at room temperature to 30000 at 4 K and the loss range is 10-3--10 -4. On the other hand. STO thin films, while showing a dielectric constant close to 300 at room temperature, typically reach a maximum between 1000 and 10000 in the 30 K to 100 K range before decreasing, and the high-loss range is 10-2--10-3. We have grown strontium titanate thin films using a pulsed laser deposition technique on substrates selected to have a small lattice mismatch between the film and substrate. Neodymium gallate (NdGaO3 or NGO) and lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3 or LAO) substrates were good candidates due to only 1--2% mismatching. Film capacitor devices were fabricated with 25 micron gap separation. 1.5 mm total gap length and an overall 1 x 2 mm dimension using standard lithography and gold metal evaporative techniques. Their nonlinear dielectric constant and loss tangent were measured at low frequencies and also at 2 GHz, and from room temperature down to 4 K. The resulting films show significant variations of dielectric properties with position on the substrates with respect to the deposition plume axis. In the presence of DC electric fields up to +/-4 V/mum, STO films show improved dielectric tunability and low loss in regions far from the plume axis. We found that the films grown on NCO have lower dielectric loss than those on LAO due to a closer match of the NCO lattice to that of STO. We investigated the possible

  19. Hexamethyldisiloxane thin films as sensitive coating for quartz crystal microbalance based volatile organic compounds sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutamine, M.; Bellel, A.; Sahli, S.; Segui, Y.; Raynaud, P.

    2014-01-01

    Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) thin films coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrodes have been characterized for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The sensitive coatings were plasma polymerized in pure vapor of HMDSO and HMDSO/O 2 mixture. The sensor sensitivity was evaluated by monitoring the frequency shift (∆f) of the coated QCM electrode exposed to different concentrations of VOC vapors, such as ethanol, methanol, benzene and chloroform. The isotherm response characteristics showed good reproducibility and reversibility. For all types of analyte, ∆f were found to be linearly correlated with the concentration of VOC vapor. It was shown that it is possible to tune the chemical affinity of the sensor by changing the oxygen ratio in the deposition gas mixture. Contact angle measurements (CA), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface wettability, chemical composition and surface morphology of the coated QCM electrodes. ATR-FTIR analysis showed the presence of methyl groups around 840 cm −1 due to Si-(CH 3 ) 3 rocking vibration making the elaborated sensor surface hydrophobic. When the coating is performed in HMDSO/O 2 mixture, AFM and SEM images showed an increase in the effective specific surface area of the sensor due to the increase in surface roughness. Surface morphology combined with chemical composition significantly affects the sensitivity of the QCM-based sensor. - Highlights: • Hexamethyldisiloxane layers were evaluated for volatile organic compounds detection. • The kinetic response of the sensor showed good reproducibility and reversibility. • Hydrophobic coating and high specific surface area increase the sensor sensitivity. • Sensor affinity can be controlled by controlling oxygen proportion in the mixture

  20. Fabrication of polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates using fiber laser crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dao, Vinh Ai; Han, Kuymin; Heo, Jongkyu; Kyeong, Dohyeon; Kim, Jaehong; Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Yongkuk; Jung, Sungwook; Kim, Kyunghae [Information and Communication Device Laboratory, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.k [Information and Communication Device Laboratory, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Laser crystallization of amorphous silicon (a-Si), using a fiber laser of {lambda} = 1064 nm wavelength, was investigated. a-Si films with 50 nm thickness deposited on glass were prepared by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The infrared fundamental wave ({lambda} = 1064 nm) is not absorbed by amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. Thus, different types of capping layers (a-CeO{sub x}, a-SiN{sub x}, and a-SiO{sub x}) with a desired refractive index, n and thickness, d were deposited on the a-Si surface. Crystallization was a function of laser energy density, and was performed using a fiber laser. The structural properties of the crystallized films were measured via Raman spectra, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The relationship between film transmittance and crystallinity was discussed. As the laser energy density increased from 10-40 W, crystallinity increased from 0-90%. However, the higher laser density adversely affected surface roughness and uniformity of the grain size. We found that favorable crystallization and uniformity could be accomplished at the lower energy density of 30 W with a-SiO{sub x} as the capping layer.

  1. Antiphase inversion domains in lithium cobaltite thin films deposited on single-crystal sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, S.J.; Fisher, C.A.J.; Hitosugi, T.; Kumatani, A.; Shiraki, S.; Ikuhara, Y.H.; Kuwabara, A.; Moriwake, H.; Oki, H.; Ikuhara, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Antiphase inversion domains in LiCoO 2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire single-crystal substrates are analyzed using a combination of (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Domains form epitaxially on the substrates with orientation relationships of [112 ¯ 0] LiCoO 2 (0001) LiCoO 2 //[11 ¯ 00] α-Al 2 O 3 (0001) α-Al 2 O 3 and [1 ¯ 1 ¯ 20] LiCoO 2 (0001) LiCoO 2 //[11 ¯ 00] α-Al 2 O 3 (0001) α-Al 2 O 3 . In addition, substrate/film interfaces with the above orientation relationships always have the same stacking sequence of Al–O–Co–O–Li–O. This is confirmed to be the most energetically stable stacking arrangement according to first-principles calculations. Individual domains form as a result of steps one (0 0 0 1) O–Al–O spacing in height on the otherwise flat substrate surface. Because the orientation of adjacent (0 0 0 1) AlO 6 octahedra in Al 2 O 3 are rotated by 180°, while LiO 6 and CoO 6 octahedra in LiCoO 2 are all aligned in the same direction, substrate steps produce LiCoO 2 domains rotated 180° relative to their neighbors. The similar size of oxygen octahedra in the two materials also means that the step height is close to the layer spacing in LiCoO 2 , so that (0 0 0 1) Li and Co layers of adjacent domains are shifted by one layer relative to each other at each domain boundary, aligning Li layers with Co layers across the boundary. The combination of these two effects generates antiphase inversion domains. The domain boundaries effectively sever Li-ion diffusion pathways in the (0 0 0 1) planes between domains and thus are expected to have a detrimental effect on Li-ion conductivity

  2. The response of quartz crystals coated with thin fatty acid film to organic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, C N; Kim, K H; Kwon, Y S

    1999-01-01

    We tried to apply a quartz crystal as a sensor by using the resonant frequency and the resistance properties of quartz crystals. Four kinds of fatty acids that have the same head groups were coated on the surfaces of the quartz crystals, and the shift of the resonant frequency and the resistance were observed based on the lengths of the tail groups. Myristic acid (C sub 1 sub 4), palmitic acid (C sub 1 sub 6), stearic acid (C sub 1 sub 8), and arachidic acid (C sub 2 sub 0) were deposited on the surfaces of quartz crystals by using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. As a result, the resonant frequency change was more sensitive to high molecular-weight fatty acids than to low molecular-weight ones. We also observed the effect of temperature on stearic acid LB films, and the response properties of quartz crystals coated with stearic-acid LB films to organic gases were investigated. As a result, the sensitivity of quartz crystals to organic gases was higher for higher molecular-weight gas, and we found that quar...

  3. Crystallization and atomic diffusion behavior of high coercive Ta/Nd-Fe-B/Ta-based permanent magnetic thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Na; Zhang, Xiao; You, Caiyin; Fu, Huarui [Xi' an University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an (China); Shen, Qianlong [Logistics University of People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin (China)

    2017-06-15

    A high coercivity of about 20.4 kOe was obtained through post-annealing the sputtered Ta/Nd-Fe-B/Ta-based permanent magnetic thin films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were performed to investigate the crystallization and atomic diffusion behaviors during post-annealing. The results show that the buffer and capping Ta layers prefered to intermix with Fe and B atoms, and Nd tends to be combined with O atoms. The preferred atomic combination caused the appearance of the soft magnetic phase of Fe-Ta-B, resulting in a kink of the second quadratic magnetic hysteresis loop. The preferred atomic diffusion and phase formation of the thin films were well explained in terms of the formation enthalpy of the various compounds. (orig.)

  4. Influence of intermediate layers on the surface condition of laser crystallized silicon thin films and solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höger, Ingmar, E-mail: ingmar.hoeger@ipht-jena.de; Gawlik, Annett; Brückner, Uwe; Andrä, Gudrun [Leibniz-Institut für Photonische Technologien, PF 100239, 07702 Jena (Germany); Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan [Institut für Mikro-und Nanotechnologien, Technische Universität Ilmenau, PF 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    The intermediate layer (IL) between glass substrate and silicon plays a significant role in the optimization of multicrystalline liquid phase crystallized silicon thin film solar cells on glass. This study deals with the influence of the IL on the surface condition and the required chemical surface treatment of the crystallized silicon (mc-Si), which is of particular interest for a-Si:H heterojunction thin film solar cells. Two types of IL were investigated: sputtered silicon nitride (SiN) and a layer stack consisting of silicon nitride and silicon oxide (SiN/SiO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed the formation of silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) or silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers at the surface of the mc-Si after liquid phase crystallization on SiN or SiN/SiO, respectively. We propose that SiO{sub x}N{sub y} formation is governed by dissolving nitrogen from the SiN layer in the silicon melt, which segregates at the crystallization front during crystallization. This process is successfully hindered, when additional SiO layers are introduced into the IL. In order to achieve solar cell open circuit voltages above 500 mV, a removal of the formed SiO{sub x}N{sub y} top layer is required using sophisticated cleaning of the crystallized silicon prior to a-Si:H deposition. However, solar cells crystallized on SiN/SiO yield high open circuit voltage even when a simple wet chemical surface treatment is applied. The implementation of SiN/SiO intermediate layers facilitates the production of mesa type solar cells with open circuit voltages above 600 mV and a power conversion efficiency of 10%.

  5. Crystallization to polycrystalline silicon thin film and simultaneous inactivation of electrical defects by underwater laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Emi [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2012-12-17

    We propose a low-temperature laser annealing method of a underwater laser annealing (WLA) for polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films. We performed crystallization to poly-Si films by laser irradiation in flowing deionized-water where KrF excimer laser was used for annealing. We demonstrated that the maximum value of maximum grain size of WLA samples was 1.5 {mu}m, and that of the average grain size was 2.8 times larger than that of conventional laser annealing in air (LA) samples. Moreover, WLA forms poly-Si films which show lower conductivity and larger carrier life time attributed to fewer electrical defects as compared to LA poly-Si films.

  6. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S; Ridge, Claron J.; Rö tzer, Marian David; Zwaschka, Gregor; Braun, Thomas; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie; Schweinberger, Florian Frank; Gü nther, Sebastian; Heiz, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly

  7. Electrical properties of single crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet ultra-thin films at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Thiery, Nicolas; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Vila, Laurent; Marty, Alain; Brenac, Ariel; Jacquot, Jean-François; de Loubens, Grégoire; Viret, Michel; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Cros, Vincent; Youssef, Jamal Ben; Demidov, Vladislav E.; Demokritov, Sergej O.; Klein, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We report a study on the electrical properties of 19 nm thick Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) films grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The electrical conductivity and Hall coefficient are measured in the high temperature range [300,400]~K using a Van der Pauw four-point probe technique. We find that the electrical resistivity decreases exponentially with increasing temperature following an activated behavior corresponding to a band-gap of $E_g\\approx 2$ eV, indicating that epitaxial YIG ultra-thin film...

  8. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Deming; Shvyd’ko, Yuri V.; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    A new thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus has been designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain. This novel mechanical design can be applied to new development in the field of: x-ray optics cavities for hard x-ray free-electron laser oscillators (XFELOs), self-seeding monochromators for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with high average thermal loading, high heat load diamond crystal monochromators and beam-sharing/beam-split-and-delay devices for XFEL facilities and future upgraded high-brightness coherent x-ray source in the MBA lattice configuration at the APS.

  9. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming, E-mail: shu@aps.anl.gov; Shvyd’ko, Yuri V.; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, U.S.A (United States)

    2016-07-27

    A new thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus has been designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain. This novel mechanical design can be applied to new development in the field of: x-ray optics cavities for hard x-ray free-electron laser oscillators (XFELOs), self-seeding monochromators for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with high average thermal loading, high heat load diamond crystal monochromators and beam-sharing/beam-split-and-delay devices for XFEL facilities and future upgraded high-brightness coherent x-ray source in the MBA lattice configuration at the APS.

  10. Magnetic properties and crystal texture of Co alloy thin films prepared on double bias Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lambeth, D. N.; Lee, L.-L.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1993-05-01

    A double layer Cr film structure has been prepared by sputter depositing Cr on single crystal Si substrates first without substrate bias and then with various substrate bias voltages. Without substrate bias, Cr{200} texture grows on Si at room temperature; thus the first Cr layer acts like a seed Cr layer with the {200} texture, and the second Cr layer, prepared with substrate bias, tends to replicate the {200} texture epitaxially. CoCrTa and CoNiCr films prepared on these double Cr underlayers, therefore, tend to have a {112¯0} texture with their c-axes oriented in the plane of the film. At the same time, the bias sputtering of the second Cr layer increases the coercivity of the subsequently deposited magnetic films significantly. Comparison studies of δM curves show that the use of the double Cr underlayers reduces the intergranular exchange interactions. The films prepared on the Si substrates have been compared with the films prepared on canasite and glass substrates. It has also been found that the magnetic properties are similar for films on canasite and on glass.

  11. Effects on crystal structure of CZTS thin films owing to deionized water and sulfurization treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadi, Samia Ahmed; Chelvanathan, Puvaneswaran; Islam, M. A.; Sopian, Kamruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusoff, Yulisa [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Amin, Nowshad [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-05-15

    To condense the cost and increase the production, using abundantly obtainable non-toxic elements, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) seem to be a strong contender among the photovoltaic thin film technologies. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering system. CZTS were sputtered on Molybdenum (Mo) coated soda lime glass (SLG) using a single target sputtering technique. The sputtering parameters (base pressure, working pressure, Argon (Ar) flow rate, RF power and sputtering time) were kept same for all three types of films. For sulfurization, the temperature used was 500 °C. Finally, As-deposited film was immersed in DIW before undergoing identical sulfurization profile. As-deposited film (Sample A), sulfurized films (Sample B) and sulfurized plus DIW treated (Sample C) were compared in terms of their structural properties by means of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurement and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Sample B and C showed peak of (1 1 2) planes of CZTS which are characteristics of stannite structure. Post deposition treatment on CZTS films proved to be beneficial as evident from the observed enhancement in the crystallinity and grain growth. Significant difference on grain size and area roughness could be observed from the AFM measurement. The roughness of Sample A, B and C increased from 5.007 nm to 20.509 nm and 14.183 nm accordingly. From XRD data secondary phases of Cu{sub x}MoS{sub x} could be observed.

  12. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  13. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  14. The microstructural changes of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film during crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingbo; Qi, Chao; Chen, Limin; Zheng, Long; Xie, Qiyun

    2018-05-01

    Phase change memory is known as the most promising candidate for the next generation nonvolatile memory technology. In this paper, the microstructural changes of Ge2Sb2Te5 film, which is the most common choice of phase change memory material, has been carefully studied by the combination of several characterization techniques. The combination of resistance measurements, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray reflectivity allows us to simultaneously extract the characteristics of microstructural changes during crystallization process. The existence of surface/interface Ge2Sb2Te5 layer has been proposed here based on X-ray reflectivity measurements. Although the total film thickness decreases, as a result of the phase transition from amorphous to metastable crystalline cubic and then to the stable hexagonal phase, the surface/interface thickness increases after crystallization. Moreover, the increase of average grain size, density and surface roughness has been confirmed during thermal annealing process.

  15. Photoinduced Optical Spectroscopy of La2CuO4+x Single Crystals and C60 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhenov, A.V.; Gorbunov, A.V.; Timofeev, V.B.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of both vibration and electronic spectra of insulating La 2 CuO 4+x single crystals upon charge-transfer gap photoexcitation has been studied by means of photoinduced reflection spectroscopy. Interaction of self-localized hole with some of the A g , B 2g (B 3g ), B 3u optical phonons has been observed. Formation of self-localized hole state and its multiparticle complexes is supposed. Photoinduced absorption in C 60 thin films has been found to differ essentially from that in cuprates

  16. Composition dependence of crystallization temperature and magnetic property of NdFeB thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoa, T.V. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ha, N.D. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, S.M. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, H.M. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G.W. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hien, T.D. [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tai, L.T. [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Duong, N.P. [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Lee, K.E. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.G. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.O. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: magkim@cnu.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    Si(100)/Mo(30nm)/Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 92-x}B{sub 8}(800nm)/Mo(30nm) (x=14, 20, 30) films are prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. As-deposited films are amorphous materials. The crystallization temperature of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase decreases from 575deg. C to 500deg. C with increase of x from 14 to 20-30. The optimum annealing temperature with 30min annealing time is 650 deg. C, 625 deg. C and 600 deg. C for x=14, 20 and 30, respectively, and the x=20 film has the largest energy product of 100118MG.

  17. Single-crystal-like GdNdO{sub x} thin films on silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing for crystal seed layer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ziwei; Xiao, Lei; Liang, Renrong, E-mail: wang-j@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liangrr@tsinghua.edu.cn; Shen, Shanshan; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jing, E-mail: wang-j@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liangrr@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Single-crystal-like rare earth oxide thin films on silicon (Si) substrates were fabricated by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing processes. A 30-nm-thick high-quality GdNdO{sub x} (GNO) film was deposited using a high-temperature sputtering process at 500°C. A Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture was used as the sputtering target, in which the proportions of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} were controlled to make the GNO’s lattice parameter match that of the Si substrate. To further improve the quality of the GNO film, a post-deposition annealing process was performed at a temperature of 1000°C. The GNO films exhibited a strong preferred orientation on the Si substrate. In addition, an Al/GNO/Si capacitor was fabricated to evaluate the dielectric constant and leakage current of the GNO films. It was determined that the single-crystal-like GNO films on the Si substrates have potential for use as an insulator layer for semiconductor-on-insulator and semiconductor/insulator multilayer applications.

  18. Single-crystal-like GdNdOx thin films on silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing for crystal seed layer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziwei Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal-like rare earth oxide thin films on silicon (Si substrates were fabricated by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing processes. A 30-nm-thick high-quality GdNdOx (GNO film was deposited using a high-temperature sputtering process at 500°C. A Gd2O3 and Nd2O3 mixture was used as the sputtering target, in which the proportions of Gd2O3 and Nd2O3 were controlled to make the GNO’s lattice parameter match that of the Si substrate. To further improve the quality of the GNO film, a post-deposition annealing process was performed at a temperature of 1000°C. The GNO films exhibited a strong preferred orientation on the Si substrate. In addition, an Al/GNO/Si capacitor was fabricated to evaluate the dielectric constant and leakage current of the GNO films. It was determined that the single-crystal-like GNO films on the Si substrates have potential for use as an insulator layer for semiconductor-on-insulator and semiconductor/insulator multilayer applications.

  19. In situ X-ray diffraction study of crystallization process of GeSbTe thin films during heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Naohiko [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)]. E-mail: e0957@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Konomi, Ichiro [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Seno, Yoshiki [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    The crystallization processes of the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film used for PD and DVD-RAM were studied in its realistic optical disk film configurations for the first time by X-ray diffraction using an intense X-ray beam of a synchrotron orbital radiation facility (SPring-8) and in situ quick detection with a Position-Sensitive-Proportional-Counter. The dependence of the amorphous-to-fcc phase-change temperature T{sub 1} on the rate of temperature elevation R{sub et} gave an activation energy E{sub a}: 0.93 eV much less than previously reported 2.2 eV obtained from a model sample 25-45 times thicker than in the real optical disks. The similar measurement on the Ge{sub 4}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 5} film whose large reflectance change attains the readability by CD-ROM drives gave E{sub a}: 1.13 eV with larger T{sub 1} than Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films at any R{sub et} implying a lower sensitivity in erasing as well as a better data stability of the phase-change disk.

  20. In situ X-ray diffraction study of crystallization process of GeSbTe thin films during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Naohiko; Konomi, Ichiro; Seno, Yoshiki; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization processes of the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin film used for PD and DVD-RAM were studied in its realistic optical disk film configurations for the first time by X-ray diffraction using an intense X-ray beam of a synchrotron orbital radiation facility (SPring-8) and in situ quick detection with a Position-Sensitive-Proportional-Counter. The dependence of the amorphous-to-fcc phase-change temperature T 1 on the rate of temperature elevation R et gave an activation energy E a : 0.93 eV much less than previously reported 2.2 eV obtained from a model sample 25-45 times thicker than in the real optical disks. The similar measurement on the Ge 4 Sb 1 Te 5 film whose large reflectance change attains the readability by CD-ROM drives gave E a : 1.13 eV with larger T 1 than Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin films at any R et implying a lower sensitivity in erasing as well as a better data stability of the phase-change disk

  1. Catalyst growth of single crystal aligned ZnO nanorods on ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Andreazza, Caroline; Andreazza, Pascal [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2005-02-01

    One dimensional ZnO nanorods were successfully fabricated on Si substrates via a simple physical vapor-phase transport method at 950 C. A ZnO shell covered Au/Zn alloy is assumed as the nucleation site, then ZnO nanorods grow following a vapor-solid (VS) process. In order to guide the nanorod growth a c-axis oriented ZnO thin film and Au catalyst were first deposited on Si (100) surface. SEM images show nanorods grown on this substrate are vertical to the substrate surface. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Effect of the Crystal Structure on the Electrical Properties of Thin-Film PZT Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimova, L. A.; Gushchina, E. V.; Zaitseva, N. V.; Seregin, D. S.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    A new method of two-stage crystallization of lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) films using a seed sublayer with a low excess lead content has been proposed and realized. A seed layer with a strong texture of perovskite Pe(111) grains is formed from a solution with a lead excess of 0-5 wt %; the fast growth of the grains is provided by the deposition of the main film from a solution with high lead content. As a result, a strong Pe(111) texture with complete suppression of the Pe(100) orientation forms. An analysis of current-voltage dependences of the transient currents and the distributions of the local conductivity measured by the contact AFM method reveals two various mechanisms of current percolation that are determined by traps in the bulk and at the perovskite grain interfaces.

  3. Crystal and electronic structures of pentacene thin films from grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction and first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabok, Dmitrii; Puschnig, Peter; Ambrosch-Draxl, Claudia; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2007-01-01

    Combined experimental and theoretical investigations on thin films of pentacene are performed in order to determine the structure of the pentacene thin film phase. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction is used for studying a pentacene thin film with a nominal thickness of 180 nm. The crystal structure is found to exhibit the lattice parameters a=0.592 nm, b=0.754 nm, c=1.563 nm, α=81.5 deg. , β=87.2 deg. , and γ=89.9 deg. . These crystallographic unit cell dimensions are used as the only input parameters for ab initio total-energy calculations within the framework of density functional theory revealing the molecular packing within the crystal structure. Moreover, we calculate the electronic band structure of the thin film phase and compare it to that of the bulk phase. We find the intermolecular bandwidths of the thin film phase to be significantly larger compared to the bulk structure, e.g., the valence bandwidth is twice as large. This remarkable effect is traced back to an enhanced intermolecular π-π overlap due to the upright standing molecules in the thin film phase

  4. Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Il; Cho, Sang Hyun; Choi, Sung Ryong; Oh, Min Cheol; Jang, Ji Hyang; Song, Pung Keun

    2009-01-01

    ITO and ITO:Ce films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering using an ITO (SnO 2 : 10 wt.%) target and CeO 2 doped ITO (CeO 2 : 0.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 wt.%) ceramic targets, respectively, on unheated non-alkali glass substrates (corning E2000). The as-deposited films were annealed at 200 o C in an Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 1 Pa. The crystallization temperature of the ITO film was increased by introducing Ce atoms because they decrease the level of crystallinity. It was also confirmed that the etching rate, surface morphology and work function were improved by the addition of Ce atoms despite there being increased resistivity. The current voltage (I-V) characteristics of the OLED devices deteriorated with increasing Ce content in the ITO anode, which was attributed to a decrease in carrier density despite there being a high work function. Therefore, the carrier density is one of the most important factors that determine the turn-on voltage for OLED applications.

  5. Low-temperature growth of polycrystalline Ge thin film on glass by in situ deposition and ex situ solid-phase crystallization for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, Chao-Yang; Weber, Juergen W.; Campbell, Patrick; Widenborg, Per I.; Song, Dengyuan; Green, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Poly-crystalline germanium (poly-Ge) thin films have potential for lowering the manufacturing cost of photovoltaic devices especially in tandem solar cells, but high crystalline quality would be required. This work investigates the crystallinity of sputtered Ge thin films on glass prepared by in situ growth and ex situ solid-phase crystallization (SPC). Structural properties of the films were characterized by Raman, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible reflectance measurements. The results show the transition temperature from amorphous to polycrystalline is between 255 deg. C and 280 deg. C for in situ grown poly-Ge films, whereas the transition temperature is between 400 deg. C and 500 deg. C for films produced by SPC for a 20 h annealing time. The in situ growth in situ crystallized poly-Ge films at 450 deg. C exhibit significantly better crystalline quality than those formed by solid-phase crystallization at 600 deg. C. High crystalline quality at low substrate temperature obtained in this work suggests the poly-Ge films could be promising for use in thin film solar cells on glass.

  6. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  7. Effect of the heat flux direction on electrical properties of SrBi2Nb2O9 thin films crystallized using a microwave oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, J.S.; Vasconcelos, N.S.L.S.; Zanetti, S.M.; Leite, E.R.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Ferroelectric SrBi 2 Nb 2 O 9 (SBN) thin films were prepared by the polymeric precursors method and deposited by spin coating onto Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate and crystallized using a domestic microwave oven. It was studied the influence of the heat flux direction and the duration of the thermal treatment on the films crystallization. An element with high dielectric loss, a SiC susceptor, was used to absorb the microwave energy and transfers the heat to the film. Influence of the susceptor position to the sample crystallization was verified, the susceptor was placed or below the substrate or above the film. The SBN perovskite phase was observed after a thermal treatment at 700 deg. C for 10 min when the susceptor was placed below the substrate and for 30 min when the susceptor was placed above the film. Electrical measurements revealed that the film crystallized at 700 deg. C for 10 min, with the susceptor placed below the film, presented dielectric constant, dielectric loss, remanent polarization and coercive field of, 67, 0.011, 4.2 μC/cm 2 and 27.5 kV/cm, respectively. When the films were crystallized at 700 deg. C for 30 min, with the susceptor placed above the film, the dielectric constant was 115 and the dissipation factor was around of 0.033, remanent polarization and coercive field were 10.8 μC/cm 2 and 170 kV/cm, respectively

  8. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO_2 thin films grown on glass substrates by solid phase crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Kamisaka, Hideyuki; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO_2 thin films on glass substrates. The NbO_2 films were crystallized from amorphous precursor films grown by pulsed laser deposition at various oxygen partial pressures (P_O_2). The electrical and optical properties of the precursor films systematically changed with P_O_2, demonstrating that the oxygen content of the precursor films can be finely controlled with P_O_2. The precursors were crystallized into polycrystalline NbO_2 films by annealing under vacuum at 600 C. The NbO_2 films possessed extremely flat surfaces with branching patterns. Even optimized films showed a low resistivity (ρ) of 2 x 10"2 Ω cm, which is much lower than the bulk value of 1 x 10"4 Ω cm, probably because of the inferior crystallinity of the films compared with that of a bulk NbO_2 crystal. Both oxygen-rich and -poor NbO_2 films showed lower ρ than that of the stoichiometric film. The NbO_2 film with the highest ρ showed an indirect bandgap of 0.7 eV. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} thin films grown on glass substrates by solid phase crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Shoichiro [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki (Japan); Kamisaka, Hideyuki [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki (Japan); Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We investigated the structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} thin films on glass substrates. The NbO{sub 2} films were crystallized from amorphous precursor films grown by pulsed laser deposition at various oxygen partial pressures (P{sub O2}). The electrical and optical properties of the precursor films systematically changed with P{sub O2}, demonstrating that the oxygen content of the precursor films can be finely controlled with P{sub O2}. The precursors were crystallized into polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} films by annealing under vacuum at 600 C. The NbO{sub 2} films possessed extremely flat surfaces with branching patterns. Even optimized films showed a low resistivity (ρ) of 2 x 10{sup 2} Ω cm, which is much lower than the bulk value of 1 x 10{sup 4} Ω cm, probably because of the inferior crystallinity of the films compared with that of a bulk NbO{sub 2} crystal. Both oxygen-rich and -poor NbO{sub 2} films showed lower ρ than that of the stoichiometric film. The NbO{sub 2} film with the highest ρ showed an indirect bandgap of 0.7 eV. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Metal thin film growth on multimetallic surfaces: From quaternary metallic glass to binary crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Dapeng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis mainly focuses on the nucleation and growth of metal thin films on multimetallic surfaces. First, we have investigated the Ag film growth on a bulk metallic glass surface. Next, we have examined the coarsening and decay of bilayer Ag islands on NiAl(110) surface. Third, we have investigated the Ag film growth on NiAl(110) surface using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). At last, we have reported our investigation on the epitaxial growth of Ni on NiAl(110) surface. Some general conclusions can be drawn as follows. First, Ag, a bulk-crystalline material, initially forms a disordered wetting layer up to 4-5 monolayers on Zr-Ni-Cu-Al metallic glass. Above this coverage, crystalline 3D clusters grow, in parallel with the flatter regions. The cluster density increases with decreasing temperature, indicating that the conditions of island nucleation are far-from-equilibrium. Within a simple model where clusters nucleate whenever two mobile Ag adatoms meet, the temperature-dependence of cluster density yields a (reasonable) upper limit for the value of the Ag diffusion barrier on top of the Ag wetting layer of 0.32 eV. Overall, this prototypical study suggests that it is possible to grow films of a bulk-crystalline metal that adopt the amorphous character of a glassy metal substrate, if film thickness is sufficiently low. Next, the first study of coarsening and decay of bilayer islands has been presented. The system was Ag on NiAl(110) in the temperature range from 185 K to 250 K. The coarsening behavior, has some similarities to that seen in the Ag(110) homoepitaxial system studied by Morgenstern and co-workers. At 185 K and 205 K, coarsening of Ag islands follows a Smoluchowski ripening pathway. At 205 K and 250 K, the terrace diffusion limited Ostwald ripening dominants. The experimental observed temperature for the transition from SR to OR is 205 K. The SR exhibits anisotropic island diffusion and the OR exhibits 1D decay of island

  11. A 350 mK, 9 T scanning tunneling microscope for the study of superconducting thin films on insulating substrates and single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamlapure, Anand; Saraswat, Garima; Ganguli, Somesh Chandra; Bagwe, Vivas; Raychaudhuri, Pratap; Pai, Subash P

    2013-12-01

    We report the construction and performance of a low temperature, high field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating down to 350 mK and in magnetic fields up to 9 T, with thin film deposition and in situ single crystal cleaving capabilities. The main focus lies on the simple design of STM head and a sample holder design that allows us to get spectroscopic data on superconducting thin films grown in situ on insulating substrates. Other design details on sample transport, sample preparation chamber, and vibration isolation schemes are also described. We demonstrate the capability of our instrument through the atomic resolution imaging and spectroscopy on NbSe2 single crystal and spectroscopic maps obtained on homogeneously disordered NbN thin film.

  12. Correlation of the crystal orientation and electrical properties of silicon thin films on glass crystallized by line focus diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J., E-mail: j.yun@unsw.edu.au [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Huang, J.; Teal, A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Kim, K. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Suntech R& D Australia, Botany, NSW 2019 (Australia); Varlamov, S.; Green, M.A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-06-30

    In this work, crystallographic orientation of polycrystalline silicon films on glass formed by continuous wave diode laser crystallization was studied. Most of the grain boundaries were coincidence lattice Σ3 twin boundaries and other types of boundaries such as, Σ6, Σ9, and Σ21 were also frequently observed. The highest photoluminescence signal and mobility were observed for a grain with (100) orientation in the normal direction. X-ray diffraction results showed the highest occupancies between 41 and 70% along the (110) orientation. However, the highest occupancies changed to (100) orientation when a 100 nm thick SiO{sub x} capping layer was applied. Suns-Voc measurement and photoluminescence showed that higher solar cell performance is obtained from the cell crystallized with the capping layer, which is suspected from increased occupancies of (100) orientation. - Highlights: • Linear grains parallel to the scan direction formed with high density. • Σ3 coincidence lattice (CSL) boundaries found inside a grain • Grain boundaries exhibit various CSL boundaries such as Σ9, Σ18, and Σ27. • Grain with < 100 > orientation in normal direction showed highest electrical properties. • Improved voltage observed when percentage of < 100 > normal orientation is increased.

  13. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  14. Excimer Laser Deposition of PLZT Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, GAry

    1991-01-01

    .... In order to integrate these devices into optical systems, the production of high quality thin films with high transparency and perovskite crystal structure is desired. This requires development of deposition technologies to overcome the challenges of depositing and processing PLZT thin films.

  15. Impact of one-dimensional photonic crystal back reflector in thin-film c-Si solar cells on efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Tahmineh

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the effect of one-dimensional photonic crystal on optical absorption, which is implemented at the back side of thin-film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells, is extensively discussed. The proposed structure acts as a Bragg reflector which reflects back light to the active layer as well as nanograting which couples the incident light to enhance optical absorption. To understand the optical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of optical absorption, quantum efficiency and current density for all structures are calculated and the effect of influential parameters, such as grating period is investigated. The results confirm that our proposed structure have a great deal for substantial efficiency enhancement in a broad range from 400 to 1100 nm.

  16. Influence of aluminum nitride interlayers on crystal orientation and piezoelectric property of aluminum nitride thin films prepared on titanium electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamohara, Toshihiro; Akiyama, Morito; Ueno, Naohiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Kuwano, Noriyuki

    2007-01-01

    Highly c-axis-oriented aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films have been prepared on titanium (Ti) bottom electrodes by using AlN interlayers. The AlN interlayers were deposited between Ti electrodes and silicon (Si) substrates, such as AlN/Ti/AlN/Si. The crystallinity and crystal orientation of the AlN films and Ti electrodes strongly depended on the thickness of the AlN interlayers. Although the sputtering conditions were the same, the X-ray diffraction intensity of AlN (0002) and Ti (0002) planes drastically increased, and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray rocking curves decreased from 5.1 o to 2.6 o and from 3.3 o to 2.0 o , respectively. Furthermore, the piezoelectric constant d 33 of the AlN films was significantly improved from - 0.2 to - 4.5 pC/N

  17. Metal induced crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films studied by x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, K Lakshun; Mohiddon, Md Ahamad; Dalba, G; Krishna, M Ghanashyam; Rocca, F

    2013-01-01

    The role of thin metallic layer (Chromium or Nickel) in the crystallization of a-Si film has been studied using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS). The films were grown at different substrate temperatures in two different geometrical structures : (a) a 200 nm metal layer (Cr or Ni) was deposited on fused silica (FS) followed by 400 nm of a-Si and (b) the 400 nm a-Si layer was deposited on FS followed by 200 nm of metal layer. XAFS measurements at Cr K-edge and Ni K-edge were done at BM08 – GILDA beamline of the European Synchrotron Research Facility (ESRF, Grenoble, F) in fluorescence mode. To understand the evolution of the local structure of Cr/Ni diffusing from bottom to top and from top to bottom, total reflection and higher incidence angles were employed. The relative content of metal, metal oxide and metal silicides compounds on the upper surface and/or in the bulk of different films has been evaluated as a function of thermal treatment.

  18. All-organic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light-valves integrated with electroactive anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films as driving electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pen-Cheng; Yu, Jing-Yu; Li, Kuan-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fabrication of flexible semi-transparent all-polymer electrodes under ambient conditions without using a CVD system. → Characterization of the above electrodes based on anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films. → Demonstration of all-organic liquid crystal light-valves with polypyrrole thin films as the driving electrodes. - Abstract: All-organic PDLC (polymer-dispersed liquid crystal) light-valves using all-polymer conductive substrates containing thin films of polypyrrole doped with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQSA - ) as the driving electrodes were fabricated in this study. The all-polymer conductive substrates were prepared under ambient conditions by in situ depositing polypyrrole thin films on blank flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate), or PET, substrates from aqueous media in which oxidative polymerization of pyrrole was taking place. The obtained flexible all-polymer conductive substrates were semi-transparent with cohesive coatings of AQSA - doped polypyrrole thin films (thickness ∼55 nm). The all-polymer flexible conductive substrates had sheet resistivity ∼40 kΩ □ -1 and T% transparency against air ∼78% at 600 nm. The light-valves fabricated using the above all-polymer conductive substrates showed ∼50% transparency against air at 600 nm when 4 V μm -1 electric field was applied.

  19. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  20. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  1. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  2. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  3. Spectroelectrochemical study of the adsorption of acetate anions at gold single crystal and thin-film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, Antonio; Delgado, Jose Manuel; Orts, Jose Manuel; Rodes, Antonio; Feliu, Juan Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Acetate adsorption at gold electrodes is studied in perchloric acid solutions by cyclic voltammetry and in-situ infrared spectroscopy. External reflection measurements, performed with gold single crystal electrodes, are combined with Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy experiments under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS) carried out with sputtered gold thin-film electrodes. Theoretical harmonic IR frequencies of acetate species adsorbed with different geometries on Au clusters with (1 1 1), (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) orientations have been obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ, 6-31 + G* calculations. The theoretical and experimental results confirm that, irrespective of the surface crystallographic orientation, bonding of acetate to the surface involves the two oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group, with the OCO plane perpendicular to the metal surface. DFT calculations reveal also that the total charge of the metal cluster-acetate supermolecule has small effect on the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed acetate species. Both the external and the internal reflection measurements show the co-adsorption of acetate and perchlorate anions. Step-scan measurements carried out with the gold thin-film electrodes have allowed the monitoring of the time-dependent behaviour of perchlorate, acetate and water bands in potential step experiments. Acetate adsorption under those conditions is shown to involve perchlorate desorption and to follow a Langmuir-type kinetics. The step-scan spectra also show the rise and decay of transient water structures with parallel time-dependent shifts of the background intensity in the infrared spectra

  4. Crystallization of Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 Thin Films on LaNiO3 Electrodes by RF Magnetron Reactive Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Chao-An; Gan, Jon-Yiew

    2000-02-01

    Strontium barium niobium (Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6) (SBN) thin films are prepared on conductive-oxide LNO (LaNiO3) electrodes by the rf magnetron sputtering system. Instead of conventional furnace annealing, SBN thin films are crystallized by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) above 700°C for 5 min. The textured SBN films are crystallized with two orientations: one is the (001) or (310) direction, and the other is the (002) or (620) direction. Films compositions measured by the electron spectroscopy of chemical analysis (ESCA) quantitative analysis method show nearly the same stoichiometric ratio as the target. The depth profiles of SBN films and the target are examined by secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). The concentrations of the films are quite uniform. After being heat treated at 800°C for 5 min by RTA, La and Ni diffuse into the SBN film. The diffusion coefficient of La in SBN films is also calculated.

  5. Preparation of metastable bcc permalloy epitaxial thin films on GaAs(011){sub B3} single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Higuchi, Jumpei; Yabuhara, Osamu [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan); Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2011-09-30

    Permalloy (Py) single-crystal films with bcc structure were obtained on GaAs(011){sub B3} single-crystal substrates by ultra high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The film growth and the detailed film structures were investigated by refection high energy electron diffraction and pole figure X-ray diffraction. bcc-Py films epitaxially grow on the substrates in the orientation relationship of Py(011)[011-bar]{sub bcc} || GaAs(011)[011-bar]{sub B3}. The lattice constant of bcc-Py film is determined to be a = 0.291 nm. With increasing the film thickness, parts of the bcc crystal transform into more stable fcc structure by atomic displacement parallel to the bcc{l_brace}011{r_brace} close-packed planes. The resulting film thus consists of a mixture of bcc and fcc crystals. The phase transformation mechanism is discussed based on the experimental results. The in-plane magnetization properties reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bcc-Py crystal are observed for the Py films grown on GaAs(011){sub B3} substrates.

  6. Preparation of metastable bcc permalloy epitaxial thin films on GaAs(011)B3 single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Higuchi, Jumpei; Yabuhara, Osamu; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    Permalloy (Py) single-crystal films with bcc structure were obtained on GaAs(011) B3 single-crystal substrates by ultra high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The film growth and the detailed film structures were investigated by refection high energy electron diffraction and pole figure X-ray diffraction. bcc-Py films epitaxially grow on the substrates in the orientation relationship of Py(011)[011-bar] bcc || GaAs(011)[011-bar] B3 . The lattice constant of bcc-Py film is determined to be a = 0.291 nm. With increasing the film thickness, parts of the bcc crystal transform into more stable fcc structure by atomic displacement parallel to the bcc{011} close-packed planes. The resulting film thus consists of a mixture of bcc and fcc crystals. The phase transformation mechanism is discussed based on the experimental results. The in-plane magnetization properties reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bcc-Py crystal are observed for the Py films grown on GaAs(011) B3 substrates.

  7. Preparation and structural characterization of FeCo epitaxial thin films on insulating single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(111), SrTiO 3 (111), and Al 2 O 3 (0001) single-crystal substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The effects of insulating substrate material on the film growth process and the structures were investigated. FeCo(110) bcc films grow on MgO substrates with two type domains, Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW) and Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) relationships. On the contrary, FeCo films grown on SrTiO 3 and Al 2 O 3 substrates include FeCo(111) bcc crystal in addition to the FeCo(110) bcc crystals with NW and KS relationships. The FeCo(111) bcc crystal consists of two type domains whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. The out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of FeCo(110) bcc and FeCo(111) bcc crystals formed on the insulating substrates are in agreement with those of the bulk Fe 50 Co 50 (at. %) crystal with small errors ranging between +0.2% and +0.4%, showing that the strains in the epitaxial films are very small.

  8. Crystal Structure, Optical, and Electrical Properties of SnSe and SnS Semiconductor Thin Films Prepared by Vacuum Evaporation Techniques for Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariswan; Sutrisno, H.; Prasetyawati, R.

    2017-05-01

    Thin films of SnSe and SnS semiconductors had been prepared by vacuum evaporation techniques. All prepared samples were characterized on their structure, optical, and electrical properties in order to know their application in technology. The crystal structure of SnSe and SnS was determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instrument. The morphology and chemical composition were obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive of X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). The optical property such as band gap was determined by DR-UV-Vis (Diffuse Reflectance-Ultra Violet-Visible) spectroscopy, while the electrical properties were determined by measuring the conductivity by four probes method. The characterization results indicated that both SnSe and SnS thin films were polycrystalline. SnSe crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal system with the lattice parameters of a = 11.47 Å, b = 4.152 Å and c = 4.439 Å, while SnS had an orthorhombic crystal system with lattice parameters of a = 4.317 Å, b = 11.647 Å and c = 3.981 Å. Band gaps (Eg) of SnSe and SnS were 1.63 eV and 1.35 eV, respectively. Chemical compositions of both thin films were non-stoichiometric. Molar ratio of Sn : S was close to ideal which was 1 : 0.96, while molar ratio of Sn : S was 1 : 0.84. The surface morphology described the arrangement of the grains on the surface of the thin film with sizes ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 microns. Color similarity on the surface of the SEM images proved a homogenous thin layer.

  9. High-Performance Flexible Thin-Film Transistors Based on Single-Crystal-like Silicon Epitaxially Grown on Metal Tape by Roll-to-Roll Continuous Deposition Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Yao, Yao; Dutta, Pavel; Galstyan, Eduard; Shervin, Shahab; Lee, Keon-Hwa; Pouladi, Sara; Sun, Sicong; Li, Yongkuan; Rathi, Monika; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2016-11-02

    Single-crystal-like silicon (Si) thin films on bendable and scalable substrates via direct deposition are a promising material platform for high-performance and cost-effective devices of flexible electronics. However, due to the thick and unintentionally highly doped semiconductor layer, the operation of transistors has been hampered. We report the first demonstration of high-performance flexible thin-film transistors (TFTs) using single-crystal-like Si thin films with a field-effect mobility of ∼200 cm 2 /V·s and saturation current, I/l W > 50 μA/μm, which are orders-of-magnitude higher than the device characteristics of conventional flexible TFTs. The Si thin films with a (001) plane grown on a metal tape by a "seed and epitaxy" technique show nearly single-crystalline properties characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The realization of flexible and high-performance Si TFTs can establish a new pathway for extended applications of flexible electronics such as amplification and digital circuits, more than currently dominant display switches.

  10. Comment on "Tunable Design of Structural Colors Produced by Pseudo-1D Photonic Crystals of Graphene Oxide" and Thin-Film Interference from Dried Graphene Oxide Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Ho; Song, Jang-Kun

    2017-04-01

    The mechanism of the iridescent color reflection from dried thin graphene oxide (GO) film on Si wafer is clarified. Dissimilarly to the photonic crystalline reflection in aqueous GO dispersion, the color reflection in dried GO film originates from the thin film interference. The peak reflection can reach 23% by optimizing the GO thickness and the substrate. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Preparation of hcp-Ni(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Ni epitaxial films with an hcp structure are successfully obtained on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers formed on MgO(100) substrates at temperatures lower than 300 {sup 0}C by molecular beam epitaxy. With increasing the substrate temperature, the volume ratio of more stable fcc phase inc{sub r}eases in the film. The Ni film prepared at 100 {sup 0}C consists primarily of hcp crystal with the (112-bar 0) plane parallel to the substrate surface coexisting with a small amount of fcc-Ni(100) crystal. The lattice constant of hcp-Ni crystal is determined as a = 0.249 nm, c = 0.398 nm, and c/a = 1.60.

  12. Preparation of hcp-Ni(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Ni epitaxial films with an hcp structure are successfully obtained on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers formed on MgO(100) substrates at temperatures lower than 300 0 C by molecular beam epitaxy. With increasing the substrate temperature, the volume ratio of more stable fcc phase inc r eases in the film. The Ni film prepared at 100 0 C consists primarily of hcp crystal with the (112-bar 0) plane parallel to the substrate surface coexisting with a small amount of fcc-Ni(100) crystal. The lattice constant of hcp-Ni crystal is determined as a = 0.249 nm, c = 0.398 nm, and c/a = 1.60.

  13. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  14. Coupling of carbon monoxide molecules over oxygen-defected UO2(111) single crystal and thin film surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, S D; Waterhouse, G I N; Idriss, H; Madey, Theodore E

    2005-11-22

    While coupling reactions of carbon-containing compounds are numerous in organometallic chemistry, they are very rare on well-defined solid surfaces. In this work we show that the reductive coupling of two molecules of carbon monoxide to C2 compounds (acetylene and ethylene) could be achieved on oxygen-defected UO2(111) single crystal and thin film surfaces. This result allows in situ electron spectroscopic investigation of a typical organometallic reaction such as carbon coupling and extends it to heterogeneous catalysis and solids. By using high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) it was possible to track the changes in surface states of the U and O atoms as well as identify the intermediate of the reaction. Upon CO adsorption U cations in low oxidation states are oxidized to U4+ ions; this was accompanied by an increase of the O-to-U surface ratios. The HRXPS C 1s lines show the presence of adsorbed species assigned to diolate species (-OCH=CHO-) that are most likely the reaction intermediate in the coupling of two CO molecules to acetylene and ethylene.

  15. Coupling of Carbon Monoxide Molecules over Oxygen Defected UO2 (111) Single Crystal and Thin Film Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senanayake, S.; Waterhouse, G.; Idriss, H.; Madey, T.

    2005-01-01

    While coupling reactions of carbon-containing compounds are numerous in organometallic chemistry, they are very rare on well-defined solid surfaces. In this work we show that the reductive coupling of two molecules of carbon monoxide to C 2 compounds (acetylene and ethylene) could be achieved on oxygen-defected UO 2 (111) single crystal and thin film surfaces. This result allows in situ electron spectroscopic investigation of a typical organometallic reaction such as carbon coupling and extends it to heterogeneous catalysis and solids. By using high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) it was possible to track the changes in surface states of the U and O atoms as well as identify the intermediate of the reaction. Upon CO adsorption U cations in low oxidation states are oxidized to U 4+ ions; this was accompanied by an increase of the O-to-U surface ratios. The HRXPS C 1s lines show the presence of adsorbed species assigned to diolate species (-OCH=CHO-) that are most likely the reaction intermediate in the coupling of two CO molecules to acetylene and ethylene

  16. Crystal and electronic structure study of AgAu and AgCu bimetallic alloy thin films by X-ray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkendir, O. Murat, E-mail: ozkendir@gmail.com [Mersin University, Faculty of Technology, Energy Systems Engineering, Tarsus (Turkey); Mersin University, Institute of Natural Science, Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Mersin (Turkey); Cengiz, E. [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Trabzon (Turkey); Yalaz, E. [Mersin University, Institute of Natural Science, Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Mersin (Turkey); Söğüt, Ö.; Ayas, D.H. [Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Physics, Kahramanmaraş (Turkey); Thammajak, B. Nirawat [Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organisation), 111 University Avenue, T. Suranaree, A. Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Crystal and electronic properties of bimetallic AgCu and AgAu alloy thin films were studied. • Both AgCu and AgAu bimetallic samples were determined to have cubic crystal geometry. • Strong influence of Cu and Au atoms on the electronic structure of the Ag atoms were determined. - Abstract: Crystal and electronic structure properties of bimetallic AgAu and AgCu alloy thin films were investigated by X-ray spectroscopic techniques. The aim of this study is to probe the influence of Au or Cu atoms on the electronic behaviors of Ag ions in bimetallic alloy materials that yields different crystal properties. To identify the mechanisms causing crystal phase transitions, study were supported by the collected EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) data. Crystal structures of both Cu and Au doped bimetallic Ag samples were determined mainly in cubic geometry with “Fm3m” space group. Through the Ag–Au and Ag–Cu molecular interactions during bimetallic alloy formations, highly overlapped electronic levels that supports large molecular band formations were observed with different ionization states. Besides, traces of the d–d interactions in Au rich samples were determined as the main interplay in the broad molecular bond formations. The exact atomic locations and types in the samples were determined by EXAFS studies and supported by the performed calculations with FEFF scientific code.

  17. Preparation and thermo-optical characteristics of a smart polymer-stabilized liquid crystal thin film based on smectic A–chiral nematic phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Huihui; Cao, Hui; Ding, Hangjun; Yang, Zhou; Yang, Huai; Wang, Ling; Xie, Hui; Luo, Xueyao; Xiao, Jiumei

    2014-01-01

    A smart polymer stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) thin film with temperature-controllable light transmittance was prepared based on a smectic-A (SmA)–chiral nematic (N*) phase transition, and then the effect of the composition and the preparation condition of the PSLC film on its thermo-optical (T-O) characteristics has been investigated in detail. Within the temperature range of the SmA phase, the PSLC shows a strong opaque state due to the focal conic alignment of liquid crystal (LC) molecules, while the film exhibits a transparent state result from the parallel alignment of N* phase LC molecules at a higher temperature. Importantly, the PSLC films with different temperature of phase transition and contrast ratio can be prepared by changing the composition of photo-polymerizable monomer/LC/chiral dopant. According to the competition between the polymerization of the curable monomers and the diffusion of LC molecules, the ultraviolet (UV) curing surrounding temperature and the intensity of UV irradiation play a critical role in tuning the size of the polymer network meshes, which in turn influence the contrast ratio and the switching speed of the film. Our observations are expected to pave the way for preparing smart PSLC thin films for applications in areas of smart windows, thermo-detectors and other information recording devices. (paper)

  18. Improvement in crystallization and electrical properties of barium strontium titanate thin films by gold doping using metal-organic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-W.; Nien, S.-W.; Lee, K.-C.; Wu, M.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gold (Au) on the crystallization, dielectric constant and leakage current density of barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films was investigated. BST thin films with various gold concentrations were prepared via a metal-organic deposition process. The X-ray diffraction shows enhanced crystallization as well as expanded lattice constants for the gold-doped BST films. Thermal analysis reveals that the gold dopant induces more complete decomposition of precursor for the doped films than those of undoped ones. The leakage current density of BST films is greatly reduced by the gold dopant over a range of biases (1-5 V). The distribution of gold was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy and found to be inside the BST grains, not in the grain-boundaries. Gold acted as a catalyst, inducing the nucleation of crystallites and improving the crystallinity of the structure. Its addition is shown to be associated to the improvement of the electrical properties of BST films

  19. Assessing the adsorption selectivity of linker functionalized, moisture-stable metal-organic framework thin films by means of an environment-controlled quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bétard, Angélique; Wannapaiboon, Suttipong; Fischer, Roland A

    2012-11-04

    The stepwise thin film deposition of the robust, hydrophobic [Zn(4)O(dmcapz)(3)](n) (dmcapz = 3,5-dimethyl-4-carboxy-pyrazolato) is reported. The adsorption of small organic probe molecules, including alkanols, toluene, aniline and xylenes, was monitored by an environment-controlled quartz crystal microbalance setup. The adsorption selectivity was tuned by introducing alkyl side chains in the dmcapz linker.

  20. Preparation and characterization of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ thin films on MgO single crystal substrates by chemical solution deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Kepa, Katarzyna; Hlásek, T.

    2013-01-01

    Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 thin films have been deposited on MgO single crystal substrates by spin-coating a solution based on 2-ethylhexanoate precursors. Pyrolysis takes place between 200°C and 450°C and is accompanied by the release of 2-ethylhexanoic acid, CO2 and H2O vapour. Highly c-axis oriented Bi2Sr2Ca...

  1. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  2. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  3. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  4. A study on crystallization, optical and electrical properties of the advanced ZITO thin films using co-sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.J.; Hung, F.Y.; Chang, S.J.; Chang, S.P.; Mai, Y.C.; Hu, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: Conductor and semiconductor ZITO transparent oxide thin films have been obtained by co-sputtering system. Therefore, we could fabricate a fully transparent ZITO optoelectronic device (thin film transistors or photodetector) in the future. The conducting ZITO was used as the electrode. The active layer of TFTs and photodetector employed the semiconducting ZITO. In addition, the investigation of luminescence characteristics on Zn-In-Sn-O (ZITO) film has never been reported. So, the multi-compound ZITO (ZnO combined ITO) films would be measured by photoluminescence (PL) to analyze the effects of ITO doping and oxygen gas content on emission characteristics of film. - Abstract: Multi-functions (conductor, semiconductor and insulator) ZnInSnO (ZITO) transparent oxide thin films have been obtained by a co-sputtering system using ITO target and ZnO target with oxygen gas contents (0-8%). The ZITO film containing a small ITO content had the lowest resistivity (good electron mobility) and higher optical transmittance. In addition, the influences of thermal treatments (post-annealing and substrate temperature) on electrical properties and optical transmittance of ZITO films were studied. Photoluminescence (PL) of the ZITO film confirmed the contribution of ITO content and oxygen gas content on the photo-emission. The ZITO film with zinc atomic concentration of 58 at.% was a good candidate for TCO material (3.08 x 10 -4 Ω cm). Under the substrate temperature of 100 deg. C or post-annealing temperature of 200 o C, the properties of ZITO film could be improved.

  5. Optical characterization of epitaxial single crystal CdTe thin films on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, S.M.; Devenyi, G.A., E-mail: devenyga@mcmaster.ca; Jarvis, V.M.; Meinander, K.; Haapamaki, C.M.; Kuyanov, P.; Gerber, M.; LaPierre, R.R.; Preston, J.S.

    2014-11-03

    The optoelectronic properties of single crystal CdTe thin films were investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy, photoreflectance spectroscopy and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The room temperature bandgap was measured to be 1.51 eV and was consistent between spectroscopic measurements and previously reported values. Breadth of bandgap emission was consistent with high quality material. Low temperature photoluminescence spectra indicated a dominant emission consistent with bound excitons. Emissions corresponding to self-compensation defects, doping and contaminants were not found. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements over the near-UV to infrared range demonstrated sharp resonance peaks. All spectroscopic measurements indicate high quality thin film material of comparable or better quality than bulk CdTe. - Highlights: • High quality epitaxial CdTe thin films were grown. • Two dimensional X-ray diffraction characterization confirmed single crystal material. • Photoluminescence indicated low defect density when compared to bulk single crystals. • Optical characterization indicated the presence of room temperature excitons.

  6. Photonic crystal fiber for layer-by-layer assembly and measurements of polyelectrolyte thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tian, F.; Kaňka, Jiří; Sukhishvili, S.; Du, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 20 (2012), s. 4299-4301 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11038 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Photonic crystal fiber * Long-period grating * Optical sensors Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.385, year: 2012

  7. Effects of Nb and Sr doping on crystal structure of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films on MgO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongsam; Chen, Chunhua; Saiki, Atsushi; Wakiya, Naoki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Mizutani, Nobuyasu

    2002-01-01

    Niobium (Nb) and strontium (Sr) doped barium titanate (BT) films were deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering with Nb and Sr doped BT ceramic targets, respectively. The effect of Nb and Sr doping on the crystal structure of epitaxial BaTiO 3 thin films on MgO substrates was investigated. The crystal structure of the films was examined using the reciprocal space mapping measurement. All the films exhibit a cube-on-cube relation with respect to the substrates. As the amount of doped Sr increased, both of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice constants of Sr doped BT films slowly approached the BT bulk values. On the other hand, the lattice constants of Nb doped BT films were rapidly coming close to the bulk values. These indicated that the lattices of doped BT films were relaxed as the amount of doped elements increased. In addition, Nb doping had greater influence on the relaxation of the films than Sr doping for the same content of dopant. (author)

  8. A study on the electrodeposition of NiFe alloy thin films using chronocoulometry and electrochemical quartz crystal microgravimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Myung, N S

    2001-01-01

    Ni, Fe and NiFe alloy thin films were electrodeposited at a polycrystalline Au surface using a range of electrolytes and potentials. Coulometry and EQCM were used for real-time monitoring of electroplating efficiency of the Ni and Fe. The plating efficiency of NiFe alloy thin films was computed with the aid of ICP spectrometry. In general, plating efficiency increased to a steady value with deposition time. Plating efficiency of Fe was lower than that of Ni at -0.85 and -1.0 V but the efficiency approached to the similar plateau value to that of Ni at more negative potentials. The films with higher content of Fe showed different stripping behavior from the ones with higher content of Ni. Finally, compositional data and real-time plating efficiency are presented for films electrodeposited using a range of electrolytes and potentials.

  9. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  10. On the crystal structure and thermoelectric properties of thin Si{sub 1–x}Mn{sub x} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erofeeva, I. V., E-mail: irfeya@mail.ru; Dorokhin, M. V.; Lesnikov, V. P.; Zdoroveishchev, A. V.; Kudrin, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.; Usov, U. V. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Research Institute for Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Thin (25 nm) Si{sub 1–x}Mn{sub x}/Si(100) films are fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. According to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy data, the films have a nanotextured crystalline structure and are chemically homogeneous. The temperature dependences of the resistivity and thermopower are measured in the range of 300–500 K, and the temperature dependences of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor are calculated.

  11. Solid thin film materials for use in thin film charge-coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Solid thin films deposited by vacuum deposition were evaluated to ascertain their effectiveness for use in the manufacturing of charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Optical and electrical characteristics of tellurium and Bi 2 Te 3 solid thin films were obtained in order to design and to simulate successfully the operation of thin film (TF) CCDs. In this article some of the material differences between single-crystal material and the island-structured thin film used in TFCCDs are discussed. The electrical parameters were obtained and tabulated, e.g. the mobility, conductivity, dielectric constants, permittivity, lifetime of holes and electrons in the thin films and drift diffusion constants. The optical parameters were also measured and analyzed. After the design was complete, experimental TFCCDs were manufactured and were successfully operated utilizing the aforementioned solid thin films. (Auth.)

  12. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  13. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  14. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  15. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  16. Crystallization behavior and domain structure in textured Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films by different annealing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.; Jiang, S.W.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wei, X.H.; Zeng, H.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films were prepared on the Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. After rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and conventional furnace annealing (CFA) at different temperatures, the films were transformed into polycrystalline PZT thin films with (111) and (100) orientation, respectively. The phase formation and ferroelectric domains correlated with different orientation were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction and piezoresponse force microscopy. The results showed that the perovskite PZT crystal with [111] orientation hetero-nucleated preferentially on top of the PtPb intermetallic phase at the PZT/Pt interface during RTA process. It is of interest to find that the domain self-organized into a structure with rounded shape at the early stage of crystallization. While the nucleation of the films treated by CFA dominantly homo-nucleated, thus the (100) orientation grains with minimum surface energy were easy to grow. The texture effects on ferroelectric properties of PZT films were also discussed in relation to the domain structure

  17. Epitaxial growth of bcc-FexCo100-x thin films on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Shikada, Kouhei; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Fe x Co 100-x (x=100, 65, 50 at%) epitaxial thin films were prepared on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 deg. C by ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The film structure and the growth mechanism are discussed. FeCo(2 1 1) films with bcc structure grow epitaxially on MgO(1 1 0) substrates with two types of variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other for all compositions. Fe x Co 100-x film growth follows the Volmer Weber mode. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings are in agreement with the values of respective bulk Fe x Co 100-x crystals with very small errors less than ±0.4%, suggesting the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the film at the Fe 50 Co 50 /MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction. The presence of such periodical dislocations decreases the large lattice mismatch of about -17% existing at the FeCo/MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction.

  18. Epitaxial growth of bcc-Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} thin films on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Shikada, Kouhei [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan); Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} (x=100, 65, 50 at%) epitaxial thin films were prepared on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 deg. C by ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The film structure and the growth mechanism are discussed. FeCo(2 1 1) films with bcc structure grow epitaxially on MgO(1 1 0) substrates with two types of variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other for all compositions. Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} film growth follows the Volmer Weber mode. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings are in agreement with the values of respective bulk Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} crystals with very small errors less than +-0.4%, suggesting the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the film at the Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50}/MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction. The presence of such periodical dislocations decreases the large lattice mismatch of about -17% existing at the FeCo/MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction.

  19. Scanning tunneling spectroscopic studies of superconducting NbN single crystal thin films at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwaya, S.; Koyanagi, M.; Matsuda, M.; Shoji, A.; Shibata, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope (LTSTM) constructed to study the microscopic properties of superconductors. It has atomic resolution from room temperature to 4.2 K. Conductance spectra obtained between a Pt tip and a NbN thin film agreed well with theoretical curves based on the BCS theory

  20. Surface study and thickness control of thin Al2O3 film on Cu-9%Al(111) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Yoshitake, Michiko; Song Weijie

    2004-01-01

    We were successful in growing a uniform flat Al 2 O 3 film on the Cu-9%Al(111) surface using the improved cleaning process, low ion energy and short time sputtering. The growth of ultra-thin film of Al 2 O 3 on Cu-9%Al was investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The Al 2 O 3 film whose maximum thickness was about 4.0 nm grew uniformly on the Cu-9%Al surface. The Al and O KLL Auger peaks of Al 2 O 3 film shifted toward low kinetic energy, and the shifts were related to Schottky barrier formation and band bending at the Al 2 O 3 /Cu-9%Al interface. The thickness of Al 2 O 3 film on the Cu-9%Al surface was controlled by the oxygen exposure

  1. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José ; Burriel, Mó nica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation

  2. Analysis of transmittance properties in 1D hybrid dielectric photonic crystal containing superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Osswa; Zaghdoudi, Jihene; Kanzari, Mounir

    2018-06-01

    By means of two fluid model and transfer matrix method (TMM), we investigate theoretically the transmittance properties of a defective hybrid dielectric-dielectric photonic crystal that contains a superconducting material as a defect layer. The considered hybrid photonic structure is: H(LH) 7(HLSLH) P H(LH) 7 , where H is the high refractive index dielectric, L is the low refractive index dielectric, S is the superconducting material and P is the repetitive number. The results show that the variation of the number and the positions of the transmissions modes depend strongly on the repetitive number P, the temperature T and the thickness of the layer S. An improvement of the spectral response is obtained with the exponential gradation of layer thicknesses dj =d0 + βejα , where d0 is the initial thickness of the layer j, α and β are two particular constants for each material. In addition, the effect of the incident angle for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations on the transmittance spectrum is discussed. As a result, we propose a tunable narrow stop-band polychromatic filter that covers the visible wavelength.

  3. Low temperature rf sputtering deposition of (Ba, Sr) TiO3 thin film with crystallization enhancement by rf power supplied to the substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimaru, Masaki; Takehiro, Shinobu; Abe, Kazuhide; Onoda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 thin film deposited by radio frequency (rf) sputtering requires a high deposition temperature near 500 deg. C to realize a high relative dielectric constant over of 300. For example, the film deposited at 330 deg. C contains an amorphous phase and shows a low relative dielectric constant of less than 100. We found that rf power supplied not only to the (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 sputtering target, but also to the substrate during the initial step of film deposition, enhanced the crystallization of the (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 film drastically and realized a high dielectric constant of the film even at low deposition temperatures near 300 deg. C. The 50-nm-thick film with only a 10 nm initial layer deposited with the substrate rf biasing is crystallized completely and shows a high relative dielectric constant of 380 at the deposition temperature of 330 deg. C. The (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 film deposited at higher temperatures (upwards of 400 deg. C) shows preferred orientation, while the film deposited at 330 deg. C with the 10 nm initial layer shows a preferred orientation on a -oriented ruthenium electrode. The unit cell of (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 (111) plane is similar to that of ruthenium (001) plane. We conclude that the rf power supplied to the substrate causes ion bombardments on the (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 film surface, which assists the quasiepitaxial growth of (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 film on the ruthenium electrode at low temperatures of less than 400 deg. C

  4. Low temperature rf sputtering deposition of (Ba, Sr) TiO3 thin film with crystallization enhancement by rf power supplied to the substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimaru, Masaki; Takehiro, Shinobu; Abe, Kazuhide; Onoda, Hiroshi

    2005-05-01

    The (Ba, Sr) TiO3 thin film deposited by radio frequency (rf) sputtering requires a high deposition temperature near 500 °C to realize a high relative dielectric constant over of 300. For example, the film deposited at 330 °C contains an amorphous phase and shows a low relative dielectric constant of less than 100. We found that rf power supplied not only to the (Ba, Sr) TiO3 sputtering target, but also to the substrate during the initial step of film deposition, enhanced the crystallization of the (Ba, Sr) TiO3 film drastically and realized a high dielectric constant of the film even at low deposition temperatures near 300 °C. The 50-nm-thick film with only a 10 nm initial layer deposited with the substrate rf biasing is crystallized completely and shows a high relative dielectric constant of 380 at the deposition temperature of 330 °C. The (Ba, Sr) TiO3 film deposited at higher temperatures (upwards of 400 °C) shows preferred orientation, while the film deposited at 330 °C with the 10 nm initial layer shows a preferred orientation on a -oriented ruthenium electrode. The unit cell of (Ba, Sr) TiO3 (111) plane is similar to that of ruthenium (001) plane. We conclude that the rf power supplied to the substrate causes ion bombardments on the (Ba, Sr) TiO3 film surface, which assists the quasiepitaxial growth of (Ba, Sr) TiO3 film on the ruthenium electrode at low temperatures of less than 400 °C.

  5. Crystal structure determination of solar cell materials: Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films using X-ray anomalous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hiroshi; Fukano, Tatsuo; Ohta, Shingo; Seno, Yoshiki; Katagiri, Hironori; Jimbo, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin films as a solar cell material were synthesized. ► The wavelength dependences of the diffraction intensity were measured. ► The crystal structures were clearly identified as kesterite structure for all samples. ► Crystal structure analysis revealed that the atomic compositions were Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.97 and Zn/Sn = 1.42 for the sample synthesized using stoichiometric amount of starting materials. - Abstract: The crystal structure of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films fabricated by vapor-phase sulfurization was determined using X-ray anomalous dispersion. High statistic synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction data were collected from very small amounts of powder. By analyzing the wavelength dependencies of the diffraction peak intensities, the crystal structure was clearly identified as kesterite. Rietveld analysis revealed that the atomic composition deviated from stoichiometric composition, and the compositions were Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.97, and Zn/Sn = 1.42.

  6. Superconducting oxypnictide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisner, Andreas; Kidszun, Martin; Reich, Elke; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig; Haindl, Silvia [IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials (Germany); Thersleff, Thomas [Uppsala University, Angstrom Laboratory (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    We present an overview on the oxypnictide thin film preparation. So far, only LaAlO{sub 3} (001) single crystalline substrates provided a successful growth using pulsed laser deposition in combination with a post annealing process. Further experiments on the in-situ deposition will be reported. The structure of the films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Transport properties were measured with different applied fields to obtain a magnetic phase diagram for this new type of superconductor.

  7. Mechanics of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-06

    and the second geometry was that of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4 mm). These two geometries were tested in thermal shock tests, and a...milder [13]. More recently, Lau, Rahman and stressa nce ntrati, tha n films of lmalla rat ve spc Delale calculated the free edge singularity for stress...thickness of 3 mm); the second geometry was that As an example of the shielding effect of thin films, we of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4

  8. Crystallization and electrical resistivity of Cu2O and CuO obtained by thermal oxidation of Cu thin films on SiO2/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Santos Valladares, L.; Salinas, D. Hurtado; Dominguez, A. Bustamante; Najarro, D. Acosta; Khondaker, S.I.; Mitrelias, T.; Barnes, C.H.W.; Aguiar, J. Albino; Majima, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study the crystallization and electrical resistivity of the formed oxides in a Cu/SiO 2 /Si thin film after thermal oxidation by ex-situ annealing at different temperatures up to 1000 °C. Upon increasing the annealing temperature, from the X ray diffractogram the phase evolution Cu → Cu + Cu 2 O → Cu 2 O → Cu 2 O + CuO → CuO was detected. Pure Cu 2 O films are obtained at 200 °C, whereas uniform CuO films without structural surface defects such as terraces, kinks, porosity or cracks are obtained in the temperature range 300–550 °C. In both oxides, crystallization improves with annealing temperature. A resistivity phase diagram, which is obtained from the current–voltage response, is presented here. The resistivity was expected to increase linearly as a function of the annealing temperature due to evolution of oxides. However, anomalous decreases are observed at different temperatures ranges, this may be related to the improvement of the crystallization and crystallite size when the temperature increases. - Highlights: ► The crystallization and electrical resistivity of oxides in a Cu films are studied. ► In annealing Cu films, the phase evolution Cu + Cu 2 O → Cu 2 O → Cu 2 O + CuO → CuO occurs. ► A resistivity phase diagram, obtained from the current–voltage response, is presented. ► Some decreases in the resistivity may be related to the crystallization.

  9. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  10. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on photovoltaic power generation system (R and D on particle non-accelerating growth Si thin film crystal); 1974 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ryushi hikasoku seichogata silicon usumaku kessho no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    This research aims at development of the technology for producing photovoltaic power generation systems at a cost less than 1/100 of those by current technology. In fiscal 1974, basic study was made on formation technology of particle non-accelerating growth Si thin film crystals. In addition, evaluation was made on formed thin film crystal characteristics, and studies were also made on junction formation for thin film crystals, and on thin film formation and junction formation for indium phosphide compound semiconductor thin films. The research includes (1) study on formation technology for particle non-accelerating growth Si thin film crystals, (2) evaluation on Si thin film crystals, (3) study on junction formation technology for Si thin film crystals, and (4) study on indium phosphide compound semiconductors. Evaluations were made on thin film formation technology by CVD, and on crystallographical and electrical characteristics of the formed thin films. The evaluation results clarified the compatibility between substrates and Si thin films, the formation condition of columnar structure films, and the effect of growth conditions on a carrier density or mobility. (NEDO)

  11. Effect of crystal orientation on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of crystal orientations on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films has been investigated using an expanded nonlinear thermodynamic theory. The calculations reveal that crystal orientation has significant influence on the phase stability and phase transitions in the misfit strain-temperature phase diagrams. In particular, the (110 orientation leads to a lower symmetry and more complicated phase transition than the (111 orientation in BaTiO3 films. The increase of compressive strain will dramatically enhance the Curie temperature TC of (110-oriented BaTiO3 films, which matches well with previous experimental data. The polarization components experience a great change across the boundaries of different phases at room temperature in both (110- and (111-oriented films, which leads to the huge dielectric and piezoelectric responses. A good agreement is found between the present thermodynamics calculation and previous first-principles calculations. Our work provides an insight into how to use crystal orientation, epitaxial strain and temperature to tune the structure and properties of ferroelectrics.

  12. Effect of crystal orientation on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huaping, E-mail: wuhuaping@gmail.com, E-mail: hpwu@zjut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of E& M (Zhejiang University of Technology), Ministry of Education & Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Ma, Xuefu; Zhang, Zheng; Zeng, Jun; Chai, Guozhong [Key Laboratory of E& M (Zhejiang University of Technology), Ministry of Education & Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Wang, Jie [Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The influence of crystal orientations on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films has been investigated using an expanded nonlinear thermodynamic theory. The calculations reveal that crystal orientation has significant influence on the phase stability and phase transitions in the misfit strain-temperature phase diagrams. In particular, the (110) orientation leads to a lower symmetry and more complicated phase transition than the (111) orientation in BaTiO{sub 3} films. The increase of compressive strain will dramatically enhance the Curie temperature T{sub C} of (110)-oriented BaTiO{sub 3} films, which matches well with previous experimental data. The polarization components experience a great change across the boundaries of different phases at room temperature in both (110)- and (111)-oriented films, which leads to the huge dielectric and piezoelectric responses. A good agreement is found between the present thermodynamics calculation and previous first-principles calculations. Our work provides an insight into how to use crystal orientation, epitaxial strain and temperature to tune the structure and properties of ferroelectrics.

  13. Direct crystallization of perovskite phase in PMN-PT thin films prepared by polyvinylpyrrolidone modified sol-gel processing and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Z.H.; Zhang, T.S.; Zhu, M.M.; Ma, J.

    2009-01-01

    A modified sol-gel processing has been developed by using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as modifier and lead nitrate as lead source to synthesize (1-x)Pb(Mg 1/3 ,Nb 2/3 )O 3 -xPbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) thin films with x=0.23-0.43. With PVP additions, perovskite phase could directly crystallize from amorphous films at the temperature as low as 430 deg. C via bypassing the metastable phase-pyrochlore and crystallinity was significantly enhanced. The PVP addictives have been optimized with molecular weight 1/3 ,Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 films via bypassing pyrochlore phase.

  14. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  15. Thin yttrium iron garnet films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Crystal structure, static, and dynamic magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, N. S., E-mail: nsokolov@fl.ioffe.ru; Fedorov, V. V.; Korovin, A. M.; Suturin, S. M.; Baranov, D. A.; Gastev, S. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Bursian, V. E.; Lutsev, L. V. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Maksimova, K. Yu.; Grunin, A. I. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Tabuchi, M. [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow thin (10–84 nm) epitaxial layers of Yttrium Iron Garnet Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) on (111)–oriented Gadolinium Gallium Garnet substrates at different growth conditions. Atomic force microscopy showed flat surface morphology both on micrometer and nanometer scales. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films are coherent with the substrate in the interface plane. The interplane distance in the [111] direction was found to be by 1.2% larger than expected for YIG stoichiometric pseudomorphic film indicating presence of rhombohedral distortion in this direction. Polar Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance measurements showed existence of additional magnetic anisotropy, which adds to the demagnetizing field to keep magnetization vector in the film plane. The origin of the magnetic anisotropy is related to the strain in YIG films observed by XRD. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements revealed important role of magnetization rotation during magnetization reversal. An unusual fine structure of microwave magnetic resonance spectra has been observed in the film grown at reduced (0.5 mTorr) oxygen pressure. Surface spin wave propagation has been demonstrated in the in-plane magnetized films.

  16. Thin yttrium iron garnet films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Crystal structure, static, and dynamic magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, N. S.; Fedorov, V. V.; Korovin, A. M.; Suturin, S. M.; Baranov, D. A.; Gastev, S. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Bursian, V. E.; Lutsev, L. V.; Maksimova, K. Yu.; Grunin, A. I.; Tabuchi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow thin (10–84 nm) epitaxial layers of Yttrium Iron Garnet Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 (YIG) on (111)–oriented Gadolinium Gallium Garnet substrates at different growth conditions. Atomic force microscopy showed flat surface morphology both on micrometer and nanometer scales. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films are coherent with the substrate in the interface plane. The interplane distance in the [111] direction was found to be by 1.2% larger than expected for YIG stoichiometric pseudomorphic film indicating presence of rhombohedral distortion in this direction. Polar Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance measurements showed existence of additional magnetic anisotropy, which adds to the demagnetizing field to keep magnetization vector in the film plane. The origin of the magnetic anisotropy is related to the strain in YIG films observed by XRD. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements revealed important role of magnetization rotation during magnetization reversal. An unusual fine structure of microwave magnetic resonance spectra has been observed in the film grown at reduced (0.5 mTorr) oxygen pressure. Surface spin wave propagation has been demonstrated in the in-plane magnetized films

  17. A thermodynamic model for predicting surface melting and overheating of different crystal planes in BCC, FCC and HCP pure metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, Vafa; Riahifar, Reza; Sahba Yaghmaee, Maziar

    2016-01-01

    In order to predict as well as study the surface melting phenomena in contradiction to surface overheating, a generalized thermodynamics model including the surface free energy of solid and the melt state along with the interfacial energy of solid–liquid (melt on substrate) has been introduced. In addition, the effect of different crystal structures of surfaces in fcc, bcc and hcp metals was included in surface energies as well as in the atomistic model. These considerations lead us to predict surface melting and overheating as two contradictory melting phenomena. The results of the calculation are demonstrated on the example of Pb and Al thin films in three groups of (100), (110) and (111) surface planes. Our conclusions show good agreement with experimental results and other theoretical investigations. Moreover, a computational algorithm has been developed which enables users to investigate the surface melt or overheating of single component metallic thin film with variable crystal structures and different crystalline planes. This model and developed software can be used for studying all related surface phenomena. - Highlights: • Investigating the surface melting and overheating phenomena • Effect of crystal orientations, surface energies, geometry and different atomic surface layers • Developing a computational algorithm and its related code (free-software SMSO-Ver1) • Thickness and orientation of surface plane dominate the surface melting or overheating. • Total excess surface energy as a function of thickness and temperature explains melting.

  18. A thermodynamic model for predicting surface melting and overheating of different crystal planes in BCC, FCC and HCP pure metallic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahangir, Vafa, E-mail: vafa.jahangir@yahoo.com; Riahifar, Reza, E-mail: reza_rfr@yahoo.com; Sahba Yaghmaee, Maziar, E-mail: fkmsahba@uni-miskolc.hu

    2016-03-31

    In order to predict as well as study the surface melting phenomena in contradiction to surface overheating, a generalized thermodynamics model including the surface free energy of solid and the melt state along with the interfacial energy of solid–liquid (melt on substrate) has been introduced. In addition, the effect of different crystal structures of surfaces in fcc, bcc and hcp metals was included in surface energies as well as in the atomistic model. These considerations lead us to predict surface melting and overheating as two contradictory melting phenomena. The results of the calculation are demonstrated on the example of Pb and Al thin films in three groups of (100), (110) and (111) surface planes. Our conclusions show good agreement with experimental results and other theoretical investigations. Moreover, a computational algorithm has been developed which enables users to investigate the surface melt or overheating of single component metallic thin film with variable crystal structures and different crystalline planes. This model and developed software can be used for studying all related surface phenomena. - Highlights: • Investigating the surface melting and overheating phenomena • Effect of crystal orientations, surface energies, geometry and different atomic surface layers • Developing a computational algorithm and its related code (free-software SMSO-Ver1) • Thickness and orientation of surface plane dominate the surface melting or overheating. • Total excess surface energy as a function of thickness and temperature explains melting.

  19. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on crystal growth mode at pentacene/Ni interface in organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bang Joo; Hong, Kihyon; Kim, Woong-Kwon; Kim, Kisoo; Kim, Sungjun; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2010-11-25

    We report how treatment of nickel (Ni) with O(2) plasma affects the polarity of Ni surface, crystallinity of pentacene film on the Ni, and electrical properties of pentacene organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) that use Ni as source-drain electrodes. The polar component of surface energy in Ni surface increased from 8.1 to 43.3 mJ/m(2) after O(2)-plasma treatment for 10 s. From X-ray photoelectron spectra and secondary electron emission spectra, we found that NiO(x) was formed on the O(2)-plasma-treated Ni surface and the work function of O(2)-plasma-treated Ni was 0.85 eV higher than that of untreated Ni. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy measurements showed that pentacene molecules are well aligned as a thin-film and grains grow much larger on O(2)-plasma-treated Ni than on untreated Ni. This change in the growth mode is attributed to the reduction of interaction energy between pentacene and Ni due to formation of oxide at the Ni/pentacene interface. Thus, O(2)-plasma treatment promoted the growth of well-ordered pentacene film and lowered both the hole injection barrier and the contact resistance between Ni and pentacene by forming NiO(x), enhancing the electrical property of bottom-contact OTFTs.

  20. Transverse anisotropic magnetoresistance effects in pseudo-single-crystal γ′-Fe4N thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Kabara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transverse anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR effects, for which magnetization is rotated in an orthogonal plane to the current direction, were investigated at various temperatures, in order to clarify the structural transformation from a cubic to a tetragonal symmetry in a pseudo-single-crystal Fe4N film, which is predicted from the usual in-plane AMR measurements by the theory taking into account the spin-orbit interaction and crystal field splitting of 3d bands. According to a phenomenological theory of AMR, which derives only from the crystal symmetry, a cos 2θ component ( C 2 tr exists in transverse AMR curves for a tetragonal system but does not for a cubic system. In the Fe4N film, the C 2 tr shows a positive small value (0.12% from 300 K to 50 K. However, the C 2 t r increases to negative value below 50 K and reaches to -2% at 5 K. The drastic increasing of the C 2 tr demonstrates the structural transformation from a cubic to a tetragonal symmetry below 50 K in the Fe4N film. In addition, the out-of-plane and in-plane lattice constants (c and a were precisely determined with X-ray diffraction at room temperature using the Nelson-Riely function. As a result, the positive small C 2 t r above 50 K is attributed to a slightly distorted Fe4N lattice (c/a = 1.002.

  1. Crystal structure and composition of BAlN thin films: Effect of boron concentration in the gas flow

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuo; Li, Xiaohang; Fischer, Alec M.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.; Ponce, Fernando A.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the microstructure of BxAl1-xN films grown by flow-modulated epitaxy at 1010 oC, with B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios ranging from 0.06 to 0.18. The boron content obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns ranges from x = 0.02 to 0.09. On the other hand, boron content deduced from the aluminum signal in the Rutherford backscattering spectra (RBS) ranges x = 0.06 to 0.16, closely following gas-flow ratios. Transmission electron microscopy indicates the sole presence of wurtzite crystal structure in the BAlN films, and a tendency towards columnar growth for B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios below 0.12. For higher ratios, the BAlN films exhibit a tendency towards twin formation and finer microstructure. Electron energy loss spectroscopy has been used to profile spatial variations in the composition of the films.The RBS data suggest that the incorporation of B is highly efficient for our growth method, while the XRD data indicate that the epitaxial growth may be limited by a solubility limit in the crystal phase at about 9%, for the range of B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios that we used, which is significantly higher than previously thought.

  2. Crystal structure and composition of BAlN thin films: Effect of boron concentration in the gas flow

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuo

    2017-07-20

    We have investigated the microstructure of BxAl1-xN films grown by flow-modulated epitaxy at 1010 oC, with B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios ranging from 0.06 to 0.18. The boron content obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns ranges from x = 0.02 to 0.09. On the other hand, boron content deduced from the aluminum signal in the Rutherford backscattering spectra (RBS) ranges x = 0.06 to 0.16, closely following gas-flow ratios. Transmission electron microscopy indicates the sole presence of wurtzite crystal structure in the BAlN films, and a tendency towards columnar growth for B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios below 0.12. For higher ratios, the BAlN films exhibit a tendency towards twin formation and finer microstructure. Electron energy loss spectroscopy has been used to profile spatial variations in the composition of the films.The RBS data suggest that the incorporation of B is highly efficient for our growth method, while the XRD data indicate that the epitaxial growth may be limited by a solubility limit in the crystal phase at about 9%, for the range of B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios that we used, which is significantly higher than previously thought.

  3. Thin films for precision optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.F.; Maurici, N.; Castro, J.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The technology of producing dielectric and/or metallic thin films for high precision optical components is discussed. Computer programs were developed in order to calculate and register, graphically, reflectance and transmittance spectra of multi-layer films. The technology of vacuum evaporation of several materials was implemented in our thin-films laboratory; various films for optics were then developed. The possibility of first calculate film characteristics and then produce the film is of great advantage since it reduces the time required to produce a new type of film and also reduces the cost of the project. (C.L.B.) [pt

  4. Microstructure of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-07

    Proceedings, Thin film Technologies II, 652, 256-263, (1986) B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier, "In situ and air index measurements...34 SPIE Proceedings, "Optical Components and Systems", 805, 128 (1987) 11 B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier. "In situ and air index...aT , m..a, lot,, o ,,f,02,d I4 k -1-1..... autocovariance lengths, less than 0.5 um, indicate that , 514n, ob0 o p’,Ofclllc....,,o,,oy0,1- agua sblrt

  5. Relationship between electrical properties and crystallization of indium oxide thin films using ex-situ grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, G. B.; Okasinski, J. S.; Buchholz, D. B.; Boesso, J.; Almer, J. D.; Zeng, L.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Chang, R. P. H.

    2017-05-01

    Grazing-incidence, wide-angle x-ray scattering measurements were conducted on indium oxide thin films grown on silica substrates via pulsed laser deposition. Growth temperatures (TG) in this study ranged from -50 °C to 600 °C, in order to investigate the thermal effects on the film structure and its spatial homogeneity, as well as their relationship to electrical properties. Films grown below room temperature were amorphous, while films prepared at TG = 25 °C and above crystallized in the cubic bixbyite structure, and their crystalline fraction increased with deposition temperature. The electrical conductivity (σ) and electrical mobility (μ) were strongly enhanced at low deposition temperatures. For TG = 25 °C and 50 °C, a strong ⟨100⟩ preferred orientation (texture) occurred, but it decreased as the deposition temperature, and consequential crystallinity, increased. Higher variations in texture coefficients and in lattice parameters were measured at the film surface compared to the interior of the film, indicating strong microstructural gradients. At low crystallinity, the in-plane lattice spacing expanded, while the out-of-plane spacing contracted, and those values merged at TG = 400 °C, where high μ was measured. This directional difference in lattice spacing, or deviatoric strain, was linear as a function of both deposition temperature and the degree of crystallinity. The crystalline sample with TG = 100 °C had the lowest mobility, as well as film diffraction peaks which split into doublets. The deviatoric strains from these doublet peaks differ by a factor of four, supporting the presence of both a microstructure and strain gradient in this film. More isotropic films exhibit larger μ values, indicating that the microstructure directly correlates with electrical properties. These results provide valuable insights that can help to improve the desirable properties of indium oxide, as well as other transparent conducting oxides.

  6. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  7. In situ observation of the impact of surface oxidation on the crystallization mechanism of GeTe phase-change thin films by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, R.; Bernier, N.; Cooper, D.; Sabbione, C.; Hippert, F.; Noé, P.

    2017-09-01

    The crystallization mechanisms of prototypical GeTe phase-change material thin films have been investigated by in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy annealing experiments. A novel sample preparation method has been developed to improve sample quality and stability during in situ annealing, enabling quantitative analysis and live recording of phase change events. Results show that for an uncapped 100 nm thick GeTe layer, exposure to air after fabrication leads to composition changes which promote heterogeneous nucleation at the oxidized surface. We also demonstrate that protecting the GeTe layer with a 10 nm SiN capping layer prevents nucleation at the surface and allows volume nucleation at a temperature 50 °C higher than the onset of crystallization in the oxidized sample. Our results have important implications regarding the integration of these materials in confined memory cells.

  8. The effect of a slight mis-orientation angle of c-plane sapphire substrate on surface and crystal quality of MOCVD grown GaN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Woo; Suzuki, Toshimasa [Nippon Institute of Technology, 4-1 Gakuendai, Miyashiro, Saitama, 345-8501 (Japan); Aida, Hideo [NAMIKI Precision Jewel Co. Ltd., 3-8-22 Shinden, Adachi-ku, Tokyo, 123-8511 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    The effect of a slight mis-orientation of c-plane sapphire substrate on the surface morphology and crystal quality of GaN thin films grown by MOCVD has been investigated. The mis-orientation angle of vicinal c-plane sapphire substrate was changed within the range of 0.00(zero)-1.00(one) degree, and the experimental results were compared with those on just angle (zero degree) c-plane sapphire substrate. The surface morphology and crystal quality were found to be very sensitive to mis-orientation angle. Consequently, the mis-orientation angle was optimized to be 0.15 . (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Leakage current suppression with a combination of planarized gate and overlap/off-set structure in metal-induced laterally crystallized polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Hee Jae; Seok, Ki Hwan; Lee, Sol Kyu; Joo, Seung Ki

    2018-04-01

    A novel inverted staggered metal-induced laterally crystallized (MILC) polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a combination of a planarized gate and an overlap/off-set at the source-gate/drain-gate structure were fabricated and characterized. While the MILC process is advantageous for fabricating inverted staggered poly-Si TFTs, MILC TFTs reveal higher leakage current than TFTs crystallized by other processes due to their high trap density of Ni contamination. Due to this drawback, the planarized gate and overlap/off-set structure were applied to inverted staggered MILC TFTs. The proposed device shows drastic suppression of leakage current and pinning phenomenon by reducing the lateral electric field and the space-charge limited current from the gate to the drain.

  10. Fast neutron induced flux pinning in Tl-based high-Tc single crystals and thin films, highly textured tapes and melt-textured bulk 123-superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstaetter, G.; Samadi Hosseinalli, G.; Kern, C.; Sauerzopf, F.M.; Schulz, G.W.; Straif, W.; Yang, X.; Weber, H.W.; Hu, Q.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Various compounds (TI-2223, TI-1223, TI-2212) as well as material forms (single crystals, thin films, ceramics, tapes) of TI-based high temperature superconductors were investigated by magnetic and transport techniques. TI-2223 has a very 'low lying' irreversibility line (H parallel e) and negligible critical current densities J c at 77 K. However, the irreversibility line shifts to higher fields and temperatures and J c is strongly enhanced, even at 77 K, after fast neutron irradiation. In contrast, the related TI-1223 compound has a much steeper irreversibility line (H parallel c) similar to that of Y-123. J c is significant up to 77 K, even in the unirradiated state, and can be largely improved by neutron irradiation. Transport measurements made on TI-1223 tapes still show much lower critical current densities. TI-2212 and Tl-2223 thin films have J c 's at 77 K, which are comparable to those of TI-1223 single crystals. Transport measurements on highly textured Bi-2223 tapes as well as flux profile measurements on Nd-123 bulk superconductors confirm the beneficial effects of neutron induced defects (collision cascades) for flux pinning. (author)

  11. Polymer Thin Film Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A. C.; Oslanec, R.; Composto, R. J.; Vlcek, P.

    1998-03-01

    We study the dewetting dynamics of thin polystyrene (PS) films deposited on silicon oxide surfaces using optical (OM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes. Quantitative analysis of the hole diameter as a function of annealing time at 175^oC shows that blending poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) with PS acts to dramatically slow down the dewetting rate and even stops holes growth before they impinge. AFM studies show that the hole floor is smooth for a pure PS film but contains residual polymer for the blend. At 5% vol., a PS-b-PMMA with high molar mass and low PMMA is a more effective stabilizing agent than a low molar mass/high PMMA additive. The optimum copolymer concentration is 3% vol. beyond which film stability doesn't improve. Although dewetting is slowed down relative to pure PS, PS/PS-b-PMMA bilayers dewet at a faster rate than blends having the same overall additive concentration.

  12. Thin films: Past, present, future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  13. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  14. General Observation of Photocatalytic Oxygen Reduction to Hydrogen Peroxide by Organic Semiconductor Thin Films and Colloidal Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryszel, Maciej; Sytnyk, Mykhailo; Jakešová, Marie; Romanazzi, Giuseppe; Gabrielsson, Roger; Heiss, Wolfgang; Głowacki, Eric Daniel

    2018-04-25

    Low-cost semiconductor photocatalysts offer unique possibilities for industrial chemical transformations and energy conversion applications. We report that a range of organic semiconductors are capable of efficient photocatalytic oxygen reduction to H 2 O 2 in aqueous conditions. These semiconductors, in the form of thin films, support a 2-electron/2-proton redox cycle involving photoreduction of dissolved O 2 to H 2 O 2 , with the concurrent photooxidation of organic substrates: formate, oxalate, and phenol. Photochemical oxygen reduction is observed in a pH range from 2 to 12. In cases where valence band energy of the semiconductor is energetically high, autoxidation competes with oxidation of the donors, and thus turnover numbers are low. Materials with deeper valence band energies afford higher stability and also oxidation of H 2 O to O 2 . We found increased H 2 O 2 evolution rate for surfactant-stabilized nanoparticles versus planar thin films. These results evidence that photochemical O 2 reduction may be a widespread feature of organic semiconductors, and open potential avenues for organic semiconductors for catalytic applications.

  15. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  16. Structural, electrical and magnetic characterization of in-situ crystallized ZnO:Co thin films synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lardjane, Soumia, E-mail: lardjanesoumia@yahoo.fr [IRTES-LERMPS, UTBM, Site de Montbéliard, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Division Etude et Prédiction des Matériaux, Unité de Recherche Matériaux et Energies Renouvelables, Université Abou Bekr Belkaid, Tlemcen (Algeria); Pour Yazdi, Mohammad Arab [IRTES-LERMPS, UTBM, Site de Montbéliard, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Martin, Nicolas [FEMTO-ST, Département MN2S, UMR 6174 CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, ENSMM, UTBM, 32, Avenue de l’Observatoire, 25044 Besancon Cedex (France); Bellouard, Christine [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Nancy University, CNRS, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Fenineche, Nour-eddine [IRTES-LERMPS, UTBM, Site de Montbéliard, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Schuler, Andreas [Solar Energy and Buildings Physics Laboratory, EPFL ENAC IIC LESO-PB, Station 18, Bâtiment LE, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Merad, Ghouti [Division Etude et Prédiction des Matériaux, Unité de Recherche Matériaux et Energies Renouvelables, Université Abou Bekr Belkaid, Tlemcen (Algeria); Billard, Alain [IRTES-LERMPS, UTBM, Site de Montbéliard, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O (0 < x < 0.146) conductive thin films have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering of metallic Zn and Co targets at high pressure and temperature. The structural properties have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It has been observed that all as-deposited films are crystallized in pure hcp ZnO structure and neither traces of metallic nor oxide Co-rich clusters were detected. The average grain size estimated from full width at half maximum of XRD results varied between 65 and 83 nm. XPS analyses exhibit that Co ions are successfully entered into ZnO lattice as Co{sup +2}. The electrical properties including conductivity, carrier density and carrier mobility were determined by Hall effect measurements in a temperature range from 300 K to 475 K. The conductivity of the films decreases from σ{sub 300K} = 2.2 × 10{sup 4} to 2.3 × 10{sup −1} Sm{sup −1} as the Co content changes from 0 to 0.146. Magnetic measurements reveal the absence of ferromagnetism even at 3 K and a paramagnetic Curie–Weiss behavior associated to magnetic clusters. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O conductive thin films were synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering. • Structural characterization exhibited the absence of Co clusters or secondary phases. • The film conductivity decreased with increasing of Co concentration. • No ferromagnetism was observed in all Co doped ZnO samples. • Magnetic properties are described by a Curie–Weiss behavior associated to clusters.

  17. Plastic response of thin films due to thermal cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicola, L.; van der Giessen, E.; Needleman, A.; Ahzi, S; Cherkaoui, M; Khaleel, MA; Zbib, HM; Zikry, MA; Lamatina, B

    2004-01-01

    Discrete dislocation simulations of thin films on semi-infinite substrates under cyclic thermal loading are presented. The thin film is modelled as a two-dimensional single crystal under plane strain conditions. Dislocations of edge character can be generated from initially present sources and glide

  18. Optical properties of Pb2 -based aggregated phases in CsBr Thin film and single crystal matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikl, M.; Nitsch, K.; Mihokova, E.; Polak, K.; Fabeni, P.; Pazzi, G. P.; Gurioli, M.; Phani, R.; Santucci, S.; Scacco, A.; Somma, F.

    Emission characteristics of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 aggregates in CsBr bulk and thin film matrices are reported. The emission of the former aggregated phase is peaking about 520-560 nm. It shows small Stokes shift (50 meV) related to narrow free exciton emission line of sub-nanosecond decay times. Quantum size effect was evidenced for the aggregates of 6-7 nm in diameter. The Cs4PbBr6 aggregates show emission peak at 375 nm and overall emission characteristics are similar to those of KBr: Pb, which is explained by very close local arrangement of emission centres-(PbBr6)4- octahedra-in both structures.

  19. Characterization of organic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham; Evans, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Thin films based upon organic materials are at the heart of much of the revolution in modern technology, from advanced electronics, to optics to sensors to biomedical engineering. This volume in the Materials Characterization series introduces the major common types of analysis used in characterizing of thin films and the various appropriate characterization technologies for each. Materials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films and self-assembled monolayers are first introduced, followed by analysis of surface properties and the various characterization technologies used for such. Readers will find detailed information on: -Various spectroscopic approaches to characterization of organic thin films, including infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy -X-Ray diffraction techniques, High Resolution EELS studies, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -Concise Summaries of major characterization technologies for organic thin films, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Tra...

  20. Sputtering materials for VLSI and thin film devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Jaydeep

    2010-01-01

    An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall p

  1. Characterization of single crystal uranium-oxide thin films grown via reactive-gas magnetron sputtering on yttria-stabilized zirconia and sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehle, Melissa M.; Heuser, Brent J., E-mail: bheuser@illinois.edu; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S.; Han Xiaochun; Gennardo, David J.; Pappas, Harrison K.; Ju, Hyunsu

    2012-06-30

    The microstructure and valence states of three single crystal thin film systems, UO{sub 2} on (11{sup Macron }02) r-plane sapphire, UO{sub 2} on (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} on (11{sup Macron }02) r-plane sapphire, grown via reactive-gas magnetron sputtering are analyzed primarily with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). XRD analysis indicates the growth of single crystal domains with varying degrees of mosaicity. XPS and UPS analyses yield U-4f, U-5f, O-1s, and O-2p electron binding energies consistent with reported bulk values. A change from p-type to n-type semiconductor behavior induced by preferential sputtering of oxygen during depth profile analysis was observed with both XPS and UPS. Trivalent cation impurities (Nd and Al) in UO{sub 2} lower the Fermi level, shifting the XPS spectral weight. This observation is consistent with hole-doping of a Mott-Hubbard insulator. The uranium oxide-(11{sup Macron }02) sapphire system is unstable with respect to Al interdiffusion across the film-substrate interface at elevated temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal uranium-oxides grown on sapphire and yttria-stabilized zirconia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anion and cation valence states studied by photoelectron emission spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trivalent Nd and Al impurities lower the Fermi level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uranium-oxide films on sapphire found to be unstable with respect to Al interdiffusion.

  2. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described [fr

  3. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S

    2015-05-27

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly characterized and their spectral properties well established. We report the successful growth of a three- dimensional, vitreous silicon dioxide thin film on the Pt(111) surface and reproduce the closed bilayer structure previously reported. The confirmation of the three dimensional nature of the film is unequivocally shown by the infrared absorption band at 1252 cm−1. Temperature programmed desorption was used to show that this three-dimensional thin film covers the Pt(111) surface to such an extent that its application as a catalyst support for clusters/nanoparticles is possible. The growth of a three-dimensional film was seen to be directly correlated with the amount of oxygen present on the surface after the silicon evaporation process. This excess of oxygen is tentatively attributed to atomic oxygen being generated in the evaporator. The identification of atomic oxygen as a necessary building block for the formation of a three-dimensional thin film opens up new possibilities for thin film growth on metal supports, whereby simply changing the type of oxygen enables thin films with different atomic structures to be synthesized. This is a novel approach to tune the synthesis parameters of thin films to grow a specific structure and expands the options for modeling common amorphous silica supports under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  4. Quantitative assessment of slit Mura defect in a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display based on chromaticity and optical density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzu, Fu-Ming; Chou, Jung-Hua

    2010-01-01

    An innovative non-contact optical inspection method is developed to quantify slit Mura defects for thin film transistor–liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs). From the measurements of both chromaticity and optical densities across the slit Mura, the results indicate that the optical density profile is a concave shape and the chromaticity distribution is a convex shape. A linear relation with a negative slope exists between the chromaticity and optical density. A larger colour difference has a steeper slope, and vice versa. All of the measurements with uncertainties of a 99.7% confidence interval satisfy the requirements of the flat panel display industry. The proposed method can accurately quantify the pattern of blue slit Mura of TFT-LCDs; even the perceptibility is below the just noticeable difference

  5. Inkjet printing of single-crystal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemawari, Hiromi; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Haas, Simon; Chiba, Ryosuke; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2011-07-13

    The use of single crystals has been fundamental to the development of semiconductor microelectronics and solid-state science. Whether based on inorganic or organic materials, the devices that show the highest performance rely on single-crystal interfaces, with their nearly perfect translational symmetry and exceptionally high chemical purity. Attention has recently been focused on developing simple ways of producing electronic devices by means of printing technologies. 'Printed electronics' is being explored for the manufacture of large-area and flexible electronic devices by the patterned application of functional inks containing soluble or dispersed semiconducting materials. However, because of the strong self-organizing tendency of the deposited materials, the production of semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity (indispensable for realizing high carrier mobility) may be incompatible with conventional printing processes. Here we develop a method that combines the technique of antisolvent crystallization with inkjet printing to produce organic semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity. Specifically, we show that mixing fine droplets of an antisolvent and a solution of an active semiconducting component within a confined area on an amorphous substrate can trigger the controlled formation of exceptionally uniform single-crystal or polycrystalline thin films that grow at the liquid-air interfaces. Using this approach, we have printed single crystals of the organic semiconductor 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C(8)-BTBT) (ref. 15), yielding thin-film transistors with average carrier mobilities as high as 16.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This printing technique constitutes a major step towards the use of high-performance single-crystal semiconductor devices for large-area and flexible electronics applications.

  6. Rim instability of bursting thin smectic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trittel, Torsten; John, Thomas; Tsuji, Kinko; Stannarius, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The rupture of thin smectic bubbles is studied by means of high speed video imaging. Bubbles of centimeter diameter and film thicknesses in the nanometer range are pierced, and the instabilities of the moving rim around the opening hole are described. Scaling laws describe the relation between film thickness and features of the filamentation process of the rim. A flapping motion of the retracting smectic film is assumed as the origin of the observed filamentation instability. A comparison with similar phenomena in soap bubbles is made. The present experiments extend studies on soap films [H. Lhuissier and E. Villermaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 054501 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.054501] to much thinner, uniform films of thermotropic liquid crystals.

  7. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  8. Size effects in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Tellier, CR; Siddall, G

    1982-01-01

    A complete and comprehensive study of transport phenomena in thin continuous metal films, this book reviews work carried out on external-surface and grain-boundary electron scattering and proposes new theoretical equations for transport properties of these films. It presents a complete theoretical view of the field, and considers imperfection and impurity effects.

  9. Thermal annealing of amorphous Ti-Si-O thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Hodroj , Abbas; Chaix-Pluchery , Odette; Audier , Marc; Gottlieb , Ulrich; Deschanvres , Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Ti-Si-O thin films were deposited using an aerosol chemical vapor deposition process at atmospheric pressure. The film structure and microstructure were analysed using several techniques before and after thermal annealing. Diffraction results indicate that the films remain X-ray amorphous after annealing whereas Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy gives evidence of a phase segregation between amorphous SiO2 and well crystallized anatase TiO2. Crystallization of ana...

  10. Dielectric loss of strontium titanate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalberth, Mark Joseph

    1999-12-01

    Interest in strontium titanate (STO) thin films for microwave device applications continues to grow, fueled by the telecommunications industry's interest in phase shifters and tunable filters. The optimization of these devices depends upon increasing the phase or frequency tuning and decreasing the losses in the films. Currently, the dielectric response of thin film STO is poorly understood through lack of data and a theory to describe it. We have studied the growth of STO using pulsed laser deposition and single crystal substrates like lanthanum aluminate and neodymium gallate. We have researched ways to use ring resonators to accurately measure the dielectric response as a function of temperature, electric field, and frequency from low radio frequencies to a few gigahertz. Our films grown on lanthanum aluminate show marked frequency dispersion in the real part of the dielectric constant and hints of thermally activated loss behavior. We also found that films grown with conditions that optimized the dielectric constant showed increased losses. In an attempt to simplify the system, we developed a technique called epitaxial lift off, which has allowed us to study films removed from their growth substrates. These free standing films have low losses and show obvious thermally activated behavior. The "amount of tuning," as measured by a figure of merit, KE, is greater in these films than in the films still attached to their growth substrates. We have developed a theory that describes the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The theory models the real part using a mean field description of the ionic motion in the crystal and includes the loss by incorporating the motion of charged defects in the films.

  11. Thin films prepared from tungstate glass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, B.; Ribeiro, S.J.L.; Messaddeq, Y. [Departamento de Quimica Geral e Inorganica, Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, CP 355, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Li, M.S. [Instituto de Fisica, USP, CP 369, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Poirier, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, UNIFAL-MG, CEP 37130-000, Alfenas-MG (Brazil)], E-mail: gael@unifal-mg.edu.br

    2008-01-30

    Vitreous samples containing high concentrations of WO{sub 3} (above 40% M) have been used as a target to prepare thin films. Such films were deposited using the electron beam evaporation method onto soda-lime glass substrates. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), perfilometry, X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), M-Lines and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. In this work, experimental parameters were established to obtain stable thin films showing a chemical composition close to the glass precursor composition and with a high concentration of WO{sub 3}. These amorphous thin films of about 4 {mu}m in thickness exhibit a deep blue coloration but they can be bleached by thermal treatment near the glass transition temperature. Such bleached films show several guided modes in the visible region and have a high refractive index. Controlled crystallization was realized and thus it was possible to obtain WO{sub 3} microcrystals in the amorphous phase.

  12. Self-Limited Growth in Pentacene Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachmajer, Stefan; Jones, Andrew O F; Truger, Magdalena; Röthel, Christian; Salzmann, Ingo; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland

    2017-04-05

    Pentacene is one of the most studied organic semiconducting materials. While many aspects of the film formation have already been identified in very thin films, this study provides new insight into the transition from the metastable thin-film phase to bulk phase polymorphs. This study focuses on the growth behavior of pentacene within thin films as a function of film thickness ranging from 20 to 300 nm. By employing various X-ray diffraction methods, combined with supporting atomic force microscopy investigations, one crystalline orientation for the thin-film phase is observed, while three differently tilted bulk phase orientations are found. First, bulk phase crystallites grow with their 00L planes parallel to the substrate surface; second, however, crystallites tilted by 0.75° with respect to the substrate are found, which clearly dominate the former in ratio; third, a different bulk phase polymorph with crystallites tilted by 21° is found. The transition from the thin-film phase to the bulk phase is rationalized by the nucleation of the latter at crystal facets of the thin-film-phase crystallites. This leads to a self-limiting growth of the thin-film phase and explains the thickness-dependent phase behavior observed in pentacene thin films, showing that a large amount of material is present in the bulk phase much earlier during the film growth than previously thought.

  13. Synchrotron White Beam X-Ray Topography Characterization of LGX and SXGS Bulk Single Crystals, Thin Films and Piezoelectric Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dudley, Michael

    2007-01-01

    ...), to the determination of defect and general distortion distributions in novel LGX piezoelectric crystals with a view to enabling improvement in crystal quality and consequently in piezoelectric device performance...

  14. Hall coefficients and optical properties of La/sub 2-//sub x/Sr/sub x/CuO4 single-crystal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.

    1989-01-01

    The low-field Hall coefficient R/sub H/, optical reflectance and transmittance of the La/sub 2-//sub x/Sr/sub x/CuO 4 system with various Sr concentrations from x = 0 to 0.36 are systematically studied using single-crystal thin films epitaxially grown on (100) face SrTiO 3 substrates with the c axis normal to the film surface. For the x range measured, R/sub H/ is positive and decreases more rapidly than that expected from the Sr concentration but more slowly than reported earlier for polycrystalline specimens, indicating anisotropy of R/sub H/. Furthermore, the x dependence indicates deviation from that expected from a simple band model. Within the superconducting composition range, R/sub H/ exhibits characteristic temperature dependence. The optical reflectance spectrum changes from that of a semiconductor at x = 0 to a typical metallic one characterized by the Drude model for x>0.1, indicating the development of itinerant holes in the Cu-O planes. In the optical transmission spectra, an anomalous absorption band is seen in addition to the fundamental absorption corresponding to an energy gap of about 2 eV. This band, which develops with Sr doping, implies an enhancement of the density of states near the Fermi level. Taking these observations into account, the normal-state transport properties are explained with a qualitative consistence

  15. Magnetic surfaces, thin films, and multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, S.S.P.; Renard, J.P.; Shinjo, T.; Zinn, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper details recent developments in the magnetism of surfaces, thin films and multilayers. More than 20 invited contributions and more than 60 contributed papers attest to the great interest and vitality of this subject. In recent years the study of magnetic surfaces, thin films and multilayers has undergone a renaissance, partly motivated by the development of new growth and characterization techniques, but perhaps more so by the discovery of many exciting new properties, some quite unanticipated. These include, most recently, the discovery of enormous values of magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers far exceeding those found in magnetic single layer films and the discovery of oscillatory interlayer coupling in transition metal multilayers. These experimental studies have motivated much theoretical work. However these developments are to a large extent powered by materials engineering and our ability to control and understand the growth of thin layers just a few atoms thick. The preparation of single crystal thin film layers and multilayers remains important for many studies, in particular, for properties dependent. These studies obviously require engineering not just a layer thicknesses but of lateral dimensions as well. The properties of such structures are already proving to be a great interest

  16. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au)

  17. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  18. Superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebard, A.F.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to granular metal and metal oxide superconducting films formed by ion beam sputter deposition. Illustratively, the films comprise irregularly shaped, randomly oriented, small lead grains interspersed in an insulating lead oxide matrix. The films are hillock-resistant when subjected to thermal cycling and exhibit unusual josephson-type switching characteristics. Depending on the oxygen content, a film may behave in a manner similar to that of a plurality of series connected josephson junctions, or the film may have a voltage difference in a direction parallel to a major surface of the film that is capable of being switched from zero voltage difference to a finite voltage difference in response to a current larger than the critical current

  19. Effects of crystallization on structural and dielectric properties of thin amorphous films of (1 - x)BaTiO3-xSrTiO3 (x=0-0.5, 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, H.; Morii, K.; Nakayama, Y.

    1993-05-01

    The possibilities for fabricating solid solutions of (Ba1-x,Srx)TiO3 (x≤0.5,1.0) by crystallization of amorphous films and for improving their dielectric properties by adjusting the Sr content were investigated. Thin amorphous films were prepared from powder targets consisting of mixtures of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 by sputtering with a neutralized Ar-ion beam. The amorphous films crystallized into (Ba1-x, Srx)TiO3 solid solutions with a cubic perovskite-type structure after annealing in air at 923 K for more than 1 h. The Debye-type dielectric relaxation was observed for the amorphous films, whereas the crystallized films showed paraelectric behavior. The relative dielectric constants were of the order of 20 for the amorphous samples, but increased greatly after crystallization to about 60-200, depending on the composition; a larger increase in the dielectric constant was observed in the higher Sr content films, in the range x≤0.5, which could be correlated with an increase in the grain size of the crystallites. The crystallization processes responsible for the difference in the grain size are discussed based on the microstructural observations.

  20. Incorporation of self-organised gold nano crystals in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films: Modification of superconducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzer, Christian; Michalowski, Peter; Westerhausen, Markus; Koch, Stefanie; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Treiber, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Albrecht, Joachim [Hochschule Aalen, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Using pulsed laser deposition we are able to fabricate and examine Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) thin films of high quality. A particular point of interest thereby is the influence of a pre-deposited gold layer with a well-defined film thickness. During the growth of the YBCO thin film the intermediate gold layer self assembles into crystalline nano particles, which modify the growth conditions and hence the physical properties of the growing YBCO. We report on the modification of structural and superconducting properties of our YBCO thin films (such as rocking curve widths, critical temperature T{sub c} and critical current density j{sub c}) comparing conventional to Au added YBCO. The temperature dependence of the critical current density thereby was determined using transport measurements as well as magneto-optical measurements. Furthermore investigations of the flux noise of our gold modified YBCO films are presented.

  1. Electronic structure of Fe1.08Te bulk crystals and epitaxial FeTe thin films on Bi2Te3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Fabian; Warmuth, Jonas; Michiardi, Matteo; Fikáček, Jan; Bianchi, Marco; Hu, Jin; Mao, Zhiqiang; Miwa, Jill; Singh, Udai Raj; Bremholm, Martin; Wiesendanger, Roland; Honolka, Jan; Wehling, Tim; Wiebe, Jens; Hofmann, Philip

    2018-02-01

    The electronic structure of thin films of FeTe grown on Bi2Te3 is investigated using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and first principles calculations. As a comparison, data from cleaved bulk Fe1.08Te taken under the same experimental conditions is also presented. Due to the substrate and thin film symmetry, FeTe thin films grow on Bi2Te3 in three domains, rotated by 0°, 120°, and 240°. This results in a superposition of photoemission intensity from the domains, complicating the analysis. However, by combining bulk and thin film data, it is possible to partly disentangle the contributions from three domains. We find a close similarity between thin film and bulk electronic structure and an overall good agreement with first principles calculations, assuming a p-doping shift of 65 meV for the bulk and a renormalization factor of around two. By tracking the change of substrate electronic structure upon film growth, we find indications of an electron transfer from the FeTe film to the substrate. No significant change of the film’s electronic structure or doping is observed when alkali atoms are dosed onto the surface. This is ascribed to the film’s high density of states at the Fermi energy. This behavior is also supported by the ab initio calculations.

  2. Crystal defects and related stress in Y2O3 thin films: Origin, modeling, and consequence on the stability of the C-type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Bertrand; Paumier, Fabien; Gaboriaud, Rolly J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact that the crystal defects have on the C-type structure of rare earth sesquioxide thin films grown by ion-beam sputtering, through the example of Y 2 O 3 . By monitoring the energy of the argon beam used in the sputter deposition process (between 600 and 1200 eV), we show that it is possible to control the microstructure (defects concentration, stress state and phase) in the oxide layer. Two main types of defects, ascribed to the 'atomic peening effect', are evidenced by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and nuclear reaction analysis experiments: anti-Frenkel pairs, leading to a disorder on the oxygen-vacancy network, and oxygen-vacancy dislocations loops, to accommodate the strong nonstoichiometry. From a macroscopic measurement of the residual stresses in the as-deposited and the annealed layers, through x-ray diffraction and the sin 2 Ψ method, we have modeled the related stress state using an enhanced triaxial stress model. In the as-grown films, we evidence the coexistence of a biaxial and a hydrostatic stress, due to inclusions of atomic size defects. Quantitative information of the concentration and the nature of each type of defect (size effect) have also been determined, in good agreement with experiments. Interestingly, in the most energetic growth conditions corresponding to the highest degree of disorder on the oxygen-vacancy network and to the highest stress field in the film, we demonstrate that it is possible to stabilize an unexpected and metastable non equilibrium fluorite-like phase (X-type).

  3. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  4. The Structure and Stability of Molybdenum Ditelluride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-tellurium alloy thin films were fabricated by electron beam evaporation and the films were annealed in different conditions in N2 ambient. The hexagonal molybdenum ditelluride thin films with well crystallization annealed at 470°C or higher were obtained by solid state reactions. Thermal stability measurements indicate the formation of MoTe2 took place at about 350°C, and a subtle weight-loss was in the range between 30°C and 500°C. The evolution of the chemistry for Mo-Te thin films was performed to investigate the growth of the MoTe2 thin films free of any secondary phase. And the effect of other postdeposition treatments on the film characteristics was also investigated.

  5. Investigation of ferromagnetism in oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Alff, Lambert [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Suter, Andreas [PSI, Villingen (Switzerland); Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    2008-07-01

    Oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide were grown on single crystal r-cut and c-cut sapphire by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. RF-activated oxygen was used for the in situ oxidation of hafnium oxide thin films. Oxidation conditions were varied substantially in order to create oxygen deficiency in hafnium oxide films intentionally. The films were characterized by X-ray and magnetic measurements. X-ray diffraction studies show an increase in lattice parameter with increasing oxygen deficiency. Oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films also showed a decreasing bandgap with increase in oxygen deficiency. The magnetisation studies carried out with SQUID did not show any sign of ferromagnetism in the whole oxygen deficiency range. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements also confirmed the absence of ferromagnetism in oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films.

  6. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical limiting capability of the nanoparticle-embedded polymer film is demonstrated. Keywords. Polar crystal; uniaxial orientational order; thin film; second harmonic gen- eration; silver ... able content of metal nanoparticles would be of considerable value from an appli- ... polar chain and perpendicular to it [10].

  7. Influence of PbCl2 content in PbI2 solution of DMF on the absorption, crystal phase, morphology of lead halide thin films and photovoltaic performance in planar perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mao; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Jincheng; Wu, Ni; Ying, Chao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of PbCl 2 content in PbI 2 solution of DMF on the absorption, crystal phase and morphology of lead halide thin films was systematically investigated and the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells was evaluated. The result revealed that the various thickness lead halide thin film with the small sheet-like, porous morphology and low crystallinity can be produced by adding PbCl 2 powder into PbI 2 solution of DMF as a precursor solution. The planar perovskite solar cell based on the 300-nm-thick CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Cl x thin film by the precursor solution with the mixture of 0.80 M PbI 2 and 0.20 M PbCl 2 exhibited the optimum photoelectric conversion efficiency of 10.12% along with an open-circuit voltage of 0.93 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 15.70 mA cm −2 and a fill factor of 0.69. - Graphical abstract: The figure showed the surface and cross-sectional SEM images of lead halide thin films using the precursor solutions: (a) 0.80 M PbI 2 , (b) 0.80 M PbI 2 +0.20 M PbCl 2 , (c) 0.80 M PbI 2 +0.40 M PbCl 2 , and (d) 0.80 M PbI 2 +0.60 M PbCl 2 . With the increase of the PbCl 2 content in precursor solution, the size of the lead halide nanosheet decreased and the corresponding thin films gradually turned to be porous with low crystallinity. - Highlights: • Influence of PbCl 2 content on absorption, crystal phase and morphology of thin film. • Influence of perovskite film thickness on photovoltaic performance of solar cell. • Lead halide thin film with small sheet-like, porous morphology and low crystallinity. • Planar solar cell with 300 nm-thick perovskite thin film achieved PCE of 10.12%.

  8. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  9. Preparation of thin vyns films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Chedin, P.; Gizon, A.

    1965-01-01

    The fabrication of thin films of VYNS resin (copolymer of chloride and vinyl acetate) of superficial density from 3 to 50 μg/cm 2 with solutions in cyclohexanone is presented. Study and discussion of some properties compared with formvar film (polyvinyl formals). It appears that both can be used as source supports but formvar films are prepared more easily and more quickly, in addition they withstand higher temperatures. The main quality of VYNS is that they can be easily separated even several days after their preparation [fr

  10. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  11. Crystal Structure And Optical Properties Of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared By Reactive RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sputtering deposition process of TiO2, metal Ti or sintered TiO2 target is used as deposition source. In this study, we have compared the characteristic of target materials. When TiO2 target was used, stoichiometric TiO2 films was deposited under the Ar atmosphere containing 1.0% of oxygen. The highest sputtering rate under this atmosphere was 3.9nm/min at 3.4W/cm2. But, sintered TiO2 target is fragile and cannot endure higher density of input power than 3.4W/cm2. On the other hand, Ti target needs higher oxygen concentration (8% in sputtering gas atmosphere for obtaining rutile/anatase. Even though Ti target can be input twice power density of 7.9W/cm2, the highest deposition rate for Ti target was 1.4/nm, which was ~35% of the highest rate for TiO2 target. Then we have study out the composite target consisting of Ti plate and TiO2 chips. Using the composite target, stoichiometric TiO2 films were prepared in the rate of 9.6nm/min at 6.8 W/cm2 under the atmosphere of Ar/2.5%O2. Furthermore, we have found that the TiO2 films obtained from the composite target consisted of about 100% anatase, whereas TiO2 films obtained from other target have rutile dominant structure. The optical band gap energy of the film is determined by using the Tauc plot. The calculated band gap energies for the films deposited by Ti target and composite target were 2.95 and 3.24eV, which are equivalent to that of rutile and anatase structure, respectively.

  12. Controlled deposition of highly ordered soluble acene thin films: effect of morphology and crystal orientation on transistor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sele, C.W.; Kjellander, B.K.C.; Niesen, B.; Thornton, M.J.; Putten, J.B.P.H. van der; Myny, K.; Wondergem, H.J.; Moser, A.; Resel, R.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Aerle, N.A.J.M. van; Heremans, P.; Anthony, J.E.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    (Figure Presented) Controlling the morphology of soluble small molecule organic semiconductors is crucial for the application of such materials in electronic devices. Using a simple dip-coating process we systematically vary the film drying speed to produce a range of morphologies, including

  13. Aluminum nitride and nanodiamond thin film microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoebber, Fabian; Bludau, Oliver; Roehlig, Claus-Christian; Williams, Oliver; Sah, Ram Ekwal; Kirste, Lutz; Cimalla, Volker; Lebedev, Vadim; Nebel, Christoph; Ambacher, Oliver [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, aluminum nitride (AlN) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film microstructures have been developed. Freestanding NCD membranes were coated with a piezoelectrical AlN layer in order to build tunable micro-lens arrays. For the evaluation of the single material quality, AlN and NCD thin films on silicon substrates were fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering and microwave chemical vapor deposition techniques, respectively. The crystal quality of AlN was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} was determined by scanning laser vibrometry. The NCD thin films were optimized with respect to surface roughness, mechanical stability, intrinsic stress and transparency. To determine the mechanical properties of the materials, both, micromechanical resonator and membrane structures were fabricated and measured by magnetomotive resonant frequency spectroscopy and bulging experiments, respectively. Finally, the behavior of AlN/NCD heterostructures was modeled using the finite element method and the first structures were characterized by piezoelectrical measurements.

  14. Growth of thin SiC films on Si single crystal wafers with a microwave excited plasma of methane gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhiman, Rajnish; Morgen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Wehave studied the growth and properties of SiC films on Siwafers, under ultrahigh vacuumbackground con- ditions, using a remote-, microwave excited,methane plasma as a source of active carbon and hydrogen,while the Si substrates were held at a temperature of near 700 °C. The reaction is diffusio......Wehave studied the growth and properties of SiC films on Siwafers, under ultrahigh vacuumbackground con- ditions, using a remote-, microwave excited,methane plasma as a source of active carbon and hydrogen,while the Si substrates were held at a temperature of near 700 °C. The reaction...... lowdensity of these, and are otherwise very uniform and poly- crystalline. They are characterized with scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photo- electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and hardnessmeasurements....

  15. Superconducting properties of iron chalcogenide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron chalcogenides, binary FeSe, FeTe and ternary FeTexSe1−x, FeTexS1−x and FeTe:Ox, are the simplest compounds amongst the recently discovered iron-based superconductors. Thin films of iron chalcogenides present many attractive features that are covered in this review, such as: (i easy fabrication and epitaxial growth on common single-crystal substrates; (ii strong enhancement of superconducting transition temperature with respect to the bulk parent compounds (in FeTe0.5Se0.5, zero-resistance transition temperature Tc0bulk = 13.5 K, but Tc0film = 19 K on LaAlO3 substrate; (iii high critical current density (Jc ~ 0.5 ×106 A cm2 at 4.2 K and 0 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5 film deposited on CaF2, and similar values on flexible metallic substrates (Hastelloy tapes buffered by ion-beam assisted deposition with a weak dependence on magnetic field; (iv high upper critical field (~50 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5, Bc2(0, with a low anisotropy, γ ~ 2. These highlights explain why thin films of iron chalcogenides have been widely studied in recent years and are considered as promising materials for applications requiring high magnetic fields (20–50 T and low temperatures (2–10 K.

  16. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  17. Review of thin film superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlstrom, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in thin film superconductivity are critical to the success of many proposed applications. The authors review several of the prominent techniques currently used to produce thin films of the high temperature superconductors including electron beam co-deposition, sputtering (both multiple and composite source configurations) and laser ablation. The authors look at the relevant parameters for each and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. In addition, promising work on in situ oxidation is discussed. Also addressed are efforts to find optimum substrate materials and substrate buffer layers for various applications. The current state of the art for T c , J c and H c2 is presented for the yttrium, bismuth, and thallium compounds

  18. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  19. Magnetization in permalloy thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) were prepared using an Ar+N2 mixture with magnetron ... alloys of Ni and Fe) take an important place. NiFe alloy with a ... room temperature (∼298 K, without intentional heating) on Si(100) substrates. A base pressure of 1×10−6 mbar was achieved prior to the deposition. Three different ...

  20. In-situ synchrotron x-ray study of the crystallization behavior of Ce0.9La0.1O2−x thin films deposited on NiW alloy substrates by chemical solution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2011-01-01

    The phase and texture formation of La doped CeO2 (CLO) films deposited by the chemical solution method are studied by in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. It is found that the CLO crystallites forms excellent in-plane texture as soon as the phase appears at 860°C, indicating that interfacial nu...... by diffusion. The success of this work demonstrates the possibility of studying crystallization behaviors of solution derived films using a non-destructive method, which has the potential of being applicable to most types of thin film samples.......The phase and texture formation of La doped CeO2 (CLO) films deposited by the chemical solution method are studied by in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. It is found that the CLO crystallites forms excellent in-plane texture as soon as the phase appears at 860°C, indicating that interfacial...

  1. Properties of MoO3 thin film polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, E.M.; Carcia, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    Thin film polymorphs of molybdenum trioxide have been synthesized by RF sputtering. Films deposited on thermally floating substrates are polycrystalline and exhibit preferred orientation. Depending upon the oxygen partial pressure maintained during sputtering, the films can be made to crystallize in either the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic α MoO 3 form (unique 2D-layered structure) or the metastable monoclinic β MoO 3 phase (3D ReO 3 -related structure). Metastable β films can be converted thermally to the α phase and the transformation appears topotactic. Films deposited on the cooled substrates are amorphous. A correlation between the particular phase formed and adatom mobility is noted

  2. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Photo of a , a prime example of this research is thin-film photovoltaics (PV). Thin films are important because cadmium telluride thin film, showing from top to bottom: glass, transparent conducting oxide (thin layer

  3. Photoconductivity of thin organic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Chukharev, Vladimir; Kaplas, Petra; Tolkki, Antti; Efimov, Alexander; Haring, Kimmo; Viheriaelae, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2 μm), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene (PHT), fullerene (C 60 ), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), as well as molecules potentially interesting for photovoltaic applications, e.g. porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The films were deposited using thermal evaporation (e.g. for C 60 and CuPc films), spin coating for PHT, and Langmuir-Schaeffer for the layer-by-layer deposition of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The most conducting materials in the series are films of PHT and CuPc with resistivities 1.2 x 10 3 Ω m and 3 x 10 4 Ω m, respectively. Under light illumination resistivity of all films decreases, with the strongest light effect observed for PTCDI, for which resistivity decreases by 100 times, from 3.2 x 10 8 Ω m in dark to 3.1 x 10 6 Ω m under the light.

  4. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Fernández, E.; Svalov, A.; Burgoa Beitia, A.; García-Arribas, A.; Larrañaga, A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti] 3 /Cu/[FeNi/Ti] 3 films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  5. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  6. Optical, Electrical, and Crystal Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition on Silicon and Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupa, I.; Unal, Y.; Cetin, S. S.; Durna, L.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.; Ates, H.

    2018-05-01

    TiO2 thin films have been deposited on glass and Si(100) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using tetrakis(diethylamido)titanium(IV) and water vapor as reactants. Thorough investigation of the properties of the TiO2/glass and TiO2/Si thin films was carried out, varying the deposition temperature in the range from 100°C to 250°C while keeping the number of reaction cycles fixed at 1000. Physical and material property analyses were performed to investigate optical and electrical properties, composition, structure, and morphology. TiO2 films grown by ALD may represent promising materials for future applications in optoelectronic devices.

  7. Nucleation of fcc Ta when heating thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janish, Matthew T.; Mook, William M.; Carter, C. Barry

    2015-01-01

    Thin tantalum films have been studied during in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope. Diffraction patterns from the as-deposited films were typical of amorphous materials. Crystalline grains were observed to form when the specimen was annealed in situ at 450 °C. Particular attention was addressed to the formation and growth of grains with the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. These observations are discussed in relation to prior work on the formation of fcc Ta by deformation and during thin film deposition

  8. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film .... The electrical resistivity of CdTe films was studied in air. Figure 3 shows the variation of log ...

  9. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José

    2010-10-24

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation and strain in oxide ionic conducting materials used as electrolytes, such as fluorites, and in mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials used as electrodes, typically oxides with perovskite or perovskite-related layered structures. The recent effort towards the enhancement of the electrochemical performance of SOFC materials through the deposition of artificial film heterostructures is also presented. These thin films have been engineered at a nanoscale level, such as the case of epitaxial multilayers or nanocomposite cermet materials. The recent progress in the implementation of thin films in SOFC devices is also reported. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2-δ grown on (rutile)TiO2 substrates with pulsed laser deposition: Experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chaka, Anne M.; Kovarik, Libor; Varga, Tamas; Arey, Bruce W.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2015-02-01

    Epitaxial rutile-structured single-crystal MnxTi1-xO2-δ films were synthesized on rutile- (110) and -(001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The films were characterized by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM). Under the present conditions, 400oC and PO2 = 20 mTorr, single crystal epitaxial thin films were grown for x = 0.13, where x is the nominal average mole fraction of Mn. In fact, arbitrarily thick films could be grown with near invariant Mn/Ti concentration profiles from the substrate/film interface to the film surface. In contrast, at x = 0.25, Mn became enriched towards the surface and a secondary nano-scale phase formed which appeared to maintain the basic rutile structure but with enhanced z-contrast in the tunnels, or tetrahedral interstitial sites. Ab initio thermodynamic calculations provided quantitative estimates for the destabilizing effect of expanding the β-MnO2 lattice parameters to those of TiO2-rutile, the stabilizing effect of diluting Mn with increasing Ti concentration, and competing reaction pathways.

  11. Thin film structures and phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, B.M.; Johnson, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    This was a two day symposium, with invited and contributed papers as well as an evening poster session. The first day concentrated on solid state reactions with invited talks by Lindsay Greer from the University of Cambridge, King Tu from IBM Yorktown Heights, and Carl Thompson from MIT. Professor Greer observed that the diffusion of Zr is 10 6 times slower than that of Ni in amorphous NiZr, confirming that Ni is the mobile species in solid state amorphization. King Tu explained the formation of metastable phases in this film diffusion couples by the concept of maximum rate of free energy change. Carl Thompson discussed the formation of amorphous phases in metal silicon systems, and discussed a two stage nucleation and growth process. The contributed papers also generated discussion on topics such as phase segregation, amorphous silicide formation, room temperature oxidation of silicon, and nucleation during ion beam irradiation. There was a lively poster session on Monday evening with papers on a wide variety of topics covering the general area of thin film science. The second day had sessions Epitaxy and Multilayer Structure I and II, with the morning focussing on epitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth of thin films. Robin Farrow of IBM Almaden led off with an invited talk where he reported on some remarkable success he and his co-workers have had in growing single crystal epitaxial thin films and superlattices of silver, iron, cobalt and platinum on GaAs. This was followed by several talks on epitaxial growth and characterization. The afternoon focused on interfaces and structure of multilayered materials. A session on possible stress origins of the supermodulus effect was highlighted by lively interaction from the audience. Most of the papers presented at the symposium are presented in this book

  12. Study of obliquely deposited thin cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, W.; Kozlowski, W.; Balcerski, J.; Kowalczyk, P.J.; Grobelny, J.; Cichomski, M.

    2010-01-01

    magnetic domains in the direction parallel to the incidence plane indicates that the crystallographic contribution to the magnetic anisotropy is dominant over the shape anisotropy. - Abstract: Thin cobalt films, 40 nm and 100 nm in thickness, were deposited by thermal evaporation at an incidence angle of 45 o in a system with a base pressure of approximately 10 -5 mbar, simultaneously on unheated glass substrates and NaCl crystals. The magnetic microstructure of the films was investigated with the conventional Bitter pattern technique and the Fresnel mode of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), while the morphological structure was observed using TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films were found to have uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic microstructure of the films 40 nm and 100 nm thick consisted of domains running (and magnetized) predominantly in the direction perpendicular and parallel to the incidence plane, respectively. For the films studied, some correlation between the magnetic microstructure and the morphological structure was detected.

  13. Crystallization and electrical resistivity of Cu{sub 2}O and CuO obtained by thermal oxidation of Cu thin films on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Los Santos Valladares, L., E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J Thomson Av., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901, Recife-Pe (Brazil); Salinas, D. Hurtado [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Dominguez, A. Bustamante [Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Najarro, D. Acosta [Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Materia Condensada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. Postal 20-364, CP 01000 (Mexico); Khondaker, S.I. [NanoScience Technology Centre and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Mitrelias, T.; Barnes, C.H.W. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J Thomson Av., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Aguiar, J. Albino [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901, Recife-Pe (Brazil); Majima, Y. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we study the crystallization and electrical resistivity of the formed oxides in a Cu/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin film after thermal oxidation by ex-situ annealing at different temperatures up to 1000 Degree-Sign C. Upon increasing the annealing temperature, from the X ray diffractogram the phase evolution Cu {yields} Cu + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O + CuO {yields} CuO was detected. Pure Cu{sub 2}O films are obtained at 200 Degree-Sign C, whereas uniform CuO films without structural surface defects such as terraces, kinks, porosity or cracks are obtained in the temperature range 300-550 Degree-Sign C. In both oxides, crystallization improves with annealing temperature. A resistivity phase diagram, which is obtained from the current-voltage response, is presented here. The resistivity was expected to increase linearly as a function of the annealing temperature due to evolution of oxides. However, anomalous decreases are observed at different temperatures ranges, this may be related to the improvement of the crystallization and crystallite size when the temperature increases. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystallization and electrical resistivity of oxides in a Cu films are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In annealing Cu films, the phase evolution Cu + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O + CuO {yields} CuO occurs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A resistivity phase diagram, obtained from the current-voltage response, is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some decreases in the resistivity may be related to the crystallization.

  14. Hydrothermal crystallization of amorphous titania films deposited using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.R.G. [Institute of Materials Engineering, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: drm@ansto.gov.au; Triani, G.; Zhang, Z. [Institute of Materials Engineering, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2008-10-01

    A two stage process (atomic layer deposition, followed by hydrothermal treatment) for producing crystalline titania thin films at temperatures compatible with polymeric substrates (< 130 deg. C) has been assessed. Titania thin films were deposited at 80 deg. C using atomic layer deposition. They were extremely flat, uniform and almost entirely amorphous. They also contained relatively high levels of residual Cl from the precursor. After hydrothermal treatment at 120 deg. C for 1 day, > 50% of the film had crystallized. Crystallization was complete after 10 days of hydrothermal treatment. Crystallization of the film resulted in the formation of coarse grained anatase. Residual Cl was completely expelled from the film upon crystallization. As a result of the amorphous to crystalline transformation voids formed at the crystallization front. Inward and lateral crystal growth resulted in voids being localized to the film/substrate interface and crystallite perimeters resulting in pinholing. Both these phenomena resulted in films with poor adhesion and film integrity was severely compromised.

  15. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture application type thin film solar cells with new structure (development of technologies to manufacture amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystal silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (amorphous silicon/usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was performed with an objective to manufacture amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystal silicon hybrid solar cells with large area and at low cost, being a high-efficiency next generation solar cell. The research was performed based on a principle that low-cost substrates shall be used, that a manufacturing process capable of forming amorphous silicon films with large area shall be based on, and that silicon film with as thin as possible thickness shall be used. Fiscal 1997 has started research and development on making the cells hybrid with amorphous silicon cells. As a result of the research and development, such achievements have been attained as using texture structure on the rear layer in thin poly-crystal silicon film solar cells with a thickness of two microns, and having achieved conversion efficiency of 10.1% by optimizing the junction interface forming conditions. A photo-deterioration test was carried out on hybrid cells which combine the thin poly-crystal silicon film cells having STAR structure with the amorphous silicon cells. Stabilization efficiency of 11.5% was attained after light has been irradiated for 500 hours or longer. (NEDO)

  16. Thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique for magnesium thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbag, M.Z., E-mail: zbalbag@ogu.edu.t [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Education Faculty, Primary Education, Meselik Campus, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Pat, S.; Ozkan, M.; Ekem, N. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Musa, G. [Ovidius University, Physics Department, Constanta (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, magnesium thin films were deposited on glass substrate by the Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) technique for the first time. We present a different technique for deposition of high-quality magnesium thin films. By means of this technique, the production of films is achieved by condensing the plasma of anode material generated using Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) under high vacuum conditions onto the surface to be coated. The crystal orientation and morphology of the deposited films were investigated by using XRD, EDX, SEM and AFM. The aim of this study is to search the use of TVA technique to coat magnesium thin films and to determine some of the physical properties of the films generated. Furthermore, this study will contribute to the scientific studies which search the thin films of magnesium or the compounds containing magnesium. In future, this study will be preliminary work to entirely produce magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) superconductor thin film with the TVA technique.

  17. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1992-01-01

    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  18. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  19. Progress in thin film techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingarten, W.

    1996-01-01

    Progress since the last Workshop is reported on superconducting accelerating RF cavities coated with thin films. The materials investigated are Nb, Nb 3 Sn, NbN and NbTiN, the techniques applied are diffusion from the vapour phase (Nb 3 Sn, NbN), the bronze process (Nb 3 Sn), and sputter deposition on a copper substrate (Nb, NbTiN). Specially designed cavities for sample evaluation by RF methods have been developed (triaxial cavity). New experimental techniques to assess the RF amplitude dependence of the surface resistance are presented (with emphasis on niobium films sputter deposited on copper). Evidence is increasing that they are caused by magnetic flux penetration into the surface layer. (R.P.)

  20. High temperature superconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correra, L.

    1992-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research on superconducting oxides is the main focus of the contributors in this volume. Several aspects of the thin film field from fundamental properties to applications are examined. Interesting results for the Bi system are also reviewed. The 132 papers, including 8 invited, report mainly on the 1-2-3 system, indicating that the Y-Ba-Cu-O and related compounds are still the most intensively studied materials in this field. The volume attests to the significant progress that has been made in this field, as well as reporting on the challenging problems that still remain to be solved. The papers are presented in five chapters, subsequently on properties, film growth and processing, substrates and multilayers, structural characterization, and applications

  1. Minerals deposited as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Leyt, D.V. de; Custo, Graciela

    1987-01-01

    Free matrix effects are due to thin film deposits. Thus, it was decided to investigate this technique as a possibility to use pure oxide of the desired element, extrapolating its concentration from analytical curves made with avoiding, at the same time, mathematical corrections. The proposed method was employed to determine iron and titanium concentrations in geological samples. The range studied was 0.1-5%m/m for titanium and 5-20%m/m for iron. For both elements the reproducibility was about 7% and differences between this method and other chemical determinations were 15% for titanium and 7% for iron. (Author) [es

  2. Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed

  3. Effect of ion nitriding on the crystal structure of 3 mol% Y2O3-doped ZrO2 thin-films prepared by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, A.L.; Diaz-Parralejo, A.; Borrero-Lopez, O.; Guiberteau, F.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ion nitriding on the crystal structure of 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 -doped ZrO 2 (3YSZ) thin-films prepared by the sol-gel method. For this purpose, we used X-ray diffractometry to determine the crystalline phases, the lattice parameters, the crystal sizes, and the lattice microstrains, and glow discharge-optical emission spectroscopy to obtain the depth profiles of the elemental chemical composition. We found that nitrogen atoms substitute oxygen atoms in the 3YSZ crystal, thus leading to the formation of unsaturated-substitutional solid solutions with reduced lattice parameters and Zr 0.94 Y 0.06 O 1.72 N 0.17 stoichiometric formula. We also found that ion nitriding does not affect the grain size, but does generate lattice microstrains due to the increase in point defects in the crystalline lattice

  4. Characterisation of magnetron sputtered SmCo5 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Sood, D.K.; Kothari

    1999-01-01

    SmCo 5 thin films were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering on single crystal silicon substrate with chromium and SiO 2 top layers. Deposition was carried out at three different substrate temperatures: room temperature, 400 deg C and 600 deg C. Films were characterised by using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and SQUID magnetometer. RBS analysis indicated that the films have excellent stoichiometry with the Sm to Co ratio of 1:5. This analysis also showed that the films deposited or annealed at high temperatures (≥600 deg C) indicated significant inter-diffusion at the interface between the barrier layer and the film. Oxygen was found to be the major impurity in the films. XRD data indicated that the films formed 1:5 and 2:17 phases under different deposition conditions. The preliminary studies of these films using magnetic force microscopy revealed the presence of magnetic domains

  5. Preparation and properties of low resistivity molybdenum silicide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddies, G.; Hofmann, K.; Bretschneider, W.; Zscheile, H.D.; Bogdanowa, P.; Helms, H.; Wickleder, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Using different sputtering methods and target variants Mo/Si mixed films are prepared. After the deposition these thin films are amorphous. Isothermal annealing in vacuum leads to the formation of crystalline phases. The crystallization of the hexagonal phase of MoSi 2 is connected with an increase in stress. The formation of the tetragonal phase causes a great decrease of the specific resistance

  6. Thin film ionic conductors based on cerium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haridoss, P.; Hellstrom, E.; Garzon, F.H.; Brown, D.R.; Hawley, M.

    1994-01-01

    Fluorite and perovskite structure cerium oxide based ceramics are a class of materials that may exhibit good oxygen ion and/or protonic conductivity. The authors have successfully deposited thin films of these materials on a variety of substrates. Interesting orientation relationships were noticed between cerium oxide films and strontium titanate bi-crystal substrates. Near lattice site coincidence theory has been used to study these relationships

  7. Understanding polymorphism in organic semiconductor thin films through nanoconfinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Ying; Lenn, Kristina M; Lee, Wen-Ya; Blood-Forsythe, Martin A; Xu, Jie; Mao, Yisha; Kim, Yeongin; Reinspach, Julia A; Park, Steve; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Xue, Gi; Clancy, Paulette; Bao, Zhenan; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B

    2014-12-10

    Understanding crystal polymorphism is a long-standing challenge relevant to many fields, such as pharmaceuticals, organic semiconductors, pigments, food, and explosives. Controlling polymorphism of organic semiconductors (OSCs) in thin films is particularly important given that such films form the active layer in most organic electronics devices and that dramatic changes in the electronic properties can be induced even by small changes in the molecular packing. However, there are very few polymorphic OSCs for which the structure-property relationships have been elucidated so far. The major challenges lie in the transient nature of metastable forms and the preparation of phase-pure, highly crystalline thin films for resolving the crystal structures and evaluating the charge transport properties. Here we demonstrate that the nanoconfinement effect combined with the flow-enhanced crystal engineering technique is a powerful and likely material-agnostic method to identify existing polymorphs in OSC materials and to prepare the individual pure forms in thin films at ambient conditions. With this method we prepared high quality crystal polymorphs and resolved crystal structures of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene), including a new polymorph discovered via in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and confirmed by molecular mechanic simulations. We further correlated molecular packing with charge transport properties using quantum chemical calculations and charge carrier mobility measurements. In addition, we applied our methodology to a [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]1benzothiophene (BTBT) derivative and successfully stabilized its metastable form.

  8. Defect free single crystal thin layer

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami Tarek Mahmoud

    2016-01-28

    A gallium nitride film can be a dislocation free single crystal, which can be prepared by irradiating a surface of a substrate and contacting the surface with an etching solution that can selectively etch at dislocations.

  9. Defect free single crystal thin layer

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami Tarek Mahmoud; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    A gallium nitride film can be a dislocation free single crystal, which can be prepared by irradiating a surface of a substrate and contacting the surface with an etching solution that can selectively etch at dislocations.

  10. Thin liquid films dewetting and polymer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Blossey, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films haven proven to be an invaluable experimental model system.   What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting, warranting a whole book? There are several answers to this. Firstly, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications, and with the increase in the number of technologies available to produce and to study them, this range is likely to expand. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films.   Secondly, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic. Interdisciplinary research is surely not an end to itself, but in this case it leads to a fairly heterogeneous community of theoretical and experimental physicists, engineers, physical chemists, mathematicians and others working on the...

  11. Influence of silver concentration in Ag-x(Sb0.40S0.60)(100-x) thin amorphous films on photoinduced crystallization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gutwirth, J.; Wágner, T.; Bezdička, Petr; Kotulanová, Eva; Vlček, Milan; Kasap, S. O.; Frumar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 10 (2007), s. 3064-3071 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA ČR GA203/06/1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Ag-Sb-S films * amorphous * photoinduced crystallization Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2007

  12. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of photovoltaic power generation systems (Research and development of particle nonacceleration growth type silicon thin-film crystals); 1977 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ryushi hikasoku seichogata silicon usumaku kessho no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    As part of the research and development project for producing photovoltaic power generation systems at reduced cost, the R and D efforts are made for producing particle nonacceleration growth type silicon thin-film crystals. The research items are (1) research on thin-film crystals, and (2) research on cell-structuring method. The item (1) studies quantities, types and electrical properties of impurities and crystal defects in the polycrystalline ingots, produced by the Czochralski method from metal grade silicon and purified metal grade silicon stocks. Next, the substrate prepared above is coated with a thin film of silicon by the vapor-phase growth method with dichlorosilane as the source, to evaluate the thin-film crystals by measuring the crystal defects and lifetime of small numbers of carriers. The item (2) studies the effects of the solder dipping method. In addition, unevenness of photoelectric current is analyzed by a laser scanning microscope, to investigate the effects of the secondary impurities and crystal defects in the substrate crystals on photoelectric current. As a result, it is found that conversion efficiency is improved by grading the hole concentration in the p-type activated layer. The targets of 10 to 20 m{sup 2} as the area and 7 to 8% as the conversion efficiency are attained by preparing the crystals again. (NEDO)

  13. Magnetization of correlated electron systems. MnSi thin films, CrB2 single crystals and two-dimensional electron systems in MgZnO/ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasse, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Torque magnetometry at low temperature is performed to investigate the magnetic properties of MnSi thin films, of a CrB 2 single crystal and of a two-dimensional electron system (2DESs) formed at the interface of MgZnO/ZnO. The magnetic anisotropy and phase diagram of MnSi as well as information on the electronic structure of CrB 2 are obtained. The MgZnO/ZnO 2DESs exhibits the de Haas-van Alphen effect and non-equilibrium currents which are analyzed in order to determine ground state properties and excited states, respectively.

  14. Characterization of thin films with synchrotron radiation in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Many studies about thin films by using synchrotron radiation in SPring-8 were reviewed. Structural analyses and assessment of thin films used for electronics, and also assessment of insulating films for the gate used in LSI were carried out. Film thickness, unevenness, and density of SiO 2 films in order of nanomer thickness were determined by interference fringes of x-ray reflection curves. The interface structure of (SiO 2 /Si) films was studied by x-ray crystal truncation rod scattering, and the correlation between leakage character depending on nitrogen concentration and interface structure was clarified on SiON film. The oxygen concentration in HfO films in nanometer thickness was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis, and the interface reaction for HfO 2 /SiO 2 was clearly observed by electron spectroscopy. The structure of amorphous thin films with large dielectric constant was analyzed by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectrum. Devices fabricated from multi-layer films showing giant magnetic resistance were developed for hard disk with a large memory. The character of giant magnetic resistance was governed by multi-layer thin film structure piled up by magnetic and nonmagnetic polycrystalline thin metals. For the multi-layer structure, the concentration distribution of constituent elements was determined to the direction of film thickness by x-ray reflection analysis and grazing incident x-ray fluorescence analysis. In the semiconductor laser source, Ga 1-x In x N, used for DVD, the local structure around In ions was studied by XAFS since constituent instability, especially overpopulation of In element, caused the deterioration of lifetime and light emission of the laser. The lattice constant of the light emission layer in InGaAs was measured by x-ray micro-beams. (author)

  15. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  16. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  17. Field ion microscope studies on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaleru, A.; Scortaru, A.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the progress made in the last years in FIM application to thin film structure studies and adatom properties important in the nucleation stage of thin film growth: substrate binding and mobility of individual adatoms, behaviour of adatoms clusters is presented. (author)

  18. Crystallization and electrical characteristics of ferroelectric Bi{sub 3.15}Nd{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} thin films prepared by a sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Y. [Department of Physics, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Lu, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)], E-mail: chaojing_lu@yahoo.com; Qi, Y.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zhou, Y.H. [Department of Physics, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

    2008-07-01

    Ferroelectric Bi{sub 3.15}Nd{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BNdT) thin films were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using a sol-gel process and Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} was used as one of starting materials. Upon heating the major weight loss of the wet films occurred below 320 deg. C and nitrogen was almost completely removed at 650 deg. C. The films began to crystallize around 520 deg. C. The films annealed at 750 deg. C contain grains of 50-100 nm in diameter. The BNdT film capacitors with Pt top electrodes exhibited well-saturated hysteresis loops with a remanent polarization (2P{sub r}) of 57.4 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and a coercive field of 108.3 kV/cm. The Pt/BNdT/Pt capacitors did not show any significant fatigue up to 6x10{sup 10} read/write switching cycles, and the retained charges remained nearly constant up to 10{sup 4} s after applying a writing pulse. The leakage current density of the BNdT films is less than 5x10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2} under a low external field below 73 kV/cm.

  19. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  20. Visualizing Nanoscopic Topography and Patterns in Freely Standing Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilixiati, Subinuer; Zhang, Yiran; Pearsall, Collin; Sharma, Vivek

    Thin liquid films containing micelles, nanoparticles, polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes and smectic liquid crystals undergo thinning in a discontinuous, step-wise fashion. The discontinuous jumps in thickness are often characterized by quantifying changes in the intensity of reflected monochromatic light, modulated by thin film interference from a region of interest. Stratifying thin films exhibit a mosaic pattern in reflected white light microscopy, attributed to the coexistence of domains with various thicknesses, separated by steps. Using Interferometry Digital Imaging Optical Microscopy (IDIOM) protocols developed in the course of this study, we spatially resolve for the first time, the landscape of stratifying freestanding thin films. In particular, for thin films containing micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), discontinuous, thickness transitions with concentration-dependent steps of 5-25 nm are visualized and analyzed using IDIOM protocols. We distinguish nanoscopic rims, mesas and craters and show that the non-flat features are sculpted by oscillatory, periodic, supramolecular structural forces that arise in confined fluids

  1. Controlled nanostructuration of polycrystalline tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, B. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (UMR CNRS 6183), LUNAM Universite, Universite de Nantes, Centrale Nantes, CRTT, 37 Bd de l' Universite, BP 406, 44602 Saint-Nazaire Cedex (France); Eyidi, D.; Goudeau, P.; Guerin, P.; Bourhis, E. Le; Renault, P.-O. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Sauvage, T. [CEMHTI/CNRS (UPR 3079 CNRS), Universite d' Orleans, 3A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-05-07

    Nanostructured tungsten thin films have been obtained by ion beam sputtering technique stopping periodically the growing. The total thickness was maintained constant while nanostructure control was obtained using different stopping periods in order to induce film stratification. The effect of tungsten sublayers' thicknesses on film composition, residual stresses, and crystalline texture evolution has been established. Our study reveals that tungsten crystallizes in both stable {alpha}- and metastable {beta}-phases and that volume proportions evolve with deposited sublayers' thicknesses. {alpha}-W phase shows original fiber texture development with two major preferential crystallographic orientations, namely, {alpha}-W<110> and unexpectedly {alpha}-W<111> texture components. The partial pressure of oxygen and presence of carbon have been identified as critical parameters for the growth of metastable {beta}-W phase. Moreover, the texture development of {alpha}-W phase with two texture components is shown to be the result of a competition between crystallographic planes energy minimization and crystallographic orientation channeling effect maximization. Controlled grain size can be achieved for the {alpha}-W phase structure over 3 nm stratification step. Below, the {beta}-W phase structure becomes predominant.

  2. Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Lithium Nickel Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-bong Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LiNiO2 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were investigated with a battery cycler using coin-type half-cells. The LiNiO2 thin films annealed below 500°C had the surface carbonate. The results suggest that surface carbonate interrupted the Li intercalation and deintercalation during charge/discharge. Although the annealing process enhanced the crystallization of LiNiO2, the capacity did not increase. When the annealing temperature was increased to 600°C, the FeCrNiO4 oxide phase was generated and the discharge capacity decreased due to an oxygen deficiency in the LiNiO2 thin film. The ZrO2-coated LiNiO2 thin film provided an improved discharge capacity compared to bare LiNiO2 thin film suggesting that the improved electrochemical characteristic may be attributed to the inhibition of surface carbonate by ZrO2 coating layer.

  3. Photoinduced crystallization and space charge limited current through Au/Se92.7S7.3/Au thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Barry, A.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports a study of photoinduced crystallization in thermally evaporated Se 92.7 S 7.3 films. The photoinduced crystallization was achieved by shining white light (from 25 mW/cm 2 tungsten lamp) at room temperature for different exposure times up to 5.184 Ms. The analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the grain size (D), the strain (ζ) and the dislocation density (δ) are photoaging dependent. The capacitance-voltage data confirmed that the relative permittivity of the films is equal to ∼10.31. Room temperature current density voltage characteristics of Au/Se 92.7 S 7.3 /Au films showed Ohmic conduction in the lower voltage range ∼<1 V, and space charge limited conductivity (SCLC) in the relatively high-voltage range. The SCLC was controlled by an exponential distribution of traps above the valence band. The temperature dependence of the current density in accordance with the theory for the exponential trap distributions allowed the calculation of some essential parameters such as; trap concentration, characteristic temperature, and the trap density

  4. BDS thin film damage competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Thomas, Michael D.; Griffin, Andrew J.

    2008-10-01

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  5. Pr and Gd co-doped bismuth ferrite thin films with enhanced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in Pr content, the crystal structures of BPGFO thin films retain rhombohedral (R3c) symmetry accompanied by structure distortion. ... Pr and Gd co-modified BiFeO3 thin film; ferroelectric properties; sol-gel. 1. Introduction. In recent years, great attention has been paid to single- phase BiFeO3 (BFO) multiferroic materials ...

  6. Dimensional scaling of perovskite ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keech, Ryan R.

    Dimensional size reduction has been the cornerstone of the exponential improvement in silicon based logic devices for decades. However, fundamental limits in the device physics were reached ˜2003, halting further reductions in clock speed without significant penalties in power consumption. This has motivated the research into next generation transistors and switching devices to reinstate the scaling laws for clock speed. This dissertation aims to support the scaling of devices that are based on ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity and to provide a roadmap for the corresponding materials performance. First, a scalable growth process to obtain highly {001}-oriented lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PMN-PT) thin films was developed, motivated by the high piezoelectric responses observed in bulk single crystals. It was found that deposition of a 2-3 nm thick PbO buffer layer on {111} Pt thin film bottom electrodes, prior to chemical solution deposition of PMN-PT reduces the driving force for Pb diffusion from the PMN-PT to the bottom electrode, and facilitates nucleation of {001}-oriented perovskite grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that up to 10% of the Pb from a PMN-PT precursor solution may diffuse into the bottom electrode. PMN-PT grains with a mixed {101}/{111} orientation in a matrix of Pb-deficient pyrochlore phase were then promoted near the interface. When this is prevented, phase pure films with {001} orientation with Lotgering factors of 0.98-1.0, can be achieved. The resulting films of only 300 nm in thickness exhibit longitudinal effective d33,f coefficients of ˜90 pm/V and strain values of ˜1% prior to breakdown. 300 nm thick epitaxial and polycrystalline lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (70PMN-30PT) blanket thin films were studied for the relative contributions to property thickness dependence from interfacial and grain boundary low permittivity layers. Epitaxial PMN-PT films were grown on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO3, while

  7. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  8. The production of UV Absorber amorphous cerium sulfide thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariper, İshak Afşin, E-mail: akariper@gmail.com [Faculty of Education, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2017-10-15

    This study investigates the production of cerium sulfide (CeSx) amorphous thin films on substrates (commercial glass) by chemical bath deposition at different pH levels. The transmittance, absorption, optical band gap and refractive index of the films are measured by UV/VIS Spectrum. According to XRD analysis, the films show amorphous structure in the baths with pH: 1 to 5. It has been observed that the optical and structural properties of the films depend on pH value of the bath. The optical band gap (2.08 eV to 3.16 eV) of the films changes with the film thickness (23 nm to 1144 nm). We show that the refractive index has a positive relationship with the film thickness, where the values of 1.93, 1.45, 1.42, 2.60 and 1.39 are obtained for the former, and 34, 560, 509, 23 and 1144 nm (at 550 nm wavelength) for the latter. We compare the optical properties of amorphous and crystal form of CeSx thin films. We show that the optical band gaps of the amorphous CeS{sub x} are lower than that of crystal CeS{sub x} . (author)

  9. Nanoparticles inclusions in self assembly thin smectic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdoun, B.; Charara, J.; Zaiour, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text. Processing of nanocomposites based on nanoparticles inclusion in thin smectic-A liquid crystal was reviewed. Thin smectic-A liquid crystal consists of a stack of regularly spaced membranes that are frequently formed in thin diblock copolymers. Particular attention was given to the scientific concepts that underpin the fabrication of special composite derived copolymer components. The complex interplay between suspension stability and its structural evolution during nanomaterials processing was highlighted. Inclusions, such as nanoparticles, coupled locally to the smectic may deform the membranes over a large length scale. We determined the distortion field due to one inclusion using the Landau-de Gennes description of smectic liquid crystals and by neglecting the interactions between nanoparticles. The equilibrium position of the particle was shown to depend on both the surface tension at the film boundary and the volume fraction of the nanoparticles

  10. Preparation and properties of PMMA nanoparticles as 3 dimensional photonic crystals and its thin film via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrin, Rabiatul Addawiyah Azwa; Azma, Nur Syafiqa; Kassim, Syara; Harun, Noor Aniza

    2017-09-01

    3-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals have been extended use in wide research and application from material to sensor. Nanoparticles of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) latex beads have been successfully prepared by green-chemistry approach where no surfactant, linking agent and solvent were involved. Regardless of the effect of initiator in polymerization reaction, this study presents the effect of temperature, monomer concentration, stirring speed and reaction period in order to tune the particle size. Its morphology of uniformity sized-tuned was confirming by using particle size analyzer (PSA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fabrication of 3D photonic crystals film by using self-assembly method to pattern the desired PMMA layers which is the most feasible, low cost method are also presented. The detailed properties of PMMA nanoparticles from this experimental study will be discussed and its potential used in photonic application will be explained.

  11. Structural transformation of CsI thin film photocathodes under exposure to air and UV irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, O H W

    2000-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been employed to study the structure of polycrystalline CsI thin films and its transformation under exposure to humid air and UV irradiation. The catastrophic degradation of CsI thin film photocathode performance is shown to be associated with the film dissolving followed by its re-crystallization. This results in the formation of large lumps of CsI crystal on the substrate surface, so that the film becomes discontinuous and its performance as a photocathode is permanently degraded. No change in the surface morphology and the film crystalline structure was observed after the samples were UV irradiated.

  12. Enhanced electrical properties in bilayered ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Long, WeiJie; Chen, YaQing; Guo, DongJie

    2013-03-01

    Sr2Bi4Ti5O18 (SBTi) single layered and Sr2Bi4Ti5O18/Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (SBTi/PZT) bilayered thin films have been prepared on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). The related structural characterizations and electrical properties have been comparatively investigated. X-ray diffraction reveals that both films have crystallized into perovskite phases and scanning electron microscopy shows the sharp interfaces. Both films show well-saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops, however, compared with the single layered SBTi films, the SBTi/PZT bilayered films have significantly increased remnant polarization ( P r) and decreased coercive field ( E c), with the applied field of 260 kV/cm. The measured P r and E c of SBTi and SBTi/PZT films were 7.9 μC/cm2, 88.1 kV/cm and 13.0 μC/cm2, 51.2 kV/cm, respectively. In addition, both films showed good fatigue-free characteristics, the switchable polarization decreased by 9% and 11% of the initial values after 2.2×109 switching cycles for the SBTi single layered films and the SBTi/PZT bilayered films, respectively. Our results may provide some guidelines for further optimization of multilayered ferroelectric thin films.

  13. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  14. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  15. Production of selective membranes using plasma deposited nanochanneled thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Motta Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolization of thin films obtained by tetraethoxysilane plasma polymerization results in the formation of a nanochanneled silicone like structure that could be useful for the production of selective membranes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to test the permeation properties of hydrolyzed thin films. The films were tested for: 1 permeation of polar organic compounds and/or water in gaseous phase and 2 permeation of salt in liquid phase. The efficiency of permeation was tested using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM technique in gas phase and conductimetric analysis (CA in liquid phase. The substrates used were: silicon for characterization of the deposited films, piezoelectric quartz crystals for tests of selective membranes and cellophane paper for tests of permeation. QCM analysis showed that the nanochannels allow the adsorption and/or permeation of polar organic compounds, such as acetone and 2-propanol, and water. CA showed that the films allow salt permeation after an inhibition time needed for hydrolysis of the organic radicals within the film. Due to their characteristics, the films can be used for grains protection against microorganism proliferation during storage without preventing germination.

  16. Polycystalline silicon thin films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Christian Claus

    2012-01-15

    For the thin polycrystalline Si films fabricated with the aluminium-induced-layer-exchange (ALILE) process a good structural quality up to a layer-thickness value of 10 nm was determined. For 5 nm thick layers however after the layer exchange no closes poly-silicon film was present. In this case the substrate was covered with spherically arranged semiconductor material. Furthermore amorphous contributions in the layer could be determined. The electrical characterization of the samples at room temperature proved a high hole concentration in the range 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} up to 9.10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, which is influenced by the process temperature and the layer thickness. Hereby higher hole concentrations at higher process temperatures and thinner films were observed. Furthermore above 150-200 K a thermically activated behaviour of the electrical conductivity was observed. At lower temperatures a deviation of the measured characteristic from the exponential Arrhenius behaviour was determined. For low temperatures (below 20 K) the conductivity follows the behaviour {sigma}{proportional_to}[-(T{sub 0}/T){sup 1/4}]. The hole mobility in the layers was lowered by a passivation step, which can be explained by defect states at the grain boundaries. The for these very thin layers present situation was simulated in the framework of the model of Seto, whereby both the defect states at the grain boundaries (with an area density Q{sub t}) and the defect states at the interfaces (with an area density Q{sub it}) were regarded. By this the values Q{sub t}{approx}(3-4).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and Q{sub it}{approx}(2-5).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} could be determined for these thin ALILE layers on quartz substrates. Additionally th R-ALILE process was studied, which uses the reverse precursor-layer sequence substrate/amorphous silicon/oxide/aluminium. Hereby two steps in the crystallization process of the R-ALILE process were found. First a substrate/Al-Si mixture/poly-Si layer structure

  17. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiederhirn, G.; Nucci, J.; Richter, G.; Arzt, E.; Balk, T. J.; Dehm, G.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the influence of a 10 nm AlxOy passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 μm thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm film; however, its effect on the 1 μm film is negligible. At high temperatures, the opposite behavior is observed; while the passivation does not change the 100 nm film behavior, it strengthens the 1 μm film by driving it deeper into compression. These observations are explained in light of a combination of constrained diffusional creep and dislocation dynamics unique to ultra-thin films

  18. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on photovoltaic power generation system (R and D on Si thin film crystal by particle acceleration growth); 1974 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ryushi kasoku seichogata silicon usumaku kessho no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    This research includes (1) basic study on formation technology of Si thin film crystals by particle acceleration growth, (2) basic study on junction formation technology for Si thin film crystals, and (3) basic study on GaAs compound semiconductors by pyrolysis method. In the 1st research, the thin film formation equipment was prepared for formation of charged Si particles from monosilane and solid Si in inert gas plasma by high-frequency excitation, and its expected characteristics were confirmed through its operation test. Basic data of Si thin films were also obtained by electron beam diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. In the 2nd research, study was made on junction formation systems for thin films, and the idea of a continuous thin film formation system was obtained for junction formation. In the 3rd research, development of p-type GaAs epitaxial technology was promoted, and it was confirmed that various p-type GaAs compound semiconductors of 10{sup 12}-10{sup 18}cm{sup -3} in impurity concentration are obtained by controlling a ratio of trimetylgallium gas to arsine gas. (NEDO)

  19. Thickness-modulated anisotropic ferromagnetism in Fe-doped epitaxial HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Ruyi; Ma, Rong; Wang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial tetragonal Fe-doped Hf0.95Fe0.05O2 (FHO) thin films with various thicknesses were deposited on (001)-oriented NdCaAlO4 (NCAO) substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system. The crystal structure and epitaxial nature of the FHO thin films were confirmed by typical x-ray diffraction (XRD) θ-2θ scan and reciprocal space mapping (RSM). The results indicate that two sets of lattice sites exist with two different crystal orientations [(001) and (100)] in the thicker FHO thin films. Further, the intensity of the (100) direction increases with the increase in thicknesses, which should have a significant effect on the anisotropic magnetization of the FHO thin films. Meanwhile, all the FHO thin films possess a tetragonal phase structure. An anisotropy behavior in magnetization has been observed in the FHO thin films. The anisotropic magnetization of the FHO thin films is slowly weakened as the thickness increases. Meanwhile, the saturation magnetization (Ms) of both in-plane and out-of-plane decreases with the increase in the thickness. The change in the anisotropic magnetization and Ms is attributed to the crystal lattice and the variation in the valence of Fe ions. These results indicate that the thickness-modulated anisotropic ferromagnetism of the tetragonal FHO epitaxial thin films is of potential use for the integration of metal-oxide semiconductors with spintronics.

  20. Trends and new applications in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of this symposium comprise 95 communications from which 64 were selected and fall into the scope of INIS subject categories, and 1 was selected for ETDE indexing. The selected communications deal with the techniques used for thin films preparation using chemical or physical vapor deposition techniques (plasma-arc or jet spraying, cathode sputtering, reactive DC or RF magnetron sputtering, plasma-ion deposition, ion implantation, electron or ion beam spraying, ion beam assisted plasma etching, dynamic ion mixing, distributed electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering, laser induced plasma sputtering etc..). The effects and interactions with the substrates (ion implantation, crystal growth, crystal-phase transformations, microstructures, penetration depth, changes in lattice parameters etc..) are analysed using various techniques such as grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, X-ray and angle resolved electron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, IR absorption spectroscopy, UV or visible emission spectroscopy, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, mass spectroscopy, optical ellipsometry etc.. Mechanical tests such as scratch, microhardness and wear tests are also performed on the coatings to analyse their mechanical properties. (J.S.)

  1. Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Beaucarne

    2007-01-01

    with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. In spite of the fundamental limitation of this material due to its disorder and metastability, the technology is now gaining industrial momentum thanks to the entry of equipment manufacturers with experience with large-area PECVD. Microcrystalline Si (also called nanocrystalline Si is a material with crystallites in the nanometer range in an amorphous matrix, and which contains less defects than amorphous silicon. Its lower bandgap makes it particularly appropriate as active material for the bottom cell in tandem and triple junction devices. The combination of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline bottom cell has yielded promising results, but much work is needed to implement it on large-area and to limit light-induced degradation. Finally thin-film polysilicon solar cells, with grain size in the micrometer range, has recently emerged as an alternative photovoltaic technology. The layers have a grain size ranging from 1 μm to several tens of microns, and are formed at a temperature ranging from 600 to more than 1000∘C. Solid Phase Crystallization has yielded the best results so far but there has recently been fast progress with seed layer approaches, particularly those using the aluminum-induced crystallization technique.

  2. Photoinduced conductivity in tin dioxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Y.; Takubo, N.; Hiroi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet light irradiation on the conducting properties of SnO 2-x thin films grown epitaxially on TiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 single-crystal substrates are studied at room temperature. A large increase in conductivity by two to four orders of magnitude is observed with light irradiation in an inert atmosphere and remains after the light is removed. The high-conducting state reverts to the original low-conducting state by exposing it to oxygen gas. These reversible phenomena are ascribed to the desorption and adsorption of negatively charged oxygen species at the grain boundaries, which critically change the mobility of electron carriers already present inside grains by changing the potential barrier height at the grain boundary. The UV light irradiation provides us with an easy and useful route to achieve a high-conducting state even at low carrier density in transparent conducting oxides and also to draw an invisible conducting wire or a specific pattern on an insulating film.

  3. Thermal conductivity model for nanoporous thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Congliang; Zhao, Xinpeng; Regner, Keith; Yang, Ronggui

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films have attracted great interest because of their extremely low thermal conductivity and potential applications in thin thermal insulators and thermoelectrics. Although there are some numerical and experimental studies about the thermal conductivity of nanoporous thin films, a simplified model is still needed to provide a straightforward prediction. In this paper, by including the phonon scattering lifetimes due to film thickness boundary scattering, nanopore scattering and the frequency-dependent intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering, a fitting-parameter-free model based on the kinetic theory of phonon transport is developed to predict both the in-plane and the cross-plane thermal conductivities of nanoporous thin films. With input parameters such as the lattice constants, thermal conductivity, and the group velocity of acoustic phonons of bulk silicon, our model shows a good agreement with available experimental and numerical results of nanoporous silicon thin films. It illustrates that the size effect of film thickness boundary scattering not only depends on the film thickness but also on the size of nanopores, and a larger nanopore leads to a stronger size effect of the film thickness. Our model also reveals that there are different optimal structures for getting the lowest in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities.

  4. Investigation of phase transformation for ferrite–austenite structure in stainless steel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merakeb, Noureddine [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy and Property of Materials (LM2PM), Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Badji Mokhtar University, P.O. Box 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria); Messai, Amel [Laboratoire d' Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux Avancés (ISMA), Institut des Sciences et Technologie, Abbès Laghrour University, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Ayesh, Ahmad I., E-mail: ayesh@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-05-01

    In this work we report on phase transformation of 304 stainless steel thin films due to heat treatment. Ex-situ annealing was applied for evaporated 304 stainless steel thin films inside an ultra-high vacuum chamber with a pressure of 3 × 10{sup −7} Pa at temperatures of 500 °C and 600 °C. The structure of thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) techniques. The results revealed a transformation from α-phase that exhibits a body-centered cubic structure (BCC) to γ-phase that exhibits a face-centered cubic (FCC) due to annealing. In addition, the percentage of γ-phase structure increased with the increase of annealing temperature. Annealing thin films increased the crystal size of both phases (α and γ), however, the increase was nonlinear. The results also showed that phase transformation was produced by recrystallization of α and γ crystals with a temporal evolution at each annealing temperature. The texture degree of thin films was investigated by XRD rocking curve method, while residual stress was evaluated using curvature method. - Highlights: • Stainless steel thin films were fabricated by thermal evaporation on quartz. • Alpha to gamma phase transformation of thin films was investigated. • Annealing of thin films reduces disruption in crystal lattice. • The stress of as-grown thin films was independent on the thin film thickness. • The stress of the thin films was reduced due to annealing.

  5. Comparison of optical transients during the picosecond laser pulse-induced crystallization of GeSbTe and AgInSbTe phase-change thin films: Nucleation-driven versus growth-driven processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Guangfei [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Simian [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Department of Physics, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Huang, Huan [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Yang, E-mail: ywang@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Lai, Tianshu, E-mail: stslts@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Department of Physics, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wu, Yiqun [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Direct comparison of the real-time in-situ crystallization behavior of as-deposited amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GeSbTe) and Ag{sub 8}In{sub 14}Sb{sub 55}Te{sub 23} (AgInSbTe) phase-change thin films driven by picosecond laser pulses was performed by a time-resolved optical pump-probe technique with nanosecond resolution. Different optical transients showed various crystallization processes because of the dissimilar nucleation- and growth-dominated mechanisms of the two materials. The effects of laser pulse fluence, thermal conductive structure, and successive pulse irradiation on their crystallization dynamics were also discussed. A schematic was then established to describe the different crystallization processes beginning from the as-deposited amorphous state. The results may provide further insight into the phase-change mechanism under extra-non-equilibrium conditions and aid the development of ultrafast phase-change memory materials.

  6. Hydrogen absorption in thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhova, O.; Čížek, J.; Lukáč, F.; Vlček, M.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thin ZnO films and high quality ZnO crystal were electrochemically doped with hydrogen. ► Hydrogen absorbed in ZnO causes plastic deformation both in ZnO crystal and thin films. ► In ZnO crystal a sub-surface region with very high density of defects was formed. ► Moreover, plastic deformation causes specific surface modification of ZnO crystal. ► In ZnO films hydrogen-induced plastic deformation introduced defects in the whole film. -- Abstract: ZnO films with thickness of ∼80 nm were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on MgO (1 0 0) single crystal and amorphous fused silica (FS) substrates. Structural studies of ZnO films and a high quality reference ZnO single crystal were performed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). It was found that ZnO films exhibit significantly higher density of defects than the reference ZnO crystal. Moreover, the ZnO film deposited on MgO substrate exhibits higher concentration of defects than the film deposited on amorphous FS substrate most probably due to a dense network of misfit dislocations. The ZnO films and the reference ZnO crystal were subsequently loaded with hydrogen by electrochemical cathodic charging. SPIS characterizations revealed that absorbed hydrogen introduces new defects into ZnO

  7. Hydrogen absorption in thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melikhova, O., E-mail: oksivmel@yahoo.com [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Čížek, J.; Lukáč, F.; Vlček, M. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Anwand, W.; Brauer, G. [Institut für Strahlenphysik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PO Box 510 119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Thin ZnO films and high quality ZnO crystal were electrochemically doped with hydrogen. ► Hydrogen absorbed in ZnO causes plastic deformation both in ZnO crystal and thin films. ► In ZnO crystal a sub-surface region with very high density of defects was formed. ► Moreover, plastic deformation causes specific surface modification of ZnO crystal. ► In ZnO films hydrogen-induced plastic deformation introduced defects in the whole film. -- Abstract: ZnO films with thickness of ∼80 nm were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on MgO (1 0 0) single crystal and amorphous fused silica (FS) substrates. Structural studies of ZnO films and a high quality reference ZnO single crystal were performed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). It was found that ZnO films exhibit significantly higher density of defects than the reference ZnO crystal. Moreover, the ZnO film deposited on MgO substrate exhibits higher concentration of defects than the film deposited on amorphous FS substrate most probably due to a dense network of misfit dislocations. The ZnO films and the reference ZnO crystal were subsequently loaded with hydrogen by electrochemical cathodic charging. SPIS characterizations revealed that absorbed hydrogen introduces new defects into ZnO.

  8. Flush Mounting Of Thin-Film Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Technique developed for mounting thin-film sensors flush with surfaces like aerodynamic surfaces of aircraft, which often have compound curvatures. Sensor mounted in recess by use of vacuum pad and materials selected for specific application. Technique involves use of materials tailored to thermal properties of substrate in which sensor mounted. Together with customized materials, enables flush mounting of thin-film sensors in most situations in which recesses for sensors provided. Useful in both aircraft and automotive industries.

  9. Thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boldyš, Jiří; Hrach, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 55-64 ISSN 0011-4626 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 173/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thin films * wavelet transform * descriptors * histogram model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/boldys-thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics .pdf

  10. Photoluminescence properties of perovskite multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, Leilane Roberta; Longo, Elson, E-mail: leilanemacario@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Mazzo, Tatiana Martelli [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Bouquet, Valerie; Deputier, Stephanie; Ollivier, Sophie; Guilloux-Viry, Maryline [Universite de Rennes (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the optical properties of thin films is important in many scientific, technological and industrial applications of thin films such as photoconductivity, solar energy, photography, and numerous other applications [1]. In this study, perovskite type oxides were grown by pulsed laser deposition [2] in order to obtain thin films with applicable optical properties. The LaNiO{sub 3} (LN), BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) and KNbO{sub 3} (KNb) targets were prepared by solid-state reaction. The X-ray Diffraction revealed the presence of the desired phases, containing the elements of interest in the targets and in the thin films that were produced. The LN, BT and KNb thin films were polycrystalline and the corresponding diffraction peaks were indexed in the with JCPDS cards n. 00-033-0711, n. 00-005-0626, and n. 00-009-0156, respectively. The multilayers films were polycrystalline. The majority of the micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy presented films with a thickness from 100 to 400 nm. The photoluminescent (PL) emission spectra of thin films show different broad bands that occupies large region of the visible spectrum, ranging from about 300-350 to 600-650 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The PL emission is associated with the order-disorder structural, even small structural changes can modify the interactions between electronic states. The structural disorder results in formation of new energy levels in the forbidden region. The proximity or distance of these new energy levels formed in relation to valence band and to the conduction band results in PL spectra located at higher or lower energies. These interactions change the electronic states which can be influenced by defects, particularly the interface defects between the layers of the thin films. The presence of defects results in changes in the broad band matrix intensity and in displacement of the PL emission maximum. (author)

  11. Nanosphere lithography applied to magnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Russell

    Magnetic nanostructures have widespread applications in many areas of physics and engineering, and nanosphere lithography has recently emerged as promising tool for the fabrication of such nanostructures. The goal of this research is to explore the magnetic properties of a thin film of ferromagnetic material deposited onto a hexagonally close-packed monolayer array of polystyrene nanospheres, and how they differ from the magnetic properties of a typical flat thin film. The first portion of this research focuses on determining the optimum conditions for depositing a monolayer of nanospheres onto chemically pretreated silicon substrates (via drop-coating) and the subsequent characterization of the deposited nanosphere layer with scanning electron microscopy. Single layers of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) are then deposited on top of the nanosphere array via DC magnetron sputtering, resulting in a thin film array of magnetic nanocaps. The coercivities of the thin films are measured using a home-built magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) system in longitudinal arrangement. MOKE measurements show that for a single layer of permalloy (Py), the coercivity of a thin film deposited onto an array of nanospheres increases compared to that of a flat thin film. In addition, the coercivity increases as the nanosphere size decreases for the same deposited layer. It is postulated that magnetic exchange decoupling between neighboring nanocaps suppresses the propagation of magnetic domain walls, and this pinning of the domain walls is thought to be the primary source of the increase in coercivity.

  12. Post-annealing effects on pulsed laser deposition-grown GaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yu-Wen; Wu, Hao-Yu; Lin, Yu-Zhong; Lee, Cheng-Che; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the post-annealing effects on gallium nitride (GaN) thin films grown from pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are investigated. The as-deposited GaN thin films grown from PLD are annealed at different temperatures in nitrogen ambient. Significant changes of the GaN crystal properties are observed. Raman spectroscopy is used to observe the crystallinity, the change of residual stress, and the thermal decomposition of the annealed GaN thin films. X-ray diffraction is also applied to identify the crystal phase of GaN thin films, and the surface morphology of GaN thin films annealed at different temperatures is observed by scanning electron microscopy. Through the above analyses, the GaN thin films grown by PLD undergo three stages: phase transition, stress alteration, and thermal decomposition. At a low annealing temperature, the rock salt GaN in GaN films is transformed into wurtzite. The rock salt GaN diminishes with increasing annealing temperature. At a medium annealing temperature, the residual stress of the film changes significantly from compressive strain to tensile strain. As the annealing temperature further increases, the GaN undergoes thermal decomposition and the surface becomes granular. By investigating the annealing temperature effects and controlling the optimized annealing temperature of the GaN thin films, we are able to obtain highly crystalline and strain-free GaN thin films by PLD. - Highlights: • The GaN thin film is grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition. • The GaN film undergoes three stages with increasing annealing temperature. • In the first stage, the film transfers from rock salt to wurtzite phase. • In the second stage, the stress in film changes from compressive to tensile. • In the final stage, the film thermally decomposes and becomes granular

  13. Epitaxial growth of "infinite layer” thin films and multilayers by rf magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Fàbrega, L.; Koller, E.; Triscone, J. M.; Fischer, Ø.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of epitaxial ACuO2 (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) thin films and multilayers with the so- called infinite layer (IL) structure, by rf magnetron sputtering. Films and multilayers without Ba have a remarkable crystal quality, whereas those containing this large ion are often multiphased and unstable. In spite of the excellent crystalline quality of these samples, obtaining thin films having both IL structure and displaying superconducting properties has not s...

  14. Tailoring electronic structure of polyazomethines thin films

    OpenAIRE

    J. Weszka; B. Hajduk; M. Domański; M. Chwastek; J. Jurusik; B. Jarząbek; H. Bednarski; P. Jarka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to show how electronic properties of polyazomethine thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) can be tailored by manipulating technological parameters of pristine films preparation as well as modifying them while the as-prepared films put into iodine atmosphere.Design/methodology/approach: The recent achievements in the field of designing and preparation methods to be used while preparing polymer photovoltaic solar cells or optoelectronic ...

  15. Growth of HfO{sub x} thin films by reactive molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Alff, Lambert [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Thin films of hafnium oxide were grown on single crystal r-cut and c-cut sapphire by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. The conditions for the growth of single oriented hafnium oxide thin films have been established. Hafnium oxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and optical absorption measurements. It was found that hafnium oxide thin films grown on r-cut sapphire were (00l) oriented whereas, on c-cut sapphire, hafnium oxide films showed different orientations depending on the growth temperature and oxidation conditions. The hafnium oxide films grown at higher temperature and under strong oxidation conditions yielded (001) oriented films on c-cut sapphire whereas slightly weaker oxidation condition leads to (111) oriented hafnium oxide films. The bandgap deducted from optical absorption measurement carried out on hafnium oxide films grown under optimized conditions agreed well with the values reported in literature. A range of oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide were also grown on single crystal sapphire substrates in order to investigate the effect of oxygen vacancies on dielectric properties of hafnium oxide. The oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide show a decrease in bandgap with increase in oxygen deficiency.

  16. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei; Yuan Jinying; Shi Gaoquan

    2008-01-01

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. σ rt ∼ 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90 o /s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  17. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  18. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs

  19. Effects of high-temperature thermal annealing on the electronic properties of In-Ga-Zn oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qin; Song, Zhong Xiao; Ma, Fei, E-mail: mafei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: liyhemail@gmail.com; Li, Yan Huai, E-mail: mafei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: liyhemail@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Xu, Ke Wei [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049, China and Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710065 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room-temperature. Then, thermal annealing was conducted to improve the structural ordering. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the as-deposited IGZO thin films were amorphous and crystallization occurred at 800 and 950 °C. As a result of crystallization at high temperature, the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility of IGZO thin films were sharply increased, which could be ascribed to the increased oxygen vacancies and improved structural ordering of the thin films.

  20. Phase transition in lead titanate thin films: a Brillouin study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, P; Dugautier, C; Moch, P; Marrec, F Le; Karkut, M G

    2002-01-01

    The elastic properties of both polycrystalline and epitaxial PbTiO 3 (PTO) thin films are studied using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The epitaxial PTO films were prepared by pulsed laser ablation on (1) a [0 0 1] single crystal of SrTiO 3 (STO) doped with Nb and (2) a [0 0 1] STO buffered with a layer of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . The polycrystalline PTO films were prepared by sol-gel on a Si substrate buffered with TiO 2 and Pt layers. The data analysis takes into account the ripple and the elasto-optic contributions. The latter significantly affects the measured spectra since it gives rise to a Love mode in the p-s scattering geometry. At room temperature, the spectra of the epitaxially grown samples are interpreted using previously published elastic constants of PTO single crystals. Sol-gel samples exhibit appreciable softening of the effective elastic properties compared to PTO single crystals: this result is explained by taking into account the random orientation of the microscopic PTO grains. For both the polycrystalline and the epitaxial films we have determined that the piezoelectric terms do not contribute to the spectra. The temperature dependence of the spectra shows strong anomalies of the elastic properties near the ferroelectric phase transition. Compared to the bulk, T C is higher in the sol-gel films, while in the epitaxial films the sign of the T C shift depends on the underlying material

  1. Direct observation of phase transition of GeSbTe thin films by Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Fei [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: xuling@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang Rui; Geng Lei; Tong Liang; Xu Jun [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Weining; Yu Yao [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ma Zhongyuan; Chen Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized marks on GST thin film were fabricated using Conductive-AFM (Atomic Force Microscope). The AFM morphology images show that the marks are ablated at the center and a raised ring surrounding it. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure of GeSbTe thin films was characterized by XRD and AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing and applying electrical field can induce crystallization on thin film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductive-AFM was used to modify the surface of GeSbTe thin film. - Abstract: GeSbTe (GST) thin films were deposited on quartz substrates using electron beam evaporation system and then annealed in nitrogen atmosphere at different temperatures, ranging from 20 Degree-Sign C to 300 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force microscope (AFM) measurements were used to characterize the as-deposited and post-annealed thin films. Annealing treatment was found to induce changes on microstructure, surface roughness and grain size, indicating that with the increase of annealing temperature, the amorphous GST films first changed to face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase and then the stable hexagonal (hex) phase. Meanwhile, conductive-AFM (C-AFM) was used to produce crystallized GST dots on thin films. I-V spectroscopy results show that GST films can switch from amorphous state to crystalline state at threshold voltage. After switching, I-V curve exhibits ohmic characteristic, which is usually observed in crystallized GST films. By applying repeated I-V spectroscopies on the thin films, crystallized nuclei were observed. As the times of I-V spectroscopies increases, the area of written dots increases, and the center of the mark begin to ablate. The AFM images show that the shape of marks is an ablated center with a raised ring surrounding it.

  2. Electron Microscopy Characterization of Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Felipe

    Vanadium dioxide (VO_2) is a material of particular interest due to its exhibited metal to insulator phase transition at 68°C that is accompanied by an abrupt and significant change in its electronic and optical properties. Since this material can exhibit a reversible drop in resistivity of up to five orders of magnitude and a reversible drop in infrared optical transmission of up to 80%, this material holds promise in several technological applications. Solid phase crystallization of VO_2 thin films was obtained by a post-deposition annealing process of a VO_{x,x approx 2} amorphous film sputtered on an amorphous silicon dioxide (SiO_2) layer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron-backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were utilized to study the morphology of the solid phase crystallization that resulted from this post-deposition annealing process. The annealing parameters ranged in temperature from 300°C up to 1000°C and in time from 5 minutes up to 12 hours. Depending on the annealing parameters, EBSD showed that this process yielded polycrystalline vanadium dioxide thin films, semi-continuous thin films, and films of isolated single-crystal particles. In addition to these films on SiO_2, other VO_2 thin films were deposited onto a-, c-, and r-cuts of sapphire and on TiO_2(001) heated single-crystal substrates by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). The temperature of the substrates was kept at ˜500°C during deposition. EBSD maps and orientation imaging microscopy were used to study the epitaxy and orientation of the VO_2 grains deposited on the single crystal substrates, as well as on the amorphous SiO_2 layer. The EBSD/OIM results showed that: 1) For all the sapphire substrates analyzed, there is a predominant family of crystallographic relationships wherein the rutile VO_2{001} planes tend to lie parallel to the sapphire's {10-10} and the rutile VO_2{100} planes lie parallel to the sapphire's {1-210} and {0001}. Furthermore, while this family of

  3. Simulated Thin-Film Growth and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Thin-films have become the cornerstone of the electronics, telecommunications, and broadband markets. A list of potential products includes: computer boards and chips, satellites, cell phones, fuel cells, superconductors, flat panel displays, optical waveguides, building and automotive windows, food and beverage plastic containers, metal foils, pipe plating, vision ware, manufacturing equipment and turbine engines. For all of these reasons a basic understanding of the physical processes involved in both growing and imaging thin-films can provide a wonderful research project for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students. After producing rudimentary two- and three-dimensional thin-film models incorporating ballsitic deposition and nearest neighbor Coulomb-type interactions, the QM tunneling equations are used to produce simulated scanning tunneling microscope (SSTM) images of the films. A discussion of computational platforms, languages, and software packages that may be used to accomplish similar results is also given.

  4. Restructuring in block copolymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Zhang, Jianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) thin films have been proposed for a number of nanotechnology applications, such as nanolithography and as nanotemplates, nanoporous membranes and sensors. Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has emerged as a powerful technique for manipulating and controlling the structure of BCP...... thin films, e.g., by healing defects, by altering the orientation of the microdomains and by changing the morphology. Due to high time resolution and compatibility with SVA environments, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is an indispensable technique for studying the SVA process......, providing information of the BCP thin film structure both laterally and along the film normal. Especially, state-of-the-art combined GISAXS/SVA setups at synchrotron sources have facilitated in situ and real-time studies of the SVA process with a time resolution of a few seconds, giving important insight...

  5. Nanostructured thin films as functional coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Manoj A; Tadvani, Jalil K; Tung, Wing Sze; Lopez, Lorena; Daoud, Walid A, E-mail: Walid.Daoud@sci.monash.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Nanostructured thin films is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis and sensor technologies. Highly tuned thin films, in terms of thickness, crystallinity, porosity and optical properties, can be fabricated on different substrates using the sol-gel method, chemical solution deposition (CSD), electrochemical etching, along with other conventional methods such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD). The above mentioned properties of these films are usually characterised using surface analysis techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, ellipsometry, electrochemistry, SAXS, reflectance spectroscopy, STM, XPS, SIMS, ESCA, X-ray topography and DOSY-NMR. This article presents a short review of the preparation and characterisation of thin films of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and modified silicon as well as their application in solar cells, water treatment, water splitting, self cleaning fabrics, sensors, optoelectronic devices and lab on chip systems.

  6. Preparation of SnSe thin films by encapsulated selenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabar D. Hutagalung; Samsudi Sakrani; Yussof Wahab

    1994-01-01

    Tin selenide thin films were prepared by encapsulated selenization. A stacked layer of evaporated Sn and Se films were annealed in a carbon block at temperatures 100 - 500 degree Celsius for 3 hours. X-ray analysis and SEM (Scanning electron) micrograph results showed that SnSe was initially formed at 150 degree Celsius with crystal size 30.0 nm and reached optimum formation at 200 daximum of 57.4 % yield of 5-decene. Other factors such as reaction temperatures, types of solvent and wt% of rhenium loadings influence the activity of the catalytic system

  7. Elastic properties of amorphous thin films studied by Rayleigh waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, R.B.; Rubin, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Physical vapor deposition in ultra-high vacuum was used to co-deposit nickel and zirconium onto quartz single crystals and grow amorphous Ni 1-x Zr x (0.1 < x < 0.87) thin film. A high-resolution surface acoustic wave technique was developed for in situ measurement of film shear moduli. The modulus has narrow maxima at x = 0. 17, 0.22, 0.43, 0.5, 0.63, and 0.72, reflecting short-range ordering and formation of aggregates in amorphous phase. It is proposed that the aggregates correspond to polytetrahedral atom arrangements limited in size by geometrical frustration

  8. Effect of ion nitriding on the crystal structure of 3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped ZrO{sub 2} thin-films prepared by the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.L. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain)]. E-mail: alortiz@unex.es; Diaz-Parralejo, A. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain); Borrero-Lopez, O. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain); Guiberteau, F. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain)

    2006-06-30

    We investigated the effect of ion nitriding on the crystal structure of 3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped ZrO{sub 2} (3YSZ) thin-films prepared by the sol-gel method. For this purpose, we used X-ray diffractometry to determine the crystalline phases, the lattice parameters, the crystal sizes, and the lattice microstrains, and glow discharge-optical emission spectroscopy to obtain the depth profiles of the elemental chemical composition. We found that nitrogen atoms substitute oxygen atoms in the 3YSZ crystal, thus leading to the formation of unsaturated-substitutional solid solutions with reduced lattice parameters and Zr{sub 0.94}Y{sub 0.06}O{sub 1.72}N{sub 0.17} stoichiometric formula. We also found that ion nitriding does not affect the grain size, but does generate lattice microstrains due to the increase in point defects in the crystalline lattice.

  9. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  10. PLD of X7R for thin film capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takanori; Matsumoto, Noriyuki; Nishida, Minoru; Araki, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Thin film capacitors with a thickness of 200 nm were prepared on SrTiO 3 (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) single crystal substrates at a temperature of 973 K by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a KrF excimer laser in an O 2 -O 3 atmosphere with a gas pressure of 1 Pa using an X7R sintered target. As a result, perovskite BaTiO 3 solid solution films were obtained. In the X7R thin films on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) SrTiO 3 , only diffraction peaks with strong intensities from BaTiO 3 (1 0 0) and (1 1 0), respectively, were observed. X7R films on SrTiO 3 (1 1 1) were grown epitaxially oriented to the crystal plane direction of the substrate by inserting an initial homoepitaxial SrTiO 3 layer with a thickness of 4 nm. The X7R/SrTiO 3 film capacitors yielded a large volumetric efficiency of 50 μF/mm 3 and a temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) of -1.3% to 1.3% which satisfies the EIA standard specifications for X7R

  11. Microscopic local fatigue in PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B S; Wu, A; Vilarinho, P M

    2007-01-01

    The reduction in switchable polarization during fatigue largely limits the application of PZT thin films in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. So, it is very important to understand the fatigue mechanism in PZT films, especially at a nanoscale level. In this paper, nanoscale fatigue properties in PZT thin films have been studied by piezoresponse force microscopy and local piezoloops. It has been found that a piezoloop obtained on a fatigued point exhibits a much more pinched shape and a local imprint phenomenon is observed after severe fatigue. Furthermore, the domain structure evolves from a simple single-peak profile to a complex fluctuant one. However, there is only some shift of the piezoloop when a unipolar field with the same amplitude is applied on the film. The available experimental data show that there exist obvious domain wall pinning and injection of electrons into the film during fatigue. Finally, a schematic illustration is suggested to explain the possible fatigue mechanism

  12. Optical constant of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, D. I.; Fedyanin, D. Yu; Arsenin, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of metal-based devices is limited by ohmic losses in the metal, which are determined by electron scattering. The structural properties of gold thin films also play an important role in the film quality, which may affect its' optical properties and the overall capability...... and spectroscopic ellipsometry, the structural morphology and optical properties of polycrystalline gold thin films (fabricated by e-beam deposition at a low sputtering rate smooth gold) in the thickness range of 20 - 200 nm. By extracting the real and imaginary dielectric function and the Drude parameter...... of the device. At the same time, metal films of different thicknesses are needed for different applications and, since these films are polycrystalline, their internal properties and surface roughness can greatly vary from one thickness to another. In this work, we study, using atomic force microscopy...

  13. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  14. Magnetostrictive thin films prepared by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabias, I.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Pina, E.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Hernando, A.; Crespo, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 80 B 20 thin films have been prepared by ion beam sputtering magnetron on room temperature. The films were fabricated on different substrates to compare the different magnetic and structural properties. In particular the growth of films on flexible substrates (PDMS, Kapton) has been studied to allow a simple integration of the system in miniaturized magnetostrictive devices. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that films are mainly amorphous although the presence of some Fe nanoparticles cannot be ruled out. The coercive field of thin films ranges between 15 and 35 Oe, depending on substrate. Magnetostriction measurements indicate the strong dependence of the saturation magnetostriction with the substrate. Samples on flexible substrates exhibit a better performance than samples deposited onto glass substrates

  15. Critical behavior of ferromagnetic Ising thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossio, P.; Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we study the magnetic properties and critical behavior of simple cubic ferromagnetic thin films. We simulate LxLxd films with semifree boundary conditions on the basis of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model with nearest neighbor interactions. A Metropolis dynamics was implemented to carry out the energy minimization process. For different film thickness, in the nanometer range, we compute the temperature dependence of the magnetization, the magnetic susceptibility and the fourth order Binder's cumulant. Bulk and surface contributions of these quantities are computed in a differentiated fashion. Additionally, according to finite size scaling theory, we estimate the critical exponents for the correlation length, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization. Results reveal a strong dependence of critical temperature and critical exponents on the film thickness. The obtained critical exponents are finally compared to those reported in literature for thin films

  16. Properties of RF-Sputtered PZT Thin Films with Ti/Pt Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of annealing temperature and thin film thickness on properties of Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT thin film deposited via radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate was investigated. Average grain sizes of the PZT thin film were measured by atomic force microscope; their preferred orientation was studied through X-ray diffraction analysis. Average residual stress in the thin film was estimated according to the optimized Stoney formula, and impedance spectroscopy characterization was performed via an intelligent LCR measuring instrument. Average grain sizes of PZT thin films were 60 nm~90 nm and their average roughness was less than 2 nm. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, 600°C is the optimal annealing temperature to obtain the PZT thin film with better crystallization. Average residual stress showed that thermal mismatch was the decisive factor of residual stress in Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate; the residual stress in PZT thin film decreased as their thickness increased and increased with annealing temperature. The dielectric constant and loss angle tangent were extremely increased with the thickness of PZT thin films. The capacitance of the device can be adjusted according to the thickness of PZT thin films.

  17. Improvement of physical properties of ZnO thin films by tellurium doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sönmezoğlu, Savaş, E-mail: svssonmezoglu@kmu.edu.tr; Akman, Erdi

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • We report the synthesis of tellurium-doped zinc oxide (Te–ZnO) thin films using sol–gel method. • Highly c-axis oriented Te-doped ZnO thin films were grown on FTO glasses as substrate. • 1.5% Te-doping ratio could improve the physical properties of ZnO thin films. - Abstract: This investigation addressed the structural, optical and morphological properties of tellurium incorporated zinc oxide (Te–ZnO) thin films. The obtained results indicated that Te-doped ZnO thin films exhibit an enhancement of band gap energy and crystallinity compared with non-doped films. The optical transmission spectra revealed a shift in the absorption edge toward lower wavelengths. X-ray diffraction measurement demonstrated that the film was crystallized in the hexagonal (wurtzite) phase and presented a preferential orientation along the c-axis. The XRD obtained patterns indicate that the crystallite size of the thin films, ranging from 23.9 to 49.1 nm, changed with the Te doping level. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy results demonstrated that the grain size and surface roughness of the thin films increased as the Te concentration increased. Most significantly, we demonstrate that it is possible to control the structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO thin films with the isoelectronic Te-incorporation level.

  18. Thin Films in the Photovoltaic Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-03-01

    In the past years, the yearly world market growth rate for Photovoltaics was an average of more than 40%, which makes it one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. Today PV is still dominated by wafer based Crystalline Silicon Technology as the 'working horse' in the global market, but thin films are gaining market shares. For 2007 around 12% are expected. The current silicon shortage and high demand has kept prices higher than anticipated from the learning curve experience and has widened the windows of opportunities for thin film solar modules. Current production capacity estimates for thin films vary between 3 and 6 GW in 2010, representing a 20% market share for these technologies. Despite the higher growth rates for thin film technologies compared with the industry average, Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies are still facing a number of challenges to maintain this growth and increase market shares. The four main topics which were discussed during the workshop were: Potential for cost reduction; Standardization; Recycling; Performance over the lifetime.

  19. Lithium ion intercalation into thin film anatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrata, I.; Froehlich, K.; Ballo, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to find the optimal parameters for thin film TiO 2 anatase grown by Atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as electrode in lithium ion batteries. Two parameters, the optimal film thickness and growth conditions are aimed for. Optimal film thickness for achieving optimum between capacity gained from volume and capacity gained by changing of the intercalation constant and optimal growth conditions for film conformity on structured substrates with high aspect ratio. Here we presents first results from this ongoing research and discuss future outlooks. (authors)

  20. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  1. Multifunctional Parylene-C Microfibrous Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash

    Towards sustainable development, multifunctional products have many advantageous over single-function products: reduction in number of parts, raw material, assembly time, and cost involved in a product's life cycle. My goal for this thesis was to demonstrate the multifunctionalities of Parylene-C microfibrous thin films. To achieve this goal, I chose Parylene C, a polymer, because the fabrication of periodic mediums of Parylene C in the form of microfibrous thin films (muFTFs) was already established. A muFTFs is a parallel arrangement of identical micrometer-sized fibers of shapes cylindrical, chevronic, or helical. Furthermore, Parylene C had three existing functions: in medical-device industries as corrosion-resistive coatings, in electronic industries as electrically insulating coatings, and in biomedical research for tissue-culture substrates. As the functionalities of a material are dependent on the microstructure and physical properties, the investigation made for this thesis was two-fold: (1) Experimentally, I determined the wetting, mechanical, and dielectric properties of columnar muFTFs and examined the microstructural and molecular differences between bulk films and muFTFs. (2) Using physical properties of bulk film, I computationally determined the elastodynamic and determined the electromagnetic filtering capabilities of Parylene-C muFTFs. Several columnar muFTFs of Parylene C were fabricated by varying the monomer deposition angle. Following are the significant experimental findings: 1. Molecular and microstructural characteristics: The dependence of the microfiber inclination angle on the monomer deposition angle was classified into four regimes of two different types. X-ray diffraction experiments indicated that the columnar muFTFs contain three crystal planes not evident in bulk Parylene-C films and that the columnar muFTFs are less crystalline than bulk films. Infrared absorbance spectra revealed that the atomic bonding is the same in all

  2. Theoretical study of surface segregation in Pt-Pd alloys: from semi-infinite crystal to thin films and small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoutami, Abdelali

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the present work is to study, in the particular case of Platinum - Palladium alloys, the influence of the size of the system on surface segregation. To this aim, various statistical methods (mean field approximation, Monte-Carlo numerical simulation) are used, which all are grounded on energetic models derived from the electronic structure (Tight-Binding Ising Model, Many-Body interatomic potentials in the second moment approximation of the density of states). The main result of these calculations is that palladium atoms strongly segregate at the surface in the whole range of concentration and temperature, the superficial enrichment and the concentration profile being very anisotropic with the crystallographic orientation of the surface, due to the synergy (or competition) between surface tension effect and bulk ordering tendency. Then the finite size effect induces an enhancement of these phenomena (surface enrichment, anisotropy with the different sites: vertices, edges, squares or triangular faces) which can be related for clusters to the strong variation with the size of the face tension associated to the contraction of interatomic distances undergone by small clusters (less than thousand atoms) before the structural transition from icosahedron to cub-octahedron. Moreover some peculiar frustration effects between bulk ordering and surface segregation, related to the parity of the system, are put in evidence in the case of thin films. (author) [fr

  3. Structural and optical properties of electrodeposited molybdenum oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R.S.; Uplane, M.D.; Patil, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Electrosynthesis of Mo(IV) oxide thin films on F-doped SnO 2 conducting glass (10-20/Ω/□) substrates were carried from aqueous alkaline solution of ammonium molybdate at room temperature. The physical characterization of as-deposited films carried by thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA), infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of hydrous and amorphous MoO 2 . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a smooth but cracked surface with multi-layered growth. Annealing of these films in dry argon at 450 deg. C for 1 h resulted into polycrystalline MoO 2 with crystallites aligned perpendicular to the substrate. Optical absorption study indicated a direct band gap of 2.83 eV. The band gap variation consistent with Moss rule and band gap narrowing upon crystallization was observed. Structure tailoring of as-deposited thin films by thermal oxidation in ambient air to obtain electrochromic Mo(VI) oxide thin films was exploited for the first time by this novel route. The results of this study will be reported elsewhere

  4. Thin dielectric film thickness determination by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, A.C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D.; Pennycook, S.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-09-01

    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by non-specialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods was steadily improved reaching now into the sub Angstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this paper, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this paper is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  5. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jun [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Seok [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jin-Seo, E-mail: jinseonoh@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  6. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Jun; Lee, Ho Seok; Noh, Jin-Seo

    2016-01-01

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  7. Synthesis and morphological modification of semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: jsanchez@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); López-Salinas, Esteban [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Prince, Julia [Universidad Anáhuac México Norte, Av. Universidad Anáhuac # 46, Huixquilucan, Edo. de México 52786 (Mexico); González, Ignacio; Acevedo-Peña, Prospero [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Ángel, Paz del [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) thin films with different chemical compositions (MgZnAl, MgZnGa, MgGaAl) and varying thicknesses were easily prepared by sol–gel method followed by dip-coating. Films were chemically uniform, transparent and well adhered to a conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Structure, chemical composition and morphology of the thin films were characterized by XRD-GADDS, SEM-EDS and AFM. Additionally, the semiconducting properties of all the prepared films were studied through the Mott–Schottky relationship; such properties were closely related to the chemical compositions of the film. The films were characterized after electrochemical treatment and important modifications regarding surface morphology, particle and crystal sizes were observed. An in-depth study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of several different electrochemical treatments on the morphology, particle size distribution and crystal size of LDH thin films. Upon electrochemical treatment, the films' surface became smooth and the particles forming the films were transformed from flaky open LDH platelets to uniformly distributed close-packed LDH nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films prepared by sol–gel. • LDH thin films show a turbostratic morphology made up of porous flakes. • Electrochemical treatments change the flaky structure into a nanoparticle array.

  8. Reactive ion assisted deposition of aluminum oxynitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Lingg, L.J.; Lehan, J.P.; Macleod, H.A.; Suits, F.

    1989-01-01

    Optical properties, stoichiometry, chemical bonding states, and crystal structure of aluminum oxynitride (AlO/sub x/N/sub y/) thin films prepared by reactive ion assisted deposition were investigated. The results show that by controlling the amount of reactive gases the refractive index of aluminum oxynitride films at 550 nm is able to be varied from 1.65 to 1.83 with a very small extinction coefficient. Variations of optical constants and chemical bonding states of aluminum oxynitride films are related to the stoichiometry. From an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis it is observed that our aluminum oxynitride film is not simply a mixture of aluminum oxide and aluminum nitride but a continuously variable compound. The aluminum oxynitride films are amorphous from an x-ray diffraction analysis. A rugate filter using a step index profile of aluminum oxynitride films was fabricated by nitrogen ion beam bombardment of a growing Al film with backfill oxygen pressure as the sole variation. This filter shows a high resistivity to atmospheric moisture adsorption, suggesting that the packing density of aluminum oxynitride films is close to unity and the energetic ion bombardment densifies the film as well as forming the compound

  9. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1995-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  10. Magnetic characterisation of longitudinal thin film media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dova, P.

    1998-09-01

    Magnetic characterisation techniques, as applied to longitudinal thin film media, have been investigated. These included the study of the differentials of the remanence curves, the delta-M plot and the examination of the critical volumes. Several thin film structures, which are currently used or are being considered for future media applications, have been examined using these techniques. Most of the films were Co-alloys with the exception of a set of Barium ferrite films. Both monolayer and multilayer structures were studied. It was found that the study of activation volumes provides a better insight into the reversal mechanisms of magnetic media, especially in the case of complex structures such as multilayer films and films with bicrystal microstructure. Furthermore, an evaluation study of different methods of determining critical volumes showed that the method using time dependence measurements and the micromagnetic approach is the most appropriate. The magnetic characteristics of the thin film media under investigation were correlated with their microstructure and, where possible, with their noise performance. Magnetic force microscopy was also used for acquiring quasi-domain images in the ac-demagnetised state. It was found that in all Co-alloy films the dominant intergranular coupling is magnetising in nature, the level of which is governed by the Cr content in the magnetic layer. In the case of laminated media it was found that when non-magnetic spacers are used, the nature of the interlayer coupling depends on the spacer thickness. In double layer structures with no spacer, the top layer replicates the crystallographic texture of the bottom layer, and the overall film properties are a combination of the two layers. In bicrystal films the coupling is determined by the Cr segregation in the grain boundaries. Furthermore, the presence of stacking faults in bicrystal films deteriorates their thermal stability, but can be prevented by improving the epitaxial

  11. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  12. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  13. Thin films for the manipulation of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piegari, Angela; Sytchkova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of light is typically accomplished by a series of optical surfaces on which the incident beam is reflected, or through which the beam is transmitted. Thin film coatings help to modify the behavior of such surfaces for obtaining the desired result: antireflection coatings to reduce reflection losses, high-reflectance mirrors, filters to divide or combine beams of different wavelengths, and many other types. The amount of light that is transmitted or reflected depends on the optical parameters of the materials and on interference phenomena in thin-film structures. Dedicated software is available to design the proper coating for each requirement. There are several applications of optical thin films, many of them are useful in the everyday life, many others are dedicated to scientific purposes, as will be described in this paper [it

  14. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  15. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  16. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  17. Raman analysis of gold on WSe2 single crystal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Bablu; Sun Leong, Wei; Li, Yida; Thong, John T L; Gong, Hao; Sun, Linfeng; Xiang Shen, Ze; Simsek, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of high-quality single-crystal tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) films on a highly insulating substrate is presented. We demonstrate for the first time that the presence of gold (Au) nanoparticles in the basal plane of a WSe 2 film can enhance its Raman scattering intensity. The experimentally observed enhancement ratio in the Raman signal correlates well with the simulated electric field intensity using both three-dimensional electromagnetic software and theoretical calculation considering layered medium coupled-dipole approximation (LM-CDA). This work serves as a guideline for the use of Au nanoparticles on WSe 2 single-crystal thin films for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications in the future. (paper)

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of thin film interfacial strength dependency on lattice mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhou; Lian, Jie; Wang, Junlan

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced thin film spallation experiments have been previously developed to characterize the intrinsic interfacial strength of thin films. In order to gain insights of atomic level thin film debonding processes and the interfacial strength dependence on film/substrate lattice structures, in this study, molecular dynamics simulations of thin film interfacial failure under laser-induced stress waves were performed. Various loading amplitudes and pulse durations were employed to identify the optimum simulation condition. Stress propagation as a function of time was revealed in conjunction with the interface structures. Parametric studies confirmed that while the interfacial strength between a thin film and a substrate does not depend on the film thickness and the duration of the laser pulse, a thicker film and a shorter duration do provide advantage to effectively load the interface to failure. With the optimized simulation condition, further studies were focused on bulk Au/Au bi-crystals with mismatched orientations, and Ni/Al, Cu/Al, Cu/Ag and Cu/Au bi-crystals with mismatched lattices. The interfacial strength was found to decrease with increasing orientation mismatch and lattice mismatch but more significantly dominated by the bonding elements' atomic structure and valence electron occupancy. - Highlights: • Molecular dynamics simulation was done on stress wave induced thin film spallation. • Atomic structure was found to be a primary strength determining factor. • Lattice mismatch was found to be a secondary strength determining factor

  19. Thermal stability of pulsed laser deposited iridium oxide thin films at low oxygen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yansheng; Wang, Chuanbin; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2013-11-01

    Iridium oxide (IrO2) thin films have been regarded as a leading candidate for bottom electrode and diffusion barrier of ferroelectric capacitors, some process related issues need to be considered before integrating ferroelectric capacitors into memory cells. This paper presents the thermal stability of pulsed laser deposited IrO2 thin films at low oxygen atmosphere. Emphasis was given on the effect of post-deposition annealing temperature at different oxygen pressure (PO2) on the crystal structure, surface morphology, electrical resistivity, carrier concentration and mobility of IrO2 thin films. The results showed that the thermal stability of IrO2 thin films was strongly dependent on the oxygen pressure and annealing temperature. IrO2 thin films can stably exist below 923 K at PO2 = 1 Pa, which had a higher stability than the previous reported results. The surface morphology of IrO2 thin films depended on PO2 and annealing temperature, showing a flat and uniform surface for the annealed films. Electrical properties were found to be sensitive to both the annealing temperature and oxygen pressure. The room-temperature resistivity of IrO2 thin films with a value of 49-58 μΩ cm increased with annealing temperature at PO2 = 1 Pa. The thermal stability of IrO2 thin films as a function of oxygen pressure and annealing temperature was almost consistent with thermodynamic calculation.

  20. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  1. Low temperature aluminum nitride thin films for sensory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarar, E.; Zamponi, C.; Piorra, A.; Quandt, E., E-mail: eq@tf.uni-kiel.de [Institute for Materials Science, Chair for Inorganic Functional Materials, Kiel University, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Hrkac, V.; Kienle, L. [Institute for Materials Science, Chair for Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    A low-temperature sputter deposition process for the synthesis of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films that is attractive for applications with a limited temperature budget is presented. Influence of the reactive gas concentration, plasma treatment of the nucleation surface and film thickness on the microstructural, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of AlN is investigated. An improved crystal quality with respect to the increased film thickness was observed; where full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the AlN films decreased from 2.88 ± 0.16° down to 1.25 ± 0.07° and the effective longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33,f}) increased from 2.30 ± 0.32 pm/V up to 5.57 ± 0.34 pm/V for film thicknesses in the range of 30 nm to 2 μm. Dielectric loss angle (tan δ) decreased from 0.626% ± 0.005% to 0.025% ± 0.011% for the same thickness range. The average relative permittivity (ε{sub r}) was calculated as 10.4 ± 0.05. An almost constant transversal piezoelectric coefficient (|e{sub 31,f}|) of 1.39 ± 0.01 C/m{sup 2} was measured for samples in the range of 0.5 μm to 2 μm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations performed on thin (100 nm) and thick (1.6 μm) films revealed an (002) oriented AlN nucleation and growth starting directly from the AlN-Pt interface independent of the film thickness and exhibit comparable quality with the state-of-the-art AlN thin films sputtered at much higher substrate temperatures.

  2. Magnetite thin films: A simulational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the study of the magnetic properties of magnetite thin films is addressed by means of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model. We simulate LxLxd magnetite thin films (d being the film thickness and L the transversal linear dimension) with periodic boundary conditions along transversal directions and free boundary conditions along d direction. In our model, both the three-dimensional inverse spinel structure and the interactions scheme involving tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been considered in a realistic way. Results reveal a power-law dependence of the critical temperature with the film thickness accordingly by an exponent ν=0.81 and ruled out by finite-size scaling theory. Estimates for the critical exponents of the magnetization and the specific heat are finally presented and discussed

  3. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  4. Multiferroicity in oxide thin films and heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavic, Artur

    2012-01-01

    In this work a variety of different systems of transition metal oxides ABO 3 (perovskite materials, where B stands for a transition metal and A for a rare earth element) were produced as thin films and heterostructures and analyzed for the structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties. For the epitaxial film preparation mostly pulse laser deposition (PLD) was applied. For one series high pressure oxide sputter deposition was used as well. The bulk multiferroics TbMnO 3 and DyMnO 3 , which develop their electric polarization due to a cycloidal magnetic order, have been prepared as single layers with thicknesses between 2 and 200 nm on YAlO 3 substrates using PLD and sputter deposition. The structural characterization of the surfaces and crystal structure where performed using X-ray reflectometry and diffraction, respectively. These yielded low surface roughness and good epitaxial growth. The magnetic behavior was macroscopically measured with SQUID magnetometry and microscopically with polarized neutron diffraction and resonant magnetic X-ray scattering. While all investigated samples showed antiferromagnetic order, comparable with the collinear magnetic phase of their bulk materials, only the sputter deposited samples exhibited the multiferroic low temperature cycloidal order. The investigation of the optical second harmonic generation in a TbMnO 3 sample could proof the presence of a ferroelectric order in the low temperature phase. The respective transition temperatures of the thin films have been very similar to those of the bulk materials. In contrast an increase in the rare earth ordering temperature has been observed, which reduces the Mn order slightly, an effect not known from bulk TbMnO 3 crystals. The coupling of the antiferromagnetic order in TbMnO 3 to ferromagnetic layers of LaCoO 3 was investigated in super-lattices containing 20 bilayers produced with PLD on the same substrates. The SQUID magnetometry yielded a strong influence of the

  5. Novel chemical analysis for thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Toshio; Kamei, Masayuki; Aoki, Yuji; Morishita, Tadataka; Tanaka, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and total-reflection-angle X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-TRAXS) was applied for fluorescence X-ray analysis of 50A- and 125A-thick Au thin films on Si(100). The intensity of the AuM line (2.15 keV) emitted from the Au thin films varied as a function of the take-off angle (θ t ) with respect to the film surface; the intensity of AuM line from the 125A-thick Au thin film was 1.5 times as large as that of SiK α line (1.74 keV) emitted from the Si substrate when θ t = 0deg-3deg, in the vicinity of a critical angle for total external reflection of the AuM line at Si (0.81deg). In addition, the intensity of the AuM line emitted from the 50A-thick Au thin film was also sufficiently strong for chemical analysis. (author)

  6. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T. O.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  7. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  8. Chemically deposited Sb2S3 thin films for optical recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S; Arato, A; Castillo, G Alan; Palma, M I Mendivil; Roy, T K Das; Krishnan, B; O'Brien, J J; Liu, J

    2010-01-01

    Laser induced changes in the properties of Sb 2 S 3 thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition are described in this paper. Sb 2 S 3 thin films of thickness 550 nm were deposited from a solution containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 at 27 0 C for 5 h. These thin films were irradiated by a 532 nm continuous wave laser beam under different conditions at ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous to polycrystalline transformation due to laser exposure of these thin films. Morphology and composition of these films were described. Optical properties of these films before and after laser irradiation were analysed. The optical band gap of the material was decreased due to laser induced crystallization. The results obtained confirm that there is further scope for developing this material as an optical recording media.

  9. Chemically deposited Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optical recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S; Arato, A; Castillo, G Alan; Palma, M I Mendivil; Roy, T K Das; Krishnan, B [Facultad de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P- 66450 (Mexico); O' Brien, J J; Liu, J, E-mail: bkrishnan@fime.uanl.m [Center for Nanoscience and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One Univ. Blvd., St. Louis, MO - 63121 (United States)

    2010-02-24

    Laser induced changes in the properties of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition are described in this paper. Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of thickness 550 nm were deposited from a solution containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 27 {sup 0}C for 5 h. These thin films were irradiated by a 532 nm continuous wave laser beam under different conditions at ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous to polycrystalline transformation due to laser exposure of these thin films. Morphology and composition of these films were described. Optical properties of these films before and after laser irradiation were analysed. The optical band gap of the material was decreased due to laser induced crystallization. The results obtained confirm that there is further scope for developing this material as an optical recording media.

  10. Topography evolution of germanium thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schumacher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Germanium thin films were deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD onto single crystal Ge (100 and Si (100 substrates with a native oxide film on the surface. The topography of the surface was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM to evaluate the scaling behavior of the surface roughness of amorphous and polycrystalline Ge films grown on substrates with different roughnesses. Roughness evolution was interpreted within the framework of stochastic rate equations for thin film growth. Here the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation was used to describe the smoothening process. Additionally, a roughening regime was observed in which 3-dimensional growth occurred. Diffusion of the deposited Ge adatoms controlled the growth of the amorphous Ge thin films. The growth of polycrystalline thin Ge films was dominated by diffusion processes only in the initial stage of the growth.

  11. Study of Sb2S3 thin films deposited by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, M. P.; Chauhan, Krishna; Patel, Kiran N.; Rajput, Piyush; Bhoi, Hiteshkumar R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we deposited Sb2S3 thin films on glass slide by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique with different time cycles. From EDAX, we could observe that the films were non-stoichiometric and contained few elements from glass slide. X-ray diffraction has shown that these films are orthorhombic in structure from where we have calculated the lattice parameter and crystallize size. SEM images shows that SILAR synthesized Sb2S3 thin films are homogenous and well distributed indicating the formation of uniform thin films at lower concentration. The room temperature Raman spectra of Sb2S3 thin films showed sharp peaks at 250 cm‑1 and 300 cm‑1 for all cases. Room temperature photoluminescence emission spectrum shows broad bands over 430–480 nm range with strong blue emission peak centered at same wavelength of 460 nm (2.70 eV) for all cases.

  12. Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium dioxide thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Nakashima, Shouta; Kawazoe, Syuichi; Toma, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coated on titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films has been developed to supplement the defects of both TiO 2 and HAp. Thin films have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method using HAp and HAp(10%) + TiO 2 targets. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that there are many small peaks of Ca 1 0(PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 crystal, and no impurity other than HAp is detected in HAp films prepared using pure HAp target. The composition ratio of the film was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). HAp coatings on TiO 2 thin films have been prepared using HAp(10%) + TiO 2 targets. XRD and XPS measurements suggest that crystalline HAp + TiO 2 thin films are obtained by the PLD method using HAp(10%) + TiO 2 target

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system /development of technology to manufacture solar cells/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture materials and substrates (development of technology to manufacture silicon crystal based high-quality materials and substrates)); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (silicon kesshokei kohinshitsu zairyo kiban no seizo gujutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is intended to develop thin film solar cells capable of mass production with high photo-stability and at low cost. Thus, the objective of the present research is to analyze the growth process of micro crystal silicon based thin films, the crystal being a high quality silicon crystal based material, and develop technology to manufacture high-quality micro crystal silicon thin films based on the findings therefrom. It was found that, when silicon source is available in cathode, pure hydrogen plasma forms micro crystal silicon films by using the plasma as a result of the chemical transportation effect from the silicon source. It was revealed that the crystal formation due to hydrogen plasma exposure is performed substantially by the crystals forming the films due to the chemical transportation effect, rather than crystallization in the vicinity of the surface. The crystal formation under this experiment was concluded that the formation takes place during film growth accompanied by diffusion of film forming precursors on the surface on which the film grows. According to the result obtained so far, the most important issue in the future is particularly the control of crystal growing azimuth by reducing the initially formed amorphous layer by controlling the stress in the initial phase for film formation, and by controlling the film forming precursors. (NEDO)

  14. Sputtered highly oriented PZT thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpat, Sriram S.

    Recently there has been an explosion of interest in the field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS device technology has become critical in the growth of various fields like medical, automotive, chemical, and space technology. Among the many applications of ferroelectric thin films in MEMS devices, microfluidics is a field that has drawn considerable amount of research from bio-technology industries as well as chemical and semiconductor manufacturing industries. PZT thin films have been identified as best suited materials for micro-actuators and micro-sensors used in MEMS devices. A promising application for piezoelectric thin film based MEMS devices is disposable drug delivery systems that are capable of sensing biological parameters, mixing and delivering minute and precise amounts of drugs using micro-pumps or micro mixers. These devices call for low driving voltages, so that they can be battery operated. Improving the performance of the actuator material is critical in achieving battery operated disposal drug delivery systems. The device geometry and power consumption in MEMS devices largely depends upon the piezoelectric constant of the films, since they are most commonly used to convert electrical energy into a mechanical response of a membrane or cantilever and vice versa. Phenomenological calculation on the crystal orientation dependence of piezoelectric coefficients for PZT single crystal have reported a significant enhancement of the piezoelectric d33 constant by more than 3 times along [001] in the rhombohedral phase as compared to the conventionally used orientation PZT(111) since [111] is the along the spontaneous polarization direction. This could mean considerable improvement in the MEMS device performance and help drive the operating voltages lower. The motivation of this study is to investigate the crystal orientation dependence of both dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films in order to select the appropriate

  15. Mechanical integrity of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical considerations starting with the initial film deposition including questions of adhesion and grading the interface are reviewed. Growth stresses, limiting thickness, stress relief, control aging, and creep are described

  16. Calixarene Langmuir-Blodgett Thin Films For Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) such as benzene, toluene, chloroform are chemicals that evaporate easily at room temperature and create many health effects on young children, elderly and a person with heightened sensitivity to chemicals. Concentrations of many VOC's are consistently higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors because many household products (for example paints, varnishes, many cleaning, disinfecting, cosmetic, degreasing, hobby products etc.) contains VOC's. Some effects of VOC's for human beings can be followed as the eye, nose, and throat irritations; headaches, loss of coordination, nausea; damage to liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. These are big incentives for the development of portable, user-friendly VOC's sensors and for the investigation of the sensing properties of new materials to be prepared as a thin film sensing element. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) ultra-thin film technique allows us to produce monolayer or multilayer organic thin films that can be used as chemical sensing elements.In this work, materials known as the calix[n]arene are investigated for the production of sensing material against several VOC's such as the chloroform, benzene, ethylbenzene and toluene by using LB thin film techniques. UV-visible, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) system and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) measurement techniques are used to check the quality of the deposition process onto a solid substrate. Surface morphology and sensing properties of the final sensing layers are then studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and SPR techniques. Our results indicated that selected calixarene materials are sensitive enough and quite suitable to fabricate a highly ordered, reproducible and uniform LB film that can be used as a very thin sensing layer against VOC's.

  17. Mesoscale control of organic crystalline thin films: effects of film morphology on the performance of organic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Park, Sungkyu [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yonghoon [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We report mesoscale control of small molecular 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) crystalline thin films by varying the solute concentration in the fluidic channel method. A stepwise increase in the TIPS-pentacene concentration in the solution enabled us to prepare highly-crystallized ribbons, thin films, and thick films in a mesoscale range, respectively. All three types of deposited films exhibited an in-plane crystalline nature of (001) direction being normal to the substrate as well as crystalline domain growth parallel to the direction of the receding meniscus inside the fluidic channel. In addition, the film's morphology and thickness were found to have a great influence on the field-effect mobility of the transistors, and the highest average and maximum mobilities were achieved from transistors with thin-film semiconductor channels.

  18. Mesoscopic Percolating Resistance Network in a Strained Manganite Thin Film

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.; Nakamura, M.; Kundhikanjana, W.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.; Kelly, M. A.; Shen, Z.-X.

    2010-01-01

    Many unusual behaviors in complex oxides are deeply associated with the spontaneous emergence of microscopic phase separation. Depending on the underlying mechanism, the competing phases can form ordered or random patterns at vastly different length scales. By using a microwave impedance microscope, we observed an orientation-ordered percolating network in strained Nd 1/2Sr1/2MnO3 thin films with a large period of 100 nanometers. The filamentary metallic domains align preferentially along certain crystal axes of the substrate, suggesting the anisotropic elastic strain as the key interaction in this system. The local impedance maps provide microscopic electrical information of the hysteretic behavior in strained thin film manganites, suggesting close connection between the glassy order and the colossal magnetoresistance effects at low temperatures.

  19. Mesoscopic Percolating Resistance Network in a Strained Manganite Thin Film

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2010-07-08

    Many unusual behaviors in complex oxides are deeply associated with the spontaneous emergence of microscopic phase separation. Depending on the underlying mechanism, the competing phases can form ordered or random patterns at vastly different length scales. By using a microwave impedance microscope, we observed an orientation-ordered percolating network in strained Nd 1/2Sr1/2MnO3 thin films with a large period of 100 nanometers. The filamentary metallic domains align preferentially along certain crystal axes of the substrate, suggesting the anisotropic elastic strain as the key interaction in this system. The local impedance maps provide microscopic electrical information of the hysteretic behavior in strained thin film manganites, suggesting close connection between the glassy order and the colossal magnetoresistance effects at low temperatures.

  20. Mesoscopic percolating resistance network in a strained manganite thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Keji; Nakamura, Masao; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori; Kelly, Michael A; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2010-07-09

    Many unusual behaviors in complex oxides are deeply associated with the spontaneous emergence of microscopic phase separation. Depending on the underlying mechanism, the competing phases can form ordered or random patterns at vastly different length scales. By using a microwave impedance microscope, we observed an orientation-ordered percolating network in strained Nd(1/2)Sr(1/2)MnO3 thin films with a large period of 100 nanometers. The filamentary metallic domains align preferentially along certain crystal axes of the substrate, suggesting the anisotropic elastic strain as the key interaction in this system. The local impedance maps provide microscopic electrical information of the hysteretic behavior in strained thin film manganites, suggesting close connection between the glassy order and the colossal magnetoresistance effects at low temperatures.

  1. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, P.; Sharman, J.; Elliott, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.

  2. Processing of thin SU-8 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stephan; Blagoi, Gabriela; Lillemose, Michael; Haefliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the process optimization for SU-8 films with thicknesses ≤5 µm. The influence of soft-bake conditions, exposure dose and post-exposure-bake parameters on residual film stress, structural stability and lithographic resolution was investigated. Conventionally, the SU-8 is soft-baked after spin coating to remove the solvent. After the exposure, a post-exposure bake at a high temperature T PEB ≥ 90 °C is required to cross-link the resist. However, for thin SU-8 films this often results in cracking or delamination due to residual film stress. The approach of the process optimization is to keep a considerable amount of the solvent in the SU-8 before exposure to facilitate photo-acid diffusion and to increase the mobility of the monomers. The experiments demonstrate that a replacement of the soft-bake by a short solvent evaporation time at ambient temperature allows cross-linking of the thin SU-8 films even at a low T PEB = 50 °C. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to confirm the increased cross-linking density. The low thermal stress due to the reduced T PEB and the improved structural stability result in crack-free structures and solve the issue of delamination. The knowledge of the influence of different processing parameters on the responses allows the design of optimized processes for thin SU-8 films depending on the specific application

  3. Rapid thermal annealing of Ti-rich TiNi thin films: A new approach to fabricate patterned shape memory thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motemani, Y.; Tan, M.J.; White, T.J.; Huang, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of Ti-rich TiNi thin films, synthesized by the co-sputtering of TiNi and Ti targets. Long-range order of aperiodic alloy could be achieved in a few seconds with the optimum temperature of 773 K. Longer annealing (773 K/240 s), transformed the film to a poorly ordered vitreous phase, suggesting a novel method for solid state amorphization. Reitveld refinement analyses showed significant differences in structural parameters of the films crystallized by rapid and conventional thermal annealing. Dependence of the elastic modulus on the valence electron density (VED) of the crystallized films was studied. It is suggested that RTA provides a new approach to fabricate patterned shape memory thin films.

  4. Pulsed laser deposited Al-doped ZnO thin films for optical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly transparent and conducting Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO thin films were grown on glass substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique. The profound effect of film thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of Al:ZnO thin films was observed. The X-ray diffraction depicts c-axis, plane (002 oriented thin films with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. Al-doping in ZnO introduces a compressive stress in the films which increase with the film thickness. AFM images reveal the columnar grain formation with low surface roughness. The versatile optical properties of Al:ZnO thin films are important for applications such as transparent electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding materials and solar cells. The obtained optical band gap (3.2–3.08 eV was found to be less than pure ZnO (3.37 eV films. The lowering in the band gap in Al:ZnO thin films could be attributed to band edge bending phenomena. The photoluminescence spectra gives sharp visible emission peaks, enables Al:ZnO thin films for light emitting devices (LEDs applications. The current–voltage (I–V measurements show the ohmic behavior of the films with resistivity (ρ~10−3 Ω cm.

  5. How grain boundaries affect the efficiency of poly-CdTe solar-cells: A fundamental atomic-scale study of grain boundary dislocation cores using CdTe bi-crystal thin films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klie, Robert [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-10-25

    It is now widely accepted that grain boundaries in poly-crystalline CdTe thin film devices have a detrimental effect on the minority carrier lifetimes, the open circuit voltage and therefore the overall solar-cell performance. The goal of this project was to develop a fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in CdTe on the carrier life-time, open-circuit voltage, Voc, and the diffusion of impurities. To achieve this goal, i) CdTe bi-crystals were fabricated with various misorientation angels, ii) the atomic- and electronic structures of the grain boundaries were characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and iii) first-principles density functional theory modeling was performed on the structures determined by STEM to predict the grain boundary potential. The transport properties and minority carrier lifetimes of the bi-crystal grain boundaries were measured using a variety of approaches, including TRPL, and provided feedback to the characterization and modeling effort about the effectiveness of the proposed models.

  6. MOCVD of zirconium oxide thin films: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Ramirez-Meneses, E.; Vargas-Garcia, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of thin films of zirconia often produces tetragonal or cubic phases, which are stable at high temperatures, but that can be transformed into the monoclinic form by cooling. In the present study, we report the deposition of thin zirconium dioxide films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using zirconium (IV)-acetylacetonate as precursor. Colorless, porous, homogeneous and well adherent ZrO 2 thin films in the cubic phase were obtained within the temperature range going from 873 to 973 K. The deposits presented a preferential orientation towards the (1 1 1) and (2 2 0) planes as the substrate temperature was increased, and a crystal size ranging between 20 and 25 nm. The kinetics is believed to result from film growth involving the deposition and aggregation of nanosized primary particles produced during the CVD process. A mismatch between the experimental results obtained here and the thermodynamic prediction was found, which can be associated with the intrinsic nature of the nanostructured materials, which present a high density of interfaces.

  7. MOCVD of zirconium oxide thin films: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M., E-mail: atohuer@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carr. Tampico-Puerto Industrial, C.P. 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Ramirez-Meneses, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carr. Tampico-Puerto Industrial, C.P. 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Vargas-Garcia, J.R. [ESIQIE, Departamento de Metalurgia y Materiales, Instituto Politecnico Nacional. A.P. 75-876, 07300 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    The synthesis of thin films of zirconia often produces tetragonal or cubic phases, which are stable at high temperatures, but that can be transformed into the monoclinic form by cooling. In the present study, we report the deposition of thin zirconium dioxide films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using zirconium (IV)-acetylacetonate as precursor. Colorless, porous, homogeneous and well adherent ZrO{sub 2} thin films in the cubic phase were obtained within the temperature range going from 873 to 973 K. The deposits presented a preferential orientation towards the (1 1 1) and (2 2 0) planes as the substrate temperature was increased, and a crystal size ranging between 20 and 25 nm. The kinetics is believed to result from film growth involving the deposition and aggregation of nanosized primary particles produced during the CVD process. A mismatch between the experimental results obtained here and the thermodynamic prediction was found, which can be associated with the intrinsic nature of the nanostructured materials, which present a high density of interfaces.

  8. Epitaxial patterning of thin-films: conventional lithographies and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film based novel magnetic and electronic devices have entered a new era in which the film crystallography, structural coherence, and epitaxy play important roles in determining their functional properties. The capabilities of controlling such structural and functional properties are being continuously developed by various physical deposition technologies. Epitaxial patterning strategies further allow the miniaturization of such novel devices, which incorporates thin-film components into nanoscale architectures while keeping their functional properties unmodified from their ideal single-crystal values. In the past decade, epitaxial patterning methods on the laboratory scale have been reported to meet distinct scientific inquires, in which the techniques and processes used differ from one to the other. In this review we summarize many of these pioneering endeavors in epitaxial patterning of thin-film devices that use both conventional and novel lithography techniques. These methods demonstrate epitaxial patterning for a broad range of materials (metals, oxides, and semiconductors) and cover common device length scales from micrometer to sub-hundred nanometer. Whilst we have been motivated by magnetic materials and devices, we present our outlook on developing systematic-strategies for epitaxial patterning of functional materials which will pave the road for the design, discovery and industrialization of next-generation advanced magnetic and electronic nano-devices. (topical review)

  9. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on photovoltaic power generation system (R and D on particle non-accelerating growth Si thin film crystal); 1976 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ryushi hikasoku seichogata silicon usumaku kessho no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on production of Si thin film crystals and cell composition for photovoltaic power generation. In study on improvement of the crystallinity of polycrystal thin films by zone melting, flat recrystallized film was obtained by passing Si film through a high-frequency furnace at nearly 3mm/min in speed after growth of polycrystal Si film of 120-250{mu}m in thickness on a graphite substrate by gas-phase chemical reaction. In study on cell composition, as technology for forming electrodes on an uneven polycrystal surface with shallow junction, a Ti-Ag double layer method was developed in which junction characteristics are unaffected by heat treatment within 550 degrees C. On the photoelectric conversion efficiency of thin film cells, the efficiency of 5% and area of 10cm as targets in fiscal 1976 were attained by using a graphite substrate or polycrystal Si substrate. The thin film cell formed on an Si substrate could operate a small fan or a desk clock enough by scattered solar radiation. (NEDO)

  10. Optical characterization of niobium pentoxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicka, A.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films of Nb 2 O 5 were obtained by sol-gel method using ultrasonic irradiation and deposited by dip-coating technique. After calcination at temperatures superior than 500 deg C these films (300 nm thick) were characterized by cyclic voltametry and cronoamperometry. The memory measurements, color efficiency, optical density as a function of wave number and applied potential were effectuated to determine their electrochromic properties. The study of electrochromic properties of these films shows that the insertion process of lithium is reversible and changes their coloration from transparent (T=80%) to dark blue (T=20%). (author)

  11. Electrical resistivity of ferrimagnetic magnetite thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Yogi, A.; Kaurav, N.; Gupta, R.P.; Phase, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have grown Fe 3 O 4 (III) epitaxial film on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrate by pulsed laser deposition, with thickness of 130 nm. X-ray diffraction studies of magnetite show the spinel cubic structure of film with preferential (III) orientation. The electrical resistivity measurement demonstrates that the properties of thin film of magnetite are basically similar to those of bulk magnetite and clearly shows semiconductor-insulator transition at Verwey transition temperature (≅140 K). We have found higher Verwey transition temperature when compared with earlier reports on similar type of system. Possible causes for increase in transition temperature are discussed. (author)

  12. Enhanced magnetoelectric coupling in a composite multiferroic system via interposing a thin film polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuyun; Mohanchandra, Kotekar P.; Lo Conte, Roberto; Ty Karaba, C.; Schneider, J. D.; Chavez, Andres; Tiwari, Sidhant; Sohn, Hyunmin; Nowakowski, Mark E.; Scholl, Andreas; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Bokor, Jeffrey; Carman, Gregory P.; Candler, Rob N.

    2018-05-01

    Enhancing the magnetoelectric coupling in a strain-mediated multiferroic composite structure plays a vital role in controlling magnetism by electric fields. An enhancement of magnetoelastic coupling between ferroelectric single crystal (011)-cut [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3](1-x)-[PbTiO3]x (PMN-PT, x≈ 0.30) and ferromagnetic polycrystalline Ni thin film through an interposed benzocyclobutene polymer thin film is reported. A nearly twofold increase in sensitivity of remanent magnetization in the Ni thin film to an applied electric field is observed. This observation suggests a viable method of improving the magnetoelectric response in these composite multiferroic systems.

  13. Pulsed Laser Deposition of BaTiO3 Thin Films on Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaodong Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the deposition of BaTiO3 (BTO thin films on various substrates. Three representative substrates were selected from different types of material systems: (i SrTiO3 single crystals as a typical oxide, (ii Si wafers as a semiconductor, and (iii Ni foils as a magnetostrictive metal. We have compared the ferroelectric properties of BTO thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition on these diverse substrates.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of DC magnetron sputtered nano structured molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondiya, S. R.; Rokade, A. V.; Jadhavar, A. A.; Pandharkar, S. M.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Karpe, S. D.; Diwate, K. D. [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Jadkar, S. R., E-mail: sandesh@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited on corning glass (#7059) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphology and topological properties have been investigated. Films were characterized by variety of techniques such as low angle x-ray diffraction (low angle XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM). The low angle XRD analysis revealed that the synthesized Mo films are nanocrystalline having cubic crystal structure with (110) preferential orientation. The microstructure of the deposited Mo thin films observed with FE-SEM images indicated that films are homogeneous and uniform with randomly oriented leaf shape morphology. The AFM analysis shows that with increase in substrate temperature the rms roughness of Mo films increases. The obtained results suggest that the synthesized nanostructured Mo thin films have potential application as a back contact material for high efficiency solar cells like CdTe, CIGS, CZTS etc.

  15. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet-Assisted Synthesis of Zeolite-Based Low-k Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Yu; Chi, Heng-Yu; Kao, Peng-Kai; Huang, Fei-Hung; Jian, Qi-Ming; Cheng, I-Chun; Lee, Wen-Ya; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Kang, Dun-Yen

    2018-01-10

    Zeolites are ideal low-dielectric constant (low-k) materials. This paper reports on a novel plasma-assisted approach to the synthesis of low-k thin films comprising pure-silica zeolite MFI. The proposed method involves treating the aged solution using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The high reactivity of the resulting nitrogen plasma helps to produce zeolite crystals with high crystallinity and uniform crystal size distribution. The APPJ treatment also remarkably reduces the time for hydrothermal reaction. The zeolite MFI suspensions synthesized with the APPJ treatment are used for the wet deposition to form thin films. The deposited zeolite thin films possessed dense morphology and high crystallinity, which overcome the trade-off between crystallinity and film quality. Zeolite thin films synthesized using the proposed APPJ treatment achieve low leakage current (on the order of 10 -8 A/cm 2 ) and high Young's modulus (12 GPa), outperforming the control sample synthesized without plasma treatment. The dielectric constant of our zeolite thin films was as low as 1.41. The overall performance of the low-k thin films synthesized with the APPJ treatment far exceed existing low-k films comprising pure-silica MFI.

  16. Surface Plasmon Waves on Thin Metal Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Alan Ellsworth

    Surface-plasmon polaritons propagating on thin metal films bounded by dielectrics of nearly equal refractive indexes comprise two bound modes. Calculations indicate that, while the modes are degenerate on thick films, both the real and the imaginary components of the propagation constants for the modes split into two branches on successively thinner films. Considering these non-degenerate modes, the mode exhibiting a symmetric (antisymmetric) transverse profile of the longitudinally polarized electric field component, has propagation constant components both of which increase (decrease) with decreasing film thickness. Theoretical propagation constant eigenvalue (PCE) curves have been plotted which delineate this dependence of both propagation constant components on film thickness. By means of a retroreflecting, hemispherical glass coupler in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, light of wavelength 632.8 nm coupled to the modes of thin silver films deposited on polished glass substrates. Lorentzian lineshape dips in the plots of reflectance vs. angle of incidence indicate the presence of the plasmon modes. The real and imaginary components of the propagation constraints (i.e., the propagation constant and loss coefficient) were calculated from the angular positions and widths of the ATR resonances recorded. Films of several thicknesses were probed. Results which support the theoretically predicted curves were reported.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of lead sulphide thin films from ethanolamine (ETA) complexing agent chemical bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashaw Hone, Fekadu; Dejene, F. B.

    2018-02-01

    Polycrystalline lead sulphide (PbS) thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition route using ethanolamine (ETA) as a complexing agent. The effects of ETA molar concentration on the structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of lead sulphide thin films were thoroughly studied. The XRD analyses revealed that all the deposited thin films were face center cubic crystal structure and their preferred orientations were varied along the (111) and (200) planes. The XRD results further confirmed that ETA concentration had a significant effects on the strain, average crystalline size and dislocation density of the deposited thin films. The SEM studies illustrated the evolution and transformation of surface morphology as ETA molar concentration increased from 0.41 M to 1.64 M. The energy dispersive x-ray analysis was used to verify the compositional elements of the deposited thin films. Optical spectroscopy investigation established that the band gap of the PbS thin films were reduced from 0.98 eV to 0.68 eV as ETA concentration increased. The photoluminescence spectra showed a well defined peak at 428 nm and shoulder around 468 nm for all PbS thin films. The electrical resistivity of the thin films found in the order of 103 Ω cm at room temperature and decreased as the ETA molar concentration was increased.

  18. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs

  19. Intelligent Processing of Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-31

    unsatisfactory. To detect the electroopic effects of thin films deposited on opaque substrates a waveguide refractometry of category 3 was reported. An advantage...of the waveguide refractometry is its capability of resolving the change in ordinary index from the change in the extraordinary index. Some successes

  20. Tailored piezoelectric thin films for energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, X.

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent materials to transfer mechanical energy into electrical energy, which can be stored and used to power other devices. PiezoMEMS is a good way to combine silicon wafer processing and piezoelectric thin film technology and lead to a variety of miniaturized and

  1. Amperometric Noise at Thin Film Band Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Heien, Michael L.; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive...

  2. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c. depos...

  3. Reliability growth of thin film resistors contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugin A. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of resistive layer growth under the contact and in the contact zone of resistive element is shown in order to reduce peak values of current flow and power dissipation in the contact of thin film resistor, thereby to increase the resistor stability to parametric and catastrophic failures.

  4. Bilaterally Microstructured Thin Polydimethylsiloxane Film Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager

    2015-01-01

    Thin PDMS films with complex microstructures are used in the manufacturing of dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuators, sensors and generators, to protect the metal electrode from large strains and to assure controlled actuation. The current manufacturing process at Danfoss Polypower A/...

  5. Flexible thin-film NFC tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Tripathi, A.K.; Steen, J.L. van der; Cobb, B.

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film transistor technologies have great potential to become the key technology for leafnode Internet of Things by utilizing the NFC protocol as a communication medium. The main requirements are manufacturability on flexible substrates at a low cost while maintaining good device performance

  6. Electrical characterization of thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Klee, M.; Beelen, D.; Keur, W.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2006-01-01

    Tunable capacitors can be used to facilitate the reduction of components in wireless technologies. The tunability of the capacitors is caused by the sensitivity of the relative dielectric constant to a change in polarization with electric field. Thin film ferroelectric MIM capacitors on silicon

  7. Internal stress control of boron thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satomi, N.; Kitamura, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nishikawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of stress in thin films has led to serious stability problems in practical use. We have investigated the stress in the boron films to find the deposition condition of the boron films with less stress. It was found that the stress in the boron film varies sufficiently from compressive to tensile stress, that is from -1.0 to 1.4 GPa, depending on the evaporation conditions, such as deposition rate and the substrate temperature. Hydrogen ion bombardment resulted in the enhancement of the compressive stress, possibly due to ion peening effect, while under helium ion bombardment, stress relief was observed. The boron film with nearly zero stress was obtained by the evaporation at a deposition rate of 0.5 nm s -1 and substrate temperature of 300 C. (orig.)

  8. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  9. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Chiara; Jacobs, Karin; Seemann, Ralf; Blossey, Ralf; Becker, Juergen; Gruen, Guenther

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes

  10. Internal stress control of boron thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, N.; Kitamura, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nishikawa, M. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate Sch. of Eng.

    1998-09-01

    The occurrence of stress in thin films has led to serious stability problems in practical use. We have investigated the stress in the boron films to find the deposition condition of the boron films with less stress. It was found that the stress in the boron film varies sufficiently from compressive to tensile stress, that is from -1.0 to 1.4 GPa, depending on the evaporation conditions, such as deposition rate and the substrate temperature. Hydrogen ion bombardment resulted in the enhancement of the compressive stress, possibly due to ion peening effect, while under helium ion bombardment, stress relief was observed. The boron film with nearly zero stress was obtained by the evaporation at a deposition rate of 0.5 nm s{sup -1} and substrate temperature of 300 C. (orig.) 12 refs.

  11. Optical constants of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Dursun, Ibrahim; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Diallo, Elhadj Marwane; Mishra, Pawan; Ng, Tien Khee; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    function) of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Due to the existence of voids, the refractive index of the thin films is around 8% less than the single crystals counterpart. The energy bandgap is around 2.309 eV as obtained

  12. Effects of bacteria on CdS thin films used in technological devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpdoğan, S.; Adıgüzel, A. O.; Sahan, B.; Tunçer, M.; Metin Gubur, H.

    2017-04-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were fabricated on glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition method at 70 {}^\\circ \\text{C} considering deposition times ranging from 2 h to 5 h. The optical band gaps of CdS thin films were found to be in the 2.42-2.37 eV range. CdS thin films had uniform spherical nano-size grains which had polycrystalline, hexagonal and cubic phases. The films had a characteristic electrical resistivity of the order of {{10}5} Ω \\text{cm} and n-type conductivity at room condition. CdS thin films were incubated in cultures of B.domonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which exist abundantly in the environment, and form biofilms. SEM images showed that S. aureus and K. pneumonia were detected significantly on the film surfaces with a few of P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis cells attached. CdS thin film surface exhibits relatively good resistance to the colonization of P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. Optical results showed that the band gap of CdS thin films which interacted with the bacteria is 2.42 \\text{eV} . The crystal structure and electrical properties of CdS thin films were not affected by bacterial adhesion. The antimicrobial effect of CdS nanoparticles was different for different bacterial strains.

  13. Thin film preparation of semiconducting iron pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, Greg P.; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut; Kautek, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    Pyrite (Fe52) has been investigated as a promising new absorber material for thin film solar cell applications because of its high optical absorption coefficient of 1OL cm1, and its bandgap of 0.9 to 1.0 eV. Thin layers have been prepared by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, MOCVD, Chemical Spray Pyrolysis, CSP, Chemical Vapor Transport, CVT, and Sulfurization of Iron Oxide films, 510. It is postulated that for the material FeS2, if x is not zero, a high point defect concentration results from replacing 2 dipoles by single S atoms. This causes the observed photovoltages and solar conversion efficiencies to be lower than expected. Using the Fe-O-S ternary phase diagram and the related activity plots, a thermodynamic understanding is formulated for the resulting composition of each of these types of films. It is found that by operating in the oxide portion of the phase diagram, the resulting oxidation state favors pyrite formation over FeS. By proper orientation of the grains relative to the film surface, and by control of pinholes and stoichiometry, an efficient thin film photovolatic solar cell material could be achieved.

  14. Cheap Thin Film Oxygen Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides a membrane, comprising a porous support layer a gas tight electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer and a catalyst layer, characterized in that the electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer is formed from a material having a crystallite...... structure with a crystal size of about 1 to 100 nm, and a method for producing same....

  15. Preparation and properties of KCl-doped Cu2O thin film by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xiaojiao; Li, Xinming; Zheng, Gang; Wei, Yuchen; Zhang, Ama; Yao, Binghua

    2013-01-01

    With the indium tin oxide-coated glass as working electrode, cuprous oxide thin film is fabricated by means of electrodeposition. The effects of KCl doped and annealing treatment upon Cu 2 O thin film morphology, surface resistivity, open-circuit voltage, electric conduction types and visible light response are studied. The research results indicate that KCl doped has a great effect upon Cu 2 O crystal morphology, thus, making Cu 2 O thin film surface resistivity drop, and the open-circuit voltage increase and that electric conduction types are transformed from p type into n type, and the visible light (400–500 nm) absorption rate is slightly reduced. Annealing treatment can obviously decrease Cu 2 O thin film surface resistivity and improve its open-circuit voltage. When KCl concentration in electrolytic solution reaches 7 mmol/L, Cu 2 O thin film morphology can be changed from the dendritic crystal into the cubic crystal and Cu 2 O thin film surface resistivity decreases from the initial 2.5 × 10 6 Ω cm to 8.5 × 10 4 Ω cm. After annealing treatment at 320 °C for 30 min, the surface resistivity decreases to 8.5 × 10 2 Ω cm, and the open-circuit voltage increases from the initial 3.1 mV to 79.2 mV.

  16. Preparation and properties of KCl-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin film by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaojiao, E-mail: yxjw@xaut.edu.cn [Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Li, Xinming [Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Zheng, Gang [Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Wei, Yuchen [The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Ama; Yao, Binghua [Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China)

    2013-04-01

    With the indium tin oxide-coated glass as working electrode, cuprous oxide thin film is fabricated by means of electrodeposition. The effects of KCl doped and annealing treatment upon Cu{sub 2}O thin film morphology, surface resistivity, open-circuit voltage, electric conduction types and visible light response are studied. The research results indicate that KCl doped has a great effect upon Cu{sub 2}O crystal morphology, thus, making Cu{sub 2}O thin film surface resistivity drop, and the open-circuit voltage increase and that electric conduction types are transformed from p type into n type, and the visible light (400–500 nm) absorption rate is slightly reduced. Annealing treatment can obviously decrease Cu{sub 2}O thin film surface resistivity and improve its open-circuit voltage. When KCl concentration in electrolytic solution reaches 7 mmol/L, Cu{sub 2}O thin film morphology can be changed from the dendritic crystal into the cubic crystal and Cu{sub 2}O thin film surface resistivity decreases from the initial 2.5 × 10{sup 6} Ω cm to 8.5 × 10{sup 4} Ω cm. After annealing treatment at 320 °C for 30 min, the surface resistivity decreases to 8.5 × 10{sup 2} Ω cm, and the open-circuit voltage increases from the initial 3.1 mV to 79.2 mV.

  17. Resistance switching in epitaxial SrCoOx thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambunan, Octolia T.; Parwanta, Kadek J.; Acharya, Susant K.; Lee, Bo Wha; Jung, Chang Uk; Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Bae Ho; Jeong, Huiseong; Park, Ji-Yong; Cho, Myung Rae; Park, Yun Daniel; Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jin, Hyunwoo; Lee, Suyoun; Song, Seul Ji; Kang, Sung-Jin; Kim, Miyoung; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-08-01

    We observed bipolar switching behavior from an epitaxial strontium cobaltite film grown on a SrTiO3 (001) substrate. The crystal structure of strontium cobaltite has been known to undergo topotactic phase transformation between two distinct phases: insulating brownmillerite (SrCoO2.5) and conducting perovskite (SrCoO3-δ) depending on the oxygen content. The current-voltage characteristics of the strontium cobaltite film showed that it could have a reversible insulator-to-metal transition triggered by electrical bias voltage. We propose that the resistance switching in the SrCoOx thin film could be related to the topotactic phase transformation and the peculiar structure of SrCoO2.5.

  18. Resistance switching in epitaxial SrCoOx thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambunan, Octolia T.; Parwanta, Kadek J.; Acharya, Susant K.; Lee, Bo Wha; Jung, Chang Uk; Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Bae Ho; Jeong, Huiseong; Park, Ji-Yong; Cho, Myung Rae; Park, Yun Daniel; Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jin, Hyunwoo; Lee, Suyoun; Song, Seul Ji; Kang, Sung-Jin; Kim, Miyoung; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-01-01

    We observed bipolar switching behavior from an epitaxial strontium cobaltite film grown on a SrTiO 3 (001) substrate. The crystal structure of strontium cobaltite has been known to undergo topotactic phase transformation between two distinct phases: insulating brownmillerite (SrCoO 2.5 ) and conducting perovskite (SrCoO 3−δ ) depending on the oxygen content. The current–voltage characteristics of the strontium cobaltite film showed that it could have a reversible insulator-to-metal transition triggered by electrical bias voltage. We propose that the resistance switching in the SrCoO x thin film could be related to the topotactic phase transformation and the peculiar structure of SrCoO 2.5

  19. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mei [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yuan Jinying [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: yuanjy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Shi Gaoquan [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: gshi@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2008-04-30

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. {sigma}{sub rt} {approx} 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90{sup o}/s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  20. Dynamics in thin folded polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Rozairo, Damith

    Origami and Kirigami inspired structures depend on a complex interplay between geometry and material properties. While clearly important to the overall function, very little attention has focused on how extreme curvatures and singularities in real materials influence the overall dynamic behaviour of folded structures. In this work we use a set of three polymer thin films in order to closely examine the interaction of material and geometry. Specifically, we use polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) thin films which we subject to loading in several model geometries of varying complexity. Depending on the material, vastly different responses are noted in our experiments; D-cones can annihilate, cut or lead to a crumpling cascade when pushed through a film. Remarkably, order can be generated with additional perturbation. Finally, the role of adhesion in complex folded structures can be addressed. AFOSR under the Young Investigator Program (FA9550-15-1-0168).

  1. Effect of Substrate Roughness on Adhesion and Structural Properties of Ti-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Hyunsuk; Bae, Joohyeon; Jeong, Hyomin; Choi, Byeongkeun; Nam, Taehyun; Noh, Jungpil

    2018-09-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) thin films are very attractive material for industrial and medical applications such as micro-actuator, micro-sensors, and stents for blood vessels. An important property besides shape memory effect in the application of SMA thin films is the adhesion between the film and the substrate. When using thin films as micro-actuators or micro-sensors in MEMS, the film must be strongly adhered to the substrate. On the other hand, when using SMA thin films in medical devices such as stents, the deposited alloy thin film must be easily separable from the substrate for efficient processing. In this study, we investigated the effect of substrate roughness on the adhesion of Ti-Ni SMA thin films, as well as the structural properties and phase-transformation behavior of the fabricated films. Ti-Ni SMA thin films were deposited onto etched glass substrates with magnetron sputtering. Radio frequency plasma was used for etching the substrate. The adhesion properties were investigated through progressive scratch test. Structural properties of the films were determined via Feld emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Phase transformation behaviors were observed with differential scanning calorimetry and low temperature-XRD. Ti-Ni SMA thin film deposited onto rough substrate provides higher adhesive strength than smooth substrate. However the roughness of the substrate has no influence on the growth and crystallization of the Ti-Ni SMA thin films.

  2. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometric characterization of HfO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Kumari, N.; Karar, V.; Sharma, A. L.

    2018-02-01

    Hafnium Oxide film was deposited on BK7 glass substrate using reactive oxygenated E-Beam deposition technique. The film was deposited using in-situ quartz crystal thickness monitoring to control the film thickness and rate of evaporation. The thin film was grown with a rate of deposition of 0.3 nm/s. The coated substrate was optically characterized using spectrophotometer to determine its transmission spectra. The optical constants as well as film thickness of the hafnia film were extracted by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry with Cauchy fitting at incidence angles of 65˚, 70˚ and 75˚.

  3. Influence of sputtering power on the optical properties of ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K, Aijo John; M, Deepak, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com; T, Manju, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sree Sankara College, Kalady P. O., Ernakulam Dist., Kerala (India); Kumar, Vineetha V. [Dept. of Physics, K. E. College, Mannanam, Kottayam Dist., Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    Tin doped indium oxide films are widely used in transparent conducting coatings such as flat panel displays, crystal displays and in optical devices such as solar cells and organic light emitting diodes due to the high electrical resistivity and optical transparency in the visible region of solar spectrum. The deposition parameters have a commendable influence on the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. In this study, ITO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films prepared under varying sputtering power were compared using UV- visible spectrophotometry. Effect of sputtering power on the energy band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are investigated.

  4. Fe3O4 thin films sputter deposited from iron oxide targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yingguo; Park, Chandro; Laughlin, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 thin films have been directly sputter deposited from a target consisting of a mixture of Fe 3 O 4 and Fe 2 O 3 onto Si and glass substrates. The magnetic properties and microstructures of the films have been characterized and correlated. The columnar growth of the Fe 3 O 4 grains was found to be initialized from the substrate surface without any critical thickness. Substrate bias was found to be a very effective means of improving the crystal quality and magnetic properties of the thin films. The crystallographic defects revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy seem to be a characteristic of the films prepared by this method

  5. Interface structure and electronic properties of SrTiO3 and YBa2Cu3O7-δ crystals and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiess, S.

    2007-01-01

    Two new extensions of the X-ray standing wave (XSW) technique, made possible by the intense highly collimated X-ray beams from undulators at the ESRF, are described in this thesis. First, the XSW method was applied in a structural study to solve the nucleation mechanism of the high temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ on the (001) surface of SrTiO 3 . Second, the valence electronic structures of SrTiO 3 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ were investigated. Finally, recent developments in the field of photoelectron spectroscopy in the hard X-ray region are described. The X-ray standing wave method is used in combination with fluorescence, Auger or photoelectron spectroscopy and lends very high spatial resolution power to these analytical techniques. Previously, the XSW method has been used for structure determination of surfaces and interfaces. The currently available X-ray intensities permit extensions to the XSW technique. Two recently established applications, described in this thesis, are XSW real space imaging and XSW valence electronic structure analysis. XSW real space imaging was employed to analyse the atomic structure of 0.5 and 1.0 layers of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ deposited on SrTiO 3 (001). Three-dimensional images of the atomic distributions were reconstructed for each of the elements from experimentally determined Fourier components of the atomic distribution functions. The images confirmed the formation of a perovskite precursor phase prior to the formation of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ phase during the growth of the first monolayer of the film. XSW valence electronic structure analysis applied to SrTiO 3 identified the valence band contributions arising from the strontium, titanium, and oxygen sites of the crystal lattice. Relations between the site-specific valence electronic structure and the lattice structure were established. The experimental results agree very well with predictions by state-of-the-art ab initio calculations. X-ray absorption cross sections for

  6. Magnon dispersion in thin magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, T; Wulfhekel, W; Buczek, P; Sandratskii, L; Ernst, A

    2014-01-01

    Although the dispersion of magnons has been measured in many bulk materials, few studies deal with the changes in the dispersion when the material is in the form of a thin film, a system that is of interest for applications. Here we review inelastic tunneling spectroscopy studies of magnon dispersion in Mn/Cu 3 Au(1 0 0) and present new studies on Co and Ni thin films on Cu(1 0 0). The dispersion in Mn and Co films closely follows the dispersion of bulk samples with negligible dependence on thickness. The lifetime of magnons depends slightly on film thickness, and decreases considerably as the magnon energy increases. In Ni/Cu(1 0 0) films the thickness dependence of dispersion is much more pronounced. The measurements indicate a considerable mode softening for thinner films. Magnon lifetimes decrease dramatically near the edge of the Brillouin zone due to a close proximity of the Stoner continuum. The experimental study is supported by first-principles calculations. (paper)

  7. Magnon dispersion in thin magnetic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, T; Buczek, P; Sandratskii, L; Ernst, A; Wulfhekel, W

    2014-10-01

    Although the dispersion of magnons has been measured in many bulk materials, few studies deal with the changes in the dispersion when the material is in the form of a thin film, a system that is of interest for applications. Here we review inelastic tunneling spectroscopy studies of magnon dispersion in Mn/Cu3Au(1 0 0) and present new studies on Co and Ni thin films on Cu(1 0 0). The dispersion in Mn and Co films closely follows the dispersion of bulk samples with negligible dependence on thickness. The lifetime of magnons depends slightly on film thickness, and decreases considerably as the magnon energy increases. In Ni/Cu(1 0 0) films the thickness dependence of dispersion is much more pronounced. The measurements indicate a considerable mode softening for thinner films. Magnon lifetimes decrease dramatically near the edge of the Brillouin zone due to a close proximity of the Stoner continuum. The experimental study is supported by first-principles calculations.

  8. Function and application of ultra thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasabe, Hiroyuki

    1988-02-01

    A film 10-100mm thick which is strong dynamically to some extent and has possibility to manifest fuctions of high degree different from the nature extrapolated from the normal thin film is called an ultra thin film. As an example of its concrete application, there is an electro-luminescence element which is made by laminating 5 layers of LB films of poly-L-phenylalanine on a n-GaP and has vapor-deposited gold electrodes. When voltage of 5V is imposed to it, light emission of 565nm can be observed and the emission efficiency of 2% is obtained. Besides, it has an excellent stability through the lapse of time. There is also a junction element and the ion concentration injected into macromolecule films of this element has a Gaussian distribution from the surface towards the direction of depth. Accordingly, the most active domain in terms of semiconductor as the result of doping is the location in the neighborhood of the peak. Furthermore, a photo memory is also proposed. It is applied to the artificial hemoglobine which is made of LB films, suggesting the feasibility of creating the artificial protein capable of functioning in the conditions in which the natural protein is unable to function. (5 figs, 1 tab, 7 refs)

  9. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  10. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R. V.; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2016-10-01

    In this work, Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost.

  11. Textured indium tin oxide thin films by chemical solution deposition and rapid thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottern, Matthew L.; Tyholdt, Frode; Ulyashin, Alexander; Helvoort, Antonius T.J. van; Verweij, Henk; Bredesen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure of state-of-the-art chemical solution deposited indium tin oxide thin films typically consists of small randomly oriented grains, high porosity and poor homogeneity. The present study demonstrates how the thin film microstructure can be improved significantly by tailoring the precursor solutions and deposition conditions to be kinetically and thermodynamically favorable for generation of homogeneous textured thin films. This is explained by the occurrence of a single heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. The as-deposited thin films, crystallized at 800 deg. C, have a high apparent density, based on a refractive index of ∼ 1.98 determined by single wavelength ellipsometry at 633 nm. The microstructure of the films consists of columnar grains with preferred orientation as determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The resistivity, measured by the four point probe method, is ∼ 2 x 10 -3 Ω cm prior to post-deposition treatments

  12. Surface, interface and thin film characterization of nano-materials using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2005-01-01

    From the results of studies in the nanotechnology support project of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, several investigations on the surface, interface and thin film characterization of nano-materials are described; (1) the MgB 2 thin film by X-ray diffraction, (2) the magnetism of the Pt thin film on a Co film by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurement, (3) the structure and physical properties of oxygen molecules absorbed in a micro hole of the cheleted polymer crystal by the direct observation in X-ray powder diffraction, and (4) the thin film gate insulator with a large dielectric constant, thermally treated HfO 2 /SiO 2 /Si, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (M.H.)

  13. Influence of the Preparation Method, DC and RF Sputtering, on theProperties of Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri-Mardji-Atmono; Widdi-Usada; Agus-Purwadi; Yunanto; Edi-Suharyadi

    2000-01-01

    The research on the influence of preparation method DC- and RF Sputteringon the properties of Fe-thin films has been done. The measurement with EDAXshows. that the Fe-content of RF-sputtered film increased with the increasingof self-bias voltage in the range of 850 - 1000 V. The observation ofmicrostructure using SEM shows a more homogeneity of thin film and smallergrain size with the increasing of the self-bias voltage. On the other hand,thin films with inhomogeneity of the structure were produced by DC-Sputteringprocess, indicated by the non continuity and the spread of theglow-discharge. Based on the investigation with X-ray diffraction, thin filmprepared by RF-Sputtering was amorphous, while the film produced by theDC-Sputtering is known as crystal structure. Preparation using DC-voltageshows continual sputtering-process at the voltage of 3000 V betweenelectrode. (author)

  14. Finite size effects in phase transformation kinetics in thin films and surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, Vladimir I.; Trofimov, Ilya V.; Kim, Jong-Il

    2004-01-01

    In studies of phase transformation kinetics in thin films, e.g. crystallization of amorphous films, until recent time is widely used familiar Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) statistical model of crystallization despite it is applicable only to an infinite medium. In this paper a model of transformation kinetics in thin films based on a concept of the survival probability for randomly chosen point during transformation process is presented. Two model versions: volume induced transformation (VIT) when the second-phase grains nucleate over a whole film volume and surface induced transformation (SIT) when they form on an interface with two nucleation mode: instantaneous nucleation at transformation onset and continuous one during all the process are studied. At VIT-process due to the finite film thickness effects the transformation profile has a maximum in a film middle, whereas that of the grains population reaches a minimum inhere, the grains density is always higher than in a volume material, and the thinner film the slower it transforms. The transformation kinetics in a thin film obeys a generalized KJMA equation with parameters depending on a film thickness and in limiting cases of extremely thin and thick film it reduces to classical KJMA equation for 2D- and 3D-system, respectively

  15. Size control of nanocrystals in InGaZnO4 thin films fabricated by using the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, S. J.; Cho, J. H.; Jang, Y. H.; Kim, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    We report the structural properties of InGaZnO 4 (IGZO) thin films prepared by using the sol-gel method. The structural properties of IGZO thin films were controlled by using the film thickness and thermal annealing temperature. In this study, the crystallization temperature of amorphous IGZO thin films was observed to be about 700 .deg. C. Also, we observed that the crystal size of IGZO thin films increased as the thickness and the annealing temperature were increased. In addition, we could observe that the atomic ratio of In, Ga and Zn of the IGZO thin film was slightly different from the molar ratio of a previous IGZO sol-gel solution (In:Ga:Zn = 1:1:1) post-annealed at 900 .deg. C because In and Zn are more volatile than Ga. The study of the crystallization of amorphous IGZO thin films provides an understanding of the growth mechanisms and thermal annealing effects for IGZO nanocrystals.

  16. Biocompatibility of GaSb thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Naoki; Fujihara, Junko; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2017-07-01

    GaSb may be suitable for biological applications, such as cellular sensors and bio-medical instrumentation because of its low toxicity compared with As (III) compounds and its band gap energy. Therefore, the biocompatibility and the film properties under physiological conditions were investigated for GaSb thin films with or without a surface coating. GaSb thin films were grown on quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, and then coated with (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPT). The electrical properties, surface morphology, and crystal structure of the GaSb thin film were unaffected by the MPT coating. The cell viability assay suggested that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible. Bare GaSb was particularly unstable in pH9 buffer. Ga elution was prevented by the MPT coating, although the Ga concentration in the pH 9 buffer was higher than that in the other solutions. The surface morphology and crystal structure were not changed by exposure to the solutions, except for the pH 9 buffer, and the thin film properties of MPT-coated GaSb exposed to distilled water and H2O2 in saline were maintained. These results indicate that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible and could be used for temporary biomedical devices.

  17. Pulsed Laser Annealing of Thin Films of Self-Assembled Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.

    2011-09-27

    We investigated how pulsed laser annealing can be applied to process thin films of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into interconnected nanostructures. We illustrate the relationship between incident laser fluence and changes in morphology of PbSe NC films relative to bulk-like PbSe films. We found that laser pulse fluences in the range of 30 to 200 mJ/cm2 create a processing window of opportunity where the NC film morphology goes through interesting transformations without large-scale coalescence of the NCs. NC coalescence can be mitigated by depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon (a-Si) on the NC film. Remarkably, pulsed laser annealing of the a-Si/PbSe NC films crystallized the silicon while NC morphology and translational order of the NC film are preserved. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  19. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  20. Photoconductivity study of acid on Zinc phthalocyanine pyridine thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sukhwinder, E-mail: ss7667@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. College for Girls, Ludhiana (India); Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2016-05-06

    The Metal Phthalocyanine (MPc) have attracted much interest because of chemical and high thermal stability. Molecules forming a crystal of MPc are held together by weak attractive Vander Waals forces. Organic semiconductors have π conjugate bonds which allow electrons to move via π-electron cloud overlaps. Conduction mechanisms for organic semiconductor are mainly through tunneling; hopping between localized states, mobility gaps, and phonon assisted hopping. The photo conductivity of thin films of these complexes changes when exposed to oxidizing and reducing gases. Arrhenius plot is used to find the thermal activation energy in the intrinsic region and impurity scattering region. Arrhenius plotsare used to find the thermal activation energy.