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Sample records for thin film method

  1. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  2. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  3. Method of formation of thin film component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Chikara; Kato, Kinya

    1988-04-16

    In the production process of component which is carrying thin film device, such as thin film transistor, acid treatment is applied for etching or for preventing contamination. In case of barium borsilicate glass base, the base is affected by the acid treatment resulting the decrease of transparency. To avoid the effect, deposition of SiO/sub 2/ layer on the surface of the base is usually applied. This invention relates to the protective method of barium borosilicate surface by harnessing the effect of coexisting ion in the acid treatment bath. The method is to add 0.03-5 mol/l of phosphoric acid or its salt in the bath. By the effect of coexisting ion, barium borsilicate glass surface was protected from the damage. (2 figs)

  4. Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott Ryan; Olson, Dana C.; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2018-01-02

    Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers are provided. In one embodiment, a method for forming a thin film charge selective transport layer comprises: providing a precursor solution comprising a metal containing reactive precursor material dissolved into a complexing solvent; depositing the precursor solution onto a surface of a substrate to form a film; and forming a charge selective transport layer on the substrate by annealing the film.

  5. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  6. Operating method of amorphous thin film semiconductor element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Koshiro; Ono, Masaharu; Hanabusa, Akira; Osawa, Michio; Arita, Takashi

    1988-05-31

    The existing technologies concerning amorphous thin film semiconductor elements are the technologies concerning the formation of either a thin film transistor or an amorphous Si solar cell on a substrate. In order to drive a thin film transistor for electronic equipment control by the output power of an amorphous Si solar cell, it has been obliged to drive the transistor weth an amorphous solar cell which was formed on a substrate different from that for the transistor. Accordingly, the space for the amorphous solar cell, which was formed on the different substrate, was additionally needed on the substrate for the thin film transistor. In order to solve the above problem, this invention proposes an operating method of an amorphous thin film semiconductor element that after forming an amorphous Si solar cell through lamination on the insulation coating film which covers the thin film transistor formed on the substrate, the thin film transistor is driven by the output power of this solar cell. The invention eliminates the above superfluous space and reduces the size of the amorphous thin film semiconductor element including the electric source. (3 figs)

  7. Method for double-sided processing of thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  8. Perovskite phase thin films and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises perovskite-phase thin films, of the general formula A.sub.x B.sub.y O.sub.3 on a substrate, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium or a combination thereof; B is selected from niobium and tantalum or a combination thereof; and x and y are mole fractions between approximately 0.8 and 1.2. More particularly, A is strontium or barium or a combination thereof and B is niobium or tantalum or a combination thereof. Also provided is a method of making a perovskite-phase thin film, comprising combining at least one element-A-containing compound, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium or barium, with at least one element-B-containing compound, wherein B niobium or tantalum, to form a solution; adding a solvent to said solution to form another solution; spin-coating the solution onto a substrate to form a thin film; and heating the film to form the perovskite-phase thin film.

  9. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  10. Tin dioxide nanostructured thin films obtained through polymeric precursor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antônio Dal Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 nanostructured thin films with low proportion of defects and low roughness were produced through the systematic control of temperature and viscosity of the precursor solutions used for thin films deposition. These solutions were obtained through the citrate method and the films were deposited through the ‘dip-coating’ technique on glass substrate and after thermal treatment at 470ºC/4h, they were characterized both structurally and morphologically through the X-ray diffractometry, optic microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray excited photoelectrons spectroscopy. The film thickness was obtained through scanning electronic microscopy of the films cross-section and correlated to the proportion of Sn and Si obtained through X-ray fluorescence. X-ray diffractometry of the films revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to the SnO2 crystalline phase, overlapping a wide peak between 20 and 30º (2?, characteristic of the glass substrate. Optic microscopy, Scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed homogeneous films, with low roughness, suitable to several applications such as sensors and transparent electrodes. It could be observed through the UV-Vis absorption analysis that the films presented high optical transparency and ‘band gap’ energy 4.36 eV. The X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of SnO2, as well as traces of the elements present in the glass substrate and residual carbon from the thermal treatment of the films.

  11. ZnSe thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Patil, P.S.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CS, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CG, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-04

    The ZnSe thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by the simple chemical bath deposition method using selenourea as a selenide ion source from an aqueous alkaline medium. The effect of Zn ion concentration, bath temperature and deposition time period on the quality and thickness of ZnSe films has been studied. The ZnSe films have been characterized by XRD, TEM, EDAX, TRMC (time-resolved microwave conductivity), optical absorbance and RBS techniques for their structural, compositional, electronic and optical properties. The as-deposited ZnSe films are found to be amorphous, Zn rich with optical band gap, Eg, equal to 2.9 eV

  12. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  13. A Method for Suppressing Superconductivity of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppula, Tarmo; Pekola, Jukka; Kauppinen, Juha

    2003-03-01

    We have developed a method for suppressing superconductivity of thin films. Thin stripes of cobalt grown by e-gun evaporation and patterned by e-beam lithography were placed in the vicinity of aluminium thin film structures. The cobalt stripes were magnetized at 4.2 K with a superconducting coil and the remanence suppressed superconductivity of the Al stripe at temperatures down to 50 mK at least. The magnetization remained in thermal cycling and in a longer storage at room temperature. Motivation for this work is the Coulomb Blockade Thermometer(CBT)^1 which has to be in a normal state to operate. The CBT sensor contains aluminium which is superconducting at temperatures below 1.4 K. An external magnetic field is not always available or acceptable in cryostats. A small grain of permanent magnet mounted to the sensor is another solution, but suspicious if the sensor is put in strong magnetic fields or if "zero field" environment is required. We have shown that suitably patterned and magnetized Co stripes in the vicinity of tunnel junctions of the CBT can solve this problem. The amount of magnetic material in the sensor, as well as the stray field, is very small. This technique may be useful in other low temperature thin film devices also. 1) Product of Nanoway Ltd.

  14. Method for the manufacture of a thin film electrochemical energy source and device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the manuf. of a thin film electrochem. energy source. The invention also relates to a thin film electrochem. energy source. The invention also relates to an elec. device comprising such a thin film electrochem. energy source. The invention enables a more rapid

  15. Research Progress on Measurement Methods and Influence Factors of Thin-film Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Yibo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the size of thin-film electronic devices decreasing, the film stress became an important reason for the failure of thin film devices. Film stress not only affected the membrane structure, but also associated with film optics, electricity, mechanics and other properties, therefore film stress turned into one hot spot in the research field of thin-film materials. This paper reviewed the latest research progress of film stress, substrate curvature method, X-ray diffraction technique and Raman spectroscopy, several frequently used stress measuring techniques were compared and analyzed, and composition ratios of thin film, substrate types, magnetron sputtering process parameters (sputtering power, work pressure, substrate temperature and annealing etc. factors influencing thin film stress were summarized. It was found that substrate curvature method was suitable for measuring almost all kinds of thin film materials. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were just fit for measuring materials with characteristic peaks. Nanoindentation method required extra stress-free samples as comparison experiments. During film fabrication and annealing process, film stress usually transited from compressive to tensile status, and several factors combined together could affect stress, so film stress could be reached the minimum value or even stress-free status through setting appropriate parameters. Finally, combined with film stress research status, accurate stress measurement methods for different materials as a thin-film stress research direction were introduced, and challenges in thin film detection range were pointed out.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped nickel oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathisha, D.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2018-05-01

    Cobalt (Co) doped nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of about 400 °C by spray pyrolysis method. The effect of Co doping concentration on structural, optical and compositional properties of NiO thin films was investigated. X-ray diffraction result shows that the deposited thin films are polycrystalline in nature. Surface morphologies of the deposited thin films were observed by FESEM and AFM. EDS spectra showed the incorporation of Co dopants in NiO thin films. Optical properties of the grown thin films were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. It was found that the optical band gap energy and transmittance of the films decrease with increasing Co doping concentration.

  17. Preparation of mesoporous silica thin films by photocalcination method and their adsorption abilities for various proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsuya, E-mail: katsuya-kato@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Nakamura, Hitomi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Yamauchi, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Kazuma; Tomita, Masahiro [Department of Chemistry for Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8570 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Mesoporous silica (MPS) thin film biosensor platforms were established. MPS thin films were prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) via using sol–gel and spin-coating methods using a poly-(ethylene oxide)-block-poly-(propylene oxide)-block-poly-(ethylene oxide) triblock polymer, such as P123 ((EO){sub 20}(PO){sub 70}(EO){sub 20}) or F127 ((EO){sub 106}(PO){sub 70}(EO){sub 106}), as the structure-directing agent. The MPS thin film prepared using P123 as the mesoporous template and treated via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation to remove the triblock copolymer had a more uniform pore array than that of the corresponding film prepared via thermal treatment. Protein adsorption and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the synthesized MPS thin films were also investigated. VUV-irradiated MPS thin films adsorbed a smaller quantity of protein A than the thermally treated films; however, the human immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding efficiency was higher on the former. In addition, protein A–IgG specific binding on MPS thin films was achieved without using a blocking reagent; i.e., nonspecific adsorption was inhibited by the uniform pore arrays of the films. Furthermore, VUV-irradiated MPS thin films exhibited high sensitivity for ELISA testing, and cytochrome c adsorbed on the MPS thin films exhibited high catalytic activity and recyclability. These results suggest that MPS thin films are attractive platforms for the development of novel biosensors. - Highlights: • VUV-treated MPS thin films with removed polymer had uniform pore. • VUV-treated MPS thin films exhibited high sensitivity by ELISA. • Cytochrome c showed the catalytic activity and recyclability on synthesized films.

  18. Preparation of mesoporous silica thin films by photocalcination method and their adsorption abilities for various proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuya; Nakamura, Hitomi; Yamauchi, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Kazuma; Tomita, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous silica (MPS) thin film biosensor platforms were established. MPS thin films were prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) via using sol–gel and spin-coating methods using a poly-(ethylene oxide)-block-poly-(propylene oxide)-block-poly-(ethylene oxide) triblock polymer, such as P123 ((EO) 20 (PO) 70 (EO) 20 ) or F127 ((EO) 106 (PO) 70 (EO) 106 ), as the structure-directing agent. The MPS thin film prepared using P123 as the mesoporous template and treated via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation to remove the triblock copolymer had a more uniform pore array than that of the corresponding film prepared via thermal treatment. Protein adsorption and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the synthesized MPS thin films were also investigated. VUV-irradiated MPS thin films adsorbed a smaller quantity of protein A than the thermally treated films; however, the human immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding efficiency was higher on the former. In addition, protein A–IgG specific binding on MPS thin films was achieved without using a blocking reagent; i.e., nonspecific adsorption was inhibited by the uniform pore arrays of the films. Furthermore, VUV-irradiated MPS thin films exhibited high sensitivity for ELISA testing, and cytochrome c adsorbed on the MPS thin films exhibited high catalytic activity and recyclability. These results suggest that MPS thin films are attractive platforms for the development of novel biosensors. - Highlights: • VUV-treated MPS thin films with removed polymer had uniform pore. • VUV-treated MPS thin films exhibited high sensitivity by ELISA. • Cytochrome c showed the catalytic activity and recyclability on synthesized films

  19. Interface and thin film analysis: Comparison of methods, trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, H.W.; Torrisi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Thin film properties are governed by a number of parameters such as: Surface and interface chemical composition, microstructure and the distribution of defects, dopants and impurities. For the determination of most of these aspects sophisticated analytical methods are needed. An overview of these analytical methods is given including: - Features and modes of analytical methods; - Main characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of the established methods [e.g. ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis), AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy), SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry), RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), illustrated with typical examples]; - Presentation of relatively new methods such as XRM (X-ray Microscopy) and SCAM (Scanning Acoustic Microscopy). Some features of ESCA (chemical information, insulator analysis, non-destructive depth profiling) have been selected for a more detailed presentation, viz. to illustrate the application of ESCA to practical problems. Trends in instrumental development and analytical applications of the techniques are discussed; the need for a multi-technique approach to solve complex analytical problems is emphasized. (orig.)

  20. Resistivity behavior of optimized PbTiO3 thin films prepared by spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaya, Z.; Wahid, M. H.; Rozana, M. D.; Alrokayan, S. A. H.; Khan, H. A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Th is study presents the resistivity behavior of PbTiO3 thin films which were prepared towards metal-insulator-metal capacitor device fabrication. The PbTiO3 thin films were prepared through sol-gel spin coating method that involved various deposition parameters that is (1) different molar concentration of PbTiO3 solutions, (2) various additional PbAc-content in PbTiO3 solutions, and (3) various annealing temperature on PbTiO3 thin films. Hence, an electrical measurement of current versus voltage was done to determine the resistivity behavior of PbTiO3 thin films.

  1. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.A.; Song, L.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphous structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphous structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobial, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflammatory, steroid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor consisting of the compositions listed above

  2. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Zhenghua; Yan Chang; Sun Kaiwen; Han Zili [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Fangyang, E-mail: liufangyang@csu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Jin [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lai Yanqing, E-mail: laiyanqingcsu@163.com [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li Jie; Liu Yexiang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Earth-abundant Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} is a promising alternative photovoltaic material which has been examined as absorber layer of thin film solar cells. In this study, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films have been successfully fabricated by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The prepared CZTS thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements and photoelectrochemical tests. Results reveal that the thin films have kesterite structured Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and the p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration in the order of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and an optical band gap of 1.5 eV, which are suitable for applications in thin film solar cells.

  3. The Refractive Index Measurement Of Silicon Dioxide Thin Film by the Coupling Prism Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, Anwar; Hariyanto, Sigit; Subarkah

    1996-01-01

    Refractive index of silicon dioxide thin film that doped with phosphor (SiO 2 :P) above the pure silicon dioxide substrate has been measured by light coupling prism method. The method principle is focusing the light on coupling prism base so that the light propagates into the waveguide layer while the reflected one forms a mode in the observation plane. The SiO 2 thin film as waveguide layer has a refractive index that give the thick and refractive index relation. The He-Ne laser as light source has the wavelength λ 0,6328 μm. The refractive index measurement of the thin film with the substrate refractive index n sb = 1,47 and the thin film thick d = 2μm gives n g = 1,5534 ± 0,01136. This method can distinguish the refractive index of thin film about 6% to the refractive index of substrate

  4. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  5. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  6. Method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, and device provided with such a thin film barrier stack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, such as, for instance, an OLED, wherein the thin film barrier stack forms a barrier to at least moisture and oxygen, wherein the stack is built up from a combination of org. and inorg. layers, characterized in that a

  7. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  8. Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium dioxide thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Nakashima, Shouta; Kawazoe, Syuichi; Toma, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coated on titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films has been developed to supplement the defects of both TiO 2 and HAp. Thin films have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method using HAp and HAp(10%) + TiO 2 targets. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that there are many small peaks of Ca 1 0(PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 crystal, and no impurity other than HAp is detected in HAp films prepared using pure HAp target. The composition ratio of the film was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). HAp coatings on TiO 2 thin films have been prepared using HAp(10%) + TiO 2 targets. XRD and XPS measurements suggest that crystalline HAp + TiO 2 thin films are obtained by the PLD method using HAp(10%) + TiO 2 target

  9. Determination of diffusion coefficients in polypyrrole thin films using a current pulse relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Vandyke, Leon S.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The current pulse E sub oc relaxation method and its application to the determination of diffusion coefficients in electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole thin films is described. Diffusion coefficients for such films in Et4NBF4 and MeCN are determined for a series of submicron film thicknesses. Measurement of the double-layer capacitance, C sub dl, and the resistance, R sub u, of polypyrrole thin films as a function of potential obtained with the galvanostatic pulse method is reported. Measurements of the electrolyte concentration in reduced polypyrrole films are also presented to aid in the interpretation of the data.

  10. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  11. Fabrication of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet thin films by a mist CVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Shunsuke, E-mail: murai@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sato, Takafumi; Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2016-02-15

    We synthesized thin films, consisting of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce), using the mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, which allows the fabrication of high-quality thin films under atmospheric conditions without the use of vacuum equipment. Under a deposition rate of approximately 1 μm/h, the obtained thin films had a typical thickness of 2 μm. The XRD analysis indicated that the thin films consisted of single-phase YAG:Ce. The Rutherford backscattering confirmed the stoichiometry; the composition of the film was determined to be (Y, Ce){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, with a Ce content of Ce/(Y+Ce)=2.5%. The YAG:Ce thin films exhibited fluorescence due to the 5d–4f electronic transitions characteristic of the Ce ions occupying the eight-coordinated dodecahedral sites in the YAG lattice. - Highlights: • We have synthesized thin films of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce) by using a mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the first time. • The thickness of the single-phase and stoichiometric thin film obtained by 2 h deposition and following heat treatments is 2 μm. • The thin film is porous but optically transparent, and shows yellow fluorescence upon irradiation with a blue light. • Mist-CVD is a green and sustainable technique that allows fabrication of high-quality thin films at atmospheric conditions without vacuum equipment.

  12. Fabrication and optical properties of SnS thin films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Das, Madhumita; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata

    2008-01-01

    Although the fabrication of tin disulfide thin films by SILAR method is quiet common, there is, however, no report is available on the growth of SnS thin film using above technique. In the present work, SnS films of 0.20 μm thickness were grown on glass and ITO substrates by SILAR method using SnSO 4 and Na 2 S solution. The as-grown films were smooth and strongly adherent to the substrate. XRD confirmed the deposition of SnS thin films. Scanning electron micrograph revealed almost equal distribution of the particle size well covered on the surface of the substrate. EDAX showed that as-grown SnS films were slightly rich in tin component while UV-vis transmission spectra exhibited high absorption in the visible region. The intense and sharp emission peaks at 680 and 825 nm (near band edge emission) dominated the photoluminescence spectra

  13. Development of a metrology method for composition and thickness of barium strontium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remmel, Thomas; Werho, Dennis; Liu, Ran; Chu, Peir

    1998-01-01

    Thin films of barium strontium titanate (BST) are being investigated as the charge storage dielectric in advanced memory devices, due to their promise for high dielectric constant. Since the capacitance of BST films is a function of both stoichiometry and thickness, implementation into manufacturing requires precise metrology methods to monitor both of these properties. This is no small challenge, considering the BST film thicknesses are 60 nm or less. A metrology method was developed based on X-ray Fluorescence and applied to the measurement of stoichiometry and thickness of BST thin films in a variety of applications

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x Ag = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h. PMID:24523630

  15. Antimicrobial activity of thin solid films of silver doped hydroxyapatite prepared by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x(Ag) = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Liliana Iconaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with xAg=0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of NiO thin films prepared by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaltun, Yunus; Çayır, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • NiO thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using SILAR method for the first time. • The electron effective mass, refractive index were calculated by using the energy bandgap values. • The effect of film thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. • The bandgap values of the films decreased from 3.71 to 3.67 eV. - Abstract: NiO thin films were synthesised on glass substrates at room temperature using the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of film thickness on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of NiO thin films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all the films exhibit polycrystalline structure are covered well with glass substrates. The crystalline and surface properties of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The energy band gap values were decreased from 3.71 to 3.67 eV depending on the film thickness. The refractive index (n), optical static (ε o ) and high frequency dielectric constant (ε ∞ ) values were calculated by using the energy band gap values as a function of the film thickness. The resistivity of the films varied between 4.1 and 802.1 Ω cm with increasing film thickness at room temperature

  18. Fabrication and characterization of NiO thin films prepared by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaltun, Yunus [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Erzincan University, 24100 Erzincan (Turkey); Çayır, Tuba [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Erzincan University, 24100 Erzincan (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • NiO thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using SILAR method for the first time. • The electron effective mass, refractive index were calculated by using the energy bandgap values. • The effect of film thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. • The bandgap values of the films decreased from 3.71 to 3.67 eV. - Abstract: NiO thin films were synthesised on glass substrates at room temperature using the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of film thickness on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of NiO thin films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all the films exhibit polycrystalline structure are covered well with glass substrates. The crystalline and surface properties of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The energy band gap values were decreased from 3.71 to 3.67 eV depending on the film thickness. The refractive index (n), optical static (ε{sub o}) and high frequency dielectric constant (ε{sub ∞}) values were calculated by using the energy band gap values as a function of the film thickness. The resistivity of the films varied between 4.1 and 802.1 Ω cm with increasing film thickness at room temperature.

  19. Influence of the Preparation Method, DC and RF Sputtering, on theProperties of Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri-Mardji-Atmono; Widdi-Usada; Agus-Purwadi; Yunanto; Edi-Suharyadi

    2000-01-01

    The research on the influence of preparation method DC- and RF Sputteringon the properties of Fe-thin films has been done. The measurement with EDAXshows. that the Fe-content of RF-sputtered film increased with the increasingof self-bias voltage in the range of 850 - 1000 V. The observation ofmicrostructure using SEM shows a more homogeneity of thin film and smallergrain size with the increasing of the self-bias voltage. On the other hand,thin films with inhomogeneity of the structure were produced by DC-Sputteringprocess, indicated by the non continuity and the spread of theglow-discharge. Based on the investigation with X-ray diffraction, thin filmprepared by RF-Sputtering was amorphous, while the film produced by theDC-Sputtering is known as crystal structure. Preparation using DC-voltageshows continual sputtering-process at the voltage of 3000 V betweenelectrode. (author)

  20. Device and method for luminescence enhancement by resonant energy transfer from an absorptive thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod, Gleb M.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Tischler, Jonathan R.; Tisdale, William A.; Walker, Brian J.

    2017-12-12

    Disclosed are a device and a method for the design and fabrication of the device for enhancing the brightness of luminescent molecules, nanostructures, and thin films. The device includes a mirror, a dielectric medium or spacer, an absorptive layer, and a luminescent layer. The absorptive layer is a continuous thin film of a strongly absorbing organic or inorganic material. The luminescent layer may be a continuous luminescent thin film or an arrangement of isolated luminescent species, e.g., organic or metal-organic dye molecules, semiconductor quantum dots, or other semiconductor nanostructures, supported on top of the absorptive layer.

  1. Charge carrier mobility in thin films of organic semiconductors by the gated van der Pauw method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Cedric; Kang, Enpu; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Borghs, Gustaaf; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Thin film transistors based on high-mobility organic semiconductors are prone to contact problems that complicate the interpretation of their electrical characteristics and the extraction of important material parameters such as the charge carrier mobility. Here we report on the gated van der Pauw method for the simple and accurate determination of the electrical characteristics of thin semiconducting films, independently from contact effects. We test our method on thin films of seven high-mobility organic semiconductors of both polarities: device fabrication is fully compatible with common transistor process flows and device measurements deliver consistent and precise values for the charge carrier mobility and threshold voltage in the high-charge carrier density regime that is representative of transistor operation. The gated van der Pauw method is broadly applicable to thin films of semiconductors and enables a simple and clean parameter extraction independent from contact effects. PMID:28397852

  2. Fabrication of ionic liquid electrodeposited Cu--Sn--Zn--S--Se thin films and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath

    2016-01-12

    A semiconductor thin-film and method for producing a semiconductor thin-films comprising a metallic salt, an ionic compound in a non-aqueous solution mixed with a solvent and processing the stacked layer in chalcogen that results in a CZTS/CZTSS thin films that may be deposited on a substrate is disclosed.

  3. Preparation and characterization of amorphous manganese sulfide thin films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, H.M.; Kale, S.S.; Lokhande, C.D.; Han, Sung-Hwan; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2007-01-01

    Manganese sulfide thin films were deposited by a simple and inexpensive successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method using manganese acetate as a manganese and sodium sulfide as sulfide ion sources, respectively. Manganese sulfide films were characterized for their structural, surface morphological and optical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and optical absorption measurement techniques. The as-deposited film on glass substrate was amorphous. The optical band gap of the film was found to be thickness dependent. As thickness increases optical band gap was found to be increase. The water angle contact was found to be 34 o , suggesting hydrophilic nature of manganese sulfide thin films. The presence of Mn and S in thin film was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis

  4. Thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongin, M.; Miller, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews the phenomena that occur in films from the point of view of a solid state physicist. Films form the basis for many established and developing technologies. Metal layers have always been important for optical coatings and as protective coatings. In the most sophisticated cases, films and their interaction on silicon surfaces form the basis of modern electronic technology. Films of silicon, GaAs and composites of these materials promise to lead to practical photovoltaic devices

  5. Circuit analysis method for thin-film solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a thin-film solar cell module is dependent on the probability of occurrence of pinhole shunt defects. Using known or assumed defect density data, dichotomous population statistics can be used to calculate the number of defects expected in a module. Probability theory is then used to assign the defective cells to individual strings in a selected series-parallel circuit design. Iterative numerical calculation is used to calcuate I-V curves using cell test values or assumed defective cell values as inputs. Good and shunted cell I-V curves are added to determine the module output power and I-V curve. Different levels of shunt resistance can be selected to model different defect levels.

  6. Preparation and characterization of ZnTe thin films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, S.S.; Mane, R.S.; Pathan, H.M.; Shaikh, A.V.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were prepared by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method from aqueous solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium telluride. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and optical absorption measurement techniques. The synthesized ZnTe thin films were nanocrystalline with densely aggregated particles in nanometer scale and were free from the voids or cracks. The optical band gap energy of the film was found to be thickness dependent. The elemental chemical compositional stoichiometric analysis revealed good Zn:Te elemental ratio of 53:47

  7. Perovskite type nanopowders and thin films obtained by chemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Fruth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the contribution of the authors, to the preparation of two types of perovskites, namely BiFeO3 and LaCoO3, by innovative methods. The studied perovskites were obtained as powders, films and sintered bodies. Their complex structural and morphological characterization is also presented. The obtained results have underlined the important influence of the method of preparation on the properties of the synthesized perovskites.

  8. Optical properties of titanium di-oxide thin films prepared by dip coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sayari; Rahman, Kazi Hasibur; Kar, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by sol-gel dip coating method on ITO coated glass substrate. The sol was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 90°C. The sol was then used to make TiO2 films by dip coating. After dip coating the rest of the sol was dried at 100°C to make TiO2 powder. Thin films were made by varying the number of dipping cycles and were annealed at 500°C. XRD study was carried out for powder samples that confirms the formation of anatase phase. Transmission spectra of thin films show sharp rise in the violet-ultraviolet transition region and a maximum transmittance of ˜60%. Band gap of the prepared films varies from 3.15 eV to 3.22 eV.

  9. Method for preparing microstructure arrays on the surface of thin film material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Lianbin

    2017-01-01

    Methods are provided for growing a thin film of a nanoscale material. Thin films of nanoscale materials are also provided. The films can be grown with microscale patterning. The method can include vacuum filtration of a solution containing the nanostructured material through a porous substrate. The porous substrate can have a pore size that is comparable to the size of the nanoscale material. By patterning the pores on the surface of the substrate, a film can be grown having the pattern on a surface of the thin film, including on the top surface opposite the substrate. The nanoscale material can be graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, molybdenum disulfide, hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten diselenide, molybdenum trioxide, or clays such as montmorillonite or lapnotie. The porous substrate can be a porous organic or inorganic membrane, a silicon stencil membrane, or similar membrane having pore sizes on the order of microns.

  10. Method for preparing microstructure arrays on the surface of thin film material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng

    2017-02-09

    Methods are provided for growing a thin film of a nanoscale material. Thin films of nanoscale materials are also provided. The films can be grown with microscale patterning. The method can include vacuum filtration of a solution containing the nanostructured material through a porous substrate. The porous substrate can have a pore size that is comparable to the size of the nanoscale material. By patterning the pores on the surface of the substrate, a film can be grown having the pattern on a surface of the thin film, including on the top surface opposite the substrate. The nanoscale material can be graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, molybdenum disulfide, hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten diselenide, molybdenum trioxide, or clays such as montmorillonite or lapnotie. The porous substrate can be a porous organic or inorganic membrane, a silicon stencil membrane, or similar membrane having pore sizes on the order of microns.

  11. The study of thin film growth by using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandogan, M.; Aktas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Thin film growth was studied by using Monte Carlo simulation method. Three basic models were used in this study. Model A, the gas particles used for the formation of film were under no external effects until they stick on the surface or to another particle which already stickled on the surface to form the film. Model B, gases were drifted towards the surface by an external agent. Model C, where the gas particles in the closed container were always distributed uniformly throughout the container while they are in gas state. The simulations revealed the fact that for an ideal thin film growth Model C gave the best result to prepare a thin film while a thicker but a better quality could be obtained by Model B.

  12. Determination of optical properties in nanostructured thin films using the Swanepoel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, J.; Diaz-Parralejo, A.; Ortiz, A.L.; Guiberteau, F.

    2006-01-01

    We present the methodological framework of the Swanepoel method for the spectrophotometric determination of optical properties in thin films using transmittance data. As an illustrative case study, we determined the refractive index, thickness, absorption index, and extinction coefficient of a nanostructured 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 -doped ZrO 2 (yttria stabilized zirconia, 3YSZ) thin film prepared by the sol-gel method and deposited by dipping onto a soda-lime glass substrate. In addition, using the absorption index obtained with the Swanepoel method, we calculated the optical band gap of the film. The refractive index was found to increase, then decrease, and finally stabilize with increasing wavelength of the radiation, while the absorption index and extinction coefficient decreased monotonically to zero. These trends are explained in terms of the location of the absorption bands. We also deduced that this 3YSZ thin film has a direct optical band gap of 4.6 eV. All these results compared well with those given in the literature for similar thin films. This suggests that the Swanepoel method has an important role to play in the optical characterization of ceramic thin films

  13. Determination of optical properties in nanostructured thin films using the Swanepoel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, J. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain); Diaz-Parralejo, A. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain); Ortiz, A.L. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain)]. E-mail: alortiz@unex.es; Guiberteau, F. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071 (Spain)

    2006-06-30

    We present the methodological framework of the Swanepoel method for the spectrophotometric determination of optical properties in thin films using transmittance data. As an illustrative case study, we determined the refractive index, thickness, absorption index, and extinction coefficient of a nanostructured 3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped ZrO{sub 2} (yttria stabilized zirconia, 3YSZ) thin film prepared by the sol-gel method and deposited by dipping onto a soda-lime glass substrate. In addition, using the absorption index obtained with the Swanepoel method, we calculated the optical band gap of the film. The refractive index was found to increase, then decrease, and finally stabilize with increasing wavelength of the radiation, while the absorption index and extinction coefficient decreased monotonically to zero. These trends are explained in terms of the location of the absorption bands. We also deduced that this 3YSZ thin film has a direct optical band gap of 4.6 eV. All these results compared well with those given in the literature for similar thin films. This suggests that the Swanepoel method has an important role to play in the optical characterization of ceramic thin films.

  14. Growth of Cu thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, S.; Ruuskanen, T.; Ritala, M.; Leskelae, M.

    2004-01-01

    Copper thin films were grown on reduced indium tin oxide, molybdenum and polymer substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Copper films were grown sequentially in a controlled way using simple copper salt and basic solution of formaldehyde as precursors. The copper films were polycrystalline with no preferred orientation as characterised by X-ray diffraction. On all substrates, the growth was clearly island growth in the beginning but after the whole surface was covered, the growth was more homogeneous

  15. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  16. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M. A. R., E-mail: ameerridhwan89@gmail.com; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com; Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Malek, M. F., E-mail: firz-solarzelle@yahoo.com [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  17. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M. A. R.; Mamat, M. H.; Ismail, A. S.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  18. Texture analysis by the Schulz reflection method: Defocalization corrections for thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateigner, D.; Germi, P.; Pernet, M.

    1992-01-01

    A new method is described for correcting experimental data obtained from the texture analysis of thin films. The analysis employed for correcting the data usually requires the experimental curves of defocalization for a randomly oriented specimen. In view of difficulties in finding non-oriented films, a theoretical method for these corrections is proposed which uses the defocalization evolution for a bulk sample, the film thickness and the penetration depth of the incident beam in the material. This correction method is applied to a film of YBa 2 CU 3 O 7-δ on an SrTiO 3 single-crystal substrate. (orig.)

  19. Ferroelectric properties of PZT/BFO multilayer thin films prepared using the sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2012-01-05

    In this study, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/BiFeO3 [PZT/BFO] multilayer thin films were fabricated using the spin-coating method on a Pt(200 nm)/Ti(10 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/p-Si(100) substrate alternately using BFO and PZT metal alkoxide solutions. The coating-and-heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All PZT/BFO multilayer thin films show a void-free, uniform grain structure without the presence of rosette structures. The relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the six-coated PZT/BFO [PZT/BFO-6] thin film were approximately 405 and 0.03%, respectively. As the number of coatings increased, the remanent polarization and coercive field increased. The values for the BFO-6 multilayer thin film were 41.3 C/cm2 and 15.1 MV/cm, respectively. The leakage current density of the BFO-6 multilayer thin film at 5 V was 2.52 × 10-7 A/cm2.

  20. Characterization of nanostructured Mn3O4 thin films grown by SILAR method at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubale, A.U.; Belkhedkar, M.R.; Sakhare, Y.S.; Singh, Arvind; Gurada, Chetan; Kothari, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    A novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method has been successfully employed to grow nanostructured conducting nearly transparent thin films of Mn 3 O 4 on to glass substrates at room temperature using MnCl 2 and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors. The structural and morphological characterizations of the as deposited Mn 3 O 4 films have been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrograph (FESEM), EDAX, Atomic Fore Microscopy (AFM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FTIR) analysis. The optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were carried out to investigate optical band gap and activation energy of Mn 3 O 4 films deposited by SILAR method. The optical band gap and activation energy of the as deposited film is found to be 2.70 and 0.14 eV respectively. The thermo-emf measurements of Mn 3 O 4 thin film confirm its p-type semiconducting nature. Highlights: ► Nanostructured Mn 3 O 4 thin film is prepared by SILAR method at room temperature. ► The film is nanocrystalline with orthorhombic structure of Mn 3 O 4 . ► The XRD, FTIR, FESEM, EDX and AFM characterization confirms nanocrystalline nature. ► Optical band gap, electrical resistivity and activation energy of film is reported. ► A thermo-emf measurement confirms p-type conductivity of Mn 3 O 4 films.

  1. Method of preparing high-temperature-stable thin-film resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L.S.

    1980-11-12

    A chemical vapor deposition method for manufacturing tungsten-silicide thin-film resistors of predetermined bulk resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is disclosed. Gaseous compounds of tungsten and silicon are decomposed on a hot substrate to deposit a thin-film of tungsten-silicide. The TCR of the film is determined by the crystallinity of the grain structure, which is controlled by the temperature of deposition and the tungsten to silicon ratio. The bulk resistivity is determined by the tungsten to silicon ratio. Manipulation of the fabrication parameters allows for sensitive control of the properties of the resistor.

  2. Method of preparing high-temperature-stable thin-film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition method is disclosed for manufacturing tungsten-silicide thin-film resistors of predetermined bulk resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Gaseous compounds of tungsten and silicon are decomposed on a hot substrate to deposit a thin-film of tungsten-silicide. The TCR of the film is determined by the crystallinity of the grain structure, which is controlled by the temperature of deposition and the tungsten to silicon ratio. The bulk resistivity is determined by the tungsten to silicon ratio. Manipulation of the fabrication parameters allows for sensitive control of the properties of the resistor

  3. Reactive Chemical Vapor Deposition Method as New Approach for Obtaining Electroluminescent Thin Film Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Utochnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new reactive chemical vapor deposition (RCVD method has been proposed for thin film deposition of luminescent nonvolatile lanthanide aromatic carboxylates. This method is based on metathesis reaction between the vapors of volatile lanthanide dipivaloylmethanate (Ln(dpm3 and carboxylic acid (HCarb orH2Carb′ and was successfully used in case of HCarb. Advantages of the method were demonstrated on example of terbium benzoate (Tb(bz3 and o-phenoxybenzoate thin films, and Tb(bz3 thin films were successfully examined in the OLED with the following structure glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/TPD/Tb(bz3/Ca/Al. Electroluminescence spectra of Tb(bz3 showed only typical luminescent bands, originated from transitions of the terbium ion. Method peculiarities for deposition of compounds of dibasic acids H2Carb′ are established on example of terbium and europium terephtalates and europium 2,6-naphtalenedicarboxylate.

  4. Comparison of residual stress measurement in thin films using surface micromachining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q.; Luo, Z.X.; Chen, X.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Conductive, dielectric, semiconducting, piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin films are extensively used for MEMS/NEMS applications. One of the important parameters of thin films is residual stress. The residual stress can seriously affect the properties, performance and long-term stability of the films. Excessive compressive or tensile stress results in buckling, cracking, splintering and sticking problems. Stress measurement techniques are therefore essential for both process development and process monitoring. Many suggestions for stress measurement in thin films have been made over the past several decades. This paper is concentrated on the in situ stress measurement using surface micromachining techniques to determine the residual stress. The authors review and compare several types of stress measurement methods including buckling technique, rotating technique, micro strain gauge and long-short beam strain sensor

  5. Shear thinning behavior of monolayer liquid lubricant films measured by fiber wobbling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Y; Itoh, S; Fukuzawa, K; Zhang, H

    2010-01-01

    It is essential to clarify mechanical properties of monolayer lubricant films coated on magnetic disks under shearing motion for designing future hard disk drives with ultra-low flying height. Many of previous researchers reported that strong shear rate dependence of viscoelasticity was one of the typical phenomena observed with molecularly thin liquid films. However, it has not been clarified whether or not perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant films, which are used for the head-disk interface (HDI) lubrication, show shear thinning behavior under actual HDI conditions. In this study, we used the fiber wobbling method that can achieve both highly-sensitive shear force measurement and precise gap control and measured shear rate dependence of viscoelastic properties of monolayer PFPE films coated on the magnetic disk. Our experimental results showed that shear thinning does occur at high shear rate ranged from 10 2 to 10 6 s -1 .

  6. Thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cells and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basol, Bulent M.; Tseng, Eric S.; Rod, Robert L.

    1983-06-14

    A method of fabricating a thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing a film of a near intrinsic or n-type semiconductor compound formed of at least one of the metal elements of Class II B of the Periodic Table of Elements and at least tellurium and then heating said film at a temperature between about 250.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. for a time sufficient to convert said film to a suitably low resistivity p-type semiconductor compound. Such film may be deposited initially on the surface of an n-type semiconductor substrate. Alternatively, there may be deposited on the converted film a layer of n-type semiconductor compound different from the film semiconductor compound. The resulting photovoltaic cell exhibits a substantially increased power output over similar cells not subjected to the method of the present invention.

  7. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  8. Mechanical characterization of YBCO thin films using nanoindentation and finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weixing [The Ministry of Education of China (China). Key Lab. of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China; Lanzhou Univ. (China). College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics

    2017-09-15

    The mechanical properties of YBCO thin film deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates by magnetron sputtering were determined using Berkovich nanoindentation and scanning electron microscopy. Hardness and elastic modulus were determined via the Oliver-Pharr method from indentation load-depth curves. The hardness values of the YBCO thin film show depth dependence, i. e., indentation size effect, which arose from the surface roughness as detected by scanning electron microscopy. Multiple pop-in events were observed on the loading curves, however, no obvious pop-out takes place during the elastic recovery. In addition, an effective analytical method accommodating the indenter imperfection was proposed and validated against experimental data in terms of elastic modulus, yield stress and friction angle using the Drucker-Prager yield criterion for the YBCO thin film.

  9. Advanced fabrication method for the preparation of MOF thin films: Liquid-phase epitaxy approach meets spin coating method.

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya

    2016-07-14

    Here we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method was implemented to generate MOF thin films in a high-throughput fashion. Advantageously, this approach offers a great prospective to cost-effectively construct thin-films with a significantly shortened preparation time and a lessened chemicals and solvents consumption, as compared to the conventional LPE-process. Certainly, this new spin-coating approach has been implemented successfully to construct various MOF thin films, ranging in thickness from a few micrometers down to the nanometer scale, spanning 2-D and 3-D benchmark MOF materials including Cu2(bdc)2•xH2O, Zn2(bdc)2•xH2O, HKUST-1 and ZIF-8. This method was appraised and proved effective on a variety of substrates comprising functionalized gold, silicon, glass, porous stainless steel and aluminum oxide. The facile, high-throughput and cost-effective nature of this approach, coupled with the successful thin film growth and substrate versatility, represents the next generation of methods for MOF thin film fabrication. Thereby paving the way for these unique MOF materials to address a wide range of challenges in the areas of sensing devices and membrane technology.

  10. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  11. Semiconductor/metal nanocomposites formed by in situ reduction method in multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yanli; Wang Enbo; Tian Chungui; Mao Baodong; Wang Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    A layer-by-layer adsorption and in situ reduction method was adopted for synthesizing semiconductor/metal nanocomposites in multilayer ultra-thin films. Alternate adsorption of ZnO nanoparticles modified with poly(ethyleneimine), hydrogentetrachloroaurate and poly(styrenesulfonate) sodium results in the formation of ZnO/AuCl 4 - -loaded multilayer films. In situ reduction of the incorporated metal ions by heating yields ZnO/Au nanocomposites in the films. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the components of the composite films. UV-vis spectra indicate regular growth of the films. The electrochemistry behavior of the multilayer films was studied in detail on indium tin oxide electrode. The combined results suggest that the layer-by-layer adsorption and subsequent reduction method used here provides an effective way to synthesize ZnO/Au nanocomposites in the polymer matrix

  12. Synthesis of photosensitive nanograined TiO2 thin films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, U.M.; Gurav, K.V.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Lokhande, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films are deposited by simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate from aqueous solution. The as-deposited films are heat treated at 673 K for 2 h in air. The change in structural, morphological and optical properties are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The results show that the SILAR method allows the formation of anatase, nanocrystalline, and porous TiO 2 thin films. The heat-treated film showed conversion efficiency of 0.047% in photoelectrochemical cell with 1 M NaOH electrolyte.

  13. New Methods for Thin Film Deposition and First Investigations of the use of High Temperature Superconductors for Thin Film Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Anna; Vollenberg, Wilhelmus; Seviour, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Niobium thin film cavities have shown good and reliable performance for LEP and LHC, although there are limitations to overcome if this technique should be used for new accelerators such as the ILC. New coating techniques like High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) has shown very promising results and we will report on its possible improvements for Nb thin film cavity performance. Current materials used in accelerator Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) technologies operate at temperatures below 4 K, which require complex cryogenic systems. Researchers have investigated the use of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to form RF cavities, with limited success. We propose a new approach to achieve a high-temperature SRF cavity based on the superconducting ’proximity effect’. The superconducting proximity effect is the effect through which a superconducting material in close proximity to a non-superconducting material induces a superconducting condensate in the latter. Using this effect we hope...

  14. Doped indium nitride thin film by sol-gel spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui San; Ng, Sha Shiong; Yam, Fong Kwong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, magnesium doped indium nitride (InN:Mg) thin films grown on silicon (100) substrate were prepared via sol-gel spin coating method followed by nitridation process. A custom-made tube furnace was used to perform the nitridation process. Through this method, the low dissociation temperature issue of InN:Mg thin films can be solved. The deposited InN:Mg thin films were investigated using various techniques. The X-rays diffraction results revealed that two intense diffraction peaks correspond to wurtzite structure InN (100), and InN (101) were observed at 29° and 33.1° respectively. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the surface of the films exhibits densely packed grains. The elemental composition of the deposited thin films was analyzed using energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy. The detected atomic percentages for In, N, and Mg were 43.22 %, 3.28 %, and 0.61 % respectively. The Raman spectra showed two Raman- and infrared-active modes of E2 (High) and A1 (LO) of the wurtzite InN. The band gap obtained from the Tauc plot showed around 1.74 eV. Lastly, the average surface roughness measured by AFM was around 0.133 µm.

  15. Chemically synthesis and characterization of MnS thin films by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, M. Ali; Yıldırım, Sümeyra Tuna; Cavanmirza, İlke; Ateş, Aytunç

    2016-03-01

    MnS thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using SILAR method. The film thickness effect on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films was investigated. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all the films exhibited polycrystalline nature with β-MnS structure and were covered well on glass substrates. The bandgap and resistivity values of the films decreased from 3.39 eV to 2.92 eV and from 11.84 × 106 to 2.21 × 105 Ω-cm as the film thickness increased from 180 to 350 nm, respectively. The refractive index (n) and dielectric constants (ɛo, ɛ∞) values were calculated.

  16. TiO2 thin film growth using the MOCVD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi M.I.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 thin films were obtained using the MOCVD method. In this report we discuss the properties of a film, produced using a ordinary deposition apparatus, as a function of the deposition time, with constant deposition temperature (90 °C, oxygen flow (7,0 L/min and substrate temperature (400 °C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and visible and ultra-violet region spectroscopy (UV-Vis. The films deposited on Si (100 substrates showed the anatase polycrystalline phase, while the films grown on glass substrates showed no crystallinity. Film thickness increased with deposition time as expected, while the transmittance varied from 72 to 91% and the refractive index remained close to 2.6.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Molybdenum Doped ZnO Thin Films by SILAR Deposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Sakthivelu, A.; Pradhabhan, D.

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) deposition method. The effect of Mo dopant concentration of 5, 6.6 and 10 mol% on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of n-type Mo doped ZnO films was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the Mo doped ZnO thin films were polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies shows that the surface morphology of the films changes with Mo doping. A blue shift of the optical band gap was observed in the optical studies. Effect of Mo dopant concentration on electrical conductivity was studied and it shows comparatively high electrical conductivity at 10 mol% of Mo doping concentration.

  18. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  19. Universal Method for Creating Hierarchical Wrinkles on Thin-Film Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Bin; Cho, Kyeong Min; Lee, Won-Kyu; Odom, Teri W; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2018-01-10

    One of the most interesting topics in physical science and materials science is the creation of complex wrinkled structures on thin-film surfaces because of their several advantages of high surface area, localized strain, and stress tolerance. In this study, a significant step was taken toward solving limitations imposed by the fabrication of previous artificial wrinkles. A universal method for preparing hierarchical three-dimensional wrinkle structures of thin films on a multiple scale (e.g., nanometers to micrometers) by sequential wrinkling with different skin layers was developed. Notably, this method was not limited to specific materials, and it was applicable to fabricating hierarchical wrinkles on all of the thin-film surfaces tested thus far, including those of metals, two-dimensional and one-dimensional materials, and polymers. The hierarchical wrinkles with multiscale structures were prepared by sequential wrinkling, in which a sacrificial layer was used as the additional skin layer between sequences. For example, a hierarchical MoS 2 wrinkle exhibited highly enhanced catalytic behavior because of the superaerophobicity and effective surface area, which are related to topological effects. As the developed method can be adopted to a majority of thin films, it is thought to be a universal method for enhancing the physical properties of various materials.

  20. Hydrogen Gas Sensing Characteristics of Nanostructured NiO Thin Films Synthesized by SILAR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Irmak; Çorlu, Tugba; Yıldırım, M. Ali; Ateş, Aytunç; Acar, Selim

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructured NiO thin films have been synthesized by a facile, low-cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, and the effects of the film thickness on their hydrogen gas sensing properties investigated. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. The XRD results revealed that the crystallinity improved with increasing thickness, exhibiting polycrystalline structure. SEM studies showed that all the films covered the glass substrate well. According to optical absorption measurements, the optical bandgap decreased with increasing film thickness. The gas sensing properties of the nanostructured NiO thin films were studied as a function of operating temperature and gas concentration. The samples showed good sensing performance of H2 gas with high response. The maximum response was 75% at operating temperature of 200°C for hydrogen gas concentration of 40 ppm. These results demonstrate that nanostructured NiO thin films synthesized by the SILAR method have potential for application in hydrogen detection.

  1. Preparation and characterization of ZnO transparent semiconductor thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Fan, Kai-Shiung; Chen, Sih-Han; Tsai, Chia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Transparent semiconductor thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) were deposited onto alkali-free glass substrates by the sol-gel method and spin-coating technique. In this study, authors investigate the influence of the heating rate of the preheating process (4 or 10 o C/min) on the crystallization, surface morphology, and optical properties of sol-gel derived ZnO thin films. The ZnO sol was synthesized by dissolving zinc acetate dehydrate in ethanol, and then adding monoethanolamine. The as-coated films were preheated at 300 o C for 10 min and annealed at 500 o C for 1 h in air ambiance. Experimental results indicate that the heating rate of the preheating process strongly affected the surface morphology and transparency of ZnO thin film. Specifically, a heating rate of 10 o C/min for the preheating process produces a preferred orientation along the (0 0 2) plane and a high transmittance of 92% at a wavelength of 550 nm. Furthermore, this study reports the fabrication of thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a transparent ZnO active channel layer and evaluates their electrical performance.

  2. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2 was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe"3"+ ions.

  3. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa, E-mail: tanaka@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2017-01-15

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe{sup 3+} ions.

  4. Opto-Acoustic Method for the Characterization of Thin-Film Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanichiro Yoshida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The elastic property of the film-substrate interface of thin-film systems is characterized with an opto-acoustic method. The thin-film specimens are oscillated with an acoustic transducer at audible frequencies, and the resultant harmonic response of the film surface is analyzed with optical interferometry. Polystyrene, Ti, Ti-Au and Ti-Pt films coated on the same silicon substrate are tested. For each film material, a pair of specimens is prepared; one is coated on a silicon substrate after the surface is treated with plasma bombardment, and the other is coated on an identical silicon substrate without a treatment. Experiments indicate that both the surface-treated and untreated specimens of all film materials have resonance in the audible frequency range tested. The elastic constant of the interface corresponding to the observed resonance is found to be orders of magnitude lower than that of the film or substrate material. Observations of these resonance-like behaviors and the associated stiffness of the interface are discussed.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite polymer blend electrolyte thin films by spin-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapi, Sharanappa; Niranjana, M.; Devendrappa, H., E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri - 574 199 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Solid Polymer blend electrolytes based on Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) complexed with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; Synthesized by Co-precipitation method) thin films have prepared at a different weight percent using the spin-coating method. The complexation of the NPs with the polymer blend was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The variation in film morphology was examined by polarized optical micrographs (POMs). The thermal behavior of blends was investigated under non-isothermal conditions by differential thermal analyses (DTA). A single glass transition temperature for each blend was observed, which supports the existence of compatibility of such system. The obtained results represent that the ternary based thin films are prominent materials for battery and optoelectronic device applications.

  6. Structural, optical and electrical characteristics of nickel oxide thin films synthesised through chemical processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkuade, Shadrach; Mwankemwa, Benanrd; Nel, Jacqueline; Meyer, Walter

    2018-04-01

    A simple and cheap chemical deposition method was used to produce a nickel oxide (NiO) thin film on glass substrates from a solution that contained Ni2+ and monoethanolamine. Thermal treatment of the film at temperatures above 350 °C for 1 h caused decomposition of the nickel hydroxide into nickel oxide. Structural, optical and electrical properties of the film were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectrophotometry, current-voltage measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The film was found to be polycrystalline with interplanar spacing of 0.241 nm, 0.208 nm and 0.148 nm for (111), (200) and (220) planes respectively, the lattice constant a was found to be 0.417 nm. The film had a porous surface morphology, formed from a network of nanowalls of average thickness of 66.67 nm and 52.00 nm for as-deposited and annealed films respectively. Transmittance of visible light by the as-deposited film was higher and the absorption edge of the film blue-shifted after annealing. The optical band gap of the annealed film was 3.8 eV. Electrical resistivity of the film was 378 Ωm.

  7. Synchrotron x-ray methods in studies of thin organic film structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentle, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, the study of the structures of organic films as thin as a single monolayer has been revolutionized by methods that take advantage of the characteristics of synchrotron radiation. In particular, the methods of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity have led to a number of valuable insights into structural aspects of thin films at molecular resolution. Our group has been studying films formed at the air/water interface as insoluble monolayers and subsequently transferred to solid substrates using either the vertical (Langmuir-Blodgett) or horizontal (Langmuir-Schaeffer) methods. The main aim of these experiments is to exert control over film structure in the direction parallel to the substrate surface. This is highly desirable in order to design devices that exploit the optical and electrooptical properties of functional materials, but is difficult to do. By varying the chemical structure of the film materials and controlling deposition conditions a degree of control is possible, but only using synchrotron methods can it be easily verified. We have also developed a novel method of rapidly collecting data from GIXD measurements by the application of area detection (imaging plates), which has made possible measurements of dynamic processes such as in-situ annealing. Such measurements are not possible using traditional scanning methods. One area of current interest is films composed of porphyrins as functional materials, either alone or as mixed films with fatty acids. We have been investigating ways of assembling porphyrins in such a way as to overcome the tendency to aggregate, and to produce patterning and ordered structures in the plane of the interface. Examples will be given of how film composition and deposition method affects the final structure, and of how X-ray methods can be used to elucidate both the structures and the mechanisms. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  8. Extending the 3ω method: thermal conductivity characterization of thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Liemert, André; Schnurr, Sebastian; Wiedwald, Ulf; Ziemann, Paul

    2013-08-01

    A lock-in technique for measurement of thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of thin films is presented. The technique is based on the 3ω approach using electrical generation and detection of oscillatory heat along a thin metal strip. Thin films are deposited onto the backside of commercial silicon nitride membranes, forming a bilayer geometry with distinct thermal parameters. Stepwise comparison to an adapted heat diffusion model delivers these parameters for both layers. Highest sensitivity is found for metallic thin films.

  9. A simple three step method for selective placement of organic groups in mesoporous silica thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, Esteban A. [Gerencia Química, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Llave, Ezequiel de la; Williams, Federico J. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física and INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soler-Illia, Galo J.A.A., E-mail: galo.soler.illia@gmail.com [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física and INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Nanosistemas, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, 25 de Mayo y Francia (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-01

    Selective functionalization of mesoporous silica thin films was achieved using a three step method. The first step consists in an outer surface functionalization, followed by washing off the structuring agent (second step), leaving the inner surface of the pores free to be functionalized in the third step. This reproducible method permits to anchor a volatile silane group in the outer film surface, and a second type of silane group in the inner surface of the pores. As a concept test we modified the outer surface of a mesoporous silica film with trimethylsilane (–Si–(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) groups and the inner pore surface with propylamino (–Si–(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}–NH{sub 2}) groups. The obtained silica films were characterized by Environmental Ellipsometric Porosimetry (EEP), EDS, XPS, contact angle and electron microscopy. The selectively functionalized silica (SF) shows an amount of surface amino functions 4.3 times lower than the one-step functionalized (OSF) silica samples. The method presented here can be extended to a combination of silane chlorides and alkoxides as functional groups, opening up a new route toward the synthesis of multifunctional mesoporous thin films with precisely localized organic functions. - Highlights: • Selective functionalization of mesoporous silica thin films was achieved using a three step method. • A volatile silane group is anchored by evaporation on the outer film surface. • A second silane is deposited in the inner surface of the pores by post-grafting. • Contact angle, EDS and XPS measurements show different proportions of amino groups on both surfaces. • This method can be extended to a combination of silane chlorides and alkoxides functional groups.

  10. Growth and characterization of magnetite-maghemite thin films by the dip coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velásquez, A. A., E-mail: avelas26@eafit.edu.edu.co; Arnedo, A. [Universidad EAFIT, Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado (Colombia)

    2017-11-15

    We present the process of growth and characterization of magnetite-maghemite thin films obtained by the dip coating method. The thin films were deposited on glass substrates, using a ferrofluid of nanostructured magnetite-maghemite particles as precursor solution. During the growth of the films the following parameters were controlled: number of dips of the substrates, dip velocity of the substrates and drying times. The films were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Elelectron Microscopy, four-point method for resistance measurement, Room Temperature Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Hall effect. Mössbauer measurements showed the presence of a sextet attributed to maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and two doublets attributed to superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), indicating a distribution of oxidation states of the iron as well as a particle size distribution of the magnetic phases in the films. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the films cover quasi uniformly the substrates, existing in them some pores with sub-micron size. Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements showed a uniform structure in the films, with spherical particles with size around 10 nm. Voltage versus current measurements showed an ohmic response of the films for currents between 0 and 100 nA. On the other hand, Hall effect measurements showed a nonlinear response of the Hall voltage with the magnetic flux density applied perpendicular to the plane of the films, however the response is fairly linear for magnetic flux densities between 0.15 and 0.35 T approximately. The results suggest that the films are promising for application as magnetic flux density sensors.

  11. Growth and characterization of magnetite-maghemite thin films by the dip coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velásquez, A. A.; Arnedo, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the process of growth and characterization of magnetite-maghemite thin films obtained by the dip coating method. The thin films were deposited on glass substrates, using a ferrofluid of nanostructured magnetite-maghemite particles as precursor solution. During the growth of the films the following parameters were controlled: number of dips of the substrates, dip velocity of the substrates and drying times. The films were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Elelectron Microscopy, four-point method for resistance measurement, Room Temperature Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Hall effect. Mössbauer measurements showed the presence of a sextet attributed to maghemite (γ-Fe_2O_3) and two doublets attributed to superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe_3O_4), indicating a distribution of oxidation states of the iron as well as a particle size distribution of the magnetic phases in the films. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the films cover quasi uniformly the substrates, existing in them some pores with sub-micron size. Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements showed a uniform structure in the films, with spherical particles with size around 10 nm. Voltage versus current measurements showed an ohmic response of the films for currents between 0 and 100 nA. On the other hand, Hall effect measurements showed a nonlinear response of the Hall voltage with the magnetic flux density applied perpendicular to the plane of the films, however the response is fairly linear for magnetic flux densities between 0.15 and 0.35 T approximately. The results suggest that the films are promising for application as magnetic flux density sensors.

  12. On the use of thin natural uranium film dosimetry in mineral dating by the fission track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadler Neto, J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Khouri, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Three obsidian samples were irradiated in a neutron facility and their age was measured by the fission track method; using a thin uranium film dosemeter. The results were compared to others made previously on the same type of rock using conventional neutron dosimetry. The use of thin uranium film for age determination is discussed. (F.E.). 20 refs, 4 tabs

  13. The liquid phase epitaxy method for the construction of oriented ZIF-8 thin films with controlled growth on functionalized surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Highly-oriented ZIF-8 thin films with controllable thickness were grown on an -OH-functionalized Au substrate using the liquid phase epitaxy method at room temperature, as evidenced by SEM and PXRD. The adsorption-desorption properties of the resulting ZIF-8 thin film were investigated for various VOCs using the QCM technique. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  14. Controlled growth of epitaxial CeO2 thin films with self-organized nanostructure by chemical solution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Chemical solution deposition is a versatile technique to grow oxide thin films with self-organized nanostructures. Morphology and crystallographic orientation control of CeO2 thin films grown on technical NiW substrates by a chemical solution deposition method are achieved in this work. Based...

  15. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  16. Annealing temperature effect on electrical properties of MEH-PPV thin film via spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, N. E. A.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Organic semiconductor has been discovered in different application devices such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Poly [2-methoxy-5(2' -ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene), MEH-PPV widely used in this device because its ability to produce a good optical quality films. The MEH-PPV was prepared on glass substrate by spin coating method. The thin film was investigated at different annealing temperatures. The scanning electron micrographs (SEM) revealed that sample annealed at 50°C showed uniformity and less aggregation on morphology polymer thin film. Optical properties showed the intensities of visible emission increased as temperatures increased. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement revealed that the temperature of 50°C showed high conductive and it is suitable for optoelectronic device.

  17. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  18. Characterizations of maghemite thin films prepared by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, L. N., E-mail: lau7798@gmail.com; Ibrahim, N. B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor. Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Iron is one of the abundant elements of Mother Nature and its compound, iron oxide is an interesting material to study since its discovery in the form of magnetite. It can exist in many phases such as hematite and maghemite, this unique nature has put it as a potential candidate in various applications. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different precursor concentrations on the microstructural and magnetic properties of iron oxide thin film. All samples were prepared via the sol-gel method followed by a spin coating technique on quartz substrates. Iron oxide films were confirmed as maghemite phase from X-ray diffraction patterns. The film morphology was examined by a field emission scanning electron microscope and it showed non-systematic value of average grain size and film thickness throughout the study. Hysteresis loop further confirmed that maghemite is a magnetic material when it was characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The coercivity did not show any correlation with molarity. Nevertheless, it increased as the precursor concentration of the film increased due to the domain behaviour. In conclusion, maghemite thin films were successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method with different precursor concentrations in this work.

  19. Optical properties of CdS thin films by (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, A.; Gurbulak, B.; Yildirim, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: CdS thin film was grown by Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique on quartz substrate. The film homogeneous of film is good and the film colour obtained as orange. Optical properties of CdS thin film has been investigated as a function of temperature in the temperature range 10-320 K with 10 K steps. The band gap energy decreased with increasing temperature

  20. Thin-film method-XRF determination of the composition of rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Deming

    1992-01-01

    The author describes the thin-film sample preparation by precipitation-pumping filtering method and the composition of rare earth oxide materials by XRF determination. The determination limits are 0.01% to 0.17%. The coefficients of variation are in the range of 0.85% to 14.9%. The analytical results of several kinds of rare earth oxide materials show that this method can be applied to the determination of the composition of rare earth oxide mixtures

  1. A direct method to measure the fracture toughness of indium tin oxide thin films on flexible polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Rwei-Ching; Tsai, Fa-Ta; Tu, Chin-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a straightforward method to measure the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates. A 200 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film is deposited on a 188 μm thick terephthalate (PET) substrate by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering machine. Using nanoindentation to induce brittle fracture on the ITO thin films, the energy release is calculated from integrating the resulting load–depth curve. An approach that directly measures the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates is proposed. A comparison shows that the results of the proposed method agree well with those of other reports. Furthermore, in order to improve the toughness of the ITO thin films, a copper interlayer is added between the ITO thin film and PET substrate. It shows that the fracture toughness of the ITO thin film deposited on the copper interlayer is higher than that of the one without the interlayer, which agrees well with the critical load tested by micro scratch. Further observations on optical and electric performances are also discussed in this work. - Highlights: • A straightforward method to measure the film's toughness • Directly using the load-depth curve of nanoindentation • The toughness is consistent with the critical load tested by micro scratch. • Interlayers can improve the film's toughness. • Optical and electric performances are also discussed

  2. Advanced fabrication method for the preparation of MOF thin films: Liquid-phase epitaxy approach meets spin coating method.

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method

  3. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymer–antibiotic thin films fabricated by advanced pulsed laser methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, C.; Dorcioman, G.; Miroiu, F.M.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Gittard, S.D.; Miller, P.R.; Narayan, R.J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7575 (United States); Enculescu, M. [National Institute for Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Tulane University, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We report on thin film deposition by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of two polymer–drug composite thin film systems. A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used to deposit composite thin films of poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) containing several gentamicin concentrations. FTIR spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that MAPLE-transferred materials exhibited chemical structures similar to those of drop cast materials. Scanning electron microscopy data indicated that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films of good morphological quality. The activity of PDLLA–gentamicin composite thin films against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated using drop testing. The influence of drug concentration on microbial viability was also assessed. Our studies indicate that polymer–drug composite thin films prepared by MAPLE may be used to impart antimicrobial activity to implants, medical devices, and other contact surfaces.

  5. Preparation and characterization of SnO2 thin film by chemical bath deposition method for solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus; Saeideh Ebrahimiasl; Anuar Kassim

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tin oxide thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method on glass substrate .The as-deposited thin films were characterized for compositional, structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the sample indicate that all samples are polycrystalline structure. AFM images show that the films consist of small uniform grains and are free of pinholes. (author)

  6. A new non-destructive and standardless method for the determination of thin films by XRF measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.; Wybenga, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    The thickness of thin uniform films can be determined by measuring the signal ratio of a fluorescent line at two different take-off angles and using the result in either of two mathematical relationships which link the ratio to the film thickness. A zinc sulphide film on silica is used as an example for application of this method

  7. Thickness dependent electrical properties of CdO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, L.C.S.; Rao, K.S.R.K.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of thin films of cadmium oxide have been prepared on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis method. The prepared films have uniform thickness varying from 200-600 nm and good adherence to the glass substrate. A systematic study has been made on the influence of thickness on resistivity, sheet resistance, carrier concentration and mobility of the films. The resistivity, sheet resistance, carrier concentration and mobility values varied from 1.56-5.72x10 -3 Ω-cm, 128-189 Ω/□, 1.6-3.9x10 21 cm -3 and 0.3-3 cm 2 /Vs, respectively for varying film thickness. A systematic increase in mobility with grain size clearly indicates the reduction of overall scattering of charge carriers at the grain boundaries. The large concentration of charge carriers and low mobility values have been attributed to the presence of Cd as an impurity in CdO microcrystallites. Using the optical transmission data, the band gap was estimated and found to vary from 2.20-2.42 eV. These films have transmittance around 77% and average reflectance is below 2.6% in the spectral range 350-850 nm. The films are n-type and polycrystalline in nature. SEM micrographs of the CdO films were taken and the films exhibit clear grains and grain boundary formation at a substrate temperature as low as 523 K. (author)

  8. Thin film solar cell configuration and fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Shalini

    2009-07-14

    A new photovoltaic device configuration based on an n-copper indium selenide absorber and a p-type window is disclosed. A fabrication method to produce this device on flexible or rigid substrates is described that reduces the number of cell components, avoids hazardous materials, simplifies the process steps and hence the costs for high volume solar cell manufacturing.

  9. Dating by fission track method: study of neutron dosimetry with natural uranium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iunes, P.J.

    1990-06-01

    Fission track dating is described, focalizing the problem of the decay constant for spontaneous fission of 238 U and the use of neutron dosimetry in fission track analysis. Experimental procedures using thin films of natural uranium as neutron dosimeters and its results are presented. The author shows a intercomparison between different thin films and between the dosimetry with thin film and other dosimetries. (M.V.M.). 52 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs

  10. Physical properties of nanostructured CeO2 thin films grown by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ishaque Ahmed; Belkhedkar, M. R.; Salodkar, R. V.; Ubale, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructured CeO2 thin films have been deposited by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method onto glass substrate using (CeNO3)3 6H2O and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors respectively. The structural and morphological characterizations were carried out by means of X-ray diffraction, FTIR, FESEM and EDX studies. The highly resistive (1010 Ω cm) semiconducting CeO2 film exhibits 2.95 eV optical band gap.

  11. High Stability Performance of Quinary Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Films and Thin-Film Transistors Deposited Using Vapor Cooling Condensation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2017-08-01

    High-quality indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) thin films with various Al contents have been deposited using the vapor cooling condensation method. The electron mobility of the IGZAO films was improved by 89.4% on adding Al cation to IGZO film. The change in the electron concentration and mobility of the IGZAO films was 7.3% and 7.0%, respectively, when the temperature was changed from 300 K to 225 K. These experimental results confirm the high performance and stability of the IGZAO films. The performance stability mechanisms of IGZAO thin-film transistors (TFTs) were investigated in comparison with IGZO TFTs.

  12. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gułkowski Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  13. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gułkowski, Sławomir; Krawczak, Ewelina

    2017-10-01

    Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS) with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  14. Optical properties of silver sulphide thin films formed on evaporated Ag by a simple sulphurization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Calva, E., E-mail: ebc@xanum.uam.m [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Av. Purisima Esq. Michoacan, Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Ortega-Lopez, M.; Avila-Garcia, A.; Matsumoto-Kwabara, Y. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-01-31

    Silver sulphide (Ag{sub 2}S) thin films were grown on the surface of silver films (Ag) deposited on glass substrate by using a simple chemical sulphurization method. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the Ag{sub 2}S thin films display low intensity peaks at 34.48{sup o}, 36.56{sup o}, and 44.28{sup o}, corresponding to diffraction from (100), (112) and (103) planes of the acanthite phase (monoclinic). A model of the type Ag{sub 2}S/Ag/glass was deduced from spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements. Also, the optical constants (n, k) of the system were determined. Furthermore, the optical properties as solar selective absorber for collector applications were assessed. The optical reflectance of the Ag{sub 2}S/Ag thin film systems exhibits the expected behavior for an ideal selective absorber, showing a low reflectance in the wavelength range below 2 {mu}m and a high reflectance for wavelengths higher than that value. An absorptance about 70% and an emittance about 3% or less were calculated for several samples.

  15. Thickness and temperature dependence of electrical resistivity of p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 thin films prepared by flash evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Xingkai; Yang Junyou; Zhu, W; Fan, X A; Bao, S Q

    2006-01-01

    P-type Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 thin films with thicknesses in the range 80-320 nm have been deposited by the flash evaporation method on glass substrates at 473 K. XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope were performed to characterize the thin films. The results show that the thin films are polycrystalline and the grain size of the thin films increases with increasing thickness of the thin films. Compositional analysis of the thin films was also carried out by energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. A near linear relationship was observed between the electrical resistivity and the inverse thickness of the annealed thin films, and it agrees with Tellier's model. Electrical resistivity of the annealed thin films was studied in the temperature range 300-350 K, and their thermal activation behaviour was characterized, the activation energy for conduction decreases with increasing thickness of the thin films

  16. Room temperature deposition of ZnSe thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, R.B.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    The zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films are deposited onto glass substrate using relatively simple and inexpensive successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The films are deposited using zinc acetate sodium selenosulphate precursors. The concentration, pH, immersion and rinsing times and number of immersion cycles have been optimized to obtain good quality ZnSe thin films. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveals nanocrystalline nature alongwith some amorphous phase present in ZnSe thin films. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis shows that the films are Se deficient. From optical absorption data, the optical band gap 'E g ' for as-deposited thin film was found to be 2.8 eV and electrical resistivity in the order of 10 7 Ω cm

  17. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongmei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feldmann, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [TEXAS A& M; Bi, Zhenxing [TEXAS A& M

    2008-01-01

    It is indispensable to use thin films for many technological applications. This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary nitride AMN2 films. Epitaxial tetragonal SrTiN2 films have been successfully prepared by a chemical solution approach, polymer-assisted deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films are also investigated.

  18. Optical and electrical properties of transparent conducting B-doped ZnO thin films prepared by various deposition methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomoto, Jun-ichi; Miyata, Toshihiro; Minami, Tadatsugu [Optoelectronic Device System R and D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    B-doped ZnO (BZO) thin films were prepared with various thicknesses up to about 500 nm on glass substrates at 200 deg. C by dc or rf magnetron sputtering deposition, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) methods. Resistivities of 4-6 x 10{sup -4}{Omega} cm were obtained in BZO thin films prepared with a B content [B/(B + Zn) atomic ratio] around 1 at. % by PLD and VAPE methods: Hall mobilities above 40 cm{sup 2}/Vs and carrier concentrations on the order of 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. All 500-nm-thick-BZO thin films prepared with a resistivity on the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -4}{Omega} cm exhibited an averaged transmittance above 80% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm. The resistivity in BZO thin films prepared with a thickness below about 500 nm was found to increase over time with exposure to various high humidity environments. In heat-resistance tests, the resistivity stability of BZO thin films was found to be nearly equal to that of Ga-doped ZnO thin films, so these films were judged suitable for use as a transparent electrode for thin-film solar cells.

  19. Optical and electrical properties of transparent conducting B-doped ZnO thin films prepared by various deposition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Jun-ichi; Miyata, Toshihiro; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2011-01-01

    B-doped ZnO (BZO) thin films were prepared with various thicknesses up to about 500 nm on glass substrates at 200 deg. C by dc or rf magnetron sputtering deposition, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) methods. Resistivities of 4-6 x 10 -4 Ω cm were obtained in BZO thin films prepared with a B content [B/(B + Zn) atomic ratio] around 1 at. % by PLD and VAPE methods: Hall mobilities above 40 cm 2 /Vs and carrier concentrations on the order of 10 20 cm -3 . All 500-nm-thick-BZO thin films prepared with a resistivity on the order of 10 -3 -10 -4 Ω cm exhibited an averaged transmittance above 80% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm. The resistivity in BZO thin films prepared with a thickness below about 500 nm was found to increase over time with exposure to various high humidity environments. In heat-resistance tests, the resistivity stability of BZO thin films was found to be nearly equal to that of Ga-doped ZnO thin films, so these films were judged suitable for use as a transparent electrode for thin-film solar cells.

  20. Finite element method calculations of GMI in thin films and sandwiched structures: Size and edge effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Arribas, A.; Barandiaran, J.M.; Cos, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The impedance values of magnetic thin films and magnetic/conductor/magnetic sandwiched structures with different widths are computed using the finite element method (FEM). The giant magneto-impedance (GMI) is calculated from the difference of the impedance values obtained with high and low permeability of the magnetic material. The results depend considerably on the width of the sample, demonstrating that edge effects are decisive for the GMI performance. It is shown that, besides the usual skin effect that is responsible for GMI, an 'unexpected' increase of the current density takes place at the lateral edge of the sample. In magnetic thin films this effect is dominant when the permeability is low. In the trilayers, it is combined with the lack of shielding of the central conductor at the edge. The resulting effects on GMI are shown to be large for both kinds of samples. The conclusions of this study are of great importance for the successful design of miniaturized GMI devices

  1. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  2. Zirconia thin film preparation by wet chemical methods at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovici, M.; Graaf, de J.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Graat, P.C.J.; Verheijen, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the preparation of zirconia thin films with a high refractive index at low temperature is aimed for. Two non-hydrolytic type approaches of wet chemical synthesis are presented. Both by sol–gel and colloid chemistry, highly transmissive, smooth thin films of zirconia cubic and/or

  3. Combined sonochemical/CVD method for preparation of nanostructured carbon-doped TiO{sub 2} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasoulnezhad, Hossein [Semiconductor Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kavei, Ghassem, E-mail: kaveighassem@gmail.com [Semiconductor Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Kamran [Semiconductor Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimipour, Mohammad Reza [Ceramic Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Combination of sonochemical and CVD methods for preparation of nanostructured carbon-doped TiO{sub 2} thin film on glass substrate, for the first time. • High transparency, monodispersity and homogeneity of the prepared thin films. • Preparation of the carbon-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films with nanorod and nanosphere morphologies. - Abstract: The present work reports the successful synthesis of the nanostructured carbon-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films on glass substrate by combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and ultrasonic methods, for the first time. In this method the ultrasound waves act as nebulizer for converting of sonochemically prepared TiO{sub 2} sol to the mist particles. These mist particles were thermally decomposed in subsequent CVD chamber at 320 °C to produce the carbon-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films. The obtained thin films were characterized by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that the prepared thin films have anatase crystal structure and nanorod morphology, which calcination of them at 800 °C results in the conversion of nanorods to nanoparticles. In addition, the prepared samples have high transparency, monodispersity and homogeneity. The presence of the carbon element in the structure of the thin films causes the narrowing of the band-gap energy of TiO{sub 2} to about 2.8 eV, which results in the improvement of visible light absorption capabilities of the thin film.

  4. Structural, electrical and optical properties of nanostructured ZrO2 thin film deposited by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salodkar, R. V.; Belkhedkar, M. R.; Nemade, S. D.

    2018-05-01

    Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method has been employed to deposit nanocrystalline ZrO2 thin film of thickness 91 nm onto glass substrates using ZrOCl2.8H2O and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors respectively. The structural and surface morphological characterizations have been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy confirms the nanocrystalline nature of ZrO2 thin film. The direct optical band gap and activation energy of the ZrO2 thin film are found to be 4.74 and 0.80eV respectively.

  5. Study of Sb2S3 thin films deposited by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, M. P.; Chauhan, Krishna; Patel, Kiran N.; Rajput, Piyush; Bhoi, Hiteshkumar R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we deposited Sb2S3 thin films on glass slide by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique with different time cycles. From EDAX, we could observe that the films were non-stoichiometric and contained few elements from glass slide. X-ray diffraction has shown that these films are orthorhombic in structure from where we have calculated the lattice parameter and crystallize size. SEM images shows that SILAR synthesized Sb2S3 thin films are homogenous and well distributed indicating the formation of uniform thin films at lower concentration. The room temperature Raman spectra of Sb2S3 thin films showed sharp peaks at 250 cm‑1 and 300 cm‑1 for all cases. Room temperature photoluminescence emission spectrum shows broad bands over 430–480 nm range with strong blue emission peak centered at same wavelength of 460 nm (2.70 eV) for all cases.

  6. Development of alpha spectroscopy method with solid state nuclear track detector using aluminium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwaikat, N., E-mail: ndwaikat@kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, College of Sciences, Department of Physics, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    This work presents the development of alpha spectroscopy method with Solid-state nuclear track detectors using aluminum thin films. The resolution of this method is high, and it is able to discriminate between alpha particles at different incident energy. It can measure the exact number of alpha particles at specific energy without needing a calibration of alpha track diameter versus alpha energy. This method was tested by using Cf-252 alpha standard source at energies 5.11 MeV, 3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV, which produced by the variation of detector -standard source distance. On front side, two detectors were covered with two Aluminum thin films and the third detector was kept uncovered. The thickness of Aluminum thin films was selected carefully (using SRIM 2013) such that one of the films will block the lower two alpha particles (3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV) and the alpha particles at higher energy (5.11 MeV) can penetrate the film and reach the detectors surface. The second thin film will block alpha particles at lower energy of 2.7 MeV and allow alpha particles at higher two energies (5.11 MeV and 3.86 MeV) to penetrate and produce tracks. For uncovered detector, alpha particles at three different energies can produce tracks on it. For quality assurance and accuracy, the detectors were mounted on thick enough copper substrates to block exposure from the backside. The tracks on the first detector are due to alpha particles at energy of 5.11 MeV. The difference between the tracks number on the first detector and the tracks number on the second detector is due to alpha particles at energy of 3.8 MeV. Finally, by subtracting the tracks number on the second detector from the tracks number on the third detector (uncovered), we can find the tracks number due to alpha particles at energy 2.7 MeV. After knowing the efficiency calibration factor, we can exactly calculate the activity of standard source. (Author)

  7. Development of alpha spectroscopy method with solid state nuclear track detector using aluminium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwaikat, N.

    2015-10-01

    This work presents the development of alpha spectroscopy method with Solid-state nuclear track detectors using aluminum thin films. The resolution of this method is high, and it is able to discriminate between alpha particles at different incident energy. It can measure the exact number of alpha particles at specific energy without needing a calibration of alpha track diameter versus alpha energy. This method was tested by using Cf-252 alpha standard source at energies 5.11 MeV, 3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV, which produced by the variation of detector -standard source distance. On front side, two detectors were covered with two Aluminum thin films and the third detector was kept uncovered. The thickness of Aluminum thin films was selected carefully (using SRIM 2013) such that one of the films will block the lower two alpha particles (3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV) and the alpha particles at higher energy (5.11 MeV) can penetrate the film and reach the detectors surface. The second thin film will block alpha particles at lower energy of 2.7 MeV and allow alpha particles at higher two energies (5.11 MeV and 3.86 MeV) to penetrate and produce tracks. For uncovered detector, alpha particles at three different energies can produce tracks on it. For quality assurance and accuracy, the detectors were mounted on thick enough copper substrates to block exposure from the backside. The tracks on the first detector are due to alpha particles at energy of 5.11 MeV. The difference between the tracks number on the first detector and the tracks number on the second detector is due to alpha particles at energy of 3.8 MeV. Finally, by subtracting the tracks number on the second detector from the tracks number on the third detector (uncovered), we can find the tracks number due to alpha particles at energy 2.7 MeV. After knowing the efficiency calibration factor, we can exactly calculate the activity of standard source. (Author)

  8. A new automatic design method to develop multilayer thin film devices for high power laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N.K.; Apparao, K.V.S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Optical thin film devices play a major role in many areas of frontier technology like development of various laser systems to the designing of complex and precision optical systems. Design and development of these devices are really challenging when they are meant for high power laser applications. In these cases besides desired optical characteristics, the devices are expected to satisfy a whole range of different needs like high damage threshold, durability etc. In the present work a novel completely automatic design method based on Modified Complex Method has been developed for designing of high power thin film devices. Unlike most of the other methods it does not need any suitable starting design. A quarterwave design is sufficient to start with. If required, it is capable of generating its own starting design. The computer code of the method is very simple to implement. This report discusses this novel automatic design method and presents various practicable output designs generated by it. The relative efficiency of the method along with other powerful methods has been presented while designing a broadband IR antireflection coating. The method is also incorporated with 2D and 3D electric field analysis programmes to produce high damage threshold designs. Some experimental devices developed using such designs are also presented in the report. (author). 36 refs., 41 figs

  9. Fabrication of SnS thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Das, Madhumita; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata

    2008-01-01

    Tin sulfide films of 0.20 µm thickness were grown on glass and ITO substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method using SnSO 4 and Na 2 S solution. The as-grown films were well covered and strongly adherent to the substrate. XRD confirmed the deposition of SnS thin films and provided information on the crystallite size and residual strain of the thin films. FESEM revealed almost equal distribution of the particle size well covered on the surface of the substrate. EDX showed that as-grown SnS films were slightly rich in tin component. High absorption in the visible region was evident from UV–Vis transmission spectra. PL studies were carried out with 550 nm photon excitation. To the best of our knowledge, however, no attempt has been made to fabricate a SnS thin film using the SILAR technique

  10. Vanadium oxide thin films and fibers obtained by acetylacetonate sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezina, O.; Kirienko, D. [Department of Physical Engineering, Petrozavodsk State University, 185910 Petrozavodsk (Russian Federation); Pergament, A., E-mail: aperg@psu.karelia.ru [Department of Physical Engineering, Petrozavodsk State University, 185910 Petrozavodsk (Russian Federation); Stefanovich, G.; Velichko, A. [Department of Physical Engineering, Petrozavodsk State University, 185910 Petrozavodsk (Russian Federation); Zlomanov, V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-01

    Vanadium oxide films and fibers have been fabricated by the acetylacetonate sol–gel method followed by annealing in wet nitrogen. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction and electrical conductivity measurements. The effects of a sol aging, the precursor decomposition and the gas atmosphere composition on the annealing process, structure and properties of the films are discussed. The two-stage temperature regime of annealing of amorphous films in wet nitrogen for formation of the well crystallized VO{sub 2} phase is chosen: 1) 25–550 °C and 2) 550–600 °C. The obtained films demonstrate the metal–insulator transition and electrical switching. Also, the effect of the polyvinylpyrrolidone additive concentration and electrospinning parameters on qualitative (absence of defects and gel drops) and quantitative (length and diameter) characteristics of vanadium oxide fibers is studied. - Highlights: • Vanadium oxide thin films and fibers are synthesized by sol–gel method. • The effect of annealing, atmosphere, time and electrospinning parameters is studied. • Produced VO{sub 2} structures exhibit metal–insulator transition and electrical switching.

  11. Development of In-plane Thermal Conductivity Calculation Methods in Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Barinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The future nanoelectronics development involves using the smaller- -and-smaller-sized circuit components based on the micro- and nanostructures. This causes a growth of the specific heat flows up to 100 W/cm2. Since performance of electronic devices is strongly dependent on the temperature there is a challenge to create the heat transfer models, which take into account the size effect and ensure a reliable estimate of the thermal conductivity. This is one of the crucial tasks for development of new generations of integrated circuits.The paper studies heat transfer processes using the silicon thin films as an example. Thermal conductivity calculations are performed taking into account the influence of the classical size effect in the context of the Sondheimer model based on the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation.The paper, for the first time, presents and considers the influence of various factors on the thermal conductivity of thin films, namely temperature, film thickness, polarization of the phonon waves (transverse and longitudinal, velocity and relaxation time versus frequency for the phonons of different wave types.Based on the analysis, three models with different accuracy are created to estimate the influence of detailing processes under consideration on the thermal conductivity in a wide range of temperatures (from 10 K to 450 К and film thickness (from 10 nm to 100 µm.So in the model I for the first time in calculating thermal conductivity of thin films we properly and circumstantially take into account the dependence of the velocity and the relaxation time of phonons on the frequency and polarization. The obtained values are in a good agreement with available experimental data and theoretical models of other authors. In the following models we use few average methods for relaxation times and velocities, which leads to significant reduction in calculating accuracy up to the values exceeding 100%.Therefore, when calculating

  12. Measurement of thickness of thin films by the X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, C.; Balasingh, C.; Singh, A.K.

    1979-07-01

    X-ray diffraction method can be used to measure the thickness of thin films (coatings). The principle and the experimental details of the x-ray diffraction methods are described. The intensities of the diffracted beams are derived assuming a random orientation of the crystallites in the diffracting medium. Consequently, the expressions are not valid when the sample has preferred orientation. To check the performance of the method, thicknesses of nickel deposits on mild steel plates were determined by the x-ray diffraction method and the results compared with those obtained by the weighing method and metallographic examination. The weighing method which gives an accuracy of +- 0.1 micron is taken as the standard. The x-ray diffraction methods and the metallographic examinations give values within +- 1 micron of the value obtained by the weighing method. (author)

  13. Electrical and optical properties of CZTS thin films prepared by SILAR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Henry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS thin film was deposited onto the glass substrate by simple and economic SILAR method and its structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were analyzed. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirms the formation of CZTS with kesterite structure and the average crystallite size is found to be 142 nm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM image shows that the film has homogeneous, agglomerated surface without any cracks. The prepared CZTS film shows good optical absorption (104 cm−1 in the visible region and the optical band gap energy is found to be quite close to the optimum value of about 1.54 eV for solar cell application. The refractive index of the prepared film is found to be 2.85. The electrical resistivity of the film is found to be ∼10−2 Ω cm at room temperature.

  14. Patterning of metallic electrodes on flexible substrates for organic thin-film transistors using a laser thermal printing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kun-Tso; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Ho, Jeng-Rong; Chen, Chih-Kant; Liu, Sung-Ho; Liao, Jin-Long; Cheng, Hua-Chi

    2011-01-01

    We report on a laser thermal printing method for transferring patterned metallic thin films on flexible plastic substrates using a pulsed CO 2 laser. Aluminium and silver line patterns, with micrometre scale resolution on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates, are shown. The printed electrodes demonstrate good conductivity and fulfil the properties for bottom-contact organic thin-film transistors. In addition to providing the energy for transferring the film, the absorption of laser light results in a rise in the temperature of the film and the substrate. This also further anneals the film and softens the plastic substrate. Consequently, it is possible to obtain a film with better surface morphology and with its film thickness implanted in part into the plastic surface. This implantation reveals excellent characteristics in adhesion and flexure resistance. Being feasible to various substrates and executable at ambient temperatures renders this approach a potential alternative for patterning metallic electrodes.

  15. Development of Ultrafast Laser Flash Methods for Measuring Thermophysical Properties of Thin Films and Boundary Thermal Resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Taketoshi, Naoyuki; Yagi, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Reliable thermophysical property values of thin films are important to develop advanced industrial technologies such as highly integrated electronic devices, phase-change memories, magneto-optical disks, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), semiconductor lasers (LDs), flat-panel displays, and power electronic devices. In order to meet these requirements, the National Metrology Institute of Japan of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has developed ultrafast laser flash methods heated by picosecond pulse or nanosecond pulse with the same geometrical configuration as the laser flash method, which is the standard method to measure the thermal diffusivity of bulk materials. Since these pulsed light heating methods induce one-dimensional heat diffusion across a well-defined length of the specimen thickness, the absolute value of thermal diffusivity across thin films can be measured reliably. Using these ultrafast laser flash methods, the thermal diffusivity of each layer of multilayered thin films and the boundary thermal resistance between the layers can be determined from the observed transient temperature curves based on the response function method. The thermophysical properties of various thin films important for modern industries such as the transparent conductive films used for flat-panel displays, hard coating films, and multilayered films of next-generation phase-change optical disks have been measured by these methods.

  16. Method for nanomodulation of metallic thin films following the replica-antireplica process based on porous alumina membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, J.L. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Central de Chile, Santa Isabel 1186, 8330601 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Denardin, J.C.; Escrig, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), 9170124 Santiago (Chile)

    2017-03-15

    In this paper we have introduced a method for modulation of metallic thin films by sputtering of metals on anodized aluminum templates. Using a high deposition rate during deposition of the non-magnetic metal on the Al pattern, we have separated the two metallic surfaces and, thus, imprinted a pattern of nanohills on a non-magnetic metallic film, such as Au, Ag or Cu. The morphology of the nanostructured metallic films was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Thus, we have confirmed that the ordering degree of the Al template remained after the replication process. Additionally, and as an example of use of these films, we have prepared Supermalloy thin films deposited by sputtering onto these nanostructured non-magnetic metals. The room temperature magnetic behavior of these thin films is also studied. Interestingly, we have found that when the external magnetic field is applied out of plane of the substrate, the coercivity increases linearly as we increase the radius of the nanohills. These soft magnetic films can open new opportunities for magnetic field sensor applications. - Highlights: • A very soft magnetic film is investigated on ordered nanohills. • It is possible to imprint a metallic pattern directly from the etched aluminum foil. • These nanopatterned substrates add an additional degree of freedom. • A method for modulation of metallic thin films.

  17. Characterisation of organic thin film coatings on automobile steel sheets by photothermal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, T. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Fluegge, W. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Gibkes, J. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). AG FestKoerperSpektroskopie

    2006-07-01

    In the nineties, the first generation of organic thin film coatings for corrosion protection of zinc-coated thin sheet steel have been introduced. The coating typically consists of a suspension of small zinc particles, embedded in a polymer matrix. In the scope of quality control, the characterisation of the resulting layer structure is of great interest, comprising not only a constant layer thickness and a local homogeneity of the coating, but also the depth distribution of the particles within the layer. Especially the latter parameter does have a direct influence on the spot weldability of the steel sheets. The present work shows, how photothermal methods like modulated infrared radiometry and photoacoustics can be used for a successful depth profiling of the thin film coatings. The sample surface is periodically heated using an intensitymodulated laser beam, and a thermal wave is induced in the layer system. By variation of the modulation frequency of the laser beam, the thermal diffusion length and, as a consequence, the penetration depth of the thermal wave can be adjusted. By a suitable evaluation of the amplitude and phase lag signals as a function of the modulation frequency, accurate depth profiling has been realized which can be used for a very reliable prediction of the welding properties of the product. In the first investigations, artificial samples with well defined extreme distributions of the particles have been analyzed, and in a second step, an evaluation strategy has been developed for real production samples. (orig.)

  18. (0 0 2-oriented growth and morphologies of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Dongyun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc acetate was used as a starting material to prepare Zn-solutions from solvents and ligands with different boiling temperature. The ZnO thin films were prepared on Si(1 0 0 substrates by spin-coating method. The effect of baking temperature and boiling temperature of the solvents and ligands on their morphologies and orientation was investigated. The solvents and ligands with high boiling temperature were favorable for relaxation of mechanical stress to form the smooth ZnO thin films. As the solvents and ligands with low boiling temperature were used to prepare Zn-solutions, the prepared ZnO thin films showed (0 0 2 preferred orientation. As n-propanol, 2-methoxyethanol, 2-(methylaminoethanol and monoethanolamine were used to prepare Zn-solutions, highly (0 0 2-oriented ZnO thin films were formed by adjusting the baking temperature.

  19. Fabrication of Co thin films using pulsed laser deposition method with or without employing external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsani, M.H., E-mail: Ehsani@semnan.ac.ir [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Semnan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrabad, M. Jalali [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Semnan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kameli, P. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the external magnetic field effects on growth condition during deposition processes of the Co thin films were studied. Two specimens of Co films with different condition (with and without external magnetic field) were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition method. Structural and magnetic properties of the Co thin films were systematically studied, using atomic force microscope analysis and magnetization measurement, respectively. During the deposition processes, the external applied magnetic field had been provided by a permanent magnet. The experimental results show that the external magnetic field enables one to tune the magnetic properties of the deposited thin films. To clarify this effect, using Multi-Physics COMSOL simulation environment, a study of vapor flux by applied magnetic field during deposition were performed. Comparison between experimental data and output data of the simulation show promising accommodation and approve the existence of a strong correlation between the structural and magnetic properties of the specimens, and deposition rate of Co thin films. - Graphical abstract: Simulation results of the cobalt particles tracing sputtered from the source to substrate with an external magnetic field. Convergence of the particles flux (left) and also the spiral motion of the cobalt particles (right) increase dramatically as they approach the substrate and NdFe35 magnet. - Highlights: • The external magnetic field effects on growth condition during deposition processes of the Co thin films were studied. • Structural and magnetic properties of the Co thin films were systematically studied, using atomic force microscope analysis and magnetization measurement, respectively. • The experimental results show that the external magnetic field enables one to tune the magnetic properties of the deposited thin films. • To clarify this effect, using Multi-Physics COMSOL simulation environment, a study of vapor flux by applied magnetic field

  20. Influence of film thickness and Fe doping on LPG sensing properties of Mn3O4 thin film grown by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhedkar, M. R.; Ubale, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe doped and undoped Mn3O4 thin films have been deposited by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method onto glass substrates using MnCl2 and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)) have been carried out to analyze structural and surface morphological properties of the films. The LPG sensing performance of Mn3O4thin films have been studied by varying temperature, concentration of LPG, thickness of the film and doping percentage of Fe. The LPG response of the Mn3O4thin films were found to be enhances with film thickness and decreases with increased Fe doping (0 to 8 wt. %) at 573 K temperature.

  1. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  2. Nano structured TiO2 thin films by polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, Daniel Grando; Giraldi, Tania Regina; Leite, Edson Roberto; Varela, Jose Arana; Longo, Elson

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses in optimizing setup for obtaining TiO 2 thin films by polymeric precursor route due to its advantages on stoichiometric and morphological control. Precursor stoichiometry, synthesis pH, solids concentration and rotation speed at deposition were optimized evaluating thin films morphology and thickness. Thermogravimetry and NMR were applied for precursor's characterization and AFM, XRD and ellipsometry for thin films evaluation. Results showed successful attainment of homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films with outstanding control over morphological characteristics, mean grain size of 17 nm, packing densities between 57 and 75%, estimated surface areas of 90 m 2 /g and monolayers thickness within 20 and 128 nm. (author)

  3. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film .... The electrical resistivity of CdTe films was studied in air. Figure 3 shows the variation of log ...

  4. Thin Film Microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Thin film batteries are built layer by layer by vapor deposition. The resulting battery is formed of parallel plates, much as an ordinary battery construction, just much thinner. The figure (Fig. 1) shows an example of a thin film battery layout where films are deposited symmetrically onto both sides of a supporting substrate. The full stack of films is only 10 to 15 (micro)m thick, but including the support at least doubles the overall battery thickness. When the support is thin, the entire battery can be flexible. At least six companies have commercialized or are very close to commercializing such all-solid-state thin film batteries and market research predicts a growing market and a variety of applications including sensors, RFID tags, and smarter cards. In principle with a large deposition system, a thin film battery might cover a square meter, but in practice, most development is targeting individual cells with active areas less than 25 cm 2 . For very small battery areas, 2 , microfabrication processes have been developed. Typically the assembled batteries have capacities from 0.1 to 5 mAh. The operation of a thin film battery is depicted in the schematic diagram (Fig. 2). Very simply, when the battery is allowed to discharge, a Li + ion migrates from the anode to the cathode film by diffusing through the solid electrolyte. When the anode and cathode reactions are reversible, as for an intercalation compound or alloy, the battery can be recharged by reversing the current. The difference in the electrochemical potential of the lithium determines the cell voltage. Most of the thin films used in current commercial variations of this thin film battery are deposited in vacuum chambers by RF and DC magnetron sputtering and by thermal evaporation onto unheated substrates. In addition, many publications report exploring a variety of other physical and chemical vapor deposition processes, such as pulsed laser deposition, electron cyclotron resonance sputtering, and

  5. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  6. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  7. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  8. Preparation of InSe Thin Films by Thermal Evaporation Method and Their Characterization: Structural, Optical, and Thermoelectrical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Boolchandani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The indium selenium (InSe bilayer thin films of various thickness ratios, InxSe(1-x (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, were deposited on a glass substrate keeping overall the same thickness of 2500 Ǻ using thermal evaporation method under high vacuum atmosphere. Electrical, optical, and structural properties of these bilayer thin films have been compared before and after thermal annealing at different temperatures. The structural and morphological characterization was done using XRD and SEM, respectively. The optical bandgap of these thin films has been calculated by Tauc’s relation that varies within the range of 1.99 to 2.05 eV. A simple low-cost thermoelectrical power measurement setup is designed which can measure the Seebeck coefficient “S” in the vacuum with temperature variation. The setup temperature variation is up to 70°C. This setup contains a Peltier device TEC1-12715 which is kept between two copper plates that act as a reference metal. Also, in the present work, the thermoelectric power of indium selenide (InSe and aluminum selenide (AlSe bilayer thin films prepared and annealed in the same way is calculated. The thermoelectric power has been measured by estimating the Seebeck coefficient for InSe and AlSe bilayer thin films. It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient is negative for InSe and AlSe thin films.

  9. Effect of the Precursor Solution Concentration of CuI Thin Film Deposited By Spin Coating Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Amalina Muhmmad; Atiq, A.M.; Rusop, M.

    2011-01-01

    Copper (I) Iodide is a p-type semiconductor with bandgap of 3.1 eV. It is water insoluble solid with three crystalline phases α, β, γ. In this research, the effect of precursor concentration of CuI thin film deposited by spin coating method was studied. The wide band gap p type semiconductor CuI thin film was prepared by mixing the CuI powder (ALDRICH, 98 %) with 50 ml of acetonitrile as a solvent. The CuI concentration varies from 0.025 M to 0.5 M. The speed for spin coating is 1000 rpm for 60 seconds. After the deposition the CuI thin films were annealed at 150 degree Celsius. The electrical and optical properties were characterized by current-voltage (I-V) measurement using Solar Simulator (Bukoh Keiki EP-2000) and ultraviolet visible- near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) measurement (Jasco V-670). The result shows the CuI thin film properties strongly depends on its precursor concentration. Thickness between 33.65 nm - 441.25 nm was obtained as the concentration increases. The increment of thickness affects the electrical properties which is the resistivity and conductivity of CuI thin film. For optical properties, the transmittance decreases with high concentration as high amount of CuI particle were observed in the thin films. From the transmittance, the absorption coefficient and optical band gap of CuI was determined using Taucs plot. (author)

  10. A method for thickness determination of thin films of amalgamable metals by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennun, L.; Greaves, E.D.; Barros, H.; Diaz-Valdes, J.

    2009-01-01

    A method for thickness determination of thin amalgamable metallic films by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is presented. The peak's intensity in TXRF spectra are directly related to the surface density of the sample, i.e. to its thickness in a homogeneous film. Performing a traditional TXRF analysis on a thin film of an amalgamated metal, and determining the relative peak intensity of a specific metal line, the layer thickness can be precisely obtained. In the case of gold thickness determination, mercury and gold peaks overlap, hence we have developed a general data processing scheme to achieve the most precise results.

  11. Method of preparing water purification membranes. [polymerization of allyl amine as thin films in plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Allyl amine and chemically related compounds are polymerized as thin films in the presence of a plasma discharge. The monomer compound can be polymerized by itself or in the presence of an additive gas to promote polymerization and act as a carrier. The polymerized films thus produced show outstanding advantages when used as reverse osmosis membranes.

  12. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  13. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  14. Characterization of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) thin films by microscopic and spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skonieczny, R.; Makowiecki, J.; Bursa, B.; Krzykowski, A.; Szybowicz, M.

    2018-02-01

    The titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) thin film deposited on glass, silicon and gold substrate have been studied using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), absorption and profilometry measurements. The TiOPc thin layers have been deposited at room temperature by the quasi-molecular beam evaporation technique. The Raman spectra have been recorded using micro Raman system equipped with a confocal microscope. Using surface Raman mapping techni que with polarized Raman spectra the polymorphic forms of the TiOPc thin films distribution have been obtained. The AFM height and phase image were examined in order to find surface features and morphology of the thin films. Additionally to compare experimental results, structure optimization and vibrational spectra calculation of single TiOPc molecule were performed using DFT calculations. The received results showed that the parameters like polymorphic form, grain size, roughness of the surface in TiOPc thin films can well characterize the obtained organic thin films structures in terms of their use in optoelectronics and photovoltaics devices.

  15. Evaluating the residual stress in PbTiO3 thin films prepared by a polymeric chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valim, D; Filho, A G Souza; Freire, P T C; Filho, J Mendes; Guarany, C A; Reis, R N; Araujo, E B

    2004-01-01

    We report a study of residual stress in PbTiO 3 (PT) thin films prepared on Si substrates by a polymeric chemical method. The E(1TO) frequency was used to evaluate the residual stress through an empirical equation available for bulk PT. We find that the residual stress in PT films increases as the film thickness decreases and conclude that it originates essentially from the contributions of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Polarized Raman experiments showed that the PT films prepared by a polymeric chemical method are somewhat a-domain (polar axis c parallel to the substrate) oriented

  16. Phase Composition of Samarium Niobate and Tantalate Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruncková, H.; Medvecký, Ľ.; Múdra, E.; Kovalčiková, A.; Ďurišin, J.; Šebek, M.; Girman, V.

    2017-12-01

    Samarium niobate SmNbO4 (SNO) and tantalate SmTaO4 (STO) thin films ( 100 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on alumina substrates with PZT interlayer and annealing at 1000°C. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. The improvement of the crystallinity of monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase via heating was observed through the coexistence of small amounts of tetragonal T-SmTa7O19 phase in STO precursor at 1000°C. The XRD results of SNO and STO films confirmed monoclinic M-SmNbO4 and M'-SmTaO4 phases, respectively, with traces of orthorhombic O-SmNbO4 (in SNO). In STO film, the single monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase was revealed. The surface morphology and topography of thin films were investigated by SEM and AFM analysis. STO film was smoother with roughness 3.2 nm in comparison with SNO (6.3 nm). In the microstructure of SNO film, small spherical ( 50 nm) and larger cuboidal particles ( 100 nm) of the SmNbO4 phase were observed. In STO, compact clusters composed of fine spherical SmTaO4 particles ( 20-50 nm) were found. Effect of samarium can contribute to the formation different polymorphs of these films for the application to environmental electrolytic thin film devices.

  17. Effect of sulfurization temperature on the property of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film by eco-friendly nanoparticle ink method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Honglie; Yao, Hanyu; Shang, Huirong; Tang, ZhengXia; Li, Yufang

    2017-09-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were fabricated by a low-cost nanoparticle ink method. The eco-friendly hydrophilic CZTS nanoparticles were mixed with low-cost n-propanol to form nanoparticle ink. To improve crystallinity and remove oxygen element, the CZTS thin films were sulfurized further. The effects of sulfurization temperature on the structure, morphologies, and photovoltaic performances of CZTS thin films were investigated. The results showed that the crystallinity of CZTS thin film was improved with increasing sulfurization temperature. The surface morphology studies demonstrated the formation of compact and homogenous CZTS thin film at a sulfurization temperature of 600 °C. By optimizing thickness of CZTS thin film, the CZTS thin-film solar cell with an optimal efficiency of 2.1% was obtained.

  18. Influence of grain size on structural and optic properties of PbS thin films produced by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güneri, E.; Göde, F.; Çevik, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this the paper, we use the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction technique (SILAR) chemical deposition method to fabricate good quality PbS thin films and the effects of grain size on the structural and optical properties of the thin films were determined by varying deposition cases. All of the films obtained in different dipping cycles show cubic rock-salt (NaCl) structure. The preferred orientation changed from the (111) direction to the (200) direction with increasing dipping cycles. Grain size determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) increased from 32 nm to 104 nm. Moreover, changing of atomic ratio of the thin films is determined according to the results of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The transmission of the thin films was characterized by UV–Vis measurements from 400 nm to 1100 nm. It was determined from the allowed direct graphics that the energy band gaps of the thin films shift from 1.33 eV to 1.92 eV in connection with deposition conditions. The variation in band gap may be attributed to the variation of grain size. Additionally, the refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), real (ε 1 ) and imaginary (ε 2 ) dielectric constants varied with increasing immersion cycles. - Highlights: • The effects of grain size on the structural, optical properties of PbS thin films deposited by SILAR were investigated. • The preferred orientation varied from the (111) direction to the (200) direction with changing grain size. • The energy band gaps of the thin films shift from 1.33 eV to 1.92 eV in connection with deposition conditions. • The refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary dielectric constants varied with increasing dipping cycles

  19. Influence of grain size on structural and optic properties of PbS thin films produced by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güneri, E., E-mail: emineg7@gmail.com [Department of Primary Education, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039, Turkey. (Turkey); Göde, F.; Çevik, S. [Department of Physics, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Burdur 15030, Turkey. (Turkey)

    2015-08-31

    In this the paper, we use the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction technique (SILAR) chemical deposition method to fabricate good quality PbS thin films and the effects of grain size on the structural and optical properties of the thin films were determined by varying deposition cases. All of the films obtained in different dipping cycles show cubic rock-salt (NaCl) structure. The preferred orientation changed from the (111) direction to the (200) direction with increasing dipping cycles. Grain size determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) increased from 32 nm to 104 nm. Moreover, changing of atomic ratio of the thin films is determined according to the results of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The transmission of the thin films was characterized by UV–Vis measurements from 400 nm to 1100 nm. It was determined from the allowed direct graphics that the energy band gaps of the thin films shift from 1.33 eV to 1.92 eV in connection with deposition conditions. The variation in band gap may be attributed to the variation of grain size. Additionally, the refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), real (ε{sub 1}) and imaginary (ε{sub 2}) dielectric constants varied with increasing immersion cycles. - Highlights: • The effects of grain size on the structural, optical properties of PbS thin films deposited by SILAR were investigated. • The preferred orientation varied from the (111) direction to the (200) direction with changing grain size. • The energy band gaps of the thin films shift from 1.33 eV to 1.92 eV in connection with deposition conditions. • The refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary dielectric constants varied with increasing dipping cycles.

  20. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  1. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON SULPHIDE THIN FILMS BY CHEMICAL BATH DEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available FeS2 thin films have been deposited by using low cost chemical bath deposition technique. The films obtained under deposition parameters such as bath temperature (90 °C, deposition period (90 min, electrolyte concentration (0.15 M and pH of the reactive mixture (pH 2.5. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy in order to study the structural and morphological properties. The band gap energy, transition type and absorption properties were determined using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction displayed a pattern consistent with the formation of an orthorhombic structure, with a strong (110 preferred orientation. Atomic force microscopy image showed the substrate surface is well covered with irregular grains. A direct band gap of 1.85 eV was obtained according to optical absorption studies.   Keywords: Iron sulfide, X-ray diffraction, chemical bath deposition, thin films

  2. Ultra-low power thin film transistors with gate oxide formed by nitric acid oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Kim, W. B.; Matsumoto, T.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a low temperature fabrication method of SiO 2 /Si structure by use of nitric acid, i.e., nitric acid oxidation of Si (NAOS) method, and applied it to thin film transistors (TFT). A silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) layer formed by the NAOS method at room temperature possesses 1.8 nm thickness, and its leakage current density is as low as that of thermally grown SiO 2 layer with the same thickness formed at ∼900 deg C. The fabricated TFTs possess an ultra-thin NAOS SiO 2 /CVD SiO 2 stack gate dielectric structure. The ultrathin NAOS SiO 2 layer effectively blocks a gate leakage current, and thus, the thickness of the gate oxide layer can be decreased from 80 to 20 nm. The thin gate oxide layer enables to decrease the operation voltage to 2 V (cf. the conventional operation voltage of TFTs with 80 nm gate oxide: 12 V) because of the low threshold voltages, i.e., -0.5 V for P-ch TFTs and 0.5 V for N-ch TFTs, and thus the consumed power decreases to 1/36 of that of the conventional TFTs. The drain current increases rapidly with the gate voltage, and the sub-threshold voltage is ∼80 mV/dec. The low sub-threshold swing is attributable to the thin gate oxide thickness and low interface state density of the NAOS SiO 2 layer. (authors)

  3. A simple visible light photo-assisted method for assembling and curing multilayer GO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro da Silva, Mauro Francisco, E-mail: mfps@usp.br [Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, PMT-EPUSP e Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletrônicos, PSI-EPUSP, Av. Professor Mello Moraes, n° 2463, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-030, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pontifícia Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Rua Marquês de Paranaguá, 111, CEP 01303-050, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Débora Rose de [Instituto de Criminalística da Secretaria de Segurança do Estado de São Paulo, Núcleo de Química, Rua Moncorvo Filho, CEP 05507-060, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pontifícia Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Rua Marquês de Paranaguá, 111, CEP 01303-050, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); and others

    2015-09-01

    A simple and efficient method for deposition of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) thin films onto arbitrary substrates is described. The present protocol consists in the application of radial compression to a thin layer of graphene oxide (GO) formed at the air–liquid interface of an ammoniacal dispersion of graphene oxide by continuous irradiation with visible light, that drives both the formation and curing of the film. Both infrared and near infrared luminescence spectroscopies were used for the proposition of a chemical mechanism in which the in situ singlet oxygen Δ{sup 1}O{sub 2}, generated by the photosensitization of molecular oxygen to visible light, initiates the formation and curing of the film. The GO and RGO films display Raman spectral signatures typical of graphene – based materials, with thickness of ca. 20 nm as evaluated by atomic force microscopy. The deposited films exhibited good transparency to visible light (max. 85%; 550 ± 2 nm), electrical resistivity equals to 14 ± 0.02 Ω m, sheet resistance equals to 5 kΩ sq{sup −1} with associated charge carrier mobility of 200 cm{sup 2}/V s. - Highlights: • Visible light photochemical assembly of self-supported graphene oxide thin films. • Graphene oxide photosensitizer for in situ production of singlet oxygen Δ{sup 1}O{sub 2}. • Δ{sup 1}O{sub 2}, as initiator of formation and curing of graphene oxide thin film. • Deposition of colloidal graphene oxide thin film by radial compression. • Deposition of graphene oxide thin film in arbitrary solid substrate.

  4. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation.

  5. Immersion transmission ellipsometry (ITE): a new method for the precise determination of the 3D indicatrix of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C. C.; Stumpe, J.

    2005-02-01

    The new method of immersion transmission ellipsometry (ITE) [1] has been developed. It allows the highly accurate determination of the absolute three-dimensional (3D) refractive indices of anisotropic thin films. The method is combined with conventional ellipsometry in transmission and reflection, and the thickness determination of anisotropic films solely by optical methods also becomes more accurate. The method is applied to the determination of the 3D refractive indices of thin spin-coated films of an azobenzene-containing liquid-crystalline copolymer. The development of the anisotropy in these films by photo-orientation and subsequent annealing is demonstrated. Depending on the annealing temperature, oblate or prolate orders are generated.

  6. Doping properties of ZnO thin films for photovoltaic devices grown by URT-IP (ion plating) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, K.; Sakemi, T.; Yamada, A.; Fons, P.; Awai, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsubara, M.; Tampo, H.; Sakurai, K.; Ishizuka, S.; Niki, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Uramoto-gun with Tanaka magnetic field (URT)-ion plating (IP) method is a novel ion plating technique for thin film deposition. This method offers the advantage of low-ion damage, low deposition temperatures, large area deposition and high growth rates. Ga-doped ZnO thin films were grown using the URT-IP method, and the doping properties were evaluated. The opposing goals of low Ga composition and low resistivity are required for industrial applications of transparent conductive oxide (TCO). We have carried out a comparison between the carrier concentration and Ga atomic concentration in Ga-doped ZnO thin films and found the trade-off point for optimal TCO performance. The optimum growth conditions were obtained using a 3% Ga 2 O 3 content ZnO target

  7. Er:YAB nanoparticles and vitreous thin films by the polymeric precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Lauro J. Q., E-mail: lauro@if.sc.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Grupo Crescimento de Cristais e Materiais Ceramicos, Departamento de Fisica e Ciencia dos Materiais, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos (Brazil); Ibanez, Alain; Ortega, Luc [Laboratoire de Cristallographie CNRS associe a l' Universite Joseph Fourier et a l' INPG (France); Mastelaro, Valmor R.; Hernandes, Antonio C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Grupo Crescimento de Cristais e Materiais Ceramicos, Departamento de Fisica e Ciencia dos Materiais, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The synthesis of Y{sub 0.9}Er{sub 0.1}Al{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} crystalline powders and vitreous thin films were studied. Precursor solutions were obtained using a modified polymeric precursor method using d-sorbitol as complexant agent. The chemical reactions were described. Y{sub 0.9}Er{sub 0.1}Al{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} composition presents good thermal stability with regard to crystallization. The Y{sub 0.9}Er{sub 0.1}Al{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} crystallized phase can be obtained at 1,150 {sup o}C, in agreement with other authors. Crack- and porosity-free films were obtained with very small grain size and low RMS roughness. The films thickness revealed to be linearly dependent on precursor solution viscosity, being the value of 25 mPa s useful to prepare high-quality amorphous multi-layers (up to {approx} 800 nm) at 740 {sup o}C during 2 h onto silica substrates by spin coating with a gyrset technology.

  8. Properties of fluorine and tin co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhanchang; Zhang, Pengwei; Tian, Xinlong; Cheng, Guo; Xie, Yinghao; Zhang, Huangchu; Zeng, Xiangfu; Xiao, Chumin; Hu, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •F and Sn co-doped ZnO thin films were synthesized by sol–gel method. •The effects of different F doping concentrations were investigated. •The co-doped nanocrystals exhibit good crystal quality. •The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. •The films showed high transmittance and low resistivity. -- Abstract: Highly transparent and conducting fluorine (F) and tin (Sn) co-doped ZnO (FTZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol–gel processing. The structure and morphology of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with various F doping concentrations. SEM images showed that the hexagonal ZnO crystals were well-arranged on the glass substrates and the HRTEM images indicated that the individual nanocrystals are highly oriented and exhibited a perfect lattice structure. Owing to its high carrier concentration and mobility, as well as good crystal quality, a minimum resistivity of 1 × 10 −3 Ω cm was obtained from the FTZO thin film with 3% F doping, and the average optical transmittance in the entire visible wavelength region was higher than 90%. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study confirmed the substitution of Zn 2+ by Sn ions and Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) observed for pure and FTZO thin films suggested the films exhibit a good crystallinity with a very low defect concentration

  9. Investigation of the High Mobility IGZO Thin Films by Using Co-Sputtering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Ming; Tzou, Wen-Cheng; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Liou, Yu-Jhen

    2015-01-01

    High transmittance ratio in visible range, low resistivity, and high mobility of IGZO thin films were prepared at room temperature for 30 min by co-sputtering of Zn2Ga2O5 (Ga2O3 + 2 ZnO, GZO) ceramic and In2O3 ceramic at the same time. The deposition power of pure In2O3 ceramic target was fixed at 100 W and the deposition power of GZO ceramic target was changed from 80 W to 140 W. We chose to investigate the deposition power of GZO ceramic target on the properties of IGZO thin films. From the SEM observations, all of the deposited IGZO thin films showed a very smooth and featureless surface. From the measurements of XRD patterns, only the amorphous structure was observed. We aimed to show that the deposition power of GZO ceramic target had large effect on the Eg values, Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and resistivity of IGZO thin films. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis in the thicknesses’ profile of IGZO thin films found that In and Ga elements were uniform distribution and Zn element were non-uniform distribution. The SIMS analysis results also showed the concentrations of Ga and Zn elements increased and the concentrations of In element was almost unchanged with increasing deposition power.

  10. Investigation of the High Mobility IGZO Thin Films by Using Co-Sputtering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ming Hsu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High transmittance ratio in visible range, low resistivity, and high mobility of IGZO thin films were prepared at room temperature for 30 min by co-sputtering of Zn2Ga2O5 (Ga2O3 + 2 ZnO, GZO ceramic and In2O3 ceramic at the same time. The deposition power of pure In2O3 ceramic target was fixed at 100 W and the deposition power of GZO ceramic target was changed from 80 W to 140 W. We chose to investigate the deposition power of GZO ceramic target on the properties of IGZO thin films. From the SEM observations, all of the deposited IGZO thin films showed a very smooth and featureless surface. From the measurements of XRD patterns, only the amorphous structure was observed. We aimed to show that the deposition power of GZO ceramic target had large effect on the Eg values, Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and resistivity of IGZO thin films. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS analysis in the thicknesses’ profile of IGZO thin films found that In and Ga elements were uniform distribution and Zn element were non-uniform distribution. The SIMS analysis results also showed the concentrations of Ga and Zn elements increased and the concentrations of In element was almost unchanged with increasing deposition power.

  11. Electrical and Optical Properties of GeSi−:H Thin Films Prepared by Thermal Evaporation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. J. Al-Douri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin a-GeSi1−:H films were grown successfully by fabrication of designated ingot followed by evaporation onto glass slides. A range of growth conditions, Ge contents, dopant concentration (Al and As, and substrate temperature, were employed. Stoichiometry of the thin films composition was confirmed using standard surface techniques. The structure of all films was amorphous. Film composition and deposition parameters were investigated for their bearing on film electrical and optical properties. More than one transport mechanism is indicated. It was observed that increasing substrate temperature, Ge contents, and dopant concentration lead to a decrease in the optical energy gap of those films. The role of the deposition conditions on values of the optical constants was determined. Accordingly, models of the density of states for the Ge0.5Si0.5:H thin films as pure, doped with 3.5% of Al (p-type and that doped with 3.5% As (n-type, were proposed.

  12. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells.

  13. Studies on annealed ZnO:V thin films deposited by nebulised spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malini, D. Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of annealed ZnO:V thin films deposited by nebulized spray pyrolysis technique by varying vanadium concentration are studied. Thickness of thin films varies from 1.52µm to 7.78µm. V2O5, VO2 and ZnO peaks are observed in XRD patterns deposited with high vanadium concentration and the intensity of peaks corresponding to ZnO decreases in those samples. Morphological properties were studied by analysing SEM images and annealed thin films deposited at ZnO:V = 50:50 possess dumb bell shape grains. Emission peaks corresponding to both Augur transition and deep level transition are observed in the PL spectra of the samples.

  14. Optical spectroscopy, optical conductivity, dielectric properties and new methods for determining the gap states of CuSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakr, G.B.; Yahia, I.S.; Fadel, M.; Fouad, S.S.; Romcevic, N.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The structural, optical dispersion parameters and the Raman spectroscopy have been studied for CuSe thin films. → X-ray diffraction results indicate the amorphous nature of the thermally evaporated CuSe thin films. → The refractive index shows an anomalous dispersion at the lower wavelength (absorption region) and a normal dispersion at the higher wavelengths (transparent region). → The refractive index dispersion obeys the single oscillator model proposed by Wemple and DiDomenico WDD model and the single oscillator parameters were determined. → The band gap of CuSe thin films was determined by three novel methods i.e. (relaxation time, real and imaginary dielectric constant and real and imaginary optical conductivity) which in a good agreement with the Tauc band gap value. - Abstract: The paper describes the structural and optical properties of CuSe thin films. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates that CuSe thin film has an amorphous structure. Transmittance T(λ) and reflectance R(λ) measurements in the wavelength range (300-1700 nm) were used to calculate the refractive index n(λ), the absorption index and the optical dispersion parameters according to Wemple and Didomenico WDD model. The dispersion curve of the refractive index shows an anomalous dispersion in the absorption region and a normal dispersion in the transparent region. The optical bandgap has been estimated and confirmed by four different methods. The value for the direct bandgap for the as-deposited CuSe thin film approximately equals 2.7 eV. The Raman spectroscopy was used to identify and quantify the individual phases presented in the CuSe films.

  15. Size control of nanocrystals in InGaZnO4 thin films fabricated by using the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, S. J.; Cho, J. H.; Jang, Y. H.; Kim, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    We report the structural properties of InGaZnO 4 (IGZO) thin films prepared by using the sol-gel method. The structural properties of IGZO thin films were controlled by using the film thickness and thermal annealing temperature. In this study, the crystallization temperature of amorphous IGZO thin films was observed to be about 700 .deg. C. Also, we observed that the crystal size of IGZO thin films increased as the thickness and the annealing temperature were increased. In addition, we could observe that the atomic ratio of In, Ga and Zn of the IGZO thin film was slightly different from the molar ratio of a previous IGZO sol-gel solution (In:Ga:Zn = 1:1:1) post-annealed at 900 .deg. C because In and Zn are more volatile than Ga. The study of the crystallization of amorphous IGZO thin films provides an understanding of the growth mechanisms and thermal annealing effects for IGZO nanocrystals.

  16. Handbook of thin film deposition processes and techniques principles, methods, equipment and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Seshan, Krishna

    2002-01-01

    New second edition of the popular book on deposition (first edition by Klaus Schruegraf) for engineers, technicians, and plant personnel in the semiconductor and related industries. This book traces the technology behind the spectacular growth in the silicon semiconductor industry and the continued trend in miniaturization over the last 20 years. This growth has been fueled in large part by improved thin film deposition techniques and the development of highly specialized equipment to enable this deposition. The book includes much cutting-edge material. Entirely new chapters on contamination and contamination control describe the basics and the issues-as feature sizes shrink to sub-micron dimensions, cleanliness and particle elimination has to keep pace. A new chapter on metrology explains the growth of sophisticated, automatic tools capable of measuring thickness and spacing of sub-micron dimensions. The book also covers PVD, laser and e-beam assisted deposition, MBE, and ion beam methods to bring together a...

  17. Dopamine/TiO{sub 2} hybrid thin films prepared by the liquid phase deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Tauste, David [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: davidg@qf.uab.es; Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Domingo, Concepcion [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Ayllon, Jose A. [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-30

    Liquid phase deposition method is applied to one-step production of a hybrid material composed by dopamine(DA) and TiO{sub 2} anatase. An optimized amount of the enediol derivative is added to a fluoride titania precursor aqueous solution in order to entrap this modifier within the growing TiO{sub 2}, yielding a DA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite material. Uniform, well-adhered and brown-colored thin films are deposited on indium tin oxide covered glass substrate. The DA/TiO{sub 2} hybrid material has been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. The formation of the hybrid material seems to be reasonably explained by linkage of different TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites taking advantage of both enediol and amine groups of DA.

  18. Superconducting oxypnictide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisner, Andreas; Kidszun, Martin; Reich, Elke; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig; Haindl, Silvia [IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials (Germany); Thersleff, Thomas [Uppsala University, Angstrom Laboratory (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    We present an overview on the oxypnictide thin film preparation. So far, only LaAlO{sub 3} (001) single crystalline substrates provided a successful growth using pulsed laser deposition in combination with a post annealing process. Further experiments on the in-situ deposition will be reported. The structure of the films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Transport properties were measured with different applied fields to obtain a magnetic phase diagram for this new type of superconductor.

  19. Mechanics of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-06

    and the second geometry was that of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4 mm). These two geometries were tested in thermal shock tests, and a...milder [13]. More recently, Lau, Rahman and stressa nce ntrati, tha n films of lmalla rat ve spc Delale calculated the free edge singularity for stress...thickness of 3 mm); the second geometry was that As an example of the shielding effect of thin films, we of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4

  20. Nanocomposite Thin Film of Poly(3-aminobenzoic acid and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated through an Electrochemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphawadee Netsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite thin films of poly(3-aminobenzoic acid (PABA and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs are successfully fabricated through an electrochemical method. The composite mixtures containing 50 mM of 3-aminobenzoic acid with various concentrations of MWNTs (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg/mL in 0.5 M H2SO4 were prepared and used in this study. Cyclic voltammetry (CV was used for fabrication and monitoring the electropolymerization of the composite thin films with potential range of 0 to 1100 mV for 5 cycles at scan rate of 20 mV/s on indium tin oxide- (ITO-coated glass substrate. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques were employed to characterize the obtained composite thin films. It was found that MWNTs can enhance the peak current of CV traces of the PABA/MWNTs composite thin films without affecting the UV-vis absorption spectra. The surface morphology of the thin films can be studied using AFM and SEM techniques.

  1. Investigation of the High Mobility IGZO Thin Films by Using Co-Sputtering Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chao-Ming; Tzou, Wen-Cheng; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Liou, Yu-Jhen

    2015-01-01

    High transmittance ratio in visible range, low resistivity, and high mobility of IGZO thin films were prepared at room temperature for 30 min by co-sputtering of Zn2Ga2O5 (Ga2O3 + 2 ZnO, GZO) ceramic and In2O3 ceramic at the same time. The deposition power of pure In2O3 ceramic target was fixed at 100 W and the deposition power of GZO ceramic target was changed from 80 W to 140 W. We chose to investigate the deposition power of GZO ceramic target on the properties of IGZO thin films. From the...

  2. Surface Modification of Ceramic Membranes with Thin-film Deposition Methods for Wastewater Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jahangir, Daniyal

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling, which is caused by deposition/adsorption of foulants on the surface or within membrane pores, still remains a bottleneck that hampers the widespread application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment. Recently membrane surface modification has proved to be a useful method in water/wastewater treatment to improve the surface hydrophilicity of membranes to obtain higher water fluxes and to reduce fouling. In this study, membrane modification was investigated by depositing a thin film of same thickness of TiO2 on the surface of an ultrafiltration alumina membrane. Various thin-film deposition (TFD) methods were employed, i.e. electron-beam evaporation, sputter and atomic layer deposition (ALD), and a comparative study of the methods was conducted to assess fouling inhibition performance in a lab-scale anaerobic MBR (AnMBR) fed with synthetic municipal wastewater. Thorough surface characterization of all modified membranes was carried out along with clean water permeability (CWP) tests and fouling behavior by bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption tests. The study showed better fouling inhibition performance of all modified membranes; however the effect varied due to different surface characteristics obtained by different deposition methods. As a result, ALD-modified membrane showed a superior status in terms of surface characteristics and fouling inhibition performance in AnMBR filtration tests. Hence ALD was determined to be the best TFD method for alumina membrane surface modification for this study. ALD-modified membranes were further characterized to determine an optimum thickness of TiO2-film by applying different ALD cycles. ALD treatment significantly improved the surface hydrophilicity of the unmodified membrane. Also ALD-TiO2 modification was observed to reduce the surface roughness of original alumina membrane, which in turn enhanced the anti-fouling properties of modified membranes. Finally, a same thickness of ALD

  3. Electro-Caloric Properties of BT/PZT Multilayer Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Su; Lee, Sung-Gap; Kim, Kyeong-Min

    2018-09-01

    In this study, Barium Titanate (BT)/Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) multilayer thin films were fabricated by the spin-coating method on Pt (200 nm)/Ti (10 nm) SiO2 (100 nm)/P-Si (100) substrates using BaTiO3 and Pb(Zr0.90Ti0.10)O3 metal alkoxide solutions. The coating and heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All of BT/PZT multilayer thin films show X-ray diffraction patterns typical to a polycrystalline perovskite structure and a uniform and void free grain microstructure. The thickness of the BT and PZT film by one-cycle of drying/sintering was approximately 50 nm and all of the films consisted of fine grains with a flat surface morphology. The electrocaloric properties of BT/PZT thin films were investigated by indirect estimation. The results showed that the temperature change ΔT can be calculated as a function of temperature using Maxwell's relation; the temperature change reaches a maximum value of ~1.85 °C at 135 °C under an applied electric field of 260 kV/cm.

  4. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  5. Influence of the growth parameters on TiO2 thin films deposited using the MOCVD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi M. I. B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the synthesis of TiO2 thin films by the Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD method. The influence of deposition parameters used during the growth in the obtained structural characteristics was studied. Different temperatures of the organometallic bath, deposition time, temperature and type of the substrate were combined. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy associated to Electron Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction, the strong influence of these parameters in the thin films final microstructure was verified.

  6. Influence of pH on optoelectronic properties of zinc sulphide thin films prepared using hydrothermal and spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudapur, V. H.; Bennal, A. S.; Raju, A. B.

    2018-04-01

    The ZnS nanomaterial is synthesized by hydrothermal method under optimized conditions using Zinc acetate and sodium sulphide as precursors. The Zinc Sulphide thin films are obtained by simple spin coating method with high optical transmittance. The prepared thin films are adhesive and uniform. The x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films are polycrystalline in cubic phase with the preferred orientation along (111) direction. Current-voltage curves were recorded at room temperature using Keithley 617 programmable electrometer and conductivity is calculated for the film coated on ITO by two probe method. The pH of the solution is varied by using ammonia and hydrochloric acid. The comparative studies of effect of pH on the morphology, crystallanity and optoelectronic properties of the films are studied. It is observed that the pH of the solution has large influence on optoelectronic properties. The thin film prepared with neutral pH has higher crystallanity, bandgap and conductivity as compared to the samples prepared in acidic or basic solutions.

  7. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  8. Aggregate linear properties of ferroelectric ceramics and polycrystalline thin films: Calculation by the method of effective piezoelectric medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsev, N. A.; Zembilgotov, A. G.; Waser, R.

    1998-08-01

    The effective dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants of polycrystalline ferroelectric materials are calculated from single-crystal data by an advanced method of effective medium, which takes into account the piezoelectric interactions between grains in full measure. For bulk BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 polarized ceramics, the dependences of material constants on the remanent polarization are reported. Dielectric and elastic constants are computed also for unpolarized c- and a-textured ferroelectric thin films deposited on cubic or amorphous substrates. It is found that the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 polycrystalline thin films strongly depend on the type of crystal texture. The influence of two-dimensional clamping by the substrate on the dielectric and piezoelectric responses of polarized films is described quantitatively and shown to be especially important for the piezoelectric charge coefficient of BaTiO3 films.

  9. Thin film limit correction method to the surface defective layer in low absorption spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Holovský, Jakub; Purkrt, Adam; Stuchlík, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), s. 343-346 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thin films * optical properties * hydrogenated amorphous silicon * photothermal deflection spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  10. Substrate bias effect on crystallinity of polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by pulsed ion-beam evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Fazlat; Gunji, Michiharu; Yang, Sung-Chae; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Extreme Energy-Density Research Inst., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films has been tried by a pulsed ion-beam evaporation method, where high crystallinity and deposition rate have been achieved without heating the substrate. The crystallinity and the deposition rate were improved by applying bias voltage to the substrate, where instantaneous substrate heating might have occurred by ion-bombardment. (author)

  11. Substrate bias effect on crystallinity of polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by pulsed ion-beam evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Fazlat; Gunji, Michiharu; Yang, Sung-Chae; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films has been tried by a pulsed ion-beam evaporation method, where high crystallinity and deposition rate have been achieved without heating the substrate. The crystallinity and the deposition rate were improved by applying bias voltage to the substrate, where instantaneous substrate heating might have occurred by ion-bombardment. (author)

  12. Study of CdTe and HgCdTe thin films obtained by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium telluride polycrystalline thin films were fabricated on SnO 2 -coated glass substrates by potentiostatic electrodeposition and characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDAX), optical and electrical measurements. The films dseposited at potentials more positive than -0.65 V vs.SCE were p-type but those deposited at more negative potentials were n-type. All CdTe thin films showed a band-gap energy about 1.45 eV and a large absorption coeffici-ent (a=10 5 cm -1 ) above de band edge. The addition of even small amounts of mercury to the CdTe produces higuer conductivity values and lower band-gap energies. We have prepared HgCdTe thin films where the band-gap energies ranged between 0.93 and 0.88 eV depending on the ratio of mercury to cadmium. Heat treatment at 300 0 C increases the crystalline diameter and alter the composition of the electrodeposited films, a decrease of the resistivity values was also observed. (Author)

  13. Control method and system for use when growing thin-films on semiconductor-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2001-01-01

    A process and system for use during the growth of a thin film upon the surface of a substrate by exposing the substrate surface to vaporized material in a high vacuum (HV) facility involves the directing of an electron beam generally toward the surface of the substrate as the substrate is exposed to vaporized material so that electrons are diffracted from the substrate surface by the beam and the monitoring of the pattern of electrons diffracted from the substrate surface as vaporized material settles upon the substrate surface. When the monitored pattern achieves a condition indicative of the desired condition of the thin film being grown upon the substrate, the exposure of the substrate to the vaporized materials is shut off or otherwise adjusted. To facilitate the adjustment of the crystallographic orientation of the film relative to the electron beam, the system includes a mechanism for altering the orientation of the surface of the substrate relative to the electron beam.

  14. Role of Annealing Temperature on Morphology of Alumina Thin Film Prepared by Wet-Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Pandey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we reported the compositional, morphological and structural properties of the alumina(Al2O3 thin films prepared by sol-gel technique and annealed between 800 0C to 1200 0C for 1-hour in an air atmosphere. The deposited films were polycrystalline in nature. Thin films were found uniform and adherent to the alumina substrate. Effect of annealing temperature on structural parameters such as pore size and surface area were calculated. The result indicates that pore size and surface area was decreased by increasing annealing temperature. The material characterization was done by field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and Brunaur, Emmet and Teller (BET.

  15. Characterization of nanostructured Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films grown by SILAR method at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubale, A.U., E-mail: ashokuu@yahoo.com [Nanostructure Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, VMV Road, Amravati 444604, Maharashtra (India); Belkhedkar, M.R. [Department of Physics, Shri Shivaji College, Akola 444003, Maharashtra (India); Sakhare, Y.S. [Nanostructure Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, VMV Road, Amravati 444604, Maharashtra (India); Singh, Arvind [National Centre for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Santacruz, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Gurada, Chetan; Kothari, D.C. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Santacruz, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2012-10-15

    A novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method has been successfully employed to grow nanostructured conducting nearly transparent thin films of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} on to glass substrates at room temperature using MnCl{sub 2} and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors. The structural and morphological characterizations of the as deposited Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} films have been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrograph (FESEM), EDAX, Atomic Fore Microscopy (AFM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FTIR) analysis. The optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were carried out to investigate optical band gap and activation energy of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} films deposited by SILAR method. The optical band gap and activation energy of the as deposited film is found to be 2.70 and 0.14 eV respectively. The thermo-emf measurements of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin film confirm its p-type semiconducting nature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin film is prepared by SILAR method at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film is nanocrystalline with orthorhombic structure of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The XRD, FTIR, FESEM, EDX and AFM characterization confirms nanocrystalline nature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical band gap, electrical resistivity and activation energy of film is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thermo-emf measurement confirms p-type conductivity of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} films.

  16. Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Leisch, Jennifer [Denver, CO; Taylor, Matthew [West Simsbury, CT; Stanbery, Billy J [Austin, TX

    2011-09-20

    Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

  17. IBA of ZrO2:Yb/Si thin films produced by the spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.; Ramirez, E.B.; Alonso, J.C.; Rocha, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    A spray pyrolysis method was used to produce thin films of ZrO 2 doped with different Yb concentrations on Si(1 0 0). The films of these ionic semiconductors have potential applications as solid electrolytes in modern ceramic fuel cells of second generation. The determination of the atomic composition of the films is very important because it strongly affects the chemical and thermal stability, as well as electrical properties of the films. A combination of two Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) methods was applied to obtain the atomic composition of the films. A nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) method using a low energy deuterium beam was applied to measure the oxygen content of the films. Heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HI-RBS) method using a 12 C 3+ beam was applied to measure the Yb and Zr atomic profiles of the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ellipsometry were also employed to determine structural properties and refractive index of the films, respectively. The IBA, XRD and the ellipsometry supply a wide range of information about the film layers, which can be used for qualification as well as for feedback to the films production

  18. A Method to Extract the Intrinsic Mechanical Properties of Soft Metallic Thin Films Based on Nanoindentation Continuous Stiffness Measurement Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X Y; Jiang, Z D; Wang, H R; Zhu, Q

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine accurately the intrinsic hardness of the soft metallic thin film on a hard substrate using nanoindentation, a proper methodology irrespective of several important effects the Oliver-Pharr method concerns is described. First, the original analysis data such as the load, P, and contact stiffness, S, as a function of the indentation depth, h, are acquired by means of the continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) technique. By CSM, the complicating effects including indentation creep behaviour of metal materials as well as thermal drift on the measured results are avoided effectively. Then, the hardness of film-only is calculated via a material characteristic parameter, P/S 2 , which is independent of the contact area, A, based on the constant modulus assumption method. In this way, the influences of the substrate contribution and material pile-up behaviour needn't be accounted for. Guided by above ideas, moreover, a 504 nm Au film on the glass substrate system was chosen to study. The results show that the hardness of Au thin film is 1.6±1 GPa, which agree well with the literature. While the composite hardness measured by Oliver-Pharr method is between 2∼3GPa, obviously, which is overestimated. This implies the present methodology is a more accurate and simple way for extracting the true hardness of the soft metallic thin films

  19. An On-Line Method for Thermal Diffusivity Detection of Thin Films Using Infrared Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huilong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for thermal diffusivity evolution of thin-film materials with pulsed Gaussian beam and infrared video is reported. Compared with common pulse methods performed in specialized labs, the proposed method implements a rapid on-line measurement without producing the off-centre detection error. Through mathematical deduction of the original heat conduction model, it is discovered that the area s, which is encircled by the maximum temperature curve rTMAX(θ, increases linearly over elapsed time. The thermal diffusivity is acquired from the growth rate of the area s. In this study, the off-centre detection error is avoided by performing the distance regularized level set evolution formulation. The area s was extracted from the binary images of temperature variation rate, without inducing errors from determination of the heat source centre. Thermal diffusivities of three materials, 304 stainless steel, titanium, and zirconium have been measured with the established on-line detection system, and the measurement errors are: −2.26%, −1.07%, and 1.61% respectively.

  20. A method to characterize structure and symmetry in low-resolution images of colloidal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Matthew J; Yethiraj, Anand; Beaulieu, L Y

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for characterizing particle centres, particle size and crystal symmetries with sub-pixel resolution from 8-bit digital images of colloidal thin films taken with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Digital images are converted to xyz data points by converting colour contrast to a numerical intensity. The data are then passed through a modified form of a Savitzky–Golay filter which allows particle centres to be determined. A subsequent routine is presented that, by analysing the weighted standard deviation and average intensity of the pixels along shifting rings, improves the accuracy of the detected particle centres and provides the radius of each particle. Obtaining the particle centres allows the symmetry of each particle (with respect to its neighbours) along with the mean crystal orientation to be obtained, all in one cohesive package. A key advantage of the method presented here is that it is very robust and works with both low- and high-resolution images—enabling, for example, routine quantitative analysis of SEM images. Because of the low level of user input, the method can be used to process a batch of images in order to characterize the evolution of samples. (paper)

  1. Thin films for precision optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.F.; Maurici, N.; Castro, J.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The technology of producing dielectric and/or metallic thin films for high precision optical components is discussed. Computer programs were developed in order to calculate and register, graphically, reflectance and transmittance spectra of multi-layer films. The technology of vacuum evaporation of several materials was implemented in our thin-films laboratory; various films for optics were then developed. The possibility of first calculate film characteristics and then produce the film is of great advantage since it reduces the time required to produce a new type of film and also reduces the cost of the project. (C.L.B.) [pt

  2. MgB2 thin films on silicon nitride substrates prepared by an in situ method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticone, Eugenio; Gandini, Claudio; Portesi, Chiara; Rajteri, Mauro; Bodoardo, Silvia; Penazzi, Nerino; Dellarocca, Valeria; Gonnelli, Renato S

    2004-01-01

    Large-area MgB 2 thin films were deposited on silicon nitride and sapphire substrates by co-deposition of Mg and B. After a post-annealing in Ar atmosphere at temperatures between 773 and 1173 K depending on the substrate, the films showed a critical temperature higher than 35 K with a transition width less than 0.5 K. The x-ray diffraction pattern suggested a c-axis preferential orientation in films deposited on amorphous substrate. The smooth surface and the good structural properties of these MgB 2 films allowed their reproducible patterning by a standard photolithographic process down to dimensions of the order of 10 μm and without a considerable degradation of the superconducting properties

  3. Effects of annealing temperature on the physicochemical, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured hematite thin films prepared via electrodeposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuan, Yi Wen; Chong, Meng Nan; Zhu, Tao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Chan, Eng Seng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured hematite thin films were synthesized via electrodeposition method. • Effects of annealing on size, grain boundary and PEC properties were examined. • Photocurrents generation was enhanced when the thin films were annealed at 600 °C. • The highest photocurrent density of 1.6 mA/cm 2 at 0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl was achieved. - Abstract: Hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) is a promising photoanode material for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its wide abundance, narrow band-gap energy, efficient light absorption and high chemical stability under aqueous environment. The key challenge to the wider utilisation of nanostructured hematite-based photoanode in PEC water splitting, however, is limited by its low photo-assisted water oxidation caused by large overpotential in the nominal range of 0.5–0.6 V. The main aim of this study was to enhance the performance of hematite for photo-assisted water oxidation by optimising the annealing temperature used during the synthesis of nanostructured hematite thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-based photoanodes prepared via the cathodic electrodeposition method. The resultant nanostructured hematite thin films were characterised using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for their elemental composition, average nanocrystallites size and morphology; phase and crystallinity; UV-absorptivity and band gap energy; and the functional groups, respectively. Results showed that the nanostructured hematite thin films possess good ordered nanocrystallites array and high crystallinity after annealing treatment at 400–600 °C. FE-SEM images illustrated an increase in the average hematite nanocrystallites size from 65 nm to 95 nm when the annealing temperature was varied from 400 °C to 600 °C. As the

  4. Effects of annealing temperature on the physicochemical, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured hematite thin films prepared via electrodeposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuan, Yi Wen [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Chong, Meng Nan, E-mail: Chong.Meng.Nan@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Sustainable Water Alliance, Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Zhu, Tao; Yong, Siek-Ting [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Chan, Eng Seng [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Sustainable Water Alliance, Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured hematite thin films were synthesized via electrodeposition method. • Effects of annealing on size, grain boundary and PEC properties were examined. • Photocurrents generation was enhanced when the thin films were annealed at 600 °C. • The highest photocurrent density of 1.6 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl was achieved. - Abstract: Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a promising photoanode material for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its wide abundance, narrow band-gap energy, efficient light absorption and high chemical stability under aqueous environment. The key challenge to the wider utilisation of nanostructured hematite-based photoanode in PEC water splitting, however, is limited by its low photo-assisted water oxidation caused by large overpotential in the nominal range of 0.5–0.6 V. The main aim of this study was to enhance the performance of hematite for photo-assisted water oxidation by optimising the annealing temperature used during the synthesis of nanostructured hematite thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-based photoanodes prepared via the cathodic electrodeposition method. The resultant nanostructured hematite thin films were characterised using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for their elemental composition, average nanocrystallites size and morphology; phase and crystallinity; UV-absorptivity and band gap energy; and the functional groups, respectively. Results showed that the nanostructured hematite thin films possess good ordered nanocrystallites array and high crystallinity after annealing treatment at 400–600 °C. FE-SEM images illustrated an increase in the average hematite nanocrystallites size from 65 nm to 95 nm when the annealing temperature was varied from 400 °C to 600

  5. The preparation of ZnO based gas-sensing thin films by ink-jet printing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wenfeng; Zhao Yan; Zhang Caibei

    2005-01-01

    An ink-jet printing technique was applied to prepare ZnO based gas-sensing thin films. ZnO inks with appropriate viscosity and surface tension were prepared by sol-gel techniques, and printed onto substrates using a commercial printer. After the drying and heating treatment processes, continuous ZnO films were formed and studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and by a home-made gas sensitivity measuring system. It was found that the morphology and electrical properties of the films changed significantly with the thickness of the films, which can be adjusted simply by printing on the film with increasing frequency. Highest resistance and sensitivity to acetone vapor were obtained when the film was prepared by printing only once on it. Different dopants with certain concentrations could be added into the films by printing with different dopant inks and printing frequency. All Pd, Ag, and ZrO 2 dopants increased both the resistivity and the sensitivity of the films (180 ppm acetone). This work showed that the ink-jet printing technique was a convenient and low cost method to prepare films with controlled film thickness and dopant concentration

  6. Photo-catalytic studies of transition metal doped titanium dioxide thin films processed by metalorganic decomposition (MOD) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talagala, P.; Marko, X.; Padmanabhan, K. R.; Naik, R.; Rodak, D.; Cheng, Y. T.

    2006-03-01

    We have synthesized pure and transition element (Fe, Co and V) doped Titanium oxide thin films of thickness ˜ 350 nm on sapphire, Si, and stainless steel substrates by Metalorganic Decomposition (MOD) method. The films were subsequently annealed at appropriate temperatures ( 500-750C) to obtain either anatase or the rutile phase of TiO2. Analysis of the composition of the films were performed by energy dispersive X-ray(EDAX) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry(RBS). Ion channeling was used to identify possible epitaxial growth of the films on sapphire. Both XRD and Raman spectra of the films exhibit that the films annealed at 550C are of anatase phase, while those annealed at 700C seem to prefer a rutile structure. The water contact angle measurements of the films before and after photoactivation, demonstrate a significant reduction in the contact angle for the anatase phase. However, the variation in contact angle was observed for films exposed to UV (<10^o-30^o) and dark (25^o-50^o). Films doped with Fe show a trend towards lower contact angle than those doped with Co. Results with films doped with V will also be included.

  7. An Observation of Diamond-Shaped Particle Structure in a Soya Phosphatidylcohline and Bacteriorhodopsin Composite Langmuir Blodgett Film Fabricated by Multilayer Molecular Thin Film Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiuchi, Y.; Makino, Y.

    A composite film of soya phosphatidylcohline (soya PC) and bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was fabricated by the multilayer molecular thin film method using fatty acid and lipid on a quartz substrate. Direct Force Microscopy (DFM), UV absorption spectra and IR absorption spectra of the film were characterized on the detail of surface structure of the film. The DFM data revealed that many rhombus (diamond-shaped) particles were observed in the film. The spectroscopic data exhibited the yield of M-intermediate of BR in the film. On our modelling of molecular configuration indicate that the coexistence of the strong inter-molecular interaction and the strong inter-molecular interaction between BR trimmers attributed to form the particles.

  8. Microstructure of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-07

    Proceedings, Thin film Technologies II, 652, 256-263, (1986) B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier, "In situ and air index measurements...34 SPIE Proceedings, "Optical Components and Systems", 805, 128 (1987) 11 B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier. "In situ and air index...aT , m..a, lot,, o ,,f,02,d I4 k -1-1..... autocovariance lengths, less than 0.5 um, indicate that , 514n, ob0 o p’,Ofclllc....,,o,,oy0,1- agua sblrt

  9. Effect of Deposition Time on the Photoelectrochemical Properties of Cupric Oxide Thin Films Synthesized via Electrodeposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw Chong Siang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deposition time on the physicochemical and photoelectrochemical properties of cupric oxide (CuO thin films synthesized via electrodeposition method. Firstly, the electrodeposition of amorphous CuO films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO working electrodes with varying deposition time between 5 and 30 min was carried out, followed by annealing treatment at 500 °C. Resultant nanocrystalline CuO thin films were characterised using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, photocurrent density, and photoluminescence measurements. Through FE-SEM analysis, it was observed that the surface of thin films was composed of irregular-sized CuO nanocrystals. A smaller CuO nanocrystals size will lead to a higher photoactivity due to the increase in overall catalytic surface area. In addition, the smaller CuO nanocrystals size will prolongs the electron-hole recombination rate due to the increase in copious amount of surface defects. From this study, it was revealed that the relationship between deposition time and CuO film thickness was non-linear. This could be due to the detachment of CuO thin films from the FTO surface at an increasing amount of CuO mass being deposited. It was observed that the amount of light absorbed by CuO thin films increased with film thickness until a certain extent whereby, any further increase in the film thickness will result in a reduction of light photon penetration. Therefore, the CuO nanocrystals size and film thickness have to be compromised in order to yield a higher catalytic surface area and a lower rate of surface charge recombination. Finally, it was found that the deposition time of 15 min resulted in an average CuO nanocrystals size of 73.7 nm, optimum film thickness of 0.73 μm, and corresponding photocurrent density of 0.23 mA/cm2 at the potential bias of - 0.3 V (versus Ag/AgCl. The PL spectra for the deposition time of 15 min has the lowest

  10. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.co [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Nataraj, D. [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India)

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  11. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  12. New strain measurement method at axial tensile test of thin films through direct imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong-Eun [Department of Automotive Engineering, Seoul National Uinversity of Technolgy, 172 Gongneung-2 Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun-Hyub [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Tongmyong University, 535, Yongdang-Dong, Nam-Gu, Busan 608-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong-Joong [School of Mechanical Eng., Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhyubpark@korea.com

    2008-09-07

    This paper proposes a new method for measuring strain during a tensile test of the specimen with micrometre size through direct imaging. A specimen was newly designed for adoption of direct imaging which was the main contribution of the proposed system. The structure of the specimen has eight indicators that make it possible to adopt direct imaging and it is fabricated using the same process of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices to guarantee the feasibility of the tensile test. We implemented a system for non-contact in situ measurement of strain with the specimen, the image-based displacement measurement system. Extension of the gauge length in the specimen could be found robustly by computing the positions of the eight rectangular-shape indicators on the image. Also, for an easy setup procedure, the region of interest was found automatically through the analysis of the edge projection profile along the horizontal direction. To gain confidence in the reliability of the system, the tensile test for the Al-3%Ti thin film was performed, which is widely used as a material in MEMS devices. Tensile tests were performed and displacements were measured using the proposed method and also the capacitance type displacement sensor for comparison. It is demonstrated that the new strain measurement system can be effectively used in the tensile test of the specimen at microscale with easy setup and better accuracy.

  13. Optimization of the graphical method of Swanepoel for characterization of thin film on substrate specimens from their transmittance spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkov, D A; Gavrilov, G M; Moreno, J M D; Vazquez, C G; Marquez, E

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of the popular graphical method of Swanepoel (SGM) for the characterization of a thin film on a substrate specimen from its interference transmittance spectrum depends on the subjective choice of four characterization parameters: the slope of the graph, the order number for the longest wavelength extremum, and the two numbers of the extrema used for the calculation approximations of the average film thickness. Here, an error metric is introduced for estimating the accuracy of SGM characterization. An algorithm is proposed for the optimization of SGM, named the OGM algorithm, based on the minimization of this error metric. Its execution provides optimized values of the four characterization parameters, and the respective computation of the most accurate film characteristics achievable within the framework of SGM. Moreover, substrate absorption is accounted for, unlike in the classical SGM, which is beneficial when using modern UV/visible/NIR spectrophotometers due to the relatively larger amount of absorption in the commonly used glass substrates for wavelengths above 1700 nm. A significant increase in the accuracy of the film characteristics is obtained employing the OGM algorithm compared to the SGM algorithm for two model specimens. Such improvements in accuracy increase with increasing film absorption. The results of the film characterization by the OGM algorithm are presented for two specimens containing RF-magnetron-sputtered a -Si films with disparate film thicknesses. The computed average film thicknesses are within 1.1% of the respective film thicknesses measured by SEM for both films. Achieving such high film characterization accuracy is particularly significant for the film with a computed average thickness of 3934 nm, since we are not aware of any other film with such a large thickness that has been characterized by SGM. (paper)

  14. Optimization of the graphical method of Swanepoel for characterization of thin film on substrate specimens from their transmittance spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, D. A.; Gavrilov, G. M.; Moreno, J. M. D.; Vazquez, C. G.; Marquez, E.

    2017-03-01

    The accuracy of the popular graphical method of Swanepoel (SGM) for the characterization of a thin film on a substrate specimen from its interference transmittance spectrum depends on the subjective choice of four characterization parameters: the slope of the graph, the order number for the longest wavelength extremum, and the two numbers of the extrema used for the calculation approximations of the average film thickness. Here, an error metric is introduced for estimating the accuracy of SGM characterization. An algorithm is proposed for the optimization of SGM, named the OGM algorithm, based on the minimization of this error metric. Its execution provides optimized values of the four characterization parameters, and the respective computation of the most accurate film characteristics achievable within the framework of SGM. Moreover, substrate absorption is accounted for, unlike in the classical SGM, which is beneficial when using modern UV/visible/NIR spectrophotometers due to the relatively larger amount of absorption in the commonly used glass substrates for wavelengths above 1700 nm. A significant increase in the accuracy of the film characteristics is obtained employing the OGM algorithm compared to the SGM algorithm for two model specimens. Such improvements in accuracy increase with increasing film absorption. The results of the film characterization by the OGM algorithm are presented for two specimens containing RF-magnetron-sputtered a-Si films with disparate film thicknesses. The computed average film thicknesses are within 1.1% of the respective film thicknesses measured by SEM for both films. Achieving such high film characterization accuracy is particularly significant for the film with a computed average thickness of 3934 nm, since we are not aware of any other film with such a large thickness that has been characterized by SGM.

  15. A Rapid Method for Deposition of Sn-Doped GaN Thin Films on Glass and Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-01-01

    We report the influence of Sn doping on microstructure, surface, and optical properties of GaN thin films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Sn-doped GaN thin films have been deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) at low temperature. TVA is a rapid deposition technology for thin film growth. Surface and optical properties of the thin films were presented. Grain size, height distribution, roughness values were determined. Grain sizes were calculated as 20 nm and 13 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. Nano crystalline forms were shown by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Optical band gap values were determined by optical methods and photoluminescence measurement. The optical band gap values of Sn doped GaN on glass and PET were determined to be approximately ˜3.40 eV and ˜3.47 eV, respectively. As a result, TVA is a rapid and low temperature deposition technology for the Sn doped GaN deposited on glass and PET substrate.

  16. Thin-film photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The high material and processing costs associated with single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon wafers that are commonly used in photovoltaic cells render these modules expensive. This presentation described thin-film solar cell technology as a promising alternative to silicon solar cell technology. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films along with copper, indium, gallium, and selenium (CIGS) thin films have become the leaders in this field. Their large optical absorption coefficient can be attributed to a direct energy gap that allows the use of thin layers (1-2 {mu}m) of active material. The efficiency of thin-film solar cell devices based on CIGS is 20 per cent, compared to 16.7 per cent for thin-film solar cell devices based on CdTe. IBM recently reported an efficiency of 9.7 per cent for a new type of inorganic thin-film solar cell based on a Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S, Se){sub 4} compound. The efficiency of an organic thin-film solar cell is 7.9 per cent. This presentation included a graph of PV device efficiencies and discussed technological advances in non-vacuum deposited, CIGS-based thin-film solar cells. 1 fig.

  17. Structure and optical properties of nanocrystalline NiO thin film synthesized by sol-gel spin-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, A.A. [King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Mahmoud, Waleed E., E-mail: w_e_mahmoud@yahoo.co [King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Yaghmour, S.J.; Al-Marzouki, F.M. [King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-11-03

    NiO thin film was prepared by sol-gel spin-coating method. This thin film annealed at T = 600 deg. C. The structure of NiO thin film was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical properties of the deposited film were characterized from the analysis of the experimentally recorded transmittance and reflectance data in the spectral wavelength range of 300-800 nm. The values of some important parameters of the studied films are determined, such as refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), optical absorption coefficient (alpha) and band energy gap (E{sub g}). According to the analysis of dispersion curves, it has been found that the dispersion data obeyed the single oscillator of the Wemple-DiDomenico model, from which the dispersion parameters and high-frequency dielectric constant were determined. In such work, from the transmission spectra, the dielectric constant (epsilon{sub i}nfinity), the third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility chi{sup (3)}, volume energy loss function (VELF) and surface energy loss function (SELF) were determined.

  18. Electrical and optical properties of a n-type ZnO thin film deposited on a Si substrate by using a double RF Co-sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonghyun; Choi, Wonjoon; Kim, Chaeok; Hong, Jinpyo; Nahm, Tschanguh [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hyeonsik [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Outstanding n-type ZnO thin films were prepared on Si substrates by utilizing a double RF cosputtering method. Our unique double RF technique has many attractive merits for synthesizing ZnO thin films with excellent optoelectronic properties at various temperatures. The ZnO thin films were also post-annealed at various temperatures. The X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated well-grown ZnO films with a (002) orientation and with gorgeous chemically bond states, respectively. In addition, photoluminescence measurements indicated a band-gap of 3.4 eV in the ZnO films. The scanning electron microscopy images showed that the as-grown ZnO thin film had hexagonal column shapes, such as hexagonal rods. The ZnO film exhibited an UV light response with a cut-off wavelength of {approx}370 nm at room temperature.

  19. Electroluminescence of zinc oxide thin-films prepared via polymeric precursor and via sol-gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, S.A.M.; Cremona, M.; Davolos, M.R.; Legnani, C.; Quirino, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an electroluminescent (EL) material that can emit light in different regions of electromagnetic spectrum when electrically excited. Since ZnO is chemically stable, inexpensive and environmentally friendly material, its EL property can be useful to construct solid-state lamps for illumination or as UV emitter. We present here two wet chemical methods to prepare ZnO thin-films: the Pechini method and the sol-gel method, with both methods resulting in crystalline and transparent films with transmittance >85% at 550 nm. These films were used to make thin-film electroluminescent devices (TFELD) using two different insulator layers: lithium fluoride (LiF) or silica (SiO 2 ). All the devices exhibit at least two wide emission bands in the visible range centered at 420 nm and at 380 nm attributed to the electronic defects in the ZnO optical band gap. Besides these two bands, the device using SiO 2 and ZnO film obtained via sol-gel exhibits an additional band in the UV range centered at 350 nm which can be attributed to excitonic emission. These emission bands of ZnO can transfer their energy when a proper dopant is present. For the devices produced the voltage-current characteristics were measured in a specific range of applied voltage

  20. Characteristics of CuInSe sub 2 thin films grown by the selenization method

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S D; Adurodija, F O; Yoon, K H; Song, J S

    1999-01-01

    CuInSe sub 2 thin films were formed from a selenization of co-sputtered Cu-In alloy layers which consisted of only two phases, CuIn sub 2 and Cu sub 1 sub 1 In sub 9. A linear dependence of the Cu-In alloy film composition on the Cu/In sputtering power was found. The metallic layers were selenized in vacuum or at 1 atm. A small number of Cu-Se and In-Se compounds was observed during the early stage of selenization, and single-phase CuInSe sub 2 was more easily formed in vacuum than at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, CuInSe sub 2 films selenized in vacuum showed larger grain sizes, smoother surfaces, and denser microstructures than those selenized at 1 atm.

  1. Characteristics of CuInSe2 thin films grown by the selenization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Deok; Kim, Hyeong Joon; Adurodija, Frederick Ojo; Yoon, Kyeong Hoon; Song, Jin Soo

    1999-01-01

    CuInSe 2 thin films were formed from a selenization of co-sputtered Cu-In alloy layers which consisted of only two phases, CuIn 2 and Cu 11 In 9 . A linear dependence of the Cu-In alloy film composition on the Cu/In sputtering power was found. The metallic layers were selenized in vacuum or at 1 atm. A small number of Cu-Se and In-Se compounds was observed during the early stage of selenization, and single-phase CuInSe 2 was more easily formed in vacuum than at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, CuInSe 2 films selenized in vacuum showed larger grain sizes, smoother surfaces, and denser microstructures than those selenized at 1 atm

  2. Polymer Thin Film Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A. C.; Oslanec, R.; Composto, R. J.; Vlcek, P.

    1998-03-01

    We study the dewetting dynamics of thin polystyrene (PS) films deposited on silicon oxide surfaces using optical (OM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes. Quantitative analysis of the hole diameter as a function of annealing time at 175^oC shows that blending poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) with PS acts to dramatically slow down the dewetting rate and even stops holes growth before they impinge. AFM studies show that the hole floor is smooth for a pure PS film but contains residual polymer for the blend. At 5% vol., a PS-b-PMMA with high molar mass and low PMMA is a more effective stabilizing agent than a low molar mass/high PMMA additive. The optimum copolymer concentration is 3% vol. beyond which film stability doesn't improve. Although dewetting is slowed down relative to pure PS, PS/PS-b-PMMA bilayers dewet at a faster rate than blends having the same overall additive concentration.

  3. Thin films: Past, present, future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  4. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  5. Selective laser pyrolysis of metallo-organics as a method of forming patterned thin film superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantese, J.V.; Catalan, A.B.; Sell, J.A.; Meyer, M.S.; Mance, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for forming patterned films of superconductive materials forming a solution from the neodecanoates of yttrium, barium and copper. The neodecanoates forming an oxide mixture exhibiting superconductive properties upon subsequent thermal decompositions wherein the oxide mixture is characterized by a ratio of yttrium:barium:copper of approximately 1:2:4, the solution comprising an organic solvent such as xylene; adding to the solution an appropriate dye, depositing a film of the solution having the dye onto a strontium titanate substrate; exposing selective regions of the film with an Argon laser emitting the wavelength of light, such that the exposed regions of the film become insoluble in the xylene; immersing the film into the xylene so that the soluble; unexposed regions of the film are removed from the substrate; heating the film to thermally decompose the neodecanoates into a film containing yttrium, barium and copper oxides; to promote recrystallization and grain growth of the metal oxides within the film and induce a change therein by which the film exhibits superconducting properties

  6. Development surface modification technologies - A development of new nuclear materials by thin film deposition methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jong; Lee, Min Goo; Kim, Hyun Ho; Kim, Yong Il; Kwang, Hee Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Scienec and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Pitting corrosion of TiN-coted Inconel 600 in hightemperature chloride solution was studied. To improve the pitting resistance of Inconel 600 by depositing TiN thin film, TiN must have the thickness greater than a critical value at which the characteristics of the film itself appear. E{sub np}s of the TiN-coated sample were higher than those of the bare Inconel 600 at all the solution temperature implying that the TiN film improved the pitting resistance. The heavy defects on the surface of the substrate which were incompletely covered by TiN film served as the active sites for the pit nucleation. Fine polishing reduced those defects and improved the pitting resistance of the TiN-coated Inconel 600. The pit densities of the TiN-coated samples were much lower than those of the bare Inconel 600 at low chloride concentrations. However, at high chloride concentrations the TiN film failed to improve the pitting resistance of the Inconel. The TiN film deposited by ion-plating on Stellite was studied. The X-ray analysis shows that the deposited films were only in .delta.-TiN phase and the texture was changed from (111) to (200) with the increase of N{sub 2}/Ar ratio. The impurities in TiN films were carbon and oxygen. The amounts of these impurities were decreased greatly when the substrate bias, -200 V, was applied compared to no bias. 40 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs. (author)

  7. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  8. Fabrication of yttrium-doped barium zirconate thin films with sub-micrometer thickness by a sol–gel spin coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Hanlin; Su, Pei-Chen, E-mail: peichensu@ntu.edu.sg

    2015-06-01

    A modified sol–gel process was developed for the fabrication of sub-micrometer scale yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BZY) thin film at much lower processing temperatures. The film was fabricated by direct spin-coating of the sol on a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivated Si substrate, followed by low temperature thermal annealing at 1000 °C, and single BZY phase without barium carbonate residue was obtained. A 200 nm-thick thin film without obvious through-film cracks was fabricated with optimized process parameters of sol concentration and heating rate. The stoichiometry of the BZY thin film was well-controlled and no Ba evaporation was observed due to the low processing temperature. The combination of sol–gel and spin coating method can be a promising alternative to vacuum-based thin film deposition techniques for the fabrication of sub-micrometer scale BZY thin film. - Highlights: • A sol–gel spin coating method was developed for the fabrication of BZY thin films. • The processing temperature was much lower compared to powder-based sintering. • Sub-micrometer scale BZY thin film with well-controlled stoichiometry was obtained.

  9. Structural, optical and nonlinear optical studies of AZO thin film prepared by SILAR method for electro-optic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, D. Joseph; Nirmala, W.; Kumar, K. Deva Arun; Valanarasu, S.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd.; AlFaify, S.

    2017-10-01

    Aluminium doped (i.e. 3 at%) zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were prepared by simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method with different dipping cycles. The structural and surface morphology of AZO thin films were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical parameters such as, transmittance, band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant and nonlinear optical properties of AZO films were investigated. XRD pattern revealed the formation of hexagonal phase ZnO and the intensity of the film was found to increase with increasing dipping cycle. The crystallite size was found to be in the range of 29-37 nm. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images show the presence of small sized grains, revealing that the smoothest surface was obtained at all the films. The EDAX spectrum of AZO conforms the presence of Zn, O and Al. The optical transmittance in the visible region is high 87% and the band gap value is 3.23 eV. The optical transmittance is decreased with respect to dipping cycles. The room temperature PL studies revealed that the AZO films prepared at (30 cycles) has good film quality with lesser defect density. The third order nonlinear optical parameters were also studied using Z-scan technique to know the applications of deposited films in nonlinear devices. The third order nonlinear susceptibility value is found to be 1.69 × 10-7, 3.34 × 10-8, 1.33 × 10-7and 2.52 × 10-7 for AZO films deposited after 15, 20, 25 and 30 dipping cycles.

  10. Fabrication of Cu–Zn–Sn–S–O Thin Films by the Electrochemical Deposition Method and Application to Heterojunction Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multinary semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4−O (CZTSO, which does not contain toxic elements and expensive rare metals, was fabricated by the electrochemical deposition (ECD method. CZTSO thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO- coated glass substrates by DC and two-step pulsed ECD from aqueous solutions containing CuSO4, ZnSO4, SnSO4, and Na2S2O3. The films deposited by pulsed ECD contained smaller amount of oxygen than those deposited by DC ECD. The films had band gap energies in a range from 1.5 eV and 2.1 eV. By a photoelectrochemical measurement, it was confirmed that CZTSO films showed p-type conduction and photosensitivity. CZTSO/ZnO heterojunctions exhibited rectification properties in a current-voltage measurement.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of structural, morphological and photosensor properties of Cu0.1Zn0.9S thin film prepared by a facile chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubari, Ghamdan M. M.; Ibrahim Mohammed S., M.; Huse, Nanasaheb P.; Dive, Avinash S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2018-05-01

    The Cu0.1Zn0.9S thin film was grown by facile chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on glass substrates at 60°C. The structural, morphological, photosensor properties of the as-grown thin film has been investigated. The structural and phase confirmation of the as-grown thin film was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. The FE-SEM images showed that the thin films are well covered with material on an entire glass substrate. From the optical absorption spectrum, the direct band gap energy for the Cu0.1Zn0.9S thin film was found to be ˜3.16 eV at room temperature. The electrical properties were measured at room temperature in the voltage range ±2.5 V, showed a drastic enhancement in current under light illumination with the highest photosensitivity of ˜72 % for 260 W.

  12. Nanocrystalline LiMn2O4 thin film cathode material prepared by polymer spray pyrolysis method for Li-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthick, S.N.; Richard Prabhu Gnanakan, S.; Subramania, A.; Kim, Hee-Je

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline cubic spinel lithium manganese oxide thin film was prepared by a polymer spray pyrolysis method using lithium acetate and manganese acetate precursor solution and polyethylene glycol-4000 as a polymeric binder. The substrate temperature was selected from the thermogravimetric analysis by finding the complete crystallization temperature of LiMn 2 O 4 precursor sample. The deposited LiMn 2 O 4 thin films were annealed at 450, 500 and 600 o C for 30 min. The thin film annealed at 600 o C was found to be the sufficient temperature to form high phase pure nanocrystalline LiMn 2 O 4 thin film. The formation of cubic spinel thin film was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis revealed that the thin film annealed at 600 o C was found to be nanocrystalline in nature and the surface of the films were uniform without any crack. The electrochemical charge/discharge studies of the prepared LiMn 2 O 4 film was found to be better compared to the conventional spray pyrolysed thin film material.

  13. Minerals deposited as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Leyt, D.V. de; Custo, Graciela

    1987-01-01

    Free matrix effects are due to thin film deposits. Thus, it was decided to investigate this technique as a possibility to use pure oxide of the desired element, extrapolating its concentration from analytical curves made with avoiding, at the same time, mathematical corrections. The proposed method was employed to determine iron and titanium concentrations in geological samples. The range studied was 0.1-5%m/m for titanium and 5-20%m/m for iron. For both elements the reproducibility was about 7% and differences between this method and other chemical determinations were 15% for titanium and 7% for iron. (Author) [es

  14. Imposition of defined states of stress on thin films by a wafer-curvature method; validation and application to aging Sn films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, J.; Pascher, M.; Welzel, U.; Huegel, W.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    A wafer-curvature method has been developed to subject thin films, deposited on (Si) substrates, to well defined and controllable loads in a contact-free manner. To this end, a custom-made glass pan (i.e. a roof-less cylinder with a connection piece for vacuum tubes) connected to a needle valve, a vacuum pump and a pressure gauge has been used as an experimental setup. By fixing the coated Si wafer on top of the glass cylinder and evacuating the glass cylinder to a defined low-pressure, a state of stress is imposed in the thin film due to bending of the wafer. It has been shown that the (initial) stress state of a film and its change, due to its bending with the help of the wafer-curvature method, can be analyzed accurately close to the wafer center by application of one of two independent X-ray diffraction techniques: i) conventional X-ray diffraction stress analysis (i.e. application of the well known sin 2 ψ-method) to reflections originating from the film and ii) determination of the radii of curvature by rocking curve measurements utilizing reflections originating from the substrate. The validation of this stress-imposition method has been carried out with a tungsten film of 500 nm thickness, since tungsten is known to be (practically) intrinsically elastically isotropic. Further, the method has been applied to an electro-deposited, potentially whiskering, aging Sn film of 3 μm thickness where a combination of both stress-measurement techniques is essential for the determination of initial and (by wafer bending) imposed stresses. The results of the aging experiment of the Sn film under load have been discussed with respect to the current whisker-growth model. - Highlights: • A wafer-curvature method has been developed to subject thin films to defined loads. • Two X-ray diffraction techniques were employed for the analysis of stresses. • The wafer-curvature method was validated by application to a W film. • Application to a potentially whiskering Sn

  15. Imposition of defined states of stress on thin films by a wafer-curvature method; validation and application to aging Sn films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J., E-mail: Jendrik.Stein@de.bosch.com [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly Max Planck Institute for Metals Research), Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Robert Bosch GmbH, Automotive Electronics/Engineering Assembly and Interconnect Technology (AE/EAI2), Robert-Bosch-Str. 2, 71701 Schwieberdingen (Germany); Pascher, M. [Institute for Materials Science, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Welzel, U. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly Max Planck Institute for Metals Research), Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Huegel, W. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Automotive Electronics/Engineering Assembly and Interconnect Technology (AE/EAI2), Robert-Bosch-Str. 2, 71701 Schwieberdingen (Germany); Mittemeijer, E.J. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly Max Planck Institute for Metals Research), Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute for Materials Science, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    A wafer-curvature method has been developed to subject thin films, deposited on (Si) substrates, to well defined and controllable loads in a contact-free manner. To this end, a custom-made glass pan (i.e. a roof-less cylinder with a connection piece for vacuum tubes) connected to a needle valve, a vacuum pump and a pressure gauge has been used as an experimental setup. By fixing the coated Si wafer on top of the glass cylinder and evacuating the glass cylinder to a defined low-pressure, a state of stress is imposed in the thin film due to bending of the wafer. It has been shown that the (initial) stress state of a film and its change, due to its bending with the help of the wafer-curvature method, can be analyzed accurately close to the wafer center by application of one of two independent X-ray diffraction techniques: i) conventional X-ray diffraction stress analysis (i.e. application of the well known sin{sup 2}ψ-method) to reflections originating from the film and ii) determination of the radii of curvature by rocking curve measurements utilizing reflections originating from the substrate. The validation of this stress-imposition method has been carried out with a tungsten film of 500 nm thickness, since tungsten is known to be (practically) intrinsically elastically isotropic. Further, the method has been applied to an electro-deposited, potentially whiskering, aging Sn film of 3 μm thickness where a combination of both stress-measurement techniques is essential for the determination of initial and (by wafer bending) imposed stresses. The results of the aging experiment of the Sn film under load have been discussed with respect to the current whisker-growth model. - Highlights: • A wafer-curvature method has been developed to subject thin films to defined loads. • Two X-ray diffraction techniques were employed for the analysis of stresses. • The wafer-curvature method was validated by application to a W film. • Application to a potentially whiskering

  16. Optical Properties of Fe3O4 Thin Films Prepared from the Iron Sand by Spin Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulfriska, N.; Rianto, D.; Murti, F.; Darvina, Y.; Ramli, R.

    2018-04-01

    Research on magnetic oxide is growing very rapidly. This magnetic oxide can be found in nature that is in iron sand. One of the beaches in Sumatera Barat containing iron sand is Tiram Beach, Padang Pariaman District, Sumatera Barat. The content of iron sand is generally in the form of magnetic minerals such as magnetite, hematite, and maghemit. Magnetite has superior properties that can be developed into thin films. The purpose of this research is to investigate the optical properties of transmittance, absorbance, reflectance and energy gap from Fe3O4 thin films. This type of research is an experimental research. The iron sand obtained from nature is first purified using a permanent magnet, then made in nanoparticle size using HEM-E3D with milling time for 30 hours. After that, the process of making thin film with sol-gel spin coating method. In this research, variation of rotation speed from spin coating is 1000 rpm, 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm. Based on XRD results indicated that the iron sand of Tiram beach contains magnetite minerals and the SEM results show that the thickness of the thin films formed is 25μm, 24μm and 11μm. The characterization tool used for characterizing optical properties is the UV-VIS Spectrophotometer. So it can be concluded that the greater the speed of rotation the thickness of the thin layer will be smaller, resulting in the transmittance and reflectance will be greater, while the absorbance will be smaller. Energy gap obtained from this research is 3,75eV, 3,75eV and 3,74eV. So the average energy gap obtained is 3,75eV.

  17. Characterization of organic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham; Evans, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Thin films based upon organic materials are at the heart of much of the revolution in modern technology, from advanced electronics, to optics to sensors to biomedical engineering. This volume in the Materials Characterization series introduces the major common types of analysis used in characterizing of thin films and the various appropriate characterization technologies for each. Materials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films and self-assembled monolayers are first introduced, followed by analysis of surface properties and the various characterization technologies used for such. Readers will find detailed information on: -Various spectroscopic approaches to characterization of organic thin films, including infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy -X-Ray diffraction techniques, High Resolution EELS studies, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -Concise Summaries of major characterization technologies for organic thin films, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Tra...

  18. Influence of Sn incorporation on the properties of CuInS2 thin films grown by vacuum evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zribi, M.; Rabeh, M. Ben; Brini, R.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2006-01-01

    Structural, morphological and optical properties of Sn-doped CuInS 2 thin films grown by double source thermal evaporation method were studied. Firstly, the films were annealed in vacuum after evaporation from 250 to 500 deg. C for Sn deposition time equal to 3 min. Secondly, the films deposited for several Sn evaporation times were annealed in vacuum after evaporation at 500 deg. C. The X-ray diffraction spectra indicated that polycrystalline Sn-doped CuInS 2 films were obtained and no Sn binary or ternary phases are observed for the Sn evaporation times equal to 5 min. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed the decrease of the surface crystallinity with increasing the Sn evaporation times and the annealing temperatures. The Sn-doped samples after annealing have bandgap energy of 1.42-1.50 eV. Furthermore, we found that the Sn-doped CuInS 2 thin films exhibit N-type conductivity after annealing

  19. Preparation of transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films from nanocrystalline indium tin hydroxide by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Dekany, Imre

    2011-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with well-controlled layer thickness were produced by dip-coating method. The ITO was synthesized by a sol-gel technique involving the use of aqueous InCl 3 , SnCl 4 and NH 3 solutions. To obtain stable sols for thin film preparation, as-prepared Sn-doped indium hydroxide was dialyzed, aged, and dispersed in ethanol. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was applied to enhance the stability of the resulting ethanolic sols. The transparent, conductive ITO films on glass substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The ITO layer thickness increased linearly during the dipping cycles, which permits excellent controllability of the film thickness in the range ∼ 40-1160 nm. After calcination at 550 o C, the initial indium tin hydroxide films were transformed completely to nanocrystalline ITO with cubic and rhombohedral structure. The effects of PVP on the optical, morphological and electrical properties of ITO are discussed.

  20. Supersonic cluster beams: a powerful method for the deposition of nanostructured thin films with tailored properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, P.

    2002-01-01

    By using a pulsed micro-plasma cluster source and by exploiting aero-dynamical effects typical of supersonic beams it is possible to obtain very high deposition rates with a control on neutral cluster mass distribution, allowing the deposition of thin films with controlled nanostructure. Due to high deposition rates, high lateral resolution, low temperature processing supersonic cluster beams can also be used for the micro and nano-patterning of cluster-assembled films when little or no post-growth manipulation or assembly is required. For example the nano and meso-structure of films obtained by carbon cluster beam deposition can be controlled by selecting in the beam the elemental building blocks, moreover functional properties such as field emission can be controlled and tailored. The use of supersonic cluster beams opens also new perspectives for the production of nano-structured films with novel physico-chemical and topological properties such as nano-structured carbon matrices containing carbide and transition metal particles. (Author)

  1. Morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by dip coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marouf, Sara; Beniaiche, Abdelkrim; Guessas, Hocine, E-mail: aziziamor@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Systemes Photoniques et Optiques Non Lineaires, Institut d' Optique et Mecanique de Precision, Universite Ferhat Abbas-Setif 1, Setif (Algeria); Azizi, Amor [Laboratoire de Chimie, Ingenierie Moleculaire et Nanostructures, Universite Ferhat Abbas-Setif 1, Setif (Algeria)

    2017-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by dip coating technique. The effects of sol aging time on the deposition of ZnO films was studied by using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and optical transmission techniques. The morphology of the films strongly depends on preparation route and deposition technique. It is noteworthy that films deposited from the freshly prepared solution feature indistinct characteristics; had relatively poor crystalline quality and low optical transmittance in the visible region. The increase in sol aging time resulted in a gradual improvement in crystallinity (in terms of peak sharpness and peak intensity) of the hexagonal phase for all diffraction peaks. Effect of sol aging on optical transparency is quite obvious through increased transmission with prolonged sol aging time. Interestingly, 72-168 h sol aging time was found to be optimal to achieve smooth surface morphology, good crystallinity and high optical transmittance which were attributed to an ideal stability of solution. These findings present a better-defined and more versatile procedure for production of clean ZnO sols of readily adjustable nanocrystalline size. (author)

  2. Rapid processing method for solution deposited YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawley, J.T.; Clem, P.G.; Boyle, T.J.; Ottley, L.M.; Overmyer, D.L.; Siegal, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films, deposited on buffered metal substrates, are the primary candidate for second-generation superconducting (SC) wires, with applications including expanded power grid transmission capability, compact motors, and enhanced sensitivity magnetic resonance imaging. Feasibility of manufacturing such superconducting wires is dependent on high processing speed, often a limitation of vapor and solution-based YBCO deposition processes. In this work, YBCO films were fabricated via a new diethanolamine-modified trifluoroacetic film solution deposition method. Modifying the copper chemistry of the YBCO precursor solution with diethanolamine enables a hundredfold decrease in the organic pyrolysis time required for MA/cm 2 current density (J c ) YBCO films, from multiple hours to ∼20 s in atmospheric pressure air. High quality, ∼0.2 μm thick YBCO films with J c (77 K) values ≥2 MA/cm 2 at 77 K are routinely crystallized from these rapidly pyrolyzed films deposited on LaAlO 3 . This process has also enabled J c (77 K)=1.1 MA/cm 2 YBCO films via 90 m/h dip-coating on Oak Ridge National Laboratory RABiTS textured metal tape substrates. This new YBCO solution deposition method suggests a route toward inexpensive and commercializable ∼$10/kA m solution deposited YBCO coated conductor wires

  3. Characterization and hydrogen gas sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidry, Azhar Ali [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Puskelova, Jarmila [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Plecenik, Tomas; Durina, Pavol; Gregus, Jan; Truchly, Martin; Roch, Tomas; Zahoran, Miroslav [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Vargova, Melinda [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kus, Peter; Plecenik, Andrej [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Plesch, Gustav, E-mail: plesch@fns.uniba.sk [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation and characterization of hydrogen sensing TiO{sub 2} thin films by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The annealing effect on the structure, electrical, optical and sensing properties was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best sensitivity show the films composed of rutile with grain size of {approx}100 nm. - Abstract: Thin films of titanium dioxide with thickness of about 150 nm were deposited by spin coating method on a sapphire substrate from a sol-gel and annealed at various temperatures (from 600 Degree-Sign C to 1000 Degree-Sign C). Structural, optical and hydrogen gas sensing properties of the films were investigated. The annealing temperatures from 600 to 800 Degree-Sign C led to anatase phase with grain size in the range of 14-28 nm. Further increase of the annealing temperature resulted in transformation to rutile phase with larger grain size of about 100-120 nm. The optical band gap tended to decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The estimated values of activation energy for charge transport were in the range of 0.6-1.0 eV for films annealed at temperatures from 600 Degree-Sign C to 800 Degree-Sign C and 0.37-0.38 eV for films annealed at 900 Degree-Sign C and 1000 Degree-Sign C. The films annealed at 900 Degree-Sign C and 1000 Degree-Sign C showed better hydrogen sensitivity, what can be at least partially caused by their higher surface roughness.

  4. Nanostructured Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide Thin Film Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 paste was prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal method with various precursors. Nanostructured mesoporous TiO2 thin-film back electrode was fabricated from the nanoparticle colloidal paste, and its performance was compared with that made of commercial P25 TiO2. The best performance was demonstrated by the DSSC having a 16 μm-thick TTIP-TiO2 back electrode, which gave a solar energy conversion efficiency of 6.03%. The ability of stong adhesion on ITO conducting glass substrate and the high surface area are considered important characteristics of TiO2 thin film. The results show that a thin film with good adhesion can be made from the prepared colloidal paste as a result of alleviating the possibility of electron transfer loss. One can control the colloidal particle size from sol-gel method. Therefore, by optimizing the preparation conditions, TiO2 paste with nanoparticle and narrow diameter distribution was obtained.

  5. Precipitation of thin-film organic single crystals by a novel crystal growth method using electrospray and ionic liquid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Keita; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2018-04-01

    We report an organic single crystal growth technique, which uses a nonvolatile liquid thin film as a crystal growth field and supplies fine droplets containing solute from the surface of the liquid thin film uniformly and continuously by electrospray deposition. Here, we investigated the relationships between the solute concentration of the supplied solution and the morphology and size of precipitated crystals for four types of fluorescent organic low molecule material [tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3), 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD), N,N‧-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N‧-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), and N,N-bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)] using an ionic liquid as the nonvolatile liquid. As the concentration of the supplied solution decreased, the morphology of precipitated crystals changed from dendritic or leaf shape to platelike one. At the solution concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, relatively large platelike single crystals with a diagonal length of over 100 µm were obtained for all types of material. In the experiment using ionic liquid and dioctyl sebacate as nonvolatile liquids, it was confirmed that there is a clear positive correlation between the maximum volume of the precipitated single crystal and the solubility of solute under the same solution supply conditions.

  6. Measurement of thickness of thin water film in two-phase flow by capacitance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, R.K.; Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.; Turko, B.

    1981-09-01

    A technique has been developed for measuring water film thickness in a two-phase annular flow system by the capacitance method. An experimental model of the flow system with two types of electrodes mounted on the inner wall of a cylindrical tube has been constructed and evaluated. The apparatus and its ability to observe fluctuations and wave motions of the water film passing over the electrodes is described in some detail

  7. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described [fr

  8. An alternative method to predict the S-shaped curve for logistic characteristics of phonon transport in silicon thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    The S-shaped curve was observed by Yilbas and Bin Mansoor (2013). In this study, an alternative method to predict the S-shaped curve for logistic characteristics of phonon transport in silicon thin film is presented by using an analytical prediction method. This analytical prediction method was introduced by Bejan and Lorente in 2011 and 2012. The Bejan and Lorente method is based on two-mechanism flow of fast “invasion” by convection and slow “consolidation” by diffusion.

  9. Tailoring electronic structure of polyazomethines thin films

    OpenAIRE

    J. Weszka; B. Hajduk; M. Domański; M. Chwastek; J. Jurusik; B. Jarząbek; H. Bednarski; P. Jarka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to show how electronic properties of polyazomethine thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) can be tailored by manipulating technological parameters of pristine films preparation as well as modifying them while the as-prepared films put into iodine atmosphere.Design/methodology/approach: The recent achievements in the field of designing and preparation methods to be used while preparing polymer photovoltaic solar cells or optoelectronic ...

  10. Progress in thin film techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingarten, W.

    1996-01-01

    Progress since the last Workshop is reported on superconducting accelerating RF cavities coated with thin films. The materials investigated are Nb, Nb 3 Sn, NbN and NbTiN, the techniques applied are diffusion from the vapour phase (Nb 3 Sn, NbN), the bronze process (Nb 3 Sn), and sputter deposition on a copper substrate (Nb, NbTiN). Specially designed cavities for sample evaluation by RF methods have been developed (triaxial cavity). New experimental techniques to assess the RF amplitude dependence of the surface resistance are presented (with emphasis on niobium films sputter deposited on copper). Evidence is increasing that they are caused by magnetic flux penetration into the surface layer. (R.P.)

  11. Structural and electrical characteristics of ZrO2-TiO2 thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsing; Tseng, Ching-Fang; Lai, Chun-Hung; Tung, Hsin-Han; Lin, Shih-Yao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated electrical properties and microstructures of ZrTiO 4 (ZrO 2 -TiO 2 ) thin films prepared by the sol-gel method on ITO substrates at different annealing temperatures. All films exhibited ZrTiO 4 (1 1 1) and (1 0 1) orientations perpendicular to the substrate surface, and the grain size increased with increase in the annealing temperature. A low leakage current density of 2.06 x 10 -6 A/cm 2 was obtained for the prepared films. Considering the primary memory switching behavior of ZrTiO 4 , ReRAM based on ZrTiO 4 shows promise for future nonvolatile memory applications.

  12. Investigations on the synthesis, optical and electrical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindasamy, Geetha [Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Murugasen, Priya [Department of Physics, Saveetha Engineering College (India); Sagadevan, Suresh [Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai (India)

    2016-03-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2} ) thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to examine the structure and to determine the crystallite size of TiO{sub 2} thin film. The surface morphology of the film was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).The optical properties were studied using the UV-Visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. Optical constants such as band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient and electric susceptibility were determined. The FTIR spectrum revealed the strong presence of TiO{sub 2} . The dielectric properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films were studied for different frequencies and different temperatures. The AC electrical conductivity test revealed that the conduction depended both on the frequency and the temperature. Photoconductivity study was carried out in order to ascertain the positive photoconductivity of the TiO{sub 2} thin films. (author)

  13. Investigation of ZnTe thin films grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyarchuk, B.; Savchuk, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to optimization of the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) growth condition of ZnTe films on various substrates and subsequent investigation of relevant parameters of growth process, structural, optical and electrical properties of grown films. Studies of the effect of growth parameters on the structural quality and properties of grown films were carried out. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the ZnTe films, which have been deposited at optimal substrate temperatures, were characterized by a (111) preferred orientation with large average grain size. The optical transmission and reflectance in the energy range 1.5-5.5 eV for films grown at various substrate temperatures were measured. We calculated the variation in the absorption coefficient with the photon energy from the transmittance spectrum for samples grown at various substrate temperatures. Obtained data were analyzed and the value of the absorption coefficient, for allowed direct transitions, has been determined as a function of photon energy. We found that the undoped ZnTe films, which were grown by the PLD method, are typically p-type and possess resistivity in the range of 10 3 Ωcm at room temperature. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. In situ analysis of thin film deposition processes using time-of-flight (TOF) ion beam analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, J.; Lin, Y.; Schultz, J.A.; Auciello, O.H.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1995-05-01

    Non-destructive, in situ methods for characterization of thin film growth phenomena is key to understand thin film growth processes and to develop more reliable deposition procedures, especially for complex layered structures involving multi-phase materials. However, surface characterization methods that use either electrons (e.g. AES or XPS) or low energy ions (SIMS) require an UHV environment and utilize instrumentation which obstructs line of sight access to the substrate and are therefore incompatible with line of sight deposition methods and thin film deposition processes which introduce gas, either part of the deposition or in order to produce the desired phase. We have developed a means of differentially pumping both the ion beam source and detectors of a TOF ion beam surface analysis spectrometer that does not interfere with the deposition process and permits compositional and structural analysis of the growing film in the present system, at pressures up to several mTorr. Higher pressures are feasible with modified source-detector geometry. In order to quantify the sensitivity of Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS) and Direct Recoil Spectroscopy (DRS), we have measured the signal intensity for stabilized clean metals in a variety of gas environments as a function of the ambient gas species and pressure, and ion beam species and kinetic energy. Results are interpreted in terms of collision cross sections which are compared with known gas phase scattering data and provide an apriori basis for the evaluation of time-of-flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopies (ToF-ISARS) for various industrial processing environments which involve both inert and reactive cases. The cross section data for primary ion-gas molecule and recoiled atom-gas molecule interactions are also provided. from which the maximum operating pressure in any experimental configuration can be obtained

  15. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured C-Ag Thin Films Synthesized by Thermionic Vacuum Arc Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Vladoiu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured C-Ag thin films of 200 nm thickness were successfully synthesized by the Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA method. The influence of different substrates (glass, silicon wafers, and stainless steel on the microstructure, morphology, and mechanical properties of nanostructured C-Ag thin films was characterized by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, and TI 950 (Hysitron nanoindenter equipped with Berkovich indenter, respectively. The film’s hardness deposited on glass (HC-Ag/Gl = 1.8 GPa was slightly lower than in the case of the C-Ag film deposited on a silicon substrate (HC-Ag/Si = 2.2 GPa. Also the apparent elastic modulus Eeff was lower for C-Ag/Gl sample (Eeff = 100 GPa than for C-Ag/Si (Eeff = 170 GPa, while the values for average roughness are Ra=2.9 nm (C-Ag/Si and Ra=10.6 (C-Ag/Gl. Using the modulus mapping mode, spontaneous and indentation-induced aggregation of the silver nanoparticles was observed for both C-Ag/Gl and C-Ag/Si samples. The nanocomposite C-Ag film exhibited not only higher hardness and effective elastic modulus, but also a higher fracture resistance toughness to the silicon substrate compared to the glass substrate.

  16. Effect of Different Deposition Power of In2O3 Target on the Characteristics of IGZO Thin Films Using the Cosputtering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chao Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The (In, Ga, ZnOx (IGZO thin films were deposited on glass substrates using cosputtering method in radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. Zn2Ga2O5 (Ga2O3-2 ZnO, GZO and In2O3 ceramics were used as targets and dual guns were used to deposit the IGZO thin films. Deposition power of GZO target was 80 W and deposition power of pure In2O3 target was changed from 70 W to 100 W, and the deposition time was 30 min. The effect of deposition power of In2O3 target on the crystalline, surface, electrical, and optical properties of the IGZO thin films was investigated at room temperature in a pure Ar atmosphere. The cosputtered IGZO thin films showed a very smooth and featureless surface and an amorphous structure regardless of the deposition power of In2O3 target due to the room temperature sputtering process. However, the cosputtered IGZO thin films exhibited transparent electrode properties because they had high transmittance ratio and low resistivity. The value variations in the optical band gap (Eg values of the IGZO thin film were evaluated from the plots of (αhν2=c(hν-Eg. We would also show that the deposition power of In2O3 target would have a large effect on mobility and Eg value of the IGZO thin films.

  17. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  18. Optical Simulation of Light Management in CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Bednar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an optical simulation of light management in Cu(In,GaSe2 thin-film solar cells with reduced absorber layer thickness, with the goal of absorption enhancement in the absorber layer. The light management was achieved by texturing of the substrate layer, and the conformal growth of all the following layers was assumed. Two texturing shapes have been explored: triangular and convex, with different periods and height aspect ratios. The simulations have shown that significant enhancement of absorption within the absorber layer can be achieved using the proposed geometry. The results showed that the triangular textures with small periods (100–200 nm and high aspect ratios have the most prominent effect on the enhancement of absorption within the absorber layer, although they are difficult to achieve experimentally.

  19. Size effects in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Tellier, CR; Siddall, G

    1982-01-01

    A complete and comprehensive study of transport phenomena in thin continuous metal films, this book reviews work carried out on external-surface and grain-boundary electron scattering and proposes new theoretical equations for transport properties of these films. It presents a complete theoretical view of the field, and considers imperfection and impurity effects.

  20. Nanostructured thin films as functional coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Manoj A; Tadvani, Jalil K; Tung, Wing Sze; Lopez, Lorena; Daoud, Walid A, E-mail: Walid.Daoud@sci.monash.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Nanostructured thin films is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis and sensor technologies. Highly tuned thin films, in terms of thickness, crystallinity, porosity and optical properties, can be fabricated on different substrates using the sol-gel method, chemical solution deposition (CSD), electrochemical etching, along with other conventional methods such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD). The above mentioned properties of these films are usually characterised using surface analysis techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, ellipsometry, electrochemistry, SAXS, reflectance spectroscopy, STM, XPS, SIMS, ESCA, X-ray topography and DOSY-NMR. This article presents a short review of the preparation and characterisation of thin films of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and modified silicon as well as their application in solar cells, water treatment, water splitting, self cleaning fabrics, sensors, optoelectronic devices and lab on chip systems.

  1. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  2. Nanostructured CdS thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerimova, A.; Bagiyev, E.; Aliyeva, E.; Bayramov, A. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-06-15

    Influence of solution pH on the structural and optical properties of CdS films deposited by conventional spray pyrolysis technique was studied. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PLS), and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) methods were used for the characterization of the deposited films. PL spectrum of the film deposited from the solution with pH = 10.2 shows broad-band PL emission located at 460 nm (2.7 eV), which can be attributed to the quantum size effect at grain sizes of <10 nm. No shifts of ε{sub 1} and ε{sub 2} due to the quantum size effect are observed in dielectric function spectra, what can be caused by low concentration of nano-sized (<10 nm) CdS grains. The change in the film properties with the pH of the solution was analyzed in terms of variation of grain sizes of the polycrystalline films. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  4. Study and fabrication of ZnNb2O6 thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsing; Yang, Pai-Chuan; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Yan, Shu-Fong; Tung, Hsin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Zinc niobium oxide (ZnNb 2 O 6 ) thin films were grown on ITO/glass substrate by sol-gel process. Microstructure and surface morphology of the ZnNb 2 O 6 thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties of the ZnNb 2 O 6 thin films were obtained by UV-visible recording spectrophotometer. The dependence of the microstructure, optical transmittance spectra, optical band gap on annealing temperature was also investigated.

  5. A method to measure the mean thickness and non-uniformity of non-uniform thin film by alpha-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1977-01-01

    The α-ray thickness gauge is used to measure non-destructively the thicknesses of thin films, and up to the present day, a thin film with uniform thickness is only taken up as the object of α-ray thickness gauge. When the thickness is determined from the displacement between the absorption curves in the presence and absence of thin film, the absorption curve must be displaced in parallel. When many uniform particles were dispersed as sample, the shape of the absorption curve was calculated as the sum of many absorption curves corresponding to the thin films with different thicknesses. By the comparison of the calculated and measured absorption curves, the number of particles, or the mean superficial density can be determined. This means the extension of thickness measurement from uniform to non-uniform films. Furthermore, these particle models being applied to non-uniform thin film, the possibility of measuring the mean thickness and non-uniformity was discussed. As the result, if the maximum difference of the thickness was more than 0.2 mg/cm 2 , the nonuniformity was considered to distinguish by the usual equipment. In this paper, an α-ray thickness gauge using the absorption curve method was treated, but one can apply this easily to an α-ray thickness gauge using α-ray energy spectra before and after the penetration of thin film. (auth.)

  6. Study of an X-ray fluorescence thin film method for the determination of uranium in low activity solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Guerra, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the X-ray fluorescence thin film technique to the uranium determination in nitric solutions for a concentration range from 1 g/l to 100 g/l and activity levels under 5 mCi/ml is studied. The most suited excitation and measurement conditions are also studied and the uranium matrix effect correction, which is performed through the double dilution, α U U interaction coefficient calculation and internal standard methods, is discussed. The specimen preparation is satisfactorily accomplished by using P.V.C. filters fixed on aluminium supports. (Author) 18 refs

  7. Enhanced magneto-optical Kerr effect in rare earth substituted nanostructured cobalt ferrite thin film prepared by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avazpour, L.; Toroghinejad, M.R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, H., E-mail: Shokrollahi@sutech.ac.ir [Electroceramics Group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 13876-71557 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The nanostructured rare earth doped Co-ferrite thin film was synthesized by the sol–gel method. • The coercivity of as high as 1.8 kOe is achieved for 20% substituted cobalt ferrite. • The average particle diameter of particulate film is decreasing by increasing substitute content. • Kerr spectra of films shifted to higher energies. • Kerr rotation angle increased to 1.65° for 0.1 Eu doped thin film. - Abstract: A series of rare-earth (RE)-doped nanocrystalline Co{sub x} RE{sub (1−x)} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and RE: Nd, Eu) thin films were prepared on silicon substrates by a sol–gel process, and the influences of different RE{sup 3+} ions on the microstructure, magnetism and polar magneto-optical Kerr effect of the deposited films were investigated. Also this research presents the optimization process of cobalt ferrite thin films deposited via spin coating, by studying their structural and morphological properties at different thicknesses (200, 350 nm) and various heat treatment temperatures 300–850 °C. Nanoparticulate polycrystalline thin film were formed with heat treatment above 400 °C but proper magnetic properties due to well crystallization of the film were achieved at about 650 °C. AFM results indicated that the deposited thin films were crack-free exhibiting a dense nanogranular structure. The root-mean square (RMS) roughness of the thin films was in the range of 0.2–3.2 nm. The results revealed that both of the magnetism and magneto optical Kerr (MOKE) spectra of Co{sub x} RE{sub (1−x)} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films could be mediated by doping with various RE ions. The Curie temperature of substituted samples was lower than pristine cobalt ferrite thin films. In MOKE spectra both dominant peaks were blue shifted with addition of RE ions. For low concentration dopant the inter-valence charge transfer related rotation was enhanced and for higher concentration dopant the crystal field rotation peak was enhanced

  8. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline ITO thin films on glass and clay substrates by ion-beam sputter deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, S.; Nanjo, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Wakui, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Ebina, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on clay-1 (Clay-TPP-LP-SA), clay-2 (Clay-TPP-SA) and glass substrates using ion-beam sputter deposition method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the as-deposited ITO films on both clay-1 and clay-2 substrates were a mixture of amorphous and polycrystalline. But the as-deposited ITO films on glass substrates were polycrystalline. The surface morphologies of as-deposited ITO/glass has smooth surface; in contrast, ITO/clay-1 has rough surface. The surface roughnesses of ITO thin films on glass and clay-1 substrate were calculated as 4.3 and 83 nm, respectively. From the AFM and SEM analyses, the particle sizes of nanocrystalline ITO for a film thickness of 712 nm were calculated as 19.5 and 20 nm, respectively. Optical study showed that the optical transmittance of ITO/clay-2 was higher than that of ITO/clay-1. The sheet resistances of as-deposited ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were calculated as 76.0 and 63.0 Ω/□, respectively. The figure of merit value for as-deposited ITO/clay-2 (12.70 x 10 -3 /Ω) was also higher than that of ITO/clay-1 (9.6 x 10 -3 /Ω), respectively. The flexibilities of ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were evaluated as 13 and 12 mm, respectively. However, the ITO-coated clay-2 substrate showed much better optical and electrical properties as well as flexibility as compared to clay-1.

  9. Method for making photovoltaic devices using oxygenated semiconductor thin film layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James Neil; Albin, David Scott; Feldman-Peabody, Scott; Pavol, Mark Jeffrey; Gossman, Robert Dwayne

    2014-12-16

    A method for making a photovoltaic device is presented. The method includes steps of disposing a window layer on a substrate and disposing an absorber layer on the window layer. Disposing the window layer, the absorber layer, or both layers includes introducing a source material into a deposition zone, wherein the source material comprises oxygen and a constituent of the window layer, of the absorber layer or of both layers. The method further includes step of depositing a film that comprises the constituent and oxygen.

  10. Visible and UV photo-detection in ZnO nanostructured thin films via simple tuning of solution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhra, Richa; Bharti, Bandna; Lee, Heung-No; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-11-08

    This study demonstrates significant visible light photo-detection capability of pristine ZnO nanostructure thin films possessing substantially high percentage of oxygen vacancies [Formula: see text] and zinc interstitials [Formula: see text], introduced by simple tuning of economical solution method. The demonstrated visible light photo-detection capability, in addition to the inherent UV light detection ability of ZnO, shows great dependency of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with the nanostructure morphology. The dependency was evaluated by analyzing the presence/percentage of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] using photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Morphologies of ZnO viz. nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets (NSs) and nanoflowers (NFs), as a result of tuning of synthesis method contended different concentrations of defects, demonstrated different photo-detection capabilities in the form of a thin film photodetector. The photo-detection capability was investigated under different light excitations (UV; 380~420 nm, white ; λ > 420 nm and green; 490~570 nm). The as fabricated NSs photodetector possessing comparatively intermediate percentage of [Formula: see text] ~ 47.7% and [Formula: see text] ~ 13.8% exhibited superior performance than that of NPs and NFs photodetectors, and ever reported photodetectors fabricated by using pristine ZnO nanostructures in thin film architecture. The adopted low cost and simplest approach makes the pristine ZnO-NSs applicable for wide-wavelength applications in optoelectronic devices.

  11. A fatigue test method for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films by using MEMS-based self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Maeda, R.; Itoh, T.

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, we propose a new method for the fatigue test of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films for MEMS devices by using self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers developed in our previous study. We have deposited PZT thin films on SOI wafers and fabricated the microcantilevers through the MEMS microfabrication process. In the self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers, the PZT thin films are separated in order to act as an actuator and a sensor. The fatigue characteristic of the PZT thin films can be evaluated by measuring the output voltage of the sensor as a function of time. When a sine wave of 20 Vpp and a dc bias of 10 V were applied to the PZT thin films for an actuator, the output voltage of the sensor fell down after 107 fatigue cycles. We have also investigated the influence of amplitude of the actuation sine wave and dc bias on the fatigue of the PZT thin films by using the proposed fatigue test method.

  12. A fatigue test method for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films by using MEMS-based self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T; Maeda, R; Itoh, T

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we propose a new method for the fatigue test of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films for MEMS devices by using self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers developed in our previous study. We have deposited PZT thin films on SOI wafers and fabricated the microcantilevers through the MEMS microfabrication process. In the self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers, the PZT thin films are separated in order to act as an actuator and a sensor. The fatigue characteristic of the PZT thin films can be evaluated by measuring the output voltage of the sensor as a function of time. When a sine wave of 20 V pp and a dc bias of 10 V were applied to the PZT thin films for an actuator, the output voltage of the sensor fell down after 10 7 fatigue cycles. We have also investigated the influence of amplitude of the actuation sine wave and dc bias on the fatigue of the PZT thin films by using the proposed fatigue test method

  13. Deposition and characterization of ZnS thin films using chemical bath deposition method in the presence of sodium tartrate as complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, A.; Tee, T.W.; Min, H.S.; Nagalingam, S.

    2011-01-01

    ZnS thin films were deposited on indium tin oxide glass substrate using the chemical bath deposition method. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The influence of bath temperature on the structure and morphology of the thin films was investigated at three different bath temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C in the presence of sodium tartrate as a complexing agent. The XRD results indicated that the deposited ZnS thin films exhibited a polycrystalline cubic structure. The number of ZnS peaks increased from three to four peaks as the bath temperature was increased from 60 to 80 deg. C based on the XRD patterns. From the AFM measurements, the film thickness and surface roughness were found to be dependent on the bath temperature. The grain size increased as the bath temperature was increased from 60 to 80 deg. C. (author)

  14. Superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebard, A.F.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to granular metal and metal oxide superconducting films formed by ion beam sputter deposition. Illustratively, the films comprise irregularly shaped, randomly oriented, small lead grains interspersed in an insulating lead oxide matrix. The films are hillock-resistant when subjected to thermal cycling and exhibit unusual josephson-type switching characteristics. Depending on the oxygen content, a film may behave in a manner similar to that of a plurality of series connected josephson junctions, or the film may have a voltage difference in a direction parallel to a major surface of the film that is capable of being switched from zero voltage difference to a finite voltage difference in response to a current larger than the critical current

  15. Synthesis of nanocrystalline nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4) thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, D.K.; Pawar, S.M.; Patil, P.S.; Kolekar, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → We have successfully synthesized nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 ) thin films on stainless steel substrates using a low temperature chemical bath deposition method. → The surface morphological study showed the compact flakes like morphology. → The as-deposited thin films are hydrophilic (10 o o ) whereas the annealed thin films are super hydrophilic (θ o ) in nature. → Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films could be used in supercapacitor. - Abstract: The nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 ) thin films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates using a chemical bath deposition method from alkaline bath. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), static water contact angle and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that deposited Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films were oriented along (3 1 1) plane. The FTIR spectra showed strong absorption peaks around 600 cm -1 which are typical for cubic spinel crystal structure. SEM study revealed compact flakes like morphology having thickness ∼1.8 μm after air annealing. The annealed films were super hydrophilic in nature having a static water contact angle (θ) of 5 o .The electrochemical supercapacitor study of Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films has been carried out in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The values of interfacial and specific capacitances obtained were 0.0285 F cm -2 and 19 F g -1 , respectively.

  16. Photoluminescence studies of ZnO thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates grown by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Su [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Soaram [Department of Nano Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Yeob [Holcombe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Lee, Dong-Yul [LED R and D team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Soo [Research Center of Advanced Materials Development (RCAMD), Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-O [Holcombe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Kim, Jong Su [Department of Physics, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jeong-Sik [Department of Visual Optics, Kyungwoon University, Gumi, Gyeongsangbuk-do 730-850 (Korea, Republic of); Leem, Jae-Young, E-mail: jyleem@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates were grown by the sol-gel spin-coating method. The optical properties of the ZnO thin films were investigated using photoluminescence. In the UV range, the asymmetric near-band-edge emission was observed at 300 K, which consisted of two emissions at 3.338 and 3.279 eV. Eight peaks at 3.418, 3.402, 3.360, 3.288, 3.216, 3.145, 3.074, and 3.004 eV, which respectively correspond to the free exciton (FX), bound exciton, transverse optical (TO) phonon replica of FX recombination, and first-order longitudinal optical phonon replica of FX and the TO (1LO+TO), 2LO+TO, 3LO+TO, 4LO+TO, and 5LO+TO, were obtained at 12 K. From the temperature-dependent PL, it was found that the emission peaks at 3.338 and 3.279 eV corresponded to the FX and TO, respectively. The activation energy of the FX and TO emission peaks was found to be about 39.3 and 28.9 meV, respectively. The values of the fitting parameters of Varshni's empirical equation were {alpha}=4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV/K and {beta}=4.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} K, and the S factor of the ZnO thin films was 0.658. With increasing temperature, the exciton radiative lifetime of the FX and TO emissions increased. The temperature-dependent variation of the exciton radiative lifetime for the TO emission was slightly higher than that for the FX emission. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates were grown by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two emission peaks at 3.338 and 3.279 eV were observed at 300 K Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation energies of the two peaks were 39.3 and 28.9 meV,respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exciton radiative lifetime of the two peaks increased with increasing temperature.

  17. Critical behavior of ferromagnetic Ising thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossio, P.; Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we study the magnetic properties and critical behavior of simple cubic ferromagnetic thin films. We simulate LxLxd films with semifree boundary conditions on the basis of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model with nearest neighbor interactions. A Metropolis dynamics was implemented to carry out the energy minimization process. For different film thickness, in the nanometer range, we compute the temperature dependence of the magnetization, the magnetic susceptibility and the fourth order Binder's cumulant. Bulk and surface contributions of these quantities are computed in a differentiated fashion. Additionally, according to finite size scaling theory, we estimate the critical exponents for the correlation length, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization. Results reveal a strong dependence of critical temperature and critical exponents on the film thickness. The obtained critical exponents are finally compared to those reported in literature for thin films

  18. Method for Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Prepared through Low Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition for Encapsulating Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of dense alumina (Al2O3 thin film through atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a pathway to achieve the encapsulation of organic light emitting devices (OLED. Unlike traditional ALD which is usually executed at higher reaction n temperatures that may affect the performance of OLED, this application discusses the development on preparation of ALD thin film at a low temperature. One concern of ALD is the suppressing effect of ambient temperature on uniformity of thin film. To mitigate this issue, the pumping time in each reaction cycle was increased during the preparation process, which removed reaction byproducts and inhibited the formation of vacancies. As a result, the obtained thin film had both high uniformity and density properties, which provided an excellent encapsulation performance. The results from microstructure morphology analysis, water vapor transmission rate, and lifetime test showed that the difference in uniformity between thin films prepared at low temperatures, with increased pumping time, and high temperatures was small and there was no obvious influence of increased pumping time on light emitting performance. Meanwhile, the permeability for water vapor of the thin film prepared at a low temperature was found to reach as low as 1.5 × 10−4 g/(m2·day under ambient conditions of 25 °C and 60% relative humidity, indicating a potential extension in the lifetime for the OLED.

  19. Effects of hydrothermal annealing on characteristics of CuInS{sub 2} thin films by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Yong, E-mail: sys-99@163.com [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Xue Fanghong [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li Chunyan [School of Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Qidong; Qu Zhenping; Li Xinyong [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-07-15

    CuInS{sub 2} thin films have been deposited by successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method, then annealed in a Na{sub 2}S solution (denoted as hydrothermal annealing) at 200 Degree-Sign C for different time. The effect of hydrothermal annealing on the properties of the films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical absorption spectroscopy. The XRD, TEM and SEM results indicate that well-crystallized CuInS{sub 2} films could be obtained after annealing in 0.1 mol/L Na{sub 2}S solution for 1.5 h. The annealed CuInS{sub 2} films were slightly S-rich and the direct band gap varied from 1.32 to 1.58 eV as the annealing time increased from 0.5 h to 2 h.

  20. On the Preparation and Testing of Fuel Cell Catalysts Using the Thin Film Rotating Disk Electrode Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Masanori; Quinson, Jonathan; Bucher, Jan Rudolf; Arenz, Matthias

    2018-03-16

    We present a step-by-step tutorial to prepare proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts, consisting of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) supported on a high surface area carbon, and to test their performance in thin film rotating disk electrode (TF-RDE) measurements. The TF-RDE methodology is widely used for catalyst screening; nevertheless, the measured performance sometimes considerably differs among research groups. These uncertainties impede the advancement of new catalyst materials and, consequently, several authors discussed possible best practice methods and the importance of benchmarking. The visual tutorial highlights possible pitfalls in the TF-RDE testing of Pt/C catalysts. A synthesis and testing protocol to assess standard Pt/C catalysts is introduced that can be used together with polycrystalline Pt disks as benchmark catalysts. In particular, this study highlights how the properties of the catalyst film on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode influence the measured performance in TF-RDE testing. To obtain thin, homogeneous catalyst films, not only the catalyst preparation, but also the ink deposition and drying procedures are essential. It is demonstrated that an adjustment of the ink's pH might be necessary, and how simple control measurements can be used to check film quality. Once reproducible TF-RDE measurements are obtained, determining the Pt loading on the catalyst support (expressed as Pt wt%) and the electrochemical surface area is necessary to normalize the determined reaction rates to either surface area or Pt mass. For the surface area determination, so-called CO stripping, or the determination of the hydrogen underpotential deposition (Hupd) charge, are standard. For the determination of the Pt loading, a straightforward and cheap procedure using digestion in aqua regia with subsequent conversion of Pt(IV) to Pt(II) and UV-vis measurements is introduced.

  1. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs

  2. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c. depos...

  3. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  4. Determination of refractive index, extinction coefficient and thickness of thin films by the method of waveguide mode excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, V I; Marusin, N V; Panchenko, V Ya; Savelyev, A G; Seminogov, V N; Khaydukov, E V [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-31

    We propose a method for measuring simultaneously the refractive index n{sub f}, extinction coefficient m{sub f} and thickness H{sub f} of thin films. The method is based on the resonant excitation of waveguide modes in the film by a TE- or a TM-polarised laser beam in the geometry of frustrated total internal reflection. The values of n{sub f}, m{sub f} and H{sub f} are found by minimising the functional φ = [N{sup -1}Σ{sup N}{sub i=1}(R{sub exp}(θ{sub i}) – R{sub thr}(θ{sub i})){sup 2}]{sup 1/2}, where R{sub exp}(θ{sub i}) and R{sub thr}(θ{sub i}) are the experimental and theoretical coefficients of reflection of the light beam from the interface between the measuring prism and the film at an angle of incidence θ{sub i}. The errors in determining n{sub f}, m{sub f} and H{sub f} by this method are ±2 × 10{sup -4}, ±1 × 10{sup -3} and ±0.5%, respectively. (fiber and integrated optics)

  5. Magnetic characterisation of longitudinal thin film media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dova, P.

    1998-09-01

    Magnetic characterisation techniques, as applied to longitudinal thin film media, have been investigated. These included the study of the differentials of the remanence curves, the delta-M plot and the examination of the critical volumes. Several thin film structures, which are currently used or are being considered for future media applications, have been examined using these techniques. Most of the films were Co-alloys with the exception of a set of Barium ferrite films. Both monolayer and multilayer structures were studied. It was found that the study of activation volumes provides a better insight into the reversal mechanisms of magnetic media, especially in the case of complex structures such as multilayer films and films with bicrystal microstructure. Furthermore, an evaluation study of different methods of determining critical volumes showed that the method using time dependence measurements and the micromagnetic approach is the most appropriate. The magnetic characteristics of the thin film media under investigation were correlated with their microstructure and, where possible, with their noise performance. Magnetic force microscopy was also used for acquiring quasi-domain images in the ac-demagnetised state. It was found that in all Co-alloy films the dominant intergranular coupling is magnetising in nature, the level of which is governed by the Cr content in the magnetic layer. In the case of laminated media it was found that when non-magnetic spacers are used, the nature of the interlayer coupling depends on the spacer thickness. In double layer structures with no spacer, the top layer replicates the crystallographic texture of the bottom layer, and the overall film properties are a combination of the two layers. In bicrystal films the coupling is determined by the Cr segregation in the grain boundaries. Furthermore, the presence of stacking faults in bicrystal films deteriorates their thermal stability, but can be prevented by improving the epitaxial

  6. Preparation of highly oriented Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films by sol-gel method and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalingam, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, Y. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Ravi, G., E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highly oriented thin films of Al doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) and Cu co-doped Al:ZnO (Cu/Al:ZnO) thin films were successfully deposited by sol–gel spin coating on glass substrates. The deposited films were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis and found to exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure with c-axis orientation. SEM images revealed that hexagonal rod shaped morphologies were grown perpendicular to the substrate surface due to repeated deposition process. High transmittance values were observed for pure ZnO compared to Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films. The band gap widening is caused by the increase of carrier concentration, which is believed to be due to Burstein-Moss effect due to Al and Cu doping. PL spectra of Cu/Al:ZnO thin films indicate that the UV emission peaks slightly shifted towards lower energy side. XPS study was carried out for Zn{sub 0.80}Al{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}O thin films to analyze the binding energy of Al, Cu, Zn and O. Magnetic measurement studies exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature, which may be due to the increase in copper concentration in the doped films. The ferromagnetic behavior can be understood from the exchange coupling between localized ‘d’ spin of Cu ion mediated by free delocalized carriers. - Highlights: • High quality of Al:ZnO and Cu co-doped Al:ZnO thin films were fabricated by sol–gel method. • The XRD analyses revealed that the deposited thin films have hexagonal wurtzite structure. • XPS was carried out for Zn{sub 0.80}Al{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}O films to analyze the binding energy of Al, Cu, Zn and O. • SEM studies were made for Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films. • RTFM was observed in Cu co-doped Al:ZnO thin films.

  7. Influence of Al doping on structural and optical properties of Mg–Al co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Dongyu; Lin, Kui; Xue, Tao; Cui, Can; Chen, Xiaoping; Yao, Pei; Li, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mg–Al co-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating method. • The effects of Al doping on structural and optical properties of AMZO thin films were investigated. • The EDS spectra confirmed presence of Mg and Al elements in AMZO thin films. • The optical band gap of AMZO thin films increased with Al doping concentration increased. • The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. -- Abstract: Mg–Al co-doped ZnO (AMZO) thin films were successfully deposited onto quartz glass substrates by sol–gel spin coating method. The structure, surface morphology, composition, optical transmittance, and photoluminescence properties of AMZO thin films were characterized through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy, UV–VIS–NIR spectrophotometry, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The results indicated that AMZO thin films exhibited preferred orientation growth along the c-axis, and the full width at half maximum of the (0 0 2) diffraction peak decreased first and subsequently increased, reaching a minimum of approximately 0.275° at 3% Al content. The calculated crystallite size increased from 30.21 nm to 40.73 nm. Al doping content increased from 1% to 3% and subsequently reached 19.33 nm for Al doping content at 5%. The change in lattice parameters was demonstrated by the c/a ratio, residual stress, bond length, and volume per unit cell. EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Mg and Al elements in ZnO thin films. The atomic percentage of Mg and Al elements was nearly equal to their nominal stoichiometry within the experimental error. In addition, the optical transmittance of AMZO thin films was over 85% in the visible region, and the optical band gap increased with increasing Al doping concentration. Room temperature photoluminescence showed ultraviolet emission peak and defect emission peak. The defect emission peak of

  8. A comparison of different spray chemical vapour deposition methods for the production of undoped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Jerome; Bouteville, Anne; Hamilton, Jeff; Pemble, Martyn E.; Povey, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Two different methods of spray chemical vapour deposition have been used to grow ZnO thin films on glass substrates from zinc acetate solution over the temperature range 400 o C to 550 o C. The first of these is named InfraRed Assisted Spray Chemical Vapour Deposition (IRAS-CVD). This method uses intense IR radiation to heat not only the substrate but also the gaseous species entering the reactor. The second method is a more conventional approach known simply as ultrasonic spray CVD, which utilises IR lamps to heat the substrate only. By way of comparing these two approaches we present data obtained from contact angle measurements, crystallinity and mean crystallite size, photoluminescence, electrical and optical properties. Additionally we have examined the role of annealing within the IRAS-CVD reactor environment.

  9. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T. O.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  10. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  11. The effect of the film thickness and doping content of SnO2:F thin films prepared by the ultrasonic spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal Achour; Benramache Said; Benhaoua Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of film thickness and doping content on the optical and electrical properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide. Tin (II) chloride dehydrate, ammonium fluoride dehydrate, ethanol and HCl were used as the starting materials, dopant source, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The doped films were deposited on a glass substrate at different concentrations varying between 0 and 5 wt% using an ultrasonic spray technique. The SnO 2 :F thin films were deposited at a 350 °C pending time (5, 15, 60 and 90 s). The average transmission was about 80%, and the films were thus transparent in the visible region. The optical energy gap of the doped films with 2.5 wt% F was found to increase from 3.47 to 3.89 eV with increasing film thickness, and increased after doping at 5 wt%. The decrease in the Urbach energy of the SnO 2 :F thin films indicated a decrease in the defects. The increase in the electrical conductivity of the films reached maximum values of 278.9 and 281.9 (Ω·cm) −1 for 2.5 and 5 wt% F, respectively, indicating that the films exhibited an n-type semiconducting nature. A systematic study on the influence of film thickness and doping content on the properties of SnO 2 :F thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray was reported. (semiconductor materials)

  12. Preparation of thin vyns films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Chedin, P.; Gizon, A.

    1965-01-01

    The fabrication of thin films of VYNS resin (copolymer of chloride and vinyl acetate) of superficial density from 3 to 50 μg/cm 2 with solutions in cyclohexanone is presented. Study and discussion of some properties compared with formvar film (polyvinyl formals). It appears that both can be used as source supports but formvar films are prepared more easily and more quickly, in addition they withstand higher temperatures. The main quality of VYNS is that they can be easily separated even several days after their preparation [fr

  13. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  14. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  15. Preparation and characterization of vanadium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, O.; Plesch, G. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Roch, T. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    The thermotropic VO{sub 2} films have many applications, since they exhibit semiconductor-conductor switching properties at temperature around 70 grad C. Vanadium oxide thin films were prepared via sol-gel method. Spin coater was used to depose these films on Si/SiO{sub 2} and lime glass substrates. Thin films of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be reduced to metastable VO{sub 2} thin films at the temperature of 450 grad C under the pressure of 10{sup -2} Pa. These films are then converted to thermotropic VO{sub 2} at 700 grad C in argon under normal pressure. (authors)

  16. Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Vu Van; Phuong, Duong Dai; Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Hieu, Ho Khac

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films with face-centered cubic structure at ambient conditions were investigated using the statistical moment method including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. The analytical expressions of Helmholtz free energy, lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations of thermodynamic properties have been performed for Au and Al thin films and compared with those of bulk metals. This research proposes that thermodynamic quantities of thin films approach the values of bulk when the thickness of thin film is about 70 nm. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of thin films were investigated using the moment method. • Expressions of Helmholtz energy, expansion coefficient, specific heats were derived. • Calculations for Au, Al thin films were performed and compared with those of bulks

  17. Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Vu Van [Vietnam Education Publishing House, 81 Tran Hung Dao, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phuong, Duong Dai [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hoa, Nguyen Thi [University of Transport and Communications, Lang Thuong, Dong Da, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hieu, Ho Khac, E-mail: hieuhk@duytan.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam)

    2015-05-29

    The thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films with face-centered cubic structure at ambient conditions were investigated using the statistical moment method including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. The analytical expressions of Helmholtz free energy, lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations of thermodynamic properties have been performed for Au and Al thin films and compared with those of bulk metals. This research proposes that thermodynamic quantities of thin films approach the values of bulk when the thickness of thin film is about 70 nm. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of thin films were investigated using the moment method. • Expressions of Helmholtz energy, expansion coefficient, specific heats were derived. • Calculations for Au, Al thin films were performed and compared with those of bulks.

  18. Nanogravimetric studies of tungsten oxide thin films obtained by the polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, V.C.; Santos, M.C.; Bulhoes, L.O.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the intercalation/de-intercalation process of Li + ions in the tungsten oxide matrix was investigated. The reaction mechanism involved was also investigated. The WO 3 films, prepared by the polymeric precursor method, were deposited on a Pt covered quartz crystal using the dip-coating technique. The electrolyte was 0.1 mol L -1 LiClO 4 in acetonitrile. The morphology and structure of the deposit was accomplished by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. In the electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance results, it was observed that the mass transport as well as the kinetic processes involved are facilitated in the films cycled at lower potential sweep-rates. The mass variation data as a function of the charge variations in the anodic and cathodic regions indicate the participation of solvent molecules (acetonitrile) during the Li + ion intercalation/de-intercalation process. This was confirmed by the development of a model of the species flux as a function of the potential

  19. Microscratch testing method for systematic evaluation of the adhesion of atomic layer deposited thin films on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpi, Lauri, E-mail: Lauri.Kilpi@vtt.fi; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Vaajoki, Antti; Puurunen, Riikka L.; Ronkainen, Helena [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Malm, Jari [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, Jyväskylä 40014 (Finland); Sintonen, Sakari [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 AALTO (Finland); Tuominen, Marko [ASM Microchemistry Oy, Pietari Kalmin katu 1 F 2, FIN-00560 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-01-15

    The scratch test method is widely used for adhesion evaluation of thin films and coatings. Usual critical load criteria designed for scratch testing of coatings were not applicable to thin atomic layer deposition (ALD) films on silicon wafers. Thus, the bases for critical load evaluation were established and the critical loads suitable for ALD coating adhesion evaluation on silicon wafers were determined in this paper as L{sub CSi1}, L{sub CSi2}, L{sub CALD1}, and L{sub CALD2}, representing the failure points of the silicon substrate and the coating delamination points of the ALD coating. The adhesion performance of the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, TiN, and TaCN+Ru coatings with a thickness range between 20 and 600 nm and deposition temperature between 30 and 410 °C on silicon wafers was investigated. In addition, the impact of the annealing process after deposition on adhesion was evaluated for selected cases. The tests carried out using scratch and Scotch tape test showed that the coating deposition and annealing temperature, thickness of the coating, and surface pretreatments of the Si wafer had an impact on the adhesion performance of the ALD coatings on the silicon wafer. There was also an improved load carrying capacity due to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the magnitude of which depended on the coating thickness and the deposition temperature. The tape tests were carried out for selected coatings as a comparison. The results show that the scratch test is a useful and applicable tool for adhesion evaluation of ALD coatings, even when carried out for thin (20 nm thick) coatings.

  20. Magnetite thin films: A simulational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the study of the magnetic properties of magnetite thin films is addressed by means of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model. We simulate LxLxd magnetite thin films (d being the film thickness and L the transversal linear dimension) with periodic boundary conditions along transversal directions and free boundary conditions along d direction. In our model, both the three-dimensional inverse spinel structure and the interactions scheme involving tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been considered in a realistic way. Results reveal a power-law dependence of the critical temperature with the film thickness accordingly by an exponent ν=0.81 and ruled out by finite-size scaling theory. Estimates for the critical exponents of the magnetization and the specific heat are finally presented and discussed

  1. The Relation Between Structure-Performance of Thin Film Composite Membranes and the Tools Used for Their Fabrication Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briceno, Kelly; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Guo, Haofei

    For more than 30 years polyimides (PA) have been one of the main polymers for the fabrication of thin film composite membranes. Several researchers have assessed the main fabrication variables that influence the final structure of the polyamide layers including monomer concentration, solvents....... A polymeric support is initially brought in contact with the aqueous phase containing m-phenylene diamine (MPD) monomer and then with the organic phase containing the trimesoly chloride (TMC) monomer in order to promote PA formation through interfacial polymerization. The critical step occurs immediately......, or for that matter the absence of any tool using only water evaporation. In this work different methods of avoiding drop formation during the membrane preparation are tested to evaluate how the preparation methods influence the membrane structure and the final membrane properties. Understanding the membrane...

  2. Structural and optical properties of Cu2SnS3 thin films obtained by SILAR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut ASTAM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cu2SnS3 thin films were obtained by annealing of SILAR deposited films at 350°C for 1 hour in sulphur atmosphere. The structural and optical properties of the films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX and optical absorption measurements, before and after annealing. The XRD results showed that the annealing process transformed the crystal structure of the films from amorphous to polycrystalline. SEM images revealed that the surface morphology of films was changed after annealing while EDAX analysis showed that the films were excess in copper concentration before and after annealing. Optical absorption measurements confirmed that the direct band gap of films decreased from 1.27 eV to 1.21 eV with annealing.

  3. Analysis of Crystal Structure of Fe3O4 Thin Films Based on Iron Sand Growth by Spin Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianto, D.; Yulfriska, N.; Murti, F.; Hidayati, H.; Ramli, R.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, iron sand used as one of base materials in the steel industry. However, the content of iron sand can be used as starting materials in sensor technology in the form of thin films. In this paper, we report the analysis of crystal structure of magnetite thin film based on iron sand from Tiram’s Beach. The magnetic content of sand separated by a permanent magnet, then it was milled at 30 hours milling time. In order to increase the purity of magnetite, it washed after milling using aquades under magnetic separation by a magnet permanent. The thin film has been prepared using iron (III) nitrate by sol–gel technique. The precursor is resulted by dissolving magnetite in oxalic acid and nitric acid. Then, solution of iron (III) nitrate dissolved in ethylene glycol was applied on glass substrates by spin coating. The X-Ray Diffraction is operated thin film characterization. The structure of magnetite has been studied based on X-Ray Peaks that correspond to magnetite content of thin films.

  4. Novel Evaporation Process for Deposition of Kesterite Thin Films Synthesized by Solvothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Estrada-Ayub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kesterite, a quaternary compound of Cu2ZnSnS4, is a promising option as a material absorber to reduce the cost of photovoltaic solar cells. The solvothermal method is a way to synthesize nanoparticles of this material. In this work, once synthesized, particles were deposited on a substrate through evaporation, and their morphological, structural, and optical properties were studied. Results show that changes of precursor ratios during solvothermal synthesis result in a modification of particle morphology but not on its size. The deposition of already synthesized kesterite through evaporation preserves kesterite structure and permits the formation of a homogenous film on a substrate. Optical reflectance and transmittance measurements allowed estimating the band-gap energy between 1.41 and 1.46 eV for representative samples, which is near the optimum for the absorber material.

  5. Formation of thin film like assembly of exfoliated C3N4 nanoflakes by solvent non-evaporative method using centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejasvi, Ravi; Basu, Suddhasatwa

    2017-12-01

    A simple method for depositing a thin film of nanomaterial on a substrate using centrifugation technique has been developed, whereby solvent evaporation is prevented and solvent reuse is possible. The centrifuge technique of deposition yields uniform, smooth thin film irrespective of substrate surface texture. The deposited TiO2/eC3N4 film studied, through field emission scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and optical surface profilometer, shows variation in surface roughness on the basis of centrifugation speeds. Initially film coverage improves and surface roughness decreases with the increase in rpm of the centrifuge and the surface roughness slightly increases with further increase in rpm. The photoelectrochemical studies of TiO2/eC3N4 films suggest that the centrifuge technique forms better heterojunctions compared to that by spin coating technique leading to enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting.

  6. Highly uniform resistive switching properties of amorphous InGaZnO thin films prepared by a low temperature photochemical solution deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zou, Lilan; Chen, Xinman; Qin, Ni; Li, Shuwei; Bao, Dinghua

    2014-04-09

    We report on highly uniform resistive switching properties of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin films. The thin films were fabricated by a low temperature photochemical solution deposition method, a simple process combining chemical solution deposition and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation treatment. The a-IGZO based resistive switching devices exhibit long retention, good endurance, uniform switching voltages, and stable distribution of low and high resistance states. Electrical conduction mechanisms were also discussed on the basis of the current-voltage characteristics and their temperature dependence. The excellent resistive switching properties can be attributed to the reduction of organic- and hydrogen-based elements and the formation of enhanced metal-oxide bonding and metal-hydroxide bonding networks by hydrogen bonding due to UV irradiation, based on Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis of the thin films. This study suggests that a-IGZO thin films have potential applications in resistive random access memory and the low temperature photochemical solution deposition method can find the opportunity for further achieving system on panel applications if the a-IGZO resistive switching cells were integrated with a-IGZO thin film transistors.

  7. Surface morphology analysis of nanostructured (Ba sub x , Sr sub 1 sub - sub x)TiO sub 3 thin films using fractal method

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, K J; Choi, W K; Cho, J C

    2003-01-01

    Based on the fractal theory, this paper uses scanning electron microscopy images to investigate the roughness characteristics of nanostructured (Ba Sr)TiO sub 3 thin films by sol-gel methods. The percentage grain area, surface fractal dimensions and 3D image are evaluated using image analysis methods. The thickness of the (Ba Sr)TiO sub 3 thin films was 260-280 nm. The surface fractal dimensions were increased with strontium doping, and grain area, were decreased with it. The fractal dimension and the grain areas of the (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3)TiO sub 3 thin films were 1.81 and 81%. Based on the image analysis, the roughness height of 3D images as 256 levels was about 3 nm and its distribution was about 35-40% for the (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 8 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 2)TiO sub 3 and (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3)TiO sub 3 thin films. The roughness height of the BST thin films was distributed from 35% to 40% ranging from 3 nm to 4 nm. By increasing the strontium doping, the roughness hei...

  8. Methods to ease the release of thin polydimethylsiloxane films from difficult substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    permissible thickness is around 25–50 µm. The relatively small Young's modulus for these elastomers is a requirement for actuation capabilities. However, peeling and release of such films during manufacture processes are very difficult. To ease the release of the films, techniques such as the use of release....... Polysorbate-20, a non-ionic surfactant, fulfills all requirements and gives the lowest peel forces for the films....

  9. Optical characterization of niobium pentoxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicka, A.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films of Nb 2 O 5 were obtained by sol-gel method using ultrasonic irradiation and deposited by dip-coating technique. After calcination at temperatures superior than 500 deg C these films (300 nm thick) were characterized by cyclic voltametry and cronoamperometry. The memory measurements, color efficiency, optical density as a function of wave number and applied potential were effectuated to determine their electrochromic properties. The study of electrochromic properties of these films shows that the insertion process of lithium is reversible and changes their coloration from transparent (T=80%) to dark blue (T=20%). (author)

  10. Effect of sample producing conditions on the thermoluminescence properties of ZnS thin films developed by spray pyrolysis method

    CERN Document Server

    Yazici, A N; Bedir, M

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the effect of thin film production conditions (substrate temperature and ratio of starting material) was studied on the intensity of thermoluminescence (TL) signal and TL emission spectrum of ZnS samples that were grown by spray pyrolysis method. It was observed that the intensity of TL signal increases with increasing the substrate temperature (T sub s) and reaches a maximum point at the substrate temperature of 500 deg. C with a high ratio of ZnCl sub 2 salt solutions. Secondly, it was observed that the energy level of trap present in ZnS samples is not single-level but instead has a distribution of energy levels. The type of the trap distribution is probably an exponential distribution. However, the distribution of energy levels approaches to single energy level with increasing substrate temperature.

  11. Thin films prepared from tungstate glass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, B.; Ribeiro, S.J.L.; Messaddeq, Y. [Departamento de Quimica Geral e Inorganica, Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, CP 355, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Li, M.S. [Instituto de Fisica, USP, CP 369, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Poirier, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, UNIFAL-MG, CEP 37130-000, Alfenas-MG (Brazil)], E-mail: gael@unifal-mg.edu.br

    2008-01-30

    Vitreous samples containing high concentrations of WO{sub 3} (above 40% M) have been used as a target to prepare thin films. Such films were deposited using the electron beam evaporation method onto soda-lime glass substrates. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), perfilometry, X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), M-Lines and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. In this work, experimental parameters were established to obtain stable thin films showing a chemical composition close to the glass precursor composition and with a high concentration of WO{sub 3}. These amorphous thin films of about 4 {mu}m in thickness exhibit a deep blue coloration but they can be bleached by thermal treatment near the glass transition temperature. Such bleached films show several guided modes in the visible region and have a high refractive index. Controlled crystallization was realized and thus it was possible to obtain WO{sub 3} microcrystals in the amorphous phase.

  12. Self-Limited Growth in Pentacene Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachmajer, Stefan; Jones, Andrew O F; Truger, Magdalena; Röthel, Christian; Salzmann, Ingo; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland

    2017-04-05

    Pentacene is one of the most studied organic semiconducting materials. While many aspects of the film formation have already been identified in very thin films, this study provides new insight into the transition from the metastable thin-film phase to bulk phase polymorphs. This study focuses on the growth behavior of pentacene within thin films as a function of film thickness ranging from 20 to 300 nm. By employing various X-ray diffraction methods, combined with supporting atomic force microscopy investigations, one crystalline orientation for the thin-film phase is observed, while three differently tilted bulk phase orientations are found. First, bulk phase crystallites grow with their 00L planes parallel to the substrate surface; second, however, crystallites tilted by 0.75° with respect to the substrate are found, which clearly dominate the former in ratio; third, a different bulk phase polymorph with crystallites tilted by 21° is found. The transition from the thin-film phase to the bulk phase is rationalized by the nucleation of the latter at crystal facets of the thin-film-phase crystallites. This leads to a self-limiting growth of the thin-film phase and explains the thickness-dependent phase behavior observed in pentacene thin films, showing that a large amount of material is present in the bulk phase much earlier during the film growth than previously thought.

  13. A Method for Atomic Layer Deposition of Complex Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    characterization. Fourth, the phase of the crystallized film was analyzed in detail to deter- mine behavior of the films post-annealing. XRD was used extensively for...Schneider. Stacking of ceramic in- verse opals with different lattice constants. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 95(7):2226–2235, July 2012. [52

  14. Characterization of ZnO thin films grown on different p-Si substrate elaborated by solgel spin-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebil, W., E-mail: Chbil.widad@live.fr [Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Unité de Service Commun de Recherche “High resolution X-ray diffractometer”, Département de Physique, Université de Monastir, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Fouzri, A. [Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Unité de Service Commun de Recherche “High resolution X-ray diffractometer”, Département de Physique, Université de Monastir, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie de Sousse, Université de Sousse (Tunisia); Fargi, A. [Laboratoire de Microélectronique et Instrumentation, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Azeza, B.; Zaaboub, Z. [Laboratoire Micro-Optoélectroniques et Nanostructures, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnO thin films grown on different p-Si substrates were successful obtained by sol–gel process. • PL measurement revealed that ZnO thin film grown on porous Si has the better optical quality. • I–V characteristics for all heterojunctions exhibit successful diode formation. • The diode ZnO/PSi shows a better photovoltaic effect under illumination with a maximum {sub Voc} of 0.2 V. - Abstract: In this study, ZnO thin films are deposited by sol–gel technique on p-type crystalline silicon (Si) with [100] orientation, etched silicon and porous silicon. The structural analyses showed that the obtained thin films were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented along the c-axis direction. Morphological study revealed the presence of rounded and facetted grains irregularly distributed on the surface of all samples. PL spectra at room temperature revealed that ZnO thin film grown on porous Si has a strong UV emission with low defects in the visible region comparing with ZnO grown on plat Si and etched Si surface. The heterojunction parameters were evaluated from the (I–V) under dark and illumination at room temperature. The ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance of heterojunction grown on different p-Si substrates are determined by using different methods. Best electrical properties are obtained for ZnO layer deposited on porous silicon.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene active semiconductor thin films prepared by flow-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Rusnan, Fara Naila; Seria, Dzulfahmi Mohd Husin; Saad, Ismail; Alias, Afishah [Nano Engineering & Materials (NEMs) Research Group, Faculty of Engineering Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400 Sabah (Malaysia); Katsuhiro, Uesugi; Hisashi, Fukuda [Division of Engineering for Composite Functions, Muroran Institute of Technology 27-1 Mizumoto, Muroran 050-8585 Hokkaido (Japan)

    2015-08-28

    Investigation on the physical characterization and comparison of organic thin film based on a soluble 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene is reported. Oriented thin-films of pentacene have been successfully deposited by flow-coating method, in which the chloroform solution is sandwiched between a transparent substrate and a slide glass, followed by slow-drawing of the substrate with respect to the slide glass. Molecular orientation of flow-coated TIPS-pentacene is comparable to that of the thermal-evaporated pentacene thin film by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. XRD results showed that the morphology of flow-coated soluble pentacene is similar to that of the thermal-evaporated pentacene thin films in series of (00l) diffraction peaks where the (001) diffraction peaks are strongest in the nominally out-of-plane intensity and interplanar spacing located at approximately 2θ = 5.33° (d-spacing, d{sub 001} = 16 Å). Following that, ITO/p-TIPS-pentacene/n-ZnO/Au vertical diode was fabricated. The diode exhibited almost linear characteristics at low voltage with nonlinear characteristics at higher voltage which similar to a pn junction behavior. The results indicated that the TIPS-pentacene semiconductor active thin films can be used as a hole injection layer for fabrication of a vertical organic transistor.

  16. General method for simultaneous optimization of light trapping and carrier collection in an ultra-thin film organic photovoltaic cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia, E-mail: ct2443@columbia.edu; Grote, Richard R.; Beck, Jonathan H.; Kymissis, Ioannis [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Osgood, Richard M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Englund, Dirk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    We describe a general method for maximizing the short-circuit current in thin planar organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunction cells by simultaneous optimization of light absorption and carrier collection. Based on the experimentally obtained complex refractive indices of the OPV materials and the thickness-dependence of the internal quantum efficiency of the OPV active layer, we analyze the potential benefits of light trapping strategies for maximizing the overall power conversion efficiency of the cell. This approach provides a general strategy for optimizing the power conversion efficiency of a wide range of OPV structures. In particular, as an experimental trial system, the approach is applied here to a ultra-thin film solar cell with a SubPc/C{sub 60} photovoltaic structure. Using a patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) top contact, the numerically optimized designs achieve short-circuit currents of 0.790 and 0.980 mA/cm{sup 2} for 30 nm and 45 nm SubPc/C{sub 60} heterojunction layer thicknesses, respectively. These values correspond to a power conversion efficiency enhancement of 78% for the 30 nm thick cell, but only of 32% for a 45 nm thick cell, for which the overall photocurrent is actually higher. Applied to other material systems, the general optimization method can elucidate if light trapping strategies can improve a given cell architecture.

  17. Preparation and properties of the (Sr,BaNb2O6 thin films by using the sputtering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao Chien-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strontium barium niobate (Sr0.3Ba0.7Nb2O6, SBN thin films were deposited on silicon substrate by using the radio frequency magnetron sputtering and under different deposition power and time at room temperature. Surface morphology and thicknesses of the SBN thin films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The crystallization films at different deposition power and time were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD using CuKα radiation from a Rigaku rotating anode with an incident angle of 2°. The remnant polarization (Pr, saturation polarization (Ps, and minimum coercive field (Ec properties of the metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM structure were measured using ferroelectric material test instrument. The SBN thin films deposited at 90 min and 125 W had the maximum Pr, Ps, and minimum Ec of 1.26 μC/cm2, 2.41 μC/cm2, and 201.6 kV/cm, respectively. From above results, it knows that the SBN thin films suit for application on ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM.

  18. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films deposited by CBD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laatar, F.; Harizi, A.; Smida, A.; Hassen, M.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of CdSe QDs with L-Cysteine capping agent for applications in nanodevices. • The films of CdSe QDs present uniform and good dispersive particles at the surface. • Effect of bath temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films. • Investigation of the optical constants and dispersion parameters of CdSe QDs thin films. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at different temperatures from an aqueous solution containing L-Cysteine (L-Cys) as capping agent. The evolution of the surface morphology and elemental composition of the CdSe films were studied by AFM, SEM, and EDX analyses. Structural and optical properties of CdSe thin films were investigated by XRD, UV–vis and PL spectroscopy. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index is described using the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico (W-D) model, and the physical dispersion parameters are calculated as a function of deposition temperature. The dispersive optical parameters such as average oscillator energy (E_o), dispersion energy (E_d), and static refractive index (n_o) were found to vary with the deposition temperature. Besides, the electrical free carrier susceptibility (χ_e) and the carrier concentration of the effective mass ratio (N/m*) were evaluated according to the Spitzer-Fan model.

  19. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films deposited by CBD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laatar, F., E-mail: fakher8laatar@gmail.com [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Harizi, A. [Photovoltaic and Semiconductor Materials Laboratory, Engineering Industrial Department, ENIT, Tunis El Manar University, BP 37, Le Belvédère, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Smida, A. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Hassen, M. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology of Sousse, City Taffala (Ibn Khaldun), 4003 Sousse (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of CdSe QDs with L-Cysteine capping agent for applications in nanodevices. • The films of CdSe QDs present uniform and good dispersive particles at the surface. • Effect of bath temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films. • Investigation of the optical constants and dispersion parameters of CdSe QDs thin films. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at different temperatures from an aqueous solution containing L-Cysteine (L-Cys) as capping agent. The evolution of the surface morphology and elemental composition of the CdSe films were studied by AFM, SEM, and EDX analyses. Structural and optical properties of CdSe thin films were investigated by XRD, UV–vis and PL spectroscopy. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index is described using the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico (W-D) model, and the physical dispersion parameters are calculated as a function of deposition temperature. The dispersive optical parameters such as average oscillator energy (E{sub o}), dispersion energy (E{sub d}), and static refractive index (n{sub o}) were found to vary with the deposition temperature. Besides, the electrical free carrier susceptibility (χ{sub e}) and the carrier concentration of the effective mass ratio (N/m*) were evaluated according to the Spitzer-Fan model.

  20. Low-cost growth of magnesium doped gallium nitride thin films by sol-gel spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, N. Mohd; Ng, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost sol-gel spin coating growth of magnesium (Mg) doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films with different concentrations of Mg was reported. The effects of the Mg concentration on the structural, surface morphology, elemental compositions, lattice vibrational, and electrical properties of the deposited films were investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that the Mg-doped samples have wurtzite structure with preferred orientation of GaN(002). The crystallite size decreases and the surface of the films with pits/pores were formed, while the crystalline quality of the films degraded as the Mg concentration increases from 2% to 6. %. All the Raman active phonon modes of the wurtzite GaN were observed while a broad peak attributed to the Mg-related lattice vibrational mode was detected at 669 cm-1. Hall effect results show that the resistivity of the thin films decreases while the hole concentration and hall mobility of thin films increases as the concentration of the Mg increases.

  1. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  2. Review of thin film superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlstrom, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in thin film superconductivity are critical to the success of many proposed applications. The authors review several of the prominent techniques currently used to produce thin films of the high temperature superconductors including electron beam co-deposition, sputtering (both multiple and composite source configurations) and laser ablation. The authors look at the relevant parameters for each and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. In addition, promising work on in situ oxidation is discussed. Also addressed are efforts to find optimum substrate materials and substrate buffer layers for various applications. The current state of the art for T c , J c and H c2 is presented for the yttrium, bismuth, and thallium compounds

  3. Magnetization in permalloy thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) were prepared using an Ar+N2 mixture with magnetron ... alloys of Ni and Fe) take an important place. NiFe alloy with a ... room temperature (∼298 K, without intentional heating) on Si(100) substrates. A base pressure of 1×10−6 mbar was achieved prior to the deposition. Three different ...

  4. Ultra-high mobility transparent organic thin film transistors grown by an off-centre spin-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Giri, Gaurav; Ayzner, Alexander L; Zoombelt, Arjan P; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Chen, Jihua; Nordlund, Dennis; Toney, Michael F; Huang, Jinsong; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    Organic semiconductors with higher carrier mobility and better transparency have been actively pursued for numerous applications, such as flat-panel display backplane and sensor arrays. The carrier mobility is an important figure of merit and is sensitively influenced by the crystallinity and the molecular arrangement in a crystal lattice. Here we describe the growth of a highly aligned meta-stable structure of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) from a blended solution of C8-BTBT and polystyrene by using a novel off-centre spin-coating method. Combined with a vertical phase separation of the blend, the highly aligned, meta-stable C8-BTBT films provide a significantly increased thin film transistor hole mobility up to 43 cm(2) Vs(-1) (25 cm(2) Vs(-1) on average), which is the highest value reported to date for all organic molecules. The resulting transistors show high transparency of >90% over the visible spectrum, indicating their potential for transparent, high-performance organic electronics.

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdad, R.; Lemée, N.; Lamura, G.; Zeinert, A.; Hadj-Zoubir, N.; Bousmaha, M.; Bezzerrouk, M. A.; Bouyanfif, H.; Allouche, B.; Zellama, K.

    2017-04-01

    Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films with several different percentage of Co from 0 up to 15 at% were synthesized via a cheap, simple and versatile method i.e. ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at atmospheric pressure and a substrate temperature of 350 °C. The structure of the as-prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and FTIR. The Co-doping effect is revealed by the presence of three additional peaks around 235, 470 and 538 cm-1 respect to the Raman spectra of the unsubstituted film. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) put in evidence the decrease of the bond force constant f with increasing Co-doping. By ultra-violet visible near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectroscopy on Co-doped samples it was possible to show the presence of additional absorption bands at approximately 570, 620 and 660 nm suggesting that Co2+ ions do not change their oxidation when substituted to zinc and the ZnO lattice does not change its wurtzite structure as well. Finally, all our samples exhibit a paramagnetic behavior without any trace of intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism.

  6. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Photo of a , a prime example of this research is thin-film photovoltaics (PV). Thin films are important because cadmium telluride thin film, showing from top to bottom: glass, transparent conducting oxide (thin layer

  7. A Method for Absolute Determination of the Surface Areal Density of Functional Groups in Organic Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Hyegeun; Son, Jin Gyeong; Kim, Jeong Won; Yu, Hyunung; Lee, Tae Geol; Moon, Dae Won [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To develop a methodology for absolute determination of the surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films, medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) spectroscopy was utilized to provide references for calibration of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or Fourier transformation-infrared (FT-IR) intensities. By using the MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR techniques, we were able to analyze the organic thin film of a Ru dye compound (C{sub 58}H{sub 86}O{sub 8}N{sub 8}S{sub 2}Ru), which consists of one Ru atom and various stoichiometric functional groups. From the MEIS analysis, the absolute surface areal density of Ru atoms (or Ru dye molecules) was determined. The surface areal densities of stoichiometric functional groups in the Ru dye compound were used as references for the calibration of XPS and FT-IR intensities for each functional group. The complementary use of MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR to determine the absolute surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films will be useful for more reliable development of applications based on organic thin films in areas such as flexible displays, solar cells, organic sensors, biomaterials, and biochips.

  8. Photoconductivity of thin organic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Chukharev, Vladimir; Kaplas, Petra; Tolkki, Antti; Efimov, Alexander; Haring, Kimmo; Viheriaelae, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2 μm), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene (PHT), fullerene (C 60 ), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), as well as molecules potentially interesting for photovoltaic applications, e.g. porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The films were deposited using thermal evaporation (e.g. for C 60 and CuPc films), spin coating for PHT, and Langmuir-Schaeffer for the layer-by-layer deposition of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The most conducting materials in the series are films of PHT and CuPc with resistivities 1.2 x 10 3 Ω m and 3 x 10 4 Ω m, respectively. Under light illumination resistivity of all films decreases, with the strongest light effect observed for PTCDI, for which resistivity decreases by 100 times, from 3.2 x 10 8 Ω m in dark to 3.1 x 10 6 Ω m under the light.

  9. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Fernández, E.; Svalov, A.; Burgoa Beitia, A.; García-Arribas, A.; Larrañaga, A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti] 3 /Cu/[FeNi/Ti] 3 films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  10. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  11. Piezoelectric MEMS: Ferroelectric thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have attracted attention as next-generation functional microdevices. Typical applications of piezoelectric MEMS are micropumps for inkjet heads or micro-gyrosensors, which are composed of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films and have already been commercialized. In addition, piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs), which are regarded as one of the key devices for Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies, are promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. Significant features of piezoelectric MEMS are their simple structure and high energy conversion efficiency between mechanical and electrical domains even on the microscale. The device performance strongly depends on the function of the piezoelectric thin films, especially on their transverse piezoelectric properties, indicating that the deposition of high-quality piezoelectric thin films is a crucial technology for piezoelectric MEMS. On the other hand, although the difficulty in measuring the precise piezoelectric coefficients of thin films is a serious obstacle in the research and development of piezoelectric thin films, a simple unimorph cantilever measurement method has been proposed to obtain precise values of the direct or converse transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films, and recently this method has become to be the standardized testing method. In this article, I will introduce fundamental technologies of piezoelectric thin films and related microdevices, especially focusing on the deposition of PZT thin films and evaluation methods for their transverse piezoelectric properties.

  12. A flexible method for the preparation of thin film samples for in situ TEM characterization combining shadow-FIB milling and electron-beam-assisted etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebig, J.P., E-mail: jan.p.liebig@fau.de [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Göken, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Richter, G. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Mačković, M.; Przybilla, T.; Spiecker, E. [Institute of Micro, and Nanostructure Research & Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy (CENEM), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Cauerstr. 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Pierron, O.N. [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States); Merle, B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    A new method for the preparation of freestanding thin film samples for mechanical testing in transmission electron microscopes is presented. It is based on a combination of focused ion beam (FIB) milling and electron-beam-assisted etching with xenon difluoride (XeF{sub 2}) precursor gas. The use of the FIB allows for the target preparation of microstructural defects and enables well-defined sample geometries which can be easily adapted in order to meet the requirements of various testing setups. In contrast to existing FIB-based preparation approaches, the area of interest is never exposed to ion beam irradiation which preserves a pristine microstructure. The method can be applied to a wide range of thin film material systems compatible with XeF{sub 2} etching. Its feasibility is demonstrated for gold and alloyed copper thin films and its practical application is discussed. - Highlights: • A new method for the preparation of sub-micron tensile specimens from thin films is presented. • The method is based on the combination of focused ion beam milling and electron-beam-assisted xenon difluoride etching. • It enables the target preparation of individual microstructural defects. • The sample section is protected from ion beam damage by the use of a shadow milling geometry.

  13. Identification of Tequila with an Array of ZnO Thin Films: A Simple and Cost-Effective Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Estanislao Acuña-Avila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An array of ZnO thin film sensors was obtained by thermal oxidation of physical vapor deposited thin Zn films. Different conditions of the thermal treatment (duration and temperature were applied in view of obtaining ZnO sensors with different gas sensing properties. Films having undergone a long thermal treatment exhibited high responses to low ethanol concentrations, while short thermal treatments generally led to sensors with high ethanol sensitivity. The sensor array was used to distinguish among Tequilas and Agave liquor. Linear discriminant analysis and the multilayer perceptron neural network reached 100% and 86.3% success rates in the discrimination between real Tequila and Agave liquor and in the identification of Tequila brands, respectively. These results are promising for the development of an inexpensive tool offering low complexity and cost of analysis for detecting fraud in spirits.

  14. STRUCTURAL, PHOTO-FUNCTIONAL AND SEMICONDUCTOR PROPERTIES OF COPPER OXIDE THIN FILMS PREPARED BY DC REACTIVE METHOD UNDER VARIOUS THICKNESSES Anmar H. Shukur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmar H. Shukur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O has been formed on glass substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering method, whereas pure target of the solid copper was sputtered with a mixture of plasma for argon gas and oxygen gas was used to form these films. Under vacuum chamber pressure of 1.2×10-5 Pa, thin film thickness was changed from 100 nm to 300 nm while other deposition parameters were fixed. The influence of changing the thickness of thin films on the electrical and the optical properties was investigated in this study. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, X-ray Diffractions system XRD, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, hall effect measurement system, UV–VIS spectrophotometer were employed to determine the characteristic of the deposited thin films. Thin film of 200 nm has observed low resistivity of 60.63 Ω cm and direct band gap of 2.5eV. This study has demonstrated that the thickness has direct influence on electrical and optical properties.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity of bulk and thin film materials using frequency-dependent transient thermoreflectance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhu, Jie; Tian, Miao; Gu, Xiaokun; Schmidt, Aaron; Yang, Ronggui

    2013-03-01

    The increasing interest in the extraordinary thermal properties of nanostructures has led to the development of various measurement techniques. Transient thermoreflectance method has emerged as a reliable measurement technique for thermal conductivity of thin films. In this method, the determination of thermal conductivity usually relies much on the accuracy of heat capacity input. For new nanoscale materials with unknown or less-understood thermal properties, it is either questionable to assume bulk heat capacity for nanostructures or difficult to obtain the bulk form of those materials for a conventional heat capacity measurement. In this paper, we describe a technique for simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity κ and volumetric heat capacity C of both bulk and thin film materials using frequency-dependent time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) signals. The heat transfer model is analyzed first to find how different combinations of κ and C determine the frequency-dependent TDTR signals. Simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity is then demonstrated with bulk Si and thin film SiO2 samples using frequency-dependent TDTR measurement. This method is further testified by measuring both thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of novel hybrid organic-inorganic thin films fabricated using the atomic∕molecular layer deposition. Simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity can significantly shorten the development∕discovery cycle of novel materials.

  16. Optical and structural properties of CuSbS2 thin films grown by thermal evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabhi, A.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2009-01-01

    Structural, optical and electrical properties of CuSbS 2 thin films grown by thermal evaporation have been studied relating the effects of substrate heating conditions of these properties. The CuSbS 2 thin films were carried out at substrate temperatures in the temperature range 100-200 deg. C . The structure and composition were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX. X-ray diffraction revealed that the films are (111) oriented upon substrate temperature 170 deg. C and amorphous for the substrate temperatures below 170 deg. C . No secondary phases are observed for all the films. The optical absorption coefficients and band gaps of the films were estimated by optical transmission and reflection measurements at room temperature. Strong absorption coefficients in the range 10 5 -10 6 cm -1 at 500 nm were found. The direct gaps Eg lie between 0.91-1.89 eV range. It is observed that there is a decrease in optical band gap Eg with increasing the substrate temperature. Resistivity of 0.03-0.96 Ω cm, in dependence on substrate temperature was characterized. The all unheated films exhibit p-type conductivity. The characteristics reported here also offer perspective for CuSbS 2 as an absorber material in solar cells applications

  17. A new mechanical characterization method for thin film microactuators and its application to NiTiCi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, K P

    1999-01-01

    In an effort to develop a more full characterization tool of shape memory alloys, a new technique is presented for the mechanical characterization of microactuators and applied to SMA thin films. A test instrument was designed to utilize a spring-loaded transducer in measuring displacements with resolution of 1.5 pm and forces with resolution of 0.2 mN. Employing an out-of-plane loading method for freestanding SMA thin films, strain resolution of 30(mu)(epsilon) and stress resolution of 2.5 MPa were achieved. This new testing method is presented against previous SMA characterization methods for purposes of comparison. Four mm long, 2(micro)m thick NiTiCu ligaments suspended across open windows were bulk micromachined for use in the out-of-plane stress and strain measurements. The fabrication process used to micromachine the ligaments is presented step-by-step, alongside methods of fabrication that failed to produce testable ligaments. Static analysis showed that 63% of the applied strain was recovered while ligaments were subjected to tensile stresses of 870 MPa. In terms of recoverable stress and recoverable strain, the ligaments achieved maximum recovery of 700 MPa and 3.0% strain. No permanent deformations were seen in any ligament during deflection measurements. Maximum actuation forces and displacements produced by the 4 mm ligaments situated on 1 cm square test chips were 56 mN and 300(micro)m, respectively. Fatigue analysis of the ligaments showed degradation in recoverable strain from 0.33% to 0.24% with 200,000 cycles, corresponding to deflections of 90(micro)m and forces of 25 mN. Cycling also produced a wavering shape memory effect late in ligament life, leading to broad inconsistencies of as much as 35% deviation from average. Unexpected phenomena like stress-induced martensitic twinning that leads to less recoverable stress and the shape memory behavior of long life devices are addressed. Finally, a model for design of microactuators using shape memory

  18. Physical properties and heterojunction device demonstration of aluminum-doped ZnO thin films synthesized at room ambient via sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaagac, Hakan, E-mail: hkaraagac@ucdavis.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Yengel, Emre; Saif Islam, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-04-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Undoped and Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were successfully prepared using sol-gel technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural analysis has revealed that Al doping has a significant influence on preferential orientation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been observed that wrinkles forms on the surface of films when annealed with a fast heat ramp up rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical analysis has revealed that that the band gap energy of ZnO thin film increases with increasing Al doping concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lowest resistivity is observed for 1% Al ZnO thin film, which is 2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} ({Omega} cm). - Abstract: ZnO and some of its ternary wide-bandgap alloys offer interesting opportunities for designing materials with tunable band gaps, strong piezoresistivity and controlled electrical conductance with high optical transparency. Synthesizing these materials on arbitrary substrates using low-cost and unconventional techniques can help in integrating semiconductors with different physical, electrical, and optical characteristics on a single substrate for heterogeneous integration of multifunctional devices. Here we report the successful synthesis of aluminum (Al) doped ZnO (AZO) thin films on soda-lime glass, silicon and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) pre-coated glass substrates by using sol-gel deposition method at ambient condition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that varying degree of Al doping significantly impacts the crystal orientation, semiconductor bandgap and optical transparency of the film. Crystal structure of the film is also found to be strongly correlated to the characteristics of the substrate material. The impact of heating rate during post annealing process is studied and optimized in order to improve the surface morphology of the deposited films. Optical characterizations have revealed that bandgap energy of AZO films can be tuned

  19. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion

    2011-01-01

    Gives a comprehensive account of the developments of nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. This book covers the fundamentals, processes of deposition and characterisation of nanocoatings, as well as the applications. It is suitable for the glass and glazing, automotive, electronics, aerospace, construction and biomedical industries in particular.$bCoatings are used for a wide range of applications, from anti-fogging coatings for glass through to corrosion control in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films provides an up-to-date review of the fundamentals, processes of deposition, characterisation and applications of nanocoatings. Part one covers technologies used in the creation and analysis of thin films, including chapters on current and advanced coating technologies in industry, nanostructured thin films from amphiphilic molecules, chemical and physical vapour deposition methods and methods for analysing nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. Part two focuses on the applications...

  20. Deposition of thin titanium-copper films with antimicrobial effect by advanced magnetron sputtering methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straňák, V.; Wulff, H.; Rebl, H.; Zietz, C.; Arndt, K.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Nebe, B.; Bader, R.; Podbielski, A.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Hippler, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 7 (2011), s. 1512-1519 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0386; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : implant coating * titanium-copper film * pulsed magnetron sputtering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2011

  1. New Method for Fabrication of Co3O4 Thin Film Sensors: Structural, Morphological and Optoelectronic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas PATIL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Co3O4 thin films have been deposited by spin coating technique and then have been analyzed to test their application in NH3 gas-sensing technology. In particular, spectrophotometric and conductivity measurements have been performed in order to determine the optical and electrical properties of Co3O4 thin films. The structure and the morphology of such material have been investigated by X ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that the films grown by this technique have good crystalline cubic spinel structure and present a random orientation. The morphology of the sol gel derived Co3O4 shows nanocrystalline grains with some overgrown clusters .The optical band gap has been determined from the absorption coefficient. We found that the optical band gap energy decreases from 2.58 eV to 2.07 eV with increasing annealing temperature between 400-700 oC. These mean that the optical quality of Co3O4 films is improved by annealing. The dc electrical conductivity of Co3O4 thin films were increased from 10-4 to 10-2(Ω cm-1 with increase in annealing temperature. The electron carrier concentration (n and mobility (μ of Co3O4 films annealed at 400-700 oC were estimated to be of the order of 2.4 to 4.5 x 1019 cm-3 and 5.2 to 7.0 x 10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1 respectively. It is observed that Co3O4 thin film annealing at 700 oC after deposition provide a smooth and flat texture suited for optoelectronic applications. Gas sensing properties showed that the Co3O4 films (at 700 oC were sensitive as well as fast in responding to NH3. A high sensitivity for ammonia indicates that the Co3O4 films are selective for this gas.

  2. Effects of UV assistance on the properties of al-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yung-Kuan; Pai, Feng-Ming; Chen, Yan-Cheng; Wu, Chao-Hsien

    2013-11-01

    We report here the preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent conductive thin films by a UV-assisted sol-gel method. It was found that UV irradiation creates ozone, which promotes the conductivity and transparency of the films. Boro-silicate glasses are used as substrates; an PGME is used as a solvent; after spin-coating, the films are dried and radiated with UV and then heated to 400°C for decarburization and 500°C for annealing under air. The surface morphologies of the prepared films are observed by FE-SEM and AFM. It was found that the films irradiated with UV-C are smoother and denser. An XRD analysis shows that the films have a typical wurtzite crystalline structure with a c-axis orientation normal to the surface. The electric resistance values measured with a four-point probe show that the films irradiated with UV have better conductivity (at approximately 3.4 × 10-3Ω-cm) than the films that did not undergo UV irradiation. An analysis by visible light spectrometry indicates that the AZO films irradiated with UV are more transparent than the films without UV-irradiation.

  3. Thin film photovoltaic cells having increased durability and operating life and method for making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M.; Masi, James V.; Hall, Robert B.

    1980-12-16

    A solar cell having a copper-bearing absorber is provided with a composite transparent encapsulating layer specifically designed to prevent oxidation of the copper sulfide. In a preferred embodiment, the absorber is a layer of copper sulfide and the composite layer comprises a thin layer of copper oxide formed on the copper sulfide and a layer of encapsulating glass formed on the oxide. It is anticipated that such devices, when exposed to normal operating conditions of various terrestrial applications, can be maintained at energy conversion efficiencies greater than one-half the original conversion efficiency for periods as long as thirty years.

  4. Room temperature deposition of magnetite thin films on organic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Cavallini, M.; Murgia, M.; Riminucci, A.; Ruani, G.; Dediu, V.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the growth of magnetite films directly on thin layers of organic semiconductors by means of an electron beam ablation method. The deposition was performed at room temperature in a reactive plasma atmosphere. Thin films show ferromagnetic (FM) hysteresis loops and coercive fields of hundreds of Oersted. Micro Raman analysis indicates no presence of spurious phases. The morphology of the magnetite film is strongly influenced by the morphology of the underlayer of the organic semiconductor. These results open the way for the application of magnetite thin films in the field of organic spintronics

  5. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  6. Oriented thin films of mixture of a low-bandgap polymer and a fullerene derivative prepared by friction-transfer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Mizokuro, Toshiko; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Shibata, Yousei; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki

    2018-02-01

    We have been studying oriented thin films of polymers fabricated by the friction-transfer method, which allows the alignment of a variety of conjugated polymers into highly oriented films. In this study, we prepared oriented blend films of a mixture of a low-bandgap polymer, poly{4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-4,6-diyl} (PTB7), and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM), which is a promising combination for application in organic solar cells. We obtained oriented blend films of PTB7 and PC71BM by the friction-transfer method from a solid block. Polarized UV-visible spectra show that the PTB7 chains were aligned parallel to the friction direction in the blend films. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) studies with synchrotron radiation suggested that the preferred orientation of PTB7 crystallites was face-on in the blend films. The GIXD results also showed the high uniaxial orientation of PTB7 chains in blend films. Photovoltaic devices were fabricated using the friction-transferred blend films of the PTB7 and PC71BM. These bulk heterojunction devices showed better performance than planar heterojunction devices fabricated using pure friction-transferred PTB7 films.

  7. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1992-01-01

    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  8. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  9. A Semi-Analytical Extraction Method for Interface and Bulk Density of States in Metal Oxide Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weifeng; Wu, Weijing; Zhou, Lei; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Ning, Honglong; Peng, Junbiao

    2018-03-11

    A semi-analytical extraction method of interface and bulk density of states (DOS) is proposed by using the low-frequency capacitance-voltage characteristics and current-voltage characteristics of indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (IZO TFTs). In this work, an exponential potential distribution along the depth direction of the active layer is assumed and confirmed by numerical solution of Poisson's equation followed by device simulation. The interface DOS is obtained as a superposition of constant deep states and exponential tail states. Moreover, it is shown that the bulk DOS may be represented by the superposition of exponential deep states and exponential tail states. The extracted values of bulk DOS and interface DOS are further verified by comparing the measured transfer and output characteristics of IZO TFTs with the simulation results by a 2D device simulator ATLAS (Silvaco). As a result, the proposed extraction method may be useful for diagnosing and characterising metal oxide TFTs since it is fast to extract interface and bulk density of states (DOS) simultaneously.

  10. A Semi-Analytical Extraction Method for Interface and Bulk Density of States in Metal Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A semi-analytical extraction method of interface and bulk density of states (DOS is proposed by using the low-frequency capacitance–voltage characteristics and current–voltage characteristics of indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (IZO TFTs. In this work, an exponential potential distribution along the depth direction of the active layer is assumed and confirmed by numerical solution of Poisson’s equation followed by device simulation. The interface DOS is obtained as a superposition of constant deep states and exponential tail states. Moreover, it is shown that the bulk DOS may be represented by the superposition of exponential deep states and exponential tail states. The extracted values of bulk DOS and interface DOS are further verified by comparing the measured transfer and output characteristics of IZO TFTs with the simulation results by a 2D device simulator ATLAS (Silvaco. As a result, the proposed extraction method may be useful for diagnosing and characterising metal oxide TFTs since it is fast to extract interface and bulk density of states (DOS simultaneously.

  11. High temperature superconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correra, L.

    1992-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research on superconducting oxides is the main focus of the contributors in this volume. Several aspects of the thin film field from fundamental properties to applications are examined. Interesting results for the Bi system are also reviewed. The 132 papers, including 8 invited, report mainly on the 1-2-3 system, indicating that the Y-Ba-Cu-O and related compounds are still the most intensively studied materials in this field. The volume attests to the significant progress that has been made in this field, as well as reporting on the challenging problems that still remain to be solved. The papers are presented in five chapters, subsequently on properties, film growth and processing, substrates and multilayers, structural characterization, and applications

  12. Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed

  13. Influence of film thickness on structural and optical properties of ZnS thin films obtained by SILAR method and analysis of Zn/ZnS/n-GaAs/In sandwich structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezakin, Oguzhan; Guezeldir, Betuel; Saglam, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Yildirim, M. Ali [Department of Physics, Science and Art Faculty, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Ates, Aytunc [Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-04-15

    ZnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates using SILAR method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The relationship between refractive index and energy bandgap was investigated. The film thickness effect on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnS thin films was investigated. The crystalline and surface properties of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The energy bandgap values changed from 3.87 to 3.58 eV with increasing film thickness. The refractive index (n), high frequency dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub {infinity}}) values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the film thickness. Also, ZnS thin film was deposited directly on n-GaAs substrate for obtaining the Zn/ZnS/n-GaAs/In sandwich structure at room temperature. The sandwich structure demonstrated clearly rectifying behaviour by the current-voltage (I-V) curves at room temperature. From I-V characteristics n and {phi}{sub b} values were calculated as 1.894 and 0.632 eV at room temperature, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. A measuring system for mechanical characterization of thin films based on a compact in situ micro-tensile tester and SEM moiré method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanjie; Tang, Minjin; Xie, Huimin; Zhu, Ronghua; Luo, Qiang; Gu, Changzhi

    2013-01-01

    A measuring system for mechanical characterization of thin films based on a compact in situ micro-tensile tester and scanning electron microscope (SEM) moiré method is proposed. The load is exerted by the tensile tester and the full field strain is measured by SEM moiré method. The configuration of the tensile tester and the principle of SEM moiré method are introduced. In the tensile tester, a lever structure is designed to amplify the displacement imposed by lead–zirconate–titanate (PZT) actuator. The SEM moiré method is applied to measure the strain of the thin film, including both the average strain in the gage section and the local strain distribution at a specific region. As an application, the measuring system is applied to characterize the mechanical property of the free-standing aluminum thin film. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the system and its good application potential for mechanical behavior analysis of film-like materials. (paper)

  15. Structural, optical and electrical properties of CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} thin films grown by thermal evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannouni, M., E-mail: gm_mounir@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs -ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere 1002-Tunis (Tunisia); Kanzari, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs -ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere 1002-Tunis (Tunisia)

    2011-05-19

    Highlights: > In this work, thin films of CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} were successfully deposited onto glass substrates by thermal evaporation and annealed in air. > Post-depositional annealing effects on structural, optical and electrical properties of thermal evaporated CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} thin films were studied. > The results reported in this work make this material attractive as an absorber material in solar cells applications. - Abstract: Stoichiometric compound of copper indium sulfur (CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8}) was synthesized by direct reaction of high purity elemental copper, indium and sulfur in an evacuated quartz tube. The phase structure of the synthesized material revealed the cubic spinel structure. The lattice parameter (a) of single crystals was calculated to be 10.667 A. Thin films of CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} were deposited onto glass substrates under the pressure of 10{sup -6} Torr using thermal evaporation technique. CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} thin films were then thermally annealed in air from 100 to 300 deg. C for 2 h. The effects of thermal annealing on their physico-chemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical transmission and hot probe method. XRD studies of CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} thin films showed that as-deposited films were amorphous in nature and transformed into polycrystalline spinel structure with strong preferred orientation along the (3 1 1) plane after the annealing at 200 deg. C. The composition is greatly affected by thermal treatment. From the optical transmission and reflection, an important absorption coefficient exceeds 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} was found. As increasing the annealing temperature, the optical energy band gap decreases from 1.83 eV for the as-deposited films to 1.43 eV for the annealed films at 300 deg. C. It was found that CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} thin film is an n-type semiconductor at 300 deg. C.

  16. Effect of Co doping concentration on structural properties and optical parameters of Co-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel dip-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Byunggu; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Jong Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating method were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films were grown with a c-axis preferred orientation. The position of the (002) peak was almost the same in all samples, irrespective of the Co concentration. It is thus clear that Co doping had little effect on the position of the (002) peak. To confirm that Co2+ was substituted for Zn2+ in the wurtzite structure, optical measurements were conducted at room temperature by a UV-visible spectrometer. Three absorption peaks are apparent in the Co-doped ZnO thin films that do not appear for the undoped ZnO thin film. As the Co concentration was increased, absorption related to characteristic Co2+ transitions increased because three absorption band intensities and the area underneath the absorption wells between 500 and 700 nm increased with increasing Co concentration. The optical band gap and static dielectric constant decreased and the Urbach energy and extinction coefficient increased with increasing Co concentration.

  17. Fabrication and electrical resistivity of Mo-doped VO2 thin films coated on graphite conductive plates by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W.; Jung, H.M.; Um, S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Vanadium oxides (VO2) can be used in optical devices, thermochromic smart windows and sensors. This paper reported on a study in which vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) powder was prepared and mixed with Molybdenum Oxides (MoO3) to form Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films by a sol-gel method on graphite conductive substrates. The micro-structure and chemical compositions of the Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films was investigated using X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in electrical resistivity were measured as a function of the stoichiometric compositions between vanadium and molybdenum. In this study. Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films showed the typical metal to insulator transition (MIT), where temperature range could be adjusted by modifying the dopant atomic ratio. The through-plane substrate structure of the Mo-doped layer influences the electrical resistivity of the graphite substrate. As the amount of the molybdenum increases, the electrical resistivity of the graphite conductive substrate decreases in the lower temperature range below the freezing point of water. The experimental results showed that if carefully controlled, thermal dissipation of VO2 thin films can be used as a self-heating source to melt frozen water with the electrical current flowing through the graphite substrate. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Magnetic damping phenomena in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzawi, S.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Atkinson, D.

    2017-11-01

    Damped ferromagnetic precession is an important mechanism underpinning the magnetisation processes in ferromagnetic materials. In thin-film ferromagnets and ferromagnetic/non-magnetic multilayers, the role of precession and damping can be critical for spintronic device functionality and as a consequence there has been significant research activity. This paper presents a review of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers and collates the results of many experimental studies to present a coherent synthesis of the field. The terms that are used to define damping are discussed with the aim of providing consistent definitions for damping phenomena. A description of the theoretical basis of damping is presented from early developments to the latest discussions of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers. An overview of the time and frequency domain methods used to study precessional magnetisation behaviour and damping in thin-films and multilayers is also presented. Finally, a review of the experimental observations of magnetic damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers is presented with the most recent explanations. This brings together the results from many studies and includes the effects of ferromagnetic film thickness, the effects of composition on damping in thin-film ferromagnetic alloys, the influence of non-magnetic dopants in ferromagnetic films and the effects of combining thin-film ferromagnets with various non-magnetic layers in multilayered configurations.

  19. On the improvement of PEC activity of hematite thin films deposited by high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, Š.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Krysa, C.; Sekora, D.; Zlámal, M.; Olejníček, Jiří; Čada, Martin; Kšírová, Petra; Remeš, Zdeněk; Schmuki, P.; Schubert, E.; Zbořil, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 165, Apr (2015), s. 344-350 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/2104; GA MŠk LH12043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ALD * HiPIMS * passivation layer * photoelectrochemical water splitting * very thin films Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 8.328, year: 2015

  20. Investigation of optical gain in Eu-doped GaN thin film grown by OMVPE method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, N.N.; Nishikawa, A.; Fujiwara, Y.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    We prepare and optically characterize a thin film of GaN:Eu. Room temperature intense emission band at around 620 nm is observed, corresponding to 5D0 → 7F2 electronic dipole transition of Eu3+ ions in the GaN host material. At lower temperatures, three components, at 621, 622, and 623 nm, arising

  1. Fabrication of the heterojunction diode from Y-doped ZnO thin films on p-Si substrates by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Singh, Satendra Pal; Kim, Deuk Young

    2018-02-01

    The heterojunction diode of yttrium-doped ZnO (YZO) thin films was fabricated on p-Si(100) substrates by sol-gel method. The post-annealing process was performed at 600 °C in vacuum for a short time (3 min) to prevent inter-diffusion of Zn, Y, and Si atoms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of as-grown and annealed (600 °C in vacuum) films showed the preferred orientation along the c-axis (002) regardless of dopant concentrations. The uniform surface microstructure and the absence of other metal/oxide peaks in XRD pattern confirmed the excellence of films. The increasing bandgap and carrier concentration of YZO thin films were interpreted by the BM shift, that is, the Fermi level moves towards the conduction band edge. The current-voltage characteristics of the heterojunction diode, In/n-ZnO/p-Si/Al, showed a rectification behavior. The turn-on voltage and ideality factor of n-ZnO/p-Si and n-YZO/p-Si were observed to be 3.47 V, 2.61 V, and 1.97, 1.89, respectively. Y-dopant in ZnO thin films provided more donor electrons caused the shifting of Fermi-energy level towards the conduction band and strengthen the interest for heterojunction diodes.

  2. Thin liquid films dewetting and polymer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Blossey, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films haven proven to be an invaluable experimental model system.   What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting, warranting a whole book? There are several answers to this. Firstly, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications, and with the increase in the number of technologies available to produce and to study them, this range is likely to expand. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films.   Secondly, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic. Interdisciplinary research is surely not an end to itself, but in this case it leads to a fairly heterogeneous community of theoretical and experimental physicists, engineers, physical chemists, mathematicians and others working on the...

  3. Highly transparent and conductive Sn/F and Al co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhanchang; Luo, Junming; Tian, Xinlong; Wu, Shoukun; Chen, Chun; Deng, Jianfeng; Xiao, Chumin; Hu, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • F/Sn and Al co-doped ZnO thin films were synthesized by sol–gel method. • The co-doped nanocrystals exhibit good crystal quality. • The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. • The films showed high transmittance and low resistivity. -- Abstract: Al doped ZnO, Al–Sn co-doped ZnO and Al–F co-doped ZnO nanocrystals were successfully synthesized onto glass substrates by the sol–gel method. The structure and morphology of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results indicated that all the films were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and exhibited a c-axis preferred orientation. The electrical and optical properties were also investigated by 4-point probe device and Uv–vis spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectrum (Raman), respectively. The PL and Raman results suggested that the co-doped films with a very low defect concentration and exhibit a better crystallinity than AZO thin films. The XPS study confirmed the incorporation of Al, Sn and F ions in the ZnO lattice

  4. Quantifying clustering in disordered carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The quantification of disorder and the effects of clustering in the sp 2 phase of amorphous carbon thin films are discussed. The sp 2 phase is described in terms of disordered nanometer-sized conductive sp 2 clusters embedded in a less conductive sp 3 matrix. Quantification of the clustering of the sp 2 phase is estimated from optical as well as from electron and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Unlike in other disordered group IV thin film semiconductors, we show that care must be exercised in attributing a meaning to the Urbach energy extracted from absorption measurements in the disordered carbon system. The influence of structural disorder, associated with sp 2 clusters of similar size, and topological disorder due to undistorted clusters of different sizes is also discussed. Extensions of this description to other systems are also presented

  5. Method of depositing thin films of high temperature Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O-based ceramic oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method. It comprises preparing a liquid precursor of a Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O- based ceramic oxide superconductor phase, wherein the liquid precursor comprises an alkoxyalkanol, copper acrylate, strontium acrylate, bismuth nitrate, and calcium nitrate, wherein the liquid precursor has a cation ratio sufficient to form the desired stoichiometry in the ceramic oxide superconductor phase when the liquid precursor is heated to a temperature and for a time sufficient to provide the desired ceramic oxide superconductor phase, and wherein the copper acrylate, strontium acrylate, bismuth nitrate, and calcium nitrate are mutually soluble in the alkoxyalkanol; applying the liquid precursor to a substrate, wherein the substrate is one of an oxide ceramic, a metal selected from the group consisting of Ag and Ni, and Si; and heating the substrate in an oxygen-containing atmosphere with the liquid precursor applied thereon to a temperature and for a time sufficient to form a thin film comprising at least one Bi-Sr- Ca-Cu-O-based high temperature ceramic oxide superconductor phase

  6. A simple method to deposit palladium doped SnO2 thin films using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Wahab, Rizwan; Shin, Hyung-Shik; Ansari, S. G.; Ansari, Z. A.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a simple method to deposit palladium doped tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films using modified plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition as a function of deposition temperature at a radio frequency plasma power of 150 W. Stannic chloride (SnCl 4 ) was used as precursor and oxygen (O 2 , 100 SCCM) (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) as reactant gas. Palladium hexafluroacetyleacetonate (Pd(C 5 HF 6 O 2 ) 2 ) was used as a precursor for palladium. Fine granular morphology was observed with tetragonal rutile structure. A peak related to Pd 2 Sn is observed, whose intensity increases slightly with deposition temperature. Electrical resistivity value decreased from 8.6 to 0.9 mΩ cm as a function of deposition temperature from 400 to 600 deg. C. Photoelectron peaks related to Sn 3d, Sn 3p3, Sn 4d, O 1s, and C 1s were detected with varying intensities as a function of deposition temperature.

  7. A comparative study on microstructure and tribological properties of Si3N4 and TiN thin films produced by IBED method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Daming; Liu Jiajun; Zhu Baoliang; Li Wenzhi; Zhang Xushou; Yang Shengrong

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the tribological properties of Si 3 N 4 and TiN thin films produced by ion beam enhanced deposition (IBED) method were compared on an SRV friction and wear testing machine. In order to understand the reasons of their excellent properties the microstructure, microhardness and bonding strength with the substrate were analysed by SEM, X-ray diffraction, Knoop hardness test and scratching test methods separately. The results show that the TiN(1) films exhibits the best tribological properties, which are closely related with its higher hardness and bonding strength. (author)

  8. Evaluation of residual stress in sputtered tantalum thin-film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-masha’al, Asa’ad, E-mail: asaad.al@ed.ac.uk; Bunting, Andrew; Cheung, Rebecca

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Tantalum thin-films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering system. • Thin-film stress is observed to be strongly influenced by sputtering pressure. • Transition towards the compressive stress is ascribed to the annealing at 300 °C. • Expose thin-film to air ambient or ion bombardment lead to a noticeable change in the residual stress. - Abstract: The influence of deposition conditions on the residual stress of sputtered tantalum thin-film has been evaluated in the present study. Films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and curvature measurement method has been employed to calculate the residual stress of the films. Transitions of tantalum film stress from compressive to tensile state have been observed as the sputtering pressure increases. Also, the effect of annealing process at temperature range of 90–300 °C in oxygen ambient on the residual stress of the films has been studied. The results demonstrate that the residual stress of the films that have been deposited at lower sputtering pressure has become more compressive when annealed at 300 °C. Furthermore, the impact of exposure to atmospheric ambient on the tantalum film stress has been investigated by monitoring the variation of the residual stress of both annealed and unannealed films over time. The as-deposited films have been exposed to pure Argon energy bombardment and as result, a high compressive stress has been developed in the films.

  9. Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing over a Rotating Disk by Integral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.

    2005-01-01

    An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.

  10. Magnetic penetration depth of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films determined by the power transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Miranda, Felix A.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1992-01-01

    A power transmission measurement technique was used to determine the magnetic penetration depth (lambda) of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) superconducting thin films on LaAlO3 within the 26.5 to 40.0 GHz frequency range, and at temperatures from 20 to 300 K. Values of lambda ranging from 1100 to 2500 A were obtained at low temperatures. The anisotropy of lambda was determined from measurements of c-axis and a-axis oriented films. An estimate of the intrinsic value of lambda of 90 +/- 30 nm was obtained from the dependence of lambda on film thickness. The advantage of this technique is that it allows lambda to be determined nondestructively.

  11. Preparation of nanocrystalline Ni doped ZnS thin films by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition method and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraei, Reza, E-mail: r.sahraei@ilam.ac.ir; Darafarin, Soraya

    2014-05-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni doped ZnS thin films were deposited on quartz, silicon, and glass substrates using chemical bath deposition method in a weak acidic solution containing ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid disodium salt (Na{sub 2}EDTA) as a complexing agent for zinc ions and thioacetamide (TAA) as a sulfide source at 80 °C. The films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. UV–vis transmission data showed that the films were transparent in the visible region. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a cubic zinc blend structure. FE-SEM revealed a homogeneous morphology and dense nanostructures. The PL spectra of the ZnS:Ni films showed two characteristic bands, one broad band centered at 430 and another narrow band at 523 nm. Furthermore, concentration quenching effect on the photoluminescence intensity has been observed. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ZnS:Ni thin films were prepared by the chemical bath deposition method. • The size of ZnS:Ni nanocrystals was less than 10 nm showing quantum size effect. • SEM images demonstrated a dense and uniform surface that was free of pinholes. • The deposited films were highly transparent (>70%) in the visible region. • The PL spectra of ZnS:Ni thin films showed two emission peaks at 430 and 523 nm.

  12. Effect of Mn doping on the structural and optical properties of ZrO2 thin films prepared by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, I. John; Lekshmy, S. Sujatha; Ganesan, V.; Thomas, P.V.; Joy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneous and transparent Mn doped ZrO 2 thin films were prepared by sol–gel dip coating method. The films were annealed in air atmosphere at 500 °C. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the undoped ZrO 2 thin film revealed a mixed phase of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO 2 with preferred orientations along T(111) and M(− 111). Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction of Mn doped ZrO 2 thin films reveals the introduction of Mn interstitial in ZrO 2 which stabilize the mixed phase of ZrO 2 into tetragonal phase. Atomic force microscope image shows the addition of catalyst (Mn) which stops isotropic agglomeration of particles, instead of anisotropic agglomeration that occurred resulting in growth of particles in certain direction. Average transmittances of > 70% (in UV–vis region) were observed for all samples. The optical band gap decreased from 5.72 to 4.52 eV with increase in Mn doping concentration. The reduced band gap is due to the introduction of impurity levels in the band gap, by incorporation of the metal ions into the ZrO 2 lattice. The d-electron of Mn (t 2g level) can easily overlap with the ZrO 2 's valence band (VB) because t 2g of Mn is very close to VB of ZrO 2 . This overlap caused a wide VB and consequently decreases the band gap of ZrO 2 . The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of undoped zirconia thin film exhibits an intense near band edge emission peak at 392.5 nm (3.15 eV) and weak emission peaks at 304 (4.07 eV), 604 nm (2.05 eV) and 766 nm (1.61 eV). Additional PL peaks were observed for Mn doped ZrO 2 located at around 420, 447 (blue), 483 (blue) and 529 (green) nm respectively. These peaks were due to the redox properties of various valence state of Mn in ZrO 2 . The prepared Mn doped ZrO 2 thin films can be applied in optical devices. - Highlights: • Mn-doped ZrO 2 thin films were prepared by sol–gel dip coating method. • Introduction of Mn interstitial in ZrO 2 stabilizes ZrO 2 into tetragonal phase. • The optical band gap

  13. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  14. Excimer Laser Deposition of PLZT Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, GAry

    1991-01-01

    .... In order to integrate these devices into optical systems, the production of high quality thin films with high transparency and perovskite crystal structure is desired. This requires development of deposition technologies to overcome the challenges of depositing and processing PLZT thin films.

  15. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  16. Field ion microscope studies on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaleru, A.; Scortaru, A.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the progress made in the last years in FIM application to thin film structure studies and adatom properties important in the nucleation stage of thin film growth: substrate binding and mobility of individual adatoms, behaviour of adatoms clusters is presented. (author)

  17. Development of neutron diffuse scattering analysis code by thin film and multilayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering by thin film, roughness of surface of thin film, correlation function, neutron propagation by thin film, diffuse scattering by DWBA theory, measurement model, SDIFFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by thin film) and simulation results are explained. On neutron diffuse scattering by multilayer film, roughness of multilayer film, principle of diffuse scattering, measurement method and simulation examples by MDIFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by multilayer film) are explained. (S.Y.)To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering

  18. Aluminum nitride and nanodiamond thin film microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoebber, Fabian; Bludau, Oliver; Roehlig, Claus-Christian; Williams, Oliver; Sah, Ram Ekwal; Kirste, Lutz; Cimalla, Volker; Lebedev, Vadim; Nebel, Christoph; Ambacher, Oliver [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, aluminum nitride (AlN) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film microstructures have been developed. Freestanding NCD membranes were coated with a piezoelectrical AlN layer in order to build tunable micro-lens arrays. For the evaluation of the single material quality, AlN and NCD thin films on silicon substrates were fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering and microwave chemical vapor deposition techniques, respectively. The crystal quality of AlN was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} was determined by scanning laser vibrometry. The NCD thin films were optimized with respect to surface roughness, mechanical stability, intrinsic stress and transparency. To determine the mechanical properties of the materials, both, micromechanical resonator and membrane structures were fabricated and measured by magnetomotive resonant frequency spectroscopy and bulging experiments, respectively. Finally, the behavior of AlN/NCD heterostructures was modeled using the finite element method and the first structures were characterized by piezoelectrical measurements.

  19. Electrical and optical properties of Bi2S3 thin films deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubale, A.U.; Daryapurkar, A.S.; Mankar, R.B.; Raut, R.R.; Sangawar, V.S.; Bhosale, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Bi 2 S 3 thin films were prepared on amorphous glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature using bismuth nitrate and thioacetamide as the cationic and anionic precursors in aqueous medium. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that as-deposited films of Bi 2 S 3 are amorphous in nature, it becomes polycrystalline after annealing at 573 K. The decrease in activation energy from 0.65 to 0.36 eV and optical band gap energy, E g , from 2.35 to 1.86 eV are observed as film thickness varies from 67 to 150 nm. Such changes are attributed to the quantum size effect in semiconducting films

  20. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  1. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  2. Sorptive thin film microextraction followed by direct solid state spectrofluorimetry: A simple, rapid and sensitive method for determination of carvedilol in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Shima; Talebpour, Zahra; Adib, Noushin

    2016-06-14

    A poly acrylate-ethylene glycol (PA-EG) thin film is introduced for the first time as a novel polar sorbent for sorptive extraction method coupled directly to solid-state spectrofluorimetry without the necessity of a desorption step. The structure, polarity, fluorescence property and extraction performance of the developed thin film were investigated systematically. Carvedilol was used as the model analyte to evaluate the proposed method. The entire procedure involved one-step extraction of carvedilol from plasma using PA-EG thin film sorptive phase without protein precipitation. Extraction variables were studied in order to establish the best experimental conditions. Optimum extraction conditions were the followings: stirring speed of 1000 rpm, pH of 6.8, extraction temperature of 60 °C, and extraction time of 60 min. Under optimal conditions, extraction of carvedilol was carried out in spiked human plasma; and the linear range of calibration curve was 15-300 ng mL(-1) with regression coefficient of 0.998. Limit of detection (LOD) for the method was 4.5 ng mL(-1). The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated in plasma sample spiked with three concentration levels of carvedilol; yielding a recovery of 91-112% and relative standard deviation of less than 8%, respectively. The established procedure was successfully applied for quantification of carvedilol in plasma sample of a volunteer patient. The developed PA-EG thin film sorptive phase followed by solid-state spectrofluorimetric method provides a simple, rapid and sensitive approach for the analysis of carvedilol in human plasma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A thin film degradation study of a fluorinated polyether liquid lubricant using an HPLC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, W.

    1986-01-01

    A High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation method was developed to study and analyze a fluorinated polyether fluid which is promising liquid lubricant for future applications. This HPLC separation method was used in a preliminary study investigating the catalytic effect of various metal, metal alloy, and ceramic engineering materials on the degradation of this fluid in a dry air atmosphere at 345 C. Using a 440 C stainless steel as a reference catalytic material it was found that a titanium alloy and a chromium plated material degraded the fluorinated polyether fluid substantially more than the reference material.

  4. Nanostructured barium titanate thin films from nanoparticles obtained by an emulsion precipitation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, F.C.M.; Sager, W.F.C.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Verweij, H.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical non-agglomerated BaTiO3 precursor particles of 3–5 nm size were prepared by an emulsion precipitation method that consisted of the complexation of Ba- and Ti-precursors in separate water-in-decane emulsions, followed by mixing and controlled precipitation upon reactive decomposition of

  5. Optically transparent, superhydrophobic, biocompatible thin film coatings and methods for producing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Simpson, John T.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Trammell, Neil E.

    2017-09-05

    An optically transparent, hydrophobic coating, exhibiting an average contact angle of at least 100 degrees with a drop of water. The coating can be produced using low-cost, environmentally friendly components. Methods of preparing and using the optically transparent, hydrophobic coating.

  6. Laser nanostructuring of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkov, N., E-mail: nned@ie.bas.bg [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Koleva, M.; Nikov, R.; Atanasov, P. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nakajima, Y.; Takami, A.; Shibata, A.; Terakawa, M. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Nanosecond laser pulse nanostructuring of ZnO thin films on metal substrate is demonstrated. • Two regimes of the thin film modification are observed depending on the applied laser fluence. • At high fluence regime the ZnO film is homogeneously decomposed into nanosized particles. • The characteristic size of the formed nanostructures corresponds to the domain size of the thin film. - Abstract: In this work, results on laser processing of thin zinc oxide films deposited on metal substrate are presented. ZnO films are obtained by classical nanosecond pulsed laser deposition method in oxygen atmosphere on tantalum substrate. The produced films are then processed by nanosecond laser pulses at wavelength of 355 nm. The laser processing parameters and the film thickness are varied and their influence on the fabricated structures is estimated. The film morphology after the laser treatment is found to depend strongly on the laser fluence as two regimes are defined. It is shown that at certain conditions (high fluence regime) the laser treatment of the film leads to formation of a discrete nanostructure, composed of spherical like nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The dynamics of the melt film on the substrate and fast cooling are found to be the main mechanisms for fabrication of the observed structures. The demonstrated method is an alternative way for direct fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on metal which can be easy implemented in applications as resistive sensor devices, electroluminescent elements, solar cell technology.

  7. Control of retention and fatigue-free characteristics in CaBi4Ti4O15 thin films prepared by chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.Z.; Ramirez, M.A.; Gonzalez, A.H.M.; Riccardi, C.S.; Ries, A.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ferroelectric CaBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 (CBTi144) thin films were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates by the polymeric precursor method. The films present a single phase of layered-structured perovskite with polar axis orientation after annealing at 700 deg. C for 2 h in static air and oxygen atmosphere. The a/b-axis orientation of the ferroelectric film is considered to be associated with the preferred orientation of the Pt bottom electrode. It is noted that the films annealed in static air showed good polarization fatigue characteristics at least up to 10 10 bipolar pulse cycles and excellent retention properties up to 10 4 s. On the other hand, oxygen atmosphere seems to be crucial in the decrease of both, fatigue and retention characteristics of the capacitors. Independently of the applied electric field, the retained switchable polarization approached a nearly steady-state value after a retention time of 10 s. - Graphical abstract: Fatigue of CBTi144 thin film obtained by polymeric precursor method

  8. Facile and Scalable Fabrication of Highly Efficient Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin-Film Solar Cells in Air Using Gas Pump Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bin; Gao, Lili; Liang, Lusheng; Chu, Qianqian; Song, Xiaoxuan; Li, Yan; Yang, Guanjun; Fan, Bin; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Chengxin; Li, Changjiu

    2016-08-10

    Control of the perovskite film formation process to produce high-quality organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite thin films with uniform morphology, high surface coverage, and minimum pinholes is of great importance to highly efficient solar cells. Herein, we report on large-area light-absorbing perovskite films fabrication with a new facile and scalable gas pump method. By decreasing the total pressure in the evaporation environment, the gas pump method can significantly enhance the solvent evaporation rate by 8 times faster and thereby produce an extremely dense, uniform, and full-coverage perovskite thin film. The resulting planar perovskite solar cells can achieve an impressive power conversion efficiency up to 19.00% with an average efficiency of 17.38 ± 0.70% for 32 devices with an area of 5 × 2 mm, 13.91% for devices with a large area up to 1.13 cm(2). The perovskite films can be easily fabricated in air conditions with a relative humidity of 45-55%, which definitely has a promising prospect in industrial application of large-area perovskite solar panels.

  9. Ion beam deposited epitaxial thin silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrman-Rossiter, K.G.; Al-Bayati, A.H.; Armour, D.G.; Donnelly, S.E.; Berg, J.A. van den

    1991-01-01

    Deposition of thin films using low energy, mass-separated ion beams is a potentially important low temperature method of producing epitaxial layers. In these experiments silicon films were grown on Si (001) substrates using 10-200 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at substrate temperatures in the range 273-1073 K, under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions (deposition pressure -7 Pa). The film crystallinity was assessed in situ using medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). Films of crystallinity comparable to bulk samples were grown using 10-40 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at deposition temperatures in the range 623-823 K. These experiments confirmed the role of key experimental parameters such as ion energy, substrate temperature during deposition, and the surface treatment prior to deposition. It was found that a high temperature in situ anneal (1350-1450 K) gave the best results for epitaxial nucleation, whereas low energy (20-40 eV) Cl + ion bombardment resulted in amorphous film growth. The deposition energy for good epitaxial growth indicates that it is necessary to provide enough energy to induce local mobility but not to cause atomic displacements leading to the buildup of stable defects, e.g. divacancies, below the surface layer of the growing film. (orig.)

  10. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of Ti-doped hematite thin films prepared by the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian Xiaojuan; Yang Xin; Liu Shangjun; Xu Ying; Jiang Chunping; Chen Jinwei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065 (China); Wang Ruilin, E-mail: rlwang26@yahoo.com.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Ti-doped {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were successfully prepared on FTO substrates by the sol-gel route. Hematite film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The XRD data showed {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} had a preferred (1 1 0) orientation which belonged to the rhombohedral system. Interestingly, the grains turned into worm-like shape after annealed at high temperature. The IPCE could reach 32.6% at 400 nm without any additional potential vs. SCE. Titanium in the lattice can affect the photo electro chemical performance positively by increasing the conductivity of the thin film. So the excited electrons and holes could live longer, rather than recombining with each other rapidly as undoped hematite. And the efficient carrier density on the Ti-doped anode surface was higher than the undoped anode, which contribute to the well PEC performance.

  11. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  12. Effect of solution concentration on MEH-PPV thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    MEH-PPV thin films were prepared with a mixture of THF (tetrahydrofuran) solution deposited by spin coating method. The surface topology of MEH-PPV thin film were characterize by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical properties of absorption spectra were characterized by using Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR). The MEH-PPV concentration variation affects the surface and optical properties of the thin film where 0.5 mg/ml MEH-PPV concentration have a good surface topology provided the same film also gives the highest absorption coefficient were then deposited to a TiO2 thin film forming composite layer. The composite layer then shows low current flow of short circuit current of Isc = -5.313E-7 A.

  13. Valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shijing; Zhang Boping; Zhao Cuihua; Li Songjie; Zhang Meixia; Yan Liping

    2011-01-01

    The cobalt oxide (CoO and Co 3 O 4 ) thin films were successfully prepared using a spin-coating technique by a chemical solution method with CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 OH and Co(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O as starting materials. The grayish cobalt oxide films had uniform crystalline grains with less than 50 nm in diameter. The phase structure is able to tailor by controlling the annealing atmosphere and temperature, in which Co 3 O 4 thin film was obtained by annealing in air at 300-600, and N 2 at 300, and transferred to CoO thin film by raising annealing temperature in N 2 . The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Co2p electrons are distinguishable from different valence states of cobalt oxide especially for their satellite structure. The valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere contributes to the tailored optical absorption property.

  14. BDS thin film damage competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Thomas, Michael D.; Griffin, Andrew J.

    2008-10-01

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  15. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  16. Apparatus and method for measurement of the mechanical properties and electromigration of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2000-01-01

    A method for characterizing a sample comprising the steps of depositing the sample on a substrate, measuring a first change in optical response of the sample, changing the lateral strain of the sample, measuring a second change in optical response of the sample, comparing the second change in optical response of with the first change in optical response and associating a difference between the second change and the first change in optical response with a property of interest in the sample. The measurement of the first change in optical response is made with the sample having an initial lateral strain. The measurement of the second change in optical response is made after the lateral strain in the sample is changed from the initial lateral strain to a different lateral strain. The second change in optical response is compared to the first change in optical response to find the difference between the second change and the first change.

  17. Porting of the transfer-matrix method for multilayer thin-film computations on graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Steffen; Fey, Dietmar

    2013-07-01

    Thin-film computations are often a time-consuming task during optical design. An efficient way to accelerate these computations with the help of graphics processing units (GPUs) is described. It turned out that significant speed-ups can be achieved. We investigate the circumstances under which the best speed-up values can be expected. Therefore we compare different GPUs among themselves and with a modern CPU. Furthermore, the effect of thickness modulation on the speed-up and the runtime behavior depending on the input data is examined.

  18. Effect of annealing temperature on structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanoparticles TiO{sub 2} thin films by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muaz, A. K. M.; Hashim, U., E-mail: uda@unimap.edu.my; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Ayub, R. M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Foo, K. L. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Univerisiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this paper, the sol-gel method is used to prepare nanoparticles titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films at different annealing temperature. The prepared sol was deposited on the p-SiO{sub 2} substrates by spin coating technique under room temperature. The nanoparticles TiO{sub 2} solution was synthesized using Ti{OCH(CH_3)_2}{sub 4} as a precursor with an methanol solution at a molar ratio 1:10. The prepared TiO{sub 2} sols will further validate through structural, morphological and electrical properties. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, as-deposited films was found to be amorphous in nature and tend to transform into tetragonal anatase and rutile phase as the films annealed at 573 and 773 K, respectively. The diversification of the surface roughness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated the roughness and thickness very dependent on the annealing temperature. The two-point probe electrical resistance and conductance of nanoparticles TiO{sub 2} thin films were determined by the DC current-voltage (IV) analysis. From the I-V measurement, the electrical conductance increased as the films annealed at higher temperature.

  19. Effect of Sn-doped on microstructural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, C.-Y.; Cheng, H.-C.; Tung, Y.-T.; Tuan, W.-H.; Lin, C.-K.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, transparent thin films of Sn-doped ZnO (ZnO:Sn) were deposited onto alkali-free glass substrates by a sol-gel method; the effect of Sn doping on crystallinity, microstructural and optical properties was investigated. The atomic percentages of dopant in ZnO-based sols were Sn/Zn = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 at.%. The as-deposited films were pre-heated at 300 deg. C for 10 min and then annealed in air at 500 deg. C for 1 h. The results show that Sn-doped ZnO thin films demonstrate obviously improved surface roughness, enhanced transmittance in the 400-600 nm wavelength range and reduced average crystallite size. Among all of the annealed ZnO-based films in this study, films doped with 2 at.% Sn concentration exhibited the best properties, namely an average transmittance of 90%, an RMS roughness value of 1.92 nm and a resistivity of 9.3 x 10 2 Ω-cm

  20. Preparation of CuAlO2 Thin Films by Sol-Gel Method Using Nitrate Solution Dip-Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehara Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CuAlO2 thin films are prepared by sol-gel dip-coating followed by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere using copper nitrate and aluminum nitrate as metal source materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns show (003, (006 and (009 oriented peaks of CuAlO2 at annealing temperature of 800 – 1000°C. This result indicates that the CuAlO2 films prepared in the present work are c-axis oriented. XRD peak intensity increase with annealing temperature and becomes maximum at 850°C. The CuAlO2 XRD peak decreased at annealing temperature of 900°C with appearance of a peak of CuO, and then increased again with annealing temperature until 1000 °C. The films have bandgap of 3.4 eV at annealing temperature of 850°C in which the transparency becomes the highest. At the annealing temperature of 850°C, scanning electron microscope (SEM observation reveals that the films are consist of amorphous fraction and microcrystalline CuAlO2 fraction.

  1. Modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Many thin film deposition techniques involve some form of energetic particle bombardment of the growing film. The degree of bombardment greatly influences the film composition, structure and other properties. While in some techniques the degree of bombardment is secondary to the original process design, in recent years more deposition systems are being designed with the capability for controlled ion bombardment of thin films during deposition. The highest degree of control is obtained with ion beam sources which operate independently of the vapor source providing the thin film material. Other plasma techniques offer varying degrees of control of energetic particle bombardment. Deposition methods involving ion bombardment are described, and the basic processes with which film properties are modified by ion bombardment are summarized. (Auth.)

  2. Residual stress in spin-cast polyurethane thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Li, E-mail: lizhang@mae.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin N.T., Hong Kong (China); Chow Yuk Ho Technology Centre for Innovative Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin N.T., Hong Kong (China)

    2015-01-19

    Residual stress is inevitable during spin-casting. Herein, we report a straightforward method to evaluate the residual stress in as-cast polyurethane thin films using area shrinkage measurement of films in floating state, which shows that the residual stress is independent of radial location on the substrate and decreased with decreasing film thickness below a critical value. We demonstrate that the residual stress is developed due to the solvent evaporation after vitrification during spin-casting and the polymer chains in thin films may undergo vitrification at an increased concentration. The buildup of residual stress in spin-cast polymer films provides an insight into the size effects on the nature of polymer thin films.

  3. Structural properties 3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (pentacene) (TIPS-pentacene) thin films onto organic dielectric layer using slide coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusnan, Fara Naila; Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Seria, Dzul Fahmi Mohd Husin; Saad, Ismail; Ghosh, Bablu K.; Alias, Afishah [Nano Engineering & Materials (NEMs) Research Group, Faculty of Engineering Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400 Sabah (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (Pentacene) (TIPS-Pentacene) compactable interface property is important in order to have a good arrangement of molecular structure. Comparison for TIPS-Pentacene deposited between two different surface layers conducted. 0.1wt% TIPS-Pentacene diluted in chloroform were deposited onto poly(methylmeaclyrate) (PMMA) layered transparent substrates using slide coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) used to determine crystallinity of thin films. Series of (00l) diffraction peaks obtained with sharp first peaks (001) for TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer at 5.35° and separation of 16.3 Å. Morphology and surface roughness were carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profilemeter LS500, respectively.TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer formed needled-like-shape grains with 10.26 nm surface roughness. These properties were related as thin film formed and its surface roughness plays important role towards good mobility devices.

  4. Structural and Luminescence Properties of Lu2O3:Eu3+ F127 Tri-Block Copolymer Modified Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Morales Ramírez, Angel; Hernández, Margarita García; Murillo, Antonieta García; de Jesús Carrillo Romo, Felipe; Palmerin, Joel Moreno; Velazquez, Dulce Yolotzin Medina; Jota, María Luz Carrera

    2013-01-01

    Lu2O3:Eu3+ transparent, high density, and optical quality thin films were prepared using the sol-gel dip-coating technique, starting with lutetium and europium nitrates as precursors and followed by hydrolysis in an ethanol-ethylene glycol solution. Acetic acid and acetylacetonate were incorporated in order to adjust pH and as a sol stabilizer. In order to increment the thickness of the films and orient the structure, F127 Pluronic acid was incorporated during the sol formation. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the films were investigated for different F127/Lu molar ratios (0–5) in order to obtain high optical quality films with enhanced thickness compared with the traditional method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the films present a highly oriented cubic structure beyond 1073 K for a 3-layer film, on silica glass substrates. The thickness, density, porosity, and refractive index evolution of the films were investigated by means of m-lines microscopy along with the morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and luminescent properties. PMID:28809336

  5. Microwave Josephson generation in thin film superconducting bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubankov, V.N.; Koshelets, V.P.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Thin-film bridges have some advantage over other types of superconducting weak links: good definition of electromagnetic parameters and of weak region geometry. Up to now Josephson properties of bridges have been investigated by using indirect methods (the effect of magnetic field on the critical current I 0 , the bridge behavior in a microwave field, etc.). Direct experimental observation of Josephson radiation from autonomous thin film bridges is reported. Microwave radiation in tin bridges of 'variable' thickness has been investigated where the thickness of the film forming the bridge is far less than the thickness of the bank films. (Auth.)

  6. Buckling of Thin Films in Nano-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L.A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thin film buckling is important for life prediction of MEMS device which are damaged mainly by the delamination and buckling of thin films. In this paper the mechanical and thermal properties of compressed thin film titanium films with 150 nm thickness deposited on an organic glass substrate under mechanical and thermal loads were measured and characterized. In order to simulate the thin films which subjected to compound loads and the buckle modes the external uniaxial compression and thermal loading were subjected to the specimen by the symmetric loading device and the electrical film in this experiment. The temperature of the thin film deposited on substrate was measured using thermoelectric couple. The range of temperature accords with the temperature range of the MEMS. It is found that the size and number of the delamination and buckling of the film are depended upon the pre-fixed mechanical loading and thermal temperature. The thermal transient conduction and thermal stability of the film and substrate was studied with finite element method.

  7. Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene thin films in liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguino, P.; Balau, F.; Botelho do Rego, A.M.; Pereira, A.; Chepel, V.

    2016-01-01

    Tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) is widely used in particle detectors as a wavelength shifter. In this work we studied the stability of TPB thin films when immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). The thin films were deposited on glass and quartz substrates by thermal evaporation. Morphological and chemical surface properties were monitored before and after immersion into LXe by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No appreciable changes have been detected with these two methods. Grain size and surface chemical composition were found to be identical before and after submersion into LXe. However, the film thickness, measured via optical transmission in the ultraviolet–visible wavelength regions, decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe during 20 h. These results suggest the necessity of using a protective thin film over the Tetraphenyl butadiene when used as a wavelength shifter in LXe particle detectors. - Highlights: • Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) thin films immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). • Thermally evaporated TPB thin films were immersed in LXe for 20 h. • Film morphology and chemical surface properties remained unchanged. • Surface density of the films decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe. • For using in LXe particle detectors, TPB films should be protected with a coating.

  8. High-throughput characterization of film thickness in thin film materials libraries by digital holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Yiuwai; Hofmann, Martin R; Ludwig, Alfred; Krause, Michael; Savan, Alan; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Koukourakis, Nektarios

    2011-01-01

    A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

  9. High-throughput characterization of film thickness in thin film materials libraries by digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yiu Wai; Krause, Michael; Savan, Alan; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Hofmann, Martin R; Ludwig, Alfred

    2011-10-01

    A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

  10. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Pb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Michael

    2010-12-13

    films. It is shown how accurate quantitative information about work function differences can be obtained and how these differences depend on the QWSs in the Pb thin films. The electron transport properties and mechanical characteristics of atom-sized metallic contacts are of fundamental interest in view of future nanoscale device technologies. Proximity probes like STM, metal break junctions, and related techniques, together with computational methods for simulating tip-sample interactions, have made it possible to address this question. While the importance of atomic structure and bonding for transport through single-atom junctions has repeatedly been emphasized, investigations of the influence of subsurface bonding properties have been rare. Here, the contact formation of a STM tip approaching Pb(111) thin films supported on Ag(111) substrates is investigated. Contacts on monolayer films are found to differ from contacts made on thicker Pb films. This behavior is explained in terms of different vertical bonding-strengths due to a charge-transfer induced surface dipole. Furthermore, the single-atom contact conductance on Pb(111) films beyond the first monolayer is determined. It is shown that analyses based on hitherto widely used conventional conductance histograms may overestimate the single-atom contact conductance by as much as 20%. (orig.)

  11. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  12. Effect of UV irradiation on Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films prepared by the sol–gel sulfurization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Hayato; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Uchiki, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films were fabricated on Mo-coated soda lime glass substrates by the sol–gel sulfurization method, which is a non-vacuum process. UV irradiation was introduced to the drying process, resulting in a significant increase in the grain size and density as well as a remarkable improvement in the crystallinity of the CZTS films. In addition, sulfurization of the Mo substrate was suppressed due to the increased density. We confirmed that the carbon/metal ratio in the precursor increased as a result of the UV irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Surface and cross sectional SEM images of the (a) CZTS prepared without UV irradiation and (b) CZTS prepared with UV irradiation. - Highlights: • CZTS thin film was prepared by sol–gel sulfurization method. • UV irradiation was introduced during the drying process. • Density and crystallinity of the CZTS films were improved by the UV irradiation. • Sulfurization of Mo substrates was suppressed by the UV irradiation.

  13. Thin film soft X-ray absorption filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stattin, H.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses the composition, reparation and performance of soft x-ray transmission filters for a water window soft x-ray microscope. Unbacked thin films of aluminum, silver and vanadium/aluminum were made by evaporation on a substrate from which they were released. Measured transmittances agree reasonably well with calculations. The report also includes some related theory and discussions about film preparation methods, film contamination and evaluation methods. 33 refs

  14. Characterization of diamond thin films deposited by a CO{sub 2} laser-assisted combustion-flame method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKindra, Travis, E-mail: mckindra@mst.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); O' Keefe, Matthew J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Xie Zhiqiang; Lu Yongfeng [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Diamond thin films were deposited by a CO{sub 2} laser-assisted O{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4} combustion-flame process. The effect of the deposition parameters, in particular the laser wavelength and power, on the film surface morphology, microstructure and phases present was the primary focus of the work. The laser power was set at 100, 400 and 800 W while the wavelength was varied and set at 10.591 {mu}m in the untuned condition and set at 10.532 {mu}m to resonantly match the CH{sub 2}-wagging vibrational mode of the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} molecule when in the tuned condition. When the laser was coupled to the combustion flame during deposition the diamond film growth was enhanced as the lateral grain size increased from 1 {mu}m to greater than 5 {mu}m. The greatest increase in grain size occurred when the wavelength was in the tuned condition. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images from focused-ion beam cross-sectioned samples revealed a sub-layer of smaller grains less than 1 {mu}m in size near the substrate surface at the lower laser powers and untuned wavelength. X-ray diffraction results showed a more intense Diamond (111) peak as the laser power increased from 100 to 800 W for the films deposited with the tuned laser wavelength. Micro-Raman spectra showed a diamond peak nearly twice as intense from the films with the tuned laser wavelength.

  15. Thin film growing by the laser ablation technique: possibilities for growing of dosimetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas R, E.M.; Melo M, M.; Enriquez Z, E.; Fernandez G, M.; Haro P, E.; Hernandez P, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    In this talk we will present the basics about the laser ablation technique and how it is used for thin film growing, either as a single film or a stack of thin films, as well as some methods to characterize in real time the film thickness. Finally, we will discuss the possibilities of using laser ablation for growing thin films with applications to dosimetry. (Author)

  16. Polarization fatigue resistance of Ca-doped Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films prepared by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, T.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, C.; Dong, X.W.; Xia, Y.D.; Zhu, J.S.; Liu, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    The ferroelectric and polarization fatigue characteristics of Pb 1-x Ca x (Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PCZT) thin films prepared using the sol-gel method were studied. The Ca-doping slightly suppresses the ferroelectricity of Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) because of the quantum paraelectric behavior of CaTiO 3 . Compared with PZT thin films, the PCZT (x=0.2) thin films show enhanced fatigue resistance at room temperature, further emphasized by the almost fatigue-free behavior at 100 K. The temperature-dependent dc-conductivity suggests a decrease of the oxygen vacancy density by almost 20 times and a slightly declined activation energy U for oxygen vacancies, upon increasing of the Ca-doping content from 0.0 to 0.2. It is argued that the improved fatigue endurance is ascribed to the decreasing density of oxygen vacancies due to the Ca-doping, although the lowered activation energy of oxygen vacancies is unfavorable. (orig.)

  17. Influence of Codoping on the Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Synthesized on Glass Substrate by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmuganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe and K simultaneously doped ZnO thin films Zn0.99 K0.01 (Fex O (x=1, 2, 3, and 4% were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method. The XRD investigation reveals that all the doped ZnO thin films are in hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure without impurity phases. With increase in Fe concentration, the growth of thin films along c axis is evident from the XRD which indicates the increase in intensity along (002 direction. The same is visible from the surface morphology which shows the formation of hexagonal structure for higher Fe concentration. The topography shows gradual variation with Fe incorporation. The optical energy band gap obtained from the transmittance spectrum decreases from 3.42 to 3.06 eV with increase in Fe concentration indicating the red shift and this trend is consistent with the earlier experimental results. The UV emission is centered around 3.59 eV. The optical constants such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, and absorption coefficient which are essential for the optoelectronic applications were also determined.

  18. Room Temperature Gas Sensing Properties of Sn-Substituted Nickel Ferrite (NiFe2O4) Thin Film Sensors Prepared by Chemical Co-Precipitation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, V.; Li, Xiaogan; Mane, R. S.; Chandrasekaran, J.

    2018-04-01

    Tin (Sn) substituted nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) thin film sensors were prepared by a simple chemical co-precipitation method, which initially characterized their structure and surface morphology with the help of x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Surface morphology of the sensing films reveals particles stick together with nearer particles and this formation leads to a large specific area as a large specific area is very useful for easy adsorption of gas molecules. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction pattern images confirm particle size and nanocrystallnity as due to formation of circular rings. Fourier transform infrared analysis has supported the presence of functional groups. The 3.69 eV optical band gap of the film was found which enabled better gas sensing. Gas sensors demonstrate better response and recovery characteristics, and the maximum response was 68.43%.

  19. Yellow light emission from Ta2O5:Er, Eu, Ce thin films deposited using a simple co-sputtering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Miura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erbium, europium, and cerium co-doped tantalum oxide (Ta2O5:Er, Eu, Ce thin films were prepared using a simple co-sputtering method, and yellow light emission was observed by the naked eye from a sample annealed at 900 °C for 20 min. The hexagonal Ta2O5 phase is very important, but the hexagonal CeTa7O19 phase should be avoided to obtain strong yellow light emission from Ta2O5:Er, Eu, Ce films. The co-sputtered films can be used as high-refractive-index and yellow-light-emitting materials of autocloned photonic crystals that can be applied to novel light-emission devices, and they will also be used as anti-reflection and down-conversion layers toward high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  20. Solid thin film materials for use in thin film charge-coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Solid thin films deposited by vacuum deposition were evaluated to ascertain their effectiveness for use in the manufacturing of charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Optical and electrical characteristics of tellurium and Bi 2 Te 3 solid thin films were obtained in order to design and to simulate successfully the operation of thin film (TF) CCDs. In this article some of the material differences between single-crystal material and the island-structured thin film used in TFCCDs are discussed. The electrical parameters were obtained and tabulated, e.g. the mobility, conductivity, dielectric constants, permittivity, lifetime of holes and electrons in the thin films and drift diffusion constants. The optical parameters were also measured and analyzed. After the design was complete, experimental TFCCDs were manufactured and were successfully operated utilizing the aforementioned solid thin films. (Auth.)

  1. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiederhirn, G.; Nucci, J.; Richter, G.; Arzt, E.; Balk, T. J.; Dehm, G.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the influence of a 10 nm AlxOy passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 μm thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm film; however, its effect on the 1 μm film is negligible. At high temperatures, the opposite behavior is observed; while the passivation does not change the 100 nm film behavior, it strengthens the 1 μm film by driving it deeper into compression. These observations are explained in light of a combination of constrained diffusional creep and dislocation dynamics unique to ultra-thin films

  2. ITO thin films deposited by advanced pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viespe, Cristian; Nicolae, Ionut; Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin; Medianu, Rares

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide thin films were deposited by computer assisted advanced PLD method in order to obtain transparent, conductive and homogeneous films on a large area. The films were deposited on glass substrates. We studied the influence of the temperature (room temperature (RT)-180 deg. C), pressure (1-6 x 10 -2 Torr), laser fluence (1-4 J/cm 2 ) and wavelength (266-355 nm) on the film properties. The deposition rate, roughness, film structure, optical transmission, electrical conductivity measurements were done. We deposited uniform ITO thin films (thickness 100-600 nm, roughness 5-10 nm) between RT and 180 deg. C on a large area (5 x 5 cm 2 ). The films have electrical resistivity of 8 x 10 -4 Ω cm at RT, 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 180 deg. C and an optical transmission in the visible range, around 89%

  3. Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyan; Song Peng; Cui Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide substrates and glass slides by spin coating method at room temperature. The wettability of GO thin films before and after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was characterized with water contact angles, which increased from 27.3° to 57.6° after 3 h of irradiation, indicating a photo-induced hydrophobic surface. The UV–vis absorption spectra, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements of GO films before and after UV irradiation were taken to study the mechanism of photoinduced hydrophobic surface of GO thin films. It is demonstrated that the photoinduced hydrophobic surface is ascribed to the elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups on GO molecules. This work provides a simple strategy to control the wettability properties of GO thin films by UV irradiation. - Highlights: ► Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films has been demonstrated. ► Elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups in graphene oxide achieved by UV irradiation. ► We provide novel strategy to control surface wettability of GO thin films by UV irradiation.

  4. Preparation of self-supporting thin metal target films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuying; Ge Suxian; Yin Jianhua; Yin Xu; Jin Genming

    1989-01-01

    The preparation method and equipment for thin metal self-supporting target without oil contamination are described. The influence of target films contaminated by oil vapor on accuracy of nuclear-physics experimental data are also discussed. The analytical results on carbon content in the prepared films of three elements show that the equipment is very effective for eliminating contamination

  5. Study on the influence of X-ray tube spectral distribution on the analysis of bulk samples and thin films: Fundamental parameters method and theoretical coefficient algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, Rafal

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of X-ray tube spectral distribution is necessary in theoretical methods of matrix correction, i.e. in both fundamental parameter (FP) methods and theoretical influence coefficient algorithms. Thus, the influence of X-ray tube distribution on the accuracy of the analysis of thin films and bulk samples is presented. The calculations are performed using experimental X-ray tube spectra taken from the literature and theoretical X-ray tube spectra evaluated by three different algorithms proposed by Pella et al. (X-Ray Spectrom. 14 (1985) 125-135), Ebel (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 255-266), and Finkelshtein and Pavlova (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 27-32). In this study, Fe-Cr-Ni system is selected as an example and the calculations are performed for X-ray tubes commonly applied in X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), i.e., Cr, Mo, Rh and W. The influence of X-ray tube spectra on FP analysis is evaluated when quantification is performed using various types of calibration samples. FP analysis of bulk samples is performed using pure-element bulk standards and multielement bulk standards similar to the analyzed material, whereas for FP analysis of thin films, the bulk and thin pure-element standards are used. For the evaluation of the influence of X-ray tube spectra on XRF analysis performed by theoretical influence coefficient methods, two algorithms for bulk samples are selected, i.e. Claisse-Quintin (Can. Spectrosc. 12 (1967) 129-134) and COLA algorithms (G.R. Lachance, Paper Presented at the International Conference on Industrial Inorganic Elemental Analysis, Metz, France, June 3, 1981) and two algorithms (constant and linear coefficients) for thin films recently proposed by Sitko (X-Ray Spectrom. 37 (2008) 265-272)

  6. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ATiO{sub 3}–Pr thin films prepared by a photochemical method (where A = Ba and Ca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabello, G., E-mail: gerardocabelloguzman@hotmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán (Chile); Lillo, L.; Caro, C.; Seguel, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán (Chile); Buono-Core, G.E.; Huentupil, Y. [Instituto de Química, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso (Chile); Chornik, B. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8370415 (Chile); Carrasco, C.; Rodríguez, C.A. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Materiales, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A method of photochemical deposition has been used to the preparation of (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3} thin films doped Pr(III). • The (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3}/Pr(III) films under 375 nm excitation shows emissions attributable to {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 3}H{sub 4} transition of Pr ion. • These PL signals decreased above 10 mol% of Pr(III). • Analysis suggests the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap influences in the PL processes. - Abstract: This article reports the characterization and optical properties of (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3} thin films doped with Pr at different proportions (0–15 mol%). The films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and quartz substrates using a photochemical method and post-annealed at 900 °C. The evaluation of photo-reactivity of the precursor complexes was monitored by UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that Ba, Ca, Ti, O and Pr are present in the form of perovskite. Under UV light excitation (375 nm) the (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3}–Pr films show the characteristic emissions ascribed to {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 3}H{sub 4} transition of Pr{sup 3+} ion. The optical measurements show the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap which influence the emission processes.

  7. Thermal conductivity model for nanoporous thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Congliang; Zhao, Xinpeng; Regner, Keith; Yang, Ronggui

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films have attracted great interest because of their extremely low thermal conductivity and potential applications in thin thermal insulators and thermoelectrics. Although there are some numerical and experimental studies about the thermal conductivity of nanoporous thin films, a simplified model is still needed to provide a straightforward prediction. In this paper, by including the phonon scattering lifetimes due to film thickness boundary scattering, nanopore scattering and the frequency-dependent intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering, a fitting-parameter-free model based on the kinetic theory of phonon transport is developed to predict both the in-plane and the cross-plane thermal conductivities of nanoporous thin films. With input parameters such as the lattice constants, thermal conductivity, and the group velocity of acoustic phonons of bulk silicon, our model shows a good agreement with available experimental and numerical results of nanoporous silicon thin films. It illustrates that the size effect of film thickness boundary scattering not only depends on the film thickness but also on the size of nanopores, and a larger nanopore leads to a stronger size effect of the film thickness. Our model also reveals that there are different optimal structures for getting the lowest in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities.

  8. Tension Tests of Copper Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Jo; Kim, Chung Youb [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Tension tests for copper thin films with thickness of 12 μm were performed by using a digital image correlation method based on consecutive digital images. When calculating deformation using digital image correlation, a large deformation causes errors in the calculated result. In this study, the calculation procedure was improved to reduce the error, so that the full field deformation and the strain of the specimen could be accurately and directly measured on its surface. From the calculated result, it can be seen that the strain distribution is not uniform and its variation is severe, unlike the distribution in a common bulk specimen. This might result from the surface roughness introduced in the films during the fabrication process by electro-deposition.

  9. Effect of titanium incorporation on the structural, mechanical and biocompatible properties of DLC thin films prepared by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathy, P. Vijai [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Nataraj, D., E-mail: de.natraj@gmail.com [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Chu, Paul K.; Wang, Huaiyu [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yang, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Kiran, M.S.R.N. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Andra Pradesh (India); Silvestre-Albero, J. [Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados, Departmento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Mangalaraj, D. [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) and titanium incorporated diamond like carbon (Ti-DLC) thin films were deposited by using reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method. The effects of Ti incorporation and target bias voltage on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-deposited films were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nano-indentation. It was found that the Ti content in Ti-DLC films gets increased with increasing target bias voltage. At about 4.2 at.% of Ti, uniform sized well dispersed nanocrystals were seen in the DLC matrix. Using FFT analysis, a facility available in the TEM, it was found that the nanocrystals are in cubic TiC phase. Though at the core, the incorporated Ti atoms react with carbon to form cubic TiC; most of the surface exposed Ti atoms were found to react with the atmospheric oxygen to form weakly bonded Ti-O. The presence of TiC nanocrystals greatly modified the sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} hybridized bonding ratio and is reflected in mechanical hardness of Ti-DLC films. These films were then tested for their biocompatibility by an invitro cell culturing test. Morphological observation and the cell proliferation test have demonstrated that the human osteoblast cells well attach and proliferate on the surface of Ti incorporated DLC films, suggesting possible applications in bone related implant coatings.

  10. Effect of titanium incorporation on the structural, mechanical and biocompatible properties of DLC thin films prepared by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharathy, P. Vijai; Nataraj, D.; Chu, Paul K.; Wang, Huaiyu; Yang, Q.; Kiran, M.S.R.N.; Silvestre-Albero, J.; Mangalaraj, D.

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) and titanium incorporated diamond like carbon (Ti-DLC) thin films were deposited by using reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method. The effects of Ti incorporation and target bias voltage on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-deposited films were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nano-indentation. It was found that the Ti content in Ti-DLC films gets increased with increasing target bias voltage. At about 4.2 at.% of Ti, uniform sized well dispersed nanocrystals were seen in the DLC matrix. Using FFT analysis, a facility available in the TEM, it was found that the nanocrystals are in cubic TiC phase. Though at the core, the incorporated Ti atoms react with carbon to form cubic TiC; most of the surface exposed Ti atoms were found to react with the atmospheric oxygen to form weakly bonded Ti-O. The presence of TiC nanocrystals greatly modified the sp 3 /sp 2 hybridized bonding ratio and is reflected in mechanical hardness of Ti-DLC films. These films were then tested for their biocompatibility by an invitro cell culturing test. Morphological observation and the cell proliferation test have demonstrated that the human osteoblast cells well attach and proliferate on the surface of Ti incorporated DLC films, suggesting possible applications in bone related implant coatings.

  11. Absence of morphotropic phase boundary effects in BiFeO3-PbTiO3 thin films grown via a chemical multilayer deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shashaank; Bhattacharjee, Shuvrajyoti; Pandey, Dhananjai; Bansal, Vipul; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Peng, Ju Lin; Garg, Ashish

    2011-07-01

    We report an unusual behavior observed in (BiFeO3)1- x -(PbTiO3) x (BF- xPT) thin films prepared using a multilayer chemical solution deposition method. Films of different compositions were grown by depositing several bilayers of BF and PT precursors of varying BF and PT layer thicknesses followed by heat treatment in air. X-ray diffraction showed that samples of all compositions show mixing of two compounds resulting in a single-phase mixture, also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to bulk compositions, samples show a monoclinic (MA-type) structure suggesting disappearance of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) at x=0.30 as observed in the bulk. This is accompanied by the lack of any enhancement of the remanent polarization at the MPB, as shown by the ferroelectric measurements. Magnetic measurements showed an increase in the magnetization of the samples with increasing BF content. Significant magnetization in the samples indicates melting of spin spirals in the BF- xPT films, arising from a random distribution of iron atoms. Absence of Fe2+ ions was corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The results illustrate that thin film processing methodology significantly changes the structural evolution, in contrast to predictions from the equilibrium phase diagram, besides modifying the functional characteristics of the BP- xPT system dramatically.

  12. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 Thin Film Using a Chemical Bath Deposition Method with Improved Deposition Time, Temperature and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zainal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a simple chemical bath deposition method. Triethanolamine was used as complexing agent to decrease time and temperature of deposition and shift the pH of the solution to the noncorrosive region. The films were characterized for composition, surface morphology, structure and optical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that SnOx thin films consist of a polycrystalline structure with an average grain size of 36 nm. Atomic force microscopy studies show a uniform grain distribution without pinholes. The elemental composition was evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average O/Sn atomic percentage ratio is 1.72. Band gap energy and optical transition were determined from optical absorbance data. The film was found to exhibit direct and indirect transitions in the visible spectrum with band gap values of about 3.9 and 3.7 eV, respectively. The optical transmittance in the visible region is 82%. The SnOx nanocrystals exhibit an ultraviolet emission band centered at 392 nm in the vicinity of the band edge, which is attributed to the well-known exciton transition in SnOx. Photosensitivity was detected in the positive region under illumination with white light.

  13. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au)

  14. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  15. Flush Mounting Of Thin-Film Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Technique developed for mounting thin-film sensors flush with surfaces like aerodynamic surfaces of aircraft, which often have compound curvatures. Sensor mounted in recess by use of vacuum pad and materials selected for specific application. Technique involves use of materials tailored to thermal properties of substrate in which sensor mounted. Together with customized materials, enables flush mounting of thin-film sensors in most situations in which recesses for sensors provided. Useful in both aircraft and automotive industries.

  16. Thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boldyš, Jiří; Hrach, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 55-64 ISSN 0011-4626 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 173/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thin films * wavelet transform * descriptors * histogram model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/boldys-thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics .pdf

  17. Photoluminescence properties of perovskite multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, Leilane Roberta; Longo, Elson, E-mail: leilanemacario@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Mazzo, Tatiana Martelli [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Bouquet, Valerie; Deputier, Stephanie; Ollivier, Sophie; Guilloux-Viry, Maryline [Universite de Rennes (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the optical properties of thin films is important in many scientific, technological and industrial applications of thin films such as photoconductivity, solar energy, photography, and numerous other applications [1]. In this study, perovskite type oxides were grown by pulsed laser deposition [2] in order to obtain thin films with applicable optical properties. The LaNiO{sub 3} (LN), BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) and KNbO{sub 3} (KNb) targets were prepared by solid-state reaction. The X-ray Diffraction revealed the presence of the desired phases, containing the elements of interest in the targets and in the thin films that were produced. The LN, BT and KNb thin films were polycrystalline and the corresponding diffraction peaks were indexed in the with JCPDS cards n. 00-033-0711, n. 00-005-0626, and n. 00-009-0156, respectively. The multilayers films were polycrystalline. The majority of the micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy presented films with a thickness from 100 to 400 nm. The photoluminescent (PL) emission spectra of thin films show different broad bands that occupies large region of the visible spectrum, ranging from about 300-350 to 600-650 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The PL emission is associated with the order-disorder structural, even small structural changes can modify the interactions between electronic states. The structural disorder results in formation of new energy levels in the forbidden region. The proximity or distance of these new energy levels formed in relation to valence band and to the conduction band results in PL spectra located at higher or lower energies. These interactions change the electronic states which can be influenced by defects, particularly the interface defects between the layers of the thin films. The presence of defects results in changes in the broad band matrix intensity and in displacement of the PL emission maximum. (author)

  18. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of YVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition method with various substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyun Kyoung; Chung, Jong Won; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun [Pukyong National University, Dept. of Physics, Busan (Korea); Yi, Soung-Soo [Silla University, Dept. of Electronic Material Engineering, Busan (Korea); Kim, Jung Hwan [Dongeui University, Dept. of Physics, Busan (Korea)

    2008-08-15

    YVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} films have been deposited on different substrates using pulsed laser deposition method. The films were deposited on fused silica, MgO(100), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and Si(100) substrates. The crystallinity and surface morphology of the films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The films grown on the different substrates have different crystallinity and morphology. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of (200) peak are 0.20, 0.14, 0.12, and 0.18 for fused silica, MgO(100), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and Si(100), respectively. The crystallite size, estimated by using Scherrer's formula, of phosphors grown on fused silica, MgO(100), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and Si(100) was about 7.25, 10.08, 11.88, and 8.14 nm, respectively and it has a maximum at 11.88 nm for the thin film grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001). The photoluminescence and the cathodoluminescence spectra were measured at room temperature using a luminescence spectrometer and the emitted radiation was dominated by the red emission peak at 602 nm radiated from the transition of {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 7/2}. YVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} films have maximum PL intensity for the films grown on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrate and the brightness of the films were higher 1.3, 2.9, and 5.0 times in comparison with that of the YVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} films grown on MgO(100), fused silica, and Si (100) substrates, respectively. The crystallinity, surface morphology and luminescence spectra of thin-film phosphors were highly dependent on substrates. (orig.)

  19. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  20. Nanosphere lithography applied to magnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Russell

    Magnetic nanostructures have widespread applications in many areas of physics and engineering, and nanosphere lithography has recently emerged as promising tool for the fabrication of such nanostructures. The goal of this research is to explore the magnetic properties of a thin film of ferromagnetic material deposited onto a hexagonally close-packed monolayer array of polystyrene nanospheres, and how they differ from the magnetic properties of a typical flat thin film. The first portion of this research focuses on determining the optimum conditions for depositing a monolayer of nanospheres onto chemically pretreated silicon substrates (via drop-coating) and the subsequent characterization of the deposited nanosphere layer with scanning electron microscopy. Single layers of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) are then deposited on top of the nanosphere array via DC magnetron sputtering, resulting in a thin film array of magnetic nanocaps. The coercivities of the thin films are measured using a home-built magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) system in longitudinal arrangement. MOKE measurements show that for a single layer of permalloy (Py), the coercivity of a thin film deposited onto an array of nanospheres increases compared to that of a flat thin film. In addition, the coercivity increases as the nanosphere size decreases for the same deposited layer. It is postulated that magnetic exchange decoupling between neighboring nanocaps suppresses the propagation of magnetic domain walls, and this pinning of the domain walls is thought to be the primary source of the increase in coercivity.

  1. Simple method for resistance measurements on thin films and bulk of high T_c superconducting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzetta, G.; Arimondo, E.; Celli, R. M.; Fuso, F.

    1994-08-01

    Two experimental techniques for measuring resistivity behaviour of high T_c ceramic superconductors in bulk or thin films are described. Particular attention has been given to the development of a four point contact system, easy to use for reliable resistance measurements under repeated, wide thermal cycles. On expose deux méthodes de mesure de la résistivité des supraconducteurs HTc en forme de couches minces déposées sur un substrat ou des céramiques frittées. Le dispositif de mesure, qui a été réalisé avec quatre contacts élastiques, permet d'obtenir des résultats reproductibles dans de très larges intervalles de température.

  2. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong [Centre for Advanced Devices and Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Persiaran Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2015-04-01

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  4. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper

  5. Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric characterization of PZT thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo E.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work ferroelectric thin films of PZT were prepared by the oxide precursor method, deposited on Pt/Si substrate. Films of 0.5 mm average thickness were obtained. Electrical and ferroelectric characterization were carried out in these films. The measured value of the dielectric constant for films was 455. Ferroelectricity was confirmed by Capacitance-Voltage (C-V characteristics and P-E hysteresis loops. Remanent polarization for films presented value around 5.0 µC/cm2 and a coercive field of 88.8 kV/cm.

  6. LaSrMnO{sub 3} thin films on YSZ/YSZ - NiO by the spin coating method: synthesis and microstructural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Laurenia Martins Pereira; Souza, Graziele Lopes de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (NUPEG/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Petroleo e Gas], Email: lauengmat@hotmail.com; Macedo, Daniel Araujo de; Cela, Beatriz; Paskocimas, Carlos Alberto; Nascimento, Rubens Maribondo do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Cesario, Moises Romolos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGQ/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Fuel cells are devices which work by electrochemical mechanism directly converting the chemical energy, by fuel the oxidizing, in electric energy. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - SOFC consist an anode, an electrolyte and one cathode made with ceramic materials. The most widely known functional materials used in SOFC are Yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte (YSZ), composite anode of YSZ-Ni O and strontium-doped lanthanum manganite cathode (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} - LGSM). In this work the thin films of cathode LSM were deposited by spin coating in a half cell YSZ/YSZ - Ni O. The polymeric resin of 22% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM 22) was attained by the polymeric precursor method. This resin was directly used for the deposition process. The deposition of 2 or 4 layers occurred by spin coating method with the following conditions: 500 rpm during 15 s and 300 rpm during 40 s. Each layer was thermally treated at 500 deg C for 2 h and heating rate equal to 1 deg C/min. The multi layers were sintered at 1000 deg C for 2 h, heating rate of 3 deg C/min and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The LSM 22 thin films presented microstructure with thin particles and thickness of 1 {mu}m. The surface cracks' quantity and size reduction tendency was observed with the increase of the layers deposition number. (author)

  7. Thin films as an emerging platform for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Karki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical scientists throughout the world are trying to explore thin films as a novel drug delivery tool. Thin films have been identified as an alternative approach to conventional dosage forms. The thin films are considered to be convenient to swallow, self-administrable, and fast dissolving dosage form, all of which make it as a versatile platform for drug delivery. This delivery system has been used for both systemic and local action via several routes such as oral, buccal, sublingual, ocular, and transdermal routes. The design of efficient thin films requires a comprehensive knowledge of the pharmacological and pharmaceutical properties of drugs and polymers along with an appropriate selection of manufacturing processes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the critical factors affecting the formulation of thin films, including the physico-chemical properties of polymers and drugs, anatomical and physiological constraints, as well as the characterization methods and quality specifications to circumvent the difficulties associated with formulation design. It also highlights the recent trends and perspectives to develop thin film products by various companies.

  8. Dating by fission track method: study of neutron dosimetry with natural uranium thin films; Datacao com o metodo dos tracos de fissao: estudo da dosimetria de neutrons com filmes finos de uranio natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iunes, P J

    1990-06-01

    Fission track dating is described, focalizing the problem of the decay constant for spontaneous fission of {sup 238} U and the use of neutron dosimetry in fission track analysis. Experimental procedures using thin films of natural uranium as neutron dosimeters and its results are presented. The author shows a intercomparison between different thin films and between the dosimetry with thin film and other dosimetries. (M.V.M.). 52 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs.

  9. Ferroelectrics onto silicon prepared by chemical solution deposition methods: from the thin film to the self-assembled systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada, M. L.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The work of the authors during the last years on ferroelectric thin and ultra-thin films deposited by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD onto silicon based substrates is reviewed in this paper. Ferroelectric layers integrated with silicon substrates have potential use in the new micro/nanoelectronic devices. Two hot issues are here considered: 1 the use of low processing temperatures of the ferroelectric film, with the objective of not producing any damage on the different elements of the device heterostructure, and 2 the downscaling of the ferroelectric material with the aim of achieving the high densities of integration required in the next generation of nanoelectronic devices. The UV-assisted Rapid Thermal Processing has successfully been used in our laboratory for the fabrication of ferroelectric films at low temperatures. Preliminary results on the CSD preparation of nanosized ferroelectric structures are shown.

    Este artículo revisa el trabajo realizado por los autores durante los últimos años sobre lámina delgada y ultra-delgada ferroeléctrica preparada mediante el depósito químico de disoluciones (CSD sobre substratos de silicio. Las películas ferroeléctricas integradas con silicio tienen potenciales usos en los nuevos dispositivos micro/nanoelectrónicos. Dos aspectos claves son aquí considerados: 1 el uso de bajas temperaturas de procesado de la lámina ferroeléctrica, con el fin de no dañar los diferentes elementos que forman la heteroestructura del dispositivo y 2 la disminución de tamaño del material ferroeléctrico con el fin de conseguir las altas densidades de integración requeridas en la próxima generación de dispositivos nanoelectróncos. Los procesos térmicos rápidos asistidos con irradiación UV se están usando en nuestro laboratorio para conseguir la fabricación del material ferroeléctrico a temperaturas bajas compatibles con la tecnología del silicio. Se muestran resultados preliminares sobre

  10. The optical properties of plasma polymerized polyaniline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goktas, Hilal, E-mail: hilal_goktas@yahoo.com [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Physics Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Demircioglu, Zahide; Sel, Kivanc [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Physics Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Gunes, Taylan [Yalova University, Energy Systems Engineering Department, 77100 Yalova (Turkey); Kaya, Ismet [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Chemistry Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey)

    2013-12-02

    We report herein the characterizations of polyaniline thin films synthesized using double discharge plasma system. Quartz glass substrates were coated at a pressure of 80 Pa, 19.0 kV pulsed and 1.5 kV dc potential. The substrates were located at different regions in the reactor to evaluate the influence of the position on the morphological and molecular structure of the obtained thin films. The molecular structure of the thin films was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV–visible photospectrometers (UV–vis), and the morphological studies were carried out by scanning electron microscope. The FTIR and UV–vis data revealed that the molecular structures of the synthesized thin films were in the form of leuocoemeraldine and exhibited similar structures with the films produced via chemical or electrochemical methods. The optical energy band gap values of the as-grown samples ranged from 2.5 to 3.1 eV, which indicated that these materials have potential applications in semiconductor devices. The refractive index in the transparent region (from 650 to 1000 nm) steadily decreased from 1.9 to 1.4 and the extinction coefficient was found to be on order of 10{sup −4}. The synthesized thin films showed various degrees of granular morphologies depending on the location of the substrate in the reactor. - Highlights: • Polyaniline thin films were synthesized for the first time via double discharge plasma system. • The films have similar structure to that of the chemically synthesized films. • The morphology of the films could be tuned by this technique. • These materials would have potential applications at semiconductor devices.

  11. Morphology selection for cupric oxide thin films by electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, V; Mahalingam, T; Chandramohan, R

    2011-10-01

    Polycrystalline cupric oxide thin films were deposited using alkaline solution bath employing cathodic electrodeposition method. The thin films were electrodeposited at various solution pH. The surface morphology and elemental analyzes of the films were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. SEM studies revealed that the surface morphology could be tailored suitably by adjusting the pH value during deposition. Mesh average on multiple lattice mode atomic force microscopy image was obtained and reported. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Properties of Nanostructure Bismuth Telluride Thin Films Using Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth telluride has high thermoelectric performance at room temperature; in present work, various nanostructure thin films of bismuth telluride were fabricated on silicon substrates at room temperature using thermal evaporation method. Tellurium (Te and bismuth (Bi were deposited on silicon substrate in different ratio of thickness. These films were annealed at 50°C and 100°C. After heat treatment, the thin films attained the semiconductor nature. Samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to show granular growth.

  13. Structural and optical characteristics of nano-sized structure of Zn0.5Cd0.5S thin films prepared by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafea, M. Abdel; Farag, A.A.M.; Roushdy, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a stoichiometry Zn 0.5 Cd 0.5 S nano-structured powder was synthesized. Thin films of different thicknesses of Zn 0.5 Cd 0.5 S were prepared by dip-coating method onto glass substrates. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the prepared powder and films were performed to investigate the crystalline structure. Some structural parameters such as the mean crystallite size and the internal lattice strain were calculated. The composition analysis was made by the energy dispersive X-ray technique, EDX. Scanning electron micrographs, SEM showed that the prepared films are nearly homogeneous and consists of nearly parallel surfaces and the thickness was determined by the cross section imaging. The transmission spectra, T(λ), of the films at normal incidence of light were obtained in the spectral region 190-1100 nm. The optical constants of Zn 0.5 Cd 0.5 S films were determined using the interference maxima and minima of the transmission spectrum. The dispersion of refractive index was discussed in terms of the single-oscillator model and the important oscillating parameters were determined. The dependence of absorption coefficient on the photon energy was determined and the analysis of the result showed that the optical transition in Zn 0.5 Cd 0.5 S is allowed and indirect. The thickness dependence of the obtained optical parameters was also considered.

  14. CdO thin films based on the annealing temperature differences prepared by sol-gel method and their heterojunction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, M.; Yazici, T.

    2017-12-01

    Undoped CdO films were prepared on glass substrate and p-type silicon wafer using sol-gel spin coating method. The structural and optical properties of the films were investigated as a function of the annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that the films are formed from CdO with cubic crystal structure and (1 1 1) preferred orientation. It is seen that good crystallinity is due to the high annealing temperature. The surface morphology of the CdO films was found to be depending on the annealing temperature, showing cauliflower like structure. Optical band gaps for annealing temperature of 250 °C and 450 °C were found to be 2.49 eV and 2.27 eV, respectively, showing a decrease with raising temperature. Optics parameters such as extinction coefficient, refractive index, and surface-volume energy loss were determined with spectrophotometric analysis as a function of annealing temperature. CdO/p-Si heterojunction structure showed weak rectifying behavior. The diode parameters were found to be depending on annealing temperature. The results are encouraging to get better conjunction with CdO thin film component at optimize annealing temperature.

  15. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei; Yuan Jinying; Shi Gaoquan

    2008-01-01

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. σ rt ∼ 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90 o /s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  16. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  17. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs

  18. Simple turbulence measurements with azopolymer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillé, Regis; Pérez, Darío G; Morille, Yohann; Zielińska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina

    2013-04-01

    A simple method to measure the influence on the laser beam propagation by a turbid medium is proposed. This measurement is based on the inscription of a surface relief grating (SRG) on an azopolymer thin film. The grating obtained with a single laser beam after propagation into a turbulent medium is perturbed and directly analyzed by a CCD camera through its diffraction pattern. Later, by scanning the surface pattern with an atomic force microscope, the inscribed SRG is analyzed with the Radon transform. This method has the advantage of using a single beam to remotely inscribe a grating detecting perturbations during the beam path. A method to evaluate the refractive index constant structure is developed.

  19. Microbridge tests on gallium nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hai-You; Li, Zhi-Ying; Lu, Jun-Yong; Wang, Zhi-Jia; Zhang, Tong-Yi; Wang, Chong-Shun; Lau, Kei-May; Chen, Kevin Jing

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we develop further the microbridge testing method by deriving a closed formula of deflection versus load, which is applied at an arbitrary position on the microbridge beam. Testing a single beam at various positions allows us to characterize simultaneouslyYoung's modulus and residual stress of the beam. The developed method was then used to characterize the mechanical properties of GaN thin films on patterned-Si (1 1 1) substrates grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The microbridge samples were fabricated by using the microelectromechanical fabrication technique and tested with a nanoindentation system. Young's modulus and residual stress of the GaN films were determined to be 287 ± 190 GPa and 851 ± 155 MPa, respectively. In addition, alternative measurements of the residual stress, Young's modulus and hardness of the GaN films, were conducted with micro-Raman spectroscopy and the nanoindentation test, yielding the corresponding values of 847 ± 46 MPa, 269.0 ± 7.0 GPa and 17.8 ± 1.1 GPa

  20. Simulated Thin-Film Growth and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Thin-films have become the cornerstone of the electronics, telecommunications, and broadband markets. A list of potential products includes: computer boards and chips, satellites, cell phones, fuel cells, superconductors, flat panel displays, optical waveguides, building and automotive windows, food and beverage plastic containers, metal foils, pipe plating, vision ware, manufacturing equipment and turbine engines. For all of these reasons a basic understanding of the physical processes involved in both growing and imaging thin-films can provide a wonderful research project for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students. After producing rudimentary two- and three-dimensional thin-film models incorporating ballsitic deposition and nearest neighbor Coulomb-type interactions, the QM tunneling equations are used to produce simulated scanning tunneling microscope (SSTM) images of the films. A discussion of computational platforms, languages, and software packages that may be used to accomplish similar results is also given.

  1. Restructuring in block copolymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Zhang, Jianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) thin films have been proposed for a number of nanotechnology applications, such as nanolithography and as nanotemplates, nanoporous membranes and sensors. Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has emerged as a powerful technique for manipulating and controlling the structure of BCP...... thin films, e.g., by healing defects, by altering the orientation of the microdomains and by changing the morphology. Due to high time resolution and compatibility with SVA environments, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is an indispensable technique for studying the SVA process......, providing information of the BCP thin film structure both laterally and along the film normal. Especially, state-of-the-art combined GISAXS/SVA setups at synchrotron sources have facilitated in situ and real-time studies of the SVA process with a time resolution of a few seconds, giving important insight...

  2. Homotopy Perturbation Method for Thin Film Flow and Heat Transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heating and Variable Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chung Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the effects of variable heat flux and internal heat generation on the flow and heat transfer in a thin film on a horizontal sheet in the presence of thermal radiation. Similarity transformations are used to transform the governing equations to a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The obtained differential equations are solved approximately by the homotopy perturbation method (HPM. The effects of various parameters governing the flow and heat transfer in this study are discussed and presented graphically. Comparison of numerical results is made with the earlier published results under limiting cases.

  3. Effects of ultraviolet light on B-doped CdS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novruzov, V.D. [Department of Physics, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize (Turkey); Keskenler, E.F., E-mail: keskenler@gmail.com [Department of Nanotechnology Engineering, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize (Turkey); Tomakin, M. [Department of Physics, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize (Turkey); Kahraman, S. [Department of Physics, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Gorur, O. [Department of Physics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu (Turkey)

    2013-09-01

    Boron doped CdS thin films were deposited by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer. The effects of ultraviolet light on the structural, optical and electrical properties of B-doped CdS thin films were investigated as a function of dopant concentration (B/Cd). X-ray diffraction studies showed that all samples were polycrystalline nature with hexagonal structure. It was determined that the preferred orientation of non-illuminated samples changes from (1 0 1) to (0 0 2) with B concentration. The c lattice constant of films decreases from 6.810 Å to 6.661 Å with boron doping. The XRD peak intensity increased with the illumination for almost all the samples. The lattice parameters of B-doped samples remained nearly constant after illumination. It was found that the optical transmittance, photoluminescence spectra, resistivity and carrier concentration of the B-doped samples are stable after the illumination with UV light. Also the effects of UV light on B-doped CdS/Cu{sub 2}S solar cell were investigated and it was determined that photoelectrical parameters of B-doped solar cell were more durable against the UV light.

  4. Effects of ultraviolet light on B-doped CdS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novruzov, V. D.; Keskenler, E. F.; Tomakin, M.; Kahraman, S.; Gorur, O.

    2013-09-01

    Boron doped CdS thin films were deposited by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer. The effects of ultraviolet light on the structural, optical and electrical properties of B-doped CdS thin films were investigated as a function of dopant concentration (B/Cd). X-ray diffraction studies showed that all samples were polycrystalline nature with hexagonal structure. It was determined that the preferred orientation of non-illuminated samples changes from (1 0 1) to (0 0 2) with B concentration. The c lattice constant of films decreases from 6.810 Å to 6.661 Å with boron doping. The XRD peak intensity increased with the illumination for almost all the samples. The lattice parameters of B-doped samples remained nearly constant after illumination. It was found that the optical transmittance, photoluminescence spectra, resistivity and carrier concentration of the B-doped samples are stable after the illumination with UV light. Also the effects of UV light on B-doped CdS/Cu2S solar cell were investigated and it was determined that photoelectrical parameters of B-doped solar cell were more durable against the UV light.

  5. Synthesis of BiFeO3 thin films on single-terminated Nb : SrTiO3 (111 substrates by intermittent microwave assisted hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Velasco-Davalos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on a simple and fast procedure to create arrays of atomically flat terraces on single crystal SrTiO3 (111 substrates and the deposition of ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films on such single-terminated surfaces. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method in deionized water and ammonia solution selectively removes either (SrO34− or Ti4+ layers to ensure the same chemical termination on all terraces. Measured step heights of 0.225 nm (d111 and uniform contrast in the phase image of the terraces confirm the single termination in pure and Nb doped SrTiO3 single crystal substrates. Multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films were then deposited by the same microwave assisted hydrothermal process on Nb : SrTiO3 (111 substrates. Bi(NO33 and Fe(NO33 along with KOH served as the precursors solution. Ferroelectric behavior of the BiFeO3 films on Nb : SrTiO3 (100 substrates was verified by piezoresponse force microscopy.

  6. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beringer, Douglas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory’s CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater performance benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency – 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m – there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (≈ 45 MV/m for Nb) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art Nb based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio frequency applications. Correlated studies on structure, surface morphology and superconducting properties of epitaxial Nb and MgB2 thin films are presented.

  7. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem: Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Douglas B.

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory's CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency - 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m - there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (approximately 45 MV/m for Niobium) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art niobium based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio-frequency applications.

  8. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  9. The structural studies of aluminosilicate gels and thin films synthesized by the sol-gel method using different Al2O3 and SiO2 precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczyk Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminosilicate materials were obtained by sol-gel method, using different Al2O3 and SiO2 precursors in order to prepare sols based on water and organic solvents. As SiO2 precursors, Aerosil 200TM and tetraethoxysilane TEOS: Si(OC2H54 were applied, while DisperalTM and aluminium secondary butoxide ATSB: Al(OC4H93 were used for Al2O3 ones. Bulk samples were obtained by heating gels at 500 °C, 850 °C and at 1150 °C in air, while thin films were synthesized on carbon, steel and alundum (representing porous ceramics substrates by the dip coating method. Thin films were annealed in air (steel and alundum and in argon (carbon at different temperatures, depending on the substrate type. The samples were synthesized as gels and coatings of the composition corresponding the that of 3Al2O3·2SiO2 mullite because of the specific valuable properties of this material. The structure of the annealed bulk samples and coatings was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy and XRD method (in standard and GID configurations. Additionally, the electron microscopy (SEM together with EDS microanalysis were applied to describe the morphology and the chemical composition of thin films. The analysis of FT-IR spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns of bulk samples revealed the presence of γ-Al2O3 and δ-Al2O3 phases, together with the small amount of SiO2 in the particulate samples. This observation was confirmed by the bands due to vibrations of Al–O bonds occurring in γ-Al2O3 and δ-Al2O3 structures, in the range of 400 to 900 cm−1. The same phases (γ-Al2O3 and δ-Al2O were observed in the deposited coatings, but the presence of particulate ones strongly depended on the type of Al2O3 and SiO2 precursor and on the heat treatment temperature. All thin films contained considerable amounts of amorphous phase.

  10. Surface preparation for the heteroepitactic growth of ceramic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.G.; Summerfelt, S.R.; Carter, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    The morphology, composition, and crystallographic orientation of the substrate influence the nucleation and growth of deposited thin films. A method for the preparation of controlled, characteristic surfaces is reported. The surfaces are suitable for the heteroepitactic growth of thin films. When used in the formation of electron-transparent thin foils, the substrates can be used to investigate the very early stages of film growth using transmission electron microscopy. The substrate preparation involves the cleaning and subsequent annealing to generate a surface consisting of a series of steps. The step terraces are formed on the energetically stable surface, and controlled nucleation and growth of films at step edges is found. The substrate materials prepared using this technique include (001) MgO, (001) SrTiO 3 , and (001) LaAlO 3

  11. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {100} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  12. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {100} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  13. Microscopic local fatigue in PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B S; Wu, A; Vilarinho, P M

    2007-01-01

    The reduction in switchable polarization during fatigue largely limits the application of PZT thin films in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. So, it is very important to understand the fatigue mechanism in PZT films, especially at a nanoscale level. In this paper, nanoscale fatigue properties in PZT thin films have been studied by piezoresponse force microscopy and local piezoloops. It has been found that a piezoloop obtained on a fatigued point exhibits a much more pinched shape and a local imprint phenomenon is observed after severe fatigue. Furthermore, the domain structure evolves from a simple single-peak profile to a complex fluctuant one. However, there is only some shift of the piezoloop when a unipolar field with the same amplitude is applied on the film. The available experimental data show that there exist obvious domain wall pinning and injection of electrons into the film during fatigue. Finally, a schematic illustration is suggested to explain the possible fatigue mechanism

  14. Optical constant of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, D. I.; Fedyanin, D. Yu; Arsenin, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of metal-based devices is limited by ohmic losses in the metal, which are determined by electron scattering. The structural properties of gold thin films also play an important role in the film quality, which may affect its' optical properties and the overall capability...... and spectroscopic ellipsometry, the structural morphology and optical properties of polycrystalline gold thin films (fabricated by e-beam deposition at a low sputtering rate smooth gold) in the thickness range of 20 - 200 nm. By extracting the real and imaginary dielectric function and the Drude parameter...... of the device. At the same time, metal films of different thicknesses are needed for different applications and, since these films are polycrystalline, their internal properties and surface roughness can greatly vary from one thickness to another. In this work, we study, using atomic force microscopy...

  15. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  16. Magnetostrictive thin films prepared by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabias, I.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Pina, E.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Hernando, A.; Crespo, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 80 B 20 thin films have been prepared by ion beam sputtering magnetron on room temperature. The films were fabricated on different substrates to compare the different magnetic and structural properties. In particular the growth of films on flexible substrates (PDMS, Kapton) has been studied to allow a simple integration of the system in miniaturized magnetostrictive devices. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that films are mainly amorphous although the presence of some Fe nanoparticles cannot be ruled out. The coercive field of thin films ranges between 15 and 35 Oe, depending on substrate. Magnetostriction measurements indicate the strong dependence of the saturation magnetostriction with the substrate. Samples on flexible substrates exhibit a better performance than samples deposited onto glass substrates

  17. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2010-10-12

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  18. Deposition of metal chalcogenide thin films by successive ionic layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) method, has emerged as one of the solution methods to deposit a variety of compound materials in thin film form. The SILAR method is inexpensive, simple and convenient for large area deposition. A variety of substrates such as insulators, ...

  19. Corrosion behavior of TiO{sub 2}-NiO nanocomposite thin films on AISI 316L stainless steel prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, H., E-mail: hoch2020@yahoo.com [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), P.O. Box: 16765163, Narrmak Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmiri, M., E-mail: mshahmiri@iust.ac.ir [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), P.O. Box: 16765163, Narrmak Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghian, Z. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box: 14857-3311, West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    TiO{sub 2}-NiO nanocomposite thin films were deposited on the 316L stainless steel using sol-gel method by a dip coating technique. Different techniques such as differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy were carried out in order to characterize the structure of the coatings. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of uncoated and coated specimens in a 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. It was found that to obtain desirable structure in coatings, the coatings should be calcined at 600 Degree-Sign C for one and half hour. NiTiO{sub 3}, anatase and rutile were the phases obtained in different calcination conditions in air atmosphere. The results of corrosion tests indicated that with increasing the dipping times from 2 to 4, the corrosion current density first decreases but when increasing the dipping times to 6, it increases. Also the corrosion current density decreased from 186.7 nA.cm{sup -2} (uncoated steel) to 34.21 nA.cm{sup -2} (80%TiO{sub 2}-20%NiO) and corrosion potential increased from - 150.2 mV (uncoated steel) to - 107.3 mV (67%TiO{sub 2}-33%NiO). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-NiO thin films were deposited on the 316L stainless steel using sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different compositions, annealing times and temperatures resulted in various phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films having different compositions showed various surface morphologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films having a composition of 80%TiO{sub 2}-20%NiO showed a good corrosion protection.

  20. Thin Films in the Photovoltaic Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-03-01

    In the past years, the yearly world market growth rate for Photovoltaics was an average of more than 40%, which makes it one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. Today PV is still dominated by wafer based Crystalline Silicon Technology as the 'working horse' in the global market, but thin films are gaining market shares. For 2007 around 12% are expected. The current silicon shortage and high demand has kept prices higher than anticipated from the learning curve experience and has widened the windows of opportunities for thin film solar modules. Current production capacity estimates for thin films vary between 3 and 6 GW in 2010, representing a 20% market share for these technologies. Despite the higher growth rates for thin film technologies compared with the industry average, Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies are still facing a number of challenges to maintain this growth and increase market shares. The four main topics which were discussed during the workshop were: Potential for cost reduction; Standardization; Recycling; Performance over the lifetime.

  1. Structural and electrical properties of CZTS thin films by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. C.; Basha, Sk. Shahenoor

    2018-06-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) thin films were coated on ITO glass substrates by single bath electrodeposition technique. The prepared films were subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy and Raman studies. The thickness of the thin films was measured by wedge method. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of polycrystalline phase. The morphological surface of the prepared thin films was examined by SEM and AFM and showed the presence of microcrystals on the surface of the samples. The elemental analysis and their compositional ratios present in the samples were confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Functional groups and the position of band structure involved in the materials were confirmed by FTIR. Optical absorption studies were performed on the prepared thin films in the wavelength ranging from 300 to 1000 nm and the energy bandgap values were found to be in the range from 1.39 to 1.60 eV. Raman spectral peak which was observed at 360 cm-1 correspond to kesterite phase, was formed due to the vibration of the molecules. Electrical measurements confirmed the nature of the thin film depending on the charge concentration present in the samples.

  2. Self-assembly of dodecaphenyl POSS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Bartosz; Klita, Łukasz; Niemiec, Wiktor

    2017-12-01

    The self-assembly abilities of Dodecaphenyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane thin films on Si(1 0 0) surfaces were studied. Due to their thermal properties - relatively low sublimation temperature and preservation of molecular structure - cage type silsesquioxanes are ideal material for the preparation of a thin films by Physical Vapor Deposition. The Ultra-High Vacuum environment and the deposition precision of the PVD method enable the study of early stages of thin film growth and its molecular organization. X-ray Reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements allow to pursuit size-effects in the structure of thin films with thickness ranges from less than a single molecular layer up to several tens of layers. Thermal treatment of the thin films triggered phase change: from a poorly ordered polycrystalline film into a well-ordered multilayer structure. Self-assembly of the layers is the effect of the π-stacking of phenyl rings, which force molecules to arrange in a superlattice, forming stacks of alternating organic-inorganic layers.

  3. Modelling the growth of ZnO thin films by PVD methods and the effects of post-annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Sabrina; Smith, Roger; Kenny, Steven D; Walls, John M; Sanz-Navarro, Carlos F

    2013-04-03

    Results are presented for modelling of the evaporation and magnetron sputter deposition of Zn(x)O(y) onto an O-terminated ZnO (0001¯) wurtzite surface. Growth was simulated through a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and an on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo (otf-KMC) method, which finds diffusion pathways and barriers without prior knowledge of transitions. We examine the effects of varying experimental parameters, such as substrate bias, distribution of the deposition species and annealing temperature. It was found when comparing evaporation and sputtering growth that the latter process results in a denser and more crystalline structure, due to the higher deposition energy of the arriving species. The evaporation growth also exhibits more stacking faults than the sputtered growth. Post-annealing at 770 K did not allow complete recrystallization, resulting in films which still had stacking faults where monolayers formed in the zinc blende phase, whereas annealing at 920 K enabled the complete recrystallization of some films to the wurtzite structure. At the latter temperature atoms could also sometimes be locked in the zinc blende phase after annealing. When full recrystallization did not take place, both wurtzite and zinc blende phases were seen in the same layer, resulting in a phase boundary. Investigation of the various distributions of deposition species showed that, during evaporation, the best quality film resulted from a stoichiometric distribution where only ZnO clusters were deposited. During sputtering, however, the best quality film resulted from a slightly O rich distribution. Two stoichiometric distributions, one involving mainly ZnO clusters and the other involving mainly single species, showed that the distribution of deposition species makes a huge impact on the grown film. The deposition of predominantly single species causes many more O atoms at the surface to be sputtered or reflected, resulting in an O deficiency of up to 18% in the

  4. Lithium ion intercalation into thin film anatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrata, I.; Froehlich, K.; Ballo, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to find the optimal parameters for thin film TiO 2 anatase grown by Atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as electrode in lithium ion batteries. Two parameters, the optimal film thickness and growth conditions are aimed for. Optimal film thickness for achieving optimum between capacity gained from volume and capacity gained by changing of the intercalation constant and optimal growth conditions for film conformity on structured substrates with high aspect ratio. Here we presents first results from this ongoing research and discuss future outlooks. (authors)

  5. Pd thin films on flexible substrate for hydrogen sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztürk, Sadullah [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf University, Engineering Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Kılınç, Necmettin, E-mail: nkilinc@nigde.edu.tr [Nigde University, Mechatronics Engineering Department, 51245 Nigde (Turkey); Nigde University, Nanotechnology Application and Research Center, 51245 Nigde (Turkey)

    2016-07-25

    In this work, palladium (Pd) thin films were prepared via RF sputtering method with various thicknesses (6 nm, 20 nm and 60 nm) on both a flexible substrate and a hard substrate. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) sensing properties of Pd films on flexible substrate have been investigated depending on temperatures (25–100 °C) and H{sub 2} concentrations (600 ppm – 10%). The effect of H{sub 2} on structural properties of the films was also studied. The films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. It is found that whole Pd films on hard substrate show permanent structural deformation after exposed to 10% H{sub 2} for 30 min. But, this H{sub 2} exposure does not causes any structural deformation for 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate and 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate shows reversible sensor response up to 10% H{sub 2} concentration without any structural deformation. On the other hand, Pd film sensors that have the thicknesses 20 nm and 60 nm on flexible substrate are irreversible for higher H{sub 2} concentration (>2%) with film deformation. The sensor response of 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate increased with increasing H{sub 2} concentration up 4% and then saturated. The sensitivity of the film decreased with increasing operation temperature. - Highlights: • Pd thin films fabricated by RF sputtering on both flexible and hard substrates. • Structural deformation observed for films on hard substrate after exposing 10% H{sub 2}. • 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate shows reversible sensor response up to 10% H{sub 2}. • H{sub 2} sensing properties of film on flexible substrate investigated depending on temperature and concentration. • The sensitivity of the film decreased with increasing operation temperature.

  6. Microstructure and electric characteristics of AETiO3 (AE=Mg, Ca, Sr doped CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effects of alkline-earth metal titante AETiO3 (AE=Mg, Ca, Sr doping on the microstructure and electric characteristics of CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method. The results showed that the grain size of CCTO thin films could be increased by MgTiO3 doping. The movement of the grain boundaries was impeded by the second phases of CaTiO3 and SrTiO3 concentrating at grain boundaries in CaTiO3 and SrTiO3 doped CCTO thin films. Rapid ascent of dielectric constant could be observed in 0.1Mg TiO3 doped CCTO thin films, which was almost as three times high as pure CCTO thin film and the descent of the dielectric loss at low frequency could also be observed. In addition, the nonlinear coefficient (α, threshold voltage (VT and leakage current (IL of AETiO3 doped CCTO thin films (AE=Mg, Ca, Sr showed different variation with the increasing content of the MgTiO3, CaTiO3 and SrTiO3.

  7. Preparation and characterizations of electroluminescent p-ZnO : N/n-ZnO : Ga/ITO thin films by spray pyrolysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Panatarani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis (SP method with p-ZnO : N/n-ZnO:Ga/ITO structure. The X-ray results show that the deposited films have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The EDS results observed that the composition of Ga in ZnO:Ga and N in ZnO:N was 3.73% and 27.73% respectively. The photoluminescence (PL with excitation wave length of 260 nm shows that ZnO:Ga and ZnO:N films emitted UV emission at ∼393 and ∼388 nm, respectively and the films resistivity was 7.12 and 12.80 Ohm-cm respectively. The electroluminescence of the p-ZnO : N/n-ZnO:Ga/ITO structure was obtained by applying forward bias of 5 volt with 30 mA current, resulting in a 3.35 volt threshold bias with the peak electroluminescence in UV-blue range.

  8. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1995-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  9. Electronic structure of thin films by the self-consistent numerical-basis-set linear combination of atomic orbitals method: Ni(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.S.; Freeman, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    We present the self-consistent numerical-basis-set linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) discrete variational method for treating the electronic structure of thin films. As in the case of bulk solids, this method provides for thin films accurate solutions of the one-particle local density equations with a non-muffin-tin potential. Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements are evaluated accurately by means of a three-dimensional numerical Diophantine integration scheme. Application of this method is made to the self-consistent solution of one-, three-, and five-layer Ni(001) unsupported films. The LCAO Bloch basis set consists of valence orbitals (3d, 4s, and 4p states for transition metals) orthogonalized to the frozen-core wave functions. The self-consistent potential is obtained iteratively within the superposition of overlapping spherical atomic charge density model with the atomic configurations treated as adjustable parameters. Thus the crystal Coulomb potential is constructed as a superposition of overlapping spherically symmetric atomic potentials and, correspondingly, the local density Kohn-Sham (α = 2/3) potential is determined from a superposition of atomic charge densities. At each iteration in the self-consistency procedure, the crystal charge density is evaluated using a sampling of 15 independent k points in (1/8)th of the irreducible two-dimensional Brillouin zone. The total density of states (DOS) and projected local DOS (by layer plane) are calculated using an analytic linear energy triangle method (presented as an Appendix) generalized from the tetrahedron scheme for bulk systems. Distinct differences are obtained between the surface and central plane local DOS. The central plane DOS is found to converge rapidly to the DOS of bulk paramagnetic Ni obtained by Wang and Callaway. Only a very small surplus charge (0.03 electron/atom) is found on the surface planes, in agreement with jellium model calculations

  10. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madivalappa, Shivaraj; Jali, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride thin films were synthesized by Sol-Gel method with spin rate of 3000 rpm for 30 sec on ITO glass substrates and were annealed at 170 C. The films were irradiated by Gamma radiation with different doses (10, 30, 40 and 50 kGy). XRD and FTIR spectra have been obtained to identify the presence of α / β phases. Mean crystallite size was calculated by Scherer’s equation. Different vibrational bands were identified and percentage of β phase was determined by FTIR analysis. Optical properties like band gap, refractive index, optical activation energy have been determined. Surface morphology and compositions of pristine and gamma irradiated PVDF thin films were confirmed respectively, by SEM and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The comparison of the structural and optical optical properties of pristine PVDF polymer film has been made with those of the Gamma irradiated films.

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of ITO thin films and their characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuev, D. A.; Lotin, A. A.; Novodvorsky, O. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Khramova, O. D.; Petuhov, I. A.; Putilin, Ph. N.; Shatohin, A. N.; Rumyanzeva, M. N.; Gaskov, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are grown on quartz glass substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of ITO films are studied as a function of the substrate temperature, the oxygen pressure in the vacuum chamber, and the Sn concentration in the target. The transmittance of grown ITO films in the visible spectral region exceeds 85%. The minimum value of resistivity 1.79 × 10 −4 Ω cm has been achieved in the ITO films with content of Sn 5 at %.

  12. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  13. Thin films for the manipulation of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piegari, Angela; Sytchkova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of light is typically accomplished by a series of optical surfaces on which the incident beam is reflected, or through which the beam is transmitted. Thin film coatings help to modify the behavior of such surfaces for obtaining the desired result: antireflection coatings to reduce reflection losses, high-reflectance mirrors, filters to divide or combine beams of different wavelengths, and many other types. The amount of light that is transmitted or reflected depends on the optical parameters of the materials and on interference phenomena in thin-film structures. Dedicated software is available to design the proper coating for each requirement. There are several applications of optical thin films, many of them are useful in the everyday life, many others are dedicated to scientific purposes, as will be described in this paper [it

  14. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  15. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  16. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  17. Electron-beam deposition of vanadium dioxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvel, R.E.; Appavoo, K. [Vanderbilt University, Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Nashville, TN (United States); Choi, B.K. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nashville, TN (United States); Nag, J. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Haglund, R.F. [Vanderbilt University, Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Institute for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Developing a reliable and efficient fabrication method for phase-transition thin-film technology is critical for electronic and photonic applications. We demonstrate a novel method for fabricating polycrystalline, switchable vanadium dioxide thin films on glass and silicon substrates and show that the optical switching contrast is not strongly affected by post-processing annealing times. The method relies on electron-beam evaporation of a nominally stoichiometric powder, followed by fast annealing. As a result of the short annealing procedure we demonstrate that films deposited on silicon substrates appear to be smoother, in comparison to pulsed laser deposition and sputtering. However, optical performance of e-beam evaporated film on silicon is affected by annealing time, in contrast to glass. (orig.)

  18. Quantitative MFM on superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopfel, Henry; Vock, Silvia; Shapoval, Tetyana; Neu, Volker; Wolff, Ulrike; Haindl, Silvia; Engelmann, Jan; Schaefer, Rudolf; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Material (Germany); Inosov, Dmytro S. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative interpretation of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) data is a challenge, because the measured signal is a convolution between the magnetization of the tip and the stray field emanated by the sample. It was established theoretically that the field distribution just above the surface of the superconductor can be well approximated by the stray field of a magnetic monopole. The description of the MFM tip, however, needs a second approximation. The temperature-dependent vortex-distribution images on a NbN thin film were fitted using two different tip models. Firstly, the magnetic tip was assumed to be a monopole that leads to the simple monopole-monopole model for the tip-sample interaction force. Performing a 2D fitting of the data with this model, we extracted λ, Δ and the vortex pinning force. Secondly, a geometrical model was applied to calculate the tip-transfer-function of the MFM tip using the numerical BEM method.

  19. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  20. A Cuprous Oxide Thin Film Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry and Other Voltammetry Methods and a Comparison to Different Thin Film Electrodes on the Detection of Glucose in an Alkaline Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Dai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin layer served as the base for a non-enzymatic glucose sensor in an alkaline medium, 0.1 NaOH solution, with a linear range of 50–200 mg/dL using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV measurement. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS study confirmed the formation of the cuprous oxide layer on the thin gold film sensor prototype. Quantitative detection of glucose in both phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and undiluted human serum was carried out. Neither ascorbic acid nor uric acid, even at a relatively high concentration level (100 mg/dL in serum, interfered with the glucose detection, demonstrating the excellent selectivity of this non-enzymatic cuprous oxide thin layer-based glucose sensor. Chronoamperometry and single potential amperometric voltammetry were used to verify the measurements obtained by DPV, and the positive results validated that the detection of glucose in a 0.1 M NaOH alkaline medium by DPV measurement was effective. Nickel, platinum, and copper are commonly used metals for non-enzymatic glucose detection. The performance of these metal-based sensors for glucose detection using DPV were also evaluated. The cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin layer-based sensor showed the best sensitivity for glucose detection among the sensors evaluated.