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Sample records for thin filament ru

  1. Soliton on thin vortex filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Kimiaki; Mituhashi, Masahiko; Ichikawa, Y.H.

    1990-12-01

    Showing that one of the equations found by Wadati, Konno and Ichikawa is equivalent to the equation of motion of a thin vortex filament, we investigate solitons on the vortex filament. N vortex soliton solution is given in terms of the inverse scattering method. We examine two soliton collision processes on the filament. Our analysis provides the theoretical foundation of two soliton collision processes observed numerically by Aref and Flinchem. (author)

  2. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then, th...

  3. Mutation-specific effects on thin filament length in thin filament myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Josine M de; Joureau, Barbara; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kiss, Balázs; Yuen, Michaela; Gupta, Vandana A; Pappas, Christopher T; Gregorio, Carol C; Stienen, Ger J M; Edvardson, Simon; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Pelin, Katarina; Malfatti, Edoardo; Romero, Norma B; Engelen, Baziel G van; Voermans, Nicol C; Donkervoort, Sandra; Bönnemann, C G; Clarke, Nigel F; Beggs, Alan H; Granzier, Henk; Ottenheijm, Coen A C

    2016-06-01

    Thin filament myopathies are among the most common nondystrophic congenital muscular disorders, and are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins that are associated with the skeletal muscle thin filament. Mechanisms underlying muscle weakness are poorly understood, but might involve the length of the thin filament, an important determinant of force generation. We investigated the sarcomere length-dependence of force, a functional assay that provides insights into the contractile strength of muscle fibers as well as the length of the thin filaments, in muscle fibers from 51 patients with thin filament myopathy caused by mutations in NEB, ACTA1, TPM2, TPM3, TNNT1, KBTBD13, KLHL40, and KLHL41. Lower force generation was observed in muscle fibers from patients of all genotypes. In a subset of patients who harbor mutations in NEB and ACTA1, the lower force was associated with downward shifted force-sarcomere length relations, indicative of shorter thin filaments. Confocal microscopy confirmed shorter thin filaments in muscle fibers of these patients. A conditional Neb knockout mouse model, which recapitulates thin filament myopathy, revealed a compensatory mechanism; the lower force generation that was associated with shorter thin filaments was compensated for by increasing the number of sarcomeres in series. This allowed muscle fibers to operate at a shorter sarcomere length and maintain optimal thin-thick filament overlap. These findings might provide a novel direction for the development of therapeutic strategies for thin filament myopathy patients with shortened thin filament lengths. Ann Neurol 2016;79:959-969. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  4. Myosin binding protein-C activates thin filaments and inhibits thick filaments in heart muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Yan, Ziqian; Gautel, Mathias; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2014-12-30

    Myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) is a key regulatory protein in heart muscle, and mutations in the MYBPC3 gene are frequently associated with cardiomyopathy. However, the mechanism of action of MyBP-C remains poorly understood, and both activating and inhibitory effects of MyBP-C on contractility have been reported. To clarify the function of the regulatory N-terminal domains of MyBP-C, we determined their effects on the structure of thick (myosin-containing) and thin (actin-containing) filaments in intact sarcomeres of heart muscle. We used fluorescent probes on troponin C in the thin filaments and on myosin regulatory light chain in the thick filaments to monitor structural changes associated with activation of demembranated trabeculae from rat ventricle by the C1mC2 region of rat MyBP-C. C1mC2 induced larger structural changes in thin filaments than calcium activation, and these were still present when active force was blocked with blebbistatin, showing that C1mC2 directly activates the thin filaments. In contrast, structural changes in thick filaments induced by C1mC2 were smaller than those associated with calcium activation and were abolished or reversed by blebbistatin. Low concentrations of C1mC2 did not affect resting force but increased calcium sensitivity and reduced cooperativity of force and structural changes in both thin and thick filaments. These results show that the N-terminal region of MyBP-C stabilizes the ON state of thin filaments and the OFF state of thick filaments and lead to a novel hypothesis for the physiological role of MyBP-C in the regulation of cardiac contractility.

  5. Spray pyrolysed Ru:TiO2 thin film electrodes prepared for electrochemical supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugare, B. Y.; Thakur, A. V.; Kore, R. M.; Lokhande, B. J.

    2018-04-01

    Ru doped TiO2 thin films are prepared by using 0.06 M aqueous solution of potassium titanium oxalate (pto), and 0.005 M aqueous solution of ruthenium tri chloride (RuCl3) precursors. The deposition was carried on stainless steel (SS) by using well known ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique (USPT) at 723° K by maintaining the spray rate 12 cc/min and compressed air flow rate 10 Lmin-1. Prepared Ru:TiO2 thin films were characterized by structurally, morphologically and electrochemically. Deposited RuO2 shows amorphous structure and TiO2 shows tetragonal crystal structure with rutile as prominent phase at very low decomposition temperature. SEM micrographs of RuO2 exhibits porous, interconnected, spherical grains type morphology and TiO2 shows porous, nanorods and nanoplates like morphology and also Ru doped TiO2 shows porous, spherical, granular and nanorods type morphology. The electrochemical cyclic voltammetery shows mixed capacitive behavior. The achieved highest value of specific capacitance 2692 F/g was Ru doped TiO2 electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4.

  6. Thin RuO2 conducting films grown by MOCVD for microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, K.; Cambel, V.; Machajdik, D.; Pignard, S.; Baumann, P. K.; Lindner, J.; Schumacher, M.

    2002-01-01

    We have prepared thin RuO 2 films by MOCVD using thermal evaporation of Ru(thd) 2 (cod) solid precursor. The films were prepared at deposition temperatures between 250 and 500 grad C on silicon and sapphire substrates. Different structure was observed for the RuO 2 films on these substrates; the films on Si substrate were polycrystalline, while X-ray diffraction analysis revealed epitaxial growth of RuO 2 on sapphire substrates. Polycrystalline RuO 2 films prepared at temperatures below 300 grad C on Si substrate exhibit smooth surface and excellent step coverage. Highly conformal growth of the RuO 2 films at low temperature and low pressure results in nearly 100% step coverage for sub-mm features with 1:1 aspect ratio. Resistivity of the polycrystalline RuO 2 at room temperature ranged between 100 and 200 μ x Ω x cm. These films are suitable for CMOS and RAM applications. (Authors)

  7. Strain Induced Magnetism in SrRuO3 Epitaxial Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutter, A.; Wong, F.; Arenholz, E.; Liberati, M.; Suzuki, Y.

    2010-01-10

    Epitaxial SrRuO{sub 3} thin films were grown on SrTiO{sub 3}, (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(SrAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.7} and LaAlO{sub 3} substrates inducing different biaxial compressive strains. Coherently strained SrRuO{sub 3} films exhibit enhanced magnetization compared to previously reported bulk and thin film values of 1.1-1.6 {micro}{sub B} per formula unit. A comparison of (001) and (110) SrRuO{sub 3} films on each substrate indicates that films on (110) oriented have consistently higher saturated moments than corresponding (001) films. These observations indicate the importance of lattice distortions in controlling the magnetic ground state in this transitional metal oxide.

  8. Calpain-mediated proteolysis of tropomodulin isoforms leads to thin filament elongation in dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhin, David S; Tierney, Matthew T; Sui, Zhenhua; Sacco, Alessandra; Fowler, Velia M

    2014-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) induces sarcolemmal mechanical instability and rupture, hyperactivity of intracellular calpains, and proteolytic breakdown of muscle structural proteins. Here we identify the two sarcomeric tropomodulin (Tmod) isoforms, Tmod1 and Tmod4, as novel proteolytic targets of m-calpain, with Tmod1 exhibiting ∼10-fold greater sensitivity to calpain-mediated cleavage than Tmod4 in situ. In mdx mice, increased m-calpain levels in dystrophic soleus muscle are associated with loss of Tmod1 from the thin filament pointed ends, resulting in ∼11% increase in thin filament lengths. In mdx/mTR mice, a more severe model of DMD, Tmod1 disappears from the thin filament pointed ends in both tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles, whereas Tmod4 additionally disappears from soleus muscle, resulting in thin filament length increases of ∼10 and ∼12% in TA and soleus muscles, respectively. In both mdx and mdx/mTR mice, both TA and soleus muscles exhibit normal localization of α-actinin, the nebulin M1M2M3 domain, Tmod3, and cytoplasmic γ-actin, indicating that m-calpain does not cause wholesale proteolysis of other sarcomeric and actin cytoskeletal proteins in dystrophic skeletal muscle. These results implicate Tmod proteolysis and resultant thin filament length misspecification as novel mechanisms that may contribute to DMD pathology, affecting muscles in a use- and disease severity-dependent manner.

  9. PRE-ERUPTION OSCILLATIONS IN THIN AND LONG FEATURES IN A QUIESCENT FILAMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Hanaoka, Yoichiro; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Morita, Satoshi; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the eruption of a quiescent filament located close to an active region. Large-scale activation was observed in only half of the filament in the form of pre-eruption oscillations. Consequently only this half erupted nearly 30 hr after the oscillations commenced. Time-slice diagrams of 171 Å images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly were used to study the oscillations. These were observed in several thin and long features connecting the filament spine to the chromosphere below. This study traces the origin of such features and proposes their possible interpretation. Small-scale magnetic flux cancellation accompanied by a brightening was observed at the footpoint of the features shortly before their appearance, in images recorded by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. A slow rise of the filament was detected in addition to the oscillations, indicating a gradual loss of equilibrium. Our analysis indicates that a change in magnetic field connectivity between two neighbouring active regions and the quiescent filament resulted in a weakening of the overlying arcade of the filament, leading to its eruption. It is also suggested that the oscillating features are filament barbs, and the oscillations are a manifestation during the pre-eruption phase of the filaments.

  10. PRE-ERUPTION OSCILLATIONS IN THIN AND LONG FEATURES IN A QUIESCENT FILAMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Hanaoka, Yoichiro; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Morita, Satoshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Cho, Kyung-Suk, E-mail: anand.joshi@nao.ac.jp [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We investigate the eruption of a quiescent filament located close to an active region. Large-scale activation was observed in only half of the filament in the form of pre-eruption oscillations. Consequently only this half erupted nearly 30 hr after the oscillations commenced. Time-slice diagrams of 171 Å images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly were used to study the oscillations. These were observed in several thin and long features connecting the filament spine to the chromosphere below. This study traces the origin of such features and proposes their possible interpretation. Small-scale magnetic flux cancellation accompanied by a brightening was observed at the footpoint of the features shortly before their appearance, in images recorded by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. A slow rise of the filament was detected in addition to the oscillations, indicating a gradual loss of equilibrium. Our analysis indicates that a change in magnetic field connectivity between two neighbouring active regions and the quiescent filament resulted in a weakening of the overlying arcade of the filament, leading to its eruption. It is also suggested that the oscillating features are filament barbs, and the oscillations are a manifestation during the pre-eruption phase of the filaments.

  11. Microstructure of epitaxial SrRuO 3 thin films on MgO substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Wan Yong; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yan Rong; Liu, Xing Zhao; Wei, Xian Hua; Li, Jin Long; Zheng, Liang; Qin, Wen Feng; Liang, Zhu

    2006-09-01

    SrRuO 3 thin films have been grown on singular (1 0 0) MgO substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in 30 Pa oxygen ambient and at a temperature of 400-700 °C. Ex situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) θ/2 θ scan indicated that the films deposited above 650 °C were well crystallized though they had a rough surface as shown by atom force microscopy (AFM). XRD Φ scans revealed that these films were composed of all three different types of orientation domains, which was further confirmed by the RHEED patterns. The heteroepitaxial relationship between SrRuO 3 and MgO was found to be [1 1 0] SRO//[1 0 0] MgO and 45°-rotated cube-on-cube [0 0 1] SRO//[1 0 0] MgO. These domain structures and surface morphology are similar to that of ever-reported SrRuO 3 thin films deposited on the (0 0 1) LaAlO 3 substrates, and different from those deposited on (0 0 1) SrTiO 3 substrates that have an atomically flat surface and are composed of only the [1 1 0]-type domains. The reason for this difference was ascribed to the effect of lattice mismatch across the film/substrate interface. The room temperature resistivity of SrRuO 3 films fabricated at 700 °C was 300 μΩ cm. Therefore, epitaxial SrRuO 3 films on MgO substrate could serve as a promising candidate of electrode materials for the fabrication of ferroelectric or dielectric films.

  12. Structural and electrical characteristics of highly textured oxidation-free Ru thin films by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, H.-Y.; Wang Yu; Chan, H.-L-W.; Choy, C.-L.; No, K.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Textured Ru thin films (∼120 nm) were deposited on Si and rolling-assisted biaxially textured Ni substrates by a DC magnetron sputtering technique with a two-step process. The biaxially textured pure Ni substrates with a thickness of 80 μm were fabricated by rolling followed by recrystallization. The alignments and the crystallinity of Ru films were analyzed by pole figures, as well as X-ray diffraction (θ - 2θ) analysis. The highly (0 0 2) oriented Ru films were fabricated on Si substrates, and four-fold symmetric Ru films on Ni(2 0 0) substrates. The resistivities of pure metallic Ru films were 20-80 μΩ cm for Ru on Si and 16-40 μΩ cm on Ni, respectively, which is sufficiently low to be used as a buffer layer in superconductor tapes or electrode materials in capacitor dielectrics

  13. The effects of polymer molecular weight on filament thinning and drop breakup in microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arratia, P E; Cramer, L-A; Gollub, J P; Durian, D J

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effects of fluid elasticity on the dynamics of filament thinning and drop breakup processes in a cross-slot microchannel. Elasticity effects are examined using dilute aqueous polymeric solutions of molecular weight (MW) ranging from 1.5x10 3 to 1.8x10 7 . Results for polymeric fluids are compared to those for a viscous Newtonian fluid. The shearing or continuous phase that induces breakup is mineral oil. All fluids possess similar shear-viscosity (∼0.2 Pa s) so that the viscosity ratio between the oil and aqueous phases is close to unity. Measurements of filament thickness as a function of time show different thinning behavior for the different aqueous fluids. For Newtonian fluids, the thinning process shows a single exponential decay of the filament thickness. For low MW fluids (10 3 , 10 4 and 10 5 ), the thinning process also shows a single exponential decay, but with a decay rate that is slower than for the Newtonian fluid. The decay time increases with polymer MW. For high MW (10 6 and 10 7 ) fluids, the initial exponential decay crosses over to a second exponential decay in which elastic stresses are important. We show that the decay rate of the filament thickness in this exponential decay regime can be used to measure the steady extensional viscosity of the fluids. At late times, all fluids cross over to an algebraic decay which is driven mainly by surface tension.

  14. The self-assembly, elasticity, and dynamics of cardiac thin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassieri, M; Evans, R M L; Barbu-Tudoran, L; Trinick, J; Waigh, T A

    2008-03-15

    Solutions of intact cardiac thin filaments were examined with transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and particle-tracking microrheology. The filaments self-assembled in solution with a bell-shaped distribution of contour lengths that contained a population of filaments of much greater length than the in vivo sarcomere size ( approximately 1 mum) due to a one-dimensional annealing process. Dynamic semiflexible modes were found in DLS measurements at fast timescales (12.5 ns-0.0001 s). The bending modulus of the fibers is found to be in the range 4.5-16 x 10(-27) Jm and is weakly dependent on calcium concentration (with Ca2+ > or = without Ca2+). Good quantitative agreement was found for the values of the fiber diameter calculated from transmission electron microscopy and from the initial decay of DLS correlation functions: 9.9 nm and 9.7 nm with and without Ca2+, respectively. In contrast, at slower timescales and high polymer concentrations, microrheology indicates that the cardiac filaments act as short rods in solution according to the predictions of the Doi-Edwards chopsticks model (viscosity, eta approximately c(3), where c is the polymer concentration). This differs from the semiflexible behavior of long synthetic actin filaments at comparable polymer concentrations and timescales (elastic shear modulus, G' approximately c(1.4), tightly entangled) and is due to the relative ratio of the contour lengths ( approximately 30). The scaling dependence of the elastic shear modulus on the frequency (omega) for cardiac thin filaments is G' approximately omega(3/4 +/- 0.03), which is thought to arise from flexural modes of the filaments.

  15. SrRuO3 thin films grown on MgO substrates at different oxygen partial pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Bin

    2013-01-08

    A comprehensive study of SrRuO3 thin films growth on (001) MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition in a wide oxygen pressure range from 10 to 300 mTorr was carried out. The experimental results showed a correlation between the lattice constants, resistivity, and oxygen partial pressures used. Ru deficiency detected only in films deposited at lower oxygen pressures (<50 mTorr), resulted in an elongation of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice constants and an increase in the film resistivity. When deposited with oxygen partial pressure of 50 mTorr, SrRuO3 films had lattice parameters matching those of bulk SrRuO3 material and exhibited room temperature resistivity of 320 μΩ·cm. The resistivity of SrRuO 3/MgO films decreased with increasing oxygen partial pressure. Copyright © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  16. Pulsed laser deposition of SrRuO3 thin-films: The role of the pulse repetition rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schraknepper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SrRuO3 thin-films were deposited with different pulse repetition rates, fdep, epitaxially on vicinal SrTiO3 substrates by means of pulsed laser deposition. The measurement of several physical properties (e.g., composition by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the out-of-plane lattice parameter, the electric conductivity, and the Curie temperature consistently reveals that an increase in laser repetition rate results in an increase in ruthenium deficiency in the films. By the same token, it is shown that when using low repetition rates, approaching a nearly stoichiometric cation ratio in SrRuO3 becomes feasible. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism to explain the widely observed Ru deficiency of SrRuO3 thin-films. Our findings demand these theoretical considerations to be based on kinetic rather than widely employed thermodynamic arguments.

  17. Ultrafast Magnetization Dynamics of SrRuO3 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    Itinerant ferromagnet SrRuO3 has drawn interest from physicists due to its unusual transport and magnetic properties as well as from engineers due to its low resistivity and good lattice-matching to other oxide materials. The exact electronic structure remains a mystery, as well as details of the interactions between magnetic and electron transport properties. This thesis describes the use of time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopy to study the ferromagnetic resonance of SrRuO3 thin films, where the ferromagnetic resonance is initiated by a sudden change in the easy axis direction in response to a pump pulse. The rotation of the easy axis is induced by laser heating, taking advantage of a temperature-dependent easy axis direction in SrRuO3 thin films. By measuring the change in temperature of the magnetic system in response to the laser pulse, we find that the specific heat is dominated by magnons up to unusually high temperature, ∼ 100 K, and thermal diffusion is limited by a boundary resistance between the film and the substrate that is not consistent with standard phonon reflection and scattering models. We observe a high FMR frequency, 250 GHz, and large Gilbert damping parameter, alpha ∼ 1, consistent with strong spin-orbit coupling. We observe a time-dependent change in the easy axis direction on a ps time-scale, and we find that parameters associated with the change in easy axis, as well as the damping parameter, have a non-monotonic temperature dependence similar to that observed in anomalous Hall measurements.

  18. Thin-film filament-based solar cells and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J. R.; Cole, E. D.; Berens, T. A.; Alleman, J.; Keane, J.

    1997-04-01

    This concept paper describes a patented, novel photovoltaic (PV) technology that is capable of achieving near-term commercialization and profitability based upon design features that maximize product performance while minimizing initial and future manufacturing costs. DayStar Technologies plans to exploit these features and introduce a product to the market based upon these differential positions. The technology combines the demonstrated performance and reliability of existing thin-film PV product with a cell and module geometry that cuts material usage by a factor of 5, and enhances performance and manufacturability relative to standard flat-plate designs. The target product introduction price is 1.50/Watt-peak (Wp). This is approximately one-half the cost of the presently available PV product. Additional features include: increased efficiency through low-level concentration, no scribe or grid loss, simple series interconnect, high voltage, light weight, high-throughput manufacturing, large area immediate demonstration, flexibility, modularity.

  19. Nanoscale monoclinic domains in epitaxial SrRuO3 thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, C.; Negrea, R. F.; Nistor, L. C.; Chirila, C. F.; Pintilie, L.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze the structural distortions observed by transmission electron microscopy in thin epitaxial SrRuO3 layers used as bottom electrodes in multiferroic coatings onto SrTiO3 substrates for future multiferroic devices. Regardless of the nature and architecture of the multilayer oxides deposited on the top of the SrRuO3 thin films, selected area electron diffraction patterns systematically revealed the presence of faint diffraction spots appearing in forbidden positions for the SrRuO3 orthorhombic structure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) combined with Geometric Phase Analysis (GPA) evidenced the origin of these forbidden diffraction spots in the presence of structurally disordered nanometric domains in the SrRuO3 bottom layers, resulting from a strain-driven phase transformation. The local high compressive strain (-4% ÷ -5%) measured by GPA in the HRTEM images induces a local orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition by a cooperative rotation of the RuO6 octahedra. A further confirmation of the origin of the forbidden diffraction spots comes from the simulated diffraction patterns obtained from a monoclinic disordered SrRuO3 structure.

  20. Characterization of RuO sub 2 electrodes for ferroelectric thin films prepared by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition using Ru(C sub 1 sub 1 H sub 1 sub 9 O sub 2) sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J M; Shin, J C; Hwang, C S; Kim, H J; Suk, C G

    1999-01-01

    Pure and conducting RuO sub 2 thin films were deposited on Si substrates at 250 approx 450 .deg. C using Ru(C sub 1 sub 1 H sub 1 sub 9 O sub 2) sub 3 as a precursor by low-pressure metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). At a lower deposition temperature,smoother and denser RuO sub 2 thin films were deposited. The RuO sub 2 thin films, which were crack free, adhered well onto the substrates and showed very low resistivities around 45 approx 60 mu OMEGA cm. RuO sub 2 thin films on (Ba, Sr)/TiO sub 3 /Pt/SiO sub 2 /Si showed good properties, indicating that MOCVD RuO sub 2 thin films from Ru(C sub 1 sub 1 H sub 1 sub 9 O sub 2) sub 3 can be applied as electrodes of high-dielectric thin films for capacitors in ultra-large-scale DRAMs.

  1. Atomistic growth phenomena of reactively sputtered RuO2 and MnO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Bliem, Pascal; Geyer, Richard W.; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-01-01

    We have synthesized RuO 2 and MnO 2 thin films under identical growth conditions using reactive DC sputtering. Strikingly different morphologies, namely, the formation of RuO 2 nanorods and faceted, nanocrystalline MnO 2 , are observed. To identify the underlying mechanisms, we have carried out density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations of the growth of one monolayer. Ru and O 2 molecules are preferentially adsorbed at their respective RuO 2 ideal surface sites. This is consistent with the close to defect free growth observed experimentally. In contrast, Mn penetrates the MnO 2 surface reaching the third subsurface layer and remains at this deep interstitial site 3.10 Å below the pristine surface, resulting in atomic scale decomposition of MnO 2 . Due to this atomic scale decomposition, MnO 2 may have to be renucleated during growth, which is consistent with experiments

  2. Growth and thermal oxidation of Ru and ZrO2 thin films as oxidation protective layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of physical and chemical processes occurring during growth and thermal oxidation of Ru and ZrO2 thin films. Acting as oxidation resistant capping materials to prevent oxidation of layers underneath, these films have several applications, i.e., in microelectronics

  3. SrRuO3 thin films grown on MgO substrates at different oxygen partial pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Bin; Petrov, Peter K.; Alford, Neil McN.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive study of SrRuO3 thin films growth on (001) MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition in a wide oxygen pressure range from 10 to 300 mTorr was carried out. The experimental results showed a correlation between the lattice constants

  4. Atomic layer deposition of Ru thin film using N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma as a reactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tae Eun [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 1275 Jisadong, Gangseogu, Busan, 618-230 (Korea, Republic of); Mun, Ki-Yeung; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Park, Ji-Yoon [School of Materials Science and Engineering Yeungnam University 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering Yeungnam University 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Taehoon [Center for Core Research Facilities, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Sang-ri, Hyeonpung-myeon, Dalseong-gun, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Kyoung [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Byoung-Yong; Kim, Sunjung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ulsan, Mugeo-dong, Nam-go, Ulsan, 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-31

    Ruthenium (Ru) thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition using IMBCHRu [({eta}6-1-Isopropyl-4-MethylBenzene)({eta}4-CycloHexa-1,3-diene)Ruthenium(0)] as a precursor and a nitrogen-hydrogen mixture (N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) plasma as a reactant, at the substrate temperature of 270 Degree-Sign C. In the wide range of the ratios of N{sub 2} and total gas flow rates (fN{sub 2}/N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}) from 0.12 to 0.70, pure Ru films with negligible nitrogen incorporation of 0.5 at.% were obtained, with resistivities ranging from {approx} 20 to {approx} 30 {mu} Ohm-Sign cm. A growth rate of 0.057 nm/cycle and negligible incubation cycle for the growth on SiO{sub 2} was observed, indicating the fast nucleation of Ru. The Ru films formed polycrystalline and columnar grain structures with a hexagonal-close-packed phase. Its resistivity was dependent on the crystallinity, which could be controlled by varying the deposition parameters such as plasma power and pulsing time. Cu was electroplated on a 10-nm-thick Ru film. Interestingly, it was found that the nitrogen could be incorporated into Ru at a higher reactant gas ratio of 0.86. The N-incorporated Ru film ({approx} 20 at.% of N) formed a nanocrystalline and non-columnar grain structure with the resistivity of {approx} 340 {mu} Ohm-Sign cm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Ru and N-incorporated Ru film using N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The growth rate of 0.057 nm/cycle and negligible incubation cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low resistivity of Ru ({approx} 16.5 {mu} Ohm-Sign cm) at the deposition temperature of 270 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electroplating of Cu on a 10-nm-thick ALD-Ru film.

  5. Magnetoresistance Versus Oxygen Deficiency in Epi-stabilized SrRu1 - x Fe x O3 - δ Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Umasankar; Acharya, Susant Kumar; Lee, Bo Wha; Jung, Chang Uk

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen vacancies have a profound effect on the magnetic, electronic, and transport properties of transition metal oxide materials. Here, we studied the influence of oxygen vacancies on the magnetoresistance (MR) properties of SrRu1 - x Fe x O3 - δ epitaxial thin films ( x = 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30). For this purpose, we synthesized highly strained epitaxial SrRu1 - x Fe x O3 - δ thin films with atomically flat surfaces containing different amounts of oxygen vacancies using pulsed laser deposition. Without an applied magnetic field, the films with x = 0.10 and 0.20 showed a metal-insulator transition, while the x = 0.30 thin film showed insulating behavior over the entire temperature range of 2-300 K. Both Fe doping and the concentration of oxygen vacancies had large effects on the negative MR contributions. For the low Fe doping case of x = 0.10, in which both films exhibited metallic behavior, MR was more prominent in the film with fewer oxygen vacancies or equivalently a more metallic film. For semiconducting films, higher MR was observed for more semiconducting films having more oxygen vacancies. A relatively large negative MR ( 36.4%) was observed for the x = 0.30 thin film with a high concentration of oxygen vacancies ( δ = 0.12). The obtained results were compared with MR studies for a polycrystal of (Sr1 - x La x )(Ru1 - x Fe x )O3. These results highlight the crucial role of oxygen stoichiometry in determining the magneto-transport properties in SrRu1 - x Fe x O3 - δ thin films.

  6. Uncorrelated multiple conductive filament nucleation and rupture in ultra-thin high-κ dielectric based resistive random access memory

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2011-08-29

    Resistive switching in transition metal oxides could form the basis for next-generation non-volatile memory (NVM). It has been reported that the current in the high-conductivity state of several technologically relevant oxide materials flows through localized filaments, but these filaments have been characterized only individually, limiting our understanding of the possibility of multiple conductive filaments nucleation and rupture and the correlation kinetics of their evolution. In this study, direct visualization of uncorrelated multiple conductive filaments in ultra-thin HfO2-based high-κ dielectricresistive random access memory (RRAM) device has been achieved by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), along with electron energy loss spectroscopy(EELS), for nanoscale chemical analysis. The locations of these multiple filaments are found to be spatially uncorrelated. The evolution of these microstructural changes and chemical properties of these filaments will provide a fundamental understanding of the switching mechanism for RRAM in thin oxide films and pave way for the investigation into improving the stability and scalability of switching memory devices.

  7. Robust ultra-thin RuMo alloy film as a seedless Cu diffusion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Kuo-Chung; Perng, Dung-Ching; Wang, Yi-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A 5 nm-thick Mo added Ru film has been investigated as a Cu diffusion barrier layer. ► RuMo film provides over 175 °C improvement in thermal stability than that of pure Ru layer. ► The 5 nm-thick RuMo film shows excellent barrier performance against Cu diffusion upon 725 °C. - Abstract: This study investigated the properties of 5 nm-thick RuMo film as a Cu diffusion barrier. The sheet resistance variation and X-ray diffraction patterns show that the RuMo alloy film has excellent barrier performance and that it is stable upon annealing at 725 °C against Cu. The transmission electron microscopy micrograph and diffraction patterns show that the RuMo film is an amorphous-like structure, whereas pure Ru film is a nano-crystalline structure. The elements’ depth profiles, analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicate no inter-diffusion behavior between the Cu and Si layer, even annealing at 700 °C. Lower leakage current has been achieved from the Cu/barrier/insulator/Si test structure using RuMo film as the barrier layer. A 5 nm ultrathin RuMo film provided two orders of magnitude improvement in leakage current and also exhibited a 175 °C improvement in thermal stability than that of the pure Ru film. It is a potential candidate as a seedless Cu diffusion barrier for advanced Cu interconnects.

  8. The Influence of the Composition of Ru100−xAlx (x = 50, 55, 60, 67 Thin Films on Their Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Seifert

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available RuAl thin films possess a high potential as a high temperature stable metallization for surface acoustic wave devices. During the annealing process of the Ru-Al films, Al 2 O 3 is formed at the surface of the films even under high vacuum conditions, so that the composition of a deposited Ru 50 Al 50 film is shifted to a Ru-rich alloy. To compensate for this effect, the Al content is systematically increased during the deposition of the Ru-Al films. Three Al-rich alloys—Ru 45 Al 55 , Ru 40 Al 60 and Ru 33 Al 67 —were analyzed concerning their behavior after high temperature treatment under high vacuum and air conditions in comparison to the initial Ru 50 Al 50 sample. Although the films’ cross sections show a more homogeneous structure in the case of the Al-rich films, the RuAl phase formation is reduced with increasing Al content.

  9. Empirical resistive-force theory for slender biological filaments in shear-thinning fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily E.; Lauga, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Many cells exploit the bending or rotation of flagellar filaments in order to self-propel in viscous fluids. While appropriate theoretical modeling is available to capture flagella locomotion in simple, Newtonian fluids, formidable computations are required to address theoretically their locomotion in complex, nonlinear fluids, e.g., mucus. Based on experimental measurements for the motion of rigid rods in non-Newtonian fluids and on the classical Carreau fluid model, we propose empirical extensions of the classical Newtonian resistive-force theory to model the waving of slender filaments in non-Newtonian fluids. By assuming the flow near the flagellum to be locally Newtonian, we propose a self-consistent way to estimate the typical shear rate in the fluid, which we then use to construct correction factors to the Newtonian local drag coefficients. The resulting non-Newtonian resistive-force theory, while empirical, is consistent with the Newtonian limit, and with the experiments. We then use our models to address waving locomotion in non-Newtonian fluids and show that the resulting swimming speeds are systematically lowered, a result which we are able to capture asymptotically and to interpret physically. An application of the models to recent experimental results on the locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans in polymeric solutions shows reasonable agreement and thus captures the main physics of swimming in shear-thinning fluids.

  10. Atomistic growth phenomena of reactively sputtered RuO{sub 2} and MnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Music, Denis, E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Bliem, Pascal; Geyer, Richard W.; Schneider, Jochen M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2015-07-07

    We have synthesized RuO{sub 2} and MnO{sub 2} thin films under identical growth conditions using reactive DC sputtering. Strikingly different morphologies, namely, the formation of RuO{sub 2} nanorods and faceted, nanocrystalline MnO{sub 2}, are observed. To identify the underlying mechanisms, we have carried out density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations of the growth of one monolayer. Ru and O{sub 2} molecules are preferentially adsorbed at their respective RuO{sub 2} ideal surface sites. This is consistent with the close to defect free growth observed experimentally. In contrast, Mn penetrates the MnO{sub 2} surface reaching the third subsurface layer and remains at this deep interstitial site 3.10 Å below the pristine surface, resulting in atomic scale decomposition of MnO{sub 2}. Due to this atomic scale decomposition, MnO{sub 2} may have to be renucleated during growth, which is consistent with experiments.

  11. Thick-to-Thin Filament Surface Distance Modulates Cross-Bridge Kinetics in Drosophila Flight Muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Miller, Mark S. (IIT); (Vermont); (BU)

    2012-09-19

    The demembranated (skinned) muscle fiber preparation is widely used to investigate muscle contraction because the intracellular ionic conditions can be precisely controlled. However, plasma membrane removal results in a loss of osmotic regulation, causing abnormal hydration of the myofilament lattice and its proteins. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of varied myofilament lattice spacing and protein hydration on cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle, using x-ray diffraction to compare the lattice spacing of dissected, osmotically compressed skinned fibers to native muscle fibers in living flies. Osmolytes of different sizes and exclusion properties (Dextran T-500 and T-10) were used to differentially alter lattice spacing and protein hydration. At in vivo lattice spacing, cross-bridge attachment time (t{sub on}) increased with higher osmotic pressures, consistent with a reduced cross-bridge detachment rate as myofilament protein hydration decreased. In contrast, in the swollen lattice, t{sub on} decreased with higher osmotic pressures. These divergent responses were reconciled using a structural model that predicts t{sub on} varies inversely with thick-to-thin filament surface distance, suggesting that cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment are modulated more by myofilament lattice geometry than protein hydration. Generalizing these findings, our results suggest that cross-bridge cycling rates slow as thick-to-thin filament surface distance decreases with sarcomere lengthening, and likewise, cross-bridge cycling rates increase during sarcomere shortening. Together, these structural changes may provide a mechanism for altering cross-bridge performance throughout a contraction-relaxation cycle.

  12. Structure and magnetic properties of L10-FePt thin films on TiN/RuAl underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang En; Ratanaphan, Sutatch; Zhu Jiangang; Laughlin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Highly ordered L1 0 FePt-oxide thin films with small grains were prepared by using a RuAl layer as a grain size defining seed layer along with a TiN barrier layer. Different HAMR (Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording) favorable underlayers were studied to encourage perpendicular texture and preferred microstructure. It was found that the epitaxial and small grain growth from the RuAl/TiN underlayer results in small and uniform grains in the FePt layer with perpendicular texture. By introducing the grain size defining underlayers, the FePt grain size can be reduced from 30 to 6 nm with the same volume fraction (9%) of SiO 2 in the film, excellent perpendicular texture, and very high order parameter at 520 deg. C.

  13. Morphological and voltammetric characterization of different concentrations of spin coated Nafion-Ru(bpy)2+3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuason, B S B; Tiong-Palisoc, S; Tiamzon-Natividad, M

    2015-01-01

    Different concentrations of Ru(bpy) 2+ 3 were successfully deposited on ITO coated glass substrates employing a simple method using a spin coater. The surface morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The transport mechanism and the diffusion coefficient of the redox mediators within the films were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The concentrations were varied by dissolving different amounts of the redox mediator in methanol and 5% Nafion. SEM micrographs showed that the roughness of the surface increased with concentration of redox mediator. CV showed successful incorporation of Ru(bpy) 2+ 3 . The order of the magnitude of the diffusion coefficients confirmed that the redox mediators were immobilized within the Nafion thin film. The resulting amount of redox mediator immobilized can be manipulated by simply varying the concentration of the casting solution. (paper)

  14. Intermediate surface structure between step bunching and step flow in SrRuO3 thin film growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Giulia; Gura, Anna; Dawber, Matthew

    We performed a systematic study of SrRuO3 thin films grown on TiO2 terminated SrTiO3 substrates using off-axis magnetron sputtering. We investigated the step bunching formation and the evolution of the SRO film morphology by varying the step size of the substrate, the growth temperature and the film thickness. The thin films were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction. We identified single and multiple step bunching and step flow growth regimes as a function of the growth parameters. Also, we clearly observe a stronger influence of the step size of the substrate on the evolution of the SRO film surface with respect to the other growth parameters. Remarkably, we observe the formation of a smooth, regular and uniform ``fish skin'' structure at the transition between one regime and another. We believe that the fish skin structure results from the merging of 2D flat islands predicted by previous models. The direct observation of this transition structure allows us to better understand how and when step bunching develops in the growth of SrRuO3 thin films.

  15. Light microscopy and image analysis of thin filament lengths utilizing dual probes on beef, chicken, and rabbit myofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringkob, T P; Swartz, D R; Greaser, M L

    2004-05-01

    Image analysis procedures for immunofluorescence microscopy were developed to measure muscle thin filament lengths of beef, rabbit, and chicken myofibrils. Strips of beef cutaneous trunci, rectus abdominis, psoas, and masseter; chicken pectoralis; and rabbit psoas muscles were excised 5 to 30 min postmortem. Fluorescein phalloidin and rhodamine myosin subfragment-1 (S1) were used to probe the myofibril structure. Digital images were recorded with a cooled charge-coupled device controlled with IPLab Spectrum software (Signal Analytics Corp.) on a Macintosh operating system. The camera was attached to an inverted microscope, using both the phase-contrast and fluorescence illumination modes. Unfixed myofibrils incubated with fluorescein phalloidin showed fluorescence primarily at the Z-line and the tips of the thin filaments in the overlap region. Images were processed using IPLab and the National Institutes of Health's Image software. A region of interest was selected and scaled by a factor of 18.18, which enlarged the image from 11 pixels/microm to approximately 200 pixels/microm. An X-Y plot was exported to Spectrum 1.1 (Academic Software Development Group), where the signal was processed with a second derivative routine, so a cursor function could be used to measure length. Fixation before phalloidin incubation resulted in greatest intensity at the Z lines but a more-uniform staining over the remainder of the thin filament zone. High-resolution image capture and processing showed that thin filament lengths were significantly different (P < 0.01) among beef, rabbit, and chicken, with lengths of 1.28 to 1.32 microm, 1.16 microm, and 1.05 microm, respectively. Measurements using the S1 signal confirmed the phalloidin results. Fluorescent probes may be useful to study sarcomere structure and help explain species and muscle differences in meat texture.

  16. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarato, Anthony, E-mail: acammara@burnham.org [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Craig, Roger [Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Lehman, William [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are {approx}20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  17. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarato, Anthony; Craig, Roger; Lehman, William

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are ∼20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  18. Characterization of thin film deposits on tungsten filaments in catalytic chemical vapor deposition using 1,1-dimethylsilacyclobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yujun, E-mail: shiy@ucalgary.ca; Tong, Ling; Mulmi, Suresh [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Metal filament plays a key role in the technique of catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) as it serves as a catalyst in dissociating the source gas to form reactive species. These reactive species initiate the gas-phase reaction chemistry and final thin film and nanostructure formation. At the same time, they also react with the metal itself, leading to the formation of metal alloys and other deposits. The deposits on the tungsten filaments when exposed to 1,1-dimethylsilacyclobutane (DMSCB), a single-source precursor for silicon carbide thin films, in the process of Cat-CVD were studied in this work. It has been demonstrated that a rich variety of deposits, including tungsten carbides (W{sub 2}C and WC), tungsten silicide (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}), silicon carbide, amorphous carbon, and graphite, form on the W filament surfaces. The structural and morphological changes in the tungsten filaments depend strongly on the DMSCB pressure and filament temperature. At 1000 and 2000 °C, the formation of WC and W{sub 2}C dominates. In addition, a thin amorphous carbon layer has been found at 1500 °C with the 0.12 and 0.24 Torr of DMSCB and a lower temperature of 1200 °C with the 0.48 Torr of DMSCB. An increase in the DMSCB sample pressure gives rise to higher Si and C contents. As a result, the formation of SiC and W{sub 5}Si{sub 3} has been observed with the two high-pressure DMSCB samples (i.e., 0.24 and 0.48 Torr). The rich decomposition chemistry of DMSCB on the W surfaces is responsible for the extensive changes in the structure of the W filament, providing support for the close relationship between the gas-phase decomposition chemistry and the nature of alloy formation on the metal surface. The understanding of the structural changes obtained from this work will help guide the development of efficient methods to solve the filament aging problem in Cat-CVD and also to achieve a controllable deposition process.

  19. Structural and electrical properties of room temperature pulsed laser deposited and post-annealed thin SrRuO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautreau, O.; Harnagea, C.; Normandin, F.; Veres, T.; Pignolet, A.

    2007-01-01

    Good quality strontium ruthenate (SrRuO 3 ) thin continuous films (15 to 125 nm thick) have been synthesized on silicon (100) substrates by room temperature pulsed laser deposition under vacuum followed by a post-deposition annealing, a route unexplored and yet not reported for SrRuO 3 film growth. The presence of an interfacial Sr 2 SiO 4 layer has been identified for films annealed at high temperature, and the properties of this interface layer as well as the properties of the SrRuO 3 film have been analyzed and characterized as a function of the annealing temperature. The room temperature resistivity of the SrRuO 3 films deposited by laser ablation at room temperature and post-annealed is 2000 μΩ.cm. A critical thickness of 120 nm has been determined above which the influence of the interface layer on the resistivity becomes negligible

  20. Myofibrillar troponin exists in three states and there is signal transduction along skeletal myofibrillar thin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Darl R; Yang, Zhenyun; Sen, Asok; Tikunova, Svetlana B; Davis, Jonathan P

    2006-08-18

    Activation of striated muscle contraction is a highly cooperative signal transduction process converting calcium binding by troponin C (TnC) into interactions between thin and thick filaments. Once calcium is bound, transduction involves changes in protein interactions along the thin filament. The process is thought to involve three different states of actin-tropomyosin (Tm) resulting from changes in troponin's (Tn) interaction with actin-Tm: a blocked (B) state preventing myosin interaction, a closed (C) state allowing weak myosin interactions and favored by calcium binding to Tn, and an open or M state allowing strong myosin interactions. This was tested by measuring the apparent rate of Tn dissociation from rigor skeletal myofibrils using labeled Tn exchange. The location and rate of exchange of Tn or its subunits were measured by high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and image analysis. Three different rates of Tn exchange were observed that were dependent on calcium concentration and strong cross-bridge binding that strongly support the three-state model. The rate of Tn dissociation in the non-overlap region was 200-fold faster at pCa 4 (C-state region) than at pCa 9 (B-state region). When Tn contained engineered TnC mutants with weakened regulatory TnI interactions, the apparent exchange rate at pCa 4 in the non-overlap region increased proportionately with TnI-TnC regulatory affinity. This suggests that the mechanism of calcium enhancement of the rate of Tn dissociation is by favoring a TnI-TnC interaction over a TnI-actin-Tm interaction. At pCa 9, the rate of Tn dissociation in the overlap region (M-state region) was 100-fold faster than the non-overlap region (B-state region) suggesting that strong cross-bridges increase the rate of Tn dissociation. At pCa 4, the rate of Tn dissociation was twofold faster in the non-overlap region (C-state region) than the overlap region (M-state region) that likely involved a strong cross-bridge influence on Tn

  1. Effect of microstructure on the electronic transport properties of epitaxial CaRuO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daptary, Gopi Nath; Sow, Chanchal; Sarkar, Suman; Chiniwar, Santosh; Kumar, P.S. Anil [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Sil, Anomitra [Center For Nano Science And Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bid, Aveek, E-mail: aveek.bid@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2017-04-15

    We have carried out extensive comparative studies of the structural and transport properties of CaRuO{sub 3} thin films grown under various oxygen pressure. We find that the preferred orientation and surface roughness of the films are strongly affected by the oxygen partial pressure during growth. This in turn affects the electrical and magnetic properties of the films. Films grown under high oxygen pressure have the least surface roughness and show transport characteristics of a good metal down to the lowest temperature measured. On the other hand, films grown under low oxygen pressures have high degree of surface roughness and show signatures of ferromagnetism. We could verify that the low frequency resistance fluctuations (noise) in these films arise due to thermally activated fluctuations of local defects and that the defect density matches with the level of disorder seen in the films through structural characterizations.

  2. Effects of annealing on the properties of atomic layer deposited Ru thin films deposited by NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} as reactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Soo-Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@ynu.ac.kr

    2016-08-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Ru using a non-oxidizing reactant is indispensable considering its application as a seed layer for Cu electroplating and a bottom electrode for dynamic random access memory capacitors. In this study, ALD-Ru films were deposited using a sequential supply of dicarbonyl-bis(5-methyl-2,4-hexanediketonato) Ru(II) (C{sub 16}H{sub 22}O{sub 6}Ru) and potential non-oxidizing reducing agents, NH{sub 3} or H{sub 2}, as the reactants at a substrate temperature of 250 °C, and the effects of post-annealing in a H{sub 2} ambient on the film properties were investigated. The highly conformal deposition of Ru films was possible using the present reaction scheme but its resistivity was as high as ~ 750 μΩ-cm due to carbon incorporation into the film and the formation of an amorphous structure. Low temperature annealing at 300 °C at H{sub 2} ambient after deposition was found to improve the properties significantly in terms of the resistivity, impurities contents and crystallinity. For example, the film resistivity was decreased drastically to ~ 40 μΩ-cm with both the release of C in the film and crystallization after annealing based on secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy, whereas perfect step coverage at a very small-sized dual trench (aspect ratio: ~ 3, the top opening size of 45 nm and bottom size of 20 nm) was maintained after annealing. - Highlights: • Ru thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} molecules. • Effects of low temperature (300 °C) post-annealing on the film properties were investigated. • Post annealing improved the properties of ALD-Ru films. • Perfect step coverage of ALD-Ru was confirmed at trench structure (top opening width: 45 nm).

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical transport properties of CaRuO3-δ thin films directly deposited on the Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Hanjong; Kim, Youngha; No, Kwangsoo; Cann, David P.; Yoon, DongJoo; Kim, ByungIl; Kim, Yangsoo

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effect of annealing temperature on the preferentially (110)-oriented CaRuO 3-δ (CRO) thin films directly prepared on Si(100) substrate by rf magnetron sputtering. Crystalline quality and electrical transport properties of the CRO thin films were modified by post-annealing treatment. It was obvious that 700 C post-annealing brought about excellent metallic characteristics with the elevation of carrier concentration and mobility. From this result, we suggested that enhanced (110) orientation, and the ratio of chemical composition Ru 4+ /Ca 2+ ion were responsible for the transport properties of CRO thin film. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Magnetoresistance Versus Oxygen Deficiency in Epi-stabilized SrRu1 - x Fe x O3 - δ Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Umasankar; Acharya, Susant Kumar; Lee, Bo Wha; Jung, Chang Uk

    2017-12-01

    Oxygen vacancies have a profound effect on the magnetic, electronic, and transport properties of transition metal oxide materials. Here, we studied the influence of oxygen vacancies on the magnetoresistance (MR) properties of SrRu 1 - x Fe x O 3 - δ epitaxial thin films (x = 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30). For this purpose, we synthesized highly strained epitaxial SrRu 1 - x Fe x O 3 - δ thin films with atomically flat surfaces containing different amounts of oxygen vacancies using pulsed laser deposition. Without an applied magnetic field, the films with x = 0.10 and 0.20 showed a metal-insulator transition, while the x = 0.30 thin film showed insulating behavior over the entire temperature range of 2-300 K. Both Fe doping and the concentration of oxygen vacancies had large effects on the negative MR contributions. For the low Fe doping case of x = 0.10, in which both films exhibited metallic behavior, MR was more prominent in the film with fewer oxygen vacancies or equivalently a more metallic film. For semiconducting films, higher MR was observed for more semiconducting films having more oxygen vacancies. A relatively large negative MR (~36.4%) was observed for the x = 0.30 thin film with a high concentration of oxygen vacancies (δ = 0.12). The obtained results were compared with MR studies for a polycrystal of (Sr 1 - x La x )(Ru 1 - x Fe x )O 3 . These results highlight the crucial role of oxygen stoichiometry in determining the magneto-transport properties in SrRu 1 - x Fe x O 3 - δ thin films.

  5. Structural changes of the regulatory proteins bound to the thin filaments in skeletal muscle contraction by X-ray fiber diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yasunobu; Takezawa, Yasunori; Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Ueno, Yutaka; Minakata, Shiho; Tanaka, Hidehiro; Wakabayashi, Katsuzo

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the structural changes related to the regulation mechanism in skeletal muscle contraction, the intensity changes of thin filament-based reflections were investigated by X-ray fiber diffraction. The time course and extent of intensity changes of the first to third order troponin (TN)-associated meridional reflections with a basic repeat of 38.4 nm were different for each of these reflections. The intensity of the first and second thin filament layer lines changed in a reciprocal manner both during initial activation and during the force generation process. The axial spacings of the TN-meridional reflections decreased by ∼0.1% upon activation relative to the relaxing state and increased by ∼0.24% in the force generation state, in line with that of the 2.7-nm reflection. Ca 2+ -binding to TN triggered the shortening and a change in the helical symmetry of the thin filaments. Modeling of the structural changes using the intensities of the thin filament-based reflections suggested that the conformation of the globular core domain of TN altered upon activation, undergoing additional conformational changes at the tension plateau. The tail domain of TN moved together with tropomyosin during contraction. The results indicate that the structural changes of regulatory proteins bound to the actin filaments occur in two steps, the first in response to the Ca 2+ -binding and the second induced by actomyosin interaction

  6. Production of Ethanol and Biomass from Thin Stillage Using Food-Grade Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A starch-based ethanol facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year also produces ca. 2 million m3 thin stillage, which can be used to improve the entire process. In this work, five food-grade filamentous fungi, including a Zygomycete and four Ascomycetes were successfully grown in thin stillage containing 9% solids. Cultivation with Neurospora intermedia led to the production of ca. 16 g·L−1 biomass containing 56% (w/w crude protein, a reduction of 34% of the total solids, and 5 g·L−1 additional ethanol. In an industrial ethanol production process (200,000 m3 ethanol/year, this can potentially lead to the production of 11,000 m3 extra ethanol per year. Cultivation with Aspergillus oryzae resulted in 19 g·L−1 biomass containing 48% (w/w crude protein and the highest reduction of the thin stillage glycerol (54% among the Ascomycetes. Cultivation with Rhizopus sp. produced up to 15 g·L−1 biomass containing 55% (w/w crude protein. The spent thin stillage had been reduced up to 85%, 68% and 21% regarding lactic acid, glycerol and total solids, respectively. Therefore, N. intermedia, in particular, has a high potential to improve the ethanol process via production of additional ethanol and high-quality biomass, which can be considered for animal feed applications such as for fish feed.

  7. Isotonic force modulates force redevelopment rate of intact frog muscle fibres: evidence for cross-bridge induced thin filament activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, Rene; Hannon, James D; Sieck, Gary C

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that force-velocity history modulates thin filament activation, as assessed by the rate of force redevelopment after shortening (+dF/dtR). The influence of isotonic force on +dF/dtR was assessed by imposing uniform amplitude (2.55 to 2.15 μm sarcomere−1) but different speed releases to intact frog muscle fibres during fused tetani. Each release consisted of a contiguous ramp- and step-change in length. Ramp speed was changed from release to release to vary fibre shortening speed from 1.00 (2.76 ± 0.11 μm half-sarcomere−1 s−1) to 0.30 of maximum unloaded shortening velocity (Vu), thereby modulating isotonic force from 0 to 0.34 Fo, respectively. The step zeroed force and allowed the fibre to shorten unloaded for a brief period of time prior to force redevelopment. Although peak force redevelopment after different releases was similar, +dF/dtR increased by 81 ± 6% (P < 0.05) as fibre shortening speed was reduced from 1.00 Vu. The +dF/dtR after different releases was strongly correlated with the preceding isotonic force (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). Results from additional experiments showed that the slope of slack test plots produced by systematically increasing the step size that followed each ramp were similar. Thus, isotonic force did not influence Vu (mean: 2.84 ± 0.10 μm half-sarcomere−1 s−1, P < 0.05). We conclude that isotonic force modulates +dF/dtR independent of change in Vu, an outcome consistent with a cooperative influence of attached cross-bridges on thin filament activation that increases cross-bridge attachment rate without alteration to cross-bridge detachment rate. PMID:12205189

  8. Characteristics of RuO2-SnO2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode for thin film microsupercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han-Ki; Choi, Sun-Hee; Yoon, Young Soo; Chang, Sung-Yong; Ok, Young-Woo; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode, grown by DC reactive sputtering, was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and transmission electron diffraction (TED) examination results showed that Sn and Ru metal cosputtered electrode in O 2 /Ar ambient have RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystallines in an amorphous oxide matrix. It is shown that the cyclic voltammorgram (CV) result of the RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 liquid electrolyte is similar to a bulk-type supercapacitor behavior with a specific capacitance of 62.2 mF/cm 2 μm. This suggests that the RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film can be employed in hybrid all-solid state energy storage devises as an electrode of supercapacitor

  9. Thin filament length in the cardiac sarcomere varies with sarcomere length but is independent of titin and nebulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Justin; Li, Frank; Methawasin, Mei; Adler, Maya; Escobar, Yael-Natalie; Nedrud, Joshua; Pappas, Christopher T; Harris, Samantha P; Granzier, Henk

    2016-08-01

    Thin filament length (TFL) is an important determinant of the force-sarcomere length (SL) relation of cardiac muscle. However, the various mechanisms that control TFL are not well understood. Here we tested the previously proposed hypothesis that the actin-binding protein nebulin contributes to TFL regulation in the heart by using a cardiac-specific nebulin cKO mouse model (αMHC Cre Neb cKO). Atrial myocytes were studied because nebulin expression has been reported to be most prominent in this cell type. TFL was measured in right and left atrial myocytes using deconvolution optical microscopy and staining for filamentous actin with phalloidin and for the thin filament pointed-end with an antibody to the capping protein Tropomodulin-1 (Tmod1). Results showed that TFLs in Neb cKO and littermate control mice were not different. Thus, deletion of nebulin in the heart does not alter TFL. However, TFL was found to be ~0.05μm longer in the right than in the left atrium and Tmod1 expression was increased in the right atrium. We also tested the hypothesis that the length of titin's spring region is a factor controlling TFL by studying the Rbm20(ΔRRM) mouse which expresses titins that are ~500kDa (heterozygous mice) and ~1000kDa (homozygous mice) longer than in control mice. Results revealed that TFL was not different in Rbm20(ΔRRM) mice. An unexpected finding in all genotypes studied was that TFL increased as sarcomeres were stretched (~0.1μm per 0.35μm of SL increase). This apparent increase in TFL reached a maximum at a SL of ~3.0μm where TFL was ~1.05μm. The SL dependence of TFL was independent of chemical fixation or the presence of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C). In summary, we found that in cardiac myocytes TFL varies with SL in a manner that is independent of the size of titin or the presence of nebulin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Aspects of 'low field' magnetotransport in epitaxial thin films of the ferromagnetic metallic oxide SrRuO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, O.; Saldarriaga, W.; Baca, E.

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxial thin films of the conductive ferromagnetic oxide SrRuO 3 were grown on an (001) SrTiO 3 (STO) substrate by using DC sputtering technique. The magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of the films were measured by applying the magnetic field both perpendicular (out-of-plane) and parallel (in-plane) to the film plane and ever maintaining the direction of the applied field perpendicular to that of the transport current. The films grown on an (001) STO substrate showed identical magnetization properties in two orthogonal crystallographic directions of the substrate, [100] S and [001] S (in-plane and out-of-plane geometry), which suggests the presence of a multi domain structure within the plane of the film. For such samples, no anisotropic field (hard axis) along de [001]s direction, i.e., perpendicular to the film-plane could be detected. Nevertheless, a distinguishable temperature dependent out-of-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance (MR) along with strong temperature dependent low field hysteretic MR(H) behavior was detected for the studied films. A negative MR ratio MR(T)=[ρ(μ 0 H=9T; T)-ρ( μ 0 H=0T; T)]/ρ( μ 0 H=0T; T) on the order of a few percent, with maximums of ∼6% and ∼4% (right at the Curie temperature, T C ∼160K) was calculated for an in-plane and out-of plane measuring geometry, respectively. In addition there is an equally strong MR effect at low temperatures, which might be related to the temperature dependence of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy together with a magnetization rotation. Both the MR(T) behavior and the achieved values (except for T 3 films grown on 2 o miscut (001) STO substrates with the current parallel to the field and parallel to the [1-bar11] direction, which was identified as the easier axis for magnetization

  11. On the synthesis of a compound with positive enthalpy of formation: Zinc-blende-like RuN thin films obtained by rf-magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattaruzza, E., E-mail: cattaruz@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre-VE (Italy); Battaglin, G.; Riello, P. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre-VE (Italy); Cristofori, D. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice and Centre for Electron Microscopy “Giovanni Stevanato”, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre-VE (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • RuN thin films in the zinc-blende structure have been synthesized by rf-magnetron sputtering. • Contribute is given to the understanding of phase-formation mechanisms in systems that under ambient conditions present positive enthalpies of formation. • Contribute is given to the understanding of phenomena occurring during reactive sputtering processes. • Nanopillar structure: suitable for application requiring a high effective area, like sensing, catalysis, and electrode material for energy-storage devices. - Abstract: 4d- and 5d-transition metal nitrides are of interest both because of their importance for the understanding of mechanisms of phase formation in systems that under ambient conditions present positive enthalpies of formation and because of their appealing structural and electronic properties. In this study, we report the synthesis of thin films of ruthenium mononitride (RuN) in the zinc-blende structure by radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering. Films present a characteristic structure of packed columns ending with tetrahedral tips. The effect of changing the synthesis parameters was investigated in detail. It was found that RuN can be formed if the nitrogen partial pressure exceeds a minimum value and that the addition of argon has the major effect of increasing the deposition rate because of its higher sputter ability. Temperature plays an important role: if it is too high, decomposition/desorption effects overcome those leading to the formation of the compound. Phenomena resulting in the formation of RuN occur at the surface of the growing films and are related to the interactions of ruthenium with energetic nitrogen ions, or atoms, which can penetrate the first atomic layers by low energy implantation. Because of its properties and structure, this material is a promising candidate for applications like sensing, catalysis, and electrode material for energy-storage devices.

  12. A durable PtRu/C catalyst with a thin protective layer for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yuzuru; Hayasaka, Sho; Koyama, Tsubasa; Nagao, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Konno, Mikio

    2010-11-15

    A methanol oxidation catalyst with improved durability in acidic environments is reported. The catalyst consists of PtRu alloy nanoparticles on a carbon support that were stabilized with a silane-coupling agent. The catalyst was prepared by reducing ions of Pt and Ru in the presence of a carbon support and the silane-coupling agent. The careful choice of preparatory conditions such as the concentration of the silane-coupling agent and solution pH resulted in the preparation of catalyst in which the PtRu nanoparticles were dispersively adsorbed onto the carbon support. The catalytic activity was similar to that of a commercial catalyst and was unchanged after immersion in sulfuric acid solution for 1000 h, suggesting the high durability of the PtRu catalyst for the anode of direct methanol fuel cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between the transport mechanisms in conductive filaments inside Ta2O5-based resistive switching devices and in substoichiometric TaOx thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Carlos M. M.; Thöner, Bo; Schönhals, Alexander; Menzel, Stephan; Wuttig, Matthias; Waser, Rainer; Sobolev, Nikolai A.; Wouters, Dirk J.

    2018-05-01

    Conductive filaments play a key role in redox-based resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices based on the valence change mechanism, where the change of the resistance is ascribed to the modulation of the oxygen content in a local region of these conductive filaments. However, a deep understanding of the filaments' composition and structure is still a matter of debate. We approached the problem by comparing the electronic transport, at temperatures from 300 K down to 2 K, in the filaments and in TaOx films exhibiting a substoichiometric oxygen content. The filaments were created in Ta (15 nm)/Ta2O5 (5 nm)/Pt crossbar ReRAM structures. In the TaOx thin films with various oxygen contents, the in-plane transport was studied. There is a close similarity between the electrical properties of the conductive filaments in the ReRAM devices and of the TaOx films with x ˜ 1, evidencing also no dimensionality difference for the electrical transport. More specifically, for both systems there are two different conduction processes: one in the higher temperature range (from 50 K up to ˜300 K), where the conductivity follows a √{ T } dependence, and one at lower temperatures (<50 K), where the conductivity follows the exp(-1 / √{ T } ) dependence. This suggests a strong similarity between the material composition and structure of the filaments and those of the substoichiometric TaOx films. We also discuss the temperature dependence of the conductivity in the framework of possible transport mechanisms, mainly of those normally observed for granular metals.

  14. Effect of ordered mesoporous carbon contact layer on the sensing performance of sputtered RuO2 thin film pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, W; Maurya, D K; Wajrak, M; Alameh, K

    2017-03-01

    The effect of contact layer on the pH sensing performance of a sputtered RuO 2 thin film pH sensor is investigated. The response of pH sensors employing RuO 2 thin film electrodes on screen-printed Pt, carbon and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) contact layers are measured over a pH range from 4 to 10. Working electrodes with OMC contact layer are found to have Nernstian pH sensitivity (-58.4mV/pH), low short-term drift rate (5.0mV/h), low hysteresis values (1.13mV) and fast reaction times (30s), after only 1h of conditioning. A pH sensor constructed with OMC carbon contact layer displays improved sensing performance compared to Pt and carbon-based counterparts, making this electrode more attractive for applications requiring highly-accurate pH sensing with reduced conditioning time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal diffusivity measurement in thin metallic filaments using the mirage method with multiple probe beams and a digital camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E.; Cifuentes, A.; Alvarado, S.; Cabrera, H.; Delgado, O.; Calderón, A.; Marín, E.

    2018-02-01

    Photothermal beam deflection is a well-established technique for measuring thermal diffusivity. In this technique, a pump laser beam generates temperature variations on the surface of the sample to be studied. These variations transfer heat to the surrounding medium, which may be air or any other fluid. The medium in turn experiences a change in the refractive index, which will be proportional to the temperature field on the sample surface when the distance to this surface is small. A probe laser beam will suffer a deflection due to the refractive index periodical changes, which is usually monitored by means of a quadrant photodetector or a similar device aided by lock-in amplification. A linear relationship that arises in this technique is that given by the phase lag of the thermal wave as a function of the distance to a punctual heat source when unidimensional heat diffusion can be guaranteed. This relationship is useful in the calculation of the sample's thermal diffusivity, which can be obtained straightforwardly by the so-called slope method, if the pump beam modulation frequency is well-known. The measurement procedure requires the experimenter to displace the probe beam at a given distance from the heat source, measure the phase lag at that offset, and repeat this for as many points as desired. This process can be quite lengthy in dependence of the number points. In this paper, we propose a detection scheme, which overcomes this limitation and simplifies the experimental setup using a digital camera that substitutes all detection hardware utilizing motion detection techniques and software digital signal lock-in post-processing. In this work, the method is demonstrated using thin metallic filaments as samples.

  16. Thermoluminescence and photoluminescence analyses of MEH-PPV, MDMO-PPV and RU(bpy)3 gamma-irradiated polymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Morales, A.; Ortiz-Lopez, J.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Gómez-Aguilar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of irradiation with 60 Co gamma photons on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′ dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Ru(bpy) 3 ) thin films were analyzed regarding their thermoluminescence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) properties. A linear TL dose response was obtained from the MEH-PPV and MDMO-PPV polymer films in dose ranges of approximately 0.170–4.08 kGy and 0.170–0.850 kGy, respectively, followed by a supralinear behavior. A dependence on the conjugation length of the polymer chains which was favored by heating of the film, was observed, and irradiation generated a blue-shift in MEH-PPV and Ru(bpy) 3 . Furthermore, the PL structure was not modified. The most likely effect involved in the TL emission was trapping. The high activation energy values of the traps in the TL may be attributed in part to the binding energy of the exciton. A deconvolution process was carried out to obtain the kinetic parameters from the TL glow curves and PL spectra. - Highlights: • Irradiation effects on MEH-PPV, MDMO-PPV and Ru(bpy) 3 were analyzed by TL and PL. • The dose response of PPV derivatives was linear at higher doses (0.170–4.08 kGy). • Activation energy, was larger than 2 eV, suggest a possible good stability of traps. • PL spectra for non-irradiated and gamma irradiated polymer are almost identical

  17. Electrical and piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3 thin films grown on SrxCa1−xRuO3-buffered SrTiO3 substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2012-06-01

    (001)-oriented BiFeO 3 (BFO) thin films were grown on Sr xCa 1-xRuO 3- (SCRO; x = 1, 0.67, 0.33, 0) buffered SrTiO 3 (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The microstructural, electrical, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of the thin films were considerably affected by the buffer layers. The interface between the BFO films and the SCRO-buffer layer was found to play a dominant role in determining the electrical and piezoelectric behaviors of the films. We found that films grown on SrRuO 3-buffer layers exhibited minimal electrical leakage while films grown on Sr 0.33Ca 0.67RuO 3-buffer layers had the largest piezoelectric response. The origin of this difference is discussed. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Highly textured Sr, Nb co-doped BiFeO3 thin films grown on SrRuO3/Si substrates by rf- sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostos, C.; Raymond, O.; Siqueiros, J. M.; Suarez-Almodovar, N.; Bueno-Baques, D.; Mestres, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, (011)-highly oriented Sr, Nb co-doped BiFeO 3 (BFO) thin films were successfully grown on SrRuO 3 /Si substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering. The presence of parasite magnetic phases was ruled out based on the high resolution x-ray diffraction data. BFO films exhibited a columnar-like grain growth with rms surface roughness values of ≅5.3 nm and average grain sizes of ≅65-70 nm for samples with different thicknesses. Remanent polarization values (2P r ) of 54 μC cm -2 at room temperature were found for the BFO films with a ferroelectric behavior characteristic of an asymmetric device structure. Analysis of the leakage mechanisms for this structure in negative bias suggests Schottky injection and a dominant Poole-Frenkel trap-limited conduction at room temperature. Oxygen vacancies and Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ trap centers are consistent with the surface chemical bonding states analysis from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data. The (011)-BFO/SrRuO 3 /Si film structure exhibits a strong magnetic interaction at the interface between the multiferroic film and the substrate layer where an enhanced ferromagnetic response at 5 K was observed. Zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization curves of this film system revealed a possible spin glass behavior at spin freezing temperatures below 30 K depending on the BFO film thickness.

  19. Effects of a Thin Ru-Doped PVP Interface Layer on Electrical Behavior of Ag/n-Si Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, Yosef; Nikravan, Afsoun; Altındal, Şemsettin; Uslu, İbrahim

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the electrical property of Ag/n-Si metal-semiconductor (MS) structure by growing an Ru-doped PVP interlayer between Ag and n-Si using electrospinning technique. To illustrate the utility of the Ru-doped PVP interface layer, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Ag/n-Si (MS) and Ag/Ru-doped PVP/n-Si metal-polymer-semiconductor (MPS) structures was carried out. In addition, the main electrical parameters of the fabricated Ag/Ru-doped PVP/n-Si structures were investigated as a function of frequency and electric field using impedance spectroscopy method (ISM). The capacitance-voltage (C-V) plot showed an anomalous peak in the depletion region due to the special density distribution of interface traps/states (D it /N ss) and interlayer. Both the values of series resistance (R s) and N ss were drawn as a function of voltage and frequency between 0.5 kHz and 5 MHz at room temperature and they had a peak behavior in the depletion region. Some important parameters of the sample such as the donor concentration atoms (N D), Fermi energy (E F ), thickness of the depletion region (W D), barrier height (Φ B0 ) and R s were determined from the C -2 versus V plot for each frequency. The values of N D , W D , Φ B0 and R s were changed from 1 × 1015 cm-3, 9.61 × 10-5 cm, 0.94 eV and 19,055 Ω (at 0.5 kHz) to 0.13 × 1015 cm-3, 27.4 × 10-4 cm, 1.04 eV and 70 Ω (at 5 MHz), respectively. As a result of the experiments, it is observed that the change in electrical parameters becomes more effective at lower frequencies due to the N ss and their relaxation time (τ), dipole and surface polarizations.

  20. Microfabrication of SrRuO3 thin films on various oxide substrates using LaAlO3/BaOx sacrificial bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Takayuki; Tsukazaki, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    Oxides provide various fascinating physical properties that could find use in future device applications. However, the physical properties of oxides are often affected by formation of oxygen vacancies during device fabrication processes. In this study, to develop a damage-free patterning process for oxides, we focus on a lift-off process using a sacrificial template layer, by which we can pattern oxide thin films without severe chemical treatment or plasma bombardment. As oxides need high thin-film growth temperature, a sacrificial template needs to be made of thermally stable and easily etchable materials. To meet these requirements, we develop a sacrificial template with a carefully designed bilayer structure. Combining a thermally and chemically stable LaAlO3 and a water-soluble BaOx, we fabricated a LaAlO3/BaOx sacrificial bilayer. The patterned LaAlO3/BaOx sacrificial bilayers were prepared on oxide substrates by room-temperature pulsed laser deposition and standard photolithography process. The structure of the sacrificial bilayer can be maintained even in rather tough conditions needed for oxide thin film growth: several hundred degrees Celsius under high oxygen pressure. Indeed, the LaAlO3/BaOx bilayer is easily removable by sonication in water. We applied the lift-off method using the LaAlO3/BaOx sacrificial bilayer to a representative oxide conductor SrRuO3 and fabricated micron-scale Hall-bar devices. The SrRuO3 channels with the narrowest line width of 5 μm exhibit an almost identical transport property to that of the pristine film, evidencing that the developed process is beneficial for patterning oxides. We show that the LaAlO3/BaOx lift-off process is applicable to various oxide substrates: SrTiO3, MgO, and Al2O3. The new versatile patterning process will expand the range of application of oxide thin films in electronic and photonic devices.

  1. The magnetic transition temperature tuned by strain in YMn0.9Ru0.1O3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial orthorhombic YMn0.9Ru0.1O3 films with different thickness have been grown on (001-SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD. The crystal structure is well investigated by X-ray Diffraction. It is found that the out-of-plane parameter c slowly increases with decreasing thickness of samples because of the tensile strain between the films and substrates along c axis. The lengths of in-plane Mn-O bonds expand with the enhancement of strains, which is proved by Raman scatting. The magnetic measurements reveal that there exist two magnetic transition temperatures TN1 and TN2. The TN1 is close to that of orthorhombic YMnO3 bulk. With decreasing thickness of the films, TN1 keeps almost constant because of the small stain along c-axis. TN2, however, obviously increases from 117 K to 134 K, which could be related to the expansion of in-plane Mn-O bonds. Results show that the magnetic transition temperature of YMn0.9Ru0.1O3 films can be sensitively manipulated by the strain of the films.

  2. Magnetic ground state of SrRuO3 thin film and applicability of standard first-principles approximations to metallic magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryee, Siheon; Han, Myung Joon

    2017-07-05

    A systematic first-principles study has been performed to understand the magnetism of thin film SrRuO 3 which lots of research efforts have been devoted to but no clear consensus has been reached about its ground state properties. The relative t 2g level difference, lattice distortion as well as the layer thickness play together in determining the spin order. In particular, it is important to understand the difference between two standard approximations, namely LDA and GGA, in describing this metallic magnetism. Landau free energy analysis and the magnetization-energy-ratio plot clearly show the different tendency of favoring the magnetic moment formation, and it is magnified when applied to the thin film limit where the experimental information is severely limited. As a result, LDA gives a qualitatively different prediction from GGA in the experimentally relevant region of strain whereas both approximations give reasonable results for the bulk phase. We discuss the origin of this difference and the applicability of standard methods to the correlated oxide and the metallic magnetic systems.

  3. The pH Sensing Properties of RF Sputtered RuO2 Thin-Film Prepared Using Different Ar/O2 Flow Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sardarinejad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the Ar/O2 gas ratio during radio frequency (RF sputtering of the RuO2 sensing electrode on the pH sensing performance is investigated. The developed pH sensor consists in an RF sputtered ruthenium oxide thin-film sensing electrode, in conjunction with an electroplated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The performance and characterization of the developed pH sensors in terms of sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, and hysteresis are investigated. Experimental results show that the pH sensor exhibits super-Nernstian slopes in the range of 64.33–73.83 mV/pH for Ar/O2 gas ratio between 10/0–7/3. In particular, the best pH sensing performance, in terms of sensitivity, response time, reversibility and hysteresis, is achieved when the Ar/O2 gas ratio is 8/2, at which a high sensitivity, a low hysteresis and a short response time are attained simultaneously.

  4. STM and x-ray diffraction temperature-dependent growth study of SrRuO{sub 3} PLD thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M.E.; Jia, Q.X.; Brown, G.W.

    1996-12-31

    SrRuO{sub 3} (SRO) has recently found a number of applications in different fields, e.g. as a buffer layer for the growth of high temperature superconductor (HTS) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} films and as a bottom electrode for ferroelectric or high dielectric constant thin film capacitors and nonvolatile data storage. The growth of high crystallinity SRO films with good structural and electrical properties is the prerequisite for each of these applications. In this paper we describe the affect of one growth parameters temperature (T), on the crystalline quality, epitaxial substrate relationship and resulting electrical properties. SRO films were deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition at substrate temperatures (T{sub s}) ranging from room temperature (RT) up to 800{degrees}C with a nominal film thickness of 150 nm range. The resulting films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, 4-point transport, and STM. The films` microstructures, as revealed by STM, evolved from polygranular at RT to a layered plate-like structure at higher deposition temperatures, T{sub s}, Increasing T{sub s} was marked first by increasing grain size, then a stronger orientational relationship between film and substrate, finally followed by the development of increased connectivity between grains to an extended island or condensed layered state. The transition from polygranular to layered structure occurred at T{sub s} > 650{degrees}C. Increased conductivity paralleled the changes in microstructure. The surfaces of all of the films were relatively smooth; the oriented films are suitable for use as conductive templates in multilayer structures.

  5. Preparation of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films on Pt/RuO2 double electrode by a new sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Choi, Y.; Kim, C.; Oh, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin film on Pt/RuO 2 double electrode was successfully prepared by using new alkoxide endash alkanolamine, sol-gel method. It was observed that the use of Pt/RuO 2 double electrode reduced leakage current, resulting in a marked improvement in the leakage characteristics and more reliable capacitors. Typical P-E hysteresis behavior was observed even at low applied voltage of 5 V, manifesting greatly improved remanance and coercivity. Fatigue and breakdown characteristic, measured at 5 V, showed stable behavior and no degradation in polarization was observed up to 10 11 cycles.copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  6. Dimensional quantization effects in the thermodynamics of conductive filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, D.; Grice, C. R.; Karpov, V. G.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the physical effects of dimensional quantization in conductive filaments that underlie operations of some modern electronic devices. We show that, as a result of quantization, a sufficiently thin filament acquires a positive charge. Several applications of this finding include the host material polarization, the stability of filament constrictions, the equilibrium filament radius, polarity in device switching, and quantization of conductance.

  7. The effects of nitrogen incorporation on the properties of atomic layer deposited Ru thin films as a direct-plateable diffusion barrier for Cu interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Ki-Yeung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae Eun [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 1275 Jisadong, Gangseogu, Busan 618-230 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Taehoon [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Core Research Facilities, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Sang-ri, Hyeonpung-myeon, Dalseong-gun, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yujin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Byoung-Yong; Kim, Sunjung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ulsan, Mugeo-dong, Nam-go, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    N-incorporated Ru films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at a deposition temperature of 270 °C using 1-isopropyl-4-methylbenzene-cyclohexa-1,3-dienyl ruthenium and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixture plasma as the precursor and reactant, respectively. The N content in the ALD-Ru films was controlled by changing the gas ratio [N{sub 2} versus the total gas (N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}) flow rates] in the reactant from 0.82 to 1. Secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling revealed an increase in N content in the film with increasing gas ratio. The amount of N in the ALD-Ru films had a considerable effect on the film properties, such as resistivity, crystallinity and microstructure. Although the resistivity of the pure ALD-Ru film was ∼ 19 μΩ cm, the N-incorporated ALD-Ru films deposited with a gas ratio of 0.86 (N/Ru: ∼ 0.38) showed a resistivity of ∼ 340 μΩ cm, which increased continuously with increasing gas ratio. X-ray and electron diffraction revealed degradation in film crystallinity and decrease in grain size with increasing N incorporation into ALD-Ru films. Transmission electron microscopy showed that N-incorporated ALD-Ru films formed nanocrystalline and non-columnar grain structures. This is in contrast to that observed in the pure ALD-Ru film, which had a polycrystalline columnar grain structure. The growth rate of a representative N-incorporated Ru film deposited with a gas ratio of 0.86 showed a linear dependency on the number of ALD cycles; growth rate of 0.051 nm/cycle at short incubation cycles of ∼ 3. The step coverage was approximately 98% over the trench structure (aspect ratio: 4.5) with a top opening width of 25 nm. The direct plating of Cu on an optimized N-incorporated ALD-Ru film (5 nm in thickness) was possible. The structure of Cu (80 nm)/N-incorporated ALD-Ru (8 nm)/Si was found to be stable without the formation of copper silicide after annealing at 600 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • Controlled growth of N

  8. Solar Filament Extraction and Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).

  9. Helical filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Nicholas; Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL—The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Johnson, Eric [Micro-Photonics Laboratory – Center for Optical Material Science, Clemson, Anderson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The shaping of laser-induced filamenting plasma channels into helical structures by guiding the process with a non-diffracting beam is demonstrated. This was achieved using a Bessel beam superposition to control the phase of an ultrafast laser beam possessing intensities sufficient to induce Kerr effect driven non-linear self-focusing. Several experimental methods were used to characterize the resulting beams and confirm the observed structures are laser air filaments.

  10. Characteristics of RuO{sub 2}-SnO{sub 2} nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode for thin film microsupercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-Ki [Core Technology Laboratory, Samsung SDI, 575 Shin-dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 442-391 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hanki1031.kim@samsung.com; Choi, Sun-Hee [Nano Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), PO Box 131 Choengryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Soo [Department of Advanced Fusion Technology (DAFT), Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Sung-Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Kwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ok, Young-Woo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Kwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Tae-Yeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Kwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-22

    The characteristics of RuO{sub 2}-SnO{sub 2} nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode, grown by DC reactive sputtering, was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and transmission electron diffraction (TED) examination results showed that Sn and Ru metal cosputtered electrode in O{sub 2}/Ar ambient have RuO{sub 2}-SnO{sub 2} nanocrystallines in an amorphous oxide matrix. It is shown that the cyclic voltammorgram (CV) result of the RuO{sub 2}-SnO{sub 2} nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} liquid electrolyte is similar to a bulk-type supercapacitor behavior with a specific capacitance of 62.2 mF/cm{sup 2} {mu}m. This suggests that the RuO{sub 2}-SnO{sub 2} nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film can be employed in hybrid all-solid state energy storage devises as an electrode of supercapacitor.

  11. XPS and STEM study of the interface formation between ultra-thin Ru and Ir OER catalyst layers and perylene red support whiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasoska Ljiljana L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interface formation between nano-structured perylene red (PR whiskers and oxygen evolution reaction (OER catalysts ruthenium and iridium has been studied systematically by XPS and STEM. The OER catalyst over-layers with thicknesses ranging from ~0.1 to ~50 nm were vapor deposited onto PR ex-situ. STEM images demonstrate that, with increasing thickness, Ru and Ir transform from amorphous clusters to crystalline nanoparticles, which agglomerate with increased over-layer thickness. XPS data show a strong interaction between Ru and PR. Ir also interacts with PR although not to the extent seen for Ru. At low coverages, the entire Ru deposit is in the reacted state while a small portion of the deposited Ir remains metallic. Ru and Ir bonding occur at the PR carbonyl sites as evidenced by the attenuation of carbonyl photoemission and the emergence of new peak assigned to C-O single bond. The curve fitting analysis and the derived stoichiometry indicates the formation of metallo-organic bonds. The co-existence of oxide bonds is also apparent.

  12. In Situ Detection, Isolation, and Physiological Properties of a Thin Filamentous Microorganism Abundant in Methanogenic Granular Sludges: a Novel Isolate Affiliated with a Clone Cluster, the Green Non-Sulfur Bacteria, Subdivision I

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Yuji; Takahashi, Hiroki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that very thin filamentous bacteria affiliated with the division green non-sulfur bacteria were abundant in the outermost layer of thermophilic methanogenic sludge granules fed with sucrose and several low-molecular-weight fatty acids (Y. Sekiguchi, Y. Kamagata, K. Nakamura, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1280–1288, 1999). Further 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cloning-based analysis revealed that the microbes were classified within a unique clade, green non...

  13. Filament poisoning at typical carbon nanotube deposition conditions by hot-filament CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available extensively used for the deposition of various materials, including diamond [1], polymers [2], silicon thin films [3], boron-carbon-nitride layers [4] and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [5]. The process relies on the catalytic decomposition of precursor gases... (Ho) twice as efficient as a W filament during the deposition of microcrystalline silicon thin films [6]. Reactions between the precursor gases and the heated filament result in changes of the structural properties of the filaments; a process...

  14. Seasonal changes in isoform composition of giant proteins of thick and thin filaments and titin (connectin) phosphorylation level in striated muscles of bears (Ursidae, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmov, N N; Vikhlyantsev, I M; Ulanova, A D; Gritsyna, Yu V; Bobylev, A G; Saveljev, A P; Makariushchenko, V V; Maksudov, G Yu; Podlubnaya, Z A

    2015-03-01

    Seasonal changes in the isoform composition of thick and thin filament proteins (titin, myosin heavy chains (MyHCs), nebulin), as well as in the phosphorylation level of titin in striated muscles of brown bear (Ursus arctos) and hibernating Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus ussuricus) were studied. We found that the changes that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in bears during hibernation are not accompanied by a decrease in the content of nebulin and intact titin-1 (T1) isoforms. However, a decrease (2.1-3.4-fold) in the content of T2 fragments of titin was observed in bear skeletal muscles (m. gastrocnemius, m. longissimus dorsi, m. biceps) during hibernation. The content of the stiffer N2B titin isoform was observed to increase relative to the content of its more compliant N2BA isoform in the left ventricles of hibernating bears. At the same time, in spite of the absence of decrease in the total content of T1 in the myocardium of hibernating brown bear, the content of T2 fragments decreased ~1.6-fold. The level of titin phosphorylation only slightly increased in the cardiac muscle of hibernating brown bear. In the skeletal muscles of brown bear, the level of titin phosphorylation did not vary between seasons. However, changes in the composition of MyHCs aimed at increasing the content of slow (I) and decreasing the content of fast (IIa) isoforms of this protein during hibernation of brown bear were detected. Content of MyHCs I and IIa in the skeletal muscles of hibernating Himalayan black bear corresponded to that in the skeletal muscles of hibernating brown bear.

  15. C0 and C1 N-terminal Ig domains of myosin binding protein C exert different effects on thin filament activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Samantha P; Belknap, Betty; Van Sciver, Robert E; White, Howard D; Galkin, Vitold E

    2016-02-09

    Mutations in genes encoding myosin, the molecular motor that powers cardiac muscle contraction, and its accessory protein, cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C), are the two most common causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Recent studies established that the N-terminal domains (NTDs) of cMyBP-C (e.g., C0, C1, M, and C2) can bind to and activate or inhibit the thin filament (TF). However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which NTDs modulate interaction of myosin with the TF remains unknown and the contribution of each individual NTD to TF activation/inhibition is unclear. Here we used an integrated structure-function approach using cryoelectron microscopy, biochemical kinetics, and force measurements to reveal how the first two Ig-like domains of cMyPB-C (C0 and C1) interact with the TF. Results demonstrate that despite being structural homologs, C0 and C1 exhibit different patterns of binding on the surface of F-actin. Importantly, C1 but not C0 binds in a position to activate the TF by shifting tropomyosin (Tm) to the "open" structural state. We further show that C1 directly interacts with Tm and traps Tm in the open position on the surface of F-actin. Both C0 and C1 compete with myosin subfragment 1 for binding to F-actin and effectively inhibit actomyosin interactions when present at high ratios of NTDs to F-actin. Finally, we show that in contracting sarcomeres, the activating effect of C1 is apparent only once low levels of Ca(2+) have been achieved. We suggest that Ca(2+) modulates the interaction of cMyBP-C with the TF in the sarcomere.

  16. Ferroelectric properties of NaNbO3-BaTiO3 thin films deposited on SrRuO3/(001)SrTiO3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazoe, Seiji; Oda, Shinya; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Wada, Takahiro; Adachi, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    (NaNbO 3 ) 1-x (BaTiO 3 ) x (NN-xBT) thin films with low BaTiO 3 (BT) concentrations x (x=0.05 and 0.10) were fabricated on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO 3 (SRO)/(001)STO) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and transmission electron diffraction pattern (TED) showed that NN-0.10BT thin film was epitaxially grown on SRO/(001)STO substrate with a crystallographic relationship of [001] NN-xBT parallel [001] STO . From reciprocal space maps, the lattice parameters of the out-of-plane direction of NN-xBT thin films became larger with an increase in BT concentration, although the lattice parameter of the in-plane was hardly changed by the BT concentration. The value of relative dielectric constant ε r of the NN-xBT thin films were increased with BT concentration. The ε r and the dielectric loss tanδ of NN-0.10BT were 1220 and 0.02 at 1 kHz, respectively. The P-E hysteresis loops of the NN-xBT thin films showed clear ferroelectricity. Although the value of remanent polarization P r decreased with the BT concentration, the behaviors of ε r , P r , and coercive electric field E c of the NN-xBT thin films against the BT concentration accorded with those of NN-xBT ceramics, in which NN-0.10BT ceramics exhibited the largest piezoelectric property. Therefore, the NN-0.10BT thin film is expected to show high piezoelectricity. (author)

  17. Atomic structures of Ruddlesden-Popper faults in LaCoO3/SrRuO3 multilayer thin films induced by epitaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Shen, Xi; Guan, Xiangxiang; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Yanguo; Sun, Jirong; Yu, Richeng

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to study the microstructures of the defects in LaCoO3/SrRuO3 multilayer films grown on the SrTiO3 substrates, and these films have different thickness of SrRuO3 (SRO) layers. Several types of Ruddlesden-Popper (R.P.) faults at an atomic level are found, and these chemical composition fluctuations in the growth process are induced by strain fields originating from the film-film and film-substrate lattice mismatches. Furthermore, we propose four types of structural models based on the atomic arrangements of the R.P. planar faults, which severely affect the functional properties of the films.

  18. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  19. Filament Winding. A Unified Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koussios, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this dissertation we have presented an overview and comprehensive treatment of several facets of the filament winding process. With the concepts of differential geometry and the theory of thin anisotropic shells of revolution, a parametric shape generator has been formulated for the design

  20. Nanoscale decomposition of Nb-Ru-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Denis; Geyer, Richard W.; Chen, Yen-Ting

    2016-11-01

    A correlative theoretical and experimental methodology has been employed to explore the decomposition of amorphous Nb-Ru-O at elevated temperatures. Density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations reveal that amorphous Nb-Ru-O is structurally modified within 10 ps at 800 K giving rise to an increase in the planar metal - oxygen and metal - metal population and hence formation of large clusters, which signifies atomic segregation. The driving force for this atomic segregation process is 0.5 eV/atom. This is validated by diffraction experiments and transmission electron microscopy of sputter-synthesized Nb-Ru-O thin films. Room temperature samples are amorphous, while at 800 K nanoscale rutile RuO2 grains, self-organized in an amorphous Nb-O matrix, are observed, which is consistent with our theoretical predictions. This amorphous/crystalline interplay may be of importance for next generation of thermoelectric devices.

  1. In situ detection, isolation, and physiological properties of a thin filamentous microorganism abundant in methanogenic granular sludges: a novel isolate affiliated with a clone cluster, the green non-sulfur bacteria, subdivision I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Y; Takahashi, H; Kamagata, Y; Ohashi, A; Harada, H

    2001-12-01

    We previously showed that very thin filamentous bacteria affiliated with the division green non-sulfur bacteria were abundant in the outermost layer of thermophilic methanogenic sludge granules fed with sucrose and several low-molecular-weight fatty acids (Y. Sekiguchi, Y. Kamagata, K. Nakamura, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1280-1288, 1999). Further 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cloning-based analysis revealed that the microbes were classified within a unique clade, green non-sulfur bacteria (GNSB) subdivision I, which contains a number of 16S rDNA clone sequences from various environmental samples but no cultured representatives. To investigate their function in the community and physiological traits, we attempted to isolate the yet-to-be-cultured microbes from the original granular sludge. The first attempt at isolation from the granules was, however, not successful. In the other thermophilic reactor that had been treating fried soybean curd-manufacturing wastewater, we found filamentous microorganisms to outgrow, resulting in the formation of projection-like structures on the surface of granules, making the granules look like sea urchins. 16S rDNA-cloning analysis combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that the projections were comprised of the uncultured filamentous cells affiliated with the GNSB subdivision I and Methanothermobacter-like cells and the very ends of the projections were comprised solely of the filamentous cells. By using the tip of the projection as the inoculum for primary enrichment, a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, filamentous bacterium, designated strain UNI-1, was successfully isolated with a medium supplemented with sucrose and yeast extract. The strain was a very slow growing bacterium which is capable of utilizing only a limited range of carbohydrates in the presence of yeast extract and produced hydrogen from these substrates. The growth was found to be significantly stimulated when the strain was

  2. Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Kendall, Brian A; Griffin, Allen T; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-06-01

    Filamentous mycoses are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for good clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients. The host immune response plays an essential role in determining the course of exposure to potential fungal pathogens. Depending on the effectiveness of immune response and the burden of organism exposure, fungi can either be cleared or infection can occur and progress to a potentially fatal invasive disease. Nonspecific cellular immunity (i.e., neutrophils, natural killer [NK] cells, and macrophages) combined with T-cell responses are the main immunologic mechanisms of protection. The most common potential mold pathogens include certain hyaline hyphomycetes, endemic fungi, the Mucorales, and some dematiaceous fungi. Laboratory diagnostics aimed at detecting and differentiating these organisms are crucial to helping clinicians make informed decisions about treatment. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the medically important fungal pathogens, as well as to discuss the patient characteristics, antifungal-therapy considerations, and laboratory tests used in current clinical practice for the immunocompromised host.

  3. Self-organization in complex oxide thin films: from 2D to 0D nanostructures of SrRuO3 and CoCr2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F.; Lüders, U.; Herranz, G.; Infante, I. C.; Fontcuberta, J.; García-Cuenca, M. V.; Ferrater, C.; Varela, M.

    2005-05-01

    We report here on the controlled fabrication of nanostructures of varied dimensionality by self-organization processes in the heteroepitaxial growth of SrRuO3 (SRO) and CoCr2O4 (CCO) films. The surface of SRO films on SrTiO3(001) substrates can show extremely smooth terraces (2D objects) separated by atomic steps, a structure of faceted islands (0D objects), a cross-hatch morphology (1D objects), an array of finger-like units (1D objects), or an array of giant bunched steps (1D objects). The surface can be tailored to a particular structure by controlling the vicinality of the substrate and the growth rate and nominal thickness of the film. In the case of CCO films, grown on (001)-oriented MgAl2O4 or MgO substrates, high aspect ratio {111}-faceted pyramids and hut clusters (0D objects), highly oriented and having a similar size, appear above a critical thickness. The size and spatial density can be tuned by varying deposition temperature, nominal thickness, and substrate. This dependence allows the fabrication of surfaces being fully faceted (2D objects), or having arrays of dislocated pyramids of up to micrometric size, or small coherently lattice strained pyramids having a nanometric size. We discuss the driving forces that originate the peculiar SRO and CCO nanostructures. The findings illustrate that the growth of complex oxides can promote a variety of novel self-organized morphologies, and suggest original strategies to fabricate templates or hybrid structures of oxides combining varied functionalities.

  4. Electrical and piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3 thin films grown on SrxCa1−xRuO3-buffered SrTiO3 substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang; Chen, Long; Wang, Zhihong; Alshareef, Husam N.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2012-01-01

    on SrRuO 3-buffer layers exhibited minimal electrical leakage while films grown on Sr 0.33Ca 0.67RuO 3-buffer layers had the largest piezoelectric response. The origin of this difference is discussed. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Various Barbs in Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Boris

    2017-07-01

    Interest to lateral details of the solar filament shape named barbs, motivated by their relationship to filament chirality and helicity, showed their different orientation relative to the expected direction of the magnetic field. While the majority of barbs are stretched along the field, some barbs seem to be transversal to it and are referred to as anomalous barbs. We analyse the deformation of helical field lines by a small parasitic polarity using a simple flux rope model with a force-free field. A rather small and distant source of parasitic polarity stretches the bottom parts of the helical lines in its direction creating a lateral extension of dips below the flux-rope axis. They can be considered as normal barbs of the filament. A stronger and closer source of parasitic polarity makes the flux-rope field lines to be convex below its axis and creates narrow and deep dips near its position. As a result, the narrow structure, with thin threads across it, is formed whose axis is nearly perpendicular to the field. The structure resembles an anomalous barb. Hence, the presence of anomalous barbs does not contradict the flux-rope structure of a filament.

  6. Polarity-dependent resistance switching in GeSbTe phase-change thin films : The importance of excess Sb in filament formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Kooi, Bart J.; Oosthoek, Jasper L. M.; van den Dool, Pim; Palasantzas, George; Pauza, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We show that polarity-dependent resistance switching in GeSbTe thin films depends strongly on Sb composition by comparing current-voltage characteristics in Sb-excess Ge(2)Sb(2+x)Te(5) and stoichiometric Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) samples. This type of switching in Ge(2)Sb(2+x)Te(5) films is reversible with

  7. Study of structural and transport properties of nanostructured CeO{sub 2}, Ce{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x}O{sub 2} and Ce{sub 1-x}In{sub x}O{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, R.; Chavez-Chavez, L. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Michoacana de S.N.H. (Mexico); Martinez, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Bartolo-Perez, P. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    The present work reports for the first time thin films prepared from Ce{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 2-{delta}} (M = Ru, In) solid solutions for application as gas sensors. The CeO{sub 2}, Ce{sub 0.95}Ru{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.95}In{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} thin films were prepared by means of the RF sputtering process onto Si (111) substrates. The deposition conditions were carried out at 500 C varying the deposition time. Targets were prepared via sol-gel process starting from C{sub 6}H{sub 9}O{sub 6}In, Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} and Ce(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 3} . 1.5H{sub 2}O compounds and using a ceramic method to consolidate them. The samples were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, and AFM. Their thickness was measured using a profilometer. The results herein obtained regarding the microstructure and transport properties indicate that these materials can be used as gas sensors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. The effect of CF4 addition on Ru etching with inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Chang Il

    2003-01-01

    Ru thin films were etched in CF 4 /O 2 plasma using an ICP (inductively coupled plasma etching) system. The etch rate of Ru thin films was examined as a function of gas mixing ratio. The maximum etch rate of Ru thin films was 168 nm/min at a CF 4 /O 2 gas mixing ratio of 10 %. The selectivity of Ru over SiO 2 was 1.3. From the OES (optical emission spectroscopy), the optical emission intensity of the O radical had a maximum value at 10 % of CF 4 gas concentration and decrease with further addition of CF 4 gas. From XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis, Ru-F bonds by the chemical reaction of Ru and F appeared in the surface of the etched Ru thin film in CF 4 /O 2 chemistry. RuF 3-4 compounds were suggested as a surface passivation layer that reduces the chemical reactions between Ru and O radicals. In a FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscope) micrograph, we had an almost perpendicular taper angle of 89 .deg.

  9. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments - Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Filaments are formed in magnetic loops that hold relatively cool, dense gas suspended above the surface of the Sun (David Hathaway/NASA)

  10. Inelastic scattering on 100Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirota, S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of the nuclear structure of 100 Ru whe investigated by means of the scattering of 100 Ru (p,p') 100 Ru* with 16 MeV protons, where 21 states were investigated. The emergent protons were analysed by a magnetic spectrograph, of the enge type with a typical resolution of ≅ 9 KeV. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  11. Thick Filament Protein Network, Functions, and Disease Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Geist, Janelle; Grogan, Alyssa; Hu, Li-Yen R; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini

    2018-03-13

    Sarcomeres consist of highly ordered arrays of thick myosin and thin actin filaments along with accessory proteins. Thick filaments occupy the center of sarcomeres where they partially overlap with thin filaments. The sliding of thick filaments past thin filaments is a highly regulated process that occurs in an ATP-dependent manner driving muscle contraction. In addition to myosin that makes up the backbone of the thick filament, four other proteins which are intimately bound to the thick filament, myosin binding protein-C, titin, myomesin, and obscurin play important structural and regulatory roles. Consistent with this, mutations in the respective genes have been associated with idiopathic and congenital forms of skeletal and cardiac myopathies. In this review, we aim to summarize our current knowledge on the molecular structure, subcellular localization, interacting partners, function, modulation via posttranslational modifications, and disease involvement of these five major proteins that comprise the thick filament of striated muscle cells. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:631-709, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of PtRu/Carbon hybrid materials by hydrothermal carbonization: A study of the Pt:Ru atomic ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusi, Marcelo Marques; Brandalise, Michele; Correa, Olandir Vercino; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Villalba, Juan Carlo

    2009-01-01

    PtRu/Carbon materials with different Pt:Ru atomic ratios (30:70, 50:50, 60:40, 80:20 and 90:10) and 5 wt% of nominal metal load were prepared by hydrothermal carbonization using H 2 PtCl 6.6 H 2 O and RuCl 3. xH 2 O as metals sources and catalysts of the carbonization process and starch as carbon source and reducing agent. The obtained materials were treated at 900 deg C under argon and characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The electro-oxidation of methanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry using thin porous coating technique. The PtRu/Carbon materials showed Pt:Ru atomic ratios obtained by EDX similar to the nominal ones. XRD analysis showed that Pt face-cubic centered (FCC) and Ru hexagonal close-packed (HCP) phases coexist in the obtained materials. The average crystallite sizes of the Pt (FCC) phase were in the range of 8-12 nm. The material prepared with Pt:Ru atomic ratio of 50:50 showed the best performance for methanol electro-oxidation. (author)

  13. Activity of carbon supported Pt3Ru2 nanocatalyst in CO oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KSENIJA DJ. POPOVIĆ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic activity of Pt3Ru2/C nanocatalyst toward the electro-oxidation of bulk CO was examined in acid and alkaline solution at ambient temperature using the thin-film, rotating disk electrode (RDE method. The catalyst was characterized by XRD analysis. The XRD pattern revealed that the Pt3Ru2/C catalyst consisted of two structures, i.e., Pt–Ru-fcc and Ru-hcp (a solid solution of Ru in Pt and a small amount of Ru or a solid solution of Pt in Ru. Electrocatalytic activities were measured by applying potentiodynamic and steady state techniques. The oxidation of CO on the Pt3Ru2/C catalyst was influenced by pH and anions from the supporting electrolytes. The Pt3Ru2/C was more active in alkaline than in acid solution, as well as in perchloric than in sulfuric acid. Comparison of CO oxidation on Pt3Ru2/C and Pt/C revealed that the Pt3Ru2/C was more active than Pt/C in acid solution, while both catalysts had a similar activity in alkaline solution.

  14. Fabrication of ultra-thin cerium oxide layers on Ru(0001) single crystal surfaces. Scanning tunneling microscopic and photoelectron spectroscopic studies on growth, structure and properties; Herstellung ultraduenner Ceroxidschichten auf Ru(0001)-Einkristallflaechen. Rastertunnelmikroskopische und photoelektronenspektroskopische Untersuchungen zu Wachstum, Struktur und Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchtaoui, Mustapha

    2016-12-07

    The thesis at hand aims at a study of structure and properties of well-defined ultrathin CeO{sub 2} films supported on Ru(0001). Such systems may serve as model systems in heterogenous catalysis. The epitaxial growth of ceria films on Ru(0001) surface has been achieved by electron beam evaporation of metal Cer at low background oxygen pressure of 10{sup -6} mbar under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions at room temperature. Cerium oxide qualifies for proper oxygen-storage in oxidation reactions, and hence it widely used in heterogenous catalysis. The oxidation begins with the adsorption of CO on the CeO{sub 2}(111) surface, and it ends with participation of lattice oxygen leading to vacancy formation and CO{sub 2} desorption. We investigate the geometric structure by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction. The coverage of 2.5 monolayers (ML) was sufficient to cover the substrate almost completely. We further analysed the interaction of CO with the CeO{sub 2}/Ru(0001) and the Pt/CeO{sub 2}/Ru(0001) systems. During the interaction process the ratio of Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} changes significantly. This ratio change as well as the effect of Pt evaporated onto the surface with respect to the reducibility of CeO{sub 2}/Ru(0001) in CO environment has been studied by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and it has been confirmed with thermal desorption spectroscopy. It is revealed that the Pt-Nanoparticles with a height from 7.15 Aa to 9.73 Aa clearly enhances the reducibility of CeO{sub 2}.

  15. Tungsten Filament Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent…

  16. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with

  17. Hot Ta filament resistance in-situ monitoring under silane containing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunsky, D.; Schroeder, B.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of the electrical resistance of the Ta catalyst during the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of thin silicon films gives information about filament condition. Using Ta filaments for silane decomposition not only the well known strong changes at the cold ends, but also changes of the central part of the filament were observed. Three different phenomena can be distinguished: silicide (stoichiometric Ta X Si Y alloys) growth on the filament surfaces, diffusion of Si into the Ta filament and thick silicon deposits (TSD) formation on the filament surface. The formation of different tantalum silicides on the surface as well as the in-diffusion of silicon increase the filament resistance, while the TSDs form additional electrical current channels and that result in a decrease of the filament resistance. Thus, the filament resistance behaviour during ageing is the result of the competition between these two processes

  18. Kinetic study of methanol oxidation on Pt2Ru3/C catalyst in the alkaline media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. TRIPKOVIC

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of acridine orange (AO with double-stranded (ds The electrochemical oxidation of methanol in NaOH solution was examined on a thin film Pt2Ru3/C electrode. The XRD pattern revealed that the Pt2Ru3 alloy consisted of a solid solution of Ru in Pt and a small amount of Ru or a solid solution of Pt in Ru. It was shown that in alkaline solution, the difference in activity between Pt/C and Pt2Ru3/C is significantly smaller than in acid solution. It is proposed that the reaction follows a quasi bifunctional mechanism. The kinetic parameters indicated that the chemical reaction between adsorbed COad and OHad species could be the rate limiting step.

  19. SYMPATHETIC SOLAR FILAMENT ERUPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Zimovets, Ivan; Hu, Huidong; Yang, Zhongwei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Dai, Xinghua, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-08-10

    The 2015 March 15 coronal mass ejection as one of the two that together drove the largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 so far was associated with sympathetic filament eruptions. We investigate the relations between the different filaments involved in the eruption. A surge-like small-scale filament motion is confirmed as the trigger that initiated the erupting filament with multi-wavelength observations and using a forced magnetic field extrapolation method. When the erupting filament moved to an open magnetic field region, it experienced an obvious acceleration process and was accompanied by a C-class flare and the rise of another larger filament that eventually failed to erupt. We measure the decay index of the background magnetic field, which presents a critical height of 118 Mm. Combining with a potential field source surface extrapolation method, we analyze the distributions of the large-scale magnetic field, which indicates that the open magnetic field region may provide a favorable condition for F2 rapid acceleration and have some relation with the largest solar storm. The comparison between the successful and failed filament eruptions suggests that the confining magnetic field plays an important role in the preconditions for an eruption.

  20. Evolution of Filament Barbs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin

    2010-01-01

    We present a selected few cases in which the sense of chirality of filament barbs changed within as short as hours. We investigate in detail a quiescent filament on 2003 September 10 and 11. Of its four barbs displaying such changes only one overlay a small polarity inversion line inside the EUV filament channel (EFC). No magnetic elements with magnitude above the noise level were detected at the endpoints of all barbs. In particular, a pair of barbs first approached toward and then departed ...

  1. Thick filament mechano-sensing is a calcium-independent regulatory mechanism in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, L; Brunello, E; Yan, Z; Irving, M

    2016-10-31

    Recent X-ray diffraction studies on actively contracting fibres from skeletal muscle showed that the number of myosin motors available to interact with actin-containing thin filaments is controlled by the stress in the myosin-containing thick filaments. Those results suggested that thick filament mechano-sensing might constitute a novel regulatory mechanism in striated muscles that acts independently of the well-known thin filament-mediated calcium signalling pathway. Here we test that hypothesis using probes attached to the myosin regulatory light chain in demembranated muscle fibres. We show that both the extent and kinetics of thick filament activation depend on thick filament stress but are independent of intracellular calcium concentration in the physiological range. These results establish direct control of myosin motors by thick filament mechano-sensing as a general regulatory mechanism in skeletal muscle that is independent of the canonical calcium signalling pathway.

  2. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  3. Femtosecond Laser Filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, See Leang

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond Laser Filamentation gives a comprehensive review of the physics of propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses in optical media (principally air) and the applications and challenges of this new technique. This book presents the modern understanding of the physics of femtosecond laser pulse propagation, including unusual new effects such as the self-transformation of the pulse into a white light laser pulse, intensity clamping, the physics of multiple filamentation and competition, and how filaments’ ability to melt glass leads to wave guide writing. The potential applications of laser filamentation in atmospheric sensing and the generation of other electromagnetic pulses from the UV to the radio frequency are treated, together with possible future challenges in the excitation of super-excited states of molecules. Exciting new phenomena such as filament induced ultrafast birefringence and the excitation of molecular rotational wave packets and their multiple revivals in air (gases) will also ...

  4. Fundamentals of Filament Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0110 FUNDAMENTALS OF FILAMENT INTERACTION Martin Richardson UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Final Report 06/02/2017 DISTRIBUTION...of Filament Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA95501110001 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Richardson 5d. PROJECT...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Martin Richardson a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 407-823-6819 Standard Form

  5. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  6. Laser induced white lighting of tungsten filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strek, W.; Tomala, R.; Lukaszewicz, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sustained bright white light emission of thin tungsten filament was induced under irradiation with focused beam of CW infrared laser diode. The broadband emission centered at 600 nm has demonstrated the threshold behavior on excitation power. Its intensity increased non-linearly with excitation power. The emission occurred only from the spot of focused beam of excitation laser diode. The white lighting was accompanied by efficient photocurrent flow and photoelectron emission which both increased non-linearly with laser irradiation power.

  7. Filament Substructures and their Interrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Martin, S. F.; Engvold, O.

    The main structural components of solar filaments, their spines, barbs, and legs at the extreme ends of the spine, are illustrated from recent high-resolution observations. The thread-like structures appear to be present in filaments everywhere and at all times. They are the fundamental elements of solar filaments. The interrelation of the spines, barbs and legs are discussed. From observations, we present a conceptual model of the magnetic field of a filament. We suggest that only a single physical model is needed to explain filaments in a continuous spectrum represented by active region filaments at one end and quiescent filaments at the other end.

  8. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperatureprogrammed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. Heating to 250 K resulted in formation of ethoxy groups, which undergo

  9. Growth model of Au films on Ru(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.; Calmetta, A.

    1992-06-01

    In an attempt to find generic features on the fractal growth of Au films deposited on Ru(001), a simple simulation model based on irreversible diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) is discussed. Highly irregular two-dimensional dentritic islands of Au particles that gradually grow on a larger host lattice of Ru particles and have fractal dimension d f approx. 1.70 each, are generated via a multiple had-hoc version of the DLA algorithm for single aggregates. Annealing effects on the islands morphology are reproduced assuming different sticking probabilities at nearest-neighbour lattice sites of Au films on Ru(001). Using simulation data, islands growth are described in analogy to diffusion-limited, precipitate growth with soft impingement of precipities. This leads to analyse thin film island growth kinetics in such fractal systems and to predict a main peak in scattering intensity patterns due to interisland interference. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  10. On the solubility of yttrium in RuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Zumdick, Naemi A.; Hallstedt, Bengt; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the solubility of Y in rutile RuO 2 using experimental and theoretical methods. Nanostructured Ru-Y-O thin films were synthesized via combinatorial reactive sputtering with an O/metal ratio of 2.6 and a Y content of 0.3 to 12.6 at. %. A solubility limit of 1.7 at. % was identified using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Based on ab initio and thermodynamic modeling, the solubility of Y can be understood. Smaller Y amounts are incorporated into the lattice, forming a metastable film, with local structural deformations due to size effects. As the Y content is increased, extensive local structural deformations are observed, but phase separation does not occur due to kinetic limitations. Nanostructured RuO 2 alloyed with Y might lead to enhanced phonon scattering and quantum confinement effects, which in turn improve the thermoelectric efficiency.

  11. Evolution of filament barbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Xu, Y.; Wang, H.

    We present a selected few cases in which the sense of chirality of filament barbs changed within periods as short as hours. We investigate in detail a quiescent filament on 2003 September 10 and 11. Of its four barbs displaying such changes, only one overlays a small polarity inversion line inside the EUV filament channel (EFC). No magnetic elements with magnitude above the noise level were detected at the endpoints of all barbs. In particular, a pair of barbs first approached toward, and then departed from, each other in Halpha , with the barb endpoints migrating as far as ˜ 10 arcsec. We conclude that the evolution of the barbs was driven by flux emergence and cancellation of small bipolar units at the EFC border.

  12. Filaments in Lupus I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Rodon, J.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Plunkett, A.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanisms behind the formation of sub-stellar mass sources are key to determine the populations at the low-mass end of the stellar distribution. Here, we present mapping observations toward the Lupus I cloud in C18O(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) obtained with APEX. We have identified a few velocity-coherent filaments. Each contains several substellar mass sources that are also identified in the 1.1mm continuum data (see also SOLA catalogue presentation). We will discuss the velocity structure, fragmentation properties of the identified filaments, and the nature of the detected sources.

  13. 101Ru NQR study in superconducting CeRu2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Kohori, Yoh; Kohara, Takao

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of the NQR spectrum and the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rate, 1/T 1 , of 101 Ru in superconducting CeRu 2 from 1.9 K to 10 K. From the NQR spectrum, the electric quadrupole interaction parameters were determined to be ν Q =13.2 MHz and η=0.1/T 1 varies in proportion to temperature in the normal state, and has the Hebel-Slichter coherence peak just below the superconducting transition temperature, T C , of 6.2 K, and decreases exponentially at low temperatures with the energy gap of 2Δ=4.0k B T C . 101 Ru NQR study indicates that CeRu 2 is an s-wave and strong-coupling superconductor. (author)

  14. Electro-oxidation of methanol and ethanol using PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts prepared by an alcohol-reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Almir Oliveira; Dias, Ricardo R.; Tusi, Marcelo M.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-03-30

    PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts were prepared by the alcohol reduction process using ethylene glycol as the solvent and reduction agent and Vulcan Carbon XC72 as the support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical oxidation of methanol and ethanol were studied by chronoamperometry using a thin porous coating technique. The PtSn/C electrocatalyst prepared by this methodology showed superior performance compared to the PtRu/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts for methanol and ethanol oxidation at room temperature. (author)

  15. Electro-oxidation of methanol and ethanol using PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts prepared by an alcohol-reduction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Almir Oliveira; Dias, Ricardo R.; Tusi, Marcelo M.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinacé, Estevam V.

    PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts were prepared by the alcohol reduction process using ethylene glycol as the solvent and reduction agent and Vulcan Carbon XC72 as the support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical oxidation of methanol and ethanol were studied by chronoamperometry using a thin porous coating technique. The PtSn/C electrocatalyst prepared by this methodology showed superior performance compared to the PtRu/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts for methanol and ethanol oxidation at room temperature.

  16. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Prominences and filaments are two manifestations of the same phenomenon. Both prominences and filaments are features formed above the chromosphere by cool dense...

  17. Surface modification of RuO2 electrodes by laser irradiation and ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RuO2 thin layers were deposited on Ti supports by thermal decomposition of RuCl3 at 400°C. Some of the samples were subjected to laser irradiation between 0.5 and 1.5 J cm-2. Some others to Kr bombardment with doses between 1015 and 1016 cm-2. Modifications introduced by the surface treatments were monitored ...

  18. Capillary Thinning of Particle-laden Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Brayden; Thete, Sumeet; Jahns, Matt; Doshi, Pankaj; Basaran, Osman

    2015-11-01

    Drop formation is central in many applications such as ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and atomization. During drop formation, a thinning filament is created between the about-to-form drop and the fluid hanging from the nozzle. Therefore, the physics of capillary thinning of filaments is key to understanding drop formation and has been thoroughly studied for pure Newtonian fluids. The thinning dynamics is, however, altered completely when the fluid contains particles, the physics of which is not well understood. In this work, we explore the impact of solid particles on filament thinning and drop formation by using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations.

  19. Preparation and characterization of RuO2/polypyrrole electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wu, Yujiao; Zheng, Feng; Ling, Min; Lu, Fanghai

    2014-11-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) embedded RuO2 electrodes were prepared by the composite method. Precursor solution of RuO2 was coated on tantalum sheet and annealed at 260 °C for 2.5 h to develop a thin film. PPy particles were deposited on RuO2 films and dried at 80 °C for 12 h to form composite electrode. Microstructure and morphology of RuO2/PPy electrode were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Our results confirmed that counter ions are incorporated into RuO2 matrix. Structure of the composite with amorphous phase was verified by X-ray diffraction. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy reveals that during grain growth of RuO2/PPy, PPy particle size sharply increases as deposition time is over 20 min. Electrochemical properties of RuO2/PPy electrode were calculated using cyclic voltammetry. As deposition times of PPy are 10, 20, 25 and 30 min, specific capacitances of composite electrodes reach 657, 553, 471 and 396 F g-1, respectively. Cyclic behaviors of RuO2/PPy composite electrodes are stable.

  20. Filament heater current modulation for increased filament lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.D.; Williams, H.E. III.

    1996-01-01

    The surface conversion H-minus ion source employs two 60 mil tungsten filaments which are approximately 17 centimeters in length. These filaments are heated to approximately 2,800 degrees centigrade by 95--100 amperes of DC heater current. The arc is struck at a 120 hertz rate, for 800 microseconds and is generally run at 30 amperes peak current. Although sputtering is considered a contributing factor in the demise of the filament, evaporation is of greater concern. If the peak arc current can be maintained with less average heater current, the filament evaporation rate for this arc current will diminish. In the vacuum of an ion source, the authors expect the filaments to retain much of their heat throughout a 1 millisecond (12% duty) loss of heater current. A circuit to eliminate 100 ampere heater currents from filaments during the arc pulse was developed. The magnetic field due to the 100 ampere current tends to hold electrons to the filament, decreasing the arc current. By eliminating this magnetic field, the arc should be more efficient, allowing the filaments to run at a lower average heater current. This should extend the filament lifetime. The circuit development and preliminary filament results are discussed

  1. Round table on RU486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallat, L

    1993-01-01

    As a non-invasive means of early abortion, RU-486 has the potential to increase women's reproductive options; at the same time, the "abortion pill" has stimulated debate about the ethics and safety of new medical technologies. When combined with a prostaglandin (PG), the success rate for RU-486 is 96% for pregnancies of up to 9 weeks' gestation. In France, over 120,000 women have used RU-486/PG to terminate pregnancy, and this regimen is now used in about 25% of abortions. Clinical trials of RU-486 are underway in Cuba, China, India, Singapore, and Zambia. The Program for Appropriate Technology has identified four considerations for introducing RU-486 to developing countries: whether abortion or menstrual regulation is legal; whether women find the method acceptable and can comply with the multiple visit treatment regimen; whether the health infrastructure can support safe method use, including prevention of misuse and provision of appropriate medical backup personnel and facilities; and whether the cost of the regimen is affordable to individuals and/or programs --conditions unlikely to be met in most such countries. Ideal would be development of a medical abortifacient that is single dose and the lowest possible dose of each drug, provokes miscarriage within a more predictable time frame with less acute and prolonged bleeding, is safe and effective beyond two months, has minimal side effects, and maximizes short-term safety and minimizes long-term effects. Technological advances are being undermined, however, by political and religious attacks on the method. Even some feminists have expressed concerns about potential long-term effects of RU-486 use.

  2. Tracer filamentation at an unstable ocean front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yen Chia; Mahadevan, Amala; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    A front, where two bodies of ocean water with different physical properties meet, can become unstable and lead to a flow with high strain rate and vorticity. Phytoplankton and other oceanic tracers are stirred into filaments by such flow fields, as can often be seen in satellite imagery. The stretching and folding of a tracer by a two-dimensional flow field has been well studied. In the ocean, however, the vertical shear of horizontal velocity is typically two orders of magnitude larger than the horizontal velocity gradient. Theoretical calculations show that vertical shear alters the way in which horizontal strain affects the tracer, resulting in thin, sloping structures in the tracer field. Using a non-hydrostatic ocean model of an unstable ocean front, we simulate tracer filamentation to identify the effect of vertical shear on the deformation of the tracer. In a complementary laboratory experiment, we generate a simple, vertically sheared strain flow and use dye and particle image velocimetry to quantify the filamentary structures in terms of the strain and shear. We identify how vertical shear alters the tracer filaments and infer how the evolution of tracers in the ocean will differ from the idealized two-dimensional paradigm. Support of NSF DMS-1418956 is acknowledged.

  3. Filament wound structure and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritt, W.S.; Gerth, H.L.; Knight, C.E. Jr.; Pardue, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A filament wound spherical structure is described comprising a plurality of filament band sets disposed about the surface of a mandrel with each band of each set formed of a continuous filament circumferentially wound about the mandrel a selected number of circuits and with each circuit of filament being wound parallel to and contiguous with an immediate previously wound circuit. Each filament band in each band set is wound at the same helix angle from the axis of revolution of the mandrel and all of the bands of each set are uniformly distributed about the mandrel circumference. The pole-to-equator wall thickness taper associated with each band set, as several contiguous band sets are wound about the mandrel starting at the poles, is accumulative as the band sets are nested to provide a complete filament wound sphere of essentially uniform thickness

  4. Magnetic vortex filament flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Manuel; Cabrerizo, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel; Romero, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    We exhibit a variational approach to study the magnetic flow associated with a Killing magnetic field in dimension 3. In this context, the solutions of the Lorentz force equation are viewed as Kirchhoff elastic rods and conversely. This provides an amazing connection between two apparently unrelated physical models and, in particular, it ties the classical elastic theory with the Hall effect. Then, these magnetic flows can be regarded as vortex filament flows within the localized induction approximation. The Hasimoto transformation can be used to see the magnetic trajectories as solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation showing the solitonic nature of those

  5. The Importance of Surface IrOx in Stabilizing RuO2 for Oxygen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Pedersen, Anders Filsøe; Paoli, Elisa Antares

    2018-01-01

    consisting of RuO2 thin films with sub-monolayer (1, 2 and 4 Å) amounts of IrOx deposited on top. Operando extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) on the Ir L-3 edge revealed a rutile type IrO2 structure with some Ir sites occupied by Ru, IrOx being at the surface of the RuO2 thin film. We monitor...... corrosion on IrOx/RuO2 thin films by combining electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We elucidate the importance of sub-monolayer surface IrOx in minimizing Ru dissolution. Our work shows that we can tune the surface properties of active OER...

  6. 103Ru for tumor scanning, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukawa, Kiichiro

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of 103 Ru-uptake in tumors was investigated through the incubation of rat ascites hepatoma cells (AH-130) in vitro with various concentrations of Ru-chloride containing 103 Ru-chloride as a tracer. Quantitative analysis of Ru binding to the cells indicated that ascites hepatoma cells contained high- and low-affinity binding sites for Ru. When ascites hepatoma cells were incubated with Ru after incubation with a low concentration of papain, most of the Ru was not bound to the cells but was found in the medium containing solubilized glycoproteins. However Ru bound mainly to washed cells after the incubation with papain. About 65% of the Ru bound to ascites hepatoma cells was liberated by the papain treatment, and about 45% of the liberated Ru was precipitated by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, indicating that Ru bound tightly to glycopeptides. These results suggest that the tumor affinity of 103 Ru is related to specific binding to glycopeptides on the tumor cell surface. (author)

  7. Ru (amp)(bipy)Cl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    [RuV(amp)(bipy)O]+ intermediate complex which leads to the high affinity for hydrogen atom/hydride abstraction. Acknowledgement. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Department of Science &. Technology, Government of India. We are thankful to Shri Hardyal Singh for his encouragement. Reference.

  8. Scaling during capillary thinning of particle-laden drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Wagoner, Brayden; Basaran, Osman

    2017-11-01

    A fundamental understanding of drop formation is crucial in many applications such as ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and atomization. During drop formation, the about-to-form drop is connected to the fluid hanging from the nozzle via a thinning filament. Therefore, the physics of capillary thinning of filaments is key to understanding drop formation and has been thoroughly studied for pure Newtonian fluids using theory, simulations, and experiments. In some of the applications however, the forming drop and hence the thinning filament may contain solid particles. The thinning dynamics of such particle-laden filaments differs radically from that of particle-free filaments. Moreover, our understanding of filament thinning in the former case is poor compared to that in the latter case despite the growing interest in pinch-off of particle-laden filaments. In this work, we go beyond similar studies and experimentally explore the impact of solid particles on filament thinning by measuring both the radial and axial scalings in the neck region. The results are summarized in terms of a phase diagram of capillary thinning of particle-laden filaments.

  9. Modern filaments for composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivelli-Viskonti, I.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of modern state and ways to improve properties of different filaments for the forecast of the filament application in composite materials has been conducted. In the near future as before the greatest attention will be paid to fibre glass, as this material is widely used in the reinforcing of organic matrices. Carbon and kevlar filaments are the most prospective ones. For the service at medium, high or superhigh temperatures selection of matrix material is more significant than selection of filament. Organic matrices can not be used at temperatures > 250 deg C: this is already the range of metal matrix application. Though at temperatures above room one many filaments can be used, boron filaments and metal wire are the only reinforcing materials, inspite of the fact that carbon filaments are successfully used for metal matrix reinforcing. At very high temperatures only carbon filaments or silicon carbide ones can be used, but their cost is very high and besides economical problems there are many difficulties of technical character

  10. Filaments and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltan, A.

    1987-01-01

    A statistical test to investigate filaments of galaxies is performed. Only particular form of filaments is considered, viz. filaments connecting Abell clusters of galaxies. Relative position of triplets ''cluster - field object - cluster'' is analysed. Though neither cluster sample nor field object sample are homogeneous and complete only peculiar form of selection effects could affect the present statistics. Comparison of observational data with simulations shows that less than 15 per cent of all field galaxies is concentrated in filaments connecting rich clusters. Most of the field objects used in the analysis are not normal galaxies and it is possible that this conclusion is not in conflict with apparent filaments seen in the Lick counts and in some nearby 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. 26 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  11. Regulation of Contraction by the Thick Filaments in Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Malcolm

    2017-12-19

    Contraction of skeletal muscle cells is initiated by a well-known signaling pathway. An action potential in a motor nerve triggers an action potential in a muscle cell membrane, a transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration, binding of calcium to troponin in the actin-containing thin filaments, and a structural change in the thin filaments that allows myosin motors from the thick filaments to bind to actin and generate force. This calcium/thin filament mediated pathway provides the "START" signal for contraction, but it is argued that the functional response of the muscle cell, including the speed of its contraction and relaxation, adaptation to the external load, and the metabolic cost of contraction is largely determined by additional mechanisms. This review considers the role of the thick filaments in those mechanisms, and puts forward a paradigm for the control of contraction in skeletal muscle in which both the thick and thin filaments have a regulatory function. The OFF state of the thick filament is characterized by helical packing of most of the myosin head or motor domains on the thick filament surface in a conformation that makes them unavailable for actin binding or ATP hydrolysis, although a small fraction of the myosin heads are constitutively ON. The availability of the majority fraction of the myosin heads for contraction is controlled in part by the external load on the muscle, so that these heads only attach to actin and hydrolyze ATP when they are required. This phenomenon seems to be the major determinant of the well-known force-velocity relationship of muscle, and controls the metabolic cost of contraction. The regulatory state of the thick filament also seems to control the dynamics of both muscle activation and relaxation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metalloradical Reactivity of RuI and Ru0 Stabilized by an Indole-Based Tripodal Tetraphosphine Ligand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Watering, F.F.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; Dzik, W.I.; de Bruin, B.; Reek, J.N.H.

    2017-01-01

    The tripodal, tetradentate tris(1-(diphenylphosphanyl)-3-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)phosphane PP3-ligand 1 stabilizes Ru in the RuII, RuI, and Ru0 oxidation states. The octahedral [(PP3)RuII(Cl)2] ( 2 ), distorted trigonal bipyramidal [(PP3)RuI(Cl)] ( 3 ), and trigonal bipyramidal [(PP3)Ru0(N2)] ( 4 )

  13. A method for 3D-reconstruction of a muscle thick filament using the tilt series images of a single filament electron tomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, G; Pinto, A; Alamo, L; Baumann, B; Ye, F; Winkler, H; Taylor, K; Padrón, R

    2014-05-01

    Myosin interacting-heads (MIH) motifs are visualized in 3D-reconstructions of thick filaments from striated muscle. These reconstructions are calculated by averaging methods using images from electron micrographs of grids prepared using numerous filament preparations. Here we propose an alternative method to calculate the 3D-reconstruction of a single thick filament using only a tilt series images recorded by electron tomography. Relaxed thick filaments, prepared from tarantula leg muscle homogenates, were negatively stained. Single-axis tilt series of single isolated thick filaments were obtained with the electron microscope at a low electron dose, and recorded on a CCD camera by electron tomography. An IHRSR 3D-recontruction was calculated from the tilt series images of a single thick filament. The reconstruction was enhanced by including in the search stage dual tilt image segments while only single tilt along the filament axis is usually used, as well as applying a band pass filter just before the back projection. The reconstruction from a single filament has a 40 Å resolution and clearly shows the presence of MIH motifs. In contrast, the electron tomogram 3D-reconstruction of the same thick filament - calculated without any image averaging and/or imposition of helical symmetry - only reveals MIH motifs infrequently. This is - to our knowledge - the first application of the IHRSR method to calculate a 3D reconstruction from tilt series images. This single filament IHRSR reconstruction method (SF-IHRSR) should provide a new tool to assess structural differences between well-ordered thick (or thin) filaments in a grid by recording separately their electron tomograms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A method of producing small grain Ru intermediate layers for perpendicular magnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hua; Qin Yueling; Laughlin, David E.

    2008-01-01

    NiAl + SiO 2 thin films were used as a grain size reducing seedlayer for cobalt alloy granular perpendicular magnetic recording media. The effect of this NiAl + SiO 2 seedlayer on the microstructure and crystalline orientation of Ru intermediate layer has been investigated. By co-sputtering the composite NiAl + SiO 2 seedlayer, the smallest average grain diameter of NiAl was significantly reduced to about 2.5 nm. The grain size of the subsequent Ru intermediate layer was reduced to about 4 nm. X-ray diffraction results indicate an epitaxial orientation relationship of NiAl (110) // Ru (0002) between the two layers. Moreover, significant improvement of this epitaxial relationship was developed, which produced narrow c-axis distribution of the Ru intermediate layer with small grain size. The addition of the NiAl + SiO 2 seedlayer is a very promising approach to reduce the Ru intermediate layer grain size and eventually the magnetic layer grain size for perpendicular magnetic recording media without deterioration of other properties of thin films

  15. Mixed phase Pt-Ru catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell anode by flame aerosol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Debasish; Bischoff, H.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2005-01-01

    A spray-flame aerosol catalyzation technique was studied for producing Pt-Ru anode electrodes for the direct methanol fuel cell. Catalysts were produced as aerosol nanoparticles in a spray-flame reactor and deposited directly as a thin layer on the gas diffusion layer. The as-prepared catalyst wa......Ru1/Vulcan carbon. The kinetics of methanol oxidation on the mixed phase catalyst was also explored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. (c) 2005 The Electrochemical Society.......A spray-flame aerosol catalyzation technique was studied for producing Pt-Ru anode electrodes for the direct methanol fuel cell. Catalysts were produced as aerosol nanoparticles in a spray-flame reactor and deposited directly as a thin layer on the gas diffusion layer. The as-prepared catalyst...... was found to be a mixture of nanocrystalline, mostly unalloyed Pt and an amorphous phase mostly of Ru and to a lesser extent of Pt oxides on top of the crystalline phase. The flame-produced Pt1Ru1 demonstrated similar onset potential but similar to 60% higher activity compared to commercially available Pt1...

  16. The importance of subfragment 2 and C-terminus of myosin heavy chain for thick filament assembly in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Koichi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Shibata, Masahiro; Muroya, Susumu; Chikuni, Koichi; Hattori, Akihito; Nishimura, Takanori

    2015-04-01

    In skeletal muscle cells, myofibrillar proteins are highly organized into sarcomeres in which thick filaments interdigitate with thin filaments to generate contractile force. The size of thick filaments, which consist mainly of myosin molecules, is strictly controlled. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which myosin molecules assemble into thick filaments. Here, we assessed the ability of each domain of myosin heavy chain (Myh) to form thick filaments. We showed that exogenously expressed subfragment 2 (S2) + light meromyosin (LMM) of Myh was efficiently incorporated into thick filaments in muscle cells, although neither solely expressed S2 nor LMM targeted to thick filaments properly. In nonmuscle COS7 cells, S2+LMM formed more enlarged filaments/speckles than LMM. These results suggest that Myh filament formation is induced by S2 accompanying LMM. We further examined the effects of Myh C-terminus on thick filament assembly. C-terminal deletion mutants were incorporated not into entire thick filaments but rather into restricted regions of thick filaments. Our findings suggest that the elongation of myosin filaments to form thick filaments is regulated by S2 as well as C-terminus of LMM. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  18. Mass motions in a quiescent filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.M.; Mein, P.; Schmieder, B.

    1982-01-01

    Observations are presented of the sudden disappearance of a filament (N2O, E35) above an active region with the Multichannel Substractive Double Pass Spectrograph operating on the Meudon Solar Tower, France, from 10:45 UT to 13:30 UT on June 22, 1981. Measurements of the velocity fields and intensity fluctuations were obtained. It was found that the sudden disappearance did not take place simultaneously in all parts of the filament: thin threads with upward radial velocities reaching about 50 km/s were successively observed inside the prominence from the south to north regions. It is suggested that these motions corresponded to the rise of material along magnetic loops closely related to the prominence structure. An investigation of the dynamics inside such a magnetic loop shows a strongly accelerated high speed flow and a deformation of the flux tube, probably due to the centrifugal forces exerted by the flow on the magnetic lines. In addition, it is shown that the present theoretical models cannot account for the prominence structure as a cold H-alpha loop system and the acceleration process of material inside such loops

  19. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.

  20. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siccardi, Stefano, E-mail: ssiccardi@2ssas.it [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Tuszynski, Jack A., E-mail: jackt@ualberta.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Adamatzky, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.adamatzky@uwe.ac.uk [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-08

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.

  1. Strongly suppressed proximity effect and ferromagnetism in topological insulator/ferromagnet/superconductor thin film trilayers of Bi2Se3/SrRuO3/underdoped YBa2Cu3O x : a possible new platform for Majorana nano-electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gad

    2018-07-01

    We report properties of a topological insulator–ferromagnet–superconductor trilayers comprised of thin films of 20 nm thick {Bi}}2{Se}}3 on 10 nm SrRuO3 on 30 nm {YBa}}2{Cu}}3{{{O}}}x. As deposited trilayers are underdoped and have a superconductive transition with {{T}}{{c}} onset at 75 K, zero resistance at 65 K, {{T}}Cueri} at 150 K and {{T}}* of about 200 K. Further reannealing under vacuum yields the 60 K phase of {YBa}}2{Cu}}3{{{O}}}x which still has zero resistance below about 40 K. Only when 10 × 100 microbridges were patterned in the trilayer, some of the bridges showed resistive behavior all the way down to low temperatures. Magnetoresistance versus temperature of the superconductive ones showed the typical peak due to flux flow against pinning below {{T}}{{c}}, while the resistive ones showed only the broad leading edge of such a peak. All this indicates clearly weak-link superconductivity in the resistive bridges between superconductive {YBa}}2{Cu}}3{{{O}}}x grains via the topological and ferromagnetic cap layers. Comparing our results to those of a reference trilayer (RTL) with the topological {Bi}}2{Se}}3 layer substituted by a non-superconducting highly overdoped {La}}1.65{Sr}}0.35{CuO}}4, indicates that the superconductive proximity effect as well as ferromagnetism in the topological trilayer are actually strongly suppressed compared to the non-topological RTL. This strong suppression could originate in lattice and Fermi levels mismatch as well as in short coherence length and unfavorable effects of strong spin–orbit coupling in {Bi}}2{Se}}3 on the d-wave pairing of {YBa}}2{Cu}}3{{{O}}}x. Proximity induced edge currents in the SRO/YBCO layer could lead to Majorana bound states, a possible signature of which is observed in the present study as zero bias conductance peaks.

  2. The electrocatalytic properties of carbon supported PtRu/C nanoalloys in oxidation of small organic molecules: Comparison with Pt/C catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lović Jelena D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic activity of carbon supported PtRu/C catalysts, with different composition, toward the electrooxidation of methanol, CO and formic acid were examined in acid and alkaline solution at ambient temperature using thin-film rotating disk electrode (RDE method and compared with activity of Pt/C. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, AFM and STM techniques. XRD pattern revealed that PtRu-1/C catalyst is consisted of two structures e.g. Pt-Ru-fcc and Ru-hcp (the solid solution of Ru in Pt and the small amount of Ru or solid solution of Pt in Ru, as opposed to PtRu-2/C catalyst which is consisted of one structure mostly, Pt-Ru-fcc. According to STM images, PtRu as well as Pt, particles size were between 2 and 6 nm, which is in a good agreement with the mean particles size determined by XRD. To establish the activity and stability of the catalysts potentiodynamic and quasi steady-state measurements were performed. It was found that the activity of Pt and PtRu for CO and methanol oxidation is a strong function of pH of solution. The kinetics are much higher in alkaline than in acid solution and the difference between Pt/C and PtRu/C is much less pronounced in alkaline media. Results presented in this work indicate that activity of PtRu catalysts depends on catalyst composition, e.g. on Pt/Ru atomic ratio, as well as on alloying degree of catalysts. Comparison of CO, methanol and formic acid oxidation on PtRu-2/C, PtRu-1/C and Pt/C catalysts revealed that PtRu-2/C is the most active one. It was shown that the PtRu-2/C catalyst, due to fact that it is consisted of only one phase, with high alloying degree, through the bifunctional mechanism improved by electronic effect, achieve the activity two times higher related to PtRu-1/C in the oxidation of all organic molecules investigated, and about three times higher compared to Pt/C in the oxidation of methanol and CO, and five times higher in formic acid oxidation.

  3. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Pincosy, P.A.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an electron emitting device for use in an electron discharge system. It comprises: a filament having a pair of terminal ends, electrical supply means for supplying electrical power to the terminal ends of the filament for directly heating the filament by the passage of an electrical current along the filament between the terminal ends, the filament being substantially tapered in cross section continuously in one direction from one of its pair of terminal ends to another of its pair of terminal ends to achieve uniform heating of the filament along the length thereof by compensating for the nonuniform current along the filament due to the emission of electrons therefrom

  4. Actin Filaments of Taste Buds in the Goldfish and Parrot

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko, SUZUKI

    1996-01-01

    The filaments in the apical region of the taste bud cells of both goldfish and parrot were examined by fluorescence histochemistry and electron microscopy. The apical cytoplasm of goldfish taste buds terminated in long, slender processes and microvilli, and contained thin and straight filaments composed of f-actin, as detected by fluorecein-labeled phalloidin binding. In the parrot, the apical cytoplasm of taste buds terminating in microvilli also showed phalloidin fluorescence. The result su...

  5. Inner-shell photodetachment from Ru-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitriu, I.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Berrah, N.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Pesic, Z. D.; Rolles, D.; Walter, C. W.; Gibson, N. D.

    2010-01-01

    Inner-shell photodetachment from Ru - was studied near and above the 4p excitation region, 29-to-91-eV photon energy range, using a merged ion-photon-beam technique. The absolute photodetachment cross sections of Ru - ([Kr]4d 7 5s 2 ) leading to Ru + , Ru 2+ , and Ru 3+ ion production were measured. In the near-threshold region, a Wigner s-wave law, including estimated postcollision interaction effects, locates the 4p 3/2 detachment threshold between 40.10 and 40.27 eV. Additionally, the Ru 2+ product spectrum provides evidence for simultaneous two-electron photodetachment (likely to the Ru + 4p 5 4d 6 5s 2 state) located near 49 eV. Resonance effects are observed due to interference between transitions of the 4p electrons to the quasibound 4p 5 4d 8 5s 2 states and the 4d→εf continuum. Despite the large number of possible terms resulting from the Ru - 4d open shell, the cross section obtained from a 51-state LS-coupled R-matrix calculation agrees qualitatively well with the experimental data.

  6. Effect of W on activity of Pt-Ru/C catalyst for methanol electrooxidation in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhenbo; Zuo Pengjian; Yin Geping

    2009-01-01

    The effect of W on the activity of Pt-Ru/C catalyst was investigated. The Pt-Ru-W/C and Pt-Ru/C-TR catalysts were prepared by thermal reduction method. Comparison was made to a homemade Pt-Ru/C-CR catalyst prepared by chemical reduction. Their performances were tested by using a glassy carbon thin film electrode through cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric curves. The particle size, structure, composition, and surface state of homemade catalyst were determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The result of XRD analysis shows that the homemade ternary catalyst exhibits face-centered cubic structure and has smaller lattice parameter than Pt-alone and homemade Pt-Ru/C catalysts. The particle size of Pt-Ru-W/C catalyst is relatively large of 6.5 nm. Its electrochemically active specific area is 20 m 2 g -1 less than that of Pt-Ru/C-CR, and much twice as big as that of Pt-Ru/C-TR. But, XPS analysis shows that the addition of W changes the surface state of Pt components in the alloy and can clean Pt surface active sites which are adsorbed by hydrogen. The electrocatalytic activity and tolerance performance to CO ads of Pt-Ru-W/C catalyst for methanol electrooxidation is the best due to the promoting function of W in comparison with homemade Pt-Ru/C ones.

  7. Formation of graphene on Ru(0001) surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Yi; Shi Dong-Xia; Gao Hong-Jun

    2007-01-01

    We report on the formation of a graphene monolayer on a Ru(0001) surface by annealing the Ru(0001) crystal.The samples are characterized by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). STM images show that the Moiré pattern is caused by the graphene layer mismatched with the underlying Ru(0001) surface and has an N × N superlattice. It is further found that the graphene monolayer on a Ru(0001) surface is very stable at high temperatures. Our results provide a simple and convenient method to produce a graphene monolayer on the Ru(0001) surface, which is used as a template for fabricating functional nanostructures needed in future nano devices and catalysis.

  8. Dependence of the length of solar filament threads on the magnetic configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yu-Hao; Chen Peng-Fei; Fang Cheng; Zhang Qing-Min

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution Hα observations indicate that filaments consist of an assembly of thin threads. In quiescent filaments, the threads are generally short, whereas in active region filaments, the threads are generally long. In order to explain these observational features, we performed one-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations of filament formation along a dipped magnetic flux tube in the framework of the chromospheric evaporation-coronal condensation model. The geometry of a dipped magnetic flux tube is characterized by three parameters, i.e., the depth (D), the half-width (w) and the altitude (h) of the magnetic dip. A survey of the parameters in numerical simulations shows that when allowing the filament thread to grow in 5 days, the maximum length (L th ) of the filament thread increases linearly with w, and decreases linearly with D and h. The dependence is fitted into a linear function L th = 0.84w − 0.88D − 2.78h+17.31(Mm). Such a relation can qualitatively explain why quiescent filaments have shorter threads and active region filaments have longer threads

  9. Oxidation of ruthenium thin films using atomic oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, A.P.; Bogan, J.; Brady, A.; Hughes, G.

    2015-12-31

    In this study, the use of atomic oxygen to oxidise ruthenium thin films is assessed. Atomic layer deposited (ALD) ruthenium thin films (~ 3 nm) were exposed to varying amounts of atomic oxygen and the results were compared to the impact of exposures to molecular oxygen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal substantial oxidation of metallic ruthenium films to RuO{sub 2} at exposures as low as ~ 10{sup 2} L at 575 K when atomic oxygen was used. Higher exposures of molecular oxygen resulted in no metal oxidation highlighting the benefits of using atomic oxygen to form RuO{sub 2}. Additionally, the partial oxidation of these ruthenium films occurred at temperatures as low as 293 K (room temperature) in an atomic oxygen environment. - Highlights: • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the oxidation of Ru thin films • Oxidation of Ru thin films using atomic oxygen • Comparison between atomic oxygen and molecular oxygen treatments on Ru thin films • Fully oxidised RuO{sub 2} thin films formed with low exposures to atomic oxygen.

  10. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films on ruthenium oxide and platinum electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Bursill, Les A.; Reaney, Ian M.; Vijay, Dilip P.; Desu, Seshu B.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution and bright- and dark-field transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize and compare the interface structures and microstructure of PZT/RuO2/SiO2/Si and PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si ferroelectric thin films, with a view to understanding the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT thin films with RuO2 electrodes. The RuO2/PZT interface consists of a curved pseudoperiodic minimal surface. The interface is chemically sharp with virtually no intermixing of RuO2 and PZT, as eviden...

  11. Modulation of transport properties of RuO2 with 3d transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Chen, Yen-Ting; Geyer, Richard W; Bliem, Pascal; Schneider, Jochen M

    2014-01-01

    Using density functional theory, we have demonstrated that alloying of RuO 2 (P4 2 /mnm) with 3d transition metals (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) gives rise to a substantial increase in the Seebeck coefficient probably due to quantum confinement. As Fe yields the largest enhancement, it was selected for experimental verification. We synthesized combinatorial Ru–Fe–O thin films and subsequently measured their transport properties at elevated temperatures. The Fe-alloyed samples increase the Seebeck coefficient threefold with respect to the unalloyed RuO 2 specimen thereby verifying the theoretical prediction. The here obtained power factor of 274 μW K −2 m −1 is not only the largest reported value for RuO 2 based compounds but it also occurs at ∼600 °C thus increasing the Carnot efficiency significantly. (paper)

  12. On the solubility of yttrium in RuO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Music, Denis; Zumdick, Naemi A.; Hallstedt, Bengt; Schneider, Jochen M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    We have investigated the solubility of Y in rutile RuO{sub 2} using experimental and theoretical methods. Nanostructured Ru-Y-O thin films were synthesized via combinatorial reactive sputtering with an O/metal ratio of 2.6 and a Y content of 0.3 to 12.6 at. %. A solubility limit of 1.7 at. % was identified using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Based on ab initio and thermodynamic modeling, the solubility of Y can be understood. Smaller Y amounts are incorporated into the lattice, forming a metastable film, with local structural deformations due to size effects. As the Y content is increased, extensive local structural deformations are observed, but phase separation does not occur due to kinetic limitations. Nanostructured RuO{sub 2} alloyed with Y might lead to enhanced phonon scattering and quantum confinement effects, which in turn improve the thermoelectric efficiency.

  13. Strain effects on electronic structure of Fe{sub 0.75}Ru{sub 0.25}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, M.J., E-mail: M.Winiarski@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-422, Wrocław (Poland); Samsel-Czekała, M. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-422, Wrocław (Poland); Ciechan, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-01-15

    Structural and electronic properties of a hypothetical Fe{sub 0.75}Ru{sub 0.25}Te alloy and the parent FeTe compound have been investigated from first principles within the density functional theory (DFT). For both systems the double-stripe antiferromagnetic ground state is predicted at ambient pressure. The incorporation of Ru atoms into FeTe in the nonmagnetic phase leads to a deep valley of density of states in the vicinity of the Fermi level and the DOS at the Fermi level is significantly diminished in the considered solid solution. The single-stripe antiferromagnetic phase in Fe{sub 0.75}Ru{sub 0.25}Te may be induced by tensile strain. These findings suggest that strained thin films of Fe{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}Te are good candidates for new superconducting Fe-based materials. - Highlights: • Ru-doped FeTe systems are investigated by density-functional theory methods. • Structural and electronic properties of Fe{sub 0.75}Ru{sub 0.25}Te and parent FeTe are studied. • The double-stripe antiferromagnetic ground state is predicted for both systems. • The single-stripe antiferromagnetic phase may be induced by tensile strain. • Tensile strained Fe{sub 0.75}Ru{sub 0.25}Te is a candidate for a new Fe-based superconductor.

  14. Single filament semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botez, D.

    1980-01-01

    A semiconductor laser comprising: a body of semiconductor material including a substrate having a surface and a pair of spaced, substantially parallel dove-tailed shaped grooves in said surface, said body having a pair of end surfaces between which said grooves extend, said end surfaces being reflective to light with at least one of said end surfaces being partially transparent to light a first epitaxial layer over said surface of the substrate and the surfaces of the grooves, said first epitaxial layer having a flat surface portion over the portion of the substrate surface between the grooves, a thin second epitaxial layer over said first epitaxial layer, a third epitaxial layer over said second epitaxial layer, said first and third epitaxial layers being of opposite conductivity types and the second epitaxial layer being the active recombination region of the laser with the light being generated therein in the vicinity of the portion which is over the flat surface portion of the first epitaxial layer, and a pair of contacts on said body with one contact being over said third epitaxial body and the other being on said substrate

  15. Synthesis and magnetic properties of carbon-coated FeRu, CoRu, and NiRu nanoalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gendy, A.A.; Khavrus, V.O.; Hampel, S.; Leonhardt, A.; Klingeler, R.; Buechner, B. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Carbon coated FeRu, CoRu and NiRu nanoalloys have been synthesised by high pressure chemical vapour deposition (HPCVD). The formation of the core-shell nanoalloys with a mean diameter around 8 nm has been confirmed by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We show the effect of the synthesis parameters on the actual composition of the nanoalloys and on their magnetic properties and we discuss their feasibility for applications in medical hyperthermia.

  16. Nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic band-gap filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaso, Artan; John, Sajeev

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the occurrence of nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic crystals (PCs). These periodically structured filaments are characterized by an isolated optical pass band below an effective plasma gap. The pass band occurs in a frequency range where the metallic filament exhibits a negative, frequency-dependent dielectric function and absorption loss. The metallic losses are counterbalanced by gain in two models of inhomogeneously broadened nonlinear oscillators. In the first model, we consider close-packed quantum dots that fill the void regions of a two-dimensional (2D) metallic PC, and whose inhomogeneously broadened emission spectrum spans the original optical pass band of the bare filament. In the second model, we consider thin (10-50 nm) layers of inhomogeneously broadened two-level resonators, with large dipole oscillator strength, that cover the interior surfaces of 2D metallic (silver and tungsten) PCs. These may arise from localized surface plasmon resonances due to small metal particles or an otherwise rough metal surface. For simplicity, we treat electromagnetic modes with electric field perpendicular to the plane of metal periodicity. In both models, a pumping threshold of the resonators is found, above which periodic nonlinear solutions of Maxwell's equations with purely real frequency within the optical pass band emerge. These nonlinear Bloch waves exhibit a laserlike input pumping to output amplitude characteristic. For strong surface resonances, these nonlinear waves may play a role in light emission from a hot tungsten (suitably microstructured) filament

  17. Nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic band-gap filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaso, Artan; John, Sajeev

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate the occurrence of nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic crystals (PCs). These periodically structured filaments are characterized by an isolated optical pass band below an effective plasma gap. The pass band occurs in a frequency range where the metallic filament exhibits a negative, frequency-dependent dielectric function and absorption loss. The metallic losses are counterbalanced by gain in two models of inhomogeneously broadened nonlinear oscillators. In the first model, we consider close-packed quantum dots that fill the void regions of a two-dimensional (2D) metallic PC, and whose inhomogeneously broadened emission spectrum spans the original optical pass band of the bare filament. In the second model, we consider thin (10 50 nm) layers of inhomogeneously broadened two-level resonators, with large dipole oscillator strength, that cover the interior surfaces of 2D metallic (silver and tungsten) PCs. These may arise from localized surface plasmon resonances due to small metal particles or an otherwise rough metal surface. For simplicity, we treat electromagnetic modes with electric field perpendicular to the plane of metal periodicity. In both models, a pumping threshold of the resonators is found, above which periodic nonlinear solutions of Maxwell’s equations with purely real frequency within the optical pass band emerge. These nonlinear Bloch waves exhibit a laserlike input pumping to output amplitude characteristic. For strong surface resonances, these nonlinear waves may play a role in light emission from a hot tungsten (suitably microstructured) filament.

  18. Novel Electronic Structures of Ru-pnictides RuPn (Pn = P, As, Sb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, H.; Toriyama, T.; Konishi, T.; Ohta, Y.

    Density-functional-theory-based electronic structure calculations are made to consider the novel electronic states of Ru-pnictides RuP and RuAs where the intriguing phase transitions and superconductivity under doping of Rh have been reported. We find that there appear nearly degenerate flat bands just at the Fermi level in the high-temperature metallic phase of RuP and RuAs; the flat-band states come mainly from the 4dxy orbitals of Ru ions and the Rh doping shifts the Fermi level just above the flat bands. The splitting of the flat bands caused by their electronic instability may then be responsible for the observed phase transition to the nonmagnetic insulating phase at low temperatures. We also find that the band structure calculated for RuSb resembles that of the doped RuP and RuAs, which is consistent with experiment where superconductivity occurs in RuSb without Rh doping.

  19. Magnetic helicity and active filament configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Poedts, S.; Soenen, A.; Zuccarello, F. P.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The role of magnetic helicity in active filament formation and destabilization is still under debate. Aims: Although active filaments usually show a sigmoid shape and a twisted configuration before and during their eruption, it is unclear which mechanism leads to these topologies. In order to provide an observational contribution to clarify these issues, we describe a filament evolution whose characteristics seem to be directly linked to the magnetic helicity transport in corona. Methods: We applied different methods to determine the helicity sign and the chirality of the filament magnetic field. We also computed the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints. Results: All the observational signatures provided information on the positive helicity and sinistral chirality of the flux rope containing the filament material: its forward S shape, the orientation of its barbs, the bright and dark threads at 195 Å. Moreover, the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints showed a clear accumulation of positive helicity. Conclusions: The study of this event showed a correspondence between several signatures of the sinistral chirality of the filament and several evidences of the positive magnetic helicity of the filament magnetic field. We also found that the magnetic helicity transported along the filament footpoints showed an increase just before the change of the filament shape observed in Hα images. We argued that the photospheric regions where the filament was rooted might be the preferential ways where the magnetic helicity was injected along the filament itself and where the conditions to trigger the eruption were yielded.

  20. Low-energy optics of Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}RuO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Diana; Scheffler, Marc; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Schneider, Melanie; Gegenwart, Philipp [I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The pseudo-cubic perovskite ruthenates SrRuO{sub 3} and CaRuO{sub 3} have recently attracted interest due to their unconventional electronic properties. For both materials, non-Fermi liquid behavior has been reported in previous optical studies at infrared frequencies. In addition to these two pure compounds, the doping series Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}RuO{sub 3} offers a rich phase diagram: going from the itinerant ferromagnet SrRuO{sub 3} to the paramagnet CaRuO{sub 3}, indications for a quantum phase transition at x{approx}0.8 have been found. Using THz spectroscopy at frequencies between 5 cm{sup -1} and 45 cm{sup -1}, we have studied thin-film samples of the Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}RuO{sub 3} system, which were prepared by metalorganic aerosol deposition. From transmission and phase measurements we have determined the frequency-dependent conductivity for a set of temperatures between 5 K and 300 K, and we discuss it in the framework of the extended Drude model with frequency-dependent relaxation rate and effective mass. While for pure SrRuO{sub 3} as well as for doped systems approaching the quantum phase transition we find conventional metallic Drude behavior, CaRuO{sub 3} exhibits highly unusual optical properties which we compare to results of dc measurements on these thin films, which also revealed temperature ranges with non-Fermi liquid behavior.

  1. Star-forming Filament Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    New models of star-forming filamentary clouds are presented in order to quantify their properties and to predict their evolution. These 2D axisymmetric models describe filaments that have no core, one low-mass core, and one cluster-forming core. They are based on Plummer-like cylinders and spheroids that are bounded by a constant-density surface of finite extent. In contrast to 1D Plummer-like models, they have specific values of length and mass, they approximate observed column density maps, and their distributions of column density ( N -pdfs) are pole-free. Each model can estimate the star-forming potential of a core-filament system by identifying the zone of gas dense enough to form low-mass stars and by counting the number of enclosed thermal Jeans masses. This analysis suggests that the Musca central filament may be near the start of its star-forming life, with enough dense gas to make its first ∼3 protostars, while the Coronet filament is near the midpoint of its star formation, with enough dense gas to add ∼8 protostars to its ∼20 known stars. In contrast, L43 appears to be near the end of its star-forming life, since it lacks enough dense gas to add any new protostars to the two young stellar objectsalready known.

  2. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  3. Star-forming Filament Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    New models of star-forming filamentary clouds are presented in order to quantify their properties and to predict their evolution. These 2D axisymmetric models describe filaments that have no core, one low-mass core, and one cluster-forming core. They are based on Plummer-like cylinders and spheroids that are bounded by a constant-density surface of finite extent. In contrast to 1D Plummer-like models, they have specific values of length and mass, they approximate observed column density maps, and their distributions of column density ( N -pdfs) are pole-free. Each model can estimate the star-forming potential of a core-filament system by identifying the zone of gas dense enough to form low-mass stars and by counting the number of enclosed thermal Jeans masses. This analysis suggests that the Musca central filament may be near the start of its star-forming life, with enough dense gas to make its first ∼3 protostars, while the Coronet filament is near the midpoint of its star formation, with enough dense gas to add ∼8 protostars to its ∼20 known stars. In contrast, L43 appears to be near the end of its star-forming life, since it lacks enough dense gas to add any new protostars to the two young stellar objectsalready known.

  4. Towards filament free semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    2000-01-01

    We outline physical models and simulations for suppression of self-focusing and filamentation in large aperture semiconductor lasers. The principal technical objective is to generate multi-watt CW or quasi-CW outputs with nearly diffraction limited beams, suitable for long distance free space...... propagation structures in lasers and amplifiers which suppress lateral reflections....

  5. Ultraviolet treatment on high performance filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Huang

    2005-01-01

    Quartz, Kevlar, carbon, and glass filaments were irradiated by ultraviolet ray with various periods. Tensile strength of the treated fibres was tested and analyzed, and the outward appearance of the treated filaments was shown

  6. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  7. Positrusion Filament Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TUI proposes a novel process to produce 3d printer feedstock filament out of scrap ABS on the ISS. Currently the plastic filament materials that most 3d printers use...

  8. Analysis of a filament stretching rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown.......A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown....

  9. Thermodynamic assessment of the Al-Ru system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prins, SN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available describes the order disorder transformation with one Gibbs energy function. The RuAl6 phase was described as a stoichiometric phase and the remaining intermetallic phases (Ru4Al13, RuAl2 and Ru2Al3) were modelled with the sublattice model. The solubility...

  10. Striation and convection in penumbral filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, H.C.; Scharmer, G.B.; Löfdahl, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Observations with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope of the flows seen in penumbral filaments are presented. Time sequences of bright filaments show overturning motions strikingly similar to those seen along the walls of small isolated structures in the active regions. The filaments show outward

  11. Pseudogap behavior of RuP probed by photoemission spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, K.; Ootsuki, D.; Wakisaka, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Mizokawa, T.; Arita, M.; Anzai, H.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Hirai, D.; Takagi, H.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of RuP and related Ru pnictides using photoemission spectroscopy. Ru 3d core-level and valence-band spectra of RuP show that the Ru valence is +3 with t_{2g}^5 configuration. The photoemisson spectral weight near the Fermi level is moderately suppressed in the pseudogap phase of RuP, consistent with the pseudogap opening of 2\\Delta/k_BT_c ~ 3 (gap size \\Delta ~ 50 meV and transition temperature T_c ~ 330 K). The Ru 3d peak remains sharp in the pseudoga...

  12. Role of yttria-stabilized zirconia produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition on the properties of RuO2 on SiO2/Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Q.X.; Arendt, P.; Groves, J.R.; Fan, Y.; Roper, J.M.; Foltyn, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Highly conductive biaxially textured RuO 2 thin films were deposited on technically important SiO 2 /Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition, where yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) produced by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) was used as a template to enhance the biaxial texture of RuO 2 on SiO 2 /Si. The biaxially oriented RuO 2 had a room-temperature resistivity of 37 μΩ-cm and residual resistivity ratio above 2. We then deposited Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 thin films on RuO 2 /IBAD-YSZ/SiO 2 /Si. The Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 had a pure (111) orientation normal to the substrate surface and a dielectric constant above 360 at 100 kHz. copyright 1998 Materials Research Society

  13. Synergistic effects for the TiO2/RuO2/Pt photodissociation of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondel, G; Harriman, A; Williams, D

    1983-07-01

    Compressed discs of naked TiO2 or TiO2 coated with a thin film of a noble metal (e.g. Pt) do not photodissociate water upon illumination with UV light, but small amounts of H2 are generated if the TiO2 has been reduced in a stream of H2 at 600 C. Discs prepared from mixtures of TiO2/RuO2 facilitate the UV photodissociation of water into H2 and O2 although the yields are very low. When a thin (about 9 nm) film of Pt is applied to the TiO2/RuO2 discs, the yields of H2 and O2 observed upon irradiation with UV light are improved drastically. 25 references.

  14. Filament structure, organization, and dynamics in MreB sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, David; Narita, Akihiro; Maeda, Kayo; Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Maéda, Yuichiro; Robinson, Robert C

    2010-05-21

    In vivo fluorescence microscopy studies of bacterial cells have shown that the bacterial shape-determining protein and actin homolog, MreB, forms cable-like structures that spiral around the periphery of the cell. The molecular structure of these cables has yet to be established. Here we show by electron microscopy that Thermatoga maritime MreB forms complex, several mum long multilayered sheets consisting of diagonally interwoven filaments in the presence of either ATP or GTP. This architecture, in agreement with recent rheological measurements on MreB cables, may have superior mechanical properties and could be an important feature for maintaining bacterial cell shape. MreB polymers within the sheets appear to be single-stranded helical filaments rather than the linear protofilaments found in the MreB crystal structure. Sheet assembly occurs over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Polymerization kinetics are consistent with a cooperative assembly mechanism requiring only two steps: monomer activation followed by elongation. Steady-state TIRF microscopy studies of MreB suggest filament treadmilling while high pressure small angle x-ray scattering measurements indicate that the stability of MreB polymers is similar to that of F-actin filaments. In the presence of ADP or GDP, long, thin cables formed in which MreB was arranged in parallel as linear protofilaments. This suggests that the bacterial cell may exploit various nucleotides to generate different filament structures within cables for specific MreB-based functions.

  15. Model planetary nebulae: the effect of shadowed filaments on low ionization potential ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, A.

    1977-01-01

    Previous homogeneous model planetary nebulae calculations No. 4 have yielded emission strengths for low ionization potential No. 4 ions which are considerably lower than those observed. Several attempts were to correct this problem by the inclusion of optically thin condensations, the use of energy flux distributions from stellar model calculations instead of blackbody spectrum stars, and the inclusion of dust in the nebulae. The effect that shadowed filaments have on the ionization and thermal structure of model nebulae and the resultant line strengths are considered. These radial filaments are shielded from the direct stellar ionizing radiation by optically thick condensations in the nebula. Theoretical observational evidence exists for the presence of condensations and filaments. Since the only source of ionizing photons in the shadowed filaments is due to diffuse photons produced by recombination, ions of lower ionization potential are expected to exist there in greater numbers than those found in the rest of the nebula. This leads to increased line strengths from these ions and increases their values to match the observational values. It is shown that these line strengths in the filaments increase by over one to two orders of magnitude relative to values found in homogeneous models. This results in an increase of approximately one order of magnitude for these lines when contributions from both components of the nebula are considered. The parameters that determine the exact value of the increase are the radial location of the filaments in the nebula and the fraction of the nebular volume occupied by the filaments

  16. Temporal symmetry of individual filaments in different spatial symmetry filaments pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, L. F.; Xiao, H.; Fan, W. L.; Yin, Z. Q.; Zhao, H. T.

    2010-01-01

    The temporal behavior of individual filament in different spatial symmetry filaments patterns in dielectric barrier discharge is investigated by using an optical method. A series of return maps of the discharge moments of individual filaments is given. It is found that the temporal symmetry of individual filament changes with the change of the spatial symmetry of filaments pattern as the applied voltage increases. The role of wall charges for this phenomenon is analyzed.

  17. Gas sensing of ruthenium implanted tungsten oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfamichael, T., E-mail: t.tesfamichael@qut.edu.au [Institute for Future Environments, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ahsan, M. [William A. Cook Australia, 95 Brandl Street Eight Mile Plains, Brisbane, QLD 4113 (Australia); Notarianni, M. [Institute for Future Environments, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Groß, A.; Hagen, G.; Moos, R. [University of Bayreuth, Faculty of Engineering Science, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstr. 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Ionescu, M. [ANSTO, Institute for Environmental Research, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Bell, J. [Institute for Future Environments, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2014-05-02

    Different amounts of Ru were implanted into thermally evaporated WO{sub 3} thin films by ion implantation. The films were subsequently annealed at 600 °C for 2 h in air to remove defects generated during the ion implantation. The Ru concentrations of four samples have been quantified by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry as 0.8, 5.5, 9 and 11.5 at.%. The un-implanted WO{sub 3} films were highly porous but the porosity decreased significantly after ion implantation as observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The thickness of the films also decreased with increasing Ru-ion dose, which is mainly due to densification of the porous films during ion implantation. From Raman Spectroscopy two peaks at 408 and 451 cm{sup −1} (in addition to the typical vibrational peaks of the monoclinic WO{sub 3} phase) associated with Ru were observed. Their intensity increased with increasing Ru concentration. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed a metallic state of Ru with binding energy of Ru 3d{sub 5/2} at 280.1 eV. This peak position remained almost unchanged with increasing Ru concentration. The resistances of the Ru-implanted films were found to increase in the presence of NO{sub 2} and NO with higher sensor response to NO{sub 2}. The effect of Ru concentration on the sensing performance of the films was not explicitly observed due to reduced film thickness and porosity with increasing Ru concentration. However, the results indicate that the implantation of Ru into WO{sub 3} films with sufficient film porosity and film thickness can be beneficial for NO{sub 2} sensing at temperatures in the range of 250 °C to 350 °C. - Highlights: • Densification of WO{sub 3} thin films has occurred after Ru ion implantation. • Thickness and porosity of the films decrease with increasing Ru ion dose. • The amount of oxygen vacancies and defects increases with increasing Ru ion dose. • Ru has shown a crucial role in enhancing sensor response

  18. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, G.J.; Katz, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques at 2.45 GHZ to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company.

  19. Temperature distributions of a conductively heated filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa

    1999-07-01

    Temperature distributions of a heated filament were measured. A W-Re(5%) filament (0.25 mm in diameter, 24.7 mm in length) was conductively heated by currents between 5A and 7A with a DC power supply, and the surface of the filament was imaged with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera through a monochromatic filter. The spectral radiation intensity at the filament center region was almost uniform. Since the temperature distribution was also uniform and the energy loss by thermal conduction was negligible, temperature in this region was determined from the energy balance between applied power and radiation loss. Temperature distribution of the filament was determined based on the Planck's law of radiation from the spectral radiation intensity ratio of the filament surface using obtained temperature as a reference. It was found that temperature distribution of a filament was easily measured by this method. (author)

  20. Filament instability under constant loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastra, A. G.; Carusela, M. F.; D’Angelo, M. V.; Bruno, L.

    2018-04-01

    Buckling of semi-flexible filaments appears in different systems and scales. Some examples are: fibers in geophysical applications, microtubules in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and deformation of polymers freely suspended in a flow. In these examples, instabilities arise when a system’s parameter exceeds a critical value, being the Euler force the most known. However, the complete time evolution and wavelength of buckling processes are not fully understood. In this work we solve analytically the time evolution of a filament under a constant compressive force in the small amplitude approximation. This gives an insight into the variable force scenario in terms of normal modes. The evolution is highly sensitive to the initial configuration and to the magnitude of the compressive load. This model can be a suitable approach to many different real situations.

  1. Effect of B-site cation stoichiometry on electrical fatigue of RuO2//Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3//RuO2 capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shareef, H.N.; Tuttle, B.A.; Warren, W.L.; Headley, T.J.; Dimos, D.; Voigt, J.A.; Nasby, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    There have been numerous reports that Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 (PZT) thin-film capacitors with RuO 2 electrodes and compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary exhibit minimal decrease in switched polarization with electric-field cycling. We show that the fatigue performance of RuO 2 //PZT//RuO 2 capacitors strongly depends on PZT film composition. Specifically, we demonstrate that the rate of polarization fatigue increases with increasing Ti content for PZT thin films of tetragonal crystal symmetry deposited on RuO 2 electrodes. As the Ti content of the PZT films increased, the film gain morphology changed from columnar to granular and the volume percent of a fluorite-type second phase decreased. These microstructural trends and the possibility that the electrode material acts as a sink for oxygen vacancies are discussed to explain the fatigue dependence on B-site cation ratio for PZT films with RuO 2 electrodes. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Synthesis and characterization of RuO(2)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite nanotubes for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Duay, Jonathon; Lane, Timothy; Bok Lee, Sang

    2010-05-07

    We report the synthesis of composite RuO(2)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes with high specific capacitance and fast charging/discharging capability as well as their potential application as electrode materials for a high-energy and high-power supercapacitor. RuO(2)/PEDOT nanotubes were synthesized in a porous alumina membrane by a step-wise electrochemical deposition method, and their structures were characterized using electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry was used to qualitatively characterize the capacitive properties of the composite RuO(2)/PEDOT nanotubes. Their specific capacitance, energy density and power density were evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at various current densities. The pseudocapacitance behavior of these composite nanotubes originates from ion diffusion during the simultaneous and parallel redox processes of RuO(2) and PEDOT. We show that the energy density (specific capacitance) of PEDOT nanotubes can be remarkably enhanced by electrodepositing RuO(2) into their porous walls and onto their rough internal surfaces. The flexible PEDOT prevents the RuO(2) from breaking and detaching from the current collector while the rigid RuO(2) keeps the PEDOT nanotubes from collapsing and aggregating. The composite RuO(2)/PEDOT nanotube can reach a high power density of 20 kW kg(-1) while maintaining 80% energy density (28 Wh kg(-1)) of its maximum value. This high power capability is attributed to the fast charge/discharge of nanotubular structures: hollow nanotubes allow counter-ions to readily penetrate into the composite material and access their internal surfaces, while a thin wall provides a short diffusion distance to facilitate ion transport. The high energy density originates from the RuO(2), which can store high electrical/electrochemical energy intrinsically. The high specific capacitance (1217 F g(-1)) which is contributed by the RuO(2) in the composite RuO(2)/PEDOT nanotube is realized because of the high

  3. Lighting the universe with filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Theuns, Tom

    2007-09-14

    The first stars in the universe form when chemically pristine gas heats as it falls into dark-matter potential wells, cools radiatively because of the formation of molecular hydrogen, and becomes self-gravitating. Using supercomputer simulations, we demonstrated that the stars' properties depend critically on the currently unknown nature of the dark matter. If the dark-matter particles have intrinsic velocities that wipe out small-scale structure, then the first stars form in filaments with lengths on the order of the free-streaming scale, which can be approximately 10(20) meters (approximately 3 kiloparsecs, corresponding to a baryonic mass of approximately 10(7) solar masses) for realistic "warm dark matter" candidates. Fragmentation of the filaments forms stars with a range of masses, which may explain the observed peculiar element abundance pattern of extremely metal-poor stars, whereas coalescence of fragments and stars during the filament's ultimate collapse may seed the supermassive black holes that lurk in the centers of most massive galaxies.

  4. Structure and properties of PZT thin films on strontium ruthenate and calcium ruthenate electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.-J.; Tsai, D.-S.

    2004-01-01

    PZT thin films have been prepared via metalorganic CVD (MOCVD) on four substrates of conducting oxides of ruthenates, SrRuO 3 /Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0), SrRuO 3 /SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0), CaRuO 3 /Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0), CaRuO 3 /SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0). The conducting ruthenate layers were also grown using MOCVD. Ferroelectric properties of polarization fatigue and leakage current density are measured. The internal strain of PZT thin crystal which is mainly constrained by the bottom electrode seems to be the decisive factor in ferroelectric properties. The internal strain of PZT is represented by its tetragonality ratio. The PZT thin film in the capacitor Au/PZT/SrRuO 3 /Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si, with the largest tetragonality ratio 1.026, exhibits an optimum combination of large polarization, less fatigue, and low leakage current density. Both SrRuO 3 and CaRuO 3 are good diffusion barriers to prevent interdiffusion of cations between the ferroelectric and the electrode. The slightly higher intermixing at the CaRuO 3 -to-Pt/Ti interface is owing to the high annealing temperature needed in CaRuO 3 synthesis

  5. Properties and microstructure of the Ru-coated carbon nano tube counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeungjo; Yu, Byungkwan; Noh, Yunyoung; Suh, Young Joon; Kim, Moon J; Yoo, Kicheon; Ko, Min Jae; Song, Ohsung

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with the ruthenium (Ru) coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the counter electrode (CE). High purity MWCNT (0.01~0.06 g) was sprayed on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). Then 30 nm-thick Ru thin films were coated on a MWCNT template at low temperature by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using RuDi and O2 as precursor to prepare Ru-CNT CE and the 0.45 cm2 DSSC device of glass/FTO/TiO2/Dye (N719)/electrolyte (C6DMII, GSCN)/Ru-CNT CE was fabricated. The surface morphology of CEs and the energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC device were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and photocurrent-voltage (I-V) measurement. We confirmed that effective surface of the CE increased linearly as the amount of MWCNT spray increased and the crystallized Ru was deposited very conformally around the MWCNT nano template. Moreover, the efficiency of the DSSC increased up to 3.3% as the amount of MWCNT increased.

  6. The Intriguing Dual Lattices of the Myosin Filaments in Vertebrate Striated Muscles: Evolution and Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep K. Luther

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myosin filaments in vertebrate striated muscle have a long roughly cylindrical backbone with cross-bridge projections on the surfaces of both halves except for a short central bare zone. In the middle of this central region the filaments are cross-linked by the M-band which holds them in a well-defined hexagonal lattice in the muscle A-band. During muscular contraction the M-band-defined rotation of the myosin filaments around their long axes influences the interactions that the cross-bridges can make with the neighbouring actin filaments. We can visualise this filament rotation by electron microscopy of thin cross-sections in the bare-region immediately adjacent to the M-band where the filament profiles are distinctly triangular. In the muscles of teleost fishes, the thick filament triangular profiles have a single orientation giving what we call the simple lattice. In other vertebrates, for example all the tetrapods, the thick filaments have one of two orientations where the triangles point in opposite directions (they are rotated by 60° or 180° according to set rules. Such a distribution cannot be developed in an ordered fashion across a large 2D lattice, but there are small domains of superlattice such that the next-nearest neighbouring thick filaments often have the same orientation. We believe that this difference in the lattice forms can lead to different contractile behaviours. Here we provide a historical review, and when appropriate cite recent work related to the emergence of the simple and superlattice forms by examining the muscles of several species ranging back to primitive vertebrates and we discuss the functional differences that the two lattice forms may have.

  7. Morphology and kinematics of filaments in Serpens and Perseus molecular clouds: a high resolution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabal, Arnab; Mundy, Lee; Rizzo, Maxime; Storm, Shaye; Teuben, Peter; CLASSy Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Filamentary structures are prevalent in molecular clouds over a wide range of scales, and are often associated with active star formation. The study of filament morphology and kinematics provide insights into the physical processes leading to core formation in clustered environments. As part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy) follow-up, we observed five Herschel filaments in the Serpens Main, Serpens South and NGC1333 molecular clouds using the J=1-0 transitions of dense gas tracers H13CO+, HNC and H13CN. Of these, H13CO+ and H13CN are optically thin and serve as a test of the kinematics previously seen by the CLASSy in N2H+. The observations have an angular resolution of 7'' and a spectral resolution of 0.16 km/s. Although the large scale structure compares well with the CARMA N2H+ (J=1-0) maps and Herschel dust continuum maps, we resolve finer structure within the filaments identified by Herschel. Most regions are found to have multiple structures and filaments partially overlapping in the line-of-sight. In two regions overlapping structures have velocity differences as high as 1.4 km/s. We identify 8 individual filaments with typical widths of 0.03-0.06 pc in these tracers, which is significantly less than widths observed in the Herschel dust column density maps. At least 50% of the filaments have distinct velocity gradients perpendicular to their major axis with average values in the range 4-10 km s-1 pc-1. These findings are in support of the theoretical models of filament formation by 2-D inflow in the shock layer created by colliding turbulent cells. We also find evidence of velocity gradients along the length of two filaments; the gradients suggest that these filaments are inflowing towards the cloud core.

  8. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO2 films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a

  9. Carbon supported nanoparticles Pt Ru (Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts) prepared using electron beam irradiation; Preparacao de nanoparticulas de PtRu suportadas em carbono (eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C) utilizando feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F. da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Programa de Celulas a Combustivel], e-mail: espinace@ipen.br, e-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    Carbon-supported Pt Ru (electrocatalysts PtRu/C nanoparticles) were prepared submitting a water/ethylene glycol mixture containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The PtRu/C electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained PtRu/C electrocatalysts were more active for methanol electro-oxidation than the commercial PtRu/C ETEK electrocatalyst at ambient temperature. (author)

  10. Magnetic properties of Heusler alloy Mn2RuGe and Mn2RuGa ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ling; Liu, Bohua; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Heyan; Luo, Hongzhi; Liu, Enke; Wang, Wenhong; Wu, Guangheng

    2015-01-01

    Heusler alloys Mn 2 RuGe and Mn 2 RuGa have been prepared by melt-spinning method successfully. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal a ferrimagnetic ground state in the two alloys. The Curie temperatures are 303 K for Mn 2 RuGe and 272 K for Mn 2 RuGa. The calculated total spin moments of Mn 2 RuGe and Mn 2 RuGa are integral values of 2.00 μ B and 1.03 μ B , respectively. And the theoretical spin polarization ratio is also quite high. However, due to the atomic disorder in the ribbons, the saturation moments of them measured at 5 K are smaller than the calculated values, especially that of Mn 2 RuGa. This coincides with the disappearance of the superlattice reflection (111) and (200) peaks in the XRD pattern of Mn 2 RuGa. Annealing Mn 2 RuGa ribbon at 773 K can enhance the atomic ordering. Both saturation magnetic moment and Curie temperature increase obviously after the heat treatment. - Highlights: • Mn 2 RuGe and Mn 2 RuGa have been prepared by melt-spinning successfully. • Ferrimagnetic ground state has been confirmed in Mn 2 RuGe and Mn 2 RuGa. • High spin polarization has been predicted in Mn 2 RuGe. • Melt-spinning can be a possible way to adjust the atomic order of Heusler alloys

  11. Dynamics of fluid lines, sheets, filaments and membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutris, N.

    1988-01-01

    We establish the dynamic equations of two types of fluid structures: 1) lines-filaments and 2) sheets-membranes. In the first part, we consider one-dimensional (line) and two-dimensional (sheet) fluid structures. The second part concerns the associated three- dimensional structures: filaments and membranes. In the third part, we establish the equations for thickened lines and thickened sheets. For that purpose, we introduce a thickness in the models of the first part. The fourth part concerns the thinning of the filament and the membrane. Then, by an asymptotic process, we deduce the corresponding equations from the equations of the second part in order to show the purely formal equivalence of the equations of the third and fourth parts. To obtain the equations, we make use of theorems whose proofs can be found in the appendices. The equations can be applied to many areas of interest: instabilities of liquid jets and liquid films, modelisation of interfaces between two different fluids as sheets or membranes, modelisation with the averaged equations over a cross section of single phase flows and two-phase flows in channels with a nonrectilinear axis such as bends or pump casings [fr

  12. Domain structure and magnetic properties of epitaxial SrRuO sub 3 films grown on SrTiO sub 3 (100) substrates by ion beam sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, S H

    2000-01-01

    The domain structure of epitaxial SrRuO sub 3 thin films grown on SrTiO sub 3 (100) substrates by using ion beam sputtering has been investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SrRuO sub 3 films grown in the present study revealed a unique cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship, i.e., (100) sub S sub R sub O ll (100) sub S sub T sub O , [010] sub S sub R sub O ll [101] sub S sub T sub O , prevailing with a cubic single-domain structure. The cubic SrRuO sub 3 thin films that were inherently with free from RuO sub 6 octahedron tilting exhibited higher resistivity with suppressed magnetic properties. The Curie temperature of the thin films was suppressed by 60 K from 160 K for the bulk specimen, and the saturation magnetic moment was reduced by a significant amount. The tetragonal distortion of the SrRuO sub 3 thin films due to coherent growth with the substrate seemed to result in a strong magnetic anisotropy.

  13. Preparation of Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts using gamma radiation for application as anode in direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinace, Estevam V.; Silva, Dionisio F. da; Cruz, Victor A. da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Machado, Luci D.B.; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    PtRu nanoparticles supported on carbon (PtRu/C electrocatalysts) were prepared submitting a water/2-propanol mixture containing the metal ions and the carbon support to gamma radiation. The water/2-propanol (v/v) and the total dose (kGy) were studied. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The methanol electro-oxidation was studied by cyclic voltammetry using the thin porous coating. In the studied conditions, the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared electrocatalysts depend on the water/2-propanol ratio used in the reaction medium. (author)

  14. Metabolism and dosimetry of 106Ru inhaled as 106RuO4 by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides metabolism and dosimetry data for inhaled ruthenium developed from studies in Beagle dogs that were exposed by inhalation to 106 RuO 4 . Twenty-six dogs were exposed nose-only to 106 RuO 4 and sacrificed at times from 2 hr to 512 days after inhalation exposure. Ninety-nine percent of the initial body burden was retained with an effective half-time of 1.2 days, 0.7% with a half-time of 14 days and 0.3% with a half-time of 170 days. Initial deposition was primarily in the nasopharyngeal and tracheobronchial regions. Results for deposition and retention of 106 Ru inhaled as 106 RuO 4 in dogs were similar to what has been observed for humans. The data for dogs were used to develop a model to predict potential radiation exposure patterns for humans after inhalation exposure to 106 RuO 4 . The model indicates that for humans the nasopharyngeal region, lower large intestine, and tracheobronchial epithelium would receive approx. 36, 13 and 10 times, respectively, the dose to 500 days after inhalation exposure to 106 RuO 4 that the lung would receive. The nasopharyngeal region should be considered the critical region for inhalation exposures to 106 RuO 4 . (author)

  15. The Mysterious Case of the Missing Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections, or CMEs, are large solar eruptions that can have major debilitating impacts on society. Typically, these eruptions have the three following key structures: the leading edge, the empty chamber known as the cavity, and the filament which often is the brightest part of the CME. When we can see all three structures clearly with a coronagraph, it is called a classic three-part CME, also referred to as a 'lightbulb' CME. According to current knowledge, when a CME erupts, a filament should also erupt or lift off the Sun in order to have the bright center within the CME. However, we do not always see a filament erupt at the surface, and yet we still get a 'filament' within the coronagraph CME. To better understand what might be occurring with these missing filaments, we looked at three-part CMEs using the SOHO LASCO CME Catalog and filaments from the SDO AIA Filament Catalog in order to create a list of 50 CMEs without a listed filament erupting at the surface. For those CMEs without filaments in the list we closely inspected the AIA images for evidence of filament eruption. To ensure that there were no filaments past the limb of the Sun, we used data from the STEREO-A and STEREO-B spacecraft's to look at the Sun from other angles. We have found numerous events where no filament erupts from the surface, but we still see the classic three-part CME. We believe this may be due to an optical illusion occurring from the twisting of the flux rope.

  16. Drop dynamics on a stretched viscoelastic filament: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Jorge; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2016-11-01

    Capillary pressure can destabilize a thin liquid filament during breakup into a succession of drops. Besides, the addition of a linear, high molecular weight, flexible and soluble polymer is enough to modify the morphology of this instability. In the time period preceding the breakup, the development of beads-on-a-string structures where drops are connected by thin threads is monitored. The drops dynamics involve drop formation, drop migration and drop coalescence. Experiments using a high-speed camera on stretched bridges of viscoelastic polymeric solutions were conducted for a range of viscosities and polymer concentrations. The rheological properties of the solutions are also quantified through conventional shear rheology and normal stress difference. The overall goal of this experimental investigation is to gain more insight into the formation and time evolution of the drops. The project BIOENGINE is co-financed by the European Union with the European regional development fund and by the Normandie Regional Council.

  17. THE FREE-FALL TIME OF FINITE SHEETS AND FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toala, Jesus A. [Currently at Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, E-1808, Granada (Spain); Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Gomez, Gilberto C. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2012-01-10

    Molecular clouds often exhibit filamentary or sheet-like shapes. We compute the free-fall time ({tau}{sub ff}) for finite, uniform, self-gravitating circular sheets and filamentary clouds of small but finite thickness, so that their volume density {rho} can still be defined. We find that, for thin sheets, the free-fall time is larger than that of a uniform sphere with the same volume density by a factor proportional to {radical}A, where the aspect ratio A is given by A = R/h, R being the sheet's radius and h is its thickness. For filamentary clouds, the aspect ratio is defined as A=L/R, where L is the filament's half-length and R is its (small) radius, and the modification factor is more complicated, although in the limit of large A it again reduces to nearly {radical}A. We propose that our result for filamentary shapes naturally explains the ubiquitous configuration of clumps fed by filaments observed in the densest structures of molecular clouds. Also, the longer free-fall times for non-spherical geometries in general may contribute toward partially alleviating the 'star formation conundrum', namely, the star formation rate in the Galaxy appears to be proceeding in a timescale much larger than the total molecular mass in the Galaxy divided by its typical free-fall time. If molecular clouds are in general formed by thin sheets and long filaments, then their relevant free-fall time may have been systematically underestimated, possibly by factors of up to one order of magnitude.

  18. THE FREE-FALL TIME OF FINITE SHEETS AND FILAMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toalá, Jesús A.; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Gómez, Gilberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular clouds often exhibit filamentary or sheet-like shapes. We compute the free-fall time (τ ff ) for finite, uniform, self-gravitating circular sheets and filamentary clouds of small but finite thickness, so that their volume density ρ can still be defined. We find that, for thin sheets, the free-fall time is larger than that of a uniform sphere with the same volume density by a factor proportional to √A, where the aspect ratio A is given by A = R/h, R being the sheet's radius and h is its thickness. For filamentary clouds, the aspect ratio is defined as A=L/R, where L is the filament's half-length and R is its (small) radius, and the modification factor is more complicated, although in the limit of large A it again reduces to nearly √A. We propose that our result for filamentary shapes naturally explains the ubiquitous configuration of clumps fed by filaments observed in the densest structures of molecular clouds. Also, the longer free-fall times for non-spherical geometries in general may contribute toward partially alleviating the 'star formation conundrum', namely, the star formation rate in the Galaxy appears to be proceeding in a timescale much larger than the total molecular mass in the Galaxy divided by its typical free-fall time. If molecular clouds are in general formed by thin sheets and long filaments, then their relevant free-fall time may have been systematically underestimated, possibly by factors of up to one order of magnitude.

  19. 3D Evolution of a Filament Disappearance Event Observed by STEREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, S.; Schmieder, B.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Chandra, R.; Artzner, G.

    2009-10-01

    A filament disappearance event was observed on 22 May 2008 during our recent campaign JOP 178. The filament, situated in the Southern Hemisphere, showed sinistral chirality consistent with the hemispheric rule. The event was well observed by several observatories, in particular by THEMIS. One day, before the disappearance, Hα observations showed up- and down-flows in adjacent locations along the filament, which suggest plasma motions along twisted flux rope. THEMIS and GONG observations show shearing photospheric motions leading to magnetic flux canceling around barbs. STEREO A, B spacecraft with separation angle 52.4°, showed quite different views of this untwisting flux rope in He ii 304 Å images. Here, we reconstruct the three-dimensional geometry of the filament during its eruption phase using STEREO EUV He ii 304 Å images and find that the filament was highly inclined to the solar normal. The He ii 304 Å movies show individual threads, which oscillate and rise to an altitude of about 120 Mm with apparent velocities of about 100 km s-1 during the rapid evolution phase. Finally, as the flux rope expands into the corona, the filament disappears by becoming optically thin to undetectable levels. No CME was detected by STEREO, only a faint CME was recorded by LASCO at the beginning of the disappearance phase at 02:00 UT, which could be due to partial filament eruption. Further, STEREO Fe xii 195 Å images showed bright loops beneath the filament prior to the disappearance phase, suggesting magnetic reconnection below the flux rope.

  20. Myosin isoform switching during assembly of the Drosophila flight muscle thick filament lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Zacharias; Sparrow, John C

    2013-01-01

    During muscle development myosin molecules form symmetrical thick filaments, which integrate with the thin filaments to produce the regular sarcomeric lattice. In Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFMs) the details of this process can be studied using genetic approaches. The weeP26 transgenic line has a GFP-encoding exon inserted into the single Drosophila muscle myosin heavy chain gene, Mhc. The weeP26 IFM sarcomeres have a unique MHC-GFP-labelling pattern restricted to the sarcomere core, explained by non-translation of the GFP exon following alternative splicing. Characterisation of wild-type IFM MHC mRNA confirmed the presence of an alternately spliced isoform, expressed earlier than the major IFM-specific isoform. The two wild-type IFM-specific MHC isoforms differ by the presence of a C-terminal 'tailpiece' in the minor isoform. The sequential expression and assembly of these two MHCs into developing thick filaments suggest a role for the tailpiece in initiating A-band formation. The restriction of the MHC-GFP sarcomeric pattern in weeP26 is lifted when the IFM lack the IFM-specific myosin binding protein flightin, suggesting that it limits myosin dissociation from thick filaments. Studies of flightin binding to developing thick filaments reveal a progressive binding at the growing thick filament tips and in a retrograde direction to earlier assembled, proximal filament regions. We propose that this flightin binding restricts myosin molecule incorporation/dissociation during thick filament assembly and explains the location of the early MHC isoform pattern in the IFM A-band.

  1. Enhanced photocurrent in RuL2(NCS)2/di-(3-aminopropyl)-viologen/SnO2/ITO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wonjoo; Kwak, Chang Gon; Mane, R.S.; Min, Sun Ki; Cai, Gangri; Ganesh, T.; Koo, Gumae; Chang, Jinho; Cho, Byung Won; Kim, Sei-Ki; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    A Ru(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) 2 (NCS) 2 [RuL 2 (NCS) 2 ]/di-(3-aminopropyl)-viologen (DAPV)/tin oxide (SnO 2 ) system was prepared and applied to extensive photocurrent generation with its maximum surface area. The SnO 2 thin films on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) were prepared using the chemical bath deposition method. Then, RuL 2 (NCS) 2 /DAPV on SnO 2 /ITO was easily prepared using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The photocurrent measurement of the system showed an excellent photocurrent of 20 nA cm -2 under the air mass 1.5 conditions (100 mW cm -2 ), which was increased by a factor of four compared to ones without SnO 2 layers

  2. Chalcogenide oxygen reduction reaction catalysis: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with Ru, Ru/Se and Ru/S samples emersed from aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewera, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Inukai, J. [Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, 7-32 Miyamae-cho, Kofu 400-0006 (Japan); Zhou, W.P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Cao, D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Duong, H.T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Alonso-Vante, N. [Laboratory of Electrocatalysis, UMR-CNRS 6503, University of Poitiers, F-86022 Poitiers (France)]. E-mail: Nicolas.Alonso.Vante@univ-poitiers.fr; Wieckowski, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: andrzej@scs.uiuc.edu

    2007-05-10

    Oxygen reduction Ru/Se and Ru/S fuel cell surface chalcogenide catalysts were prepared via chemical reaction of reduced Ru nanoparticles with selenium and sulfur in xylenes [D. Cao, A. Wieckowski, J. Inukai, N. Alonso-Vante, J. Electrochem. Soc. 153 (2006) A869]. The chalcogenide samples - as well as the starting chalcogens-free Ru nanoparticle material - were immobilized on a gold disk for X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) characterization. While we found oxygen in most of the samples, predominantly from Ru oxides, we conclude that the oxygen on Ru/S may be located in subsurface sites: the subsurface oxygen. We also found that the transformation of the oxidized Ru black to metallic Ru required intensive electrochemical treatment, including hydrogen evolution. In contrast, five cyclic voltammetric scans in the potential range from 0.00 and 0.75 V versus RHE were sufficient to remove the oxygen forms from Ru/Se and, to a large extent, from Ru/S. We therefore conclude that Ru metal is protected against oxidation to Ru oxides by the chalcogens additives. The voltammetric treatment in the 0.00 and 0.75 V range also removed the SeO{sub 2} or SO {sub x} forms leaving anionic/elemental Se or S on the surface. Upon larger amplitude voltammetric cycling, from 0.00 to 1.20 V versus RHE, both Se and S were dissolved and the dissolution process was coincidental with the oxygen growth in/on the Ru samples.

  3. Chalcogenide oxygen reduction reaction catalysis: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with Ru, Ru/Se and Ru/S samples emersed from aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewera, A.; Inukai, J.; Zhou, W.P.; Cao, D.; Duong, H.T.; Alonso-Vante, N.; Wieckowski, A.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen reduction Ru/Se and Ru/S fuel cell surface chalcogenide catalysts were prepared via chemical reaction of reduced Ru nanoparticles with selenium and sulfur in xylenes [D. Cao, A. Wieckowski, J. Inukai, N. Alonso-Vante, J. Electrochem. Soc. 153 (2006) A869]. The chalcogenide samples - as well as the starting chalcogens-free Ru nanoparticle material - were immobilized on a gold disk for X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) characterization. While we found oxygen in most of the samples, predominantly from Ru oxides, we conclude that the oxygen on Ru/S may be located in subsurface sites: the subsurface oxygen. We also found that the transformation of the oxidized Ru black to metallic Ru required intensive electrochemical treatment, including hydrogen evolution. In contrast, five cyclic voltammetric scans in the potential range from 0.00 and 0.75 V versus RHE were sufficient to remove the oxygen forms from Ru/Se and, to a large extent, from Ru/S. We therefore conclude that Ru metal is protected against oxidation to Ru oxides by the chalcogens additives. The voltammetric treatment in the 0.00 and 0.75 V range also removed the SeO 2 or SO x forms leaving anionic/elemental Se or S on the surface. Upon larger amplitude voltammetric cycling, from 0.00 to 1.20 V versus RHE, both Se and S were dissolved and the dissolution process was coincidental with the oxygen growth in/on the Ru samples

  4. Fine filament NbTi superconductive composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.; Grabinsky, G.; Marancik, W.; Pattanayak, D.

    1986-01-01

    The large superconducting magnet for the high energy physics accelerator requires fine filament composite to minimize the field error due to the persistent current in the filaments. New concepts toward the fine filament composite and its cable fabrication are discussed. Two-stage cables of fine wire with intermediate number of filaments were introduced. The first stage was six wires cables around one and in the second stage this was used to produce a Rutherford cable. The advantage of this process is in the ease of billet fabrication since the number of filaments in a single wire is within the range of easy billet fabrication. The disadvantage is in the cable fabrication. One of the major concerns in the fabrication of fine NbTi filaments composite in a copper matrix is the intermetallic compound formation during the extrusion and heat treatment steps. The hard intermetallic particles degrade the uniformity of the filaments and reduce the critical current density. The process of using Nb barrier between the filaments and copper matrix in order to prevent this CuTi intermetallic particle formation is described

  5. Prediction of Solar Eruptions Using Filament Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ashna; Schanche, Nicole; Reeves, Katharine K.; Kempton, Dustin; Angryk, Rafal

    2018-05-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of erupting and non-erupting solar filaments to determine the properties related to the eruption potential. In order to perform this study, we correlate filament eruptions documented in the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) with HEK filaments that have been grouped together using a spatiotemporal tracking algorithm. The HEK provides metadata about each filament instance, including values for length, area, tilt, and chirality. We add additional metadata properties such as the distance from the nearest active region and the magnetic field decay index. We compare trends in the metadata from erupting and non-erupting filament tracks to discover which properties present signs of an eruption. We find that a change in filament length over time is the most important factor in discriminating between erupting and non-erupting filament tracks, with erupting tracks being more likely to have decreasing length. We attempt to find an ensemble of predictive filament metadata using a Random Forest Classifier approach, but find the probability of correctly predicting an eruption with the current metadata is only slightly better than chance.

  6. Scanning For Hotspots In Lamp Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Charles E.; Van Sant, Tim; Leidecker, Henning

    1993-01-01

    Scanning photometer designed for use in investigation of failures of incandescent lamp filaments. Maps brightness as function of position along each filament to identify bright (hot) spots, occurring at notches and signifying incipient breaks or rewelds. Also used to measure nonuniformity in outputs of such linear devices as light-emitting diodes, and to measure diffraction patterns of lenses.

  7. Incorporation of Pt, Ru and Pt-Ru nanoparticles into ordered mesoporous carbons for efficient oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojmenović, Marija; Momčilović, Milan; Gavrilov, Nemanja; Pašti, Igor A.; Mentus, Slavko; Jokić, Bojan; Babić, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon, volume-doped up to 3 w.% with Pt, Ru and Pt-Ru nanoparticles was synthesized by evaporation-induced self-assembly method, under acidic conditions. The content of incorporated metal was determined by EDX analysis. The X-ray diffractometry confirmed the existence of highly dispersed metallic phases in doped samples. Specific surface area was determined by N 2 -physisorption measurements to range between 452 and 545 m 2 g −1 . Raman spectroscopy of investigated materials indicated highly disordered carbon structure with crystallite sizes around 1.4 nm. In a form of thin-layer electrode on glassy carbon support, in 0.1 M KOH solution, the prepared materials displayed high activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media, with onset potentials more positive than −0.10 V vs. SCE. The kinetics of O 2 reduction was found to be affected by both the specific surface area and the concentration of metal dopants. The ethanol tolerance of (Pt, Ru)-doped OMCs was found to be higher than that of common Pt/C ORR catalysts. Presented study provides a new route for the synthesis of active and selective ORR catalysts in alkaline media, being competitive with, or superior to, the existing ones in terms of performance and price

  8. Helical beating of an actuated elastic filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coq, Nais; Roure, Olivia du; Fermigier, Marc; Bartolo, Denis

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the propulsive force resulting from the rotation of a flexible filament in the low Reynolds number regime. Using a simple linear model, we establish the nonlinear torque-force relations for two torque-driven actuation modes. When the rotation of the filament is induced by two perpendicular transverse oscillating torques, the propulsive force increases monotonically with the torque amplitude. Conversely, when a constant axial torque is applied, the torque-force characteristics displays an unstable branch, related to a discontinuous transition in the shape of the filament. We characterize this shape transition using two geometrical parameters, quantifying the wrapping around and the collapse on the axis of the filament. The proposed theoretical description correctly accounts for our experimental observations and reveals a strong dependence of the filament dynamics on the anchoring conditions.

  9. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  10. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bret, A.

    2015-01-01

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed

  11. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret, A.

    2015-07-01

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  12. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  13. Actin filaments as tension sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Vitold E; Orlova, Albina; Egelman, Edward H

    2012-02-07

    The field of mechanobiology has witnessed an explosive growth over the past several years as interest has greatly increased in understanding how mechanical forces are transduced by cells and how cells migrate, adhere and generate traction. Actin, a highly abundant and anomalously conserved protein, plays a large role in forming the dynamic cytoskeleton that is so essential for cell form, motility and mechanosensitivity. While the actin filament (F-actin) has been viewed as dynamic in terms of polymerization and depolymerization, new results suggest that F-actin itself may function as a highly dynamic tension sensor. This property may help explain the unusual conservation of actin's sequence, as well as shed further light on actin's essential role in structures from sarcomeres to stress fibers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of PtRu/C anode electrocatalysts using gamma radiation for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Dionisio Fortunato da

    2006-01-01

    Pt Ru/C (carbon-supported Pt Ru nanoparticles) anode electrocatalysts were prepared using radiolytic process (gamma radiation) and tested for methanol electro-oxidation. In this process, water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol solutions containing the metallic ions and the carbon support were submitted to gamma radiation under stirring. The water/alcohol ratio (v/v) and the total dose (kGy) were studied. A nominal Pt Ru atomic ratio of 50:50 were used in all experiments. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of methanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry using the thin porous coating technique. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed crystallite size in the range of 3-5 nm and Pt Ru atomic ratio of 50:50. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol showed crystallite size (2-3 nm) smaller than the ones obtained in water/2-propanol, however, the Pt Ru atomic ratios obtained were approximately 80:20, showing that only part of ruthenium ions were reduced. For methanol oxidation the electrocatalytic activity depends on the water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol ratio used in the reaction medium. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed inferior performance to the ones prepared in water/ethylene glycol, which showed similar or superior performances (amperes per gram of platinum) to the commercial electrocatalyst from E-TEK. (author)

  15. Preparation and characterization of PtRu/C, PtBi/C, PtRuBi/C electrocatalysts for direct electro-oxidation of ethanol in PEM fuels cells using the method of reduction by sodium borohydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandalise, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Pt/C, PtBi/C, PtRu/C and PtRuBi/C electrocatalysts were prepared by a borohydride reduction methodology and tested for ethanol oxidation. This methodology consists in mix a solution with sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride to a mixture containing water/isopropyl alcohol, metallic precursors and the Vulcan XC 72 carbon support. It was studied the addition method of borohydride (drop by drop addition or rapid addition). The obtained electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The ethanol electro-oxidation was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry using the thin porous coating technique. The electrocatalysts were tested in real conditions of operation by unit cell tests. The stability of PtRuBi/C electrocatalysts was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry using the ultra-thin porous coating technique and ring-disk electrode. The PtRuBi/C electro catalyst apparently presented a good performance for ethanol electro-oxidation but experimental evidences showed accentuated bismuth dissolution. (author)

  16. Filament Activation in Response to Magnetic Flux Emergence and Cancellation in Filament Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of two filaments that showed a quite different activation in response to the flux emergence within the filament channels. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) were made to analyze the two filaments on 2013 August 17 - 20 (SOL2013-08-17) and September 29 (SOL2013-09-29). The first event showed that the main body of the filament was separated into two parts when an active region (AR) emerged with a maximum magnetic flux of about 6.4×1021 Mx underlying the filament. The close neighborhood and common direction of the bright threads in the filament and the open AR fan loops suggest a similar magnetic connectivity of these two flux systems. The equilibrium of the filament was not destroyed three days after the start of the emergence of the AR. To our knowledge, similar observations have never been reported before. In the second event, the emerging flux occurred nearby a barb of the filament with a maximum magnetic flux of 4.2×1020 Mx, about one order of magnitude lower than that of the first event. Two patches of parasitic polarity in the vicinity of the barb merged, then cancelled with nearby network fields. About 20 hours after the onset of the emergence, the filament erupted. Our findings imply that the location of emerging flux within the filament channel is probably crucial to filament evolution. If the flux emergence appears nearby the barbs, it is highly likely that the emerging flux and the filament magnetic fields will cancel, which may lead to the eruption of the filament. The comparison of the two events shows that the emergence of a small AR may still not be enough to disrupt the stability of a filament system, and the actual eruption only occurs after the flux cancellation sets in.

  17. Synthesis of Ru doped hematite nanorods for application as photo-anode material in a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndlangamandla, C. L. [University of Zululand, Department of Physics and Engineering (South Africa); Bharuth-Ram, K., E-mail: kbr@tlabs.ac.za [Durban University of Technology, Physics Department (South Africa); Ngom, B. D.; Maaza, M. [iThemba LABS, Materials Research Department (South Africa)

    2017-11-15

    Nanostructured thin films of hematite doped with different concentrations of ruthenium were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrates using the aqueous chemical growth method. On further heat treatment at 500 {sup ∘}C the structures morphed into hematite nanorods (NRs). The Ru concentration in the NRs was controlled by varying the Ru concentration in the RuCl {sub 3}⋅H{sub 2}O precursors. Scanning Electron Microscopy confirmed the formation of the hematite nanorods, while. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) data provided clear evidence of the crystallinity of the nanorods and incorporation of ruthenium in the hematite nanorod structure. The band gap of the Ru-doped hematite NRs, estimated from UV-Vis optical absorption intensity vs photon energy curves, were found to be directly related to the Ru concentration. For concentrations in the range 6–30 mg the band gaps are in the range well suited to drive the water splitting process in a photoelectrochemical cell without application of an external bias.

  18. Photoelectrochemical water splitting for hydrogen production using combination of CIGS2 solar cell and RuO2 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Jahagirdar, Anant H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the development of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell for water splitting setup using multiple band gap combination of CuIn 1-x Ga x S 2 (CIGS2) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cell and ruthenium oxide (RuO 2 ) photocatalyst. FSEC PV Materials Lab has developed a PEC setup consisting of two illuminated CIGS2 cells, a ruthenium oxide (RuO 2 ) anode deposited on titanium sheet for oxygen evolution and a platinum foil cathode for hydrogen evolution. With this combination, a PEC efficiency of 4.29% has been achieved. This paper also presents the research aimed at further improvements in the PEC efficiency by employing highly efficient photoanode that can be illuminated by photons not absorbed at the PV cell and by increasing the concentration of electrolyte solution (pH 10). The former will be achieved by employing a p-type transparent and conducting layer at the back of PV cell to transmit the unabsorbed photons, and the latter will reduce the resistance offered by the electrolyte. Concentration of the electrolyte was increased by five times, and the I-V characteristics of both RuO 2 and RuS 2 were measured with and without illumination. The results indicate that PEC efficiencies of over 9% can be achieved using RuS 2 with illumination and five times concentrated pH 10 solution instead of pH 10 with normal concentration

  19. Photoelectrochemical water splitting for hydrogen production using combination of CIGS2 solar cell and RuO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G. [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)]. E-mail: dhere@fsec.ucf.edu; Jahagirdar, Anant H. [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents the development of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell for water splitting setup using multiple band gap combination of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga {sub x}S{sub 2} (CIGS2) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cell and ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) photocatalyst. FSEC PV Materials Lab has developed a PEC setup consisting of two illuminated CIGS2 cells, a ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) anode deposited on titanium sheet for oxygen evolution and a platinum foil cathode for hydrogen evolution. With this combination, a PEC efficiency of 4.29% has been achieved. This paper also presents the research aimed at further improvements in the PEC efficiency by employing highly efficient photoanode that can be illuminated by photons not absorbed at the PV cell and by increasing the concentration of electrolyte solution (pH 10). The former will be achieved by employing a p-type transparent and conducting layer at the back of PV cell to transmit the unabsorbed photons, and the latter will reduce the resistance offered by the electrolyte. Concentration of the electrolyte was increased by five times, and the I-V characteristics of both RuO{sub 2} and RuS{sub 2} were measured with and without illumination. The results indicate that PEC efficiencies of over 9% can be achieved using RuS{sub 2} with illumination and five times concentrated pH 10 solution instead of pH 10 with normal concentration.

  20. Ru-assisted synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites with high activity for ethanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Bin, Duan; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Caiqin; Ren, Fangfang; Du, Yukou

    2015-07-01

    Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium, which are mainly ascribed to the synergetic effect between Pd and Ru. This indicates that the Pd7/Ru1 catalysts should have great potential applications in direct ethanol fuel cells.Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly

  1. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    The quest for conclusive evidence of microfossils in meteorites has been elusive. Abiotic microstructures, mineral grains, and even coating artifacts may mimic unicellular bacteria, archaea and nanobacteria with simple spherical or rod morphologies (i.e., cocci, diplococci, bacilli, etc.). This is not the case for the larger and more complex microorganisms, colonies and microbial consortia and ecosystems. Microfossils of algae, cyanobacteria, and cyanobacterial and microbial mats have been recognized and described from many of the most ancient rocks on Earth. The filamentous cyanobacteria and sulphur-bacteria have very distinctive size ranges, complex and recognizable morphologies and visibly differentiated cellular microstructures. The taphonomic modes of fossilization and the life habits and processes of these microorganisms often result in distinctive chemical biosignatures associated with carbonization, silicification, calcification, phosphatization and metal-binding properties of their cell-walls, trichomes, sheaths and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Valid biogenicity is provided by the combination of a suite of known biogenic elements (that differ from the meteorite matrix) found in direct association with recognizable and distinct biological features and microstructures (e.g., uniseriate or multiseriate filaments, trichomes, sheaths and cells of proper size/size range); specialized cells (e.g., basal or apical cells, hormogonia, akinetes, and heterocysts); and evidence of growth characteristics (e.g., spiral filaments, robust or thin sheaths, laminated sheaths, true or false branching of trichomes, tapered or uniform filaments) and evidence of locomotion (e.g. emergent cells and trichomes, coiling hormogonia, and hollow or flattened and twisted sheaths). Since 1997 we have conducted Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM and FESEM) studies of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial

  2. Carbon monoxide oxidation on bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLF-JÜRGEN BEHM

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical deposition of Ru on Au(111 was performed in 0.5 M H2SO4+10-4 M RuCl3 . The obtained bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces were character-ised by cyclic voltammetry and in situ STM in 0.5 MH2SO4. The Ru deposit consists of nanoscale islands, which merge with increasing coverage. Two different types of bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces with respect to the distribution of Ru islands over the Au(111 substrate surface were obtained. When the deposition was performed at potentials more positive than the range of Au(111 reconstruction, homogeneous nucleation occured resulting in a random distribution of Ru islands. When the deposition was performed on reconstructed Au(111 at low overpotentials, selective nucleation occured resulting in the replication of the Au(111 reconstruction. Only at higher deposition overpotentials, can multilayer deposits be formed, which exhibit a very rough surface morphology. The electrocatalytic activity of such structurally well defined Ru/Au(111 bimetallic surfaces was studied towards CO oxidation with the Ru coverage ranging from submonolayer to several monolayer. COstripping commences at about 0.2 Vand occurs over a broad potential range. The observed influence of the Ru structure on the CO stripping voltammetry is explained by local variations in the COadsorption energy, caused by differences in the local Ru structure and by effects induced by the Au(111 substrate.

  3. Changes in carbon footprint when integrating production of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancoli, Pedro; Ferreira, Jorge A; Bolton, Kim; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-02-01

    Integrating the cultivation of edible filamentous fungi in the thin stillage from ethanol production is presently being considered. This integration can increase the ethanol yield while simultaneously producing a new value-added protein-rich biomass that can be used for animal feed. This study uses life cycle assessment to determine the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in ethanol production. The result shows that the integration performs better than the current scenario when the fungal biomass is used as cattle feed for system expansion and when energy allocation is used. It performs worse if the biomass is used as fish feed. Hence, integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants combined with proper use of the fungi can lead to a reduction of GHG emissions which, considering the number of existing ethanol plants, can have a significant global impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The provenance investigation on ancient chinese Ru porcelains by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Songhua

    1997-01-01

    The 28 samples of glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelains are analyzed by neutron activation. The 36 element contents in each sample are determined. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) data are analyzed by fuzzy cluster. The trend cluster diagram is obtained. The result shows that the ancient Chinese Ru porcelains were most probably from the same raw material source though they were from different time, fired in different kilns and in different colors. The near provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is preliminarily analyzed. The two modern Ru porcelains approximate to ancient Ru porcelains, one becomes estranged from ancient Ru porcelains. Jingdezhen porcelain is unconcerned with Ru porcelains

  5. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Liu, J. H. [Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang 050035 (China); Xu, C. L. [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  6. Automatic Detect and Trace of Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Chen, P. F.; Tang, Yu-hua; Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang

    We developed a series of methods to automatically detect and trace solar filaments in solar Hα images. The programs are able to not only recognize filaments and determine their properties, such as the position, the area and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. For solar full disk Hα images, the method consists of three parts: first, preprocessing is applied to correct the original images; second, the Canny edge-detection method is used to detect the filaments; third, filament properties are recognized through the morphological operators. For each Hα filament and its barb features, we introduced the unweighted undirected graph concept and adopted Dijkstra shortest-path algorithm to recognize the filament spine; then, using polarity inversion line shift method for measuring the polarities in both sides of the filament to determine the filament axis chirality; finally, employing connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculating the angle between each barb and spine to indicate the barb chirality. Our algorithms are applied to the observations from varied observatories, including the Optical & Near Infrared Solar Eruption Tracer (ONSET) in Nanjing University, Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The programs are demonstrated to be effective and efficient. We used our method to automatically process and analyze 3470 images obtained by MLSO from January 1998 to December 2009, and a butterfly diagram of filaments is obtained. It shows that the latitudinal migration of solar filaments has three trends in the Solar Cycle 23: The drift velocity was fast from 1998 to the solar maximum; after the solar maximum, it became relatively slow and after 2006, the migration became divergent, signifying the solar minimum. About 60% filaments with the latitudes larger than 50 degree migrate towards the Polar Regions with relatively high velocities, and the latitudinal migrating

  7. Preparation of PtRu/C and PtSn/C electrocatalysts using electron beam irradiation for direct and ethanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da

    2009-01-01

    PtRu/C and PtSn/C electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The metal ions were dissolved in water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol solutions and the carbon support was added. The resulting mixtures were irradiated under stirring. The effect of water/ethylene glycol and water/2-propanol (v/v) ratio, Pt:Ru and Pt:Sn atomic ratios, the irradiation time and dose rate were studied. The obtained materials were characterized by Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The electro-oxidation of methanol and ethanol were studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry using the thin porous coating technique. The electrocatalysts were also tested on the Direct Methanol and Ethanol Fuel Cells. PtRu/C electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol showed Pt:Ru atomic ratios different from the nominal ones. The results suggested that part of the Ru(III) ions were not reduced. The obtained materials showed the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of Pt and Pt alloys with crystallite sizes of 2-3 nm. PtRu/C electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed Pt:Ru atomic ratios similar to the nominal ones. The obtained materials also showed the fcc structure of platinum and platinum alloys with crystallite sizes of 3-4 nm. PtSn/C electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol and water/2-propanol showed Pt:Sn atomic ratios similar to the nominal ones. The obtained materials showed the platinum (fcc) phase with crystallite sizes in the range of 2 - 4 nm and a SnO 2 (cassiterite) phase. The obtained PtRu/C and PtSn/C electrocatalysts showed similar or superior performance for methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation compared to commercial PtRu/C (E-TEK) and PtSn/C (BASF) electrocatalysts. (author)

  8. The titin A-band rod domain is dispensable for initial thick filament assembly in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, J Layne; Hills, Jordan A; Prill, Kendal; Wohlgemuth, Serene L; Pilgrim, David B

    2014-03-01

    The sarcomeres of skeletal and cardiac muscle are highly structured protein arrays, consisting of thick and thin filaments aligned precisely to one another and to their surrounding matrix. The contractile mechanisms of sarcomeres are generally well understood, but how the patterning of sarcomeres is initiated during early skeletal muscle and cardiac development remains uncertain. Two of the most widely accepted hypotheses for this process include the "molecular ruler" model, in which the massive protein titin defines the length of the sarcomere and provides a scaffold along which the myosin thick filament is assembled, and the "premyofibril" model, which proposes that thick filament formation does not require titin, but that a "premyofibril" consisting of non-muscle myosin, α-actinin and cytoskeletal actin is used as a template. Each model posits a different order of necessity of the various components, but these have been difficult to test in vivo. Zebrafish motility mutants with developmental defects in sarcomere patterning are useful for the elucidation of such mechanisms, and here we report the analysis of the herzschlag mutant, which shows deficits in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. The herzschlag mutant produces a truncated titin protein, lacking the C-terminal rod domain that is proposed to act as a thick filament scaffold, yet muscle patterning is still initiated, with grossly normal thick and thin filament assembly. Only after embryonic muscle contraction begins is breakdown of sarcomeric myosin patterning observed, consistent with the previously noted role of titin in maintaining the contractile integrity of mature sarcomeres. This conflicts with the "molecular ruler" model of early sarcomere patterning and supports a titin-independent model of thick filament organization during sarcomerogenesis. These findings are also consistent with the symptoms of human titin myopathies that exhibit a late onset, such as tibial muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2013

  9. Filamentation of Campylobacter in broth cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacheervan M Ghaffar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition from rod to filamentous cell morphology has been identified as a response to stressful conditions in many bacterial species and has been ascribed to confer certain survival advantages. Filamentation of Campylobacter jejuni was demonstrated to occur spontaneously on entry in to stationary phase distinguishing it from many other bacteria where a reduction in size is more common. The aim of this study was to investigate the cues that give rise to filamentation of C. jejuni and C. coli and gain insights into the process. Using minimal medium, augmentation of filamentation occurred and it was observed that this morphological change was wide spread amongst C. jejuni strains tested but was not universal in C. coli strains. Filamentation did not appear to be due to release of diffusible molecules, toxic metabolites, or be in response to oxidative stress in the medium. Separated filaments exhibited greater intracellular ATP contents (2.66 to 17.4 fg than spiral forms (0.99 to 1.7 fg and showed enhanced survival in water at 4oC and 37oC compared to spiral cells. These observations support the conclusion that the filaments are adapted to survive extra-intestinal environments. Differences in cell morphology and physiology need to be considered in the context of the design of experimental studies and the methods adopted for the isolation of campylobacters from food, clinical and environmental sources.

  10. Striation and convection in penumbral filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, H. C.; Scharmer, G. B.; Löfdahl, M. G.

    2010-10-01

    Observations with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope of the flows seen in penumbral filaments are presented. Time sequences of bright filaments show overturning motions strikingly similar to those seen along the walls of small isolated structures in the active regions. The filaments show outward propagating striations with inclination angles suggesting that they are aligned with the local magnetic field. We interpret it as the equivalent of the striations seen in the walls of small isolated magnetic structures. Their origin is then a corrugation of the boundary between an overturning convective flow inside the filament and the magnetic field wrapping around it. The outward propagation is a combination of a pattern motion due to the downflow observed along the sides of bright filaments, and the Evershed flow. The observed short wavelength of the striation argues against the existence of a dynamically significant horizontal field inside the bright filaments. Its intensity contrast is explained by the same physical effect that causes the dark cores of filaments, light bridges and “canals”. In this way striation represents an important clue to the physics of penumbral structure and its relation with other magnetic structures on the solar surface. We put this in perspective with results from the recent 3-D radiative hydrodynamic simulations. 4 movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Lifetime of titanium filament at constant current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Lanni, C.

    1981-01-01

    Titanium Sublimation Pump (TSP) represents the most efficient and the least expensive method to produce Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) in storage rings. In ISABELLE, a proton storage accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, for example, TSP provides a pumping speed for hydrogen of > 2 x 10 6 l/s. Due to the finite life of titanium filaments, new filaments have to be switched in before the end of filament burn out, to ensure smooth operation of the accelerator. Therefore, several operational modes that can be used to activate the TSP were studied. The constant current mode is a convenient way of maintaining constant evaporating rate by increasing the power input while the filament diameter decreases as titanium evaporates. The filaments used in this experiment were standard Varian 916-0024 filaments made of Ti 85%, Mo 15% alloy. During their lifetime at a constant current of 48 amperes, the evaporation rate rose to a maximum at about 10% of their life and then flattened out to a constant value, 0.25 g/hr. The maximum evaporation rate occurs coincidently with the recrystallization of 74% Ti 26% Mo 2 from microstructure crystalline at higher titanium concentration to macrostructure crystalline at lower titanium concentration. As the macrocrystal grows, the slip plane develops at the grain boundary resulting in high resistance at the slip plane which will eventually cause the filament burn out due to local heating

  12. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-01-15

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z ≈ 0.1Z filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10-3Z filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is due mostly to the lower initial temperatures, which leads to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbusting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occur. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253, but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  13. Filaments in simulations of molecular cloud formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, Gilberto C.; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-08-20

    We report on the filaments that develop self-consistently in a new numerical simulation of cloud formation by colliding flows. As in previous studies, the forming cloud begins to undergo gravitational collapse because it rapidly acquires a mass much larger than the average Jeans mass. Thus, the collapse soon becomes nearly pressureless, proceeding along its shortest dimension first. This naturally produces filaments in the cloud and clumps within the filaments. The filaments are not in equilibrium at any time, but instead are long-lived flow features through which the gas flows from the cloud to the clumps. The filaments are long-lived because they accrete from their environment while simultaneously accreting onto the clumps within them; they are essentially the locus where the flow changes from accreting in two dimensions to accreting in one dimension. Moreover, the clumps also exhibit a hierarchical nature: the gas in a filament flows onto a main, central clump but other, smaller-scale clumps form along the infalling gas. Correspondingly, the velocity along the filament exhibits a hierarchy of jumps at the locations of the clumps. Two prominent filaments in the simulation have lengths ∼15 pc and masses ∼600 M {sub ☉} above density n ∼ 10{sup 3} cm{sup –3} (∼2 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} at n > 50 cm{sup –3}). The density profile exhibits a central flattened core of size ∼0.3 pc and an envelope that decays as r {sup –2.5} in reasonable agreement with observations. Accretion onto the filament reaches a maximum linear density rate of ∼30 M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} pc{sup –1}.

  14. Average resonance capture studies of 102Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Z.R.; Casten, R.F.; Stachel, J.; Bruce, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The 102 Ru nucleus has been investigated via the ARC technique which ensures a complete set of J/sup π/ = 0 + , 1 +- , 2 +- , 3 +- , 4 +- , and 5 + levels up to 2 MeV. The results are discussed in the framework of the IBA-1 with Consistent Q. The calculations show good agreement with the empirical data especially for the O 2 + state, suggesting that it can be described in terms of collective degrees of freedom

  15. Laser Spectroscopy of Ruthenium Containing Diatomic Molecules: RuH/D and RuP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Allan G.; Konder, Ricarda M.; Nickerson, Nicole M.; Linton, Colan; Tokaryk, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    In the last few years, the Cheung group in Hong Kong and the Steimle group in Arizona have successfully studied several ruthenium containing diatomic molecules, RuX (X =C, O, N, B, using the laser-ablation molecular jet technique. Based on this success, the UNB spectroscopy group decided to try and find the optical signatures of other RuX molecules. Using CH_3OH and PH_3 as reactant gases, the RuH and RuP diatomic molecules have been detected in surveys of the 420 - 675 nm spectral region. RuD has also been made using fully deuterated methanol as a reactant. Dispersed fluorescence experiments have been performed to determine ground state vibrational frequencies and the presence of any low-lying electronic states. Rotationally resolved spectra for these molecules have also been taken and the analysis is proceeding. The most recent results will be presented. F. Wang et al., Journal of Chemical Physics 139, 174318 (2013). N. Wang et al., Journal of Physical Chemistry A 117, 13279 (2013). T. Steimle et al., Journal of Chemical Physics 119, 12965 (2003). N. Wang et al., Chemical Physics Letters 547, 21 (2012).

  16. Ru nanostructure fabrication using an anodic aluminum oxide nanotemplate and highly conformal Ru atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Son, Jong-Yeog; Kim, Hyungjun [Department of Material Science and Engineering, POSTECH Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Nam-Gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-30

    We fabricated metallic nanostructures directly on Si substrates through a hybrid nanoprocess combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a self-assembled anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotemplate. ALD Ru films with Ru(DMPD)(EtCp) as a precursor and O{sub 2} as a reactant exhibited high purity and low resistivity with negligible nucleation delay and low roughness. These good growth characteristics resulted in the excellent conformality for nanometer-scale vias and trenches. Additionally, AAO nanotemplates were fabricated directly on Si and Ti/Si substrates through a multiple anodization process. AAO nanotemplates with various hole sizes (30-100 nm) and aspect ratios (2:1-20:1) were fabricated by controlling the anodizing process parameters. The barrier layers between AAO nanotemplates and Si substrates were completely removed by reactive ion etching (RIE) using BCl{sub 3} plasma. By combining the ALD Ru and the AAO nanotemplate, Ru nanostructures with controllable sizes and shapes were prepared on Si and Ti/Si substrates. The Ru nanowire array devices as a platform for sensor devices exhibited befitting properties of good ohmic contact and high surface/volume ratio.

  17. Spectroscopy of {sup 96}Ru and {sup 98}Ru: structures of varied character at N {>=} 52

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reviol, W; Garg, U; Aprahamian, A; Davis, B F; Herr, M C; Naguleswaran, S; Walpe, J C; Ye, D [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Ahmad, I; Carpenter, M P; Janssens, R V.F.; Khoo, T L; Lauritsen, T; Liang, Y [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The authors have investigated the onset of deformation at N {>=} 52 by performing high-spin gamma spectroscopy of {sup 96-98}Ru using the {sup 65}Cu({sup 36}S,pxn) reaction with the Argonne-Notre Dame {gamma}-ray facility. From the coincidence data associated with high multiplicity (k {>=} 8) events, they have established two main band structures in {sup 96-98}Ru which extend the previously-known level schemes significantly (up to > 20 {Dirac_h}). In {sup 96}Ru, one of the newly observed structures consists of five rotation-like E2 transitions and feeds into the known 9{sup (-)} state; the other structure bypasses the first one, and based on the observed level-spacings, is tentatively described as vibration-like. A rotational-like structure above a spin of 8 {Dirac_h}, along with a parallel vibration-like structure, has been observed in {sup 98}Ru as well. The data also contain some evidence for a weak sequence of dipole (presumably M1) transitions in {sup 96}Ru. This structure might be similar to the high-K oblate bands recently observed in {sup 119-123}I and {sup 198-20P}b. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Fabrication and properties of Ag-Bi2223 tapes with resistive barriers for filament decoupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Ryoji; Fukumoto, Yohei; Yasunami, Taeko; Nakamura, Yuichi; Oota, Akio; Li Chengshang; Zhang Pingxiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we prepared the Bi2223 multifilamentary tapes with Ca 2 CuO 3 + Bi2212 as interfilamentary resistive barriers to suppress the electromagnetic coupling among the filaments under AC external magnetic field. The tapes with thin barrier layers of Ca 2 CuO 3 + 30 wt% Bi2212 around the filaments were prepared by using a standard powder-in-tube (PIT) method. The outside surface of monocore Ag-sheathed rods was coated by barrier materials. Then, the several coated monocore wires were stacked and packed into another Ag or Ag-Mg alloy tube. The packed tube was drawn and rolled into tape shape. The tape was subsequently sintered to form Bi2223 phase inside filaments. For the characterization of tapes, X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to investigate the phase formation inside the filaments. The uniformity of transport properties (J c ) for barrier tapes were evaluated on the order of several metre lengths and compared with the result for the tapes without barriers. Finally, AC loss characteristics under AC parallel transverse magnetic field were investigated to examine the effect of introducing the barriers on the filament decoupling

  19. Coupling between myosin head conformation and the thick filament backbone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongjun; Taylor, Dianne W; Edwards, Robert J; Taylor, Kenneth A

    2017-12-01

    The recent high-resolution structure of the thick filament from Lethocerus asynchronous flight muscle shows aspects of thick filament structure never before revealed that may shed some light on how striated muscles function. The phenomenon of stretch activation underlies the function of asynchronous flight muscle. It is most highly developed in flight muscle, but is also observed in other striated muscles such as cardiac muscle. Although stretch activation is likely to be complex, involving more than a single structural aspect of striated muscle, the thick filament itself, would be a prime site for regulatory function because it must bear all of the tension produced by both its associated myosin motors and any externally applied force. Here we show the first structural evidence that the arrangement of myosin heads within the interacting heads motif is coupled to the structure of the thick filament backbone. We find that a change in helical angle of 0.16° disorders the blocked head preferentially within the Lethocerus interacting heads motif. This observation suggests a mechanism for how tension affects the dynamics of the myosin heads leading to a detailed hypothesis for stretch activation and shortening deactivation, in which the blocked head preferentially binds the thin filament followed by the free head when force production occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on CMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are being developed for use as enabling materials for advanced aeropropulsion engine and high speed civil transport applications. The characterization and testing of these advanced materials in hostile, high-temperature environments require accurate measurement of the material temperatures. Commonly used wire Thermo-Couples (TC) can not be attached to this ceramic based material via conventional spot-welding techniques. Attachment of wire TC's with commercially available ceramic cements fail to provide sufficient adhesion at high temperatures. While advanced thin film TC technology provides minimally intrusive surface temperature measurement and has good adhesion on the CMC, its fabrication requires sophisticated and expensive facilities and is very time consuming. In addition, the durability of lead wire attachments to both thin film TC's and the substrate materials requires further improvement. This paper presents a newly developed attachment technique for installation of free filament wire TC's with a unique convoluted design on ceramic based materials such as CMC's. Three CMC's (SiC/SiC CMC and alumina/alumina CMC) instrumented with type IC, R or S wire TC's were tested in a Mach 0.3 burner rig. The CMC temperatures measured from these wire TC's were compared to that from the facility pyrometer and thin film TC's. There was no sign of TC delamination even after several hours exposure to 1200 C. The test results proved that this new technique can successfully attach wire TC's on CMC's and provide temperature data in hostile environments. The sensor fabrication process is less expensive and requires very little time compared to that of the thin film TC's. The same installation technique/process can also be applied to attach lead wires for thin film sensor systems.

  1. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin [Department of Physics, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • Breaking up of an intense EM pulse into filaments is a spectacular demonstration of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. • Filaments are spectacularly sharper, highly extended and longer lived at relativistic temperatures. • EM energy concentration can trigger new nonlinear phenomena with absolute consequences for high energy density matter. - Abstract: Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The “relativistic” filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  2. Effects of laser fluence on the structural properties of pulsed laser deposited ruthenium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wai-Keat; Wong, Hin-Yong; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Tou, Teck-Yong [Multimedia University, Centre for Advanced Devices and Systems (CADS), Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yong, Thian-Khok [Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yap, Seong-Shan [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Institute of Physics, Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Ruthenium (Ru) has received great interest in recent years for applications in microelectronics. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) enables the growth of Ru thin films at low temperatures. In this paper, we report for the first time the characterization of pulsed laser deposited Ru thin films. The deposition processes were carried out at room temperature in vacuum environment for different durations with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 355-nm laser wavelength, employing various laser fluences ranging from 2 J/cm{sup 2} to 8 J/cm{sup 2}. The effect of the laser fluence on the structural properties of the deposited Ru films was investigated using surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ru droplets, some spherical in shape and some flattened into round discs were found on the deposited Ru. The droplets were correlated to ripple formations on the target during the laser-induced ejection from the target. In addition, crystalline Ru with orientations of (100), (101), and (002) was observed in the XRD spectra and their intensities were found to increase with increasing laser fluence and film thickness. Grain sizes ranging from 20 nm to 35 nm were deduced using the Scherrer formula. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) show that the composition of the plume and the deposited Ru film was of high purity. (orig.)

  3. Effects of laser fluence on the structural properties of pulsed laser deposited ruthenium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wai-Keat; Wong, Hin-Yong; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Tou, Teck-Yong; Yong, Thian-Khok; Yap, Seong-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) has received great interest in recent years for applications in microelectronics. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) enables the growth of Ru thin films at low temperatures. In this paper, we report for the first time the characterization of pulsed laser deposited Ru thin films. The deposition processes were carried out at room temperature in vacuum environment for different durations with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 355-nm laser wavelength, employing various laser fluences ranging from 2 J/cm 2 to 8 J/cm 2 . The effect of the laser fluence on the structural properties of the deposited Ru films was investigated using surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ru droplets, some spherical in shape and some flattened into round discs were found on the deposited Ru. The droplets were correlated to ripple formations on the target during the laser-induced ejection from the target. In addition, crystalline Ru with orientations of (100), (101), and (002) was observed in the XRD spectra and their intensities were found to increase with increasing laser fluence and film thickness. Grain sizes ranging from 20 nm to 35 nm were deduced using the Scherrer formula. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) show that the composition of the plume and the deposited Ru film was of high purity. (orig.)

  4. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2016-01-01

    Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they resu...

  5. Control of multiple filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibich, Gadi; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ilan, Boaz; Zigler, Arie

    2004-08-01

    In this Letter we provide what is believed to be the first experimental evidence of suppression of the number of filaments for high-intensity laser pulses propagating in air by beam astigmatism. We also show that the number, pattern, and spatial stability of the filaments can be controlled by varying the angle that a focusing lens makes with the axial direction of propagation. This new methodology can be useful for applications involving atmospheric propagation, such as remote sensing.

  6. Flux Cancellation Leading to CME Filament Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Roxana M.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filaments are strands of relatively cool, dense plasma magnetically suspended in the lower density hotter solar corona. They trace magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) in the photosphere below, and are supported against gravity at heights of up to approx.100 Mm above the chromosphere by the magnetic field in and around them. This field erupts when it is rendered unstable, often by magnetic flux cancellation or emergence at or near the PIL. We have studied the evolution of photospheric magnetic flux leading to ten observed filament eruptions. Specifically, we look for gradual magnetic changes in the neighborhood of the PIL prior to and during eruption. We use Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), both on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to study filament eruptions and their photospheric magnetic fields. We examine whether flux cancellation or/and emergence leads to filament eruptions. We find that continuous flux cancellation was present at the PIL for many hours prior to each eruption. We present two CME-producing eruptions in detail and find the following: (a) the pre-eruption filament-holding core field is highly sheared and appears in the shape of a sigmoid above the PIL; (b) at the start of the eruption the opposite arms of the sigmoid reconnect in the middle above the site of (tether-cutting) flux cancellation at the PIL; (c) the filaments first show a slow-rise, followed by a fast-rise as they erupt. We conclude that these two filament eruptions result from flux cancellation in the middle of the sheared field, and thereafter evolve in agreement with the standard model for a CME/flare filament eruption from a closed bipolar magnetic field [flux cancellation (van Ballegooijen and Martens 1989 and Moore and Roumelrotis 1992) and runaway tether-cutting (Moore et. al 2001)].

  7. Can we determine the filament chirality by the filament footpoint location or the barb-bearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Peng-Fei; Cao, Wen-Da

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the concept of an unweighted undirected graph and adopt the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with Hα filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) Hα archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have left-bearing (right-bearing) barbs and positive (negative) magnetic helicity, respectively. The tested results demonstrate that our method is efficient and effective in detecting the bearing of filament barbs. It is demonstrated that the conventionally believed one-to-one correspondence between filament chirality and barb bearing is not valid. The correct detection of the filament axis chirality should be done by combining both imaging morphology and magnetic field observations.

  8. Can we determine the filament chirality by the filament footpoint location or the barb-bearing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Peng-Fei; Cao, Wen-Da

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the concept of an unweighted undirected graph and adopt the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with Hα filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) Hα archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have left-bearing (right-bearing) barbs and positive (negative) magnetic helicity, respectively. The tested results demonstrate that our method is efficient and effective in detecting the bearing of filament barbs. It is demonstrated that the conventionally believed one-to-one correspondence between filament chirality and barb bearing is not valid. The correct detection of the filament axis chirality should be done by combining both imaging morphology and magnetic field observations. (paper)

  9. Substituent-directed structural and physicochemical controls of diruthenium catecholate complexes with ligand-unsupported Ru-Ru bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Chol; Mochizuki, Katsunori; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2005-05-30

    A family of diruthenium complexes with ligand-unsupported Ru-Ru bonds has been systematically synthesized, and their crystal structures and physical properties have been examined. A simple, useful reaction between Ru2(OAc)4Cl (OAc- = acetate) and catechol derivatives in the presence of bases afforded a variety of diruthenium complexes, generally formulated as [Na(n){Ru2(R4Cat)4}] (n = 2 or 3; R4 = -F4, -Cl4, -Br4, -H4, -3,5-di-t-Bu, and -3,6-di-t-Bu; Cat(2-) = catecholate). The most characteristic feature of the complexes is the formation of short ligand-unsupported Ru-Ru bonds (2.140-2.273 A). These comprehensive studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of the oxidation states and the substituents governing the molecular structures and physicochemical properties. The Ru-Ru bond distances, rotational conformations, and bending structures of the complexes were successfully varied. The results presented in this manuscript clearly demonstrate that the complexes with ligand-unsupported Ru-Ru bonds can sensitively respond to redox reactions and ligand substituents on the basis of the greater degree of freedom in their molecular structures.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of RuO2/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Composite Nanotubes for Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ran [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Duay, Jonathon [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lane, Timothy [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lee, Sang Bok [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Korea Advance Inst. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea)

    2010-01-18

    We report the synthesis of composite RuO2/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes with high specific capacitance and fast charging/discharging capability as well as their potential application as electrode materials for a high-energy and high-power supercapacitor. RuO2/PEDOT nanotubes were synthesized in a porous alumina membrane by a step-wise electrochemical deposition method, and their structures were characterized using electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry was used to qualitatively characterize the capacitive properties of the composite RuO2/PEDOT nanotubes. Their specific capacitance, energy density and power density were evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at various current densities. The pseudocapacitance behavior of these composite nanotubes originates from ion diffusion during the simultaneous and parallel redox processes of RuO2 and PEDOT. We show that the energy density (specific capacitance) of PEDOT nanotubes can be remarkably enhanced by electrodepositing RuO2 into their porous walls and onto their rough internal surfaces. The flexible PEDOT prevents the RuO2 from breaking and detaching from the current collector while the rigid RuO2 keeps the PEDOT nanotubes from collapsing and aggregating. The composite RuO2/PEDOT nanotube can reach a high power density of 20 kW kg-1 while maintaining 80% energy density (28 Wh kg-1) of its maximum value. This high power capability is attributed to the fast charge/discharge of nanotubular structures: hollow nanotubes allow counter-ions to readily penetrate into the composite material and access their internal surfaces, while a thin wall provides a short diffusion distance to facilitate ion transport. The high energy density originates from the RuO2, which can store high electrical/electrochemical energy intrinsically. The high specific capacitance (1217 Fg-1

  11. Evidence for Mixed Helicity in Erupting Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglach, K.; Wang, Y.-M.; Kliem, B.

    2009-09-01

    Erupting filaments are sometimes observed to undergo a rotation about the vertical direction as they rise. This rotation of the filament axis is generally interpreted as a conversion of twist into writhe in a kink-unstable magnetic flux rope. Consistent with this interpretation, the rotation is usually found to be clockwise (as viewed from above) if the post-eruption arcade has right-handed helicity, but counterclockwise if it has left-handed helicity. Here, we describe two non-active-region filament events recorded with the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in which the sense of rotation appears to be opposite to that expected from the helicity of the post-event arcade. Based on these observations, we suggest that the rotation of the filament axis is, in general, determined by the net helicity of the erupting system, and that the axially aligned core of the filament can have the opposite helicity sign to the surrounding field. In most cases, the surrounding field provides the main contribution to the net helicity. In the events reported here, however, the helicity associated with the filament "barbs" is opposite in sign to and dominates that of the overlying arcade.

  12. Sideward flow of K+ in Ru+Ru and Ni+Ni reactions sat SIS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crochet, P.; Herrmann, N.; Wisniewski, K.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data on K + and proton sideward flow measured with the FOPI detector at SIS/GSI in the reactions Ru+Ru at 1.69 A GeV and Ni+Ni at 1.93 A GeV are presented. The K + sideward flow is found to be anti-correlated (correlated) with the one of protons at low (high) transverse momenta. When compared to the predictions of a transport model, the data favour the existence of an in-medium repulsive K + -nucleon potential. (author)

  13. Electron correlation in CaRuO3 and SrRuO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ravi Shankar; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the role of electron correlation in the electronic structure of 4d transition-metal oxides CaRuO 3 and SrRuO 3 . The photoemission spectra collected at different surface sensitivities reveal qualitatively different surface and bulk electronic structures in these systems. Extracted bulk spectra could be simulated using first principle approaches consistently with their thermodynamic parameters within the same model. The estimated electron correlation strength (U/W ∼ 0.2) is significantly weak as expected in 4d systems and resolves the long-standing issue that arose due to the prediction of large U/W similar to 3d systems. (author)

  14. UNVEILING A NETWORK OF PARALLEL FILAMENTS IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G14.225–0.506

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, Gemma; Zhang, Qizhou; Ho, Paul T. P.; Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Estalella, Robert; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Pillai, Thushara; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Santos, Fábio P.; Franco, Gabriel A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of combined NH 3 (1,1) and (2,2) line emission observed with the Very Large Array and the Effelsberg 100 m telescope of the infrared dark cloud G14.225–0.506. The NH 3 emission reveals a network of filaments constituting two hub-filament systems. Hubs are associated with gas of rotational temperature T rot ∼ 15 K, non-thermal velocity dispersion σ NT ∼ 1 km s –1 , and exhibit signs of star formation, while filaments appear to be more quiescent (T rot ∼ 11 K and σ NT ∼ 0.6 km s –1 ). Filaments are parallel in projection and distributed mainly along two directions, at P.A. ∼ 10° and 60°, and appear to be coherent in velocity. The averaged projected separation between adjacent filaments is between 0.5 pc and 1 pc, and the mean width of filaments is 0.12 pc. Cores within filaments are separated by ∼0.33 ± 0.09 pc, which is consistent with the predicted fragmentation of an isothermal gas cylinder due to the s ausage - type instability. The network of parallel filaments observed in G14.225–0.506 is consistent with the gravitational instability of a thin gas layer threaded by magnetic fields. Overall, our data suggest that magnetic fields might play an important role in the alignment of filaments, and polarization measurements in the entire cloud would lend further support to this scenario.

  15. UNVEILING A NETWORK OF PARALLEL FILAMENTS IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G14.225-0.506

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, Gemma [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zhang, Qizhou; Ho, Paul T. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5 parell, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Liu, Hauyu Baobab [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-05125 Firenze (Italy); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pillai, Thushara [Caltech Astronomy Department, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wyrowski, Friedrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Santos, Fabio P.; Franco, Gabriel A. P., E-mail: gemma.busquet@iaps.inaf.it [Departamento de Fisica-ICEx-UFMG, Caixa Postal 702, 30.123-970 Belo Horizonte-MG (Brazil)

    2013-02-20

    We present the results of combined NH{sub 3} (1,1) and (2,2) line emission observed with the Very Large Array and the Effelsberg 100 m telescope of the infrared dark cloud G14.225-0.506. The NH{sub 3} emission reveals a network of filaments constituting two hub-filament systems. Hubs are associated with gas of rotational temperature T{sub rot} {approx} 15 K, non-thermal velocity dispersion {sigma}{sub NT} {approx} 1 km s{sup -1}, and exhibit signs of star formation, while filaments appear to be more quiescent (T{sub rot} {approx} 11 K and {sigma}{sub NT} {approx} 0.6 km s{sup -1}). Filaments are parallel in projection and distributed mainly along two directions, at P.A. {approx} 10 Degree-Sign and 60 Degree-Sign , and appear to be coherent in velocity. The averaged projected separation between adjacent filaments is between 0.5 pc and 1 pc, and the mean width of filaments is 0.12 pc. Cores within filaments are separated by {approx}0.33 {+-} 0.09 pc, which is consistent with the predicted fragmentation of an isothermal gas cylinder due to the {sup s}ausage{sup -}type instability. The network of parallel filaments observed in G14.225-0.506 is consistent with the gravitational instability of a thin gas layer threaded by magnetic fields. Overall, our data suggest that magnetic fields might play an important role in the alignment of filaments, and polarization measurements in the entire cloud would lend further support to this scenario.

  16. Gamma-gamma angular correlation measurement in the 100 Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchian, G.

    1990-01-01

    An angular correlation automatic spectrometer with two Ge(Li) detectors has been developed. The spectrometer moves automatically, controlled by a microcomputer. The gamma-gamma directional angular correlations of coincidence transitions have been measured in 100 Ru nuclide, following the β + and electron capture of 100 Rh. The 100 Rh source has been produced with 100 Ru(p,n) 100 Rh reaction, using the proton beam of the Cyclotron Accelerator insiding in 100 Ru isotope. (author)

  17. Enhanced anodic Ru(bpy)32+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence by polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Rong; Xu Xiao; Xu Da; Zhu Gang; Li Na; Liu Huwei; Li Kean

    2008-01-01

    Anodic Ru(bpy) 3 2+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) can be enhanced by polyphenols in alkaline solution. Spin trapping-electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments verified that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated during the electrolysis of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ in alkaline solution, and oxidation of quercetin enhanced Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL at anodic potential by producing additional ROS. This ECL enhancement can be used to analyze real sample and evaluate antioxidant activity of polyphenols

  18. Several novel Ru(II) and Ru(III) complexes formed by reduction of (RuO4bipy) and (RuO3phen)2O with hydroquinone and methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Toshio

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical isomers, cis-dichloro-trans-(methanol)(hydroquinone)(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) and cis-dichloro-cis-(methanol)(hydroquinone)(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), [RuCl 2 (MeOH)(QH 2 )bipy] (complex I and II), were synthesized by reduction and substitution reactions of [RuO 4 bipy] and [RuO 2 (OH) 2 bipy] with hydroquinone in hydrochloric acid solution, and methanol. cis-Chloro(hydroquinonato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), cis-[RuCl(QH)(bipy) 2 ], was obtained from the substitution reaction of complex I or II with 2,2'-bipyridine in methanol, and cis-chloro(hydroquinone)bis(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride, cis-[RuCl(QH 2 )(bipy) 2 ]Cl, was also obtained from the substitution of cis-trans-[RuCl 2 (MeOH)(QH 2 )bipy] in methanol containing hydrochloric acid. cis-Dihydroxobis(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), cis-[Ru(OH) 2 (bipy) 2 ], was obtained by heating an aqueous solution of cis-[RuCl(QH)(bipy) 2 ]. Trihydroxoaquo(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(III), [Ru(OH) 3 (H 2 O)phen] was also synthesized from [RuO 3 phen] 2 O and [Ru(OH) 3 phen] 2 O by reduction reactions similar to those used for [RuCl 2 (MeOH)(QH 2 )bipy]. These complexes were characterized by the infrared, visible and ultraviolet absorption spectra, and also by polarographic and magnetic measurements. The structures are discussed. (auth.)

  19. Nonalloyed carbon-supported PtRu catalysts for PEMFC applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papageorgopoulos, D.C.; De Heer, M.P.; Keijzer, M.; Pieterse, J.A.Z.; de Bruijn, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    PtRu(1:1)/C catalysts were prepared by a process that was claimed previously to lead to non-alloyed Pt and Ru particles, using two different precursors, Ru nitrosyl nitrate and Ru chloride hydrate. Both X-ray diffraction and characterization by cyclic voltammetry point toward Pt and Ru being present

  20. Nonalloyed carbon-supported PtRu catalysts for PEMFC applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papageorgopoulos, D.C.; Heer, de M.P.; Keijzer, M.; Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Bruijn, de F.A.

    2004-01-01

    PtRu(1:1)/C catalysts were prepared by a process that was claimed previously to lead to nonalloyed Pt and Ru particles, using twodifferent precursors, Ru nitrosyl nitrate and Ru chloride hydrate. Both X-ray diffraction and characterization by cyclic voltammetrypoint toward Pt and Ru being present as

  1. 103Ru/103mRh generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, B.; Kowalska, E.; Bilewicz, A.; Skarnemark, G.

    2009-01-01

    103m Rh is a very promising radionuclide for Auger electron therapy due to its very low photon/electron ratio. The goal of the present work was the elaboration a method for production of large quantities of 103m Rh for generator system. It was found that the combination of solvent extraction with evaporation of 103 RuO 4 followed by decomposition of H 5 IO 6 makes it possible to produce 103m Rh of high radionuclidic and chemical purity. (author)

  2. In situ Ru K-edge EXAFS of CO adsorption on a Ru modified Pt/C fuel cell catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Abigail; Bilsborrow, Robert; King, Colin R.; Ravikumar, M.K.; Qian Yangdong; Wiltshire, Richard J.K.; Crabb, Eleanor M.; Russell, Andrea E.

    2009-01-01

    The Ru-CO bond of CO adsorbed on a Ru modified Pt/C fuel cell catalyst has been directly probed by in situ EXAFS at the Ru K-edge, providing evidence of a CO:metal surface atom ratio greater than 1:1 and that CO is adsorbed at bridging sites associated with Ru atoms at the surface of the catalyst nanoparticles. This result illustrates the limitations of single crystal models as representations of the bonding of adsorbed species at nanoparticle surfaces.

  3. Biodistribution of Ru-97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Fairchild, R.G.; Atkins, H.L.; Brill, A.B.; Gil, M.C.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Goldman, A.G.; Richards, P.

    1980-01-01

    Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics, and more than 80% excretion by 0.5 h. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA injected into the cisterna magna of dogs showed similar kinetics in brain, blood, and urinary bladder. The energy deposited by 1 mCi In-111-DTPA is twice that from 1 mCi Ru-97-DTPA. High quality camera images of the CSF space in the dog were obtained with both isotopes. Ru-97-DMSA was prepared with and without the addition of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O. Tin-free DMSA was rapidly excreted via the kidneys, whereas for maximum cortical deposition, the tin-containing preparation was superior. This compound is suitable for delayed imaging of both normal and impaired kidneys. Tissue distribution studies were performed in abscess-bearing rats with Ru-97-transferrin. Although blood levels were higher than with Ga-67-citrate, the abscess had twice as much Ru-97-TF as Ga-67-citrate and the Ru-97 muscle activity was one-third that of Ga-67. Imaging of abscess-bearing rabbits with Ru-97-TF visualized the abscesses as early as 1/2 hr after injection. Since the initial images visualize the abscess so clearly and since the TF portion of the compound binds to the abscess, Tc-99m-TF is being studied for the same purpose. Ru-97-labeled compounds are a promising replacement for In-111 and possibly also for Ga-67 compounds with the advantages of lower radiation dose and high quality image

  4. Study of a filament with a circularly polarized beam at 3.8 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straka, R.M.; Papagiannis, M.D.; Kogut, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Extensive observations of left and right circularly polarized emission were carried out with the 120 ft Haystack antenna, which at 3.8 cm has a HPBW of 4.4 minutes of arc. During a very quite period, September 22-26, 1974, two regions were observed in the southern hemisphere of the sun with brightness temperatures approximately 10% below the surrounding solar disk temperature. Hα photographs show that the main region was associated with a long filament. The separation between the center of the radio depression and the filament increased as the filament advanced toward the limb, with the depression finally disappearing when the filament was at a radial distance >0.8 R(Sun) from the center of the solar disk. These observations are in agreement with a filament model consisting of a thin, tall and exceedingly long sheet of enhanced density encaged in a large and equally long tunnel-like cavity of lower density. The electron density at the 3.8 cm emission level which occurs immediately below the transition zone was estimated to be lower inside the cavity than outside by a factor of 2. The origin of the other depression remains unclear because no relation to any Hα or magnetic feature could be found. A possible association with a coronal hole could not be established because no pertinent EUV or X-ray data were available. It would be of interest to investigate in future observations if a secondary depression is normally associated with the primary depression region over a long filament. (Auth.)

  5. Characterization of a filamentous biofilm community established in a cellulose-fed microbial fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotta Yasuaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are devices that exploit microorganisms to generate electric power from organic matter. Despite the development of efficient MFC reactors, the microbiology of electricity generation remains to be sufficiently understood. Results A laboratory-scale two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC was inoculated with rice paddy field soil and fed cellulose as the carbon and energy source. Electricity-generating microorganisms were enriched by subculturing biofilms that attached onto anode electrodes. An electric current of 0.2 mA was generated from the first enrichment culture, and ratios of the major metabolites (e.g., electric current, methane and acetate became stable after the forth enrichment. In order to investigate the electrogenic microbial community in the anode biofilm, it was morphologically analyzed by electron microscopy, and community members were phylogenetically identified by 16S rRNA gene clone-library analyses. Electron microscopy revealed that filamentous cells and rod-shaped cells with prosthecae-like filamentous appendages were abundantly present in the biofilm. Filamentous cells and appendages were interconnected via thin filaments. The clone library analyses frequently detected phylotypes affiliated with Clostridiales, Chloroflexi, Rhizobiales and Methanobacterium. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization revealed that the Rhizobiales population represented rod-shaped cells with filamentous appendages and constituted over 30% of the total population. Conclusion Bacteria affiliated with the Rhizobiales constituted the major population in the cellulose-fed MFC and exhibited unique morphology with filamentous appendages. They are considered to play important roles in the cellulose-degrading electrogenic community.

  6. CORONAL IMPLOSION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN THE WAKE OF A FILAMENT ERUPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rui; Wang Haimin

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of a group of TRACE 195 A coronal loops overlying a reverse S-shaped filament on 2001 June 15. These loops were initially pushed upward with the filament ascending and kinking slowly, but as soon as the filament rose explosively, they began to contract at a speed of ∼100 km s -1 , and sustained for at least 12 minutes, presumably due to the reduced magnetic pressure underneath with the filament escaping. Despite the contraction following the expansion, the loops of interest remained largely intact during the filament eruption, rather than formed via reconnection. These contracting loops naturally formed a shrinking trap, in which hot electrons of several keV, in an order of magnitude estimation, can be accelerated to nonthermal energies. A single hard X-ray (HXR) burst, with no corresponding rise in GOES soft X-ray (SXR) flux, was recorded by the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) on board Yohkoh, when the contracting loops expectedly approached the post-flare arcade originating from the filament eruption. HXT images reveal a coronal source distinctly above the top of the SXR arcade by ∼15''. The injecting electron population for the coronal source (thin target) is hardening by ∼1.5 powers relative to the footpoint emission (thick target), which is consistent with electron trapping in the weak diffusion limit. Although we cannot rule out additional reconnection, observational evidence suggests that the shrinking coronal trap may play a significant role in the observed nonthermal HXR emission during the flare decay phase.

  7. Topology and electronic structure of flexible (Nb,Ru)O2 thermoelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Schnabel, Volker; Bednarcik, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Using combinatorial reactive sputtering, we have synthesised Nb–Ru–O thin films on Kapton (polyimide) with the Ru/Nb ratio from 0.5 to 1.1 in a dioxide type of environment. Based on correlative analysis, including synchrotron diffraction experiments and density functional theory, the topology of these amorphous samples is characterised by short metal–oxygen bonds and very pronounced metal–metal interactions within the second coordination shell. We suggest that the role of Nb is within bond length reduction and promotion of quantum confinement, giving rise to an increase in the Seebeck coefficient. Furthermore, these Nb–Ru–O thin films are mechanically flexible as there are no crack formation and delamination upon bending or rolling. This may be rationalised as follows. Nb–Ru–O appears ductile due to low topological connectivity and forms strong bonds with Kapton. (paper)

  8. Use of carbon filaments in place of carbon black as the current collector of a lithium cell with a thionyl chloride bromine chloride catholyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysz, Christine A.; Shui, Xiaoping; Chung, D. D. L.

    Submicron carbon filaments (ADNH, Applied Sciences Inc.) used in place of carbon black as porous reduction electrodes (i.e., current collectors) in plate and jellyroll configurations in carbon limited lithium batteries with the BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) catholyte gave a specific capacity (at 2 V cut-off) of up to 8700 mAh/g of carbon, compared with a value of up to 2900 mAh/g of carbon for carbon black. The high specific capacity for the filament electrode is partly due to the filaments' processability into sheets as thin as 0.2 mm with good porosity, acceptable mechanical properties and without binder, and partly due to the high catholyte absorptivity and high rate of catholyte absorption of the filament electrode. Use of solvent-cleansed filaments in place of as-received filaments in making electrodes increased the packing density, thus decreasing capacity per g of carbon. The BCX catholyte acted as a cleanser anyway, due to the thionyl chloride in it. The specific capacity per cm 3 of carbon and that per unit density of carbon were also increased by using carbon filaments in place of carbon black, provided that the filament electrode was not pressed after forming by slurry filtration. Though no binder was needed for the filament plate electrode, it was needed for the filament jellyroll electrode. The Teflon™ binder increased the tensile strength and modulus, but decreased the catholyte absorption and rate of absorption. The filament electrode exhibited 405 less volume electrical resistivity than the carbon black electrode, both without a binder.

  9. Use of carbon filaments in place of carbon black as the current collector of a lithium cell with a thionyl chloride bromine chloride catholyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frysz, C.A. [Technology Div., Wilson Greatbatch Ltd., Clarence, NY (United States); Shui Xiaoping [Composite Materials Research Lab., State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Chung, D.D.L. [Composite Materials Research Lab., State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Submicron carbon filaments (ADNH, Applied Sciences Inc.) used in place of carbon black as porous reduction electrodes (i.e., current collectors) in plate and jellyroll configurations in carbon limited lithium batteries with the BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) catholyte gave a specific capacity (at 2 V cut-off) of up to 8700 mAh/g of carbon, compared with a value of up to 2900 mAh/g of carbon for carbon black. The high specific capacity for the filament electrode is partly due to the filaments` processability into sheets as thin as 0.2 mm with good porosity, acceptable mechanical properties and without binder, and partly due to the high catholyte absorptivity and high rate of catholyte absorption of the filament electrode. Use of solvent-cleansed filaments in place of as-received filaments in making electrodes increased the packing density, thus decreasing capacity per g of carbon. The BCX catholyte acted as a cleanser anyway, due to the thionyl chloride in it. The specific capacity per cm{sup 3} of carbon and that per unit density of carbon were also increased by using carbon filaments in place of carbon black, provided that the filament electrode was not pressed after forming by slurry filtration. Though no binder was needed for the filament plate electrode, it was needed for the filament jellyroll electrode. The Teflon{sup TM} binder increased the tensile strength and modulus, but decreased the catholyte absorption and rate of absorption. The filament electrode exhibited 40% less volume electrical resistivity than the carbon black electrode, both without a binder. (orig.)

  10. Terahertz waves radiated from two noncollinear femtosecond plasma filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Hai-Wei; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Otani, Chiko, E-mail: otani@riken.jp [Terahertz Sensing and Imaging Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Sendai, Miyagi 980-0845 (Japan); Midorikawa, Katsumi [Attosecond Science Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-11-23

    Terahertz (THz) waves radiated from two noncollinear femtosecond plasma filaments with a crossing angle of 25° are investigated. The irradiated THz waves from the crossing filaments show a small THz pulse after the main THz pulse, which was not observed in those from single-filament scheme. Since the position of the small THz pulse changes with the time-delay of two filaments, this phenomenon can be explained by a model in which the small THz pulse is from the second filament. The denser plasma in the overlap region of the filaments changes the movement of space charges in the plasma, thereby changing the angular distribution of THz radiation. As a result, this schematic induces some THz wave from the second filament to propagate along the path of the THz wave from the first filament. Thus, this schematic alters the direction of the THz radiation from the filamentation, which can be used in THz wave remote sensing.

  11. Supercapacitive performance of hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    SO4 electrolyte. RuO2.H2O film showed maximum specific capacitance of 192 F.g-1 at a scan rate of 20 mV.s-1. The charge–discharge studies of RuO2.H2O carried out at 300 A.cm-2 current density revealed the specific ...

  12. NOVEL RU-NI-S ELECTRODE CATALYST FOR PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The expected results from this project include: a new formula and preparation procedures for Ru-Ni-S catalyst; demonstration of CO and S tolerance of the new catalyst; a small size PEMFC with Ru-Ni-S catalyst and good performance; an...

  13. bond activation and catalysis by Ru -pac complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and their reactivity towards oxidation of a few organic compounds. Keywords. Kinetics; catalysis; -O–O- bond activation; Ru-pac complex; oxidation. 1. Introduction. Ru-pac complexes exhibit catalytic properties,1 in homogeneous conditions in the presence of oxygen atom donors, that mimic the biological enzymatic oxi-.

  14. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolases in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolases are among the most important enzymes functioning in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, significantly contributing to the efficient biorefining of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-based products. Filamentous fungi are recognized as both well...... into valuable products. However, due to low cellobiohydrolase activities, certain fungi might be deficient with regard to enzymes of value for cellulose conversion, and improving cellobiohydrolase expression in filamentous fungi has proven to be challenging. In this review, we examine the effects of altering...... promoters, signal peptides, culture conditions and host post-translational modifications. For heterologous cellobiohydrolase production in filamentous fungi to become an industrially feasible process, the construction of site-integrating plasmids, development of protease-deficient strains and glycosylation...

  15. Intermediate filaments and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, P

    1995-01-01

    The biological role of intermediate filaments (IFs) of eukaryotic cells is still a matter of conjecture. On the basis of immunofluorescence and electron microscopic observations, they appear to play a cytoskeletal role in that they stabilize cellular structure and organize the distribution and interactions of intracellular organelles and components. The expression of a large number of cell type-specific and developmentally regulated subunit proteins is believed to provide multicellular organisms with different IF systems capable of differential interactions with the various substructures and components of their multiple, differentiated cells. However, the destruction of distinct IF systems by manipulation of cultured cells or by knock-out mutation of IF subunit proteins in transgenic mice exerts relatively little influence on cellular morphology and physiology and on development of mutant animals. In order to rationalize this dilemma, the cytoskeletal concept of IF function has been extended to purport that cytoplasmic (c) IFs and their subunit proteins also play fundamental roles in gene regulation. It is based on the in vitro capacity of cIF(protein)s to interact with guanine-rich, single-stranded DNA, supercoiled DNA and histones, as well as on their close structural relatedness to gene-regulatory DNA-binding and nuclear matrix proteins. Since cIF proteins do not possess classical nuclear localization signals, it is proposed that cIFs directly penetrate the double nuclear membrane, exploiting the amphiphilic, membrane-active character of their subunit proteins. Since they can establish metastable multisite contacts with nuclear matrix structures and/or chromatin areas containing highly repetitive DNA sequence elements at the nuclear periphery, they are supposed to participate in chromosome distribution and chromatin organization in interphase nuclei of differentiated cells. Owing to their different DNA-binding specificities, the various cIF systems may in this

  16. Heterologous gene expression in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyun; Schmitz, George; Zhang, Meiling; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are critical to production of many commercial enzymes and organic compounds. Fungal-based systems have several advantages over bacterial-based systems for protein production because high-level secretion of enzymes is a common trait of their decomposer lifestyle. Furthermore, in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins of eukaryotic origin, the filamentous fungi become the vehicle of choice due to critical processes shared in gene expression with other eukaryotic organisms. The complexity and relative dearth of understanding of the physiology of filamentous fungi, compared to bacteria, have hindered rapid development of these organisms as highly efficient factories for the production of heterologous proteins. In this review, we highlight several of the known benefits and challenges in using filamentous fungi (particularly Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma reesei, and Neurospora crassa) for the production of proteins, especially heterologous, nonfungal enzymes. We review various techniques commonly employed in recombinant protein production in the filamentous fungi, including transformation methods, selection of gene regulatory elements such as promoters, protein secretion factors such as the signal peptide, and optimization of coding sequence. We provide insights into current models of host genomic defenses such as repeat-induced point mutation and quelling. Furthermore, we examine the regulatory effects of transcript sequences, including introns and untranslated regions, pre-mRNA (messenger RNA) processing, transcript transport, and mRNA stability. We anticipate that this review will become a resource for researchers who aim at advancing the use of these fascinating organisms as protein production factories, for both academic and industrial purposes, and also for scientists with general interest in the biology of the filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanical model for filament buckling and growth by phase ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Alejandro D; Abukhdeir, Nasser M

    2008-02-05

    A mechanical model of open filament shape and growth driven by phase ordering is formulated. For a given phase-ordering driving force, the model output is the filament shape evolution and the filament end-point kinematics. The linearized model for the slope of the filament is the Cahn-Hilliard model of spinodal decomposition, where the buckling corresponds to concentration fluctuations. Two modes are predicted: (i) sequential growth and buckling and (ii) simultaneous buckling and growth. The relation among the maximum buckling rate, filament tension, and matrix viscosity is given. These results contribute to ongoing work in smectic A filament buckling.

  18. High-Density Stacked Ru Nanocrystals for Nonvolatile Memory Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Mao; Zhi-Gang, Zhang; Li-Yang, Pan; Jun, Xu; Pei-Yi, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Stacked ruthenium (Ru) nanocrystals (NCs) are formed by rapid thermal annealing for the whole gate stacks and embedded in memory structure, which is compatible with conventional CMOS technology. Ru NCs with high density (3 × 10 12 cm −2 ), small size (2–4 nm) and good uniformity both in aerial distribution and morphology are formed. Attributed to the higher surface trap density, a memory window of 5.2 V is obtained with stacked Ru NCs in comparison to that of 3.5 V with single-layer samples. The stacked Ru NCs device also exhibits much better retention performance because of Coulomb blockade and vertical uniformity between stacked Ru NCs

  19. Two crystalline modifications of RuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pley, Martin; Wickleder, Mathias S.

    2005-01-01

    RuO 4 was prepared by oxidation of elemental ruthenium. Two different modifications were obtained and investigated by X-ray single crystal diffraction. RuO 4 -I has cubic symmetry (P4; - 3n,Z=8,a=8.509(1)A), and two independent tetrahedral molecules are present in the unit cell. Within the standard uncertainties in both molecules the distances Ru-O are 1.695A. The second modification, RuO 4 -II, is monoclinic (C2/c,Z=4,a=9.302(4)A,b=4.3967(10)A,c=8.454(4)A,β=116.82(3) o ) and isotypic with OsO 4 . There is one independent molecule in the unit cell, which shows distances Ru-O of 1.697 and 1.701A, respectively

  20. Filament stretching rheometer: inertia compensation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-01-01

    The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end of the e......The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end...

  1. Infrared Radiation Filament And Metnod Of Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Edward A.

    1998-11-17

    An improved IR radiation source is provided by the invention. A radiation filament has a textured surface produced by seeded ion bombardment of a metal foil which is cut to a serpentine shape and mounted in a windowed housing. Specific ion bombardment texturing techniques tune the surface to maximize emissions in the desired wavelength range and to limit emissions outside that narrow range, particularly at longer wavelengths. A combination of filament surface texture, thickness, material, shape and power circuit feedback control produce wavelength controlled and efficient radiation at much lower power requirements than devices of the prior art.

  2. Analytical Core Mass Function (CMF) from Filaments: Under Which Circumstances Can Filament Fragmentation Reproduce the CMF?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yueh-Ning; Hennebelle, Patrick [IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chabrier, Gilles, E-mail: yueh-ning.lee@cea.fr [École normale supérieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, Université de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2017-10-01

    Observations suggest that star formation in filamentary molecular clouds occurs in a two-step process, with the formation of filaments preceding that of prestellar cores and stars. Here, we apply the gravoturbulent fragmentation theory of Hennebelle and Chabrier to a filamentary environment, taking into account magnetic support. We discuss the induced geometrical effect on the cores, with a transition from 3D geometry at small scales to 1D at large ones. The model predicts the fragmentation behavior of a filament for a given mass per unit length (MpL) and level of magnetization. This core mass function (CMF) for individual filaments is then convolved with the distribution of filaments to obtain the final system CMF. The model yields two major results. (i) The filamentary geometry naturally induces a hierarchical fragmentation process, first into groups of cores, separated by a length equal to a few filament Jeans lengths, i.e., a few times the filament width. These groups then fragment into individual cores. (ii) Non-magnetized filaments with high MpL are found to fragment excessively, at odds with observations. This is resolved by taking into account the magnetic field (treated simply as additional pressure support). The present theory suggests two complementary modes of star formation: although small (spherical or filamentary) structures will collapse directly into prestellar cores, according to the standard Hennebelle–Chabrier theory, the large (filamentary) ones, the dominant population according to observations, will follow the aforedescribed two-step process.

  3. Anisotropic magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance of conducting filaments in NiO with different resistance states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Diyang; Qiao, Shuang; Luo, Yuxiang; Chen, Aitian; Zhang, Pengfei; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Zhong; Guo, Minghua; Chiang, F.-K.; Wu, Jian; Luo, Jianlin; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yayu; Zhao, Yonggang; Tsinghua University Team; Chinese Academy of Sciences Collaboration

    Resistive switching (RS) effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks has attracted much attention due to its interesting physics and potentials for applications. NiO is one of the most representative systems and its RS effect has been generally explained by the formation and rupture of Ni related conducting filaments, which are very unique since they are formed by electric forming process. We study the MR behaviors in NiO RS films with different resistance states. Rich and interesting MR behaviors were observed, including the normal and anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), etc., which provide new insights into the nature of the filaments and their evolution in the resistive switching process. First-principles calculation reveals the essential role of oxygen migration into the filaments during the RESET process and can account for the experimental results. Our work provides a new avenue for the exploration of the conducting filaments in RS materials, and is significant for understanding the RS mechanism as well as multifunctional device design.

  4. Formation of beads-on-a-string structures during the pinch-off of viscoelastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep; Appathurai, Santosh; Harris, Michael; Pasquali, Matteo; McKinley, Gareth; Basaran, Osman

    2009-11-01

    Breakup of liquid filaments is omnipresent in nature and technology. When a filament formed by placing a drop of syrup between a thumb and a forefinger is stretched by pulling apart the two fingers, it resembles a thinning cylinder. If the same experiment is repeated with saliva, the filament's morphology close to pinch-off resembles that of beads of several sizes interconnected by slender threads. Although there is general agreement that formation of such beads-on-a-string (BOAS) morphology only occurs for viscoelastic fluids, the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear and controversial. The physics of formation of BOAS structures is probed here by simulation which reveals that viscoelasticity alone does not give rise to a small, satellite bead between two much larger main drops (beads) but that inertia is required for its formation. Viscoelasticity, however, enhances the growth of the satellite bead and delays pinch-off, which leads to a relatively long-lived, stable beaded filament. The new simulations also show the formation of second-generation sub-satellite beads in certain cases, as observed experimentally but not, heretofore, predicted theoretically.

  5. Real time monitoring of filament-assisted chemically vapor deposited diamond by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Cong; An, I.; Vedam, K.; Collins, R.W.; Nguyen, H.V.; Messier, R.

    1991-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry over the range 1.5-4.5 eV was applied as a real time probe of the processes occurring in the initial nucleation of thin film diamond by heated-filament assisted chemical vapor deposition. Using both untreated and diamond-polished c-Si substrates, as well as both carburized and uncarburized tungsten filaments, it was possible to separate and characterize competing phenomena, including the increase in surface temperature induced by filament ignition, the formation of carbide layers, contamination of the substrate by tungsten from the filament, annealing of diamond polishing damage, and, finally, diamond nucleation. An accurate measurement of the true temperature of the substrate surface averaged over the top 500 A can be obtained from the energy position of critical points in the c-Si band structure. For diamond deposition, we operated with an initial excess flow of CH 4 to stimulate nucleation. We applied real time feedback and manual control to reduce the CH 4 flow in the first monolayers of deposition. The thickness of diamond and an estimate of its nucleation density can be obtained from real time spectra, and the latter was in good agreement with that obtained from scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  6. Methanol electro-oxidation on Pt-Ru-P/C and Pt-Ru-P/MWCNT in acidic medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available . The electro-catalytic activity towards methanol oxidation in acidic medium was studied by cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry. Pt-Ru-P/MWCNT showed excellent activity compared to that of Pt-Ru-P/C. This may be attributed to the effectiveness...

  7. Evidence of High-Spin Ru and Universal Magnetic Anisotropy in SrRuO(3) Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    films also exhibit significantly decreased mobility that we believe to be associated with a higher incidence of defects and increased mosaic spread...VAILIONIS, AND SUZUKI PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 134429 (2012) 12D. Toyota , I. Ohkubo, H. Kumigashira, M. Oshima, T. Ohnishi, M. Lippmaa, M. Takizawa, A

  8. Mesoporous Ruthenium/Ruthenium Oxide Thin Films: Active Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Jakob; Hellstern, Thomas R.; Choi, Shin-Jung

    2017-01-01

    We report the first synthesis of a fully contiguous large area supported thin film of highly ordered mesoporous Ru and RuO2 and investigate the electrocatalytic properties towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). We find that the nanoscale porous network of these catalysts provides significant...... enhancements in geometric OER activity without any loss in specific activity. This work demonstrates a strategy for engineering materials at the nanoscale that can simultaneously decrease precious metal loading and increase electrode activity....

  9. High-resolution Observations of Sympathetic Filament Eruptions by NVST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shangwei; Su, Yingna; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan [5001 Riverwood Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34231 (United States); Sun, Xudong, E-mail: ynsu@pmo.ac.cn [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    We investigate two sympathetic filament eruptions observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope on 2015 October 15. The full picture of the eruptions is obtained from the corresponding Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations. The two filaments start from active region NOAA 12434 in the north and end in one large quiescent filament channel in the south. The left filament erupts first, followed by the right filament eruption about 10 minutes later. Clear twist structure and rotating motion are observed in both filaments during the eruption. Both eruptions failed, since the filaments first rise up, then flow toward the south and merge into the southern large quiescent filament. We also observe repeated activations of mini filaments below the right filament after its eruption. Using magnetic field models constructed based on SDO /HMI magnetograms via the flux rope insertion method, we find that the left filament eruption is likely to be triggered by kink instability, while the weakening of overlying magnetic fields due to magnetic reconnection at an X-point between the two filament systems might play an important role in the onset of the right filament eruption.

  10. Oxidation study of Cr-Ru hard coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Kuo, Yu-Chu; Chen, Sin-Min

    2012-01-01

    Cr-Ru alloy coatings with Cr content ranging from 47 to 83 at.% were deposited at 400 Degree-Sign C by direct current magnetron co-sputtering with a Ti interlayer on silicon substrates. With a total input power of 300 W, the Cr content in the Cr-Ru coatings increased linearly with the increasing input power of Cr. The intermetallic compound phase Cr{sub 2}Ru with columnar structure was identified for the as-deposited Cr{sub 56}Ru{sub 44} and Cr{sub 65}Ru{sub 35} coatings, resulting in an increase of hardness up to 15-16 GPa. To evaluate the performance of Cr-Ru coatings as a protective coating on glass molding dies, the annealing treatment was conducted at 600 Degree-Sign C in a 50 ppm O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} atmosphere. The outward diffusion and preferential oxidization of Cr in the Cr-Ru coatings resulted in the variations of the crystalline structure, chemical composition distribution, and surface hardness after annealing. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved that an oxide scale consisting of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed on the free surface. Scanning electron microscopy and TEM observed the surface morphology and structural variation. The chemical composition depth profiles were analyzed by Auger electron microscopy, verifying the presence of a Cr-depleted zone beneath the oxide scale. The hardness of Cr{sub 56}Ru{sub 44} and Cr{sub 65}Ru{sub 35} coatings decreased to 11-12 GPa after annealing, accompanied by the replacement of the Cr{sub 2}Ru phase by the Ru phase. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared crystalline Cr-Ru alloy coatings by direct current magnetron sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr-Ru coatings were annealed at 600 Degree-Sign C for 2 h in a 50 ppm O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr diffused outwardly and oxidized to form a stable and protective oxide scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The original columnar grains recrystallized to polycrystalline grains.

  11. APPLIED SCIENTOMETRICS: ELIBRARY.RU VS GOOGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Юрков

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical issues associated with searching reliable information about the publication activity of Russian scientist are discussed in the article. The examples in [1] show that the effective solution of this problem requires the using of different scientometric services: both the domestic eLIBRARY.RU and its Russian Science Citation Index, and the Google Scholar as an alternative. At the time the work is published comparison was not in favor of the domestic resource. However, due to the RSCI project within a short period the eLibrary’s tools for building database of scientific publications have grown significantly and the opportunities to improve the quality of scientometric information become real. The article gives the examples.

  12. Preparation of PtRu/C anode electrocatalysts using gamma radiation for methanol electro-oxidation; Preparacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C utilizando radiacao gama para aplicacao como anodo na oxidacao direta de metanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Fortunato da

    2006-07-01

    Pt Ru/C (carbon-supported Pt Ru nanoparticles) anode electrocatalysts were prepared using radiolytic process (gamma radiation) and tested for methanol electro-oxidation. In this process, water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol solutions containing the metallic ions and the carbon support were submitted to gamma radiation under stirring. The water/alcohol ratio (v/v) and the total dose (kGy) were studied. A nominal Pt Ru atomic ratio of 50:50 were used in all experiments. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of methanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry using the thin porous coating technique. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed crystallite size in the range of 3-5 nm and Pt Ru atomic ratio of 50:50. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol showed crystallite size (2-3 nm) smaller than the ones obtained in water/2-propanol, however, the Pt Ru atomic ratios obtained were approximately 80:20, showing that only part of ruthenium ions were reduced. For methanol oxidation the electrocatalytic activity depends on the water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol ratio used in the reaction medium. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed inferior performance to the ones prepared in water/ethylene glycol, which showed similar or superior performances (amperes per gram of platinum) to the commercial electrocatalyst from E-TEK. (author)

  13. Single hole spectroscopic strength in 98Ru through the 99Ru(d,t) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Barbosa, M.D.L.; Silva, G.B. da; Ukita, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    The 99 Ru(d,t) 98 Ru reaction was measured for the first time at 16 MeV incident energy with the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-spectrograph facility employing the nuclear emulsion technique. In all, up to 3.5 MeV, 23 levels were detected, eight of them new; angular distributions are presented for all of them. Least squares fits of distorted wave Born approximation one-neutron pickup predictions to the rather well structured experimental angular distributions enabled the determination of l transfers and of the corresponding spectroscopic factors for 19 of these states, some being tentative attributions. Only transfers of l=0, 2, and 4 were observed. Several states were populated through single l transfers. A pure l=2 transfer is associated with the 2 1 + level and with several other states which are considered collective, as well as with the (4 + ) state at 2.277 MeV, which presents the highest spectroscopic strength. Considering five valence neutrons above the N=50 core, only 41% of the spectroscopic strength expected for 99 Ru was detected

  14. The exo-metabolome in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms that have a significant impact on human life as spoilers of food and feed by degradation and toxin production. They are also most useful as a source of bulk and fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This chapter focuses on the exo-metabolome...

  15. Nonlinear Binormal Flow of Vortex Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Scott; Carr, Lincoln

    2015-11-01

    With the current advances in vortex imaging of Bose-Einstein condensates occurring at the Universities of Arizona, São Paulo and Cambridge, interest in vortex filament dynamics is experiencing a resurgence. Recent simulations, Salman (2013), depict dissipative mechanisms resulting from vortex ring emissions and Kelvin wave generation associated with vortex self-intersections. As the local induction approximation fails to capture reconnection events, it lacks a similar dissipative mechanism. On the other hand, Strong&Carr (2012) showed that the exact representation of the velocity field induced by a curved segment of vortex contains higher-order corrections expressed in powers of curvature. This nonlinear binormal flow can be transformed, Hasimoto (1972), into a fully nonlinear equation of Schrödinger type. Continued transformation, Madelung (1926), reveals that the filament's square curvature obeys a quasilinear scalar conservation law with source term. This implies a broader range of filament dynamics than is possible with the integrable linear binormal flow. In this talk we show the affect higher-order corrections have on filament dynamics and discuss physical scales for which they may be witnessed in future experiments. Partially supported by NSF.

  16. On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...

  17. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  18. Filamentous bacteria transport electrons over centimetre distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Christian; Larsen, Steffen; Song, Jie

    2012-01-01

    across centimetre-wide zones. Here we present evidence that the native conductors are long, filamentous bacteria. They abounded in sediment zones with electric currents and along their length they contained strings with distinct properties in accordance with a function as electron transporters. Living...

  19. Ponderomotive and thermal filamentation of laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    As targets are irradiated with longer, more energetic pulses of laser light, longer-scalelength plasmas are produced. Filamentation is a potentially important process in such plasmas. In this instability, perturbations in the intensity profile of an incident light beam grow in amplitude, causing the beam to break up into intense filaments. The instability arises when a local increase in the light intensity creates a depression in plasma density either directly, via the ponderomotive force, or indirectly, via enhanced collisional absorption and subsequent plasma expansion. The density depression refracts the light into the lower-density region, enhancing the intensity perturbations. The instability is termed either ponderomotive or thermal filamentation, depending on which mechanism generates the density depression. The analogous process involving the entire beam is called self-focusing. Filamentation can significantly affect laser-plasma coupling. Intensity enhancements can introduce or modify other instabilities, change the location of the energy deposition, and possibly aggravate deleterious collective effects such as hot-electron generation

  20. Solar Filaments as Tracers of Subsurface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    and filament eruptions, then, one might hope to discover important properties of the .... reasoning would lead to an estimated average field of 23 G in the corona, in ... paradigm relies heavily on the concept of twisted flux ropes as agents of ...

  1. Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments. Pavel Ambrož, Astronomical Institute of the Acad. Sci. of the Czech Republic, CZ-25165. Ondrejov, The Czech Republic. e-mail: pambroz@asu.cas.cz. Alfred Schroll, Kanzelhöehe Solar Observatory of the University of Graz, A-9521 Treffen,. Austria. e-mail: schroll@solobskh.ac.at.

  2. Evolution of genetic systems in filamentous ascomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    A great variety of genetic systems exist in filamentous ascomycetes. The transmission of genetic material does not only occur by (sexual or asexual) reproduction, but it can also follow vegetative fusion of different strains. In this thesis the evolution of this variability is studied,

  3. Morphology and rheology in filamentous cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherpfennig, T; Kiep, K A; Driouch, H; Wittmann, C; Krull, R

    2010-01-01

    Because of their metabolic diversity, high production capacity, secretion efficiency, and capability of carrying out posttranslational modifications, filamentous fungi are widely exploited as efficient cell factories in the production of metabolites, bioactive substances, and native or heterologous proteins, respectively. There is, however, a complex relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, transport phenomena, the viscosity of the cultivation broth, and related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass, every growth form having a distinct influence on broth rheology. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages for mycelial or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Because of the still inadequate understanding of the morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimized production process, it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the relevant approaches in biochemical engineering. In this chapter, morphology and growth of filamentous fungi are described, with special attention given to specific problems as they arise from fungal growth forms; growth and mass transfer in fungal biopellets are discussed as an example. To emphasize the importance of the flow behavior of filamentous cultivation broths, an introduction to rheology is also given, reviewing important rheological models and recent studies concerning rheological parameters. Furthermore, current knowledge on morphology and productivity in relation to the environom is outlined in the last section of this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A symplectic integration method for elastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Tony; Misra, Gaurav

    2009-03-01

    Elastic rods are a ubiquitous coarse-grained model of semi-flexible biopolymers such as DNA, actin, and microtubules. The Worm-Like Chain (WLC) is the standard numerical model for semi-flexible polymers, but it is only a linearized approximation to the dynamics of an elastic rod, valid for small deflections; typically the torsional motion is neglected as well. In the standard finite-difference and finite-element formulations of an elastic rod, the continuum equations of motion are discretized in space and time, but it is then difficult to ensure that the Hamiltonian structure of the exact equations is preserved. Here we discretize the Hamiltonian itself, expressed as a line integral over the contour of the filament. This discrete representation of the continuum filament can then be integrated by one of the explicit symplectic integrators frequently used in molecular dynamics. The model systematically approximates the continuum partial differential equations, but has the same level of computational complexity as molecular dynamics and is constraint free. Numerical tests show that the algorithm is much more stable than a finite-difference formulation and can be used for high aspect ratio filaments, such as actin. We present numerical results for the deterministic and stochastic motion of single filaments.

  5. Filament Channel Formation, Eruption, and Jet Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Karpen, Judith T.

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism behind filament-channel formation is a longstanding mystery, while that underlying the initiation of coronal mass ejections and jets has been studied intensively but is not yet firmly established. In previous work, we and collaborators have investigated separately the consequences of magnetic-helicity condensation (Antiochos 2013) for forming filament channels (Zhao et al. 2015; Knizhnik et al. 2015, 2017a,b) and of the embedded-bipole model (Antiochos 1996) for generating reconnection-driven jets (Pariat et al. 2009, 2010, 2015, 2016; Wyper et al. 2016, 2017). Now we have taken a first step toward synthesizing these two lines of investigation. Our recent study (Karpen et al. 2017) of coronal-hole jets with gravity and wind employed an ad hoc, large-scale shear flow at the surface to introduce magnetic free energy and form the filament channel. In this effort, we replace the shear flow with an ensemble of local rotation cells, to emulate the Sun’s ever-changing granules and supergranules. As in our previous studies, we find that reconnection between twisted flux tubes within the closed-field region concentrates magnetic shear and free energy near the polarity inversion line, forming the filament channel. Onset of reconnection between this field and the external, unsheared, open field releases stored energy to drive the impulsive jet. We discuss the results of our new simulations with implications for understanding solar activity and space weather.

  6. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  7. Graphene-based filament material for thermal ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shick, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Siegfried, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-19

    The use of graphene oxide materials for thermal ionization mass spectrometry analysis of plutonium and uranium has been investigated. Filament made from graphene oxide slurries have been 3-D printed. A method for attaching these filaments to commercial thermal ionization post assemblies has been devised. Resistive heating of the graphene based filaments under high vacuum showed stable operation in excess of 4 hours. Plutonium ion production has been observed in an initial set of filaments spiked with the Pu 128 Certified Reference Material.

  8. Ambient aging of rhenium filaments used in thermal ionization mass spectrometry: Growth of oxo-rhenium crystallites and anti-aging strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Mannion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Degassing is a common preparation technique for rhenium filaments used for thermal ionization mass spectrometric analysis of actinides, including plutonium. Although optimization studies regarding degassing conditions have been reported, little work has been done to characterize filament aging after degassing. In this study, the effects of filament aging after degassing were explored to determine a “shelf-life” for degassed rhenium filaments, and methods to limit filament aging were investigated. Zone-refined rhenium filaments were degassed by resistance heating under high vacuum before exposure to ambient atmosphere for up to 2 months. After degassing the nucleation and preferential growth of oxo-rhenium crystallites on the surface of polycrystalline rhenium filaments was observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Compositional analysis of the crystallites was conducted using SEM-Raman spectroscopy and SEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and grain orientation at the metal surface was investigated by electron back-scatter diffraction mapping. Spectra collected by SEM-Raman suggest crystallites are composed primarily of perrhenic acid. The relative extent of growth and crystallite morphology were found to be grain dependent and affected by the dissolution of carbon into filaments during annealing (often referred to as carbonization or carburization. Crystallites were observed to nucleate in region specific modes and grow over time through transfer of material from the surface. Factors most likely to affect the rates of crystallite growth include rhenium substrate properties such as grain size, orientation, levels of dissolved carbon, and relative abundance of defect sites; as well as environmental factors such as length of exposure to oxygen and relative humidity. Thin (∼180 nm hydrophobic films of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride were found to slow the growth of oxo-rhenium crystallites on the filament

  9. Solar filament material oscillations and drainage before eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yi; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Hong, Junchao; Li, Haidong; Yang, Dan; Yang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Both large-amplitude longitudinal (LAL) oscillations and material drainage in a solar filament are associated with the flow of material along the filament axis, often followed by an eruption. However, the relationship between these two motions and a subsequent eruption event is poorly understood. We analyze a filament eruption using EUV imaging data captured by the Atmospheric Imaging Array on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Hα images from the Global Oscillation Network Group. Hours before the eruption, the filament was activated, with one of its legs undergoing a slow rising motion. The asymmetric activation inclined the filament relative to the solar surface. After the active phase, LAL oscillations were observed in the inclined filament. The oscillation period increased slightly over time, which may suggest that the magnetic fields supporting the filament evolve to be flatter during the slow rising phase. After the oscillations, a significant amount of filament material was drained toward one filament endpoint, followed immediately by the violent eruption of the filament. The material drainage may further support the change in magnetic topology prior to the eruption. Moreover, we suggest that the filament material drainage could play a role in the transition from a slow to a fast rise of the erupting filament.

  10. Architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown mussel, perna perna

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregory, MA

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available attention was paid to filament architecture, enervation of filaments, number and type of cells populating filament epithelia and variations in epithelial cell morphotogy and cilia ultra structure. Filament shape was maintained by thickened chitin...

  11. Filamentary structures in dense plasma focus: Current filaments or vortex filaments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo, E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, José [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, CCHEN, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Castillo, Fermin [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, México (Mexico); Veloso, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Auluck, S. K. H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Recent observations of an azimuthally distributed array of sub-millimeter size sources of fusion protons and correlation between extreme ultraviolet (XUV) images of filaments with neutron yield in PF-1000 plasma focus have re-kindled interest in their significance. These filaments have been described variously in literature as current filaments and vortex filaments, with very little experimental evidence in support of either nomenclature. This paper provides, for the first time, experimental observations of filaments on a table-top plasma focus device using three techniques: framing photography of visible self-luminosity from the plasma, schlieren photography, and interferometry. Quantitative evaluation of density profile of filaments from interferometry reveals that their radius closely agrees with the collision-less ion skin depth. This is a signature of relaxed state of a Hall fluid, which has significant mass flow with equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy, supporting the “vortex filament” description. This interpretation is consistent with empirical evidence of an efficient energy concentration mechanism inferred from nuclear reaction yields.

  12. Magnetic properties of the filled skutterudite-type structure compounds GdRu4P12 and TbRu4P12 synthesized under high pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sekine, C; Uchiumi, T; Shirotani, I; Matsuhira, kazuyuki; Sakakibara, T; Goto, T; Yagi, T

    2000-01-01

    We have succeeded in synthesizing filled skutterudite-type structure compounds GdRu4P12 and TbRu4P12 under high pressure. The magnetic properties of GdRu4P12 and TbRu4P12 have been studied by means of electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization measurements. Magnetic experiments suggest that the Gd and Tb ions in the compounds have trivalent state. The compound GdRu4P12 displays features that suggest the occurrence of antiferromagnetic ordering below TN=22 K. In TbRu4P1...

  13. Application of Ti/RuO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrodes in the electrooxidation of ethanol and derivants: Reactivity versus electrocatalytic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.; De Andrade, A.R. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-9010 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Purgato, F.L.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-9010 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Equipe Electrocatalyse, UMR 6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France); Kokoh, K.B.; Leger, J.-M. [Equipe Electrocatalyse, UMR 6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France)

    2008-11-15

    The influence of the preparation method on the performance of RuO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrodes was evaluated toward the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). Freshly prepared RuO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films containing between 30 and 80 at.% Ru were prepared by two different methods: the modified Pechini-Adams method (DPP) and standard thermal decomposition (STD). Electrochemical investigation of the electrode containing RuO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films was conducted as a function of electrode composition in a 0.5-mol dm{sup -3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, in the presence and absence of ethanol and its derivants (acetaldehyde and acetic acid). At a low ethanol concentration (5 mmol dm{sup -3}), ethanol oxidation leads to high yields of acetic acid and CO{sub 2}. On the other hand, an increase in ethanol concentration (15-1000 mmol dm{sup -3}) favors acetaldehyde formation, so acetic acid and CO{sub 2} production is hindered, in this case. Electrodes prepared by DPP provide higher current efficiency than STD electrodes for all the investigated ethanol concentrations. This may be explained by the increase in electrode area obtained with the DPP preparation method compared with STD. (author)

  14. Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported graphene: Large-scale first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yong; Evans, James W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA and Ames Laboratory—U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Large-scale first-principles density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on monolayer graphene (G) supported on Ru(0001). The G sheet exhibits a periodic moiré-cell superstructure due to lattice mismatch. Within a moiré cell, there are three distinct regions: fcc, hcp, and mound, in which the C{sub 6}-ring center is above a fcc site, a hcp site, and a surface Ru atom of Ru(0001), respectively. The adsorption energy of a Ru adatom is evaluated at specific sites in these distinct regions. We find the strongest binding at an adsorption site above a C atom in the fcc region, next strongest in the hcp region, then the fcc-hcp boundary (ridge) between these regions, and the weakest binding in the mound region. Behavior is similar to that observed from small-unit-cell calculations of Habenicht et al. [Top. Catal. 57, 69 (2014)], which differ from previous large-scale calculations. We determine the minimum-energy path for local diffusion near the center of the fcc region and obtain a local diffusion barrier of ∼0.48 eV. We also estimate a significantly lower local diffusion barrier in the ridge region. These barriers and information on the adsorption energy variation facilitate development of a realistic model for the global potential energy surface for Ru adatoms. This in turn enables simulation studies elucidating diffusion-mediated directed-assembly of Ru nanoclusters during deposition of Ru on G/Ru(0001)

  15. Pd-RuSe/C as ORR specific catalyst in alkaline solution containing methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheswari, S.; Sridhar, P.; Pitchumani, S. [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute-Madras Unit, CSIR Complex, Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2012-12-15

    Carbon supported RuSe (RuSe/C) catalyst in varying atomic ratios of Ru to Se, namely, 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 were prepared and their performances were compared with carbon supported Ru (Ru/C). Based on the performance, Palladium was incorporated into as prepared RuSe(2:1)/C and heat treated HTRuSe(2:1)/C. Ru/C, RuSe/C, and Pd-RuSe/C were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The XRD analyses of Ru/C, RuSe/C and Pd-HTRuSe/C show the formation of the hcp structure of Ru particles and the mean particle size was obtained from Ru(101) peak. The electrochemical characterizations of Ru/C, RuSe/C, Pd-HTRuSe(2:1)/C and Pd-RuSe(2:1)/C were conducted by cyclic voltammetry. Linear Sweep Voltammetric studies showed that incorporation of Pd in HTRu-Se(2:1)/C resulted in better catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction with resistance to methanol oxidation. The quantity of hydrogen peroxide produced was obtained from rotating ring disk electrode studies. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide thin films on metal substrates by chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seveno, R. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)]. E-mail: raynald.seveno@univ-nantes.fr; Braud, A. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Gundel, H.W. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2005-12-22

    In order to improve the structural interface between a metal substrate and a lead zirconate titanate (Pb(ZrTi)O{sub 3}, PZT) ferroelectric thin film, the elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide (SrRuO{sub 3}) by chemical solution deposition is studied. The SrRuO{sub 3} thin films were realized by multiple spin-coating technique and the temperature of the rapid thermal annealing process was optimized. The crystallization behavior was examined by X-ray diffraction; surface analyses using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope techniques showed the influence of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer at the interface PZT/metal on the morphology of the ferroelectric thin film. From the electrical measurements, a coercive electric field around 25 kV/cm and a remanent polarization of approximately 30 {mu}C/cm were found.

  17. Elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide thin films on metal substrates by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seveno, R.; Braud, A.; Gundel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the structural interface between a metal substrate and a lead zirconate titanate (Pb(ZrTi)O 3 , PZT) ferroelectric thin film, the elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide (SrRuO 3 ) by chemical solution deposition is studied. The SrRuO 3 thin films were realized by multiple spin-coating technique and the temperature of the rapid thermal annealing process was optimized. The crystallization behavior was examined by X-ray diffraction; surface analyses using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope techniques showed the influence of the SrRuO 3 layer at the interface PZT/metal on the morphology of the ferroelectric thin film. From the electrical measurements, a coercive electric field around 25 kV/cm and a remanent polarization of approximately 30 μC/cm were found

  18. A Method for Absolute Determination of the Surface Areal Density of Functional Groups in Organic Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Hyegeun; Son, Jin Gyeong; Kim, Jeong Won; Yu, Hyunung; Lee, Tae Geol; Moon, Dae Won [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To develop a methodology for absolute determination of the surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films, medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) spectroscopy was utilized to provide references for calibration of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or Fourier transformation-infrared (FT-IR) intensities. By using the MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR techniques, we were able to analyze the organic thin film of a Ru dye compound (C{sub 58}H{sub 86}O{sub 8}N{sub 8}S{sub 2}Ru), which consists of one Ru atom and various stoichiometric functional groups. From the MEIS analysis, the absolute surface areal density of Ru atoms (or Ru dye molecules) was determined. The surface areal densities of stoichiometric functional groups in the Ru dye compound were used as references for the calibration of XPS and FT-IR intensities for each functional group. The complementary use of MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR to determine the absolute surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films will be useful for more reliable development of applications based on organic thin films in areas such as flexible displays, solar cells, organic sensors, biomaterials, and biochips.

  19. Use of submicron carbon filaments in place of carbon black as a porous reduction electrode in lithium batteries with a catholyte comprising bromine chloride in thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frysz, C.A. [Wilson Greatbatch, Ltd., Clarence, NY (United States); Shui, X.; Chung, D.D.L. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Composite Materials Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Submicron carbon filaments used in place of carbon black as porous reduction electrodes in carbon limited lithium batteries in plate and jellyroll configurations with the BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) catholyte gave a specific capacity (at 2 V cut-off) of up to 8,700 mAh/g carbon, compared to a value of up to 2,900 mAh/g carbon for carbon black. The high specific capacity per g carbon (demonstrating superior carbon efficiency) for the filament electrode is partly due to the filaments` processability into sheets as thin as 0.2 mm with good porosity and without a binder, and partly due to the high catholyte absorptivity and high rate of catholyte absorption of the filament electrode.

  20. Surface studies by low energy ion beams: Cu/Ru(0001) and Cu/O/Ru(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y G; O` Connor, D J; MacDonald, R J [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Wandelt, H [Institut fur Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Universitat Bonn, Bonn (Germany).; Zee, H van [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands) Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    The surface structure of Cu on Ru(OOO1) has been studied by low energy Li{sup +} ion scattering. It was found that Cu forms pseudomorphic islands for two layers. The effects of Cu on an O-precovered RU(OOO1) surface has also been investigated using keV He{sup +} ions. The results show that during the deposition of Cu, O is displaced from the Ru surface and migrated onto the top of the surface of the growing overlayer. The floated out O has been tested, showing a disordered overlayer. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Surface studies by low energy ion beams: Cu/Ru(0001) and Cu/O/Ru(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.G.; O`Connor, D.J.; MacDonald, R.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Wandelt, H. [Institut fur Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Universitat Bonn, Bonn (Germany).; Zee, H. van [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands) Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    The surface structure of Cu on Ru(OOO1) has been studied by low energy Li{sup +} ion scattering. It was found that Cu forms pseudomorphic islands for two layers. The effects of Cu on an O-precovered RU(OOO1) surface has also been investigated using keV He{sup +} ions. The results show that during the deposition of Cu, O is displaced from the Ru surface and migrated onto the top of the surface of the growing overlayer. The floated out O has been tested, showing a disordered overlayer. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films on ruthenium oxide and platinum electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Reaney, I.M.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution and bright- and dark-field transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize and compare the interface structures and microstructure of PZT/RuO 2 /SiO 2 /Si and PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si ferroelectric thin films, with a view to understanding the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT thin films with RuO 2 electrodes. The RuO 2 /PZT interface consists of a curved pseudoperiodic minimal surface. The interface is chemically sharp with virtually no intermixing of RuO 2 and PZT, as evidenced by the atomic resolution images as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A nanocrystalline pyrochlore phase Pb 2 ZrTiO 7-x (x ≠ 1) was found on the top surface of the PZT layer. The PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si thin film was well-crystallized and showed sharp interfaces throughout. Possible reasons for the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT/RuO 2 /SiO 2 /Si thin films are discussed. 13 refs; 7 figs

  3. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films on ruthenium oxide and platinum electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A; Reaney, I M

    1994-12-31

    High-resolution and bright- and dark-field transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize and compare the interface structures and microstructure of PZT/RuO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si and PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si ferroelectric thin films, with a view to understanding the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT thin films with RuO{sub 2} electrodes. The RuO{sub 2}/PZT interface consists of a curved pseudoperiodic minimal surface. The interface is chemically sharp with virtually no intermixing of RuO{sub 2} and PZT, as evidenced by the atomic resolution images as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A nanocrystalline pyrochlore phase Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 7-x} (x {ne} 1) was found on the top surface of the PZT layer. The PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin film was well-crystallized and showed sharp interfaces throughout. Possible reasons for the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT/RuO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin films are discussed. 13 refs; 7 figs.

  4. Fabrication of PLA Filaments and its Printable Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjie; Zhou, Jianping; Ma, Yuming; Wang, Jie; Xu, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a typical 3D printing technology and preparation of qualified filaments is the basis. In order to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) filaments suitable for personalized FDM 3D printing, this article investigated the effect of factors such as extrusion temperature and screw speed on the diameter, surface roughness and ultimate tensile stress of the obtained PLA filaments. The optimal process parameters for fabrication of qualified filaments were determined. Further, the printable performance of the obtained PLA filaments for 3D objects was preliminarily explored.

  5. An investigation of the Pd-Ag-Ru-Gd quaternary system phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kanghou; Xu Yun

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the Ag-Pd-Gd, Ag-Ru-Gd and Pd-Ru-Gd ternary systems, the partial phase diagram of Pd-Ag-Ru-Gd (Gd 3 Gd and Ag 51 Gd 14 ; five two-phase regions: Pd(Ag) + (Ru), Pd(Ag) + Ag 51 Gd 14 (Ru) + Ag 51 Gd 14 , Pd(Ag) + Pd 3 Gd and (Ru) + Pd 3 Gd; three three-phase regions: Pd(Ag) + Pd 3 Gd + (Ru), Pd(Ag) + Ag 51 Gd 14 + (Ru) and (Ru) + Ag 51 Gd 14 + Pd 3 Gd; one four-phase region Pd(Ag) + (Ru) + Ag 51 Gd 14 + Pd 3 Gd. No new quaternary intermetallic phase has been found

  6. Optimum Pt and Ru atomic composition of carbon-supported Pt-Ru alloy electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation studied by the polygonal barrel-sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromi, Chikako; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Akira; Abe, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The sputtered Pt and Ru form the Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles on the carbon support. → The deposited Pt-Ru alloy particles have uniform Pt:Ru atomic ratios. → The optimum Pt:Ru ratio of the Pt-Ru/C for methanol oxidation is 58:42 at.% at 25 deg. C. → The optimum Pt:Ru ratio of 58:42 shifts to 50:50 at.% at 40 and 60 deg. C. → The polygonal barrel-sputtering method is useful to prepare the DMFC anode catalyst. - Abstract: The optimum Pt and Ru atomic composition of a carbon-supported Pt-Ru alloy (Pt-Ru/C) used in a practical direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) anode was investigated. The samples were prepared by the polygonal barrel-sputtering method. Based on the physical properties of the prepared Pt-Ru/C samples, the Pt-Ru alloy was found to be deposited on a carbon support. The microscopic characterization showed that the deposited alloy forms nanoparticles, of which the atomic ratios of Pt and Ru (Pt:Ru ratios) are uniform and are in accordance with the overall Pt:Ru ratios of the samples. The formation of the Pt-Ru alloy is also supported by the electrochemical characterization. Based on these results, methanol oxidation on the Pt-Ru/C samples was measured by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results indicated that the methanol oxidation activities of the prepared samples depended on the Pt:Ru ratios, of which the optimum Pt:Ru ratio is 58:42 at.% at 25 deg. C and 50:50 at.% at 40 and 60 deg. C. This temperature dependence of the optimum Pt:Ru ratio is well explained by the relationship between the methanol oxidation reaction process and the temperature, which is reflected in the rate-determining steps considered from the activation energies. It should be noted that at 25-60 deg. C, the Pt-Ru/C with Pt:Ru = 50:50 at.% prepared by our sputtering method has the higher methanol oxidation activity than that of a commercially available sample with the identical overall Pt:Ru ratio. Consequently, the polygonal barrel-sputtering method

  7. Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of RuO2 nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Basse, Felix H.-U.; Schneider, Jochen M.; Hassdorf, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    We have explored the effect of the O/Ru ratio on the morphology and the Seebeck coefficient of RuO 2 nanorods (space group P4 2 /mnm) synthesized by reactive sputtering. At an O/Ru ratio of 1.69, a faceted surface is observed, while nanorod formation occurs at O/Ru ratios of 2.03 and 2.24. Using classical molecular dynamics with the potential parameters derived in this work, we show that volatile species enable nanorod formation. Based on ab initio calculations, two effects of the nanorod formation on the Seebeck coefficient are observed: (i) increase due to additional states in the vicinity of the Fermi level and (ii) decrease due to oxygen point defects (volatile species). These two competing effects give rise to a moderate increase in the Seebeck coefficient upon nanorod formation.

  8. Fingerprint elements scatter analysis on ancient chinese Ru porcelains samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Xiande

    1997-01-01

    Altogether 28 samples, mainly including glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, were analyzed by NAA technique and the contents of 36 elements were compared. The scatter analysis for nine fingerprint-elements indicates that almost all ancient Chinese Ru porcelain samples had nearly identical and long-term stable source of raw materials although they were fired in different kilns, at varying time and with distinct colors, and moreover, the source of raw materials for modern Ru porcelain seems to approach that for ancient one. The close provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is also preliminarily verified. The glaze material of Jingdezhen white porcelain is totally different from all other samples. It shows that the former came from a separate source

  9. High-resolution electron microscopic evidence for the filamentous structure of the cyst wall in Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, S L; Bemrick, W J; Pawley, J

    1989-10-01

    High-resolution morphological studies of the cyst wall of Giardia spp. were performed using low-voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cyst wall was composed of membranous and filamentous layers. The membranous layer consisted of an inner and an outer cyst membrane separated by a thin layer of cytoplasm. The filamentous layer contained individual filaments that ranged from 7 to 20 nm in diameter when measured by LVSEM, formed a dense meshwork with branches or interconnections, and were occasionally arranged on the surface in whorled patterns. Cysts of Giardia muris from mice, Giardia duodenalis from dogs, pigs, voles, beavers, muskrats, and humans, and Giardia psittaci from a bird (parakeet), possessed an essentially identical wall composed of filaments. Inducement of excystation in viable Giardia cysts produced a dramatic increase in the interfilament spacing over an entire cyst, but none was observed in heat-killed or chemically fixed control cysts. These results demonstrated that the cyst wall of Giardia spp. was composed of a complex arrangement of filaments, presumably formed during the process of encystment.

  10. Isomer spectroscopy in 92Ru and 95Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorska, M.; Rejmund, M.; Schubart, R.; Grawe, H.; Heese, J.; Maier, K.H.; Spohr, K.; Fitzgerald, J.B.; Fossan, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    The parity changing γ-transitions like E1, M2, E3 in 92 Ru and 95 Pd nuclei have been investigated to probe the purity of the Shell Model. Two isomers of 92 Ru and 95 Pd have been produced in the 58 Ni + 40 Ca heavy ion reaction at 58 Ni beams energy 215 MeV. The gamma-ray transition strength have been deduced

  11. RDM Lifetime measurement in "1"0"0Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Rohilla, Aman; Chamoli, S.K.; Singh, R.P.; Murlithar, S.; Chakraborty, S.; Sharma, H.P.; Rai, S.; Kumar, A.; Govil, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    The energy level sequences of nuclei in A ∼ 100 mass region show an interesting interplay between single-particle and collective degrees of freedom. The measured transition probabilities in "9"8Ru suggest that the nucleus has both single-particle and vibrational character. To see how the nature of this nucleus changes with addition of 2 neutrons, we performed RDM lifetime measurement in yrast sequence of "1"0"0Ru at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi

  12. Alkali promotion of N-2 dissociation over Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    Using self-consistent density functional calculations, we show that adsorbed Na and Cs lower the barrier for dissociation of N2 on Ru(0001). Since N2 dissociation is a crucial step in the ammonia synthesis reaction, we explain in this way the experimental observation that alkali metals promote th...... the ammonia synthesis reaction over Ru catalysts. We also show that the origin of this effect is predominantly a direct electrostatic attraction between the adsorbed alkali atoms and the dissociating molecule....

  13. In situ ellipsometric study of surface immobilization of flagellar filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurunczi, S., E-mail: kurunczi@mfa.kfki.hu [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Nemeth, A.; Huelber, T. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Kozma, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Petrik, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Jankovics, H. [Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Sebestyen, A. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Vonderviszt, F. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Institute of Enzymology, Karolina ut 29-33, Budapest, H-1113 (Hungary); and others

    2010-10-15

    Protein filaments composed of thousands of subunits are promising candidates as sensing elements in biosensors. In this work in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to monitor the surface immobilization of flagellar filaments. This study is the first step towards the development of layers of filamentous receptors for sensor applications. Surface activation is performed using silanization and a subsequent glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Structure of the flagellar filament layers immobilized on activated and non-activated Si wafer substrates is determined using a two-layer effective medium model that accounted for the vertical density distribution of flagellar filaments with lengths of 300-1500 nm bound to the surface. The formation of the first interface layer can be explained by the multipoint covalent attachment of the filaments, while the second layer is mainly composed of tail pinned filaments floating upwards with the free parts. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy, covalent immobilization resulted in an increased surface density compared to absorption.

  14. Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Laser filamentation in gases is often carried out in the laboratory with focusing optics to better stabilize the filament, whereas real-world applications of filaments frequently involve collimated or near-collimated beams. It is well documented that geometrical focusing can alter the properties of laser filaments and, consequently, a transition between a collimated and a strongly focused filament is expected. Nevertheless, this transition point has not been identified. Here, we propose an analytical method to determine the transition, and show that it corresponds to an actual shift in the balance of physical mechanisms governing filamentation. In high-NA conditions, filamentation is primarily governed by geometrical focusing and plasma effects, while the Kerr nonlinearity plays a more significant role as NA decreases. We find the transition between the two regimes to be relatively insensitive to the intrinsic laser parameters, and our analysis agrees well with a wide range of parameters found in published literature. PMID:25434678

  15. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they result from proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in epithelial tissue. Culture, histopathological and molecular evidence of spirochetal infection associated with MD has been presented in several published studies using a variety of techniques. Spirochetes genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto predominate as the infective agent in most of the Morgellons skin specimens studied so far. Other species of Borrelia including Borrelia garinii , Borrelia miyamotoi , and Borrelia hermsii have also been detected in skin specimens taken from MD patients. The optimal treatment for MD remains to be determined.

  16. Helicity and Filament Channels? The Straight Twist!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and most puzzling features of the coronal magnetic field is that it appears to have smooth magnetic structure with little evidence for non-potentiality except at special locations, photospheric polarity inversions lines where the non-potentiality is observed as a filament channel. This characteristic feature of the closed-field corona is highly unexpected given that photospheric motions continuously tangle its magnetic field. Although reconnection can eliminate some of the injected structure, it cannot destroy the helicity, which should build up to produce observable complexity. We propose that an inverse cascade process transports the injected helicity from the interior of closed flux regions to their boundaries, polarity inversion lines, creating filament channels. We describe how the helicity is injected and transported and calculate the relevant rates. We argue that one process, helicity transport, can explain both the observed lack and presence of structure in the coronal magnetic field.

  17. Laser filamentation mathematical methods and models

    CERN Document Server

    Lorin, Emmanuel; Moloney, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    This book is focused on the nonlinear theoretical and mathematical problems associated with ultrafast intense laser pulse propagation in gases and in particular, in air. With the aim of understanding the physics of filamentation in gases, solids, the atmosphere, and even biological tissue, specialists in nonlinear optics and filamentation from both physics and mathematics attempt to rigorously derive and analyze relevant non-perturbative models. Modern laser technology allows the generation of ultrafast (few cycle) laser pulses, with intensities exceeding the internal electric field in atoms and molecules (E=5x109 V/cm or intensity I = 3.5 x 1016 Watts/cm2 ). The interaction of such pulses with atoms and molecules leads to new, highly nonlinear nonperturbative regimes, where new physical phenomena, such as High Harmonic Generation (HHG), occur, and from which the shortest (attosecond - the natural time scale of the electron) pulses have been created. One of the major experimental discoveries in this nonlinear...

  18. Filament supply circuit for particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.C. Jr.; Malone, H.F.

    1975-01-01

    In a particle accelerator of the type employing ac primary power and a voltage multiplication apparatus to achieve the required high dc accelerating voltage, a filament supply circuit is powered by a portion of the ac primary power appearing at the last stage of the voltage multiplier. This ac power is applied across a voltage regulator circuit in the form of two zener diodes connected back to back. The threshold of the zeners is below the lowest peak-to-peak voltage of the ac voltage, so that the regulated voltage remains constant for all settings of the adjustable acceleration voltage. The regulated voltage is coupled through an adjustable resistor and an impedance-matching transformer to the accelerator filament. (auth)

  19. Merging and energy exchange between optical filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, D. A., E-mail: dgeorgieva@tu-sofia.bg [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kovachev, L. M. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradcko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-28

    We investigate nonlinear interaction between collinear femtosecond laser pulses with power slightly above the critical for self-focusing P{sub cr} trough the processes of cross-phase modulation (CPM) and degenerate four-photon parametric mixing (FPPM). When there is no initial phase difference between the pulses we observe attraction between pulses due to CPM. The final result is merging between the pulses in a single filament with higher power. By method of moments it is found that the attraction depends on the distance between the pulses and has potential character. In the second case we study energy exchange between filaments. This process is described through FPPM scheme and requests initial phase difference between the waves.

  20. Filamented plasmas in laser ablation of solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davies, J.R.; Fajardo, M.; Kozlová, Michaela; Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2009), 035013/1-035013/12 ISSN 0741-3335 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 12843 - TUIXS Grant - others:FCT(PT) POCI/FIS/59563/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : magneto-hydrodynamic modelling * perturbation * filaments * x-ray * plasma Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2009

  1. Cold Milky Way HI Gas in Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Kerp, J.; Haud, U.; Winkel, B.; Ben Bekhti, N.; Flöer, L.; Lenz, D.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate data from the Galactic Effelsberg-Bonn H I Survey, supplemented with data from the third release of the Galactic All Sky Survey (GASS III) observed at Parkes. We explore the all-sky distribution of the local Galactic H I gas with | {v}{{LSR}}| \\lt 25 km s-1 on angular scales of 11‧-16‧. Unsharp masking is applied to extract small-scale features. We find cold filaments that are aligned with polarized dust emission and conclude that the cold neutral medium (CNM) is mostly organized in sheets that are, because of projection effects, observed as filaments. These filaments are associated with dust ridges, aligned with the magnetic field measured on the structures by Planck at 353 GHz. The CNM above latitudes | b| \\gt 20^\\circ is described by a log-normal distribution, with a median Doppler temperature TD = 223 K, derived from observed line widths that include turbulent contributions. The median neutral hydrogen (H I) column density is NH I ≃ 1019.1 cm-2. These CNM structures are embedded within a warm neutral medium with NH I ≃ 1020 cm-2. Assuming an average distance of 100 pc, we derive for the CNM sheets a thickness of ≲0.3 pc. Adopting a magnetic field strength of Btot = (6.0 ± 1.8) μG, proposed by Heiles & Troland, and assuming that the CNM filaments are confined by magnetic pressure, we estimate a thickness of 0.09 pc. Correspondingly, the median volume density is in the range 14 ≲ n ≲ 47 cm-3. The authors thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for support under grant numbers KE757/11-1, KE757/7-3, KE757/7-2, KE757/7-1, and BE4823/1-1.

  2. Band engineering of amorphous silicon ruthenium thin film and its near-infrared absorption enhancement combined with nano-holes pattern on back surface of silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Anran; Zhong, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: wli@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Gu, Deen; Jiang, Xiangdong [School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Jiang, Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • The increase of Ru concentration leads to a narrower bandgap of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} thin film. • The absorption coefficient of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} is higher than that of SiGe. • A double-layer absorber comprising of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} film and Si nano-holes layer is achieved. - Abstract: Silicon is widely used in semiconductor industry but has poor performance in near-infrared photoelectronic devices because of its bandgap limit. In this study, a narrow bandgap silicon rich semiconductor is achieved by introducing ruthenium (Ru) into amorphous silicon (a-Si) to form amorphous silicon ruthenium (a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x}) thin films through co-sputtering. The increase of Ru concentration leads to an enhancement of light absorption and a narrower bandgap. Meanwhile, a specific light trapping technique is employed to realize high absorption of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} thin film in a finite thickness to avoid unnecessary carrier recombination. A double-layer absorber comprising of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} thin film and silicon random nano-holes layer is formed on the back surface of silicon substrates, and significantly improves near-infrared absorption while the leaky light intensity is less than 5%. This novel absorber, combining narrow bandgap thin film with light trapping structure, may have a potential application in near-infrared photoelectronic devices.

  3. Magnetization Modeling of Twisted Superconducting Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Satiramatekul, T; Devred, Arnaud; Leroy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new Finite Element numerical method to analyze the coupling between twisted filaments in a superconducting multifilament composite wire. To avoid the large number of elements required by a 3D code, the proposed method makes use of the energy balance principle in a 2D code. The relationship between superconductor critical current density and local magnetic flux density is implemented in the program for the Bean and modified Kim models. The modeled wire is made up of six filaments twisted together and embedded in a lowresistivity matrix. Computations of magnetization cycle and of the electric field pattern have been performed for various twist pitch values in the case of a pure copper matrix. The results confirm that the maximum magnetization depends on the matrix conductivity, the superconductor critical current density, the applied field frequency, and the filament twist pitch. The simulations also lead to a practical criterion for wire design that can be used to assess whether or not th...

  4. The Magnetic Structure of Filament Barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jongchul; Moon, Yong-Jae; Park, Young-Deuk

    2005-06-01

    There is a controversy about how features protruding laterally from filaments, called barbs, are magnetically structured. On 2004 August 3, we observed a filament that had well-developed barbs. The observations were performed using the 10 inch refractor of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. A fast camera was employed to capture images at five different wavelengths of the Hα line and successively record them on the basis of frame selection. The terminating points of the barbs were clearly discernable in the Hα images without any ambiguity. The comparison of the Hα images with the magnetograms taken by SOHO MDI revealed that the termination occurred above the minor polarity inversion line dividing the magnetic elements of the major polarity and those of the minor polarity. There is also evidence that the flux cancellation proceeded on the polarity inversion line. Our results together with similar other recent observations support the idea that filament barbs are cool matter suspended in local dips of magnetic field lines, formed by magnetic reconnection in the chromosphere.

  5. OSCILLATING FILAMENTS. I. OSCILLATION AND GEOMETRICAL FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Heigl, Stefan; Burkert, Andreas, E-mail: gritschm@usm.uni-muenchen.de [University Observatory Munich, LMU Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-01-10

    We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid-based AMR code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, such as with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation, and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process “geometrical fragmentation.” In our realization, the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristic scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. We show that the overall oscillation pattern can hide the infall signature of cores.

  6. A first approach to filament dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P E S; De Abreu, F Vistulo; Dias, R G; Simoes, R

    2010-01-01

    Modelling elastic filament dynamics is a topic of high interest due to the wide range of applications. However, it has reached a high level of complexity in the literature, making it unaccessible to a beginner. In this paper we explain the main steps involved in the computational modelling of the dynamics of an elastic filament. We first derive equations governing the dynamics of an elastic lament suitable for a computer simulation implementation. The derivation starts from the relation between forces and potential energy in conservative systems in order to derive the equation of motion of any bead in the filament. Only two-dimensional movements are considered, but extensions to three dimensions can follow similar lines. Suggestions for computer implementations are provided in Matlab as well as an example of application related to the generation of musical sounds. This example allows a critical analysis of the numerical results obtained using a cross-disciplinary perspective. Since derivations start from basic physics equations, use simple calculus and computational implementations are straightforward, this paper proposes a different approach to introduce simple molecular dynamics simulations or animations of real systems in undergraduate elasticity or computer modelling courses.

  7. FILAMENT INTERACTION MODELED BY FLUX ROPE RECONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, T.; Chandra, R.; Pariat, E.; Demoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.; Linton, M. G.; Mandrini, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Hα observations of solar active region NOAA 10501 on 2003 November 20 revealed a very uncommon dynamic process: during the development of a nearby flare, two adjacent elongated filaments approached each other, merged at their middle sections, and separated again, thereby forming stable configurations with new footpoint connections. The observed dynamic pattern is indicative of 'slingshot' reconnection between two magnetic flux ropes. We test this scenario by means of a three-dimensional zero β magnetohydrodynamic simulation, using a modified version of the coronal flux rope model by Titov and Demoulin as the initial condition for the magnetic field. To this end, a configuration is constructed that contains two flux ropes which are oriented side-by-side and are embedded in an ambient potential field. The choice of the magnetic orientation of the flux ropes and of the topology of the potential field is guided by the observations. Quasi-static boundary flows are then imposed to bring the middle sections of the flux ropes into contact. After sufficient driving, the ropes reconnect and two new flux ropes are formed, which now connect the former adjacent flux rope footpoints of opposite polarity. The corresponding evolution of filament material is modeled by calculating the positions of field line dips at all times. The dips follow the morphological evolution of the flux ropes, in qualitative agreement with the observed filaments.

  8. On the fragmentation of filaments in a molecular cloud simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, R.-A.; Kainulainen, J.; Ibáñez-Mejía, J. C.; Henning, Th.; Mac Low, M.-M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The fragmentation of filaments in molecular clouds has attracted a lot of attention recently as there seems to be a close relation between the evolution of filaments and star formation. The study of the fragmentation process has been motivated by simple analytical models. However, only a few comprehensive studies have analysed the evolution of filaments using numerical simulations where the filaments form self-consistently as part of large-scale molecular cloud evolution. Aim. We address the early evolution of parsec-scale filaments that form within individual clouds. In particular, we focus on three questions: How do the line masses of filaments evolve? How and when do the filaments fragment? How does the fragmentation relate to the line masses of the filaments? Methods: We examine three simulated molecular clouds formed in kiloparsec-scale numerical simulations performed with the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamic code. The simulations model a self-gravitating, magnetised, stratified, supernova-driven interstellar medium, including photoelectric heating and radiative cooling. We follow the evolution of the clouds for 6 Myr from the time self-gravity starts to act. We identify filaments using the DisPerSe algorithm, and compare the results to other filament-finding algorithms. We determine the properties of the identified filaments and compare them with the predictions of analytic filament stability models. Results: The average line masses of the identified filaments, as well as the fraction of mass in filamentary structures, increases fairly continuously after the onset of self-gravity. The filaments show fragmentation starting relatively early: the first fragments appear when the line masses lie well below the critical line mass of Ostriker's isolated hydrostatic equilibrium solution ( 16 M⊙ pc-1), commonly used as a fragmentation criterion. The average line masses of filaments identified in three-dimensional volume density cubes

  9. Reduction of RuVI≡N to RuIII-NH3 by Cysteine in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Man, Wai-Lun; Lam, William W Y; Yiu, Shek-Man; Tse, Man-Kit; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2018-05-21

    The reduction of metal nitride to ammonia is a key step in biological and chemical nitrogen fixation. We report herein the facile reduction of a ruthenium(VI) nitrido complex [(L)Ru VI (N)(OH 2 )] + (1, L = N, N'-bis(salicylidene)- o-cyclohexyldiamine dianion) to [(L)Ru III (NH 3 )(OH 2 )] + by l-cysteine (Cys), an ubiquitous biological reductant, in aqueous solution. At pH 1.0-5.3, the reaction has the following stoichiometry: [(L)Ru VI (N)(OH 2 )] + + 3HSCH 2 CH(NH 3 )CO 2 → [(L)Ru III (NH 3 )(OH 2 )] + + 1.5(SCH 2 CH(NH 3 )CO 2 ) 2 . Kinetic studies show that at pH 1 the reaction consists of two phases, while at pH 5 there are three distinct phases. For all phases the rate law is rate = k 2 [1][Cys]. Studies on the effects of acidity indicate that both HSCH 2 CH(NH 3 + )CO 2 - and - SCH 2 CH(NH 3 + )CO 2 - are kinetically active species. At pH 1, the reaction is proposed to go through [(L)Ru IV (NHSCH 2 CHNH 3 CO 2 H)(OH 2 )] 2+ (2a), [(L)Ru III (NH 2 SCH 2 CHNH 3 CO 2 H)(OH 2 )] 2+ (3), and [(L)Ru IV (NH 2 )(OH 2 )] + (4) intermediates. On the other hand, at pH around 5, the proposed intermediates are [(L)Ru IV (NHSCH 2 CHNH 3 CO 2 )(OH 2 )] + (2b) and [(L)Ru IV (NH 2 )(OH 2 )] + (4). The intermediate ruthenium(IV) sulfilamido species, [(L)Ru IV (NHSCH 2 CHNH 3 CO 2 H)(OH 2 )] 2+ (2a) and the final ruthenium(III) ammine species, [(L)Ru III (NH 3 )(MeOH)] + (5) (where H 2 O was replaced by MeOH) have been isolated and characterized by various spectroscopic methods.

  10. Fuel cell testing of Pt–Ru catalysts supported on differently prepared and pretreated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, Wojciech; Lota, Grzegorz; Frackowiak, Elzbieta; Czerwiński, Andrzej; Piela, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) testing of Pt–Ru catalysts supported on differently prepared multiwall carbon nanotube (MCNT) supports was performed to elucidate the influence of the different supports on the operating characteristics of the catalysts under real direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) anode and H 2 -PEMFC anode conditions. The MCNTs were either thin, entangled or thick, disentangled. Pretreatment of the MCNTs was also done and it was either high-temperature KOH etching or annealing (graphitization). The performance of the catalysts was compared against the performance of a commercial Pt–Ru catalyst supported on a high-surface-area carbon black. Among the different MCNT supports, the graphitized, entangled support offered the best performance in all tests, which was equal to the performance of the commercial catalyst, despite the MCNT catalyst layer was ca. 2.2 times thicker than the carbon black catalyst layer. Even for an MCNT catalyst layer, which was almost 7 times thicker than the carbon black catalyst layer, the transport limitations were not prohibitive. This confirmed the expected potential of nanotube supports for providing superior reactant transport properties of the PEMFC catalyst layers

  11. Development of a physical and electronic model for RuO 2 nanorod rectenna devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Justin

    Ruthenium oxide (RuO2) nanorods are an emergent technology in nanostructure devices. As the physical size of electronics approaches a critical lower limit, alternative solutions to further device miniaturization are currently under investigation. Thin-film nanorod growth is an interesting technology, being investigated for use in wireless communications, sensor systems, and alternative energy applications. In this investigation, self-assembled RuO2 nanorods are grown on a variety of substrates via a high density plasma, reactive sputtering process. Nanorods have been found to grow on substrates that form native oxide layers when exposed to air, namely silicon, aluminum, and titanium. Samples were analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) measurements were performed on single nanorods to characterize structure and electrical conductivity. The C-AFM probe tip is placed on a single nanorod and I-V characteristics are measured, potentially exhibiting rectifying capabilities. An analysis of these results using fundamental semiconductor physics principles is presented. Experimental data for silicon substrates was most closely approximated by the Simmons model for direct electron tunneling, whereas that of aluminum substrates was well approximated by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The native oxide of titanium is regarded as a semiconductor rather than an insulator and its ability to function as a rectifier is not strong. An electronic model for these nanorods is described herein.

  12. Optimization of Temperature Sensing with Polymer-Embedded Luminescent Ru(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia Bustamante

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a key parameter in many fields and luminescence-based temperature sensing is a solution for those applications in which traditional (mechanical, electrical, or IR-based thermometers struggle. Amongst the indicator dyes for luminescence thermometry, Ru(II polyazaheteroaromatic complexes are an appealing option to profit from the widespread commercial technologies for oxygen optosensing based on them. Six ruthenium dyes have been studied, engineering their structure for both photostability and highest temperature sensitivity of their luminescence. The most apt Ru(II complex turned out to be bis(1,10-phenanthroline(4-chloro-1,10-phenanthrolineruthenium(II, due to the combination of two strong-field chelating ligands (phen and a substituent with electron withdrawing effect on a conjugated position of the third ligand (4-Clphen. In order to produce functional sensors, the dye has been best embedded into poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate, due to its low permeability to O2, high temperature sensitivity of the indicator dye incorporated into this polymer, ease of fabrication, and excellent optical quality. Thermosensitive elements have been fabricated thereof as optical fiber tips for macroscopic applications (water courses monitoring and thin spots for microscopic uses (temperature measurements in cell culture-on-a-chip. With such dye/polymer combination, temperature sensing based on luminescence lifetime measurements allows 0.05 °C resolution with linear response in the range of interest (0–40 °C.

  13. Effect of the structural characteristics of binary Pt-Ru and ternary Pt-Ru-M fuel cell catalysts on the activity of ethanol electrooxidation in acid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, Ermete

    2013-06-01

    In view of their possible use as anode materials in acid direct ethanol fuel cells, the electrocatalytic activity of Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru-M catalysts for ethanol oxidation has been investigated. This minireview examines the effects of the structural characteristics of Pt-Ru, such as the degree of alloying and Ru oxidation state, on the electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Structural and spectroscopic analysis of hot filament decomposed ethylene deposited at low temperature on silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, F.-K.; Perevedentseva, E.; Chou, P.-W.; Cheng, C.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The deposition of decomposed ethylene on silicon wafer at lower temperature using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method was applied to compose thin film of carbon and its compounds with silicon and hydrocarbon structures. The films were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with elemental microanalysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The structure and morphology of the early stage of the film deposition was analyzed. The obtaining of SiC as well as diamond-like structure with this method and catalytic influence of chemical admixtures on the film structure and properties are discussed

  15. Chemical separation of plutonium from air filters and preparation of filaments for resonance ionization mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.; Erdmann, N.; Funk, H.; Herrmann, G.; Naehler, A.; Passler, G.; Trautmann, N.; Urban, F.

    1995-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) is used for the determination of plutonium in environmental samples. A chemical procedure based on an ion-exchange technique for the separation of plutonium from a polycarbonate filter is described. The overall yield is about 60% as determined by α-particle spectroscopy. A technique for the subsequent preparation of samples for RIMS measurements is developed. Plutonium is electrode-posited as hydroxide and covered with a thin metallic layer. While heating such a sandwich filament the plutonium hydroxide is reduced to the metal and an atomic beam is evaporated from the surface, as required for RIMS. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  16. Low resistance polycrystalline diamond thin films deposited by hot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    silicon wafers using a hydrocarbon gas (CH4) highly diluted with H2 at low pressure in a hot filament chemi- cal vapour ... the laser spot was focused on the sample surface using a ... tative spectra of diamond thin films with a typical dia-.

  17. Pt and Ru X-ray absorption spectroscopy of PtRu anode catalysts in operating direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Chung, Eun-Hyuk; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Segre, Carlo U; Smotkin, Eugene S

    2006-05-25

    In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ex situ X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray powder diffraction enabled detailed core analysis of phase segregated nanostructured PtRu anode catalysts in an operating direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). No change in the core structures of the phase segregated catalyst was observed as the potential traversed the current onset potential of the DMFC. The methodology was exemplified using a Johnson Matthey unsupported PtRu (1:1) anode catalyst incorporated into a DMFC membrane electrode assembly. During DMFC operation the catalyst is essentially metallic with half of the Ru incorporated into a face-centered cubic (FCC) Pt alloy lattice and the remaining half in an amorphous phase. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis suggests that the FCC lattice is not fully disordered. The EXAFS indicates that the Ru-O bond lengths were significantly shorter than those reported for Ru-O of ruthenium oxides, suggesting that the phases in which the Ru resides in the catalysts are not similar to oxides.

  18. A model system for carbohydrates interactions on single-crystalline Ru surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thanh Nam

    2015-07-01

    In this thesis, I present a model system for carbohydrate interactions with single-crystalline Ru surfaces. Geometric and electronic properties of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on top of graphene on hexagonal Ru(0001), rectangular Ru(10 anti 10) and vicinal Ru(1,1, anti 2,10) surfaces have been studied. First, the Fermi surfaces and band structures of the three Ru surfaces were investigated by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The experimental data and theoretical calculations allow to derive detailed information about the momentum-resolved electronic structure. The results can be used as a reference to understand the chemical and catalytic properties of Ru surfaces. Second, graphene layers were prepared on the three different Ru surfaces. Using low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, it was found that graphene can be grown in well-ordered structures on all three surfaces, hexagonal Ru(0001), rectangular Ru(10 anti 10) and vicinal Ru(1,1, anti 2,10), although they have different surface symmetries. Evidence for a strong interaction between graphene and Ru surfaces is a 1.3-1.7 eV increase in the graphene π-bands binding energy with respect to free-standing graphene sheets. This energy variation is due to the hybridization between the graphene pi bands and the Ru 4d electrons, while the lattice mismatch does not play an important role in the bonding between graphene and Ru surfaces. Finally, the geometric and electronic structures of CuPc on Ru(10 anti 10), graphene/Ru(10 anti 10), and graphene/Ru(0001) have been studied in detail. CuPc molecules can be grown well-ordered on Ru(10 anti 10) but not on Ru(0001). The growth of CuPc on graphene/Ru(10 anti 10) and Ru(0001) is dominated by the Moire pattern of graphene. CuPc molecules form well-ordered structures with rectangular unit cells on graphene/Ru(10 anti 10) and Ru(0001). The distance of adjacent CuPc molecules is 15±0.5 Aa and 13±0.5 Aa on graphene/Ru(0001

  19. Measurement of the Ru surface content of electrodeposited PtRu electrodes with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance: implications for methanol and CO electrooxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frelink, T.; Visscher, W.; Veen, van J.A.R.

    1996-01-01

    To obtain the surface content of Ru in rough electrocodeposited PtRu electrodes, the mass change of a Pt electrode during Ru deposition was measured with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCMB). It is shown that there is a correlation between the potential of the surface oxide

  20. Reactivity toward alcohols of (Ru/sup IV/ = O/sup 2-/) unit in trans-(RuCl(O)(py)/sub 4/)/sup +/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Kimitake; Nagao, Hirotaka; Yukawa, Yasuhiko; Ogura, Mariko; Kuwayama, Akito; Howell, F S; Mukaida, Masao; Kakihana, Hidetake

    1986-12-01

    The reactivity with alcohol of trans-(RuCl(O)(py)/sub 4/)/sup +/ was investigated. In MeOH, trans-(RuCl(OH)(py)/sub 4/)/sup +/ was confirmed to exist as a precursor in the formation of trans-(RuCl(OMe)(py)/sub 4/)/sup +/. The reaction progress was traced by spectrometrical and /sup 18/O-labelling experiments.

  1. Filamentation instability of a self-pinched hollow electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, H.S.; Hughes, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    Filamentation stability properties of a self-pinched hollow electron beam propagating through a collisional plasma channel are investigated within the framework of linearized Vlasov--Maxwell equations, assuming that the beam is thin and that the equilibrium and perturbed space-charge fields are neutralized by background plasma. It is further assumed that the perturbations are well tuned with kβ/sub b/c+lω/sub b/ and satisfy la 0 , where l and k are the azimuthal and axial wavenumbers, β/sub b/c and ω/sub b/ are the axial velocity and the rotational frequency of the beam, and 2a and R 0 are the thickness and mean radius of the beam. From the stability analysis, two distinctive unstable mechanisms are identified: the return-current driven instability and the resistively driven instability. It is also found that high-l-mode perturbations are easily stabilized by a spread in the canonical angular momentum. Making use of a linearized particle-in-cell code, numerical simulations are performed. The agreement between the analytical results and those of simulations is excellent

  2. Chirality of Intermediate Filaments and Magnetic Helicity of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Chae, J.

    2009-05-01

    Filaments that form either between or around active regions (ARs) are called intermediate filaments. Even though there have been many theoretical studies, the origin of the chirality of filaments is still unknown. We investigated how intermediate filaments are related to their associated ARs, especially from the point of view of magnetic helicity and the orientation of polarity inversion lines (PILs). The chirality of filaments has been determined based on the orientations of barbs observed in the full-disk Hα images taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the rising phase of solar cycle 23. The sign of magnetic helicity of ARs has been determined using S/inverse-S shaped sigmoids from Yohkoh SXT images. As a result, we have found a good correlation between the chirality of filaments and the magnetic helicity sign of ARs. Among 45 filaments, 42 filaments have shown the same sign as helicity sign of nearby ARs. It has been also confirmed that the role of both the orientation and the relative direction of PILs to ARs in determining the chirality of filaments is not significant, against a theoretical prediction. These results suggest that the chirality of intermediate filaments may originate from magnetic helicity of their associated ARs.

  3. Measuring Filament Orientation: A New Quantitative, Local Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, C.-E.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Dawson, J. R. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Novak, G. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Fissel, L. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The relative orientation between filamentary structures in molecular clouds and the ambient magnetic field provides insight into filament formation and stability. To calculate the relative orientation, a measurement of filament orientation is first required. We propose a new method to calculate the orientation of the one-pixel-wide filament skeleton that is output by filament identification algorithms such as filfinder. We derive the local filament orientation from the direction of the intensity gradient in the skeleton image using the Sobel filter and a few simple post-processing steps. We call this the “Sobel-gradient method.” The resulting filament orientation map can be compared quantitatively on a local scale with the magnetic field orientation map to then find the relative orientation of the filament with respect to the magnetic field at each point along the filament. It can also be used for constructing radial profiles for filament width fitting. The proposed method facilitates automation in analyses of filament skeletons, which is imperative in this era of “big data.”.

  4. Plasma Brightenings in a Failed Solar Filament Eruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D., E-mail: yingli@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-03-20

    Failed filament eruptions are solar eruptions that are not associated with coronal mass ejections. In a failed filament eruption, the filament materials usually show some ascending and falling motions as well as generating bright EUV emissions. Here we report a failed filament eruption (SOL2016-07-22) that occurred in a quiet-Sun region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory . In this event, the filament spreads out but gets confined by the surrounding magnetic field. When interacting with the ambient magnetic field, the filament material brightens up and flows along the magnetic field lines through the corona to the chromosphere. We find that some materials slide down along the lifting magnetic structure containing the filament and impact the chromosphere, and through kinetic energy dissipation, cause two ribbon-like brightenings in a wide temperature range. There is evidence suggesting that magnetic reconnection occurs between the filament magnetic structure and the surrounding magnetic fields where filament plasma is heated to coronal temperatures. In addition, thread-like brightenings show up on top of the erupting magnetic fields at low temperatures, which might be produced by an energy imbalance from a fast drop of radiative cooling due to plasma rarefaction. Thus, this single event of a failed filament eruption shows the existence of a variety of plasma brightenings that may be caused by completely different heating mechanisms.

  5. Measuring Filament Orientation: A New Quantitative, Local Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C.-E.; Dawson, J. R.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A.; Novak, G.; Fissel, L. M.

    2017-09-01

    The relative orientation between filamentary structures in molecular clouds and the ambient magnetic field provides insight into filament formation and stability. To calculate the relative orientation, a measurement of filament orientation is first required. We propose a new method to calculate the orientation of the one-pixel-wide filament skeleton that is output by filament identification algorithms such as filfinder. We derive the local filament orientation from the direction of the intensity gradient in the skeleton image using the Sobel filter and a few simple post-processing steps. We call this the “Sobel-gradient method.” The resulting filament orientation map can be compared quantitatively on a local scale with the magnetic field orientation map to then find the relative orientation of the filament with respect to the magnetic field at each point along the filament. It can also be used for constructing radial profiles for filament width fitting. The proposed method facilitates automation in analyses of filament skeletons, which is imperative in this era of “big data.”

  6. Measuring Filament Orientation: A New Quantitative, Local Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.-E.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A.; Dawson, J. R.; Novak, G.; Fissel, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    The relative orientation between filamentary structures in molecular clouds and the ambient magnetic field provides insight into filament formation and stability. To calculate the relative orientation, a measurement of filament orientation is first required. We propose a new method to calculate the orientation of the one-pixel-wide filament skeleton that is output by filament identification algorithms such as filfinder. We derive the local filament orientation from the direction of the intensity gradient in the skeleton image using the Sobel filter and a few simple post-processing steps. We call this the “Sobel-gradient method.” The resulting filament orientation map can be compared quantitatively on a local scale with the magnetic field orientation map to then find the relative orientation of the filament with respect to the magnetic field at each point along the filament. It can also be used for constructing radial profiles for filament width fitting. The proposed method facilitates automation in analyses of filament skeletons, which is imperative in this era of “big data.”

  7. The Cape Ghir filament system in August 2009 (NW Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrà, Pablo; Troupin, Charles; Barreiro-González, Beatriz; Desmond Barton, Eric; Orbi, Abdellatif; Arístegui, Javier

    2015-06-01

    In the framework of the Canaries-Iberian marine ecosystem Exchanges (CAIBEX) experiment, an interdisciplinary high-resolution survey was conducted in the NW African region of Cape Ghir (30°38'N) during August 2009. The anatomy of a major filament is investigated on scales down to the submesoscale using in situ and remotely sensed data. The filament may be viewed as a system composed of three intimately connected structures: a small, shallow, and cold filament embedded within a larger, deeper, and cool filament and an intrathermocline anticyclonic eddy (ITE). The cold filament, which stretches 110 km offshore, is a shallow feature 60 m deep and 25 km wide, identified by minimal surface temperatures and rich in chlorophyll a. This structure comprises two asymmetrical submesoscale (˜18 km) fronts with jets flowing in opposite directions. The cold filament is embedded near the equatorward boundary of a much broader region of approximately 120 km width and 150 m depth that forms the cool filament and stretches at least 200 km offshore. This cool region, partly resulting from the influence of cold filament, is limited by two asymmetrical mesoscale (˜50 km) frontal boundaries. At the ITE, located north of the cold filament, we observe evidence of downwelling as indicated by a relatively high concentration of particles extending from the surface to more than 200 m depth. We hypothesize that this ITE may act as a sink of carbon and thus the filament system may serve dual roles of offshore carbon export and carbon sink.

  8. Influence of temperature and light intensity on Ru(II) complex based organic-inorganic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asubay, Sezai; Durap, Feyyaz; Aydemir, Murat; Baysal, Akin; Ocak, Yusuf Selim; Tombak, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    An organic-inorganic junction was fabricated by forming [Ru(Cy_2PNHCH_2-C_4H_3O)(η"6-p-cymene)Cl_2] complex thin film using spin coating technique on n-Si and evaporating Au metal on the film. It was seen that the structure had perfect rectification property. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out in dark and under various illumination conditions (between 50-100 mW/cm"2) and with the temperature range from 303 to 380 K. The structure showed unusually forward and reverse bias temperature and light sensing behaviors. It was seen that the current both in forward and reverse bias increased with the increase in light intensity and temperature.

  9. Solvothermal growth of a ruthenium metal-organic framework featuring HKUST-1 structure type as thin films on oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachuk, Olesia; Yusenko, Kirill; Noei, Heshmat; Wang, Yuemin; Walleck, Stephan; Glaser, Thorsten; Fischer, Roland A

    2011-08-14

    Phase-pure crystalline thin films of a mixed-valence Ru(2)(II,III) metal-organic framework with 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (btc) as a linker were solvothermally grown on amorphous alumina and silica surfaces. Based on the Rietveld refinement, the structure of Ru-MOF was assigned to be analogous to [Cu(3)(btc)(2)] (HKUST-1). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. Enhancement of ethanol oxidation at Pt and PtRu nanoparticles dispersed over hybrid zirconia-rhodium supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Koster, Margaretta D.; Blanchard, Gary J.; Kulesza, Pawel J.

    2014-12-01

    A catalytic material for electrooxidation of ethanol that utilizes PtRu nanoparticles dispersed over thin films of rhodium-free and rhodium-containing zirconia (ZrO2) supports is described here. The enhancement of electrocatalytic activity (particularly in the potential range as low as 0.25-0.5 V vs. RHE), that has been achieved by dispersing PtRu nanoparticles (loading, 100 μg cm-2) over the hybrid Rh-ZrO2 support composed of nanostructured zirconia and metallic rhodium particles, is clearly evident from comparison of the respective voltammetric and chronoamperometric current densities recorded at room temperature (22 °C) in 0.5 mol dm-3 H2SO4 containing 0.5 mol dm-3 ethanol. Porous ZrO2 nanostructures, that provide a large population of hydroxyl groups in acidic medium in the vicinity of PtRu sites, are expected to facilitate the ruthenium-induced removal of passivating CO adsorbates from platinum, as is apparent from the diagnostic experiments with a small organic molecule such as methanol. Although Rh itself does not show directly any activity toward ethanol oxidation, the metal is expected to facilitate C-C bond splitting in C2H5OH. It has also been found during parallel voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements that the hybrid Rh-ZrO2 support increases activity of the platinum component itself toward ethanol oxidation in the low potential range.

  11. Atomic-scale observation of structural and electronic orders in the layered compound α-RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziatdinov, M.; Banerjee, A.; Maksov, A.; Berlijn, T.; Zhou, W.; Cao, H. B.; Yan, J.-Q.; Bridges, C. A.; Mandrus, D. G.; Nagler, S. E.; Baddorf, A. P.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    A pseudospin-1/2 Mott phase on a honeycomb lattice is proposed to host the celebrated two-dimensional Kitaev model which has an elusive quantum spin liquid ground state, and fascinating physics relevant to the development of future templates towards topological quantum bits. Here we report a comprehensive, atomically resolved real-space study by scanning transmission electron and scanning tunnelling microscopies on a novel layered material displaying Kitaev physics, α-RuCl3. Our local crystallography analysis reveals considerable variations in the geometry of the ligand sublattice in thin films of α-RuCl3 that opens a way to realization of a spatially inhomogeneous magnetic ground state at the nanometre length scale. Using scanning tunnelling techniques, we observe the electronic energy gap of ~0.25 eV and intra-unit cell symmetry breaking of charge distribution in individual α-RuCl3 surface layer. The corresponding charge-ordered pattern has a fine structure associated with two different types of charge disproportionation at Cl-terminated surface.

  12. [Population Council responsible for RU486 clinical trials in USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguillaume, C J

    1993-04-01

    As a result of the sudden political change that came with the Clinton Administration, RU-486's manufacturer, Roussel-Uclaf, and the Population Council agreed on April 20, 1992, on the manufacture and distribution of RU-486 in the US. In the US, there are less than 1.6 million induced abortions annually. From now on, US women will be able to have a choice between medical and surgical abortion. The Population Council and Roussel-Uclaf have had a contract since 1982. The Council is solely responsible for the phase 2 clinical trial of RU-486 in the US and other countries. It must present to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an amendment allowing it to begin phase 3 clinical trials. The Council will also lead the US medical facilities in this study. It will identify partners for future production of RU-486 and its distribution in the US. It will also submit to FDA a New Drug Application (NDA). FDA will review the scientific literature on RU-486 and evaluate all data submitted by the Population Council. There are still obstacles to be surmounted. The Population Council must demonstrate good judgment when selecting the criteria for choosing a pharmaceutical firm before a Technical Committee which will be part of a group of players promoting women's health, scientific experts, and other interested parties. It must find the necessary funds to conduct the clinical trials and prepare the NDA. Phase 3 clinical trials in the US must have at least 2000 women. They will test RU-486's efficacy, safety, and acceptability among women choosing medical abortion over surgical abortion. Since the Council operates in almost all countries in the world, has innovated contraceptive research and development activities, and has been endorsed by the UN, product approval of RU-486 in the US will affect policy in all countries concerned about abortion.

  13. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  14. Preparation and recording characteristics of granular-type perpendicular magnetic recording media with thin intermediate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintaku, K.; Kiya, T.

    2008-01-01

    Granular-type media with thin Ru intermediate layer were prepared on a highly oriented high-B s FeCo soft underlayer (SUL). A CoPt-TiO 2 recording layer on a Ru intermediate layer of only 2 nm had high-crystal orientation, high H c of 6.5 kOe, and a high squareness ratio (SQ) of 0.99. The magnetic property of the SUL was also good. The recording performance was measured for the media with different Ru intermediate thicknesses by using a single-pole-type (SPT) head. The media had large reproduced output even for the Ru intermediate layer thickness of 2 nm

  15. Preparation and recording characteristics of granular-type perpendicular magnetic recording media with thin intermediate layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintaku, K. [Akita Research Institute of Advanced Technology, Akita Prefectural R and D Center, 4-21 Sanuki, Araya, Akita 010-1623 (Japan)], E-mail: shintaku@ait.pref.akita.jp; Kiya, T. [Akita Research Institute of Advanced Technology, Akita Prefectural R and D Center, 4-21 Sanuki, Araya, Akita 010-1623 (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Granular-type media with thin Ru intermediate layer were prepared on a highly oriented high-B{sub s} FeCo soft underlayer (SUL). A CoPt-TiO{sub 2} recording layer on a Ru intermediate layer of only 2 nm had high-crystal orientation, high H{sub c} of 6.5 kOe, and a high squareness ratio (SQ) of 0.99. The magnetic property of the SUL was also good. The recording performance was measured for the media with different Ru intermediate thicknesses by using a single-pole-type (SPT) head. The media had large reproduced output even for the Ru intermediate layer thickness of 2 nm.

  16. The THMIS-MTR observation of a active region filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, W. G.; Tang, Y. H.; Fang, C.

    We present some THMIS-MTR observations of a active region filament on September 4, 2002. The full stokes parameters of the filament were obtained in Hα, CaII 8542 and FeI 6302. By use of the data with high spatial resolution(0.44" per pixel), we probed the fine structure of the filament and gave out the parameters at the barbs' endpoints, including intensity, velocity and longitudinal magnetic field. Comparing the quiescent filament which we have discussed before, we find that: 1)The velocities of the barbs' endpoints are much bigger in the active region filament, the values are more than one thousand meters per second. 2)The barbs' endpoints terminate at the low logitudinal magnetic field in the active region filament, too.

  17. A filament supported by different magnetic field configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Schmieder, B.; Démoulin, P.; Wiegelmann, T.; Aulanier, G.; Török, T.; Bommier, V.

    2011-08-01

    A nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolation of vector magnetogram data obtained by THEMIS/MTR on 2005 May 27 suggests the simultaneous existence of different magnetic configurations within one active region filament: one part of the filament is supported by field line dips within a flux rope, while the other part is located in dips within an arcade structure. Although the axial field chirality (dextral) and the magnetic helicity (negative) are the same along the whole filament, the chiralities of the filament barbs at different sections are opposite, i.e., right-bearing in the flux rope part and left-bearing in the arcade part. This argues against past suggestions that different barb chiralities imply different signs of helicity of the underlying magnetic field. This new finding about the chirality of filaments will be useful to associate eruptive filaments and magnetic cloud using the helicity parameter in the Space Weather Science.

  18. Dynamics and mechanics of motor-filament systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, K.; Jülicher, F.

    2006-08-01

    Motivated by the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells, we develop a general framework for describing the large-scale dynamics of an active filament network. In the cytoskeleton, active cross-links are formed by motor proteins that are able to induce relative motion between filaments. Starting from pair-wise interactions of filaments via such active processes, our framework is based on momentum conservation and an analysis of the momentum flux. This allows us to calculate the stresses in the filament network generated by the action of motor proteins. We derive effective theories for the filament dynamics which can be related to continuum theories of active polar gels. As an example, we discuss the stability of homogenous isotropic filament distributions in two spatial dimensions.

  19. Laminated structure in internally oxidized Ru-Ta coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    During the development of refractory alloy coatings for protective purposes at high temperature under oxygen-containing atmospheres, previous studies noted and examined the internal oxidation phenomenon for Mo-Ru and Ru-Ta coatings. The internally oxidized zone shows a laminated structure, consisting of alternating oxygen-rich and deficient layers stacked with a general orientation. Previous studies proposed a forming mechanism. To investigate in detail, Ru-Ta coatings were prepared with various rotating speeds of a substrate-holder. The coatings were annealed at 600 Degree-Sign C in an atmosphere continuously purged with 1% O{sub 2}-99% Ar mixed gas for 30 min. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the laminated-layer periods. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles certified the periodical variation of the related constituents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy proved the valence variation of Ta in the near surface, accompanied by the introduction of oxygen ions. The inward diffusion of oxygen was dominated by lattice diffusion. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laminated Ru-Ta coatings consisted of a cyclical gradient concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-deposited coatings showed a laminated structure with a period of 4-34 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Internal oxidation of Ru-Ta coatings executed after annealing in 1% O{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen inward diffusion was dominated by lattice diffusion.

  20. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio......-temporal instabilities such as filamentation which degrades spatial coherence and brightness. We first evaluate performance of existing designs with a “top-hat” shaped transverse current density profile. The unstable nature of highly excited semiconductor material results in a run-away process where small modulations...

  1. Dynamic Regulation of Sarcomeric Actin Filaments in Striated Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Shoichiro

    2010-01-01

    In striated muscle, the actin cytoskeleton is differentiated into myofibrils. Actin and myosin filaments are organized in sarcomeres and specialized for producing contractile forces. Regular arrangement of actin filaments with uniform length and polarity is critical for the contractile function. However, the mechanisms of assembly and maintenance of sarcomeric actin filaments in striated muscle are not completely understood. Live imaging of actin in striated muscle has revealed that actin sub...

  2. Observations of the Growth of an Active Region Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    We present observations of the growth of an active region filament caused by magnetic interactions among the filament and its adjacent superpenumbral filament (SF) and dark thread-like structures (T). Multistep reconnections are identified during the whole growing process. Magnetic flux convergence and cancellation occurring at the positive footpoint region of the filament is the first step reconnection, which resulted in the filament bifurcating into two sets of intertwined threads. One set anchored in situ, while the other set moved toward and interacted with the SF and part of T. This indicates the second step reconnection, which gave rise to the disappearance of the SF and the formation of a long thread-like structure that connects the far ends of the filament and T. The long thread-like structure further interacted with the T and then separated into two parts, representing the third step reconnection. Finally, another similar long thread-like structure, which intertwined with the fixed filament threads, appeared. Hαobservations show that this twisted structure is a longer sinistral filament. Based on the observed photospheric vector magnetograms, we performed a non-linear force-free field extrapolation to reconstruct the magnetic fields above the photosphere and found that the coronal magnetic field lines associated with the filament consists of two twisted flux ropes winding around each other. These results suggest that magnetic interactions among filaments and their adjacent SFs and T could lead to the growth of the filaments, and the filament is probably supported in a flux rope.

  3. Syntheses, structures, and physicochemical properties of diruthenium compounds of tetrachlorocatecholate with metal-metal bonded Ru(3+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3+) and Ru(3.5+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3.5+) cores (R = CH(3) and C(2)H(5)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, H; Chang, H C; Mochizuki, K; Kitagawa, S

    2001-07-02

    Metal-metal bonded Ru(3+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3+) and Ru(3.5+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3.5+) (R = CH(3) and CH(3)CH(2)) compounds with tetrachlorocatecholate (Cl(4)Cat) have been synthesized in the corresponding alcohol, MeOH and EtOH, from a nonbridged Ru(2+)-Ru(3+) compound, Na(3)[Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(4)(THF)].3H(2)O.7THF (1). In alcohol solvents, compound 1 is continuously oxidized by oxygen to form Ru(3+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3+) and Ru(3.5+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3.5+) species. The presence of a characteristic countercation leads to selective isolation of either Ru(3+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3+) or Ru(3.5+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3.5+) as a stable adduct species. In methanol, Ph(4)PCl and dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether afford Ru(3+)(mu-OMe)(2)Ru(3+) species, [A](2)[Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(4)(mu-OMe)(2)Na(2)(MeOH)(6)] ([A](+) = Ph(4)P(+) (2), [Na(dibenzo-18-crown-6)(H(2)O)(MeOH)](+) (3)), while benzo-15-crown-5-ether provides a Ru(3.5+)(mu-OMe)(2)Ru(3.5+) species, [Na(benzo-15-crown-5)(2)][Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(4)(mu-OMe)(2)Na(2)(MeOH)(6)] (4). The air oxidation of 1 in a MeOH/EtOH mixed solvent (1:1 v/v) containing benzo-15-crown-5-ether provides a Ru(3.5+)(mu-OMe)(2)Ru(3.5+) species, [Na(benzo-15-crown-5)(H(2)O)][Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(2)(mu-OMe)(2)Na(2)(EtOH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(MeOH)(2)].(benzo-15-crown-5) (5). Similarly, the oxidation of 1 in ethanol with Ph(4)PCl provides a Ru(3.5+)(mu-OEt)(2)Ru(3.5+) species, (Ph(4)P)[Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(4)(mu-OEt)(2)Na(2)(EtOH)(6)] (7). A selective formation of a Ru(3+)(mu-OEt)(2)Ru(3+) species, (Ph(4)P)(2)[Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(4)(mu-OEt)(2)Na(2)(EtOH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)] (6), is found in the presence of pyrazine or 2,5-dimethylpyrazine. The crystal structures of these compounds, except 2 and 7, have been determined by X-ray crystallography, and all compounds have been characterized by several spectroscopic and magnetic investigations. The longer Ru-Ru bonds are found in the Ru(3+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3+) species (2.606(1) and 2.628(2) A for 3 and 6, respectively) compared with those of Ru(3.5+)(mu-OMe)(2)Ru(3.5+) species (2.5260(6) A and 2

  4. Standard enthalpies of formation of selected Ru{sub 2}YZ Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ming, E-mail: myin1@hawk.iit.edu; Nash, Philip

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Standard enthalpies of formation of Ru{sub 2}YZ were measured using a drop calorimeter. • Result of L2{sub 1} structured compounds agrees with first principles data. • Lattice parameters and related phase relationships were consistent with literature data. • Ru{sub 2}HfSn, Ru{sub 2}TiSn, Ru{sub 2}VGa, Ru{sub 2}VSi, Ru{sub 2}VSn of L2{sub 1} structure were reported for the first time. - Abstract: The standard enthalpies of formation of selected ternary Ru-based Heusler compounds Ru{sub 2}YZ (Y = Fe, Hf, Mn, Ti, V; Z = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn) were measured using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The measured enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mole of atoms) of the Heusler compounds are, Ru{sub 2}FeGe (−19.7 ± 3.3); Ru{sub 2}HfSn (−24.9 ± 3.6); Ru{sub 2}MnSi (−46.0 ± 2.6); Ru{sub 2}MnGe (−29.7 ± 1.0); Ru{sub 2}MnSn (−20.6 ± 2.4); Ru{sub 2}TiSi (−94.9 ± 4.0); Ru{sub 2}TiGe (−79.1 ± 3.2); Ru{sub 2}TiSn (−60.6 ± 1.8); Ru{sub 2}VSi (−55.9 ± 1.7);for the B2-structured compounds, Ru{sub 2}FeSi (−28.5 ± 0.8); Ru{sub 2}HfAl (−70.8 ± 1.9); Ru{sub 2}MnAl (−32.3 ± 1.9); Ru{sub 2}MnGa (−25.3 ± 3.0); Ru{sub 2}TiAl (−62.7 ± 3.5); Ru{sub 2}VAl (−30.9 ± 1.6); Ru{sub 2}ZrAl (−64.5 ± 1.5). Values were compared with those from published first principles calculations and the OQMD (Open Quantum Materials Database). Lattice parameters of these compounds were determined using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Microstructures were identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)

  5. Direct methanol fuel cell with extended reaction zone anode: PtRu and PtRuMo supported on graphite felt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alex; Gyenge, Előd L.; Oloman, Colin W.

    Pressed graphite felt (thickness ∼350 μm) with electrodeposited PtRu (43 g m -2, 1.4:1 atomic ratio) or PtRuMo (52 g m -2, 1:1:0.3 atomic ratio) nanoparticle catalysts was investigated as an anode for direct methanol fuel cells. At temperatures above 333 K the fuel cell performance of the PtRuMo catalyst was superior compared to PtRu. The power density was 2200 W m -2 with PtRuMo at 5500 A m -2 and 353 K while under the same conditions PtRu yielded 1925 W m -2. However, the degradation rate of the Mo containing catalyst formulation was higher. Compared to conventional gas diffusion electrodes with comparable PtRu catalyst composition and load, the graphite felt anodes gave higher power densities mainly due to the extended reaction zone for methanol oxidation.

  6. Electronic structure investigation of atomic layer deposition ruthenium(oxide) thin films using photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Michael, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Analyzing and manipulating the electronic band line-up of interfaces in novel micro- and nanoelectronic devices is important to achieve further advancement in this field. Such band alignment modifications can be achieved by introducing thin conformal interfacial dipole layers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling angstrom-precise control over thin film thickness, is an ideal technique for this challenge. Ruthenium (Ru{sup 0}) and its oxide (RuO{sub 2}) have gained interest in the past decade as interfacial dipole layers because of their favorable properties like metal-equivalent work functions, conductivity, etc. In this study, initial results of the electronic structure investigation of ALD Ru{sup 0} and RuO{sub 2} films via photoemission spectroscopy are presented. These experiments give insight into the band alignment, growth behavior, surface structure termination, and dipole formation. The experiments were performed in an integrated vacuum system attached to a home-built, stop-flow type ALD reactor without exposing the samples to the ambient in between deposition and analysis. Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) was used as precursor and oxygen as reactant. The analysis chamber was outfitted with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS, XPS). The determined growth modes are consistent with a strong growth inhibition situation with a maximum average growth rate of 0.21 Å/cycle for RuO{sub 2} and 0.04 Å/cycle for Ru.{sup 0} An interface dipole of up to −0.93 eV was observed, supporting the assumption of a strongly physisorbed interface. A separate experiment where the surface of a RuO film was sputtered suggests that the surface is terminated by an intermediate, stable, non-stoichiometric RuO{sub 2}/OH compound whose surface is saturated with hydroxyl groups.

  7. Electronic structure investigation of atomic layer deposition ruthenium(oxide) thin films using photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Schlaf, Rudy

    2015-08-01

    Analyzing and manipulating the electronic band line-up of interfaces in novel micro- and nanoelectronic devices is important to achieve further advancement in this field. Such band alignment modifications can be achieved by introducing thin conformal interfacial dipole layers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling angstrom-precise control over thin film thickness, is an ideal technique for this challenge. Ruthenium (Ru0) and its oxide (RuO2) have gained interest in the past decade as interfacial dipole layers because of their favorable properties like metal-equivalent work functions, conductivity, etc. In this study, initial results of the electronic structure investigation of ALD Ru0 and RuO2 films via photoemission spectroscopy are presented. These experiments give insight into the band alignment, growth behavior, surface structure termination, and dipole formation. The experiments were performed in an integrated vacuum system attached to a home-built, stop-flow type ALD reactor without exposing the samples to the ambient in between deposition and analysis. Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) was used as precursor and oxygen as reactant. The analysis chamber was outfitted with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS, XPS). The determined growth modes are consistent with a strong growth inhibition situation with a maximum average growth rate of 0.21 Å/cycle for RuO2 and 0.04 Å/cycle for Ru.0 An interface dipole of up to -0.93 eV was observed, supporting the assumption of a strongly physisorbed interface. A separate experiment where the surface of a RuO film was sputtered suggests that the surface is terminated by an intermediate, stable, non-stoichiometric RuO2/OH compound whose surface is saturated with hydroxyl groups.

  8. Electronic structure investigation of atomic layer deposition ruthenium(oxide) thin films using photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Michael; Schlaf, Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing and manipulating the electronic band line-up of interfaces in novel micro- and nanoelectronic devices is important to achieve further advancement in this field. Such band alignment modifications can be achieved by introducing thin conformal interfacial dipole layers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling angstrom-precise control over thin film thickness, is an ideal technique for this challenge. Ruthenium (Ru 0 ) and its oxide (RuO 2 ) have gained interest in the past decade as interfacial dipole layers because of their favorable properties like metal-equivalent work functions, conductivity, etc. In this study, initial results of the electronic structure investigation of ALD Ru 0 and RuO 2 films via photoemission spectroscopy are presented. These experiments give insight into the band alignment, growth behavior, surface structure termination, and dipole formation. The experiments were performed in an integrated vacuum system attached to a home-built, stop-flow type ALD reactor without exposing the samples to the ambient in between deposition and analysis. Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) was used as precursor and oxygen as reactant. The analysis chamber was outfitted with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS, XPS). The determined growth modes are consistent with a strong growth inhibition situation with a maximum average growth rate of 0.21 Å/cycle for RuO 2 and 0.04 Å/cycle for Ru. 0 An interface dipole of up to −0.93 eV was observed, supporting the assumption of a strongly physisorbed interface. A separate experiment where the surface of a RuO film was sputtered suggests that the surface is terminated by an intermediate, stable, non-stoichiometric RuO 2 /OH compound whose surface is saturated with hydroxyl groups

  9. Modeling Vertical Plasma Flows in Solar Filament Barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Speeds of observed flows in quiescent solar filaments are typically much less than the local Alfvén speed. This is why the flows in filament barbs can be modeled by perturbing a local magnetostatic solution describing the balance between the Lorentz force, gravity, and gas pressure in a barb. Similarly, large-scale filament flows can be treated as adiabatically slow deformations of a force-free magnetic equilibrium that describes the global structure of a filament. This approach reconciles current theoretical models with the puzzling observational result that some of the flows appear to be neither aligned with the magnetic field nor controlled by gravity.

  10. Filament shape versus coronal potential magnetic field structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filament shape in projection on disc depends on the structure of the coronal magnetic field. We calculate the position of polarity inversion lines (PILs) of coronal potential magnetic field at different heights above the photosphere, which compose the magnetic neutral surface, and compare with them the distribution of the filament material in Hα chromospheric images. We found that the most of the filament material is enclosed between two PILs, one at a lower height close to the chromosphere and one at a higher level, which can be considered as a height of the filament spine. Observations of the same filament on the limb by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft confirm that the height of the spine is really very close to the value obtained from the PIL and filament border matching. Such matching can be used for filament height estimations in on-disc observations. Filament barbs are housed within protruding sections of the low-level PIL. On the base of simple model, we show that the similarity of the neutral surfaces in potential and non-potential fields with the same sub-photospheric sources is the reason for the found tendency for the filament material to gather near the potential-field neutral surface.

  11. Statistical Study of the Magnetic Field Orientation in Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Yoichiro; Sakurai, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    We have carried out a statistical study of the average orientation of the magnetic field in solar filaments with respect to their axes for more than 400 samples, based on data taken with daily full-Sun, full-Stokes spectropolarimetric observations using the He I 1083.0 nm line. The major part of the samples are the filaments in the quiet areas, but those in the active areas are included as well. The average orientation of the magnetic field in filaments shows a systematic property depending on the hemisphere; the direction of the magnetic field in filaments in the northern (southern) hemisphere mostly deviates clockwise (counterclockwise) from their axes, which run along the magnetic polarity inversion line. The deviation angles of the magnetic field from the axes are concentrated between 10° and 30°. This hemispheric pattern is consistent with that revealed for chirality of filament barbs, filament channels, and for other solar features found to possess chirality. For some filaments, it was confirmed that their magnetic field direction is locally parallel to their structure seen in Hα images. Our results for the first time confirmed this hemispheric pattern with the direct observation of the magnetic field in filaments. Interestingly, the filaments which show the opposite magnetic field deviation to the hemispheric pattern, are in many cases found above the polarity inversion line whose ambient photospheric magnetic field has the polarity alignment being opposite to that of active regions following the Hale–Nicholson law.

  12. Probabilities of filaments in a Poissonian distribution of points -I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancort-Rijo, J.

    1989-01-01

    Statistical techniques are devised to assess the likelihood of a Poisson sample of points in two and three dimensions, containing specific filamentary structures. For that purpose, the expression of Otto et al (1986. Astrophys. J., 304) for the probability density of clumps in a Poissonian distribution of points is generalized for any value of the density contrast. A way of counting filaments differing from that of Otto et al. is proposed, because at low density contrast the filaments counted by Otto et al. are distributed in a clumpy fashion, each clump of filaments corresponding to a distinct observed filament. (author)

  13. MATERIAL SUPPLY AND MAGNETIC CONFIGURATION OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, P.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.; Yang, K.; Hao, Q. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: fangc@nju.edu.cn [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    It is important to study the fine structures of solar filaments with high-resolution observations, since it can help us understand the magnetic and thermal structures of the filaments and their dynamics. In this paper, we study a newly formed filament located inside the active region NOAA 11762, which was observed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory from 16:40:19 UT to 17:07:58 UT on 2013 June 5. As revealed by the H α filtergrams, cool material is seen to be injected into the filament spine with a speed of 5–10 km s{sup -1}. At the source of the injection, brightenings are identified in the chromosphere, which are accompanied by magnetic cancellation in the photosphere, implying the importance of magnetic reconnection in replenishing the filament with plasmas from the lower atmosphere. Counter-streamings are detected near one endpoint of the filament, with the plane-of-the-sky speed being 7–9 km s{sup -1} in the H α red-wing filtergrams and 9–25 km s{sup -1} in the blue-wing filtergrams. The observations are indicative that this active region filament is supported by a sheared arcade without magnetic dips, and the counter-streamings are due to unidirectional flows with alternative directions, rather than due to the longitudinal oscillations of filament threads as in many other filaments.

  14. Numerical simulation of laser filamentation in underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lichun; Chen Zhihua; Tu Qinfen

    2000-01-01

    Developing process of filamentation and effect of characteristic parameters in underdense plasma have been studied using numerical simulation method. Production and development of two-dimensional cylinder filamentation instability were presented clearly. The results indicate incidence laser intensity and plasma background density are important factors affecting convergent intensity. At the same time, it was showed that different laser wavelength or different electron background density could affect filamentation process. The results are consistent with theory and experiments of alien reports. It can provide reference for restraining filamentation

  15. Hollow cylindrical plasma filament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    We have explored here a hollow cylindrical laser plasma multifilament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding, in which the separation between individual filaments is in the range of several millimeters and the waveguide cladding thickness is in the order of the microwave penetration depth. Such parameters give a closer representation of a realistic laser filament waveguide sustained by a long stable propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. We report how the waveguide losses depend on structural parameters like normalized plasma filament spacing, filament to filament distance or pitch, normal spatial frequency, and radius of the plasma filament. We found that for typical plasma parameters, the proposed waveguide can support guided modes of microwaves in extremely high frequency even with a cladding consisting of only one ring of plasma filaments. The loss of the microwave radiation is mainly caused by tunneling through the discontinuous finite cladding, i.e., confinement loss, and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In addition, the analysis indicates that the propagation loss is fairly large compared with the loss of a plasma waveguide with a continuous infinite thickness cladding, while they are comparable when using a cladding contains more than one ring. Compared to free space propagation, this waveguide still presents a superior microwave transmission to some distance in the order of the filamentation length; thus, the laser plasma filaments waveguide may be a potential channel for transporting pulsed-modulated microwaves if ensuring a long and stable propagation of fs laser pulses.

  16. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE EXTENDED Hα FILAMENTS IN COOLING FLOW CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard; Rupke, David S. N.

    2010-01-01

    We present a high spatial resolution Hα survey of 23 cooling flow clusters using the Maryland Magellan Tunable Filter, covering 1-2 orders of magnitude in cooling rate, dM/dt, temperature, and entropy. We find that 8/23 (35%) of our clusters have complex, filamentary morphologies at Hα, while an additional 7/23 (30%) have marginally extended or nuclear Hα emission, in general agreement with previous studies of line emission in cooling flow cluster brightest cluster galaxies. A weak correlation between the integrated near-UV luminosity and the Hα luminosity is also found for our complete sample with a large amount of scatter about the expected relation for photoionization by young stars. We detect Hα emission out to the X-ray cooling radius, but no further, in several clusters and find a strong correlation between the Hα luminosity contained in filaments and the X-ray cooling flow rate of the cluster, suggesting that the warm ionized gas is linked to the cooling flow. Furthermore, we detect a strong enhancement in the cooling properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) coincident with the Hα emission, compared to the surrounding ICM at the same radius. While the filaments in a few clusters may be entrained by buoyant radio bubbles, in general, the radially infalling cooling flow model provides a better explanation for the observed trends. The correlation of the Hα and X-ray properties suggests that conduction may be important in keeping the filaments ionized. The thinness of the filaments suggests that magnetic fields are an important part of channeling the gas and shielding it from the surrounding hot ICM.

  17. Electron microscopy of intermediate filaments: teaming up with atomic force and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplak, Laurent; Richter, Karsten; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) were originally discovered and defined by electron microscopy in myoblasts. In the following it was demonstrated and confirmed that they constitute, in addition to microtubules and microfilaments, a third independent, general filament system in the cytoplasm of most metazoan cells. In contrast to the other two systems, IFs are present in cells in two principally distinct cytoskeletal forms: (i) extended and free-running filament arrays in the cytoplasm that are integrated into the cytoskeleton by associated proteins of the plakin type; and (ii) a membrane- and chromatin-bound thin 'lamina' of a more or less regular network of interconnected filaments made from nuclear IF proteins, the lamins, which differ in several important structural aspects from cytoplasmic IF proteins. In man, more than 65 genes code for distinct IF proteins that are expressed during embryogenesis in various routes of differentiation in a tightly controlled manner. IF proteins exhibit rather limited sequence identity implying that the different types of IFs have distinct biochemical properties. Hence, to characterize the structural properties of the various IFs, in vitro assembly regimes have been developed in combination with different visualization methods such as transmission electron microscopy of fixed and negatively stained samples as well as methods that do not use staining such as scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and cryoelectron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy. Moreover, with the generation of both IF-type specific antibodies and chimeras of fluorescent proteins and IF proteins, it has become possible to investigate the subcellular organization of IFs by correlative fluorescence and electron microscopic methods. The combination of these powerful methods should help to further develop our understanding of nuclear architecture, in particular how nuclear subcompartments are organized and in which way lamins are involved.

  18. Dynamical spin structure factors of α-RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Suga, Sei-ichiro

    2018-03-01

    Honeycomb-lattice magnet α-RuCl3 is considered to be a potential candidate of realizing Kitaev spin liquid, although this material undergoes a phase transition to the zigzag magnetically ordered state at T N ∼ 7 K. Quite recently, inelastic neutron-scattering experiments using single crystal α-RuCl3 have unveiled characteristic dynamical properties. We calculate dynamical spin structure factors of three ab-initio models for α-RuCl3 with an exact numerical diagonalization method. We also calculate temperature dependences of the specific heat by employing thermal pure quantum states. We compare our numerical results with the experiments and discuss characteristics obtained by using three ab-initio models.

  19. Intermediate filament mechanics in vitro and in the cell: From coiled coils to filaments, fibers and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Köster, Sarah; Weitz, David; Goldman, Robert D.; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate filament proteins form filaments, fibers and networks both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of metazoan cells. Their general structural building plan accommodates highly varying amino acid sequences to yield extended dimeric α-helical coiled coils of highly conserved design. These “rod” particles are the basic building blocks of intrinsically flexible, filamentous structures that are able to resist high mechanical stresses, i.e. bending and stretching to a considerable degree, bo...

  20. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middelveen MJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Morgellons disease (MD is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they result from proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in epithelial tissue. Culture, histopathological and molecular evidence of spirochetal infection associated with MD has been presented in several published studies using a variety of techniques. Spirochetes genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto predominate as the infective agent in most of the Morgellons skin specimens studied so far. Other species of Borrelia including Borrelia garinii, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia hermsii have also been detected in skin specimens taken from MD patients. The optimal treatment for MD remains to be determined. Keywords: Morgellons disease, dermatitis, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes

  1. Laser filament-induced aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saathoff

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the aerosol and cloud simulation chamber AIDA, we investigated the laser filament induced particle formation in ambient air, humid synthetic air, humid nitrogen, argon–oxygen mixture, and pure argon in order to simulate the particle formation under realistic atmospheric conditions as well as to investigate the influence of typical gas-phase atmospheric constituents on the particle formation. Terawatt laser plasma filaments generated new particles in the size range 3 to 130 nm with particle production rates ranging from 1 × 107 to 5 × 109 cm−3 plasma s−1 for the given experimental conditions. In all cases the particle formation rates increased exponentially with the water content of the gas mixture. Furthermore, the presence of a few ppb of trace gases like SO2 and α-pinene clearly enhanced the particle yield by number, the latter also by mass. Our findings suggest that new particle formation is efficiently supported by oxidized species like acids generated by the photoionization of both major and minor components of the air, including N2, NH3, SO2 and organics.

  2. Electromechanical vortex filaments during cardiac fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, J.; Chebbok, M.; Richter, C.; Schröder-Schetelig, J.; Bittihn, P.; Stein, S.; Uzelac, I.; Fenton, F. H.; Hasenfuß, G.; Gilmour, R. F., Jr.; Luther, S.

    2018-03-01

    The self-organized dynamics of vortex-like rotating waves, which are also known as scroll waves, are the basis of the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns in many excitable chemical and biological systems. In the heart, filament-like phase singularities that are associated with three-dimensional scroll waves are considered to be the organizing centres of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanisms that underlie the onset, maintenance and control of electromechanical turbulence in the heart are inherently three-dimensional phenomena. However, it has not previously been possible to visualize the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of scroll waves inside cardiac tissues. Here we show that three-dimensional mechanical scroll waves and filament-like phase singularities can be observed deep inside the contracting heart wall using high-resolution four-dimensional ultrasound-based strain imaging. We found that mechanical phase singularities co-exist with electrical phase singularities during cardiac fibrillation. We investigated the dynamics of electrical and mechanical phase singularities by simultaneously measuring the membrane potential, intracellular calcium concentration and mechanical contractions of the heart. We show that cardiac fibrillation can be characterized using the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of mechanical phase singularities, which arise inside the fibrillating contracting ventricular wall. We demonstrate that electrical and mechanical phase singularities show complex interactions and we characterize their dynamics in terms of trajectories, topological charge and lifetime. We anticipate that our findings will provide novel perspectives for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications.

  3. Characterization of positional errors and their influence on micro four-point probe measurements on a 100 nm Ru film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film sheet resistance measurements at high spatial resolution and on small pads are important and can be realized with micrometer-scale four-point probes. As a result of the small scale the measurements are affected by electrode position errors. We have characterized the electrode position...... errors in measurements on Ru thin film using an Au-coated 12-point probe. We show that the standard deviation of the static electrode position error is on the order of 5 nm, which significantly affects the results of single configuration measurements. Position-error-corrected dual......-configuration measurements, however, are shown to eliminate the effect of position errors to a level limited either by electrical measurement noise or dynamic position errors. We show that the probe contact points remain almost static on the surface during the measurements (measured on an atomic scale) with a standard...

  4. Fuel management simulation for CANFLEX-RU in CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel management simulations have been performed for CANFLEX-09% RU fuel in the CANDU 6 reactor. In this study, the bi-directional 4-bundle shift fuelling scheme was assumed. The lattice cell and time-average calculation were carried out. The refuelling simulation calculations were performed for 600 full power days. Time-averaged results show good axial power profile with the CANFLEX-RU fuel. During the simulation period, the maximum channel and bundle power were maintained below the licensing limit of CANDU 6 reactor. 7 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  5. Role of steps in N-2 activation on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren; Logadottir, Ashildur; Egeberg, Rasmus

    1999-01-01

    Using adsorption experiments and density functional calculations we show that N-2 dissociation on the Ru(0001) surface is totally dominated by steps. The measured adsorption rate at the steps is at least 9 orders of magnitude higher than on the terraces at 500 K, and the corresponding calculated ...... difference in activation energy is 1.5 eV. The low barrier at the step is shown to be due to a combination of electronic and geometrical effects. The consequences for Ru as a catalyst for ammonia synthesis are discussed....

  6. Fuel management simulation for CANFLEX-RU in CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Fuel management simulations have been performed for CANFLEX-09% RU fuel in the CANDU 6 reactor. In this study, the bi-directional 4-bundle shift fuelling scheme was assumed. The lattice cell and time-average calculation were carried out. The refuelling simulation calculations were performed for 600 full power days. Time-averaged results show good axial power profile with the CANFLEX-RU fuel. During the simulation period, the maximum channel and bundle power were maintained below the licensing limit of CANDU 6 reactor. 7 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  7. Large scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Testi, Leonardo; Ginsburg, Adam; Walmsley, Malcolm; Molinari, Sergio; Schisano, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquity of filamentary structure at various scales through out the Galaxy has triggered a renewed interest in their formation, evolution, and role in star formation. The largest filaments can reach up to Galactic scale as part of the spiral arm structure. However, such large scale filaments are hard to identify systematically due to limitations in identifying methodology (i.e., as extinction features). We present a new approach to directly search for the largest, coldest, and densest filaments in the Galaxy, making use of sensitive Herschel Hi-GAL data complemented by spectral line cubes. We present a sample of the 9 most prominent Herschel filaments from a pilot search field. These filaments measure 37-99 pc long and 0.6-3.0 pc wide with masses (0.5-8.3)×104 Msun, and beam-averaged (28", or 0.4-0.7 pc) peak H2 column densities of (1.7-9.3)x1022 cm-2. The bulk of the filaments are relatively cold (17-21 K), while some local clumps have a dust temperature up to 25-47 K due to local star formation activities. All the filaments are located within spiral arm model incorporating the latest parallax measurements, we find that 7/9 of them reside within arms, but most are close to arm edges. These filaments are comparable in length to the Galactic scale height and therefore are not simply part of a grander turbulent cascade. These giant filaments, which often contain regularly spaced pc-scale clumps, are much larger than the filaments found in the Herschel Gould's Belt Survey, and they form the upper ends in the filamentary hierarchy. Full operational ALMA and NOEMA will be able to resolve and characterize similar filaments in nearby spiral galaxies, allowing us to compare the star formation in a uniform context of spiral arms.

  8. Topology of interaction between titin and myosin thick filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermayer, Miklós; Sziklai, Dominik; Papp, Zsombor; Decker, Brennan; Lakatos, Eszter; Mártonfalvi, Zsolt

    2018-05-05

    Titin is a giant protein spanning between the Z- and M-lines of the sarcomere. In the A-band titin is associated with the myosin thick filament. It has been speculated that titin may serve as a blueprint for thick-filament formation due to the super-repeat structure of its A-band domains. Accordingly, titin might provide a template that determines the length and structural periodicity of the thick filament. Here we tested the titin ruler hypothesis by mixing titin and myosin at in situ stoichiometric ratios (300 myosins per 12 titins) in buffers of different ionic strength (KCl concentration range 100-300 mM). The topology of the filamentous complexes was investigated with atomic force microscopy. We found that the samples contained distinct, segregated populations of titin molecules and myosin thick filaments. We were unable to identify complexes in which myosin molecules were regularly associated to either mono- or oligomeric titin in either relaxed or stretched states of the titin filaments. Thus, the electrostatically driven self-association is stronger in both myosin and titin than their binding to each other, and it is unlikely that titin functions as a geometrical template for thick-filament formation. However, when allowed to equilibrate configurationally, long myosin thick filaments appeared with titin oligomers attached to their surface. The titin meshwork formed on the thick-filament surface may play a role in controlling thick-filament length by regulating the structural dynamics of myosin molecules and placing a mechanical limit on the filament length. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tuning the reactivity of Ru nanoparticles by defect engineering of the reduced graphene oxide support

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xin; Sui, Yanhui; Meng, Changgong; Han, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We systematically investigated the electronic structure of Ru nanoparticles supported on various local structures on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by first-principles-based calculations. We showed that Ru nanoparticles prefer to nucleate

  10. Graphene substrate-mediated catalytic performance enhancement of Ru nanoparticles: A first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xin; Yao, Kexin; Meng, Changgong; Han, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The structural, energetic and magnetic properties of Ru nanoparticles deposited on pristine and defective graphene have been thoroughly studied by first-principles based calculations. The calculated binding energy of a Ru 13 nanoparticle on a single

  11. Ru-core/Cu-shell bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size formed in one-pot synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgadottir, I; Freychet, G; Arquillière, P; Maret, M; Gergaud, P; Haumesser, P H; Santini, C C

    2014-12-21

    Suspensions of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) of Ru and Cu have been synthesized by simultaneous decomposition of two organometallic compounds in an ionic liquid. These suspensions have been characterized by Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (ASAXS) at energies slightly below the Ru K-edge. It is found that the NPs adopt a Ru-core, a Cu-shell structure, with a constant Ru core diameter of 1.9 nm for all Ru : Cu compositions, while the Cu shell thickness increases with Cu content up to 0.9 nm. The formation of RuCuNPs thus proceeds through rapid decomposition of the Ru precursor into RuNPs of constant size followed by the reaction of the Cu precursor and agglomeration as a Cu shell. Thus, the different decomposition kinetics of precursors make possible the elaboration of core-shell NPs composed of two metals without chemical affinity.

  12. The microstructural evolution of nanometer ruthenium films in Ru/C multilayers with thermal treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Gronsky, R.; Kortright, J.B.

    1991-04-01

    The evolution of nanometer Ru films sandwiched between various C layer thickness with thermal treatments was studied by plan-view and cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy. Plan-view observation provides information on the Ru grain size, while cross- sectional studies allow examination of the multilayer morphology. After annealing at 800 degrees C for 30 minutes, the grain size in the 2 and 4 nm Ru layers show little difference from each other, while that in the 1 nm Ru layers depends strongly on the thickness of the C layers in the multilayers. It increases with decreasing C layer thickness. Agglomeration of the Ru layers is observed in 1nm Ru/1nm C multilayers after annealing at 600 degrees C for 30 minutes. The evolution of the microstructures and layered structure stability of the Ru/C system is compared to that of W/C and Ru/B 4 C systems. 10 refs., 2 figs

  13. Minatom.ru - A nuclear information repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fateyev, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    irradiated fuel as spent nuclear fuel and thus started threatening the population saying that Russia would be transformed into a nuclear garbage ground. - In such a situation a new column was started on the site - 'Discussing the Bills'. The column gave the answers to frequently asked questions and that was a due response to the opponents of importing of foreign irradiated fuel in Russia. After that a permanent column was started - 'Irradiated fuel is the Fuel of the Future'. In this column specialists in atomic energy and radiological safety very clearly explain on a step-by-step basis all the problems concerning the irradiated fuel. - We consider the minatom.ru web-site an instrument that will help us to achieve the following goals: - creating of a single information area of Minatom in Russia; - achieving favorable public opinion about the nuclear; - supporting the image of Minatom as one of the main branches of economy; - propaganda of the benefits of the atomic energy, stressing the fact that it has no alternative; - propaganda of using radiation in medicine as well as other socially valuable aspects of the nuclear science and the atomic energy; - closer contacts with the regions of the country where nuclear sites are located or planned; - giving the possibility to the negatively orientated part of the population to express their point of view; - giving maximum access to the information available within the industry; - establishing of interactive dialogue between the public and the head of the industry. (author)

  14. Moessbauer study of the Ru porcelain of Chinese Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Chen Xiande

    1994-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectra from the glazes of the Song Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty Ru porcelains and the imitative ancient Ru porcelain are compared and analyzed. It is determined that the original firing atmosphere of the Yuan Dynasty Ru porcelain was reductive. The firing temperature was 1250 ± 20 C. The original firing atmosphere of the Song Dynasty Ru porcelain was also reductive; the firing temperature was above 1200 C. The coloring mechanism of these glazes is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Physical principles of filamentous protein self-assembly kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, Thomas C T; Liu, Lucie X; Meisl, Georg; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2017-01-01

    The polymerization of proteins and peptides into filamentous supramolecular structures is an elementary form of self-organization of key importance to the functioning biological systems, as in the case of actin biofilaments that compose the cellular cytoskeleton. Aberrant filamentous protein self-assembly, however, is associated with undesired effects and severe clinical disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which, at the molecular level, are associated with the formation of certain forms of filamentous protein aggregates known as amyloids. Moreover, due to their unique physicochemical properties, protein filaments are finding extensive applications as biomaterials for nanotechnology. With all these different factors at play, the field of filamentous protein self-assembly has experienced tremendous activity in recent years. A key question in this area has been to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms through which filamentous aggregates emerge from dispersed proteins with the goal of uncovering the underlying physical principles. With the latest developments in the mathematical modeling of protein aggregation kinetics as well as the improvement of the available experimental techniques it is now possible to tackle many of these complex systems and carry out detailed analyses of the underlying microscopic steps involved in protein filament formation. In this paper, we review some classical and modern kinetic theories of protein filament formation, highlighting their use as a general strategy for quantifying the molecular-level mechanisms and transition states involved in these processes. (topical review)

  16. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Selvamanickam, Venkat, E-mail: selva@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer.

  17. Filament bundle location influence on coupling losses in superconducting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Daisuke; Koizumi, Misao; Hamajima, Takataro; Nakane, Fumoto.

    1983-01-01

    The ac losses in multifilamentary superconducting composites with different superconducting filament bundle positions have been measured using the magnetization method in order to reveal the relation between filament bundle position and coupling losses. Loss components depending on dB/dt in a mixed matrix superconducting composite, whose filament bundle is located in a central region surrounded by an outer stabilizing copper sheath, has been compared with another superconducting composite whose stabilizing copper is located in a central region surrounded by an outer filament bundle. In both conductors, key parameters, such as filament twistpitch, wire diameter and amount of copper stabilizer, were almost the same. Applied magnetic field is 2 Tesla with 0.05-2 Tesla/sec field change rate. Experimental results indicate that coupling losses between filaments in the composite with the filament bundle located in the central region is smaller than the composite with the filament bundle located in the outer region. A similar conclusion was reached theoretically by B. Truck. Coupling loss values obtained by the experiment show good agreement with calculated values with the equations proposed by B. Truck. It is also pointed out that a copper stabilizer, divided by the CuNi barrier into small regions, like a honeycomb, causes anomalous increasing in the copper resistivity due to Ni diffusion during heat treatment. (author)

  18. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  19. Method for simultaneously coating a plurality of filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.A.; Pochan, P.D.; Siegal, M.P.; Dominguez, F.

    1995-07-11

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for coating materials, and the products and compositions produced thereby. Substances, such as diamond or diamond-like carbon, are deposited onto materials, such as a filament or a plurality of filaments simultaneously, using one or more cylindrical, inductively coupled, resonator plasma reactors. 3 figs.

  20. Accurate simulation dynamics of microscopic filaments using "caterpillar" Oseen hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, A.G.; Lowe, C.P.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Cosentino Lagomarsino, M.

    2009-01-01

    Microscopic semiflexible filaments suspended in a viscous fluid are widely encountered in biophysical problems. The classic example is the flagella used by microorganisms to generate propulsion. Simulating the dynamics of these filaments numerically is complicated because of the coupling between the

  1. Process for the production of superconductor containing filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuominen, Olli P. (Candler, NC); Hoyt, Matthew B. (Arden, NC); Mitchell, David F. (Asheville, NC); Morgan, Carol W. (Asheville, NC); Roberts, Clyde Gordon (Asheville, NC); Tyler, Robert A. (Canton, NC)

    2002-01-01

    Superconductor containing filaments having embedments of superconducting material surrounded by a rayon matrix are formed by preparing a liquid suspension which contains at least 10 weight percent superconducting material; forming a multicomponent filament having a core of the suspension and a viscose sheath which contains cellulose xanthate; and thereafter, regenerating cellulose from the cellulose xanthate to form a rayon matrix.

  2. Design and Optimization of Filament Wound Composite Pressure Vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important issues for the design of filament-wound pressure vessels reflects on the determination of the most efficient meridian profiles and related fiber architectures, leading to optimal structural performance. To better understand the design and optimization of filament-wound

  3. Physical principles of filamentous protein self-assembly kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Liu, Lucie X.; Meisl, Georg; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2017-04-01

    The polymerization of proteins and peptides into filamentous supramolecular structures is an elementary form of self-organization of key importance to the functioning biological systems, as in the case of actin biofilaments that compose the cellular cytoskeleton. Aberrant filamentous protein self-assembly, however, is associated with undesired effects and severe clinical disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which, at the molecular level, are associated with the formation of certain forms of filamentous protein aggregates known as amyloids. Moreover, due to their unique physicochemical properties, protein filaments are finding extensive applications as biomaterials for nanotechnology. With all these different factors at play, the field of filamentous protein self-assembly has experienced tremendous activity in recent years. A key question in this area has been to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms through which filamentous aggregates emerge from dispersed proteins with the goal of uncovering the underlying physical principles. With the latest developments in the mathematical modeling of protein aggregation kinetics as well as the improvement of the available experimental techniques it is now possible to tackle many of these complex systems and carry out detailed analyses of the underlying microscopic steps involved in protein filament formation. In this paper, we review some classical and modern kinetic theories of protein filament formation, highlighting their use as a general strategy for quantifying the molecular-level mechanisms and transition states involved in these processes.

  4. Hydrodynamic interaction induced spontaneous rotation of coupled active filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2014-12-14

    We investigate the coupled dynamics of active filaments with long range hydrodynamic interactions (HI). Remarkably, we find that filaments can rotate spontaneously under the same conditions in which a single filament alone can only move in translation. Detailed analysis reveals that the emergence of coupled rotation originates from an asymmetric flow field associated with HI which breaks the symmetry of translational motion when filaments approach. The breaking is then further stabilized by HI to form self-sustained coupled rotation. Intensive simulations show that coupled rotation forms easily when one filament tends to collide with the front-half of the other. For head-to-tail approaching, we observe another interesting HI-induced coupled motion, where filaments move together in the form of one following the other. Moreover, the radius of coupled rotation increases exponentially as the rigidity of the filament increases, which suggests that HI are also important for the alignment of rigid-rod-like filaments which has been assumed to be solely a consequence of direct collisions.

  5. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Kapral, Raymond

    2015-06-01

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments.

  6. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mu-Jie, E-mail: mjhuang@chem.utoronto.ca; Kapral, Raymond, E-mail: rkapral@chem.utoronto.ca [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2015-06-28

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments.

  7. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer

  8. Biophysics of filament length regulation by molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, M D

    2013-01-01

    Regulating physical size is an essential problem that biological organisms must solve from the subcellular to the organismal scales, but it is not well understood what physical principles and mechanisms organisms use to sense and regulate their size. Any biophysical size-regulation scheme operates in a noisy environment and must be robust to other cellular dynamics and fluctuations. This work develops theory of filament length regulation inspired by recent experiments on kinesin-8 motor proteins, which move with directional bias on microtubule filaments and alter microtubule dynamics. Purified kinesin-8 motors can depolymerize chemically-stabilized microtubules. In the length-dependent depolymerization model, the rate of depolymerization tends to increase with filament length, because long filaments accumulate more motors at their tips and therefore shorten more quickly. When balanced with a constant filament growth rate, this mechanism can lead to a fixed polymer length. However, the mechanism by which kinesin-8 motors affect the length of dynamic microtubules in cells is less clear. We study the more biologically realistic problem of microtubule dynamic instability modulated by a motor-dependent increase in the filament catastrophe frequency. This leads to a significant decrease in the mean filament length and a narrowing of the filament length distribution. The results improve our understanding of the biophysics of length regulation in cells. (paper)

  9. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of SDSS galaxies in filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J.T.; Weygaert, Rien van de; Arag´on-Calvo, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We search for and find fossil evidence that the distribution of the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This would indicate that the action of large scale tidal torques effected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic

  10. Avian influenza a virus budding morphology: spherical or filamentous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most strains of influenza A virus (IAV) can produce long (µm length) filamentous virus particles as well as ~100 nm diameter spherical virions. The function of the filamentous particles is unclear but is hypothesized to facilitate transmission within or from the respiratory tract. In mammalian IAVs,...

  11. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Kapral, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments

  12. Unconventional transport characteristics of p-wave superconducting junctions in Sr2RuO4-Ru eutectic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, H.; Kashiwaya, S.; Yaguchi, H.; Asano, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Maeno, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We report on novel local transport characteristics of naturally formed p-wave superconducting junctions of Sr 2 RuO 4 -Ru eutectic system by using microfabrication technique. We observed quite anomalous voltage-current (differential resistance-current) characteristics for both I//ab and I//c directions, which are not seen in conventional Josephson junctions. The anomalous features suggest the internal degrees of freedom of the superconducting state, possibly due to chiral p-wave domain. The dc current acts as a driving force to move chiral p-wave domain walls and form larger critical current path to cause the anomalous hysteresis.

  13. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of ruthenium thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Zoethout, E.; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    For next generation Extreme UV photolithography, multilayer coatings may require protective capping layers against surface contamination. Ruthenium, as a low-oxidation metal, is often used as a reference material. The oxidation behaviour of Ru thin films has been studied using X-ray reflectometry

  14. [Dynamics of a vortex with the U-shaped filament in the heart of a ground squirrel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, N I; Gorbacheva, K N; Sklifas, A N

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of an electrical scroll wave with the U-shaped filament with both ends of the filament being "anchored" on the endocardial surface and the dependence of the structure of pseudoECG on the dynamics of the vortex during the development of polymorphic tachysystolia have been studied by applying premature stimuli to the "target phase" with subsequent registration of the spatial and temporal distribution of electrical potential throughout the surface (endocardial and epicardial) of a thin (approximately 1 mm) preparation. It was found that (1) the psedoECG of the polymorphic form during the tachysystolia attack can be observed in the case that the position of the filament ends on the surfaces of the preparation does not practically change from turn to turn (filament ends are "anchored"); (2) the thread of a scroll wave during this attack can twist and untwin (twisted filament), just as it was the case for scroll waves with a straight filament; (3) in the case of pseudoECG of polymorphic form, the twisting and untwining of the filament were stronger (the angle of maximal twisting was 120 degrees and more), and the angle of twisting changed by a substantially greater value from turn to turn as compared with the pseudoECG of monomorphic form; (4) in the case of pseudoECG of polymorphic form, the time interval between the appearance of waves on the surfaces of the preparation (Tepi-endo) was substantially greater and changed to a greater extent from turn to turn of the vortex; and (5) simultaneously with the appearance of pseudoECG of polymorphic form and the onset of changes in the twisting of the scroll and the Tepi-endo interval indicated in (2-4), significant changes in the patterns of coverage of the surface by excitation occurred. Based on the results obtained, an explanation of the reasons for the appearance of excitation breakdown patterns on the surface of the myocardium was proposed, which differs from the traditional viewpoint. These patterns may be

  15. CF2 represses Actin 88F gene expression and maintains filament balance during indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Gajewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The zinc finger protein CF2 is a characterized activator of muscle structural genes in the body wall muscles of the Drosophila larva. To investigate the function of CF2 in the indirect flight muscle (IFM, we examined the phenotypes of flies bearing five homozygous viable mutations. The gross structure of the IFM was not affected, but the stronger hypomorphic alleles caused an increase of up to 1.5X in the diameter of the myofibrils. This size increase did not cause any disruption of the hexameric arrangement of thick and thin filaments. RT-PCR analysis revealed an increase in the transcription of several structural genes. Ectopic overexpression of CF2 in the developing IFM disrupts muscle formation. While our results indicate a role for CF2 as a direct negative regulator of the thin filament protein gene Actin 88F (Act88F, effects on levels of transcripts of myosin heavy chain (mhc appear to be indirect. This role is in direct contrast to that described in the larval muscles, where CF2 activates structural gene expression. The variation in myofibril phenotypes of CF2 mutants suggest the CF2 may have separate functions in fine-tuning expression of structural genes to insure proper filament stoichiometry, and monitoring and/or controlling the final myofibril size.

  16. Beam wandering of femtosecond laser filament in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zeng, Tao; Lin, Lie; Liu, Weiwei

    2015-10-05

    The spatial wandering of a femtosecond laser filament caused by the filament heating effect in air has been studied. An empirical formula has also been derived from the classical Karman turbulence model, which determines quantitatively the displacement of the beam center as a function of the propagation distance and the effective turbulence structure constant. After fitting the experimental data with this formula, the effective turbulence structure constant has been estimated for a single filament generated in laboratory environment. With this result, one may be able to estimate quantitatively the displacement of a filament over long distance propagation and interpret the practical performance of the experiments assisted by femtosecond laser filamentation, such as remote air lasing, pulse compression, high order harmonic generation (HHG), etc.

  17. H2-splitting on Pt/Ru alloys supported on sputtered HOPG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria; Dahl, Søren; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2011-01-01

    to strain and ligand effects, caused by the compression of the surface due to the presence of the larger Pt atoms in the neighboring Ru atoms. The apparent energy of desorption at equilibrium, Eapp, for the three Pt-Ru systems is found to decrease with an increasing amount of Ru in the alloys...

  18. In situ EXAFS study of Ru-containing electrocatalysts of oxygen reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakhov, I.V.; Nikitenko, S.G.; Savinova, E.R.; Kochubey, D.I.; Alonso-Vante, N.

    2000-01-01

    The series of Ru chalcogenide compounds is obtained by varying the nature of the chalcogen with the transition metal (Ru) matrix. The EXAFS technique reveals that the electrocatalytic centre is Ru in a cluster matrix. Furthermore, a reversible change in the structure of the active centre as a function of the applied electrode potential appears

  19. Production of ruthenium aluminide by reaction sintering of Ru and Al powder mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarova, K.B.; Kazanskaya, N.K.; Drozdov, A.A.; Skachkov, O.A.; Levin, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    The physicochemical processes, taking place by the RuAl alloy formation from the ruthenium and aluminium powder mixture within the temperature range of 250-1400 deg C in the vacuum from 10 -2 up to 10 -5 mm mercury column are studied on the alloys of the Ru 50 Al 50 stoichiometric and Ru 52 Al 48 hyperstoichiometric composition. The Ru + Al → RuAl interaction with the exothermal effect begins in the solid phase at the temperatures below the aluminium t melt . The Ru 2 Al 3 , RuAl 2 and RuAl traces rich in aluminium are formed already at 600 deg C; at 1000-1400 deg C the RuAl becomes the basic phase; the precipitates of the ruthenium-based solid solution are additionally present in the hyperstoichiometric Ru 52 Al 48 alloy. The Ru 52 Al 48 crystalline lattice period increases with the growth of the caking temperature from 0.29906 (660 deg C) up to 0.22955 nm (1400 deg C). The Al 2 O 3 inclusions up to 1 μm in diameter are identified in the caked alloys in vacuum after the reaction caking [ru

  20. Ab-initio calculations of electric field gradient in Ru compounds and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 2. A b − i n i t i o calculations of electric field gradient in Ru compounds and their implication on the nuclear quadrupole moments of 99 Ru and 101 Ru. S N MISHRA. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 2 August 2017 Article ID 22 ...

  1. Electrocatalytic activity of atomic layer deposited Pt-Ru catalysts onto N-doped carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, A.-C.; Larsen, J.V.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haugshøj, K.B.; Clausen, H.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Christensen, L.H.; Thomsen, E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Pt-Ru catalysts of various compositions, between 0 and 100 at.% of Ru, were deposited onto N-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 250 C. The Pt and Ru precursors were trimethyl(methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum (MeCpPtMe3) and

  2. RuBee and RFID A confidential summary,May 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The letters"RFID"have become a negative to many of our end-customers,so we have had to distance RuBee from the entire category and discourage any attempt to characterize RuBee as just another RFID technology.We never engage in pilots or trials where RFID is seen as a competing technology to RuBee.Most

  3. Methods for genetic transformation of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Tang, Yu; Lin, Jun; Cai, Weiwen

    2017-10-03

    Filamentous fungi have been of great interest because of their excellent ability as cell factories to manufacture useful products for human beings. The development of genetic transformation techniques is a precondition that enables scientists to target and modify genes efficiently and may reveal the function of target genes. The method to deliver foreign nucleic acid into cells is the sticking point for fungal genome modification. Up to date, there are some general methods of genetic transformation for fungi, including protoplast-mediated transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, electroporation, biolistic method and shock-wave-mediated transformation. This article reviews basic protocols and principles of these transformation methods, as well as their advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    to measure both linear and nonlinear dynamics on a single apparatus. With a software modification to the FSR motor control, we show that linear viscoelasticity can be measured via small amplitude squeeze flow (SASF). Squeeze flow is a combination of both shear and extensional flow applied by axially......Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring...... viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...

  5. Bursting of filaments in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, F.T.L.

    1976-01-01

    Photographs of the current sheath of (low energy) plasma focus show a disruption of the filaments. This phenomenon is interpreted as a vortex breakdown. Physical parameters which support this hypothesis are obtained from measurements, from the theoretical thickness of the current sheath given by Nardi and from some models of the plasma flow. The widening of a vortex due to axial velocity increase is analyzed by means of magnetohydrodynamic collinear models. The main results are: (1) the existence of a limit separating supercritical from subcritical regimes (their character changes with the ratio between kinetic and magnetic energy); (2) the existence of flow regimes where the vortex radius remains approximately constant for moderate increments of the external velocity; (3) the structure of the vortex may change substantially for a sufficiently large increment of the external velocity, even in subcritical states; (4) the possibility that a burst of the vortex may occur when the external velocity suffers a slowdown

  6. Current filaments in turbulent magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martines, E.; Vianello, N.; Sundkvist, D.

    2009-01-01

    gradient region of a fusion plasma confined in reversed field pinch configuration and in a density gradient region in the Earth magnetosphere are measured and compared, showing that in both environments they can be attributed to drift-Alfvén vortices. Current structures associated with reconnection events......Direct measurements of current density perturbations associated with non-linear phenomena in magnetized plasmas can be carried out using in situ magnetic measurements. In this paper we report such measurements for three different kinds of phenomena. Current density fluctuations in the edge density...... measured in a reversed field pinch plasma and in the magnetosheath are detected and compared. Evidence of current filaments occurring during ELMs in an H-mode tokamak plasma is displayed....

  7. Filament wound data base development, revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R. Scott; Braddock, William F.

    1985-01-01

    The objective was to update the present Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) baseline reentry aerodynamic data base and to develop a new reentry data base for the filament wound case SRB along with individual protuberance increments. Lockheed's procedures for performing these tasks are discussed. Free fall of the SRBs after separation from the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle is completely uncontrolled. However, the SRBs must decelerate to a velocity and attitude that is suitable for parachute deployment. To determine the SRB reentry trajectory parameters, including the rate of deceleration and attitude history during free-fall, engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center are using a six-degree-of-freedom computer program to predict dynamic behavior. Static stability aerodynamic coefficients are part of the information required for input into this computer program. Lockheed analyzed the existing reentry aerodynamic data tape (Data Tape 5) for the current steel case SRB. This analysis resulted in the development of Data Tape 7.

  8. Natural Fiber Filament Wound Composites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ansari Suriyati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent development, natural fibers have attracted the interest of engineers, researchers, professionals and scientists all over the world as an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer composites. This is due to its superior properties such as high specific strength, low weight, low cost, fairly good mechanical properties, non-abrasive, eco-friendly and bio-degradable characteristics. In this point of view, natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residue from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. This is a comprehensive review discussing about natural fiber reinforced composite produced by filament winding technique.

  9. Rim instability of bursting thin smectic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trittel, Torsten; John, Thomas; Tsuji, Kinko; Stannarius, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The rupture of thin smectic bubbles is studied by means of high speed video imaging. Bubbles of centimeter diameter and film thicknesses in the nanometer range are pierced, and the instabilities of the moving rim around the opening hole are described. Scaling laws describe the relation between film thickness and features of the filamentation process of the rim. A flapping motion of the retracting smectic film is assumed as the origin of the observed filamentation instability. A comparison with similar phenomena in soap bubbles is made. The present experiments extend studies on soap films [H. Lhuissier and E. Villermaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 054501 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.054501] to much thinner, uniform films of thermotropic liquid crystals.

  10. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE ORION MOLECULAR FILAMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Teixeira, Paula S.; Zapata, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 μm continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 × 2.'0 (0.88 × 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H 2 mass between 0.3-5.7 M ☉ and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n H 2 ≥10 6 cm –3 ), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of ≈17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud (≈35 pc), large-scale clumps (≈1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps (≈0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

  11. Intermediate filament protein evolution and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisner, Harald; Habicht, Jörn; Garg, Sriram G; Gould, Sven B

    2018-03-23

    Metazoans evolved from a single protist lineage. While all eukaryotes share a conserved actin and tubulin-based cytoskeleton, it is commonly perceived that intermediate filaments (IFs), including lamin, vimentin or keratin among many others, are restricted to metazoans. Actin and tubulin proteins are conserved enough to be detectable across all eukaryotic genomes using standard phylogenetic methods, but IF proteins, in contrast, are notoriously difficult to identify by such means. Since the 1950s, dozens of cytoskeletal proteins in protists have been identified that seemingly do not belong to any of the IF families described for metazoans, yet, from a structural and functional perspective fit criteria that define metazoan IF proteins. Here, we briefly review IF protein discovery in metazoans and the implications this had for the definition of this protein family. We argue that the many cytoskeletal and filament-forming proteins of protists should be incorporated into a more comprehensive picture of IF evolution by aligning it with the recent identification of lamins across the phylogenetic diversity of eukaryotic supergroups. This then brings forth the question of how the diversity of IF proteins has unfolded. The evolution of IF proteins likely represents an example of convergent evolution, which, in combination with the speed with which these cytoskeletal proteins are evolving, generated their current diversity. IF proteins did not first emerge in metazoa, but in protists. Only the emergence of cytosolic IF proteins that appear to stem from a nuclear lamin is unique to animals and coincided with the emergence of true animal multicellularity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Resonant photoemission study of CeRu4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hiroyoshi; Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Takayama, Yasuhiro; Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Obu, Kenji; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Aoki, Yuji; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Sato, Hideyuki

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the Ce 4d-4f and Ce 3d-4f resonant photoemission spectra of CeRu 4 Sb 12 . The Ce 4f spectra show the spectral features corresponding to a weakly hybridized system. The number of 4f electrons is estimated to be ∼1.0

  13. Preparation of Pt–Ru bimetallic catalyst supported on carbon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The template carbonization of polyphenyl acetylene yields hollow, uniform cylindrical carbon nanotubes with outer diameter almost equal to pore diameter of the template used. High resolution transmission electron microscopic investigation reveals that Pt–Ru nanoparticles are highly dispersed inside the tube with an ...

  14. Catalytic properties of Ru-mordenite for NO reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labhsetwar, NK.; Minamino, H.; Mukherjee, M.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Rayalu, S.; Dhakad, M.; Haneda, H.; Šubrt, Jan; Devotta, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 261, č. 2 (2007), s. 213-217 ISSN 1381-1169 Grant - others:CSIR(IN) CORE(08) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : NO reduction * catalyst * Ru-zeolite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.707, year: 2007

  15. STUDY OF THE Pt/Ru(0001) INTERFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godowski, P.J.; Li, Zheshen; Bork, J.

    2007-01-01

    to the different stages of the deposition were analyzed. Up to ca. two adsorbate monolayers, the intensity changes of the peaks indicated layer-by-layer growth mode. The surface core level shifts of Ru and Pt levels were evaluated as -0.33 and -0.476 eV, respectively. The valence band spectra show a rather weak...

  16. Magnetic Excitations in α-RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Stephen; Banerjee, Arnab; Bridges, Craig; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Stone, Matthew; Aczel, Adam; Li, Ling; Yiu, Yuen; Lumsden, Mark; Knolle, Johannes; Moessner, Roderich; Tennant, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The layered material α-RuCl3 is composed of stacks of weakly coupled honeycomb lattices of octahedrally coordinated Ru3+ ions. The Ru ion ground state has 5 d electrons in the low spin state, with spin-orbit coupling very strong compared to other terms in the single ion Hamiltonian. The material is therefore an excellent candidate for investigating possible Heisenberg-Kitaev physics. In addition, this compound is very amenable to investigation by neutron scattering to explore the magnetic ground state and excitations in detail. Here we discuss new time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering data on α-RuCl3. A high energy excitation near 200 meV is identified as a transition from the single ion J=1/2 ground state to the J=3/2 excited state, yielding a direct measurement of the spin orbit coupling energy. Higher resolution measurements reveal two collective modes at much lower energy scales. The results are compared with the theoretical expectations for excitations in the Heisenberg - Kitaev model on a honeycomb lattice, and show that Kitaev interactions are important. Research at SNS supported by the DOE BES Scientific User Facilities Division.

  17. A Renewable and Ultrasensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunosenor Based on Magnetic RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 Sandwich-Type Nano-Immunocomplexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasensitive and renewable electrochemiluminescence (ECL immunosensor was developed for the detection of tumor markers by combining a newly designed trace tag and streptavidin-coated magnetic particles (SCMPs. The trace tag (RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 was prepared by loading Ru(bpy32+(RuL-conjuged secondary antibodies (RuL-Ab2 on RuL@SiO2 (RuL-doped SiO2 doped Au (RuL@SiO2-Au. To fabricate the immunosensor, SCMPs were mixed with biotinylated AFP primary antibody (Biotin-Ab1, AFP, and RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 complexes, then the resulting SCMP/Biotin-Ab1/AFP/RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 (SBAR sandwich-type immunocomplexes were absorbed on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE for detection. The immunocomplexes can be easily washed away from the surface of the SPCE when the magnetic field was removed, which made the immunosensor reusable. The present immunosensor showed a wide linear range of 0.05–100 ng mL–1 for detecting AFP, with a low detection limit of 0.02 ng mL–1 (defined as S/N = 3. The method takes advantage of three properties of the immunosensor: firstly, the RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 composite exhibited dual amplification since SiO2 could load large amount of reporter molecules (RuL for signal amplification. Gold particles could provide a large active surface to load more reporter molecules (RuL-Ab2. Accordingly, through the ECL response of RuL and tripropylamine (TPA, a strong ECL signal was obtained and an amplification analysis of protein interaction was achieved. Secondly, the sensor is renewable because the sandwich-type immunocomplexes can be readily absorbed or removed on the SPCE’s surface in a magnetic field. Thirdly, the SCMP modified probes can perform the rapid separation and purification of signal antibodies in a magnetic field. Thus, the present immunosensor can simultaneously realize separation, enrichment and determination. It showed potential application for the detection of AFP in human sera.

  18. Bundling of elastic filaments induced by hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Page, William; Poole, Robert J.; Lauga, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Peritrichous bacteria swim in viscous fluids by rotating multiple helical flagellar filaments. As the bacterium swims forward, all its flagella rotate in synchrony behind the cell in a tight helical bundle. When the bacterium changes its direction, the flagellar filaments unbundle and randomly reorient the cell for a short period of time before returning to their bundled state and resuming swimming. This rapid bundling and unbundling is, at its heart, a mechanical process whereby hydrodynamic interactions balance with elasticity to determine the time-varying deformation of the filaments. Inspired by this biophysical problem, we present in this paper what is perhaps the simplest model of bundling whereby two or more straight elastic filaments immersed in a viscous fluid rotate about their centerline, inducing rotational flows which tend to bend the filaments around each other. We derive an integrodifferential equation governing the shape of the filaments resulting from mechanical balance in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. We show that such equation may be evaluated asymptotically analytically in the long-wavelength limit, leading to a local partial differential equation governed by a single dimensionless bundling number. A numerical study of the dynamics predicted by the model reveals the presence of two configuration instabilities with increasing bundling numbers: first to a crossing state where filaments touch at one point and then to a bundled state where filaments wrap along each other in a helical fashion. We also consider the case of multiple filaments and the unbundling dynamics. We next provide an intuitive physical model for the crossing instability and show that it may be used to predict analytically its threshold and adapted to address the transition to a bundling state. We then use a macroscale experimental implementation of the two-filament configuration in order to validate our theoretical predictions and obtain excellent agreement. This long

  19. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma Ribera, R., E-mail: r.colomaribera@utwente.nl; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-08-07

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO{sub 2} films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a gradual decrease in diffusion rates was observed with oxide growth, with the activation energy increasing from about 2.1 to 2.4 eV. Further exploration of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor for diffusion process revealed that oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium joins the class of materials that obey the Meyer-Neldel rule.

  20. Superconductivity in the Nb-Ru-Ge σ phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicom, Elizabeth M.; Xie, Weiwei; Sobczak, Zuzanna; Kong, Tai; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Cava, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    We show that the previously unreported ternary σ -phase material N b20.4R u5.7G e3.9 (N b0.68R u0.19G e0.13 ) is a superconductor with a critical temperature of 2.2 K. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, resistance, and specific-heat measurements were used to characterize the superconducting transition. The Sommerfeld constant γ for N b20.4R u5.7G e3.9 is 91 mJ mol f .u .-1K-2 (˜3 mJ mol ato m-1K-2 ) and the specific-heat anomaly at the superconducting transition, Δ C /γ Tc , is approximately 1.38. The zero-temperature upper critical field [μ0H c2(0 ) ] was estimated to be 2 T by resistance data. Field-dependent magnetization data analysis estimated μ0H c1(0 ) to be 5.5 mT. Thus, the characterization shows N b20.4R u5.7G e3.9 to be a type-II BCS superconductor. This material appears to be the first reported ternary phase in the Nb-Ru-Ge system, and the fact that there are no previously reported binary Nb-Ru, Nb-Ge, or Ru-Ge σ phases shows that all three elements are necessary to stabilize the material. An analogous σ phase in the Ta-Ru-Ge system did not display superconductivity above 1.7 K, which suggests that electron count cannot govern the superconductivity observed. Preliminary characterization of a possible superconducting σ phase in the Nb-Ru-Ga system is also reported.

  1. Hoechst reportedly stalls RU-486 in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-16

    President Clinton's administration would like RU-486 to be widely available in the US, but its manufacturer has been procrastinating about introducing RU-486 in the US. President Clinton lifted the ban on it shortly after ascending to the presidency. After 13 months of negotiations, the parent company of Roussel Uclaf, Hoechst, blocked efforts. It appears to be thwarting Ru-486's manufacture in the US because it fears that antiabortion groups will boycott its other products (textiles, rug fibers, and drugs for diabetics and heart patients). Its annual sales in the US are $7 billion. In April, 1993, Roussel Uclaf said that it would transfer its patent to the Population Council. The Council agreed to perform the clinical trials required to obtain US Food and Drug Administration approval and to find a domestic manufacturer to produce RU-486. Before handing the patent over to the Population Council, Hoechst wants protection from potential product liability or losses from antiabortion protests. US Health and Human Services officials have been trying to promote progress in the negotiations between the Population Council and Hoechst. A US member of Congress has set up a subcommittee hearing to look into the delays, specifically Hoechst's role in the delays. Women's groups want US women to have access to an alternative to surgical abortion. If progress is not made soon, they intend to push the government to revoke Roussel Uclaf's patent or support development of a similar drug. They stress that Hoechst's actions, be they for economic or political reasons, have slowed medical research and have hurt women's well being. RU-486 can also be used to treat breast cancer, some brain tumors, and other diseases.

  2. PtRu nanoparticles dispersed on nitrogen-doped carbon nanohorns as an efficient electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linwei; Gao, Ang; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yuan; Ma, Jiantai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel anode catalyst is synthesized using N-doped carbon nanohorns as support. • PtRu/NCNHs exhibits an excellent activity for MOR relative to PtRu/C catalysts. • The enhancement is due to the electronic interaction between NCNHs and PtRu NPs. - Abstract: A novel anode catalyst (PtRu/NCNHs) assembled with nitrogen-doped carbon nanohorns (NCNHs) and PtRu nanoparticles (1.9 nm) exhibits an obvious enhancement in the tolerance to carbonaceous intermediates and the electocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in comparison to a commercial PtRu/C-JM catalyst and a home-made PtRu/Vulcan catalyst. The MOR mass activity of PtRu/NCNHs (850 mA mg −1 PtRu ) is 2.5 times as high as that of PtRu/C-JM (341 mA mg −1 PtRu ). The MOR specific activity of PtRu/NCNHs is 1.8 times as high as that of PtRu/Vulcan having similar Pt/Ru atomic ratios, specific electrochemical surface areas and particle sizes of PtRu NPs. The electronic interaction between PtRu NPs and NCNHs is responsible for the enhancement in the MOR activity of PtRu/NCNHs

  3. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy on nanometric magnetic bubbles and skyrmions in bilayered manganites La{sub 1.2}Sr{sub 1.8}(Mn{sub 1−y}Ru{sub y}){sub 2}O{sub 7} with controlled magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, D.; Yu, X. Z.; Kaneko, Y. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tokunaga, Y.; Arima, T. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Nagai, T.; Kimoto, K. [Transmission Electron Microscopy Station and Surface Physics and Structure Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Tokura, Y. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-11-23

    We have investigated nanometric magnetic textures in thin (<150 nm) plates of Ru-doped bilayered manganites La{sub 1.2}Sr{sub 1.8}(Mn{sub 1−y}Ru{sub y}){sub 2}O{sub 7}. Ru substitution for Mn site changes the magnetic anisotropy from in-plane to out-of-plane easy axis type without any significant change of global magnetic and crystal structures. The combination of conventional and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy observations confirms the emergence of magnetic bubbles and skyrmions in the absence of magnetic field. With the changing Ru concentration, systematic changes in the type of magnetic bubbles are observed. A tiny residual magnetic field also affects the generation and the type-change of magnetic bubbles.

  4. Catalytic EC′ reaction at a thin film modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbino, Leandro; Baruzzi, Ana M.; Iglesias, Rodrigo A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of cyclic voltammograms corresponding to a catalytic EC′ reaction taking place at a thin film modified electrode are performed by way of finite difference method. Besides considering the chemical kinetic occurring inside the thin film, the model takes into account the different diffusion coefficients for each species at each of the involved phases, i.e. the thin film layer and bulk solution. The theoretical formulation is given in terms of dimensionless model parameters but a brief discussion of each of these parameters and their relationship to experimental variables is presented. Special emphasis is given to the use of working curve characteristics to quantify diffusion coefficient, homogeneous kinetic constant and thickness of the thin layer in a real system. Validation of the model is made by comparison of experimental results corresponding to the electron charge transfer of Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ /Ru(NH 3 ) 6 2+ hemi-couple at a thin film of a cross-linked chitosan film containing an immobilized redox dye

  5. Measurement of incident molecular temperature in the formation of organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takahiro; Matsubara, Ryosuke; Hayakawa, Munetaka; Shimoyama, Akifumi; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tsuji, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Kubono, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of incident molecular temperature on organic-thin-film growth by vacuum evaporation, quantitative analysis of molecular temperature is required. In this study, we propose a method of determining molecular temperature based on the heat exchange between a platinum filament and molecular vapor. Molecular temperature is estimated from filament temperature, which remains unchanged even under molecular vapor supply. The results indicate that our method has sufficient sensitivity to evaluate the molecular temperature under the typical growth rate used for fabrication of functional organic thin films.

  6. Thin Places

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Sandra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry into the three great quests of the twentieth century–the South Pole, Mount Everest, and the Moon–examines our motivations to venture into these sublime, yet life-taking places. The Thin Place was once the destination of the religious pilgrim seeking transcendence in an extreme environment. In our age, the Thin Place quest has morphed into a challenge to evolve beyond the confines of our own physiology; through human ingenuity and invention, we reach places not meant to accommod...

  7. Characterisation and catalytic properties of Ni, Co, Ce and Ru nanoparticles in mesoporous carbon spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Francisco A. A.; Castro, Antonio J. R.; Filho, Josue M.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.; Campos, Adriana; Oliveira, Alcineia C.

    2012-01-01

    Ni, Co, Ce and Ru nanoparticles were inserted into templated carbon using a nanocasting technique and evaluated for the dehydration of glycerol. NiO and CeO 2 preferentially yielded 5 nm uniformly sized particles that filled the mesoporous carbon via a geometric confinement effect. Ru generated Ru o and RuO 2 nanoparticles that selectively migrated towards the carbon surface and did not undergo sintering, whereas Co nanoparticles containing CoO and Co 3 O 4 showed the opposite behaviour. The stabilising effects of the Ce and Ru nanoparticles on the carbon matrix effectively prevented the aggregation of small particles, resulting in superior catalytic performance in glycerol dehydration.

  8. Elaboration of a Highly Porous RuII,II Analogue of HKUST-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Freitag, Kerstin; Wannapaiboon, Suttipong; Schneider, Christian; Epp, Konstantin; Kieslich, Gregor; Fischer, Roland A

    2016-12-19

    When the dinuclear Ru II,II precursor [Ru 2 (OOCCH 3 ) 4 ] is employed under redox-inert conditions, a Ru II,II analogue of HKUST-1 was successfully prepared and characterized as a phase-pure microcrystalline powder. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy confirms the oxidation state of the Ru centers of the paddle-wheel nodes in the framework. The porosity of 1371 m 2 /mmol of Ru II,II -HKUST-1 exceeds that of the parent compound HKUST1 (1049 m 2 / mmol).

  9. Footpoint detection and mass-motion in chromospheric filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Aparna; Hardersen, P. S.; Martin, S. F.

    2013-07-01

    A quiescent region on the Sun containing three filaments is used to study the properties of mass motion. This study determines if the footpoints or end-points of the filaments are the locations from where mass gets injected into the filaments. Several hypotheses have been put forth in the past to determine how a filament acquires mass. Trapping of coronal mass in the filament channel due to condensation (Martin, 1996) and injection of mass into the filaments during magnetic reconnection (Priest, et al., 1995) are some of the speculations. This study looks for indications for injection of mass via chromospheric footpoints. The data consists of blue (Hα-0.5 Å) and red (Hα+0.5 Å) wing high resolution Hα images of the W29N37 region of the Sun taken on Oct 30, 2010, from 1200 - 1600 UT. The Dutch Open Telescope was used to obtain the data. The images are aligned and animated to see Doppler motion in the fibrils. Smaller fibrils merge to form longer ones; barbs appear and disappear in one of the long filaments and is seen moving along the length of the filament. A region with no typical filament-like absorption feature is observed to be continuously receiving mass. Fibrils appear to be converging from opposite sides along what appears to be a neutral line; mass motion is seen in these fibrils as well. An eruption occurs in a region of fibrils lumped together at the end of the first hour (1300 UT) followed by plage brightening at 1430 UT near one of the filament regions. Helioviewer (Panasenco, et al., 2011) is used for aligning the images; GIMP is used for precision alignment and animation. Each frame in the sequence is studied carefully to note changes in the filament regions. The footpoints of the filaments are determined by the changes observed in the position of the filament ‘legs’ in each frame. Variations in the magnetic polarity corresponding to changes observed in the chromosphere are analyzed using HMI magnetograms. Bright and dark points on the

  10. Microwave structure of quiescent solar filaments at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution very low altitude maps of a quiescent filament at three frequencies are presented. The spatial resolution (approx. 15'' at 1.45 GHz, approx. 6'' at 4.9 GHz, and approx. 2'' at 15 GHz) is several times better than previously attained. At each frequency, the filament appears as a depression in the quiet Sun background. The depression is measurably wider and longer in extent than the corresponding H alpha filament at 1.45 GHz and 4.9 GHz, indicating that the depression is due in large part to a deficit in coronal density associated with the filament channel. In contrast, the shape of the radio depression at 15 CHz closely matches that of the H alpha filament. In addition, the 15 GHz map shows enhanced emission along both sides of the radio depression. A similar enhancement is seen in an observation of a second filament 4 days later, which suggests that the enhancement is a general feature of filaments. Possible causes of the enhanced emission are explored

  11. The evolution of compositionally and functionally distinct actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Whitaker, Shane; Popp, David; Robinson, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    The actin filament is astonishingly well conserved across a diverse set of eukaryotic species. It has essentially remained unchanged in the billion years that separate yeast, Arabidopsis and man. In contrast, bacterial actin-like proteins have diverged to the extreme, and many of them are not readily identified from sequence-based homology searches. Here, we present phylogenetic analyses that point to an evolutionary drive to diversify actin filament composition across kingdoms. Bacteria use a one-filament-one-function system to create distinct filament systems within a single cell. In contrast, eukaryotic actin is a universal force provider in a wide range of processes. In plants, there has been an expansion of the number of closely related actin genes, whereas in fungi and metazoa diversification in tropomyosins has increased the compositional variety in actin filament systems. Both mechanisms dictate the subset of actin-binding proteins that interact with each filament type, leading to specialization in function. In this Hypothesis, we thus propose that different mechanisms were selected in bacteria, plants and metazoa, which achieved actin filament compositional variation leading to the expansion of their functional diversity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Large-scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Testi, Leonardo; Ginsburg, Adam; Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Molinari, Sergio; Schisano, Eugenio

    2015-07-01

    The ubiquity of filamentary structure at various scales throughout the Galaxy has triggered a renewed interest in their formation, evolution, and role in star formation. The largest filaments can reach up to Galactic scale as part of the spiral arm structure. However, such large-scale filaments are hard to identify systematically due to limitations in identifying methodology (i.e. as extinction features). We present a new approach to directly search for the largest, coldest, and densest filaments in the Galaxy, making use of sensitive Herschel Hi-GAL (Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey) data complemented by spectral line cubes. We present a sample of the nine most prominent Herschel filaments, including six identified from a pilot search field plus three from outside the field. These filaments measure 37-99 pc long and 0.6-3.0 pc wide with masses (0.5-8.3) × 104 M⊙, and beam-averaged (28 arcsec, or 0.4-0.7 pc) peak H2 column densities of (1.7-9.3)× 1022 cm- 2. The bulk of the filaments are relatively cold (17-21 K), while some local clumps have a dust temperature up to 25-47 K. All the filaments are located within ≲60 pc from the Galactic mid-plane. Comparing the filaments to a recent spiral arm model incorporating the latest parallax measurements, we find that 7/9 of them reside within arms, but most are close to arm edges. These filaments are comparable in length to the Galactic scaleheight and therefore are not simply part of a grander turbulent cascade.

  13. Substrate-mediated enhanced activity of Ru nanoparticles in catalytic hydrogenation of benzene

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The impact of carbon substrate-Ru nanoparticle interactions on benzene and hydrogen adsorption that is directly related to the performance in catalytic hydrogenation of benzene has been investigated by first-principles based calculations. The stability of Ru 13 nanoparticles is enhanced by the defective graphene substrate due to the hybridization between the dsp states of the Ru 13 particle with the sp 2 dangling bonds at the defect sites. The local curvature formed at the interface will also raise the Ru atomic diffusion barrier, and prohibit the particle sintering. The strong interfacial interaction results in the shift of averaged d-band center of the deposited Ru nanoparticle, from -1.41 eV for a freestanding Ru 13 particle, to -1.17 eV for the Ru/Graphene composites, and to -1.54 eV on mesocellular foam carbon. Accordingly, the adsorption energies of benzene are increased from -2.53 eV for the Ru/mesocellular foam carbon composites, to -2.62 eV on freestanding Ru 13 particles, to -2.74 eV on Ru/graphene composites. A similar change in hydrogen adsorption is also observed, and all these can be correlated to the shift of the d-band center of the nanoparticle. Thus, Ru nanoparticles graphene composites are expected to exhibit both high stability and superior catalytic performance in hydrogenation of arenes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. A re-examination of thermodynamic modelling of U-Ru binary phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.C.; Kaye, M.H., E-mail: matthew.kaye@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) is one of the more abundant fission products (FPs) both in fast breeder reactors and thermal reactors. Post irradiation examinations (PIE) show that both 'the white metallic phase' (MoTc-Ru-Rh-Pd) and 'the other metallic phase' (U(Pd-Rh-Ru)3) are present in spent nuclear fuels. To describe this quaternary system, binary subsystems of uranium (U) with Pd, Rh, and Ru are necessary. Presently, only the U-Ru system has been thermodynamically described but with some problems. As part of research on U-Ru-Rh-Pd quaternary system, an improved consistent thermodynamic model describing the U-Ru binary phase diagram has been obtained. (author)

  15. Local distortion induced metal-to-insulator phase transition in PrRu4P12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, D.; Heffner, R.H.; Jeong, I.-K.; Bauer, E.D.; Bridges, F.; Yuhasz, W.M.; Maple, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on PrRu 4 P 12 and PrOs 4 P 12 to study the metal-to-insulator (MI) phase transition in PrRu 4 P 12 . No Pr displacement was observed across the MI transition temperature from the EXAFS data. Instead, our EXAFS data clearly show that a Ru displacement is associated with this MI transition. The very high Debye temperature for the Ru-P bond (Θ D =690 K) suggests that a slight rotation/displacement of relatively rigid RuP 6 octahedra leads to this small Ru displacement, which accompanies the MI transition at 62 K in PrRu 4 P 12

  16. Semiconductor-metal transition of Se in Ru-Se Catalyst Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, P. K.; Lewera, Adam; Oldfield, Eric; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2009-03-01

    Ru-Se composite nanoparticles are promising catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. Though the role of Se in enhancing the chemical stability of Ru nanoparticles is well established, the microscopic nature of Ru-Se interaction was not clearly understood. We carried out a combined investigation of ^77Se NMR and XPS on Ru-Se nanoparticles and our results indicate that Se, a semiconductor in elemental form, becomes metallic when interacting with Ru. ^77Se spin-lattice relaxation rates are found to be proportional to T, the well-known Korringa behavior characteristic of metals. The NMR results are supported by the XPS binding energy shifts which suggest that a possible Ru->Se charge transfer could be responsible for the semiconductor->metal transition of Se which also makes Ru less susceptible to oxidation during ORR.

  17. Electronic Structure of the Pyrochlore-Type Ru Oxides through the Metal--Insulator Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, J.; Fujimori, S.I.; Okane, T.; Fujimori, A.; Abbate, M.; Yoshii, S.; Sato, M.

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structures of the pyrochlore-type Ru oxides Sm 2-x Ca x Ru 2 O 7 and Sm 2-x Bi x Ru 2 O 7 , which show metal-insulator transition with increasing Ca or Bi concentration, have been studied by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. Spectral changes near the Fermi level are different but reflect the tendency of their transport properties in both systems. The Sm 2-x Ca x Ru 2 O 7 system shows an energy shift, which is expected from the increase of hole in the Ru 4d t 2g band and the Sm 2 - x Bi x Ru 2 O 7 system shows spectral weight transfer within the Ru 4d t 2g band, which is expected to be observed in bandwidth-control Mott-Hubbard system. (author)

  18. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  19. Post-filament self-trapping of ultrashort laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, A V; Voronin, A A; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Andriukaitis, G; Flöry, T; Pugžlys, A; Fedotov, A B; Mikhailova, J M; Panchenko, V Ya; Baltuška, A; Zheltikov, A M

    2014-08-15

    Laser filamentation is understood to be self-channeling of intense ultrashort laser pulses achieved when the self-focusing because of the Kerr nonlinearity is balanced by ionization-induced defocusing. Here, we show that, right behind the ionized region of a laser filament, ultrashort laser pulses can couple into a much longer light channel, where a stable self-guiding spatial mode is sustained by the saturable self-focusing nonlinearity. In the limiting regime of negligibly low ionization, this post-filamentation beam dynamics converges to a large-scale beam self-trapping scenario known since the pioneering work on saturable self-focusing nonlinearities.

  20. Failure and nonfailure of fluid filaments in extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Kolte, Mette Irene; Renardy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of ductile failure of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid filaments without surface tension is studied by a 2D finite element method and by ID non-linear analysis. The viscoelastic fluids are described by single integral constitutive equations. The main conclusions are: (1) Newtonian...... fluid filaments do not exhibit ductile failure without surface tension; (2) some viscoelastic fluids form stable filaments while other fluids exhibit ductile failure as a result of an elastic instability; (3) for large Deborah numbers, the Considere condition may be used to predict the Hencky strain...

  1. Pyrene degradation by yeasts and filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M Cristina; Salvioli, Mónica L; Cazau, M Cecilia; Arambarri, A M

    2002-01-01

    The saprotrophic soil fungi Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Cylindrocarpon didymum (Hartig) Wollenw, Penicillium variabile Sopp. and the yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis (Fresenius) Harrison and Rhodotorula minuta (Saito) Harrison were cultured in mineral medium with pyrene. The remaining pyrene concentrations were periodically determined during 20 incubation days, using HPLC. To assess the metabolism of pyrene degradation we added 0.1 microCi of [4,5,9,10] 14C-pyrene to each fungi culture and measured the radioactivity in the volatile organic substances, extractable, aqueous phase, biomass and 14CO2 fractions. The assays demonstrated that F. solani and R. glutinis metabolized pyrene as a sole source of carbon. Differences in their activities at the beginning of the cultures disappeared by the end of the experiment, when 32 and 37% of the original pyrene concentration was detected, for the soil fungi and yeasts, respectively. Among the filamentous fungi, F. solani was highly active and oxidized pyrene; moreover, small but significant degradation rates were observed in C. didymum and P. variahile cultures. An increase in the 14CO2 evolution was observed at the 17th day with cosubstrate. R. glutinis and R. minuta cultures showed similar ability to biotransform pyrene, and that 35% of the initial concentration was consumed at the end of the assay. The same results were obtained in the experiments with or without glucose as cosubstrate.

  2. Polymer dynamics driven by a helical filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, Andrew; Shendruk, Tyler; Zoettl, Andreas; Yeomans, Julia

    Microbial flagellates typically inhabit complex suspensions of extracellular polymeric material which can impact the swimming speed of motile microbes, filter-feeding of sessile cells, and the generation of biofilms. There is currently a need to better understand how the fundamental dynamics of polymers near active cells or flagella impacts these various phenomena. We study the hydrodynamic and steric influence of a rotating helical filament on suspended polymers using Stokesian Dynamics simulations. Our results show that as a stationary rotating helix pumps fluid along its long axis, nearby polymers migrate radially inwards and are elongated in the process. We observe that the actuation of the helix tends to increase the probability of finding polymeric material within its pervaded volume. At larger Weissenberg numbers, this accumulation of polymers within the vicinity of the helix is greater. Further, we have analysed the stochastic work performed by the helix on the polymers and we show that this quantity is positive on average and increases with polymer contour length. Our results provide a basis for understanding the microscopic interactions that govern cell dynamics in complex media. This work was supported through funding from the ERC Advanced Grant 291234 MiCE and we acknowledge EMBO funding to TNS (ALTF181-2013).

  3. A rechargeable hydrogen battery based on Ru catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Fan; Rommel, Susanne; Eversfield, Philipp; Muller, Keven; Klemm, Elias; Thiel, Werner R; Plietker, Bernd

    2014-07-01

    Apart from energy generation, the storage and liberation of energy are among the major problems in establishing a sustainable energy supply chain. Herein we report the development of a rechargeable H2 battery which is based on the principle of the Ru-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid (charging process) and the Ru-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid to CO2 and H2 (discharging process). Both processes are driven by the same catalyst at elevated temperature either under pressure (charging process) or pressure-free conditions (discharging process). Up to five charging-discharging cycles were performed without decrease of storage capacity. The resulting CO2/H2 mixture is free of CO and can be employed directly in fuel-cell technology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. New bands and spin-parity assignments in 111Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Droste, C.; Rohozinski, S.G.; Durell, J.L.; Phillips, W.R.; Smith, A.G.; Varley, B.J.; Schulz, N.; Ahmad, I.; Pinston, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The 111 Ru nucleus, populated in the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm has been studied by means of prompt gamma spectroscopy using the EUROGAM2 array. Spin and parity assignments, based on angular correlations, linear polarization, and conversion coefficient measurements differ from those available in the literature. New bands are reported, which incorporate γ transitions seen previously but not placed in the scheme of 111 Ru or placed incorrectly. The bands are interpreted as neutron excitations into subshells originating predominantly from the h 11/2 , g 7/2 and s 1/2 spherical orbitals. The s 1/2 band, strongly mixed with the d 3/2 , d 5/2 and g 7/2 configurations, is observed for the first time in this region. (orig.)

  5. Interfering with the wake of cylinder by flexible filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Alfredo; Omidyeganeh, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    This work is the very first attempt to understand and optimize the configuration of flexible filaments placed on the lee side of a bluff body to manipulate flow transitions and bifurcations. It is found that the presence of a sparse set of flexible filaments on the lee side of a cylinder can interfere with the 2D-3D transition process resulting in elongation of recirculation bubble, inhibition of higher order unstable modes, and narrowing the global energy content about a particular shedding frequency. Filaments become effective when spacing between them is smaller than the dominant unstable mode at each particular Reynolds number, i.e. A and B modes. In another study, by a particular arrangement the reconfigured filaments can reduce pressure fluctuations in the wake and drop lift flluctuations significantly (~= 80 %).

  6. Positrusion Filament Recycling System for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Positrusion ISS Recycler enables recycling of scrap and waste plastics into high-quality filament for 3D printers to enable sustainable in-situ manufacturing on...

  7. Benten v. Kessler: the RU 486 import case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, R N

    1992-01-01

    On July 1, 1992, the case of Benten v. Kessler was filed in the US District Court in New York. The case arose out of an attempt by abortion rights activist Lawrence Lader to call public attention to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) ban on importation of the abortifacient drug mifepristone known as RU-486. The ban expresses the anti abortion stance of the Reagan and Bush administrations and creates a hostile climate for the development of new drugs related to reproductive health and reproductive choice. Plaintiffs in the Benten case sought public accountability by the FDA for its adoption of a ban of a safe and effective drug for unwanted pregnancy. Although the case did not succeed in retrieving the confiscated RU-486 pills for Leona Benten, in its opinion issued on July 14, 1992, the New York district court judge concluded that the import ban did not appear to be based on concern with the safety or effectiveness of RU-486, describing the FDA's process of adopting the import ban as a sink of illegality. On July 17, 1992, 7 Justices of the Supreme Court, with justices Blackmun and Stevens dissenting, joined in a per curiam opinion denying the application and foreclosing further personal relief for Leona Benten. This was the best result possible short of an all out victory for Leona Benten. The Court ruled against plaintiffs in their argument that notice and comment were required, but left entirely open plaintiffs' claims that the import ban is arbitrary and capricious under the Administrative Procedure Act and that the ban is unconstitutional in that it unduly burdens the right to terminate pregnancy. This backdrop creates a healthy skepticism about the prospects for the introduction of RU-486 into the US in the near future as well as about the fairness of government processes in areas of concern to women. Public health considerations, not politics, should determine access to health care.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of RuSb2Te ternary skutterudites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Plecháček, T.; Drašar, Č.; Laufek, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2013), s. 1864-1869 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RuSb2Te * ternary skutterudite * doping Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11664-012-2451-5

  9. γ - γ angular correlation in sup(100)Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchian, G.; Leljbman, I.D.G.; Cruz, M.T.F.

    1990-01-01

    The gamma-gamma directional angular correlations of coincident transitions have been measured in sup(100)Ru nuclide, following the β sup(+) and electron capture of sup(100)Rh using an angular correlation automatic spectrometer with two Ge(Li) detectors. The sup(100)Rh source has been produced with sup(100)Ru(p,n) sup(100)Rh reaction, using the proton beam of the Cyclotron Acelerator and enriched sup(100)Ru isotope. We have measured 30 direct cascades and 11 triple cascades. The spin and the parity of the 1865 KeV, 1881 KeV, 2099 KeV, 2167 KeV, 2241 KeV, 2517 KeV, and 3070 KeV levels have been established and multipole mixing ratios (δ) for 21 transitions have been obtained, 12 for the first time. Multipole mixing ratios Q sup(2)(E0/E2) has been also measured in the 2 sup(+) sub(2) → 2 sup(+) sub(1) transition. (author)

  10. Ni@Ru and NiCo@Ru Core-Shell Hexagonal Nanosandwiches with a Compositionally Tunable Core and a Regioselectively Grown Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyeyoun; Kwon, Taehyun; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Jongsik; Oh, Aram; Kim, Byeongyoon; Baik, Hionsuck; Joo, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2018-01-01

    The development of highly active electrocatalysts is crucial for the advancement of renewable energy conversion devices. The design of core-shell nanoparticle catalysts represents a promising approach to boost catalytic activity as well as save the use of expensive precious metals. Here, a simple, one-step synthetic route is reported to prepare hexagonal nanosandwich-shaped Ni@Ru core-shell nanoparticles (Ni@Ru HNS), in which Ru shell layers are overgrown in a regioselective manner on the top and bottom, and around the center section of a hexagonal Ni nanoplate core. Notably, the synthesis can be extended to NiCo@Ru core-shell nanoparticles with tunable core compositions (Ni 3 Co x @Ru HNS). Core-shell HNS structures show superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to a commercial RuO 2 black catalyst, with their OER activity being dependent on their core compositions. The observed trend in OER activity is correlated to the population of Ru oxide (Ru 4+ ) species, which can be modulated by the core compositions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Special attention was paid to filament architecture, ennervation of filaments, number and type of cells populating filament epithelia and variations in epithelial cell morphology and cilia ultrastructure. Filament shape was maintained by thickened chi-tln and strategically placed smooth myocytes. The epithelium was populated ...

  12. An efficient immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method for the hydrodynamic interaction of elastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang-Bao; Luo, Haoxiang; Zhu, Luoding; Liao, James C.; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2012-01-01

    We have introduced a modified penalty approach into the flow-structure interaction solver that combines an immersed boundary method (IBM) and a multi-block lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to model an incompressible flow and elastic boundaries with finite mass. The effect of the solid structure is handled by the IBM in which the stress exerted by the structure on the fluid is spread onto the collocated grid points near the boundary. The fluid motion is obtained by solving the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation. The inertial force of the thin solid structure is incorporated by connecting this structure through virtual springs to a ghost structure with the equivalent mass. This treatment ameliorates the numerical instability issue encountered in this type of problems. Thanks to the superior efficiency of the IBM and LBM, the overall method is extremely fast for a class of flow-structure interaction problems where details of flow patterns need to be resolved. Numerical examples, including those involving multiple solid bodies, are presented to verify the method and illustrate its efficiency. As an application of the present method, an elastic filament flapping in the Kármán gait and the entrainment regions near a cylinder is studied to model fish swimming in these regions. Significant drag reduction is found for the filament, and the result is consistent with the metabolic cost measured experimentally for the live fish. PMID:23564971

  13. An efficient immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method for the hydrodynamic interaction of elastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang-Bao; Luo, Haoxiang; Zhu, Luoding; Liao, James C.; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2011-08-01

    We have introduced a modified penalty approach into the flow-structure interaction solver that combines an immersed boundary method (IBM) and a multi-block lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to model an incompressible flow and elastic boundaries with finite mass. The effect of the solid structure is handled by the IBM in which the stress exerted by the structure on the fluid is spread onto the collocated grid points near the boundary. The fluid motion is obtained by solving the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation. The inertial force of the thin solid structure is incorporated by connecting this structure through virtual springs to a ghost structure with the equivalent mass. This treatment ameliorates the numerical instability issue encountered in this type of problems. Thanks to the superior efficiency of the IBM and LBM, the overall method is extremely fast for a class of flow-structure interaction problems where details of flow patterns need to be resolved. Numerical examples, including those involving multiple solid bodies, are presented to verify the method and illustrate its efficiency. As an application of the present method, an elastic filament flapping in the Kármán gait and the entrainment regions near a cylinder is studied to model fish swimming in these regions. Significant drag reduction is found for the filament, and the result is consistent with the metabolic cost measured experimentally for the live fish.

  14. Heterocyst placement strategies to maximize the growth of cyanobacterial filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Aidan I; Rutenberg, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    Under conditions of limited fixed-nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria develop a regular pattern of heterocyst cells that fix nitrogen for the remaining vegetative cells. We examine three different heterocyst placement strategies by quantitatively modelling filament growth while varying both external fixed-nitrogen and leakage from the filament. We find that there is an optimum heterocyst frequency which maximizes the growth rate of the filament; the optimum frequency decreases as the external fixed-nitrogen concentration increases but increases as the leakage increases. In the presence of leakage, filaments implementing a local heterocyst placement strategy grow significantly faster than filaments implementing random heterocyst placement strategies. With no extracellular fixed-nitrogen, consistent with recent experimental studies of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the modelled heterocyst spacing distribution using our local heterocyst placement strategy is qualitatively similar to experimentally observed patterns. As external fixed-nitrogen is increased, the spacing distribution for our local placement strategy retains the same shape, while the average spacing between heterocysts continuously increases. (paper)

  15. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polyethylene filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, K.; Sakurada, I.; Okada, T.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto high density polyethylene (PE) filaments was carried out in order to raise softening temperature and impart flame retardance and hydrophilic properties. Mutual γ-irradiation method was employed for the grafting in a mixture of acrylic acid (AA), ethylene dichloride and water containing a small amount of ferrous ammonium sulfate. The rate of grafting was very low at room temperature. On the other hand, large percent grafts were obtained when the grafting was performed at an elevated temperature. Activation energy for the initial rate of grafting was found to be 17 kcal/mol between 20 and 60 0 C and 10 kcal/ mol between 60 and 80 0 C. Original PE filament begins to shrink at 70 0 C, shows maximum shrinkage of 50% at 130 0 C and then breaks off at 136 0 C. When a 34% AA graft is converted to metallic salt the graft filament retains its filament form even above 300 0 C and gives maximum shrinkage of 15%. Burning tests by a wire-netting basket method indicate that graft filaments and their metallic salts do not form melting drops upon burning and are self-extinguishing. Original PE filament shows no moisture absorption; however, that of AA-grafted PE increases with increasing graft percent. (author)

  16. Optical spectroscopy using gas-phase femtosecond laser filamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhner, Johanan; Levis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Femtosecond laser filamentation occurs as a dynamic balance between the self-focusing and plasma defocusing of a laser pulse to produce ultrashort radiation as brief as a few optical cycles. This unique source has many properties that make it attractive as a nonlinear optical tool for spectroscopy, such as propagation at high intensities over extended distances, self-shortening, white-light generation, and the formation of an underdense plasma. The plasma channel that constitutes a single filament and whose position in space can be controlled by its input parameters can span meters-long distances, whereas multifilamentation of a laser beam can be sustained up to hundreds of meters in the atmosphere. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding and use of laser filaments for spectroscopic investigations of molecules. A theoretical framework of filamentation is presented, along with recent experimental evidence supporting the established understanding of filamentation. Investigations carried out on vibrational and rotational spectroscopy, filament-induced breakdown, fluorescence spectroscopy, and backward lasing are discussed.

  17. The Weak Lensing Masses of Filaments between Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Seth D.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    In the standard model of non-linear structure formation, a cosmic web of dark-matter-dominated filaments connects dark matter haloes. In this paper, we stack the weak lensing signal of an ensemble of filaments between groups and clusters of galaxies. Specifically, we detect the weak lensing signal, using CFHTLenS galaxy ellipticities, from stacked filaments between Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous red galaxies (LRGs). As a control, we compare the physical LRG pairs with projected LRG pairs that are more widely separated in redshift space. We detect the excess filament mass density in the projected pairs at the 5σ level, finding a mass of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1013 M⊙ for a stacked filament region 7.1 h-1 Mpc long and 2.5 h-1 Mpc wide. This filament signal is compared with a model based on the three-point galaxy-galaxy-convergence correlation function, as developed in Clampitt et al., yielding reasonable agreement.

  18. Unconventional actin conformations localize on intermediate filaments in mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Unconventional actin conformations colocalize with vimentin on a cage-like structure in metaphase HEK 293T cells. → These conformations are detected with the anti-actin antibodies 1C7 ('lower dimer') and 2G2 ('nuclear actin'), but not C4 (monomeric actin). → Mitotic unconventional actin cables are independent of filamentous actin or microtubules. → Unconventional actin colocalizes with vimentin on a nocodazole-induced perinuclear dense mass of cables. -- Abstract: Different structural conformations of actin have been identified in cells and shown to reside in distinct subcellular locations of cells. In this report, we describe the localization of actin on a cage-like structure in metaphase HEK 293T cells. Actin was detected with the anti-actin antibodies 1C7 and 2G2, but not with the anti-actin antibody C4. Actin contained in this structure is independent of microtubules and actin filaments, and colocalizes with vimentin. Taking advantage of intermediate filament collapse into a perinuclear dense mass of cables when microtubules are depolymerized, we were able to relocalize actin to such structures. We hypothesize that phosphorylation of intermediate filaments at mitosis entry triggers the recruitment of different actin conformations to mitotic intermediate filaments. Storage and partition of the nuclear actin and antiparallel 'lower dimer' actin conformations between daughter cells possibly contribute to gene transcription and transient actin filament dynamics at G1 entry.

  19. Design and optimize of 3-axis filament winding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Idris, M. S.; Bachtiar, B.; Siregar, J. P.; Harith, M. N.

    2017-10-01

    Filament winding technique is developed as the primary process for composite cylindrical structures fabrication at low cost. Fibres are wound on a rotating mandrel by a filament winding machine where resin impregnated fibres pass through a pay-out eye. This paper aims to develop and optimize a 3-axis, lightweight, practical, efficient, portable filament winding machine to satisfy the customer demand, which can fabricate pipes and round shape cylinders with resins. There are 3 main units on the 3-axis filament winding machine, which are the rotary unit, the delivery unit and control system unit. Comparison with previous existing filament winding machines in the factory, it has 3 degrees of freedom and can fabricate more complex shape specimens based on the mandrel shape and particular control system. The machine has been designed and fabricated on 3 axes movements with control system. The x-axis is for movement of the carriage, the y-axis is the rotation of mandrel and the z-axis is the movement of the pay-out eye. Cylindrical specimens with different dimensions and winding angles were produced. 3-axis automated filament winding machine has been successfully designed with simple control system.

  20. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.