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Sample records for thin dielectric layer

  1. Ultra-thin Metal and Dielectric Layers for Nanophotonic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Leandro, Lorenzo; Malureanu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    In our talk we first give an overview of the various thin films used in the field of nanophotonics. Then we describe our own activity in fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin films of high quality. We particularly focus on uniform gold layers having thicknesses down to 6 nm fabricated by......-beam deposition on dielectric substrates and Al-oxides/Ti-oxides multilayers prepared by atomic layer deposition in high aspect ratio trenches. In the latter case we show more than 1:20 aspect ratio structures can be achieved....

  2. Adjustable threshold-voltage in all-inkjet-printed organic thin film transistor using double-layer dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chang-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Hao; Yang, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2013-01-01

    An all-inkjet-printed organic thin film transistor (OTFT) with a double-layer dielectric structure is proposed and implemented in this study. By using the double-layer structure with different dielectric materials (i.e., polyvinylphenol with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)), the threshold-voltage of OTFT can be adjusted. The threshold-voltage shift can be controlled by changing the composition of dielectric layers. That is, an enhancement-mode OTFT can be converted to a depletion-mode OTFT by selectively printing additional dielectric layers to form a high-k/low-k double-layer structure. The printed OTFT has a carrier mobility of 5.0 × 10 −3 cm 2 /V-s. The threshold-voltages of the OTFTs ranged between − 13 V and 10 V. This study demonstrates an additional design parameter for organic electronics manufactured using inkjet printing technology. - Highlights: • A double-layer dielectric organic thin film transistor, OTFT, is implemented. • The threshold voltage of OTFT can be configured by the double dielectric structure. • The composition of the dielectric determines the threshold voltage shift. • The characteristics of OTFTs can be adjusted by double dielectric structures

  3. Layered Cu-based electrode for high-dielectric constant oxide thin film-based devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, W.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J.A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R.P.H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-01-01

    Ti-Al/Cu/Ta multilayered electrodes were fabricated on SiO 2 /Si substrates by ion beam sputtering deposition, to overcome the problems of Cu diffusion and oxidation encountered during the high dielectric constant (κ) materials integration. The Cu and Ta layers remained intact through the annealing in oxygen environment up to 600 deg. C. The thin oxide layer, formed on the Ti-Al surface, effectively prevented the oxygen penetration toward underneath layers. Complex oxide (Ba x Sr 1-x )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were grown on the layered Ti-Al/Cu/Ta electrodes using rf magnetron sputtering. The deposited BST films exhibited relatively high permittivity (150), low dielectric loss (0.007) at zero bias, and low leakage current -8 A/cm 2 at 100 kV/cm

  4. Pulsed EM Field Response of a Thin, High-Contrast, Finely Layered Structure With Dielectric and Conductive Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hoop, A.T.; Jiang, L.

    2009-01-01

    The response of a thin, high-contrast, finely layered structure with dielectric and conductive properties to an incident, pulsed, electromagnetic field is investigated theoretically. The fine layering causes the standard spatial discretization techniques to solve Maxwell's equations numerically to

  5. Effect of dual-dielectric hydrogen-diffusion barrier layers on the performance of low-temperature processed transparent InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, Alireza; Wong, William S.

    2018-02-01

    Dual-dielectric SiOx/SiNx thin-film layers were used as back-channel and gate-dielectric barrier layers for bottom-gate InGaZnO (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The concentration profiles of hydrogen, indium, gallium, and zinc oxide were analyzed using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy characterization. By implementing an effective H-diffusion barrier, the hydrogen concentration and the creation of H-induced oxygen deficiency (H-Vo complex) defects during the processing of passivated flexible IGZO TFTs were minimized. A bilayer back-channel passivation layer, consisting of electron-beam deposited SiOx on plasma-enhanced chemical vapor-deposition (PECVD) SiNx films, effectively protected the TFT active region from plasma damage and minimized changes in the chemical composition of the semiconductor layer. A dual-dielectric PECVD SiOx/PECVD SiNx gate-dielectric, using SiOx as a barrier layer, also effectively prevented out-diffusion of hydrogen atoms from the PECVD SiNx-gate dielectric to the IGZO channel layer during the device fabrication.

  6. All-optically tunable EIT-like dielectric metasurfaces hybridized with thin phase change material layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijevic, Emilija; Sibilia, Concita

    2017-05-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), a pump-induced narrow transparency window within the absorption region of a probe, had offered new perspectives in slow-light control in atomic physics. For applications in nanophotonics, the implementation on chip-scaled devices has later been obtained by mimicking this effect by metallic metamaterials. High losses in visible and near infrared range of metal-based metamaterialls have recently opened a new field of all-dielectric metamaterials; a proper configuration of high refractive index dielectric nanoresonators can mimick this effect without losses to get high Q, slow-light response. The next step would be the ability to tune their optical response, and in this work we investigate thin layers of phase change materials (PCM) for all-optical control of EIT-like all-dielectric metamaterials. PCM can be nonvolatively and reversibly switched between two stable phases that differ in optical properties by applying a visible laser pulse. The device is based on Si nanoresonators covered by a thin layer of PCM GeTe; optical and transient thermal simulations have been done to find and optimize the fabrication parameters and switching parameters such as the intensity and duration of the pulse. We have found that the EIT-like response can be switched on and off by applying the 532nm laser pulse to change the phase of the upper GeTe layer. We strongly believe that such approach could open new perspectives in all-optically controlled slow-light metamaterials.

  7. Chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, Vladislav Yu; Repinsky, Sergei M

    2005-01-01

    Data on the chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics based on silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride and silicon dioxide and on phosphorus- and boron-containing silicate glasses are generalised. The equipment and layer deposition procedures are described. Attention is focussed on the analysis and discussion of the deposition kinetics and on the kinetic models for film growth. The film growth processes are characterised and data on the key physicochemical properties of thin-film covalent dielectric materials are given.

  8. Fabrication of Crack-Free Barium Titanate Thin Film with High Dielectric Constant Using Sub-Micrometric Scale Layer-by-Layer E-Jet Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense and crack-free barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO thin films with a thickness of less than 4 μm were prepared by using sub-micrometric scale, layer-by-layer electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet deposition of the suspension ink which is composed of BTO nanopowder and BTO sol. Impacts of the jet height and line-to-line pitch of the deposition on the micro-structure of BTO thin films were investigated. Results show that crack-free BTO thin films can be prepared with 4 mm jet height and 300 μm line-to-line pitch in this work. Dielectric constant of the prepared BTO thin film was recorded as high as 2940 at 1 kHz at room temperature. Meanwhile, low dissipation factor of the BTO thin film of about 8.6% at 1 kHz was also obtained. The layer-by-layer E-jet deposition technique developed in this work has been proved to be a cost-effective, flexible and easy to control approach for the preparation of high-quality solid thin film.

  9. Investigation of SiO2 thin films dielectric constant using ellipsometry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sangpour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the optical behavior of SiO2 thin films prepared via sol-gel route using spin coating deposition from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS as precursor. Thin films were annealed at different temperatures (400-600oC. Absorption edge and band gap of thin layers were measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometery. Optical refractive index and dielectric constant were measured by ellipsometry technique. Based on our atomic force microscopic (AFM and ellipsometry results, thin layers prepared through this method showed high surface area, and high porosity ranging between 4.9 and 16.9, low density 2 g/cm, and low dielectric constant. The dielectric constant and porosity of layers increased by increasing the temperature due to the changes in surface roughness and particle size.

  10. Thin-dielectric-layer engineering for 3D nanostructure integration using an innovative planarization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfi, Y; Doucet, J B; Larrieu, G

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are emerging as promising building blocks for a large spectrum of applications. One critical issue in integration regards mastering the thin, flat, and chemically stable insulating layer that must be implemented on the nanostructure network in order to build striking nano-architectures. In this letter, we report an innovative method for nanoscale planarization on 3D nanostructures by using hydrogen silesquioxane as a spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric material. To decouple the thickness of the final layer from the height of the nanostructure, we propose to embed the nanowire network in the insulator layer by exploiting the planarizing properties of the SOG approach. To achieve the desired dielectric thickness, the structure is chemically etched back with a highly diluted solution to control the etch rate precisely. The roughness of the top surface was less than 2 nm. There were no surface defects and the planarity was excellent, even in the vicinity of the nanowires. This newly developed process was used to realize a multilevel stack architecture with sub-deca-nanometer-range layer thickness. (paper)

  11. Effect of dielectric layers on device stability of pentacene-based field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chong-an; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi; Guo, Yunlong; Sun, Xiangnan; Zheng, Jian; Wen, Yugeng; Wang, Ying; Wu, Weiping; Zhu, Daoben

    2009-09-07

    We report stable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on pentacene. It was found that device stability strongly depends on the dielectric layer. Pentacene thin-film transistors based on the bare or polystyrene-modified SiO(2) gate dielectrics exhibit excellent electrical stabilities. In contrast, the devices with the octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-treated SiO(2) dielectric layer showed the worst stabilities. The effects of the different dielectrics on the device stabilities were investigated. We found that the surface energy of the gate dielectric plays a crucial role in determining the stability of the pentacene thin film, device performance and degradation of electrical properties. Pentacene aggregation, phase transfer and film morphology are also important factors that influence the device stability of pentacene devices. As a result of the surface energy mismatch between the dielectric layer and organic semiconductor, the electronic performance was degraded. Moreover, when pentacene was deposited on the OTS-treated SiO(2) dielectric layer with very low surface energy, pentacene aggregation occurred and resulted in a dramatic decrease of device performance. These results demonstrated that the stable OFETs could be obtained by using pentacene as a semiconductor layer.

  12. Adsorption and electronic properties of pentacene on thin dielectric decoupling layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslowski, Sebastian; Rosenblatt, Daniel; Kabakchiev, Alexander; Kuhnke, Klaus; Kern, Klaus; Schlickum, Uta

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing use of thin dielectric decoupling layers to study the electronic properties of organic molecules on metal surfaces, comparative studies are needed in order to generalize findings and formulate practical rules. In this paper we study the adsorption and electronic properties of pentacene deposited onto h-BN/Rh(111) and compare them with those of pentacene deposited onto KCl on various metal surfaces. When deposited onto KCl, the HOMO and LUMO energies of the pentacene molecules scale with the work functions of the combined KCl/metal surface. The magnitude of the variation between the respective KCl/metal systems indicates the degree of interaction of the frontier orbitals with the underlying metal. The results confirm that the so-called IDIS model developed by Willenbockel et al. applies not only to molecular layers on bare metal surfaces, but also to individual molecules on thin electronically decoupling layers. Depositing pentacene onto h-BN/Rh(111) results in significantly different adsorption characteristics, due to the topographic corrugation of the surface as well as the lateral electric fields it presents. These properties are reflected in the divergence from the aforementioned trend for the orbital energies of pentacene deposited onto h-BN/Rh(111), as well as in the different adsorption geometry. Thus, the highly desirable capacity of h-BN to trap molecules comes at the price of enhanced metal-molecule interaction, which decreases the HOMO-LUMO gap of the molecules. In spite of the enhanced interaction, the molecular orbitals are evident in scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) and their shapes can be resolved by spectroscopic mapping.

  13. FDTD simulations and analysis of thin sample dielectric properties measurements using coaxial probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringhurst, S.; Iskander, M.F.; White, M.J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    A metallized ceramic probe has been designed for high temperature broadband dielectric properties measurements. The probe was fabricated out of an alumina tube and rod as the outer and inner conductors respectively. The alumina was metallized with a 3 mil layer of moly-manganese and then covered with a 0.5 mil protective layer of nickel plating. The probe has been used to make complex dielectric properties measurements over the complete frequency band from 500 MHz to 3 GHz, and for temperatures as high as 1,000 C. A 3D Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) code was used to help investigate the feasibility of this probe to measure the complex permittivity of thin samples. It is shown that by backing the material under test with a standard material of known dielectric constant, the complex permittivity of thin samples can be measured accurately using the developed FDTD algorithm. This FDTD procedure for making thin sample dielectric properties measurements will be described.

  14. Adsorption and electronic properties of pentacene on thin dielectric decoupling layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koslowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of thin dielectric decoupling layers to study the electronic properties of organic molecules on metal surfaces, comparative studies are needed in order to generalize findings and formulate practical rules. In this paper we study the adsorption and electronic properties of pentacene deposited onto h-BN/Rh(111 and compare them with those of pentacene deposited onto KCl on various metal surfaces. When deposited onto KCl, the HOMO and LUMO energies of the pentacene molecules scale with the work functions of the combined KCl/metal surface. The magnitude of the variation between the respective KCl/metal systems indicates the degree of interaction of the frontier orbitals with the underlying metal. The results confirm that the so-called IDIS model developed by Willenbockel et al. applies not only to molecular layers on bare metal surfaces, but also to individual molecules on thin electronically decoupling layers. Depositing pentacene onto h-BN/Rh(111 results in significantly different adsorption characteristics, due to the topographic corrugation of the surface as well as the lateral electric fields it presents. These properties are reflected in the divergence from the aforementioned trend for the orbital energies of pentacene deposited onto h-BN/Rh(111, as well as in the different adsorption geometry. Thus, the highly desirable capacity of h-BN to trap molecules comes at the price of enhanced metal–molecule interaction, which decreases the HOMO–LUMO gap of the molecules. In spite of the enhanced interaction, the molecular orbitals are evident in scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS and their shapes can be resolved by spectroscopic mapping.

  15. Pentacene thin-film transistors and inverters with plasma-enhanced atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jae Bon; Lim, Jung Wook; Kim, Seong Hyun; Yun, Sun Jin; Ku, Chan Hoe; Lim, Sang Chul; Lee, Jung Hun

    2007-01-01

    The performances of pentacene thin-film transistor with plasma-enhanced atomic-layer-deposited (PEALD) 150 nm thick Al 2 O 3 dielectric are reported. Saturation mobility of 0.38 cm 2 /V s, threshold voltage of 1 V, subthreshold swing of 0.6 V/decade, and on/off current ratio of about 10 8 have been obtained. Both depletion and enhancement mode inverter have been realized with the change of treatment method of hexamethyldisilazane on PEALD Al 2 O 3 gate dielectric. Full swing depletion mode inverter has been demonstrated at input voltages ranging from 5 V to - 5 V at supply voltage of - 5 V

  16. Investigation of Ultraviolet Light Curable Polysilsesquioxane Gate Dielectric Layers for Pentacene Thin Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibao, Hideto; Nakahara, Yoshio; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Polysilsesquioxane (PSQ) comprising 3-methacryloxypropyl groups was investigated as an ultraviolet (UV)-light curable gate dielectric-material for pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs). The surface of UV-light cured PSQ films was smoother than that of thermally cured ones, and the pentacene layers deposited on the UV-Iight cured PSQ films consisted of larger grains. However, carrier mobility of the TFTs using the UV-light cured PSQ films was lower than that of the TFTs using the thermally cured ones. It was shown that the cross-linker molecules, which were only added to the UV-light cured PSQ films, worked as a major mobility-limiting factor for the TFTs.

  17. Effect of interfacial layers on dielectric properties in very thin SrBi2Ta2O9 capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bum-Ki; Isobe, Chiharu; Hironaka, Katsuyuki; Hishikawa, Shinichi

    2001-01-01

    The effect of interfacial layers on the dielectric properties in very thin SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT) capacitors has been investigated using static measurements. Total permittivity (ε t ) decreased as the film thickness was reduced in both Pt/SBT/Pt and Ir/SBT/Pt capacitors. The contribution of the interfacial capacitance (C int ) and bulk capacitance to the total capacitance indicates that C int of the Ir/SBT/Pt structure was lower than that of the Pt/SBT/Pt structure, while the bulk permittivity (ε b ) was essentially the same. The dispersion of all capacitors followed the power law, while the Ir/SBT/Pt capacitor showed a larger dispersion of C int . These results suggest that the Pt/SBT/Pt capacitor is preferred for obtaining the high performance with less effect of the interfacial layers on the dielectric properties. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  18. Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Gate Dielectrics for High-Performance Organic Thin Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyun Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A low-temperature solution-processed high-k gate dielectric layer for use in a high-performance solution-processed semiconducting polymer organic thin-film transistor (OTFT was demonstrated. Photochemical activation of sol-gel-derived AlOx films under 150 °C permitted the formation of a dense film with low leakage and relatively high dielectric-permittivity characteristics, which are almost comparable to the results yielded by the conventionally used vacuum deposition and high temperature annealing method. Octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA self-assembled monolayer (SAM treatment of the AlOx was employed in order to realize high-performance (>0.4 cm2/Vs saturation mobility and low-operation-voltage (<5 V diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP-based OTFTs on an ultra-thin polyimide film (3-μm thick. Thus, low-temperature photochemically-annealed solution-processed AlOx film with SAM layer is an attractive candidate as a dielectric-layer for use in high-performance organic TFTs operated at low voltages.

  19. Stimulated Raman gain scattering in thin planar dielectric waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanger, Johannes S.; Otto, Cornelis; Greve, Jan

    1995-01-01

    The stimulated Raman gain effect in planar dielectric waveguides is analyzed for the study of thin layers. Calculations show high gain factors and predict the possibility of detecting monolayers. Compared with those for methods based on ref lection, the gain can be 4 orders of magnitude higher for a

  20. Dielectric Scattering Patterns for Efficient Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lare, Claire; Lenzmann, Frank; Verschuuren, Marc A; Polman, Albert

    2015-08-12

    We demonstrate an effective light trapping geometry for thin-film solar cells that is composed of dielectric light scattering nanocavities at the interface between the metal back contact and the semiconductor absorber layer. The geometry is based on resonant Mie scattering. It avoids the Ohmic losses found in metallic (plasmonic) nanopatterns, and the dielectric scatterers are well compatible with nearly all types of thin-film solar cells, including cells produced using high temperature processes. The external quantum efficiency of thin-film a-Si:H solar cells grown on top of a nanopatterned Al-doped ZnO, made using soft imprint lithography, is strongly enhanced in the 550-800 nm spectral band by the dielectric nanoscatterers. Numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental data and show that resonant light scattering from both the AZO nanostructures and the embedded Si nanostructures are important. The results are generic and can be applied on nearly all thin-film solar cells.

  1. Investigation of high- k yttrium copper titanate thin films as alternative gate dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteduro, Anna Grazia; Ameer, Zoobia; Rizzato, Silvia; Martino, Maurizio; Caricato, Anna Paola; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Tasco, Vittorianna; Lekshmi, Indira Chaitanya; Hazarika, Abhijit; Choudhury, Debraj; Sarma, D D

    2016-01-01

    Nearly amorphous high- k yttrium copper titanate thin films deposited by laser ablation were investigated in both metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) and metal–insulator–metal (MIM) junctions in order to assess the potentialities of this material as a gate oxide. The trend of dielectric parameters with film deposition shows a wide tunability for the dielectric constant and AC conductivity, with a remarkably high dielectric constant value of up to 95 for the thick films and conductivity as low as 6  ×  10 −10 S cm −1 for the thin films deposited at high oxygen pressure. The AC conductivity analysis points out a decrease in the conductivity, indicating the formation of a blocking interface layer, probably due to partial oxidation of the thin films during cool-down in an oxygen atmosphere. Topography and surface potential characterizations highlight differences in the thin film microstructure as a function of the deposition conditions; these differences seem to affect their electrical properties. (paper)

  2. Atomic Layer Deposited Thin Films for Dielectrics, Semiconductor Passivation, and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Runshen

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) utilizes sequential precursor gas pulses to deposit one monolayer or sub-monolayer of material per cycle based on its self-limiting surface reaction, which offers advantages, such as precise thickness control, thickness uniformity, and conformality. ALD is a powerful means of fabricating nanoscale features in future nanoelectronics, such as contemporary sub-45 nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, photovoltaic cells, near- and far-infrared detectors, and intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. High dielectric constant, kappa, materials have been recognized to be promising candidates to replace traditional SiO2 and SiON, because they enable good scalability of sub-45 nm MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) without inducing additional power consumption and heat dissipation. In addition to high dielectric constant, high-kappa materials must meet a number of other requirements, such as low leakage current, high mobility, good thermal and structure stability with Si to withstand high-temperature source-drain activation annealing. In this thesis, atomic layer deposited Er2O3 doped TiO2 is studied and proposed as a thermally stable amorphous high-kappa dielectric on Si substrate. The stabilization of TiO2 in its amorphous state is found to achieve a high permittivity of 36, a hysteresis voltage of less than 10 mV, and a low leakage current density of 10-8 A/cm-2 at -1 MV/cm. In III-V semiconductors, issues including unsatisfied dangling bonds and native oxides often result in inferior surface quality that yields non-negligible leakage currents and degrades the long-term performance of devices. The traditional means for passivating the surface of III-V semiconductors are based on the use of sulfide solutions; however, that only offers good protection against oxidation for a short-term (i.e., one day). In this work, in order to improve the chemical passivation efficacy of III-V semiconductors

  3. Investigation of optical pump on dielectric tunability in PZT/PT thin film by THz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Luo, Chunya; Rao, Yunkun; Ling, Furi; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-07-11

    The dielectric spectra of single-layer PbTiO3 (PT), single-layer PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) and multilayer PZT/PT thin films under an external optical field were investigated at room temperature by time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Results showed that the real part of permittivity increased upon application of an external optical field, which could be interpreted as hardening of the soft mode and increasing of the damping coefficient and oscillator strength. Furthermore, the central mode was observed in the three films. Among the dielectric property of the three thin films studied, the tunability of the PZT/PT superlattice was the largest.

  4. Estimation of optical constants of a bio-thin layer (onion epidermis), using SPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Saif-ur-; Hayashi, Shinji; Sekkat, Zouheir; Mumtaz, Huma; Shaukat, S F

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the optical constants of a biological thin layer (Allium cepa) by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. For this study, the fresh inner thin epidermis of an onion bulb was used and stacked directly on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) film surfaces in order to identify the shift in SPR mode of each metal film at an operating wavelength of 632.8 nm. The thickness and dielectric constants of the biological thin layer were determined by matching the experimental SPR curves to theoretical ones. The thickness and roughness of bare Au and Ag thin films were also measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM); the results of which are in good agreement with those obtained through experiment. Due to the high surface roughness of the natural onion epidermis layer, AFM could not measure the exact thickness of an onion epidermis. It is estimated that the value of the real part of the dielectric constant of an onion epidermis is between the dielectric constants of water and air. (paper)

  5. UV and plasma treatment of thin silver layers and glass surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hluschi, J.H. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Roth, P. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Boewer, R. [Interpane Glasbeschichtungsgesellschaft mbH and Co KG, Sohnreystr. 21, D-37697 Lauenfoerde (Germany); Herlitze, L. [Interpane Glasbeschichtungsgesellschaft mbH and Co KG, Sohnreystr. 21, D-37697 Lauenfoerde (Germany); Vioel, W. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany)]. E-mail: vioel@hawk-hhg.de

    2006-11-10

    Thin silver layers can be modified by treatment with UV radiation or a plasma discharge. UV treatment at a wavelength of {lambda}=308 -bar nm improves the layer properties, thus leading to an enhancement of the layers IR reflectivity. For the purpose of in situ-measurement the sheet resistance is recorded during the process. Due to the Hagen-Rubens-Relation [E. Hagen, H. Rubens, Ann. Phys. 11 (1903) 873]-bar the sheet resistance is linked to the IR reflectivity of thin metal-films. A pretreatment of uncoated glass using a dielectric barrier discharge activates and cleans its surface, thus leading to an increase in adhesion of thin layers.

  6. UV and plasma treatment of thin silver layers and glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hluschi, J.H.; Helmke, A.; Roth, P.; Boewer, R.; Herlitze, L.; Vioel, W.

    2006-01-01

    Thin silver layers can be modified by treatment with UV radiation or a plasma discharge. UV treatment at a wavelength of λ=308 -bar nm improves the layer properties, thus leading to an enhancement of the layers IR reflectivity. For the purpose of in situ-measurement the sheet resistance is recorded during the process. Due to the Hagen-Rubens-Relation [E. Hagen, H. Rubens, Ann. Phys. 11 (1903) 873]-bar the sheet resistance is linked to the IR reflectivity of thin metal-films. A pretreatment of uncoated glass using a dielectric barrier discharge activates and cleans its surface, thus leading to an increase in adhesion of thin layers

  7. Thin-film composite materials as a dielectric layer for flexible metal-insulator-metal capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Jitendra N; Meena, Jagan Singh; Wu, Chung-Shu; Tiwari, Rajanish N; Chu, Min-Ching; Chang, Feng-Chih; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2010-09-24

    A new organic-organic nanoscale composite thin-film (NCTF) dielectric has been synthesized by solution deposition of 1-bromoadamantane and triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123, BASF, EO20-PO70-EO20), in which the precursor solution has been achieved with organic additives. We have used a sol-gel process to make a metal-insulator-metal capacitor (MIM) comprising a nanoscale (10 nm-thick) thin-film on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate at room temperature. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope revealed that the deposited NCTFs were crack-free, uniform, highly resistant to moisture absorption, and well adhered on the Au-Cr/PI. The electrical properties of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF were characterized by dielectric constant, capacitance, and leakage current measurements. The 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF on the PI substrate showed a low leakage current density of 5.5 x 10(-11) A cm(-2) and good capacitance of 2.4 fF at 1 MHz. In addition, the calculated dielectric constant of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF was 1.9, making them suitable candidates for use in future flexible electronic devices as a stable intermetal dielectric. The electrical insulating properties of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF have been improved due to the optimized dipole moments of the van der Waals interactions.

  8. High-Mobility 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) Pentacene Transistors Using Solution-Processed Polysilsesquioxane Gate Dielectric Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yu; Nakahara, Yoshio; Michiura, Daisuke; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Polysilsesquioxane (PSQ) is a low-temperature curable polymer that is compatible with low-cost plastic substrates. We cured PSQ gate dielectric layers by irradiation with ultraviolet light at ~60 °C, and used them for 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) thin film transistors (TFTs). The fabricated TFTs have shown the maximum and average hole mobility of 1.3 and 0.78 ± 0.3 cm2V-1s-1, which are comparable to those of the previously reported transistors using single-crystalline TIPS-pentacene micro-ribbons for their active layers and thermally oxidized SiO2 for their gate dielectric layers. Itis therefore demonstrated that PSQ is a promising polymer gate dielectric material for low-cost organic TFTs.

  9. High thermal conductivity lossy dielectric using a multi layer configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for loss dielectrics. A loss dielectric includes at least one high dielectric loss layer and at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. A method of manufacturing a loss dielectric includes providing at least one high dielectric loss layer and providing at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. The systems and methods provide advantages because the loss dielectrics are less costly and more environmentally friendly than the available alternatives.

  10. Semi-transparent a-IGZO thin-film transistors with polymeric gate dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Gun Woo; Wang, Jian-Xun; Li, Zhao-Hui; Koo, Ja-Ryong; Kwon, Sang Jik; Cho, Eou-Sik; Kim, Young Kwan

    2013-06-01

    We report the fabrication of semi-transparent a-IGZO-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with crosslinked poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) gate dielectric layers on PET substrate and thermally-evaporated Al/Ag/Al source and drain (S&D) electrodes, which showed a transmittance of 64% at a 500-nm wavelength and sheet resistance of 16.8 omega/square. The semi-transparent a-IGZO TFTs with a PVP layer exhibited decent saturation mobilities (maximum approximately 5.8 cm2Ns) and on/off current ratios of approximately 10(6).

  11. Improved Gate Dielectric Deposition and Enhanced Electrical Stability for Single-Layer MoS2 MOSFET with an AlN Interfacial Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qingkai; Li, Baikui; Hua, Mengyuan; Zhang, Zhaofu; Lan, Feifei; Xu, Yongkuan; Yan, Ruyue; Chen, Kevin J

    2016-06-09

    Transistors based on MoS2 and other TMDs have been widely studied. The dangling-bond free surface of MoS2 has made the deposition of high-quality high-k dielectrics on MoS2 a challenge. The resulted transistors often suffer from the threshold voltage instability induced by the high density traps near MoS2/dielectric interface or inside the gate dielectric, which is detrimental for the practical applications of MoS2 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). In this work, by using AlN deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) as an interfacial layer, top-gate dielectrics as thin as 6 nm for single-layer MoS2 transistors are demonstrated. The AlN interfacial layer not only promotes the conformal deposition of high-quality Al2O3 on the dangling-bond free MoS2, but also greatly enhances the electrical stability of the MoS2 transistors. Very small hysteresis (ΔVth) is observed even at large gate biases and high temperatures. The transistor also exhibits a low level of flicker noise, which clearly originates from the Hooge mobility fluctuation instead of the carrier number fluctuation. The observed superior electrical stability of MoS2 transistor is attributed to the low border trap density of the AlN interfacial layer, as well as the small gate leakage and high dielectric strength of AlN/Al2O3 dielectric stack.

  12. Preparation and dielectric properties of compositionally graded lead barium zirconate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Xihong, E-mail: xhhao@imust.edu.c [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Zhang, Zhiqing [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Zhou, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); An, Shengli [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Zhai, Jiwei [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2010-07-09

    Both up and down compositionally graded (Pb{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x})ZrO{sub 3} (PBZ) thin films with increasing x from 0.4 to 0.6 were deposited on Pt(1 1 1)-buffer layered silicon substrates through a sol-gel method. The microstructure and dielectric properties of graded PBZ thin films were investigated systemically. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that both PBZ films had crystallized into a pure perovskite phase after annealed 700 {sup o}C. Electrical measurement results showed that although up graded films had a slightly larger tunability, dielectric loss of down graded films was much lower than that of up graded films. Therefore, the figure of merit of down graded PBZ films was greatly enhanced, as compared with up graded films. Moreover, down graded PBZ thin films also displayed excellent temperature stability with a smaller temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) of -0.59 x 10{sup -3} {sup o}C{sup -1} from 20 {sup o}C to 80 {sup o}C.

  13. Functional Design of Dielectric-Metal-Dielectric-Based Thin-Film Encapsulation with Heat Transfer and Flexibility for Flexible Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Seungyeop; Jeon, Yongmin; Kim, Hyuncheol; Chang, Ki Soo; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2017-08-16

    In this study, a new and efficient dielectric-metal-dielectric-based thin-film encapsulation (DMD-TFE) with an inserted Ag thin film is proposed to guarantee the reliability of flexible displays by improving the barrier properties, mechanical flexibility, and heat dissipation, which are considered to be essential requirements for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) encapsulation. The DMD-TFE, which is composed of Al 2 O 3 , Ag, and a silica nanoparticle-embedded sol-gel hybrid nanocomposite, shows a water vapor transmission rate of 8.70 × 10 -6 g/m 2 /day and good mechanical reliability at a bending radius of 30 mm, corresponding to 0.41% strain for 1000 bending cycles. The electrical performance of a thin-film encapsulated phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) was identical to that of a glass-lid encapsulated PHOLED. The operational lifetimes of the thin-film encapsulated and glass-lid encapsulated PHOLEDs are 832 and 754 h, respectively. After 80 days, the thin-film encapsulated PHOLED did not show performance degradation or dark spots on the cell image in a shelf-lifetime test. Finally, the difference in lifetime of the OLED devices in relation to the presence and thickness of a Ag film was analyzed by applying various TFE structures to fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) that could generate high amounts of heat. To demonstrate the difference in heat dissipation effect among the TFE structures, the saturated temperatures of the encapsulated FOLEDs were measured from the back side surface of the glass substrate, and were found to be 67.78, 65.12, 60.44, and 39.67 °C after all encapsulated FOLEDs were operated at an initial luminance of 10 000 cd/m 2 for sufficient heat generation. Furthermore, the operational lifetime tests of the encapsulated FOLED devices showed results that were consistent with the measurements of real-time temperature profiles taken with an infrared camera. A multifunctional hybrid thin-film encapsulation

  14. Electrical dependence on the chemical composition of the gate dielectric in indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tari, Alireza, E-mail: atari@uwaterloo.ca; Lee, Czang-Ho; Wong, William S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-07-13

    Bottom-gate thin-film transistors were fabricated by depositing a 50 nm InGaZnO (IGZO) channel layer at 150 °C on three separate gate dielectric films: (1) thermal SiO{sub 2}, (2) plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) SiN{sub x}, and (3) a PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric. X-ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the V{sub o} concentration was dependent on the hydrogen concentration of the underlying dielectric film. IGZO films on SiN{sub x} (high V{sub o}) and SiO{sub 2} (low V{sub o}) had the highest and lowest conductivity, respectively. A PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric layer was effective in suppressing hydrogen diffusion from the nitride layer into the IGZO and resulted in higher resistivity films.

  15. Blending effect of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene-graphene composite layers for flexible thin film transistors with a polymer gate dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sarbani; Adriyanto, Feri; Wang, Yeong-Her

    2014-02-28

    Solution processible poly(4-vinylphenol) is employed as a transistor dielectric material for low cost processing on flexible substrates at low temperatures. A 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene-graphene hybrid semiconductor is drop cast to fabricate bottom-gate and bottom-contact field-effect transistor devices on flexible and glass substrates under an ambient air environment. A few layers of graphene flakes increase the area in the conduction channel, and form bridge connections between the crystalline regions of the semiconductor layer which can change the surface morphology of TIPS pentacene films. The TIPS pentacene-graphene hybrid semiconductor-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) cross-linked with a poly(4-vinylphenol) gate dielectric exhibit an effective field-effect mobility of 0.076 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and a threshold voltage of -0.7 V at V(gs) = -40 V. By contrast, typical TIPS pentacene shows four times lower mobility of 0.019 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and a threshold voltage of 5 V. The graphene/TIPS pentacene hybrids presented in this paper can enhance the electrical characteristics of OTFTs due to their high crystallinity, uniform large-grain distribution, and effective reduction of crystal misorientation of the organic semiconductor layer, as confirmed by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical microscopy studies.

  16. Method of forming a nanocluster comprising dielectric layer and device comprising such a layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A method of forming a dielectric layer (330) on a further layer (114, 320) of a semiconductor device (300) is disclosed. The method comprises depositing a dielectric precursor compound and a further precursor compound over the further layer (114, 320), the dielectric precursor compound comprising a

  17. Fabrication of Nonvolatile Memory Effects in High-k Dielectric Thin Films Using Electron Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chanrock; Cho, Daehee; Kim, Jeongeun; Hwang, Jinha

    2010-01-01

    Electron Irradiation can be applied towards nano-floating gate memories which are recognized as one of the next-generation nonvolatile memory semiconductors. NFGMs can overcome the preexisting limitations encountered in Dynamic Random Access Memories and Flash memories with the excellent advantages, i. e. high-density information storage, high response speed, high compactness, etc. The traditional nano-floating gate memories are fabricated through multi-layered nano structures of the dissimilar materials where the charge-trapping portions are sandwiched into the high-k dielectrics. However, this work reports the unique nonvolatile responses in single-layered high-k dielectric thin films if irradiated with highly accelerated electron beams. The implications of the electron irradiation will be discussed towards high-performance nano-floating gate memories

  18. Periodicity effects on compound waves guided by a thin metal slab sandwiched between two periodically nonhomogeneous dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-10-01

    Surface-plasmon-polariton waves can be compounded when a sufficiently thin metal layer is sandwiched between two half spaces filled with dissimilar periodically nonhomogeneous dielectric materials. We solved the boundary-value problem for compound waves guided by a layer of a homogeneous and isotropic metal sandwiched between a structurally chiral material (SCM) and a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric (PMLID) material. We found that the periodicities of the PMLID material and the SCM are crucial to excite a multiplicity of compound guided waves arising from strong coupling between the two interfaces.

  19. Wet chemical preparation of YVO{sub 4}:Eu thin films as red-emitting phosphor layers for fully transparent flat dielectric discharge lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausch, A. [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Mommsenstr. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Althues, H. [Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology Winterbergstr. 28, 01309 Dresden (Germany); Freudenberg, T. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Kaskel, S., E-mail: Stefan.Kaskel@chemie.tu-dresden.de [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Mommsenstr. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-04-30

    Highly transparent YVO{sub 4}:Eu thin films were deposited via dip coating of liquid nanoparticle dispersions on glass substrates. Annealing of the nanoparticle layers resulted in restructuring of the material into oriented crystalline films. The crystallinity was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction. Film thickness was adjusted to 467 nm by multiple deposition. The resulting coatings show > 99% absorbance for wavelength below 300 nm and > 90% transmission in the visible spectral range. Under UV-light excitation a bright red photoluminescence with a quantum efficiency of 20% is observed. A planar, transparent dielectric barrier discharge lamp was constructed using YVO{sub 4}:Eu coated glasses and transparent electrodes made from antimony-doped tin dioxide thin films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of highly transparent Eu{sup 3+} doped YVO{sub 4} phosphor thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved crystallinity and optical properties through heat treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red emitting films on glass substrates were combined with antimony tin oxide thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fully transparent, planar gas discharge lamp as prototype for a light emitting window.

  20. Enhanced electrical properties of dual-layer channel ZnO thin film transistors prepared by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijin; Han, Dedong; Dong, Junchen; Yu, Wen; Liang, Yi; Luo, Zhen; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    The thin film transistors (TFTs) with a dual-layer channel structure combing ZnO thin layer grown at 200 °C and ZnO film grown at 120 °C by atomic layer deposition are fabricated. The dual-layer channel TFT exhibits a low leakage current of 2.8 × 10-13 A, Ion/Ioff ratio of 3.4 × 109, saturation mobility μsat of 12 cm2 V-1 s-1, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.25 V/decade. The SS value decreases to 0.18 V/decade after the annealing treatment in O2 due to the reduction of the trap states at the channel/dielectric interface and in the bulk channel layer. The enhanced performance obtained from the dual-layer channel TFTs is due to the ability of maintaining high mobility and suppressing the increase in the off-current at the same time.

  1. Materials science, integration, and performance characterization of high-dielectric constant thin film based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei

    To overcome the oxidation and diffusion problems encountered during Copper integration with oxide thin film-based devices, TiAl/Cu/Ta heterostructure has been first developed in this study. Investigation on the oxidation and diffusion resistance of the laminate structure showed high electrical conductance and excellent thermal stability in oxygen environment. Two amorphous oxide layers that were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier after heating in oxygen have been revealed as the structure that effectively prevents oxygen penetration and protects the integrity of underlying Cu layer. Polycrystalline (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 (BST) thin films were subsequently deposited on the Cu-based bottom electrode by RF magnetron sputtering to investigate the interaction between the oxide and Cu layers. The thickness of the interfacial layer and interface roughness play critical roles in the optimization of the electrical performance of the BST capacitors using Cu-based electrode. It was determined that BST deposition at moderate temperature followed by rapid thermal annealing in pure oxygen yields BST/Cu capacitors with good electrical properties for application to high frequency devices. The knowledge obtained on the study of barrier properties of TiAl inspired a continuous research on the materials science issues related to the application of the hybrid TiAlOx, as high-k gate dielectric in MOSFET devices. Novel fabrication process such as deposition of ultra-thin TiAl alloy layer followed by oxidation with atomic oxygen has been established in this study. Stoichiometric amorphous TiAlOx layers, exhibiting only Ti4+ and Al3+ states, were produced with a large variation of oxidation temperature (700°C to room temperature). The interfacial SiOx formation between TiAlOx and Si was substantially inhibited by the use of the low temperature oxidation process. Electrical characterization revealed a large permittivity of 30 and an improved band structure for the produced TiAlOx layers

  2. Novel organic semiconductors and dielectric materials for high performance and low-voltage organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Myung-Han

    Two novel classes of organic semiconductors based on perfluoroarene/arene-modified oligothiophenes and perfluoroacyl/acyl-derivatized quaterthiophens are developed. The frontier molecular orbital energies of these compounds are studied by optical spectroscopy and electrochemistry while solid-state/film properties are investigated by thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) performance parameters are discussed in terms of the interplay between semiconductor molecular energetics and film morphologies/microstructures. For perfluoroarene-thiophene oligomer systems, majority charge carrier type and mobility exhibit a strong correlation with the regiochemistry of perfluoroarene incorporation. In quaterthiophene-based semiconductors, carbonyl-functionalization allows tuning of the majority carrier type from p-type to ambipolar and to n-type. In situ conversion of a p-type semiconducting film to n-type film is also demonstrated. Very thin self-assembled or spin-on organic dielectric films have been integrated into OTFTs to achieve 1 - 2 V operating voltages. These new dielectrics are deposited either by layer-by-layer solution phase deposition of molecular precursors or by spin-coating a mixture of polymer and crosslinker, resulting in smooth and virtually pinhole-free thin films having exceptionally large capacitances (300--700 nF/cm2) and low leakage currents (10 -9 - 10-7 A/cm2). These organic dielectrics are compatible with various vapor- or solution-deposited p- and n-channel organic semiconductors. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that spin-on crosslinked-polymer-blend dielectrics can be employed for large-area/patterned electronics, and complementary inverters. A general approach for probing semiconductor-dielectric interface effects on OTFT performance parameters using bilayer gate dielectrics is presented. Organic semiconductors having p-, n-type, or ambipolar majority charge carriers are grown on

  3. Band Alignment and Optical Properties of (ZrO20.66(HfO20.34 Gate Dielectrics Thin Films on p-Si (100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlang Tahir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available (ZrO20.66(HfO20.34 dielectric films on p-Si (100 were grown by atomic layer deposition method, for which the conduction band offsets, valence band offsets and band gaps were obtained by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy. The band gap, valence and conduction band offset values for (ZrO20.66(HfO20.34 dielectric thin film, grown on Si substrate were about 5.34, 2.35 and 1.87 eV respectively. This band alignment was similar to that of ZrO2. In addition, The dielectric function ε (k, ω, index of refraction n and the extinction coefficient k for the (ZrO20.66(HfO20.34 thin films were obtained from a quantitative analysis of REELS data by comparison to detailed dielectric response model calculations using the QUEELS-ε (k,ω-REELS software package. These optical properties are similar with ZrO2 dielectric thin films.

  4. Blending effect of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene–graphene composite layers for flexible thin film transistors with a polymer gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Sarbani; Adriyanto, Feri; Wang, Yeong-Her

    2014-01-01

    Solution processible poly(4-vinylphenol) is employed as a transistor dielectric material for low cost processing on flexible substrates at low temperatures. A 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene–graphene hybrid semiconductor is drop cast to fabricate bottom-gate and bottom-contact field-effect transistor devices on flexible and glass substrates under an ambient air environment. A few layers of graphene flakes increase the area in the conduction channel, and form bridge connections between the crystalline regions of the semiconductor layer which can change the surface morphology of TIPS pentacene films. The TIPS pentacene–graphene hybrid semiconductor-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) cross-linked with a poly(4-vinylphenol) gate dielectric exhibit an effective field-effect mobility of 0.076 cm 2  V −1  s −1 and a threshold voltage of −0.7 V at V gs = −40 V. By contrast, typical TIPS pentacene shows four times lower mobility of 0.019 cm 2  V −1  s −1 and a threshold voltage of 5 V. The graphene/TIPS pentacene hybrids presented in this paper can enhance the electrical characteristics of OTFTs due to their high crystallinity, uniform large-grain distribution, and effective reduction of crystal misorientation of the organic semiconductor layer, as confirmed by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical microscopy studies. (paper)

  5. Bi-axially crumpled silver thin-film electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Sze-Hsien; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2014-01-01

    Metal thin films, which have high conductivity, are much stiffer and may fracture at a much lower strain than dielectric elastomers. In order to fabricate compliant electrodes for use in dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), metal thin films have been formed into either zigzag patterns or corrugations, which favour bending and only allow uniaxial DEA deformations. However, biaxially compliant electrodes are desired in order to maximize generated forces of DEA. In this paper, we present crumpled metal thin-film electrodes that are biaxially compliant and have full area coverage over the dielectric elastomer. These crumpled metal thin-film electrodes are more stretchable than flat metal thin films; they remain conductive beyond 110% radial strain. Also, crumpling reduced the stiffening effect of metal thin films on the soft elastomer. As such, DEAs using crumpled metal thin-film electrodes managed to attain relatively high actuated area strains of up to 128% at 1.8 kV (102 Vμm −1 ). (paper)

  6. Improved integration of ultra-thin high-k dielectrics in few-layer MoS2 FET by remote forming gas plasma pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tian-Bao; Yang, Wen; Zhu, Hao; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei

    2017-01-01

    The effective and high-quality integration of high-k dielectrics on two-dimensional (2D) crystals is essential to the device structure engineering and performance improvement of field-effect transistor (FET) based on the 2D semiconductors. We report a 2D MoS2 transistor with ultra-thin Al2O3 top-gate dielectric (6.1 nm) and extremely low leakage current. Remote forming gas plasma pretreatment was carried out prior to the atomic layer deposition, providing nucleation sites with the physically adsorbed ions on the MoS2 surface. The top gate MoS2 FET exhibited excellent electrical performance, including high on/off current ratio over 109, subthreshold swing of 85 mV/decade and field-effect mobility of 45.03 cm2/V s. Top gate leakage current less than 0.08 pA/μm2 at 4 MV/cm has been obtained, which is the smallest compared with the reported top-gated MoS2 transistors. Such an optimized integration of high-k dielectric in 2D semiconductor FET with enhanced performance is very attractive, and it paves the way towards the realization of more advanced 2D nanoelectronic devices and integrated circuits.

  7. Effect of La doping on crystalline orientation, microstructure and dielectric properties of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wencai; Li, Qi; Wang, Xing [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Yin, Zhifu [Jilin Univ., Changchun (China). Faculty of the School of Mechanical Science and Engineering; Zou, Helin [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). Key Lab. for Micro/Nano Systems and Technology

    2017-11-01

    Lanthanum (La)-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films with doping concentration from 0 to 5 at.-% have been fabricated by sol-gel methods to investigate the effects of La doping on crystalline orientation, microstructure and dielectric properties of the modified films. The characterization of PLZT thin films were performed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and precision impedance analysis. XRD analysis showed that PLZT films with La doping concentration below 4 at.-% exhibited (100) preferred orientation. SEM results indicated that PLZT films presented dense and columnar microstructures when La doping concentration was less than 3 at.-%, while the others showed columnar microstructures only at the bottom of the cross section. The maximum dielectric constant (1502.59 at 100 Hz) was obtained in a 2 at.-% La-doped film, which increased by 53.9 % compared with undoped film. Without introducing a seed layer, (100) oriented PLZT thin films were prepared by using conventional heat treatment process and adjusting La doping concentration.

  8. Feasibility study of using thin aluminum nitride film as a buffer layer for dual metal gate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Seo; Cho, Byung Jin; Balasubramanian, N.; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of using an ultra thin aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layer for dual metal gates CMOS process. Since the buffer layer should not affect the thickness of gate dielectric, it should be removed or consumed during subsequent process. In this work, it was shown that a thin AlN dielectric layer would be reacted with initial gate metals and would be consumed during subsequent annealing, resulting in no increase of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT). The reaction of AlN layer with tantalum (Ta) and hafnium (Hf) during subsequent annealing, which was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, shifted the flat-band voltage of AlN buffered MOS capacitors. No contribution to equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) was also an indication showing the full consumption of AIN, which was confirmed with TEM analysis. The work functions of gate metals were modulated through the reaction, suggesting that the consumption of AlN resulted in new thin metal alloys. Finally, it was found that the barrier heights of the new alloys were consistent with their work functions

  9. Titanium dioxide thin films by atomic layer deposition: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Janne-Petteri; Marin, Giovanni; Karppinen, Maarit

    2017-09-01

    Within its rich phase diagram titanium dioxide is a truly multifunctional material with a property palette that has been shown to span from dielectric to transparent-conducting characteristics, in addition to the well-known catalytic properties. At the same time down-scaling of microelectronic devices has led to an explosive growth in research on atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a wide variety of frontier thin-film materials, among which TiO2 is one of the most popular ones. In this topical review we summarize the advances in research of ALD of titanium dioxide starting from the chemistries of the over 50 different deposition routes developed for TiO2 and the resultant structural characteristics of the films. We then continue with the doped ALD-TiO2 thin films from the perspective of dielectric, transparent-conductor and photocatalytic applications. Moreover, in order to cover the latest trends in the research field, both the variously constructed TiO2 nanostructures enabled by ALD and the Ti-based hybrid inorganic-organic films grown by the emerging ALD/MLD (combined atomic/molecular layer deposition) technique are discussed.

  10. Enhanced dielectric and electrical properties of annealed PVDF thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, A. N.; Rozana, M. D.; Wahid, M. H. M.; Mahmood, M. K. A.; Sarip, M. N.; Habibah, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Poly (vinylideneflouride) (PVDF) thin films were annealed at various annealing temperatures ranging from 70°C to 170°C. This study demonstrates that PVDF thin films annealed at temperature of 70°C (AN70) showed significant enhancement in their dielectric constant (14) at frequency of 1 kHz in comparison to un-annealed PVDF (UN-PVDF), dielectric constant (10) at the same measured frequency. As the annealing temperature was increased from 90°C (AN90) to 150°C (AN150), the dielectric constant value of PVDF thin films was observed to decrease gradually to 11. AN70 also revealed low tangent loss (tan δ) value at similar frequency. With respect to its resistivity properties, the values were found to increase from 1.98×104 Ω.cm to 3.24×104 Ω.cm for AN70 and UN-PVDF films respectively. The improved in dielectric constant, with low tangent loss and high resistivity value suggests that 70°C is the favorable annealing temperature for PVDF thin films. Hence, AN70 is a promising film to be utilized for application in electronic devices such as low frequency capacitor.

  11. Materials science and integration bases for fabrication of (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 thin film capacitors with layered Cu-based electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Kabius, B.; Hiller, J. M.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R. P. H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-11-01

    The synthesis and fundamental material properties of layered TiAl/Cu/Ta electrodes were investigated to achieve the integration of Cu electrodes with high-dielectric constant (κ) oxide thin films for application to the fabrication of high-frequency devices. The Ta layer is an excellent diffusion barrier to inhibit deleterious Cu diffusion into the Si substrate, while the TiAl layer provides an excellent barrier against oxygen diffusion into the Cu layer to inhibit Cu oxidation during the growth of the high-κ layer in an oxygen atmosphere. Polycrystalline (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 (BST) thin films were grown on the Cu-based bottom electrode by rf magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range 400-600 °C in oxygen, to investigate the performance of BST/Cu-based capacitors. Characterization of the Cu-based layered structure using surface analytical methods showed that two amorphous oxide layers were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier, such that the oxide layer on the free surface of the TiAl layer correlates with TiAlOx, while the oxide layer at the TiAl/Cu interface is an Al2O3-rich layer. This double amorphous barrier layer structure effectively prevents oxygen penetration towards the underlying Cu and Ta layers. The TiAlOx interfacial layer, which has a relatively low dielectric constant compared with BST, reduced the total capacitance of the BST thin film capacitors. In addition, the layered electrode-oxide interface roughening observed during the growth of BST films at high temperature, due to copper grain growth, resulted in large dielectric loss on the fabricated BST capacitors. These problems were solved by growing the BST layer at 450 °C followed by a rapid thermal annealing at 700 °C. This process significantly reduced the thickness of the TiAlOx layer and interface roughness resulting in BST capacitors exhibiting properties suitable for the fabrication of high-performance high-frequency devices. In summary, relatively high dielectric constant (280), low

  12. Materials science and integration bases for fabrication of (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 thin film capacitors with layered Cu-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, W.; Kabius, B.; Hiller, J.M.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J.A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R.P.H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and fundamental material properties of layered TiAl/Cu/Ta electrodes were investigated to achieve the integration of Cu electrodes with high-dielectric constant (κ) oxide thin films for application to the fabrication of high-frequency devices. The Ta layer is an excellent diffusion barrier to inhibit deleterious Cu diffusion into the Si substrate, while the TiAl layer provides an excellent barrier against oxygen diffusion into the Cu layer to inhibit Cu oxidation during the growth of the high-κ layer in an oxygen atmosphere. Polycrystalline (Ba x Sr 1-x )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were grown on the Cu-based bottom electrode by rf magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range 400-600 deg. C in oxygen, to investigate the performance of BST/Cu-based capacitors. Characterization of the Cu-based layered structure using surface analytical methods showed that two amorphous oxide layers were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier, such that the oxide layer on the free surface of the TiAl layer correlates with TiAlO x , while the oxide layer at the TiAl/Cu interface is an Al 2 O 3 -rich layer. This double amorphous barrier layer structure effectively prevents oxygen penetration towards the underlying Cu and Ta layers. The TiAlO x interfacial layer, which has a relatively low dielectric constant compared with BST, reduced the total capacitance of the BST thin film capacitors. In addition, the layered electrode-oxide interface roughening observed during the growth of BST films at high temperature, due to copper grain growth, resulted in large dielectric loss on the fabricated BST capacitors. These problems were solved by growing the BST layer at 450 deg. C followed by a rapid thermal annealing at 700 deg. C. This process significantly reduced the thickness of the TiAlO x layer and interface roughness resulting in BST capacitors exhibiting properties suitable for the fabrication of high-performance high-frequency devices. In summary, relatively high

  13. An Approach for Measuring the Dielectric Strength of OLED Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith Sudheendran Swayamprabha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of electrodes plays a key role in the dielectric breakdown of thin-film organic devices. The rate of breakdown will increase when there are stochastic sharp spikes on the surface of electrodes. Additionally, surface having spiking morphology makes the determination of dielectric strength very challenging, specifically when the layer is relatively thin. We demonstrate here a new approach to investigate the dielectric strength of organic thin films for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. The thin films were deposited on a substrate using physical vapor deposition (PVD under high vacuum. The device architectures used were glass substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO/organic material/aluminum (Al and glass substrate/Al/organic material/Al. The dielectric strength of the OLED materials was evaluated from the measured breakdown voltage and layer thickness.

  14. Structural and magneto-dielectric property of (1-x)SBT-xLSMO nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Sarmistha; Bhattacharya, D.; Dhar, A.; Ray, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, interest in multiferroic materials has been increasing due to their potential applications. As single-phase multiferroic materials have very low room temperature magnetoelectric coefficient, recent studies have been concentrated on the possibility of attaining a coupling between the two order parameters by designing composites with magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases via stress mediation. Composite thin films with homogenous matrix, composition spread with terminal layers being ferromagnetic and ferroelectric, layer-by-layer growth, superlattices, as well as epitaxial growth of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric layers on suitable substrates are been currently considered. In the present work, a nanostructured composite thin film of strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) (ferroelectric layer) and lanthanum strontium manganese oxide (LSMO) (ferromagnetic layer) were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition. Phase separated multiferroic thin films with thickness varying from 50nm to 150nm were deposited from composite target (1-x)SBT-xLSMO with x=0.2, 0.5, 0.8. Grazing angle X-ray diffraction study combined with photo electron spectroscopy with depth profiling was carried out to study the phase separation. Interface quality of the thin film on silicon substrate was studied by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Influence of film thickness and composition (x) on the electrical property of film was examined using impedance spectroscopy. The composite films exhibited ferroelectric as well as ferromagnetic characteristics at room temperature. A small kink in the dielectric spectra near the Neel temperature of LSMO confirmed the magneto-electric effect in the nanocomposite films

  15. The Electrical Breakdown of Thin Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers are being developed for use in actuators, sensors and generators to be used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, the devices are operated at high electrical fields....... This increases the likelihood for electrical breakdown significantly. Hence, for many applications the performance of the dielectric elastomers is limited by this risk of failure, which is triggered by several factors. Amongst others thermal effects may strongly influence the electrical breakdown strength....... In this study, we model the electrothermal breakdown in thin PDMS based dielectric elastomers in order to evaluate the thermal mechanisms behind the electrical failures. The objective is to predict the operation range of PDMS based dielectric elastomers with respect to the temperature at given electric field...

  16. Experimental Investigation of an X-Band Tunable Dielectric Accelerating Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kanareykin, Alex; Karmanenko, Sergei F; Nenasheva, Elisaveta; Power, John G; Schoessow, Paul; Semenov, Alexei

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study of a new scheme to tune the resonant frequency for dielectric based accelerating structure (driven either by the wakefield of a beam or an external rf source) is underway. The structure consists of a single layer of conventional dielectric surrounded by a very thin layer of ferroelectric material situated on the outside. Carefully designed electrodes are attached to a thin layer of ferroelectric material. A DC bias can be applied to the electrodes to change the permittivity of the ferroelectric layer and therefore, the dielectric overall resonant frequency can be tuned. In this paper, we present the test results for an 11.424 GHz rectangular DLA prototype structure that the ferroelectric material's dielectric constant of 500 and show that a frequency tuning range of 2% can be achieved. If successful, this scheme would compensate for structure errors caused by ceramic waveguide machining tolerances and dielectric constant heterogeneity.

  17. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {100} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  18. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {100} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  19. Enhanced dielectric properties of ZrO2 thin films prepared in nitrogen ambient by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J; Li, T L; Pan, B; Zhou, L; Liu, Z G

    2003-01-01

    ZrO 2 thin films were fabricated in O 2 ambient and in N 2 ambient by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed that films prepared at 400 deg. C remained amorphous. The dielectric properties of amorphous ZrO 2 films were investigated by measuring the capacitance-frequency characteristics of Pt/ZrO 2 /Pt capacitor structures. The dielectric constant of the films deposited in N 2 ambient was larger than that of the films deposited in O 2 ambient. The dielectric loss was lower for films prepared in N 2 ambient. Atom force microscopy investigation indicated that films deposited in N 2 ambient had smoother surface than films deposited in O 2 ambient. Capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics were studied. The equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of films with 6.6 nm physical thickness deposited in N 2 ambient is lower than that of films deposited in O 2 ambient. An EOT of 1.38 nm for the film deposited in N 2 ambient was obtained, while the leakage current density was 94.6 mA cm -2 . Therefore, ZrO 2 thins deposited in N 2 ambient have enhanced dielectric properties due to the incorporation of nitrogen which leads to the formation of Zr-doped nitride interfacial layer, and is suggested to be a potential material for alternative high-k (high dielectric constant) gate dielectric applications

  20. Building a Better Capacitor with Thin-Film Atomic Layer Deposition Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Christopher [North Seattle College, WA (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The goal of this research is to determine procedures for creating ultra-high capacity supercapacitors by using nanofabrication techniques and high k-value dielectrics. One way to potentially solve the problem of climate change is to switch the source of energy to a source that doesn’t release many tons of greenhouse gases, gases which cause global warming, into the Earth’s atmosphere. These trap in more heat from the Sun’s solar energy and cause global temperatures to rise. Atomic layer deposition will be used to create a uniform thin-film of dielectric to greatly enhance the abilities of our capacitors and will build them on the nanoscale.

  1. Theory of differential and integral scattering of laser radiation by a dielectric surface taking a defect layer into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarova, VV; Dmitriev, VG; Lokhov, YN; Malitskii, KN

    The differential and integral light scattering by dielectric surfaces is studied theoretically taking a thin nearsurface defect layer into account. The expressions for the intensities of differential and total integral scattering are found by the Green function method. Conditions are found under

  2. Plasmonic versus dielectric enhancement in thin-film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    to its metallic counterpart. We show that the enhanced normalized short-circuit current for a cell with silicon strips can be increased 4 times compared to the best performance for strips of silver, gold, or aluminium. For this particular case, the simple dielectric grating may outperform its plasmonic......Several studies have indicated that broadband absorption of thin-film solar cells can be enhanced by use of surface-plasmon induced resonances of metallic parts like strips or particles. The metallic parts may create localized modes or scatter incoming light to increase absorption in thin......-film semiconducting material. For a particular case, we show that coupling to the same type of localized slab-waveguide modes can be obtained by a surface modulation consisting of purely dielectric strips. The purely dielectric device turns out to have a significantly higher broadband enhancement factor compared...

  3. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul, E-mail: janine.conde@epfl.ch [Department of Materials Science, EPFL (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {l_brace}100{r_brace} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  4. Dielectric loss of strontium titanate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalberth, Mark Joseph

    1999-12-01

    Interest in strontium titanate (STO) thin films for microwave device applications continues to grow, fueled by the telecommunications industry's interest in phase shifters and tunable filters. The optimization of these devices depends upon increasing the phase or frequency tuning and decreasing the losses in the films. Currently, the dielectric response of thin film STO is poorly understood through lack of data and a theory to describe it. We have studied the growth of STO using pulsed laser deposition and single crystal substrates like lanthanum aluminate and neodymium gallate. We have researched ways to use ring resonators to accurately measure the dielectric response as a function of temperature, electric field, and frequency from low radio frequencies to a few gigahertz. Our films grown on lanthanum aluminate show marked frequency dispersion in the real part of the dielectric constant and hints of thermally activated loss behavior. We also found that films grown with conditions that optimized the dielectric constant showed increased losses. In an attempt to simplify the system, we developed a technique called epitaxial lift off, which has allowed us to study films removed from their growth substrates. These free standing films have low losses and show obvious thermally activated behavior. The "amount of tuning," as measured by a figure of merit, KE, is greater in these films than in the films still attached to their growth substrates. We have developed a theory that describes the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The theory models the real part using a mean field description of the ionic motion in the crystal and includes the loss by incorporating the motion of charged defects in the films.

  5. Optimization of nitridation conditions for high quality inter-polysilicon dielectric layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Bergveld, H.J.; van Kranenburg, H.; Woerlee, P.H.; Wallinga, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Nitridation of deposited high temperature oxides (HTO) was studied to form high quality inter-polysilicon dielectric layers for embedded non volatile memories. Good quality dielectric layers were obtained earlier by using an optimized deposition of polysilicon and by performing a post-dielectric

  6. Tailoring the Dielectric Layer Structure for Enhanced Performance of Organic Field-Effect Transistors: The Use of a Sandwiched Polar Dielectric Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijiao Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the origins of hydroxyl groups in a polymeric dielectric and its applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, a polar polymer layer was inserted between two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA dielectric layers, and its effect on the performance as an organic field-effect transistor (OFET was studied. The OFETs with a sandwiched dielectric layer of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA or poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP containing hydroxyl groups had shown enhanced characteristics compared to those with only PMMA layers. The field-effect mobility had been raised more than 10 times in n-type devices (three times in the p-type one, and the threshold voltage had been lowered almost eight times in p-type devices (two times in the n-type. The on-off ratio of two kinds of devices had been enhanced by almost two orders of magnitude. This was attributed to the orientation of hydroxyl groups from disordered to perpendicular to the substrate under gate-applied voltage bias, and additional charges would be induced by this polarization at the interface between the semiconductor and dielectrics, contributing to the accumulation of charge transfer.

  7. Application of Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Thin Film Devices in Mobile Communication and Medical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klee, M.; Beelen, D.; Keurl, W.; Kiewitt, R.; Kumar, B.; Mauczok, R.; Reimann, K.; Renders, Ch.; Roest, A.; Roozeboom, F.; Steeneken, P.G.; Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Vanhelmont, F.; Wunnicke, O.; Lok, P.; Neumann, K.; Fraser, J.; Schmitz, G.

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films are getting more and more attention for next generation mobile communication and medical systems. Thin film technologies based on dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films enable System-in-Package (SiP) devices, resulting in optimal

  8. Temperature Effects on a-IGZO Thin Film Transistors Using HfO2 Gate Dielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the temperature effect on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs using hafnium oxide (HfO2 gate dielectric material. HfO2 is an attractive candidate as a high-κ dielectric material for gate oxide because it has great potential to exhibit superior electrical properties with a high drive current. In the process of integrating the gate dielectric and IGZO thin film, postannealing treatment is an essential process for completing the chemical reaction of the IGZO thin film and enhancing the gate oxide quality to adjust the electrical characteristics of the TFTs. However, the hafnium atom diffused the IGZO thin film, causing interface roughness because of the stability of the HfO2 dielectric thin film during high-temperature annealing. In this study, the annealing temperature was optimized at 200°C for a HfO2 gate dielectric TFT exhibiting high mobility, a high ION/IOFF ratio, low IOFF current, and excellent subthreshold swing (SS.

  9. Wave propagation through a dielectric layer containing densely packed fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical formulation for the propagation of electromagnetic wave through a dielectric layer containing a random dense distribution of fibers. The diameter of the fibers is comparable to the inter-fiber spacing and wavelength of the incident radiation, but is much smaller than the thickness of the layer. Discontinuity of refractive index across the boundaries of the dielectric layer resulted in multiple internal reflection of both the primary source wave and the scattered waves. As a result the incident waves on the fibers consist of the multiply-reflected primary waves, scattered waves from other fibers, and scattered-reflected waves from the boundaries. The effective propagation constant of the dielectric fiber layer was developed by utilizing the Effective field-Quasicrystalline approximation. The influence of the refractive index of the dielectric medium on the radiative properties of a dense fiber layer was examined by means of numerical analyses.

  10. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of MgO thin films on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vangelista, S; Mantovan, R; Lamperti, A; Tallarida, G; Kutrzeba-Kotowska, B; Spiga, S; Fanciulli, M

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) films have been grown by atomic layer deposition in the wide deposition temperature window of 80–350 °C by using bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium and H 2 O precursors. MgO thin films are deposited on both HF-last Si(1 0 0) and SiO 2 /Si substrates at a constant growth rate of ∼0.12 nm cycle −1 . The structural, morphological and chemical properties of the synthesized MgO thin films are investigated by x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy measurements. MgO layers are characterized by sharp interface with the substrate and limited surface roughness, besides good chemical uniformity and polycrystalline structure for thickness above 7 nm. C–V measurements performed on Al/MgO/Si MOS capacitors, with MgO in the 4.6–11 nm thickness range, allow determining a dielectric constant (κ) ∼ 11. Co layers are grown by chemical vapour deposition in direct contact with MgO without vacuum-break (base pressure 10 −5 –10 −6  Pa). The as-grown Co/MgO stacks show sharp interfaces and no elements interdiffusion among layers. C–V and I–V measurements have been conducted on Co/MgO/Si MOS capacitors. The dielectric properties of MgO are not influenced by the further process of Co deposition. (paper)

  11. Analysis of photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals with rods covered by a thin interfacial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifonov, T.; Marsal, L.F.; Pallares, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Alcubilla, R.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate different aspects of the absolute photonic band gap (PBG) formation in two-dimensional photonic structures consisting of rods covered with a thin dielectric film. Specifically, triangular and honeycomb lattices in both complementary arrangements, i.e., air rods drilled in silicon matrix and silicon rods in air, are studied. We consider that the rods are formed of a dielectric core (silicon or air) surrounded by a cladding layer of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ), or germanium (Ge). Such photonic lattices present absolute photonic band gaps, and we study the evolution of these gaps as functions of the cladding material and thickness. Our results show that in the case of air rods in dielectric media the existence of dielectric cladding reduces the absolute gap width and may cause complete closure of the gap if thick layers are considered. For the case of dielectric rods in air, however, the existence of a cladding layer can be advantageous and larger absolute PBG's can be achieved

  12. Simulation of dual-gate SOI MOSFET with different dielectric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jyoti; Chaudhary, R.; Mukhiya, R.; Sharma, R.; Khanna, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the process design and simulation of silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based dual-gate metal oxide field-effect transistor (DG-MOSFET) stacked with different dielectric layers on the top of gate oxide. A detailed 2D process simulation of SOI-MOSFETs and its electrical characterization has been done using SILVACO® TCAD tool. A variation in transconductance was observed with different dielectric layers, AlN-gate MOSFET having the highest tranconductance value as compared to other three dielectric layers (SiO2, Si3N4 and Al2O3).

  13. Improvement in photoconductor film properties by changing dielectric layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S; Oh, K; Lee, Y; Jung, J; Cho, G; Jang, G; Cha, B; Nam, S; Park, J

    2011-01-01

    In recent times, digital X-ray detectors have been actively applied to the medical field; for example, digital radiography offers the potential of improved image quality and provides opportunities for advances in medical image management, computer-aided diagnosis and teleradiology. In this study, two candidate materials (HgI 2 and PbI 2 ) have been employed to study the influence of the dielectric structure on the performance of fabricated X-ray photoconducting films. Parylene C with high permittivity was deposited as a dielectric layer using a parylene deposition system (PDS 2060). The structural and morphological properties of the samples were evaluated field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Further, to investigate improvements in the electrical characteristics, a dark current in the dark room and sensitivity to X-ray exposure in the energy range of general radiography diagnosis were measured across the range of the operating voltage. The electric signals varied with the dielectric layer structure of the X-ray films. The PbI 2 film with a bottom dielectric layer showed optimized electric properties. On the other hand, in the case of HgI 2 , the film with a top dielectric layer showed superior electric characteristics. Further, although the sensitivity of the film decreased, the total electrical efficiency of the film improved as a result of the decrease in dark current. When a dielectric layer is deposited on a photoconductor, the properties of the photoconductor, such as hole-electron mobility, should be considered to improve the image quality in digital medical imaging application. In this study, we have thus demonstrated that the use of dielectric layer structures improves the performance of photoconductors.

  14. Encapsulation methods and dielectric layers for organic electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yigal D; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijan

    2013-07-02

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers and dielectric layers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device with a dielectric layer comprising alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  15. Atomic layer deposition of dielectrics for carbon-based electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J., E-mail: jiyoung.kim@utdallas.edu; Jandhyala, S.

    2013-11-01

    Carbon based nanomaterials like nanotubes and graphene have emerged as future generation electronic materials for device applications because of their interesting properties such as high-mobility and ability to carry high-current densities compared to conventional semiconductor materials like silicon. Therefore, there is a need to develop techniques to integrate robust gate dielectrics with high-quality interfaces for these materials in order to attain maximum performance. To date, a variety of methods including physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition (ALD), physical assembly among others have been employed in order to integrate dielectrics for carbon nanotube and graphene based field-effect transistors. Owing to the difficulty in wetting pristine surfaces of nanotubes and graphene, most of the ALD methods require a seeding technique involving non-covalent functionalization of their surfaces in order to nucleate dielectric growth while maintaining their intrinsic properties. A comprehensive review regarding the various dielectric integration schemes for emerging devices and their limitations with respect to ALD based methods along with a future outlook is provided. - Highlights: • We introduce various dielectric integration schemes for carbon-based devices. • Physical vapor deposition methods tend to degrade device performance. • Atomic layer deposition on pristine surfaces of graphene and nanotube is difficult. • We review different seeding techniques for atomic layer deposition of dielectrics. • Compare the performance of graphene top-gate devices with different dielectrics.

  16. Atomic layer deposition of dielectrics for carbon-based electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Jandhyala, S.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon based nanomaterials like nanotubes and graphene have emerged as future generation electronic materials for device applications because of their interesting properties such as high-mobility and ability to carry high-current densities compared to conventional semiconductor materials like silicon. Therefore, there is a need to develop techniques to integrate robust gate dielectrics with high-quality interfaces for these materials in order to attain maximum performance. To date, a variety of methods including physical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition (ALD), physical assembly among others have been employed in order to integrate dielectrics for carbon nanotube and graphene based field-effect transistors. Owing to the difficulty in wetting pristine surfaces of nanotubes and graphene, most of the ALD methods require a seeding technique involving non-covalent functionalization of their surfaces in order to nucleate dielectric growth while maintaining their intrinsic properties. A comprehensive review regarding the various dielectric integration schemes for emerging devices and their limitations with respect to ALD based methods along with a future outlook is provided. - Highlights: • We introduce various dielectric integration schemes for carbon-based devices. • Physical vapor deposition methods tend to degrade device performance. • Atomic layer deposition on pristine surfaces of graphene and nanotube is difficult. • We review different seeding techniques for atomic layer deposition of dielectrics. • Compare the performance of graphene top-gate devices with different dielectrics

  17. Thermal strain-induced dielectric anisotropy in Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films grown on silicon-based substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X. H.; Defaye, E.; Aied, M.; Guigues, B.; Dubarry, C.

    2009-01-01

    Dielectric properties of Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 (BST) thin films, which were prepared on silicon-based substrates by ion beam sputtering and postdeposition annealing method, were systematically investigated in different electrode configurations of metal-insulator-metal and coplanar interdigital capacitors. It was found that a large dielectric anisotropy exists in the films with better in-plane dielectric properties (higher dielectric permittivity and tunability) than those along the out-of-plane direction. The observed anisotropic dielectric responses are explained qualitatively in terms of a thermal strain effect that is related to dissimilar film strains along the in-plane and out-of-plane directions. Another reason for the dielectric anisotropy is due to different influences of the interfacial low-dielectric layer between the BST film and the substrate (metal electrode).

  18. Thermal strain-induced dielectric anisotropy in Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films grown on silicon-based substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. H.; Guigues, B.; Defaÿ, E.; Dubarry, C.; Aïd, M.

    2009-07-01

    Dielectric properties of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) thin films, which were prepared on silicon-based substrates by ion beam sputtering and postdeposition annealing method, were systematically investigated in different electrode configurations of metal-insulator-metal and coplanar interdigital capacitors. It was found that a large dielectric anisotropy exists in the films with better in-plane dielectric properties (higher dielectric permittivity and tunability) than those along the out-of-plane direction. The observed anisotropic dielectric responses are explained qualitatively in terms of a thermal strain effect that is related to dissimilar film strains along the in-plane and out-of-plane directions. Another reason for the dielectric anisotropy is due to different influences of the interfacial low-dielectric layer between the BST film and the substrate (metal electrode).

  19. Enhanced ZnO Thin-Film Transistor Performance Using Bilayer Gate Dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Fwzah Hamud; Nayak, Pradipta K.; Wang, Zhenwei; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    We report ZnO TFTs using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer gate dielectrics grown by atomic layer deposition. The saturation mobility of single layer Ta2O5 dielectric TFT was 0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1, but increased to 13.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer dielectric with significantly lower leakage current and hysteresis. We show that point defects present in ZnO film, particularly VZn, are the main reason for the poor TFT performance with single layer dielectric, although interfacial roughness scattering effects cannot be ruled out. Our approach combines the high dielectric constant of Ta2O5 and the excellent Al2O3/ZnO interface quality, resulting in improved device performance. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  20. Enhanced ZnO Thin-Film Transistor Performance Using Bilayer Gate Dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Fwzah Hamud

    2016-08-24

    We report ZnO TFTs using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer gate dielectrics grown by atomic layer deposition. The saturation mobility of single layer Ta2O5 dielectric TFT was 0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1, but increased to 13.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer dielectric with significantly lower leakage current and hysteresis. We show that point defects present in ZnO film, particularly VZn, are the main reason for the poor TFT performance with single layer dielectric, although interfacial roughness scattering effects cannot be ruled out. Our approach combines the high dielectric constant of Ta2O5 and the excellent Al2O3/ZnO interface quality, resulting in improved device performance. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  1. Electrode/Dielectric Strip For High-Energy-Density Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved unitary electrode/dielectric strip serves as winding in high-energy-density capacitor in pulsed power supply. Offers combination of qualities essential for high energy density: high permittivity of dielectric layers, thinness, and high resistance to breakdown of dielectric at high electric fields. Capacitors with strip material not impregnated with liquid.

  2. Investigation of the in-plane and out-of-plane electrical properties of metallic nanoparticles in dielectric matrix thin films elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Puyoo, E.; Le Berre, M.; Militaru, L.; Koneti, S.; Malchère, A.; Epicier, T.; Roiban, L.; Albertini, D.; Sabac, A.; Calmon, F.

    2017-11-01

    Pt nanoparticles in a Al2O3 dielectric matrix thin films are elaborated by means of atomic layer deposition. These nanostructured thin films are integrated in vertical and planar test structures in order to assess both their in-plane and out-of-plane electrical properties. A shadow edge evaporation process is used to develop planar devices with electrode separation distances in the range of 30 nm. Both vertical and planar test structures show a Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. Low trap energy levels (<0.1 eV) are identified for the two test structures which indicates that the Pt islands themselves are not acting as traps in the PF mechanism. Furthermore, a more than three order of magnitude current density difference is observed between the two geometries. This electrical anisotropy is attributed to a large electron mobility difference in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions which can be related to different trap distributions in both directions.

  3. Mechanical characterization of zeolite low dielectric constant thin films by nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Mark; Li Zijian; Wang Junlan; Ya, Yushan

    2007-01-01

    With semiconductor technologies continuously pushing the miniaturization limits, there is a growing interest in developing novel low dielectric constant materials to replace the traditional dense SiO 2 insulators. In order to survive the multi-level integration process and provide reliable material and structure for the desired integrated circuits (IC) functions, the new low-k materials have to be mechanically strong and stable. Therefore the material selection and mechanical characterization are vital for the successful development of next generation low-k dielectrics. A new class of low-k materials, nanoporous pure-silica zeolite, is prepared in thin films using IC compatible spin coating process and characterized using depth sensing nanoindentation technique. The elastic modulus of the zeolite thin films is found to be significantly higher than that of other low-k materials with similar porosity and dielectric constants. Correlations between the mechanical, microstructural and electrical properties of the thin films are discussed in detail

  4. Epitaxial growth and dielectric properties of Bi sub 2 VO sub 5 sub . sub 5 thin films on TiN/Si substrates with SrTiO sub 3 buffer layers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H Y; Choi, B C; Jeong, J H; Joseph, M; Tabata, H; Kawai, T

    2000-01-01

    Bi sub 2 VO sub 5 sub . sub 5 (BVO) thin films were epitaxially grown on SrTiO sub 3 /TiN/Si substrates by using pulsed laser ablation. A TiN thin film was prepared at 700 .deg. C as a bottom electrode. The TiN film exhibited a high alpha axis orientation and a very smooth morphology. Before the preparation of the BVO thin film, a crystallized SrTiO sub 3 thin film was deposited as a buffer layer on TiN/Si. The BVO thin film grown at a substrate temperature at 700 .deg. C and an oxygen pressure of 50 mTorr was found to be epitaxial along the c-axis. Also, BVO films were observed to have flat surfaces and the step-flow modes. The dielectric constant of the BVO film on STO/TiN/Si was constant at about 8 approx 4 in the applied frequency range between 10 sup 2 and 10 sup 6 Hz.

  5. Analysis of mobile ionic impurities in polyvinylalcohol thin films by thermal discharge current and dielectric impedance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Egginger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylalcohol (PVA is a water soluble polymer frequently applied in the field of organic electronics for insulating thin film layers. By-products of PVA synthesis are sodium acetate ions which contaminate the polymer material and can impinge on the electronic performance when applied as interlayer dielectrics in thin film transistors. Uncontrollable voltage instabilities and unwanted hysteresis effects are regularly reported with PVA devices. An understanding of these effects require knowledge about the electronic dynamics of the ionic impurities and their influence on the dielectric properties of PVA. Respective data, which are largely unknown, are being presented in this work. Experimental investigations were performed from room temperature to 125°C on drop-cast PVA films of three different quality grades. Data from thermal discharge current (TDC measurements, polarization experiments, and dielectric impedance spectroscopy concurrently show evidence of mobile ionic carriers. Results from TDC measurements indicate the existence of an intrinsic, build-in electric field of pristine PVA films. The field is caused by asymmetric ionic double layer formation at the two different film-interfaces (substrate/PVA and PVA/air. The mobile ions cause strong electrode polarization effects which dominate dielectric impedance spectra. From a quantitative electrode polarization analysis of isothermal impedance spectra temperature dependent values for the concentration, the mobility and conductivity together with characteristic relaxation times of the mobile carriers are given. Also shown are temperature dependent results for the dc-permittivity and the electronic resistivity. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility to partly remove contaminants from a PVA solution by dialysis cleaning. Such a cleaning procedure reduces the values of ion concentration, conductivity and relaxation frequency.

  6. Atomic layer deposition grown composite dielectric oxides and ZnO for transparent electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieraltowska, S.; Wachnicki, L.; Witkowski, B.S.; Godlewski, M.; Guziewicz, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on transparent transistor obtained using laminar structure of two high-k dielectric oxides (hafnium dioxide, HfO 2 and aluminum oxide, Al 2 O 3 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) layer grown at low temperature (60 °C–100 °C) using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technology. Our research was focused on the optimization of technological parameters for composite layers Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 /Al 2 O 3 for thin film transistor structures with ZnO as a channel and a gate layer. We elaborate on the ALD growth of these oxides, finding that the 100 nm thick layers of HfO 2 and Al 2 O 3 exhibit fine surface flatness and required amorphous microstructure. Growth parameters are optimized for the monolayer growth mode and maximum smoothness required for gating.

  7. An Iterative Method for Solving of Coupled Equations for Conductive-Radiative Heat Transfer in Dielectric Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Chekurin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model for describing combined conductive-radiative heat transfer in a dielectric layer, which emits, absorbs, and scatters IR radiation both in its volume and on the boundary, has been considered. A nonlinear stationary boundary-value problem for coupled heat and radiation transfer equations for the layer, which exchanges by energy with external medium by convection and radiation, has been formulated. In the case of optically thick layer, when its thickness is much more of photon-free path, the problem becomes a singularly perturbed one. In the inverse case of optically thin layer, the problem is regularly perturbed, and it becomes a regular (unperturbed one, when the layer’s thickness is of order of several photon-free paths. An iterative method for solving of the unperturbed problem has been developed and its convergence has been tested numerically. With the use of the method, the temperature field and radiation fluxes have been studied. The model and method can be used for development of noncontact methods for temperature testing in dielectrics and for nondestructive determination of its radiation properties on the base of the data obtained by remote measuring of IR radiation emitted by the layer.

  8. From surface to volume plasmons in hyperbolic metamaterials: General existence conditions for bulk high-k waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Sipe, John E.

    2014-01-01

    -dielectric and recently introduced graphene-dielectric stacks. We confirm that short-range surface plasmons in thin metal layers can give rise to hyperbolic metamaterial properties and demonstrate that long-range surface plasmons cannot. We also show that graphene-dielectric multilayers tend to support high- k waves...

  9. Study on influences of TiN capping layer on time-dependent dielectric breakdown characteristic of ultra-thin EOT high- k metal gate NMOSFET with kMC TDDB simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Yang Hong; Luo Wei-Chun; Xu Ye-Feng; Wang Yan-Rong; Tang Bo; Wang Wen-Wu; Qi Lu-Wei; Li Jun-Feng; Yan Jiang; Zhu Hui-Long; Zhao Chao; Chen Da-Peng; Ye Tian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The thickness effect of the TiN capping layer on the time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) characteristic of ultra-thin EOT high- k metal gate NMOSFET is investigated in this paper. Based on experimental results, it is found that the device with a thicker TiN layer has a more promising reliability characteristic than that with a thinner TiN layer. From the charge pumping measurement and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis, it is indicated that the sample with the thicker TiN layer introduces more Cl passivation at the IL/Si interface and exhibits a lower interface trap density. In addition, the influences of interface and bulk trap density ratio N it / N ot are studied by TDDB simulations through combining percolation theory and the kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method. The lifetime reduction and Weibull slope lowering are explained by interface trap effects for TiN capping layers with different thicknesses. (paper)

  10. Dielectric relaxation of barium strontium titanate and application to thin films for DRAM capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniecki, John David

    This thesis examines the issues associated with incorporating the high dielectric constant material Barium Strontium Titanate (BSTO) in to the storage capacitor of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM). The research is focused on two areas: characterizing and understanding the factors that control charge retention in BSTO thin films and modifying the electrical properties using ion implantation. The dielectric relaxation of BSTO thin films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is investigated in the time and frequency domains. It is shown that the frequency dispersion of the complex capacitance of BSTO thin films can be understood in terms of a power-law frequency dependence from 1mHz to 20GHz. From the correspondence between the time and frequency domain measurements, it is concluded that the power-law relaxation currents extend back to the nano second regime of DRAM operation. The temperature, field, and annealing dependence of the dielectric relaxation currents are also investigated and mechanisms for the observed power law relaxation are explored. An equivalent circuit model of a high dielectric constant thin film capacitor is developed based on the electrical measurements and implemented in PSPICE. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental and simulated electrical characteristics showing the utility of the equivalent circuit model in simulating the electrical properties of high dielectric constant thin films. Using the equivalent circuit model, it is shown that the greatest charge loss due to dielectric relaxation occurs during the first read after a refresh time following a write to the opposite logic state for a capacitor that has been written to the same logic state for a long time (opposite state write charge loss). A theoretical closed form expression that is a function of three material parameters is developed which estimates the opposite state write charge loss due to dielectric relaxation. Using the closed form

  11. Logic circuits composed of flexible carbon nanotube thin-film transistor and ultra-thin polymer gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongil; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seong, Hyejeong; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Printing electronics has become increasingly prominent in the field of electronic engineering because this method is highly efficient at producing flexible, low-cost and large-scale thin-film transistors. However, TFTs are typically constructed with rigid insulating layers consisting of oxides and nitrides that are brittle and require high processing temperatures, which can cause a number of problems when used in printed flexible TFTs. In this study, we address these issues and demonstrate a method of producing inkjet-printed TFTs that include an ultra-thin polymeric dielectric layer produced by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) at room temperature and highly purified 99.9% semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Our integrated approach enables the production of flexible logic circuits consisting of CNT-TFTs on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate that have a high mobility (up to 9.76 cm2 V-1 sec-1), a low operating voltage (less than 4 V), a high current on/off ratio (3 × 104), and a total device yield of 90%. Thus, it should be emphasized that this study delineates a guideline for the feasibility of producing flexible CNT-TFT logic circuits with high performance based on a low-cost and simple fabrication process.

  12. Oblique surface waves at an interface between a metal-dielectric superlattice and an isotropic dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuković, Slobodan M; Miret, Juan J; Zapata-Rodriguez, Carlos J; Jakšić, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the existence and dispersion characteristics of surface waves that propagate at an interface between a metal-dielectric superlattice and an isotropic dielectric. Within the long-wavelength limit, when the effective-medium (EM) approximation is valid, the superlattice behaves like a uniaxial plasmonic crystal with the main optical axes perpendicular to the metal-dielectric interfaces. We demonstrate that if such a semi-infinite plasmonic crystal is cut normally to the layer interfaces and brought into contact with a semi-infinite dielectric, a new type of surface mode can appear. Such modes can propagate obliquely to the optical axes if favorable conditions regarding the thickness of the layers and the dielectric permittivities of the constituent materials are met. We show that losses within the metallic layers can be substantially reduced by making the layers sufficiently thin. At the same time, a dramatic enlargement of the range of angles for oblique propagation of the new surface modes is observed. This can lead, however, to field non-locality and consequently to failure of the EM approximation.

  13. THz - ToF Optical Layer Analysis (OLA) to determine optical properties of dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranger, Holger; Beckmann, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 0.1 and 10 THz are described as THz-radiation (T-ray). The ability to penetrate dielectric materials makes T-rays attractive to reveal discontinuities in polymer and ceramic materials. THz-Time Domain Spectroscopy Systems (THz-TDS) are available on the market today which operates with THz-pulses transmitted and received by optically pumped semiconductor antennas. In THz-TDS the travelling time (ToF) and shape of the pulse is changed if it interacts with the dielectric material and its inherent discontinuities. A tomogram of the object under the test can be reconstructed from time of flight diffraction (ToFD) scans if a synthetic focusing aperture (SAFT) algorithm is applied. The knowledge of the base materials shape and optical properties is essential for a proper reconstruction result. To obtain these properties a model is assumed which describes the device under the test as multilayer structure composed of thin layers with different dielectric characteristics. The Optical Layer Analysis (OLA) is able to fulfill these requirements. A short description why the optical properties are crucial for meaningful SAFT reconstruction results will be given first. Afterwards the OLA will be derived and applied on representative samples to discuss and evaluate its benefits and limits.

  14. Multispectral surface plasmon resonance approach for ultra-thin silver layer characterization: Application to top-emitting OLED cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverne, S.; Caron, B.; Gétin, S.; Lartigue, O.; Lopez, C.; Meunier-Della-Gatta, S.; Gorge, V.; Reymermier, M.; Racine, B.; Maindron, T.; Quesnel, E.

    2018-01-01

    While dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer thin films have raised considerable interest as transparent and conductive electrodes in various optoelectronic devices, the knowledge of optical characteristics of thin metallic layers integrated in such structures is still rather approximate. The multispectral surface plasmon resonance characterization approach described in this work precisely aims at providing a rigorous methodology able to accurately determine the optical constants of ultra-thin metallic films. As a practical example, the refractive index and extinction dispersion curves of 8 to 25 nm-thick silver layers have been investigated. As a result, their extreme dependence on the layer thickness is highlighted, in particular in a thickness range close to the critical threshold value (˜10 nm) where the silver film becomes continuous and its electrical conductance/optical transmittance ratio particularly interesting. To check the validity of the revisited Ag layers constant dispersion curves deduced from this study, they were introduced into a commercial optical model software to simulate the behavior of various optoelectronic building blocks from the simplest ones (DMD electrodes) to much more complex structures [full organic light emitting device (OLED) stacks]. As a result, a much better prediction of the emission spectrum profile as well as the angular emission pattern of top-emitting OLEDs is obtained. On this basis, it is also shown how a redesign of the top encapsulation thin film of OLEDs is necessary to better take benefit from the advanced DMD electrode. These results should particularly interest the micro-OLED display field where bright and directive single color pixel emission is required.

  15. High performance In2O3 thin film transistors using chemically derived aluminum oxide dielectric

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2013-07-18

    We report high performance solution-deposited indium oxide thin film transistors with field-effect mobility of 127 cm2/Vs and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. This excellent performance is achieved by controlling the hydroxyl group content in chemically derived aluminum oxide (AlOx) thin-film dielectrics. The AlOx films annealed in the temperature range of 250–350 °C showed higher amount of Al-OH groups compared to the films annealed at 500 °C, and correspondingly higher mobility. It is proposed that the presence of Al-OH groups at the AlOx surface facilitates unintentional Al-doping and efficient oxidation of the indium oxide channel layer, leading to improved device performance.

  16. High performance In2O3 thin film transistors using chemically derived aluminum oxide dielectric

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We report high performance solution-deposited indium oxide thin film transistors with field-effect mobility of 127 cm2/Vs and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. This excellent performance is achieved by controlling the hydroxyl group content in chemically derived aluminum oxide (AlOx) thin-film dielectrics. The AlOx films annealed in the temperature range of 250–350 °C showed higher amount of Al-OH groups compared to the films annealed at 500 °C, and correspondingly higher mobility. It is proposed that the presence of Al-OH groups at the AlOx surface facilitates unintentional Al-doping and efficient oxidation of the indium oxide channel layer, leading to improved device performance.

  17. Yttrium scandate thin film as alternative high-permittivity dielectric for germanium gate stack formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Cimang, E-mail: cimang@adam.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Lee, Choong Hyun; Nishimura, Tomonori; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST, CREST, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    We investigated yttrium scandate (YScO{sub 3}) as an alternative high-permittivity (k) dielectric thin film for Ge gate stack formation. Significant enhancement of k-value is reported in YScO{sub 3} comparing to both of its binary compounds, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, without any cost of interface properties. It suggests a feasible approach to a design of promising high-k dielectrics for Ge gate stack, namely, the formation of high-k ternary oxide out of two medium-k binary oxides. Aggressive scaling of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) with promising interface properties is presented by using YScO{sub 3} as high-k dielectric and yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2} (Y-GeO{sub 2}) as interfacial layer, for a demonstration of high-k gate stack on Ge. In addition, we demonstrate Ge n-MOSFET performance showing the peak electron mobility over 1000 cm{sup 2}/V s in sub-nm EOT region by YScO{sub 3}/Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge gate stack.

  18. Effect of an Interfacial Layer on Electron Tunneling through Atomically Thin Al2O3 Tunnel Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Jamie; Sakidja, Ridwan; Goul, Ryan; Wu, Judy Z

    2017-10-25

    Electron tunneling through high-quality, atomically thin dielectric films can provide a critical enabling technology for future microelectronics, bringing enhanced quantum coherent transport, fast speed, small size, and high energy efficiency. A fundamental challenge is in controlling the interface between the dielectric and device electrodes. An interfacial layer (IL) will contain defects and introduce defects in the dielectric film grown atop, preventing electron tunneling through the formation of shorts. In this work, we present the first systematic investigation of the IL in Al 2 O 3 dielectric films of 1-6 Å's in thickness on an Al electrode. We integrated several advanced approaches: molecular dynamics to simulate IL formation, in situ high vacuum sputtering atomic layer deposition (ALD) to synthesize Al 2 O 3 on Al films, and in situ ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling spectroscopy to probe the electron tunneling through the Al 2 O 3 . The IL had a profound effect on electron tunneling. We observed a reduced tunnel barrier height and soft-type dielectric breakdown which indicate that defects are present in both the IL and in the Al 2 O 3 . The IL forms primarily due to exposure of the Al to trace O 2 and/or H 2 O during the pre-ALD heating step of fabrication. As the IL was systematically reduced, by controlling the pre-ALD sample heating, we observed an increase of the ALD Al 2 O 3 barrier height from 0.9 to 1.5 eV along with a transition from soft to hard dielectric breakdown. This work represents a key step toward the realization of high-quality, atomically thin dielectrics with electron tunneling for the next generation of microelectronics.

  19. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  20. HTS microstrip disk resonator with an upper dielectric layer for 4GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Kazunori; Kai, Manabu; Akasegawa, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Teru

    2006-01-01

    We propose HTS microstrip disk resonator with an upper dielectric layer as a candidate resonator structure of HTS compact power filter for 4GHz band. The electromagnetic simulations on the upper dielectric layer examined the current distributions of the HTS resonators that had TM 11 mode resonance of about 4 GHz. By the simulations, it is evaluated that of the maximum current density near the end portion of the disk-shape pattern of the resonator with the thick upper-layered structure decreases by roughly 30-50 percent, as compared with that of the resonator without it. Then, we designed and fabricated the resonator samples with and without the upper dielectrics. The RF power measurement results indicated that the upper dielectric layer leads to an increase in handling power

  1. Dielectric properties of Li doped Li-Nb-O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perentzis, G.; Horopanitis, E.E.; Papadimitriou, L. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Durman, V.; Saly, V.; Packa, J. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 81219 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2007-03-15

    Lithium niobate LiNbO{sub 3} was prepared as a thin film layered structure deposited on stainless steel substrate using e-gun evaporation. The Li doping was provided for by the formation of Li-Nb-O/Li/LiNb-O sandwich structure and annealing at about 250 C. AC impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed on the samples at temperatures from the interval between 28 and 165 C and in a frequency range of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 6} Hz. Using the values Z' and Z'' at different frequencies, the dielectric parameters - parts of the complex permittivity {epsilon}' and {epsilon}'' and loss tangent tan {delta} were calculated. The results prove validity of the proposed equivalent circuit containing parallel RC elements connected in series where the first RC element represents the bulk of material and the second RC element belongs to the double layer at the metal interface. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Preferential growth and enhanced dielectric properties of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaohong; Ren Yinjuan; Zhang Caiyun; Zhu Jiliang; Zhu Jianguo; Xiao Dingquan; Defaÿ, Emmanuel; Aïd, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 (BST) thin films, about 100 nm in thickness, were prepared on unannealed and 700 °C-preannealed Pt bottom electrodes by the ion beam sputtering and post-deposition annealing method. It was found that the preannealed Pt layer has a more compact structure, making it not only a bottom electrode but also a good template for high-quality BST thin film growth. The BST films deposited on preannealed Pt bottom electrodes showed (0 0 l)-preferred orientation, dense and uniform microstructure with no intermediate phase formed at the film/electrode interface, and thus enhanced dielectric properties. As a result, the typical relative dielectric constant and tunability (under a dc electric field of 1 MV cm −1 ) reach 180 and 50.1%, respectively, for the BST thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrodes, which are significantly higher than those (166 and 41.3%, respectively) for the BST thin films deposited on unannealed Pt bottom electrodes. (paper)

  3. Preferential growth and enhanced dielectric properties of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohong; Defaÿ, Emmanuel; Aïd, Marc; Ren, Yinjuan; Zhang, Caiyun; Zhu, Jiliang; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiao, Dingquan

    2013-03-01

    Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) thin films, about 100 nm in thickness, were prepared on unannealed and 700 °C-preannealed Pt bottom electrodes by the ion beam sputtering and post-deposition annealing method. It was found that the preannealed Pt layer has a more compact structure, making it not only a bottom electrode but also a good template for high-quality BST thin film growth. The BST films deposited on preannealed Pt bottom electrodes showed (0 0 l)-preferred orientation, dense and uniform microstructure with no intermediate phase formed at the film/electrode interface, and thus enhanced dielectric properties. As a result, the typical relative dielectric constant and tunability (under a dc electric field of 1 MV cm-1) reach 180 and 50.1%, respectively, for the BST thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrodes, which are significantly higher than those (166 and 41.3%, respectively) for the BST thin films deposited on unannealed Pt bottom electrodes.

  4. Drift mobility of thermalized and highly energetic holes in thin layers of amorphous dielectric SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sielski, Jan; Jeszka, Jeremiasz K.

    2012-01-01

    The development of new technology in the electronics industry requires new dielectric materials. It is also important to understand the charge-carrier transport mechanism in these materials. We examined the hole drift mobility in amorphous SiC dielectric thin films using the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Charge carriers were generated using an electron gun. The generated holes gave a dispersive TOF signal and the mobility was low. For electric field strengths above 4 x 10 5 V cm -1 the drift mobility shows a very strong dependence on the electric field and a weak temperature dependence (transport of ''high-energy'' charge carriers). At lower electric fields and for thermalized charge carriers the mobility is practically field independent and thermally activated. The observed phenomenon was attributed to the changes in the effective energy of the generated carriers moving in the high electric fields and consequently in the density of localized states taking part in the transport. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Temperature Effects on a-IGZO Thin Film Transistors Using HfO2 Gate Dielectric Material

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu-Hsien; Chou, Jay-Chi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the temperature effect on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) using hafnium oxide (HfO2) gate dielectric material. HfO2 is an attractive candidate as a high-κ dielectric material for gate oxide because it has great potential to exhibit superior electrical properties with a high drive current. In the process of integrating the gate dielectric and IGZO thin film, postannealing treatment is an essential process for completing the chem...

  6. Thin film transistors for flexible electronics: Contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Quevedo-López, Manuel Angel Quevedo

    2011-06-01

    The development of low temperature, thin film transistor processes that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, radiation detectors, etc. In this paper, we review the impact of gate dielectrics, contacts and semiconductor materials on thin film transistors for flexible electronics applications. We present our recent results to fully integrate hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductors comprising inorganic and organic-based materials. In particular, we demonstrate novel gate dielectric stacks and semiconducting materials. The impact of source and drain contacts on device performance is also discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers.

  7. Thin film transistors for flexible electronics: Contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Wondmagegn, Wudyalew T.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Ramí rez-Bon, Rafael; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    The development of low temperature, thin film transistor processes that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, radiation detectors, etc. In this paper, we review the impact of gate dielectrics, contacts and semiconductor materials on thin film transistors for flexible electronics applications. We present our recent results to fully integrate hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductors comprising inorganic and organic-based materials. In particular, we demonstrate novel gate dielectric stacks and semiconducting materials. The impact of source and drain contacts on device performance is also discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers.

  8. Thickness-Dependent Dielectric Constant of Few-Layer In 2 Se 3 Nanoflakes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Di

    2015-11-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The dielectric constant or relative permittivity (εr) of a dielectric material, which describes how the net electric field in the medium is reduced with respect to the external field, is a parameter of critical importance for charging and screening in electronic devices. Such a fundamental material property is intimately related to not only the polarizability of individual atoms but also the specific atomic arrangement in the crystal lattice. In this Letter, we present both experimental and theoretical investigations on the dielectric constant of few-layer In2Se3 nanoflakes grown on mica substrates by van der Waals epitaxy. A nondestructive microwave impedance microscope is employed to simultaneously quantify the number of layers and local electrical properties. The measured εr increases monotonically as a function of the thickness and saturates to the bulk value at around 6-8 quintuple layers. The same trend of layer-dependent dielectric constant is also revealed by first-principles calculations. Our results of the dielectric response, being ubiquitously applicable to layered 2D semiconductors, are expected to be significant for this vibrant research field.

  9. Coupled Optical Tamm States in a Planar Dielectric Mirror Structure Containing a Thin Metal Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hai-Chun; Yang Guang; Lu Pei-Xiang; Wang Kai; Long Hua

    2012-01-01

    The coupling between two optical Tamm states (OTSs) with the same eigenenergy is numerically investigated in a planar dielectric mirror structure containing a thin metal film. The reflectivity map in this structure at normal incidence is obtained by applying the transfer matrix method. Two splitting branches appear in the photonic bandgap region when both adjacent dielectric layers of metal film are properly set. The splitting energy of two branches strongly depends on the thickness of the metal film. According to the electric field distribution in this structure, it is found that the high-energy branch corresponds to the antisymmetric coupling between two OTSs, while the low-energy branch is associated with the symmetric coupling between two OTSs. Moreover, the optical difference frequency of two branches is located in a broad terahertz region. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. Large energy storage efficiency of the dielectric layer of graphene nanocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, A.; Belkin, A.; Ilin, E.; Pak, M.; Colla, Eugene V.; Hubler, A.

    2017-12-01

    Electric capacitors are commonly used in electronic circuits for the short-term storage of small amounts of energy. It is desirable however to use capacitors to store much larger energy amounts to replace rechargeable batteries. Unfortunately existing capacitors cannot store sufficient energy to be able to replace common electrochemical energy storage systems. Here we examine the energy storage capabilities of graphene nanocapacitors, which are tri-layer devices involving an Al film, Al2O3 dielectric layer, and a single layer of carbon atoms, i.e., graphene. This is a purely electronic capacitor and therefore it can function in a wide temperature interval. The capacitor shows a high dielectric breakdown electric field strength, of the order of 1000 kV mm-1 (i.e., 1 GV m-1), which is much larger than the table value of the Al2O3 dielectric strength. The corresponding energy density is 10-100 times larger than the energy density of a common electrolytic capacitor. Moreover, we discover that the amount of charge stored in the dielectric layer can be equal or can even exceed the amount of charge stored on the capacitor plates. The dielectric discharge current follows a power-law time dependence. We suggest a model to explain this behavior.

  11. Large energy storage efficiency of the dielectric layer of graphene nanocapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, A; Belkin, A; Ilin, E; Pak, M; Colla, Eugene V; Hubler, A

    2017-12-08

    Electric capacitors are commonly used in electronic circuits for the short-term storage of small amounts of energy. It is desirable however to use capacitors to store much larger energy amounts to replace rechargeable batteries. Unfortunately existing capacitors cannot store sufficient energy to be able to replace common electrochemical energy storage systems. Here we examine the energy storage capabilities of graphene nanocapacitors, which are tri-layer devices involving an Al film, Al 2 O 3 dielectric layer, and a single layer of carbon atoms, i.e., graphene. This is a purely electronic capacitor and therefore it can function in a wide temperature interval. The capacitor shows a high dielectric breakdown electric field strength, of the order of 1000 kV mm -1 (i.e., 1 GV m -1 ), which is much larger than the table value of the Al 2 O 3 dielectric strength. The corresponding energy density is 10-100 times larger than the energy density of a common electrolytic capacitor. Moreover, we discover that the amount of charge stored in the dielectric layer can be equal or can even exceed the amount of charge stored on the capacitor plates. The dielectric discharge current follows a power-law time dependence. We suggest a model to explain this behavior.

  12. Light transmission coefficients by subwavelength aluminum gratings with dielectric layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L. M., E-mail: lev39blinov@gmail.com; Lazarev, V. V.; Yudin, S. G.; Artemov, V. V.; Palto, S. P.; Gorkunov, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Crystallography and Photonics Federal Research Center) (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Spectral positions of plasmon resonances related to boundaries between a thin aluminum layer and dielectrics (air, glass, VDF–TrFE 65/35 ferroelectric copolymer, and indium tin oxide (ITO)) have been determined in the transmission spectra of aluminum gratings of three types with 30 × 30 μm{sup 2} dimensions and 350-, 400-, and 450-nm line periods. Experimental results agree well with spectral positions of plasmon resonances calculated for the normal incidence of TM-polarized light. In addition, maximum values of transmission coefficients in the region of λ ≈ 900–950 nm have been determined for glass–Al–copolymer and glass–ITO–Al–copolymer structures. These values are close to 100%, which shows that the effective optical aperture is two times greater than the geometric areas of slits.

  13. Compensation of propagation loss of surface plasmon polaritons with a finite-thickness dielectric gain layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Haitao; Zhong, Ying

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically study the compensation of propagation loss of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the use of a finite-thickness dielectric layer with optical gain. The impacts of the gain coefficient, the gain-layer thickness and the wavelength on the loss compensation and the field distribution of the SPP mode are systematically explored with a fully vectorial method. Abnormal behaviors for the loss compensation as the gain-layer thickness increases are found and explained. Critical values of the gain coefficient and of the corresponding gain-layer thickness for just compensating the propagation loss are provided. Our results show that as the SPP propagation loss is fully compensated with a gain coefficient at a reasonably low level, the gain layer is still thin enough to ensure a large exterior SPP field at the gain-layer/air interface, which is important for achieving a strong light–matter interaction for applications such as bio-chemical sensing. (paper)

  14. Effects of N2O plasma treatment on perhydropolysilazane spin-on-dielectrics for inter-layer-dielectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung-Seok; Ko, Pil-Seok; Kim, Sam-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the N 2 O plasma treatment (PT) on perhydropolysilazane spin-on-dielectric (PHPS SOD) were examined as potential inter-layer-dielectrics (ILDs) for sub-30 nm Si circuits. The spin-coated PHPS (18.5 wt.%) ILD layers converted at 650 °C were integrated with the 0.18 μm Si front-end-of-the line process. A modified contact pre-cleaning scheme using N 2 O PT produced more uniform and stable contact chain resistances from the SOD ILDs than the case of pre-cleaning only by buffered oxide etcher. Our analysis shows that this enhancement is due to the minimized carbon contamination on the PHPS side-wall surface densified by PT. - Highlights: • Perhydropolysilazane (PHPS) layer is evaluated as a Si interlayer dielectric. • Examine effects of the N 2 O plasma treatment (PT) on PHPS spin-on-dielectrics (SODs) • Significantly improved metal contact resistances are achieved using the N 2 O PT. • Contact resistance enhancement by PT is due to the minimized carbon contamination

  15. Development of a dual-layered dielectric-loaded accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Chunguang; Kanareykin, Alexei; Kazakov, Sergey; Liu Wanming; Nenasheva, Elizaveta; Schoessow, Paul; Gai Wei

    2008-01-01

    rf Power attenuation is a critical problem in the development of dielectric-loaded structures for particle acceleration. In a previous paper [C. Jing, W. Liu, W. Gai, J. Power, T. Wong, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 539 (2005) 445] we suggested the use of a Multilayer Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating Structure (MDLA) as a possible approach for reducing the rf losses in a single layer device. The MDLA is based on the principle of Bragg reflection familiar from optics that is used to partially confine the fields inside the dielectric layers and reduce the wall current losses at the outer boundary. We report here on the design, construction and testing of a prototype X-band double-layer structure (2DLA). The measurements show an rf power attenuation for the 2DLA more than ten times smaller than that of a comparable single-layer structure, in good agreement with the analytic results. Testing and operation of MDLAs also requires efficient power coupling from test equipment or rf power systems to the device. We describe the design and construction of two novel structures: a TM 03 mode launcher for cold testing and a power coupler for planned high-gradient experiments

  16. Low-voltage bendable pentacene thin-film transistor with stainless steel substrate and polystyrene-coated hafnium silicate dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seunghyup; Yong, Kijung; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2012-04-01

    The hafnium silicate and aluminum oxide high-k dielectrics were deposited on stainless steel substrate using atomic layer deposition process and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and polystyrene (PS) were treated improve crystallinity of pentacene grown on them. Besides, the effects of the pentacene deposition condition on the morphologies, crystallinities and electrical properties of pentacene were characterized. Therefore, the surface treatment condition on dielectric and pentacene deposition conditions were optimized. The pentacene grown on polystyrene coated high-k dielectric at low deposition rate and temperature (0.2-0.3 Å/s and R.T.) showed the largest grain size (0.8-1.0 μm) and highest crystallinity among pentacenes deposited various deposition conditions, and the pentacene TFT with polystyrene coated high-k dielectric showed excellent device-performance. To decrease threshold voltage of pentacene TFT, the polystyrene-thickness on high-k dielectric was controlled using different concentration of polystyrene solution. As the polystyrene-thickness on hafnium silicate decreases, the dielectric constant of polystyrene/hafnium silicate increases, while the crystallinity of pentacene grown on polystyrene/hafnium silicate did not change. Using low-thickness polystyrene coated hafnium silicate dielectric, the high-performance and low voltage operating (pentacene thin film transistor (μ: ~2 cm(2)/(V s), on/off ratio, >1 × 10(4)) and complementary inverter (DC gains, ~20) could be fabricated.

  17. Effect of crystal structure on strontium titanate thin films and their dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampangkeaw, Satreerat

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3 or STO) has application in radio and microwave-frequency tunable capacitor devices particularly at low temperatures due to its high dielectric constant, low loss and the electric field tunability of its dielectric constant. The main goal of improving the performance in these devices is to increase the tunability and decrease the dielectric loss at the same time, especially at microwave frequencies. Thin films of STO however, show dramatic differences compared to the bulk. The dielectric constant of bulk STO increases nonlinearly from 300 at room temperature to 30000 at 4 K and the loss range is 10-3--10 -4. On the other hand. STO thin films, while showing a dielectric constant close to 300 at room temperature, typically reach a maximum between 1000 and 10000 in the 30 K to 100 K range before decreasing, and the high-loss range is 10-2--10-3. We have grown strontium titanate thin films using a pulsed laser deposition technique on substrates selected to have a small lattice mismatch between the film and substrate. Neodymium gallate (NdGaO3 or NGO) and lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3 or LAO) substrates were good candidates due to only 1--2% mismatching. Film capacitor devices were fabricated with 25 micron gap separation. 1.5 mm total gap length and an overall 1 x 2 mm dimension using standard lithography and gold metal evaporative techniques. Their nonlinear dielectric constant and loss tangent were measured at low frequencies and also at 2 GHz, and from room temperature down to 4 K. The resulting films show significant variations of dielectric properties with position on the substrates with respect to the deposition plume axis. In the presence of DC electric fields up to +/-4 V/mum, STO films show improved dielectric tunability and low loss in regions far from the plume axis. We found that the films grown on NCO have lower dielectric loss than those on LAO due to a closer match of the NCO lattice to that of STO. We investigated the possible

  18. Redefinition of the self-bias voltage in a dielectrically shielded thin sheath RF discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Teck Seng; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2018-05-01

    In a geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled discharge where the powered electrode is shielded from the plasma by a layer of dielectric material, the self-bias manifests as a nonuniform negative charging in the dielectric rather than on the blocking capacitor. In the thin sheath regime where the ion transit time across the powered sheath is on the order of or less than the Radiofrequency (RF) period, the plasma potential is observed to respond asymmetrically to extraneous impedances in the RF circuit. Consequently, the RF waveform on the plasma-facing surface of the dielectric is unknown, and the behaviour of the powered sheath is not easily predictable. Sheath circuit models become inadequate for describing this class of discharges, and a comprehensive fluid, electrical, and plasma numerical model is employed to accurately quantify this behaviour. The traditional definition of the self-bias voltage as the mean of the RF waveform is shown to be erroneous in this regime. Instead, using the maxima of the RF waveform provides a more rigorous definition given its correlation with the ion dynamics in the powered sheath. This is supported by a RF circuit model derived from the computational fluid dynamics and plasma simulations.

  19. Controllable growth of stable germanium dioxide ultra-thin layer by means of capacitively driven radio frequency discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarnas, P., E-mail: svarnas@ece.upatras.gr [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26 504, Patras (Greece); Botzakaki, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece); Skoulatakis, G.; Kennou, S.; Ladas, S. [Surface Science Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece); Tsamis, C. [NCSR “Demokritos”, Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology & Microsystems, Aghia Paraskevi 15 310, Athens (Greece); Georga, S.N.; Krontiras, C.A. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece)

    2016-01-29

    It is well recognized that native oxide of germanium is hygroscopic and water soluble, while germanium dioxide is thermally unstable and it is converted to volatile germanium oxide at approximately 400 °C. Different techniques, implementing quite complicated plasma setups, gas mixtures and substrate heating, have been used in order to grow a stable germanium oxide. In the present work a traditional “RF diode” is used for germanium oxidation by cold plasma. Following growth, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that traditional capacitively driven radio frequency discharges, using molecular oxygen as sole feedstock gas, provide the possibility of germanium dioxide layer growth in a fully reproducible and controllable manner. Post treatment ex-situ analyses on day-scale periods disclose the stability of germanium oxide at room ambient conditions, offering thus the ability to grow (ex-situ) ultra-thin high-k dielectrics on top of germanium oxide layers. Atomic force microscopy excludes any morphological modification in respect to the bare germanium surface. These results suggest a simple method for a controllable and stable germanium oxide growth, and contribute to the challenge to switch to high-k dielectrics as gate insulators for high-performance metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and to exploit in large scale the superior properties of germanium as an alternative channel material in future technology nodes. - Highlights: • Simple one-frequency reactive ion etcher develops GeO{sub 2} thin layers controllably. • The layers remain chemically stable at ambient conditions over day-scale periods. • The layers are unaffected by the ex-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics onto them. • GeO{sub 2} oxidation and high-k deposition don't affect the Ge morphology significantly. • These conditions contribute to improved Ge-based MOS structure fabrication.

  20. Shellac Films as a Natural Dielectric Layer for Enhanced Electron Transport in Polymer Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Woon; Ha, Jong-Woon; Yoon, Minho; Hwang, Do-Hoon; Lee, Jiyoul

    2018-06-06

    Shellac, a natural polymer resin obtained from the secretions of lac bugs, was evaluated as a dielectric layer in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) on the basis of donor (D)-acceptor (A)-type conjugated semiconducting copolymers. The measured dielectric constant and breakdown field of the shellac layer were ∼3.4 and 3.0 MV/cm, respectively, comparable with those of a poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) film, a commonly used dielectric material. Bottom-gate/top-contact OFETs were fabricated with shellac or PVP as the dielectric layer and one of three different D-A-type semiconducting copolymers as the active layer: poly(cyclopentadithiophene- alt-benzothiadiazole) with p-type characteristics, poly(naphthalene-bis(dicarboximide)- alt-bithiophene) [P(NDI2OD-T2)] with n-type characteristics, and poly(dithienyl-diketopyrrolopyrrole- alt-thienothiophene) [P(DPP2T-TT)] with ambipolar characteristics. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated OFETs were then measured. For all active layers, OFETs with a shellac film as the dielectric layer exhibited a better mobility than those with PVP. For example, the mobility of the OFET with a shellac dielectric and n-type P(NDI2OD-T2) active layer was approximately 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of the corresponding OFET with a PVP insulating layer. When P(DPP2T-TT) served as the active layer, the OFET with shellac as the dielectric exhibited ambipolar characteristics, whereas the corresponding OFET with the PVP dielectric operated only in hole-accumulation mode. The total density of states was analyzed using technology computer-aided design simulations. The results revealed that compared with the OFETs with PVP as the dielectric, the OFETs with shellac as the dielectric had a lower trap-site density at the polymer semiconductor/dielectric interface and much fewer acceptor-like trap sites acting as electron traps. These results demonstrate that shellac is a suitable dielectric material for D-A-type semiconducting

  1. Dielectric property study of poly(4-vinylphenol)-graphene oxide nanocomposite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti

    2018-05-01

    Thin film capacitor device having a sandwich structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass/polymer or polymer nanocomposite /silver has been fabricated and their dielectric and leakage current properties has been studied. The dielectric properties of the capacitors were characterized for frequencies ranging from 1 KHz to 1 MHz. 5 wt% Poly(4-vinylphenol)(PVPh)-Graphene (GO) nanocomposite exhibited an increase in dielectric constant to 5.6 and small rise in dielectric loss to around˜0.05 at 10 KHz w.r.t polymer. The DC conductivity measurements reveal rise of leakage current in nanocomposite.

  2. Control of Evaporation Behavior of an Inkjet-Printed Dielectric Layer Using a Mixed-Solvent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hak Soon; Kang, Byung Ju; Oh, Je Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the evaporation behavior and the resulting morphology of inkjet-printed dielectric layers were controlled using a mixed-solvent system to fabricate uniform poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) dielectric layers without any pinholes. The mixed-solvent system consisted of two different organic solvents: 1-hexanol and ethanol. The effects of inkjet-printing variables such as overlap condition, substrate temperature, and different printing sequences (continuous and interlacing printing methods) on the inkjet-printed dielectric layer were also investigated. Increasing volume fraction of ethanol (VFE) is likely to reduce the evaporation rate gradient and the drying time of the inkjet-printed dielectric layer; this diminishes the coffee stain effect and thereby improves the uniformity of the inkjet-printed dielectric layer. However, the coffee stain effect becomes more severe with an increase in the substrate temperature due to the enhanced outward convective flow. The overlap condition has little effect on the evaporation behavior of the printed dielectric layer. In addition, the interlacing printing method results in either a stronger coffee stain effect or wavy structures of the dielectric layers depending on the VFE of the PVP solution. All-inkjet-printed capacitors without electrical short circuiting can be successfully fabricated using the optimized PVP solution (VFE = 0.6); this indicates that the mixed-solvent system is expected to play an important role in the fabrication of high-quality inkjet-printed dielectric layers in various printed electronics applications.

  3. Perovskite oxynitride LaTiOxNy thin films: Dielectric characterization in low and high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.; Ziani, A.; Le Paven-Thivet, C.; Benzerga, R.; Le Gendre, L.; Fasquelle, D.; Kassem, H.

    2011-01-01

    Lanthanum titanium oxynitride (LaTiO x N y ) thin films are studied with respect to their dielectric properties in low and high frequencies. Thin films are deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on different substrates. Effects of nitrogen content and crystalline quality on dielectric properties are investigated. In low-frequency range, textured LaTiO x N y thin films deposited on conductive single crystal Nb–STO show a dielectric constant ε′ ≈ 140 with low losses tanδ = 0.012 at 100 kHz. For the LaTiO x N y polycrystalline films deposited on conductive silicon substrates with platinum (Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si), the tunability reached up to 57% for a weak electric field of 50 kV/cm. In high-frequency range, epitaxial LaTiO x N y films deposited on MgO substrate present a high dielectric constant with low losses (ε′ ≈ 170, tanδ = 0.011, 12 GHz).

  4. Nonlinear dielectric thin films for high-power electric storage with energy density comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kui; Chen, Shuting; Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yu, Shuhui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Sritharan, Thirumany; Lu, Li

    2011-09-01

    Although batteries possess high energy storage density, their output power is limited by the slow movement of charge carriers, and thus capacitors are often required to deliver high power output. Dielectric capacitors have high power density with fast discharge rate, but their energy density is typically much lower than electrochemical supercapacitors. Increasing the energy density of dielectric materials is highly desired to extend their applications in many emerging power system applications. In this paper, we review the mechanisms and major characteristics of electric energy storage with electrochemical supercapacitors and dielectric capacitors. Three types of in-house-produced ferroic nonlinear dielectric thin film materials with high energy density are described, including (Pb(0.97)La(0.02))(Zr(0.90)Sn(0.05)Ti(0.05))O(3) (PLZST) antiferroelectric ceramic thin films, Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)PbTiO(3) (PZN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric ceramic thin films, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based polymer blend thin films. The results showed that these thin film materials are promising for electric storage with outstandingly high power density and fairly high energy density, comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

  5. Thin pentacene layer under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srnanek, R.; Jakabovic, J.; Kovac, J.; Donoval, D.; Dobrocka, E.

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors have got a lot of interest during the last years, due to their usability for organic thin film transistor. Pentacene, C 22 H 14 , is one of leading candidates for this purpose. While we obtain the published data about pressure-induced phase transition only on single crystal of pentacene we present pressure-induced phase transition in pentacene thin layers for the first time. Changes in the pentacene structure, caused by the pressure, were detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Applying the defined pressure to the pentacene layer it can be transformed from thin phase to bulk phase. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was found as useful method for detection of changes and phases identification in the pentacene layer induced by mechanical pressure. Such a pressure-induced transformation of pentacene thin layers was observed and identified for the first time. (authors)

  6. Atomic layer deposited high-k dielectric on graphene by functionalization through atmospheric plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong Woo; Kang, Myung Hoon; Oh, Seongkook; Yang, Byung Chan; Seong, Kwonil; Ahn, Hyo-Sok; Lee, Tae Hoon; An, Jihwan

    2018-05-01

    Atomic layer-deposited (ALD) dielectric films on graphene usually show noncontinuous and rough morphology owing to the inert surface of graphene. Here, we demonstrate the deposition of thin and uniform ALD ZrO2 films with no seed layer on chemical vapor-deposited graphene functionalized by atmospheric oxygen plasma treatment. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the ALD ZrO2 films were highly crystalline, despite a low ALD temperature of 150 °C. The ALD ZrO2 film served as an effective passivation layer for graphene, which was shown by negative shifts in the Dirac voltage and the enhanced air stability of graphene field-effect transistors after ALD of ZrO2. The ALD ZrO2 film on the functionalized graphene may find use in flexible graphene electronics and biosensors owing to its low process temperature and its capacity to improve device performance and stability.

  7. The impact of porosity on the formation of manganese based copper diffusion barrier layers on low-κ dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, A P; Bogan, J; Walsh, L; Byrne, C; O’Connor, R; Hughes, G; Woicik, J C

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the impact of porosity in low-κ dielectric materials on the chemical and structural properties of deposited Mn thin films for copper diffusion barrier layer applications. X-ray photoelectron spectrscopy (XPS) results highlight the difficulty in distinguishing between the various Mn oxidation states which form at the interlayer dielectric (ILD)/Mn interface. The presence of MnSiO 3 and MnO were identified using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements on both porous and non-porous dielectric materials with evidence of Mn 2 O 3 and Mn 3 O 4 in the deposited film on the latter surface. It is shown that a higher proportion of deposited Mn converts to Mn silicate on an ILD film which has 50% porosity compared with the same dielectric material with no porosity, which is attributed to an enhanced chemical interaction with the effective larger surface area of porous dielectric materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data shows that the Mn overlayer remains predominately surface localised on both porous and non-porous materials. (paper)

  8. Structural, dielectric and AC conductivity study of Sb2O3 thin film ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    52

    However, to date, no reports have appeared on impedance spectroscopy, modulus behavior, electrical conductivity, dielectric relaxation and dielectric properties of crystalline Sb2O3 thin films. This paper deals for the first time with the frequency and temperature dependence of AC conductivity and complex electric modulus ...

  9. Contribution of Dielectric Screening to the Total Capacitance of Few-Layer Graphene Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Cheng; Jiang, De-en

    2016-03-03

    We apply joint density functional theory (JDFT), which treats the electrode/electrolyte interface self-consistently, to an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) based on few-layer graphene electrodes. The JDFT approach allows us to quantify a third contribution to the total capacitance beyond quantum capacitance (CQ) and EDL capacitance (CEDL). This contribution arises from the dielectric screening of the electric field by the surface of the few-layer graphene electrode, and we therefore term it the dielectric capacitance (CDielec). We find that CDielec becomes significant in affecting the total capacitance when the number of graphene layers in the electrode is more than three. Our investigation sheds new light on the significance of the electrode dielectric screening on the capacitance of few-layer graphene electrodes.

  10. Dielectric response of fully and partially depleted ferroelectric thin films and inversion of the thickness effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misirlioglu, I B; Yildiz, M

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of full and partial depletion on the dielectric response characteristics of ferroelectric thin films with impurities via a computational approach. Using a thermodynamic approach along with the fundamental equations for semiconductors, we show that films with partial depletion display unique features and an enhanced dielectric response compared with those fully depleted. We find that the capacitance peak at switching can be significantly suppressed in the case of high impurity densities (>10 25 m −3 ) with relatively low ionization energy, of the order of 0.5 eV. For conserved number of species in films, electromigration of ionized impurities at room temperature is negligible and has nearly no effect on the dielectric response. In films with high impurity density, the dielectric response at zero bias is enhanced with respect to charge-free films or those with relatively low impurity density ( 24 m −3 ). We demonstrate that partially depleted films should be expected to exhibit peculiar capacitance–voltage characteristics at low and high bias and that the thickness effect probed in experiments in ferroelectric thin films could be entirely inverted in thin films with depletion charges where a higher dielectric response can be measured in thicker films. Therefore, depletion charge densities in ferroelectric thin films should be estimated before size-effect-related studies. Finally, we noted that these findings are in good qualitative agreement with dielectric measurements carried out on PbZr x Ti 1−x O 3 . (paper)

  11. Influence of Doping Concentration on Dielectric, Optical, and Morphological Properties of PMMA Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PMMA thin films were deposited by sol gel spin coating method on ITO substrates. Toluene was used as the solvent to dissolve the PMMA powder. The PMMA concentration was varied from 30 ~ 120 mg. The dielectric properties were measured at frequency of 0 ~ 100 kHz. The dielectric permittivity was in the range of 7.3 to 7.5 which decreased as the PMMA concentration increased. The dielectric loss is in the range of 0.01 ~ –0.01. All samples show dielectric characteristics which have dielectric loss is less than 0.05. The optical properties for thin films were measured at room temperature across 200 ~ 1000 nm wavelength region. All samples are highly transparent. The energy band gaps are in the range of 3.6 eV to 3.9 eV when the PMMA concentration increased. The morphologies of the samples show that all samples are uniform and the surface roughness increased as the concentration increased. From this study, it is known that, the dielectric, optical, and morphology properties were influenced by the amount of PMMA concentration in the solution.

  12. Analysis of influence of buffer layers on microwave propagation through high-temperature superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceremuga, J.; Barton, M.; Miranda, F.

    1994-01-01

    Methods of analysis of microwave propagation through superconducting thin films with buffer layers on dielectric substrates have been discussed. Expressions describing the transmission coefficient S 21 through the structure and the complex conductivity sigma of a superconductor in an analytical form have been derived. The derived equations are valid for microwave propagation in waveguides as well as in free space with relevant definition of impedances. Using the obtained solutions, the influences of buffer layers' parameters (thickness, relative permittivity and loss tangent) on the transmission coefficient has been investigated using MATLAB. Simulations have been performed for 10 GHz transmission through YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films on sapphire with SrTiO 3 and CeO 2 buffer layers and on silicon with CaF 2 and YSZ buffer layers. To illustrate the simulations, measurements of the transmission through YBCO film on sapphire with SrTiO 3 buffer layer have been performed. It has been shown that even lossy buffer layers have very little impact (smaller than 1% in magnitude and 0.3% in phase) on the transmission coefficient through superconducting thin films, providing their thickness is below 10 mu m. (author)

  13. Thickness-dependent piezoelectric behaviour and dielectric properties of lanthanum modified BiFeO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Biasotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bi0.85La0.15FeO3 (BLFO thin films were deposited on Pt(111/Ti/SiO2 /Si substrates by the soft chemical method. Films with thicknesses ranging from 140 to 280 nm were grown on platinum coated silicon substrates at 500°C for 2 hours. The X-ray diffraction analysis of BLFO films evidenced a hexagonal structure over the entire thickness range investigated. The grain size of the film changes as the number of the layers increases, indicating thickness dependence. It is found that the piezoelectric response is strongly influenced by the film thickness. It is shown that the properties of BiFeO3 thin films, such as lattice parameter, dielectric permittivity, piezoeletric coefficient etc., are functions of misfit strains.

  14. Melt front propagation in dielectrics upon femtosecond laser irradiation: Formation dynamics of a heat-affected layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Solis, Javier; Siegel, Jan, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-25

    Several studies in dielectrics have reported the presence of a thin heat-affected layer underneath the ablation crater produced by femtosecond laser irradiation. In this work, we present a time-resolved microscopy technique that is capable of monitoring the formation dynamics of this layer and apply it to the study of a phosphate glass exposed to single pulses below the ablation threshold. A few nanoseconds after laser excitation, a melt front interface can be detected, which propagates into the bulk, gradually slowing down its speed. By means of image analysis combined with optical modeling, we are able to determine the temporal evolution of the layer thickness and its refractive index. Initially, a strong transient decrease in the refractive index is observed, which partially recovers afterwards. The layer resolidifies after approximately 1 μs after excitation, featuring a maximum thickness of several hundreds of nanometers.

  15. Melt front propagation in dielectrics upon femtosecond laser irradiation: Formation dynamics of a heat-affected layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Solis, Javier; Siegel, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in dielectrics have reported the presence of a thin heat-affected layer underneath the ablation crater produced by femtosecond laser irradiation. In this work, we present a time-resolved microscopy technique that is capable of monitoring the formation dynamics of this layer and apply it to the study of a phosphate glass exposed to single pulses below the ablation threshold. A few nanoseconds after laser excitation, a melt front interface can be detected, which propagates into the bulk, gradually slowing down its speed. By means of image analysis combined with optical modeling, we are able to determine the temporal evolution of the layer thickness and its refractive index. Initially, a strong transient decrease in the refractive index is observed, which partially recovers afterwards. The layer resolidifies after approximately 1 μs after excitation, featuring a maximum thickness of several hundreds of nanometers.

  16. Nanoscale gadolinium oxide capping layers on compositionally variant gate dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2010-11-19

    Metal gate work function enhancement using nanoscale (1.0 nm) Gd2O3 interfacial layers has been evaluated as a function of silicon oxide content in the HfxSiyOz gate dielectric and process thermal budget. It is found that the effective work function tuning by the Gd2O3 capping layer varied by nearly 400 mV as the composition of the underlying dielectric changed from 0% to 100% SiO2, and by nearly 300 mV as the maximum process temperature increased from ambient to 1000 °C. A qualitative model is proposed to explain these results, expanding the existing models for the lanthanide capping layer effect.

  17. Nanoscale gadolinium oxide capping layers on compositionally variant gate dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Cha, D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Metal gate work function enhancement using nanoscale (1.0 nm) Gd2O3 interfacial layers has been evaluated as a function of silicon oxide content in the HfxSiyOz gate dielectric and process thermal budget. It is found that the effective work function tuning by the Gd2O3 capping layer varied by nearly 400 mV as the composition of the underlying dielectric changed from 0% to 100% SiO2, and by nearly 300 mV as the maximum process temperature increased from ambient to 1000 °C. A qualitative model is proposed to explain these results, expanding the existing models for the lanthanide capping layer effect.

  18. Effects of Interfacial Charge Depletion in Organic Thin-Film Transistors with Polymeric Dielectrics on Electrical Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Park

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the electrical stabilities of two types of pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs with two different polymeric dielectrics: polystyrene (PS and poly(4-vinyl phenol (PVP, in terms of the interfacial charge depletion. Under a short-term bias stress condition, the OTFT with the PVP layer showed a substantial increase in the drain current and a positive shift of the threshold voltage, while the PS layer case exhibited no change. Furthermore, a significant increase in the off-state current was observed in the OTFT with the PVP layer which has a hydroxyl group. In the presence of the interfacial hydroxyl group in PVP, the holes are not fully depleted during repetitive operation of the OTFT with the PVP layer and a large positive gate voltage in the off-state regime is needed to effectively refresh the electrical characteristics. It is suggested that the depletion-limited holes at the interface, i.e., interfacial charge depletion, between the PVP layer and the pentacene layer play a critical role on the electrical stability during operation of the OTFT.

  19. Ultimate Scaling of High-κ Gate Dielectrics: Higher-κ or Interfacial Layer Scavenging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ando

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Current status and challenges of aggressive equivalent-oxide-thickness (EOT scaling of high-κ gate dielectrics via higher-κ ( > 20 materials and interfacial layer (IL scavenging techniques are reviewed. La-based higher-κ materials show aggressive EOT scaling (0.5–0.8 nm, but with effective workfunction (EWF values suitable only for n-type field-effect-transistor (FET. Further exploration for p-type FET-compatible higher-κ materials is needed. Meanwhile, IL scavenging is a promising approach to extend Hf-based high-κ dielectrics to future nodes. Remote IL scavenging techniques enable EOT scaling below 0.5 nm. Mobility-EOT trends in the literature suggest that short-channel performance improvement is attainable with aggressive EOT scaling via IL scavenging or La-silicate formation. However, extreme IL scaling (e.g., zero-IL is accompanied by loss of EWF control and with severe penalty in reliability. Therefore, highly precise IL thickness control in an ultra-thin IL regime ( < 0.5 nm will be the key technology to satisfy both performance and reliability requirements for future CMOS devices.

  20. Sol–gel deposited ceria thin films as gate dielectric for CMOS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sol–gel deposited ceria thin films as gate dielectric for CMOS technology. ANIL G KHAIRNAR ... The semiconductor roadmap following Moore's law is responsible for ..... The financial support from University Grants Commi- ssion (UGC), New ...

  1. Self-aligned top-gate InGaZnO thin film transistors using SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stack gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Wong, Man; Kwok, Hoi Sing

    2013-12-02

    Self-aligned top-gate amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) utilizing SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stack thin films as gate dielectric are developed in this paper. Due to high quality of the high-k Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and good interface between active layer and gate dielectric, the resulting a-IGZO TFT exhibits good electrical performance including field-effect mobility of 9 cm{sup 2}/Vs, threshold voltage of 2.2 V, subthreshold swing of 0.2 V/decade, and on/off current ratio of 1 × 10{sup 7}. With scaling down of the channel length, good characteristics are also obtained with a small shift of the threshold voltage and no degradation of subthreshold swing. - Highlights: • Self-aligned top-gate indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistor is proposed. • SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stack gate dielectric is proposed. • The source/drain areas are hydrogen-doped by CHF{sub 3} plasma. • The devices show good electrical performance and scaling down behavior.

  2. Al2O3 dielectric layers on H-terminated diamond: Controlling surface conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Koeck, Franz A.; Dutta, Maitreya; Wang, Xingye; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates how the surface conductivity of H-terminated diamond can be preserved and stabilized by using a dielectric layer with an in situ post-deposition treatment. Thin layers of Al2O3 were grown by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) on H-terminated undoped diamond (100) surfaces. The changes of the hole accumulation layer were monitored by correlating the binding energy of the diamond C 1s core level with electrical measurements. The initial PEALD of 1 nm Al2O3 resulted in an increase of the C 1s core level binding energy consistent with a reduction of the surface hole accumulation and a reduction of the surface conductivity. A hydrogen plasma step restored the C 1s binding energy to the value of the conductive surface, and the resistance of the diamond surface was found to be within the range for surface transfer doping. Further, the PEALD growth did not appear to degrade the surface conductive layer according to the position of the C 1s core level and electrical measurements. This work provides insight into the approaches to establish and control the two-dimensional hole-accumulation layer of the H-terminated diamond and improve the stability and performance of H-terminated diamond electronic devices.

  3. High Gain and High Directive of Antenna Arrays Utilizing Dielectric Layer on Bismuth Titanate Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Wee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high gain and high directive microstrip patch array antenna formed from dielectric layer stacked on bismuth titanate (BiT ceramics have been investigated, fabricated, and measured. The antennas are designed and constructed with a combination of two-, four-, and six-BiT elements in an array form application on microwave substrate. For gain and directivity enhancement, a layer of dielectric was stacked on the BiT antenna array. We measured the gain and directivity of BiT array antennas with and without the dielectric layer and found that the gain of BiT array antenna with the dielectric layer was enhanced by about 1.4 dBi of directivity and 1.3 dB of gain over the one without the dielectric layer at 2.3 GHz. The impedance bandwidth of the BiT array antenna both with and without the dielectric layer is about 500 MHz and 350 MHz, respectively, which is suitable for the application of the WiMAX 2.3 GHz system. The utilization of BiT ceramics that covers about 90% of antenna led to high radiation efficiency, and small-size antennas were produced. In order to validate the proposed design, theoretical and measured results are provided and discussed.

  4. Quantum-dot size and thin-film dielectric constant: precision measurement and disparity with simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinolds, Darcy D W; Brown, Patrick R; Harris, Daniel K; Bulovic, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-01-14

    We study the dielectric constant of lead sulfide quantum dot (QD) films as a function of the volume fraction of QDs by varying the QD size and keeping the ligand constant. We create a reliable QD sizing curve using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), thin-film SAXS to extract a pair-distribution function for QD spacing, and a stacked-capacitor geometry to measure the capacitance of the thin film. Our data support a reduced dielectric constant in nanoparticles.

  5. High Stability Pentacene Transistors Using Polymeric Dielectric Surface Modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Lin, Guangqing; Li, Peng; Lv, Guoqiang; Qiu, Longzhen; Ding, Yunsheng

    2015-08-01

    1,6-bis(trichlorosilyl)hexane (C6Cl), polystyrene (PS), and cross-linked polystyrene (CPS) were investigated as gate dielectric modified layers for high performance organic transistors. The influence of the surface energy, roughness and morphology on the charge transport of the organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) was investigated. The surface energy and roughness both affect the grain size of the pentacene films which will control the charge carrier mobility of the devices. Pentacene thin-film transistors fabricated on the CPS modified dielectric layers exhibited charge carrier mobility as high as 1.11 cm2 V-1 s-1. The bias stress stability for the CPS devices shows that the drain current only decays 1% after 1530 s and the mobility never decreases until 13530 s.

  6. Structure and performance of dielectric films based on self-assembled nanocrystals with a high dielectric constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limin; Liu, Shuangyi; Van Tassell, Barry J; Liu, Xiaohua; Byro, Andrew; Zhang, Henan; Leland, Eli S; Akins, Daniel L; Steingart, Daniel A; Li, Jackie; O'Brien, Stephen

    2013-10-18

    Self-assembled films built from nanoparticles with a high dielectric constant are attractive as a foundation for new dielectric media with increased efficiency and range of operation, due to the ability to exploit nanofabrication techniques and emergent electrical properties originating from the nanoscale. However, because the building block is a discrete one-dimensional unit, it becomes a challenge to capture potential enhancements in dielectric performance in two or three dimensions, frequently due to surface effects or the presence of discontinuities. This is a recurring theme in nanoparticle film technology when applied to the realm of thin film semiconductor and device electronics. We present the use of chemically synthesized (Ba,Sr)TiO3 nanocrystals, and a novel deposition-polymerization technique, as a means to fabricate the dielectric layer. The effective dielectric constant of the film is tunable according to nanoparticle size, and effective film dielectric constants of up to 34 are enabled. Wide area and multilayer dielectrics of up to 8 cm(2) and 190 nF are reported, for which the building block is an 8 nm nanocrystal. We describe models for assessing dielectric performance, and distinct methods for improving the dielectric constant of a nanocrystal thin film. The approach relies on evaporatively driven assembly of perovskite nanocrystals with uniform size distributions in a tunable 7-30 nm size range, coupled with the use of low molecular weight monomer/polymer precursor chemistry that can infiltrate the porous nanocrystal thin film network post assembly. The intercrystal void space (low k dielectric volume fraction) is minimized, while simultaneously promoting intercrystal connectivity and maximizing volume fraction of the high k dielectric component. Furfuryl alcohol, which has good affinity to the surface of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 nanocrystals and miscibility with a range of solvents, is demonstrated to be ideal for the production of nanocomposites. The

  7. Transparent field-effect transistors based on AlN-gate dielectric and IGZO-channel semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besleaga, C.; Stan, G.E.; Pintilie, I.; Barquinha, P.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TFTs based on IGZO channel semiconductor and AlN gate dielectric were fabricated. • AlN films – a viable and cheap gate dielectric alternative for transparent TFTs. • Influence of gate dielectric layer thickness on TFTs electrical characteristics. • No degradation of AlN gate dielectric was observed during devices stress testing. - Abstract: The degradation of thin-film transistors (TFTs) caused by the self-heating effect constitutes a problem to be solved for the next generation of displays. Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a viable alternative for gate dielectric of TFTs due to its good thermal conductivity, matching coefficient of thermal expansion to indium–gallium–zinc-oxide, and excellent stability at high temperatures. Here, AlN thin films of different thicknesses were fabricated by a low temperature reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering process, using a low cost, metallic Al target. Their electrical properties have been thoroughly assessed. Furthermore, the 200 nm and 500 nm thick AlN layers have been integrated as gate-dielectric in transparent TFTs with indium–gallium–zinc-oxide as channel semiconductor. Our study emphasizes the potential of AlN thin films for transparent electronics, whilst the functionality of the fabricated field-effect transistors is explored and discussed.

  8. Transparent field-effect transistors based on AlN-gate dielectric and IGZO-channel semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besleaga, C.; Stan, G.E.; Pintilie, I. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 405A Atomistilor, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Barquinha, P.; Fortunato, E. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, and CEMOP-UNINOVA, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Martins, R., E-mail: rm@uninova.pt [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, and CEMOP-UNINOVA, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • TFTs based on IGZO channel semiconductor and AlN gate dielectric were fabricated. • AlN films – a viable and cheap gate dielectric alternative for transparent TFTs. • Influence of gate dielectric layer thickness on TFTs electrical characteristics. • No degradation of AlN gate dielectric was observed during devices stress testing. - Abstract: The degradation of thin-film transistors (TFTs) caused by the self-heating effect constitutes a problem to be solved for the next generation of displays. Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a viable alternative for gate dielectric of TFTs due to its good thermal conductivity, matching coefficient of thermal expansion to indium–gallium–zinc-oxide, and excellent stability at high temperatures. Here, AlN thin films of different thicknesses were fabricated by a low temperature reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering process, using a low cost, metallic Al target. Their electrical properties have been thoroughly assessed. Furthermore, the 200 nm and 500 nm thick AlN layers have been integrated as gate-dielectric in transparent TFTs with indium–gallium–zinc-oxide as channel semiconductor. Our study emphasizes the potential of AlN thin films for transparent electronics, whilst the functionality of the fabricated field-effect transistors is explored and discussed.

  9. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free (Bi,Na)TiO3-based thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Safari, A.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2010-02-01

    Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of morphotropic phase boundary (Bi,Na)TiO3-(Bi,K)TiO3-BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films deposited on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO3 substrates were reported. Thin films of 350 nm thickness exhibited small signal dielectric permittivity and loss tangent values of 750 and 0.15, respectively, at 1 kHz. Ferroelectric hysteresis measurements indicated a remanent polarization value of 30 μC/cm2 with a coercive field of 85-100 kV/cm. The thin film transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f) of these films after poling at 600 kV/cm was found to be -2.2 C/m2. The results indicate that these BNT-based thin films are a potential candidate for lead-free piezoelectric devices.

  10. Frequency and Temperature Dependent Dielectric Properties of Free-standing Strontium Titanate Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalberth, Mark J.; Stauber, Renaud E.; Anderson, Britt; Price, John C.; Rogers, Charles T.

    1998-03-01

    We will report on the frequency and temperature dependence of the complex dielectric function of free-standing strontium titanate (STO) films. STO is an incipient ferroelectric with electric-field tunable dielectric properties of utility in microwave electronics. The films are grown epitaxially via pulsed laser deposition on a variety of substrates, including lanthanum aluminate (LAO), neodymium gallate (NGO), and STO. An initial film of yttrium barium cuprate (YBCO) is grown on the substrate, followed by deposition of the STO layer. Following deposition, the sacrificial YBCO layer is chemically etched away in dilute nitric acid, leaving the substrate and a released, free-standing STO film. Coplanar capacitor structures fabricated on the released films allow us to measure the dielectric response. We observe a peak dielectric function in excess of 5000 at 35K, change in dielectric constant of over a factor of 8 for 10Volt/micron electric fields, and temperature dependence above 50K that is very similar to bulk material. The dielectric loss shows two peaks, each with a thermally activated behavior, apparently arising from two types of polar defects. We will discuss the correlation between dielectric properties, growth conditions, and strain in the free-standing STO films.

  11. Long-range surface polaritons in thin layers of absorbing materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Long-range surface polaritons (LRSPs) are electromagnetic surface modes confined at the interfaces of an thin film surrounded by a homogeneous dielectric. These modes are generally characterized by the subwavelength confinement and the long propagation length. In case of a metallic thin film, the

  12. Center for dielectric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Biggers, J. V.

    1984-05-01

    This report focuses upon the parts of the Center program which have drawn most extensively upon Navy funds. In the basic study of polarization processes in high K dielectrics, major progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms in relaxor ferroelectric in the perovskite structure families. A new effort is also being mounted to obtain more precise evaluation of the internal stress effects in fine grained barium titanate. Related to reliability, studies of the effects of induced macro-defects are described, and preparation for the evaluation of space charge by internal potential distribution measurements discussed. To develop new processing methods for very thin dielectric layers, a new type of single barrier layer multilayer is discussed, and work on the thermal evaporation of oriented crystalline antimony sulphur iodide describe.

  13. Hidden symmetries in N-layer dielectric stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihao; Shoufie Ukhtary, M.; Saito, Riichiro

    2017-11-01

    The optical properties of a multilayer system with arbitrary N layers of dielectric media are investigated. Each layer is one of two dielectric media, with a thickness one-quarter the wavelength of light in that medium, corresponding to a central frequency f 0. Using the transfer matrix method, the transmittance T is calculated for all possible 2 N sequences for small N. Unexpectedly, it is found that instead of 2 N different values of T at f 0 (T 0), there are only (N/2+1) discrete values of T 0, for even N, and (N + 1) for odd N. We explain this high degeneracy in T 0 values by finding symmetry operations on the sequences that do not change T 0. Analytical formulae were derived for the T 0 values and their degeneracies as functions of N and an integer parameter for each sequence we call ‘charge’. Additionally, the bandwidth at f 0 and filter response of the transmission spectra are investigated, revealing asymptotic behavior at large N.

  14. Microstructure and chemical analysis of Hf-based high-k dielectric layers in metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangadurai, P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Kaplan, W.D., E-mail: kaplan@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-05-31

    The microstructure and chemistry of the high-k gate dielectric significantly influences the performance of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. In particular, the local structure, chemistry, and inter-layer mixing are important phenomena to be understood. In the present study, high resolution and analytical transmission electron microscopy are combined to study the local structure, morphology, and chemistry in MIM capacitors containing a Hf-based high-k dielectric. The gate dielectric, bottom and gate electrodes were deposited on p-type Si(100) wafers by electron beam evaporation. Four chemically distinguishable sub-layers were identified within the dielectric stack. One is an unintentionally formed 4.0 nm thick interfacial layer of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} at the interface between the Ta electrode and the dielectric. The other three layers are based on HfN{sub x}O{sub y} and HfTiO{sub y}, and intermixing between the nearby sub-layers including deposited SiO{sub 2}. Hf-rich clusters were found in the HfN{sub x}O{sub y} layer adjacent to the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer.

  15. Structural properties 3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (pentacene) (TIPS-pentacene) thin films onto organic dielectric layer using slide coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusnan, Fara Naila; Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Seria, Dzul Fahmi Mohd Husin; Saad, Ismail; Ghosh, Bablu K.; Alias, Afishah [Nano Engineering & Materials (NEMs) Research Group, Faculty of Engineering Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400 Sabah (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (Pentacene) (TIPS-Pentacene) compactable interface property is important in order to have a good arrangement of molecular structure. Comparison for TIPS-Pentacene deposited between two different surface layers conducted. 0.1wt% TIPS-Pentacene diluted in chloroform were deposited onto poly(methylmeaclyrate) (PMMA) layered transparent substrates using slide coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) used to determine crystallinity of thin films. Series of (00l) diffraction peaks obtained with sharp first peaks (001) for TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer at 5.35° and separation of 16.3 Å. Morphology and surface roughness were carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profilemeter LS500, respectively.TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer formed needled-like-shape grains with 10.26 nm surface roughness. These properties were related as thin film formed and its surface roughness plays important role towards good mobility devices.

  16. Structural characterization and dielectric properties of BaTiO3 thin films obtained by spin coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Bajac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate thin films were prepared by spin coating deposition technique of an acetic precursor sol and sintered at 750, 900 and 1050 °C. Phase composition of the obtained thin films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Their morphology was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Dielectric properties of thin films sintered at 750 and 900 °C were characterized by LCD device, where the influence of sintering temperature on dielectric permittivity and loss tangent was inspected. It was concluded that higher sintering temperature increases grain size and amount of tetragonal phase, hence higher relative permittivity was recorded. The almost constant relative permittivity in the measured frequency (800 Hz–0.5 MHz and temperature (25–200 °C ranges as well as low dielectric loss are very important for the application of BaTiO3 films in microelectronic devices.

  17. Effect of Pb content and solution concentration of Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3} seed layer on (100)-texture and ferroelectric/dielectric behavior of PZT (52/48) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Jian; Batra, Vaishali; Han, Hui; Kotru, Sushma, E-mail: skotru@eng.ua.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Pandey, Raghvendar K. [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The effect of Pb content and solution concentration of lead titanate (Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) seed layer on the texture and electric properties of Pb{sub 1.1}(Zr{sub 0.52},Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films was investigated. A variety of seed layers (y Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) with varying solution concentration (y = 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and Pb content (x = 1.0, 1.05, 1.1, and 1.2) was deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using chemical-solution deposition method. PZT films were then deposited on these seed layers using the same process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the seed layers confirm change in crystal structure with variation in the solution properties. XRD studies of PZT films deposited on seed layers demonstrate that the seed layer helps in enhancing (100)-texture and suppressing (111)-texture. It was observed that PZT films prepared on seed layers with lower solution concentrations results in highly (100)-textured films, which further helps to improve the electric properties. The polarization and dielectric constant of the PZT films were seen to increase while the coercive field decreased with increase in (100)-texture. Irrespective of the seed layer solution concentration, higher Pb content in the seed layer deteriorates the PZT film properties. Ninety-five percent to ninety-six percent (100)-texture was obtained from thin PZT films deposited on seed layers of 0.02 M solution concentration with 1.05 and 1.10 Pb contents, which is higher than the values reported for thick PZT films. Optimization of both Pb content and solution concentration of the seed layer is a promising route to achieve highly (100)-textured PZT films with improved electric properties.

  18. Band gap determination of thin praseodymium oxide layers on aluminium oxynitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergholz, Matthias; Schmeisser, Dieter [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet, Cottbus (Germany). Angewandte Physik - Sensorik

    2008-07-01

    High-k dielectrics are important as never before in semiconductor industry. We investigate Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} as one representative of this group on silicon and silicon-aluminium oxynitride substrates. In earlier work we observed the positive influence of this AlO{sub x}N{sub y} intermediate layer on the electrical properties of the Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. Now we present in-situ EELS, XPS and UPS measurements of gradually grown thin Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on AlO{sub x}N{sub y}. From these measurements we determine the band structure and find a very fast change of the band gap for the first few A, coupled with n-type behaviour for the Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. These results are compared with RIXS measurements of a 5 nm Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on a 1 nm thick AlO{sub x}N{sub y} layer.

  19. Polymer/metal oxide hybrid dielectrics for low voltage field-effect transistors with solution-processed, high-mobility semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Martin; Schießl, Stefan P.; Gannott, Florentina [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen D-91058 (Germany); Institute for Physical Chemistry, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg D-69120 (Germany); Miehler, Dominik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen D-91058 (Germany); Zaumseil, Jana, E-mail: zaumseil@uni-heidelberg.de [Institute for Physical Chemistry, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg D-69120 (Germany)

    2015-08-24

    Transistors for future flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display backplanes should operate at low voltages and be able to sustain high currents over long times without degradation. Hence, high capacitance dielectrics with low surface trap densities are required that are compatible with solution-processable high-mobility semiconductors. Here, we combine poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and atomic layer deposition hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) into a bilayer hybrid dielectric for field-effect transistors with a donor-acceptor polymer (DPPT-TT) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as the semiconductor and demonstrate substantially improved device performances for both. The ultra-thin PMMA layer ensures a low density of trap states at the semiconductor-dielectric interface while the metal oxide layer provides high capacitance, low gate leakage and superior barrier properties. Transistors with these thin (≤70 nm), high capacitance (100–300 nF/cm{sup 2}) hybrid dielectrics enable low operating voltages (<5 V), balanced charge carrier mobilities and low threshold voltages. Moreover, the hybrid layers substantially improve the bias stress stability of the transistors compared to those with pure PMMA and HfO{sub x} dielectrics.

  20. Study of surface-modified PVP gate dielectric in organic thin film transistors with the nano-particle silver ink source/drain electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ho-Jin; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Shin, Hong-Sik; Jeong, Kwang-Seok; Park, Jeong-Gyu; Choi, Deuk-Sung; Lee, Ga-Won

    2011-07-01

    We have fabricated the flexible pentacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with formulated poly[4-vinylphenol] (PVP) gate dielectrics treated by CF4/O2 plasma on poly[ethersulfones] (PES) substrate. The solution of gate dielectrics is made by adding methylated poly[melamine-co-formaldehyde] (MMF) to PVP. The PVP gate dielectric layer was cross linked at 90 degrees under UV ozone exposure. Source/drain electrodes are formed by micro contact printing (MCP) method using nano particle silver ink for the purposes of low cost and high throughput. The optimized OTFT shows the device performance with field effect mobility of the 0.88 cm2/V s, subthreshold slope of 2.2 V/decade, and on/off current ratios of 1.8 x 10(-6) at -40 V gate bias. We found that hydrophobic PVP gate dielectric surface can influence on the initial film morphologies of pentacene making dense, which is more important for high performance OTFTs than large grain size. Moreover, hydrophobic gate dielelctric surface reduces voids and -OH groups that interrupt the carrier transport in OTFTs.

  1. Thin film complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device using a single-step deposition of the channel layer

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2014-04-14

    We report, for the first time, the use of a single step deposition of semiconductor channel layer to simultaneously achieve both n-and p-type transport in transparent oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). This effect is achieved by controlling the concentration of hydroxyl groups (OH-groups) in the underlying gate dielectrics. The semiconducting tin oxide layer was deposited at room temperature, and the maximum device fabrication temperature was 350C. Both n and p-type TFTs showed fairly comparable performance. A functional CMOS inverter was fabricated using this novel scheme, indicating the potential use of our approach for various practical applications.

  2. Method of making dielectric capacitors with increased dielectric breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Liu, Shanshan

    2017-05-09

    The invention is directed to a process for making a dielectric ceramic film capacitor and the ceramic dielectric laminated capacitor formed therefrom, the dielectric ceramic film capacitors having increased dielectric breakdown strength. The invention increases breakdown strength by embedding a conductive oxide layer between electrode layers within the dielectric layer of the capacitors. The conductive oxide layer redistributes and dissipates charge, thus mitigating charge concentration and micro fractures formed within the dielectric by electric fields.

  3. Infrared and THz spectroscopy of nanostructured dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Petzelt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Results achieved using the infrared/THz spectroscopy of various inhomogeneous dielectrics in the Department of Dielectrics, Institute of Physics, Prague, during the last decade are briefly reviewed. The discussion concerns high-permittivity ceramics with inevitable low-permittivity dead layers along the grain boundaries, relaxor ferroelectrics with highly anisotropic polar nano-regions, classical matrix-type composites, core-shell composites, filled nanoporous glasses, polycrystalline and epitaxial thin films, heterostructures and superlattices on dielectric substrates. The analysis using models based on the effective medium approach is discussed. The importance of depolarizing field and of the percolation of components on the effective ac dielectric response and the excitations contributing to it are emphasized.

  4. Corrosion of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Chen Chongmu; Shao Yawei; Meng Guozhe; Wang Fuhui; Li Xiaogang; Dong Chaofang

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure magnesium was investigated by means of cathodic polarization curve, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (EN) under aerated and deaerated thin electrolyte layers (TEL) with various thicknesses. Based on shot noise theory and stochastic theory, the EN results were quantitatively analyzed by using the Weibull and Gumbel distribution function, respectively. The results show that the cathodic process of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layer was dominated by hydrogen reduction. With the decreasing of thin electrolyte layer thickness, cathodic process was retarded slightly while the anodic process was inhibited significantly, which indicated that both the cathodic and anodic process were inhibited in the presence of oxygen. The absence of oxygen decreased the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium in case of thin electrolyte layer. The corrosion was more localized under thin electrolyte layer than that in bulk solution. The results also demonstrate that there exist two kinds of effects for thin electrolyte layer on the corrosion behavior of pure magnesium: (1) the rate of pit initiation was evidently retarded compared to that in bulk solution; (2) the probability of pit growth oppositely increased. The corrosion model of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layer was suggested in the paper

  5. Understanding the influence of surface chemical states on the dielectric tunability of sputtered Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Saravanan, K.; Raju, K. C. James

    2014-03-01

    The surface chemical states of RF-magnetron sputtered Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST5) thin films deposited at different oxygen mixing percentage (OMP) was examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The O1s XPS spectra indicate the existence of three kinds of oxygen species (dissociated oxygen ion O2 -, adsorbed oxide ion O- and lattice oxide ion O2-) on the films’ surface, which strongly depends on OMP. The presence of oxygen species other than lattice oxygen ion makes the films’ surface highly reactivity to atmospheric gases, resulting in the formation of undesired surface layers. The XPS results confirm the formation of surface nitrates for the films deposited under oxygen deficient atmosphere (OMP ≦̸ 25%), whereas the films deposited in oxygen rich atmosphere (OMP ≧̸ 75%) show the presence of metal-hydroxide. The influence of a surface dead layer on the tunable dielectric properties of BST5 films have been studied in detail and are reported. Furthermore, our observations indicate that an optimum ratio of Ar:O2 is essential for achieving desired material and dielectric properties in BST5 thin films. The films deposited at 50% OMP have the highest dielectric tunability of ~65% (@280 kV cm-1), with good ɛ r-E curve symmetry of 98% and low tan δ of 0.018. The figure of merit for these films is about 35, which is promising for frequency agile device applications.

  6. Effect of gradient dielectric coefficient in a functionally graded material (FGM) substrate on the propagation behavior of love waves in an FGM-piezoelectric layered structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoshan; Shi, Junping; Jin, Feng

    2012-06-01

    The propagation behavior of Love waves in a layered structure that includes a functionally graded material (FGM) substrate carrying a piezoelectric thin film is investigated. Analytical solutions are obtained for both constant and gradient dielectric coefficients in the FGM substrate. Numerical results show that the gradient dielectric coefficient decreases phase velocity in any mode, and the electromechanical coupling factor significantly increases in the first- and secondorder modes. In some modes, the difference in Love waves' phase velocity between these two types of structure might be more than 1%, resulting in significant differences in frequency of the surface acoustic wave devices.

  7. Nature of Dielectric Properties, Electric Modulus and AC Electrical Conductivity of Nanocrystalline ZnIn2Se4 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Attia, A. A.; Ali, H. A. M.; Salem, G. F.; Ismail, M. I.

    2018-02-01

    The structural characteristics of thermally deposited ZnIn2Se4 thin films were indexed utilizing x-ray diffraction as well as scanning electron microscopy techniques. Dielectric properties, electric modulus and AC electrical conductivity of ZnIn2Se4 thin films were examined in the frequency range from 42 Hz to 106 Hz. The capacitance, conductance and impedance were measured at different temperatures. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease with an increase in frequency. The maximum barrier height was determined from the analysis of the dielectric loss depending on the Giuntini model. The real part of the electric modulus revealed a constant maximum value at higher frequencies and the imaginary part of the electric modulus was characterized by the appearance of dielectric relaxation peaks. The AC electrical conductivity obeyed the Jonscher universal power law. Correlated barrier hopping model was the appropriate mechanism for AC conduction in ZnIn2Se4 thin films. Estimation of the density of states at the Fermi level and activation energy, for AC conduction, was carried out based on the temperature dependence of AC electrical conductivity.

  8. Inkjet-printed thin film radio-frequency capacitors based on sol-gel derived alumina dielectric ink

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2017-05-03

    There has been significant interest in printing radio frequency passives, however the dissipation factor of printed dielectric materials has limited the quality factor achievable. Al2O3 is one of the best and widely implemented dielectrics for RF passive electronics. The ability to spatially pattern high quality Al2O3 thin films using, for example, inkjet printing would tremendously simplify the incumbent fabrication processes – significantly reducing cost and allowing for the development of large area electronics. To-date, particle based Al2O3 inks have been explored as dielectrics, although several drawbacks including nozzle clogging and grain boundary formation in the films hinder progress. In this work, a particle free Al2O3 ink is developed and demonstrated in RF capacitors. Fluid and jetting properties are explored, along with control of ink spreading and coffee ring suppression. The liquid ink is heated to 400 °C decomposing to smooth Al2O3 films ~120 nm thick, with roughness of <2 nm. Metal-insulator-metal capacitors, show high capacitance density >450 pF/mm2, and quality factors of ~200. The devices have high break down voltages, >25 V, with extremely low leakage currents, <2×10−9 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm. The capacitors compare well with similar Al2O3 devices fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

  9. Atomic Layer Deposition Alumina-Passivated Silicon Nanowires: Probing the Transition from Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor to Electrolytic Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboriau, Dorian; Boniface, Maxime; Valero, Anthony; Aldakov, Dmitry; Brousse, Thierry; Gentile, Pascal; Sadki, Said

    2017-04-19

    Silicon nanowires were coated by a 1-5 nm thin alumina layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to replace poorly reproducible and unstable native silicon oxide by a highly conformal passivating alumina layer. The surface coating enabled probing the behavior of symmetric devices using such electrodes in the EMI-TFSI electrolyte, allowing us to attain a large cell voltage up to 6 V in ionic liquid, together with very high cyclability with less than 4% capacitance fade after 10 6 charge/discharge cycles. These results yielded fruitful insights into the transition between an electrochemical double-layer capacitor behavior and an electrolytic capacitor behavior. Ultimately, thin ALD dielectric coatings can be used to obtain hybrid devices exhibiting large cell voltage and excellent cycle life of dielectric capacitors, while retaining energy and power densities close to the ones displayed by supercapacitors.

  10. High-Performance Flexible Single-Crystalline Silicon Nanomembrane Thin-Film Transistors with High- k Nb2O5-Bi2O3-MgO Ceramics as Gate Dielectric on a Plastic Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guoxuan; Zhang, Yibo; Lan, Kuibo; Li, Lingxia; Ma, Jianguo; Yu, Shihui

    2018-04-18

    A novel method of fabricating flexible thin-film transistor based on single-crystalline Si nanomembrane (SiNM) with high- k Nb 2 O 5 -Bi 2 O 3 -MgO (BMN) ceramic gate dielectric on a plastic substrate is demonstrated in this paper. SiNMs are successfully transferred to a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate, which has been plated with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) conductive layer and high- k BMN ceramic gate dielectric layer by room-temperature magnetron sputtering. The BMN ceramic gate dielectric layer demonstrates as high as ∼109 dielectric constant, with only dozens of pA current leakage. The Si-BMN-ITO heterostructure has only ∼nA leakage current at the applied voltage of 3 V. The transistor is shown to work at a high current on/off ratio of above 10 4 , and the threshold voltage is ∼1.3 V, with over 200 cm 2 /(V s) effective channel electron mobility. Bending tests have been conducted and show that the flexible transistors have good tolerance on mechanical bending strains. These characteristics indicate that the flexible single-crystalline SiNM transistors with BMN ceramics as gate dielectric have great potential for applications in high-performance integrated flexible circuit.

  11. Self-standing chitosan films as dielectrics in organic thin-film transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morgado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic thin film transistors, using self-standing 50 µm thick chitosan films as dielectric, are fabricated using sublimed pentacene or two conjugated polymers deposited by spin coating as semiconductors. Field-effect mobilities are found to be similar to values obtained with other dielectrics and, in the case of pentacene, a value (0.13 cm2/(V•s comparable to high performing transistors was determined. In spite of the low On/Off ratios (a maximum value of 600 was obtained for the pentacene-based transistors, these are promising results for the area of sustainable organic electronics in general and for biocompatible electronics in particular.

  12. Perhydropolysilazane spin-on dielectrics for inter-layer-dielectric applications of sub-30 nm silicon technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sam-Dong; Ko, Pil-Seok; Park, Kyoung-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Various material properties of the perhydropolysilazane spin-on dielectric (PHPS SOD) were examined and analyzed in this study as potential inter-layer dielectrics (ILDs) integrated for Si circuits of 30 nm technology or beyond. The spin-coated PHPS (18.5 wt%) layers converted at 650 °C showed comparable but less perfect thermal conversion to silica than the films converted at 1000 °C, however exhibiting excellent gap filling (15 nm gap opening, aspect ratio (AR) of ∼23) and planarization (degree of planarization (DOP) = ∼73% for 800 nm initial step height, cusp angle = ∼16°) sufficient for the Si integration. PHPS SOD layers cured at 650 °C were integrated ILDs in the 0.18 µm Si front-end-of-the-line process, and the estimated hot-carrier reliability of n-channel metal oxide semiconductor transistors (ten years at a drain voltage of 1.68 V) had no significant difference from that of the transistors integrated with the conventional borophosposilicate glass ILDs. A modified contact pre-cleaning scheme using N 2 O plasma treatment also produced uniform and stable contact chain resistances from the SOD ILDs. (paper)

  13. Field Enhancement in a Grounded Dielectric Slab by Using a Single Superstrate Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Tsitsas, Nikolaos L.

    2012-01-01

    The addition of a dielectric layer on a slab configuration is frequently utilized in various electromagnetic devices in order to give them certain desired operational characteristics. In this work, we consider a grounded dielectric film-slab, which is externally excited by a normally-incident Gaussian beam. On top of the film-slab, we use an additional suitably selected single isotropic superstrate layer in order to increase the field concentration inside the slab and hence achieve optimal po...

  14. Bias Stability Enhancement in Thin-Film Transistor with a Solution-Processed ZrO2 Dielectric as Gate Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangxiong Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a high-k metal-oxide film (ZrO2 was successfully prepared by a solution-phase method, and whose physical properties were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray reflectivity (XRR and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Furthermore, indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO-TFTs with high-k ZrO2 dielectric layers were demonstrated, and the electrical performance and bias stability were investigated in detail. By spin-coating 0.3 M precursor six times, a dense ZrO2 film, with smoother surface and fewer defects, was fabricated. The TFT devices with optimal ZrO2 dielectric exhibit a saturation mobility up to 12.7 cm2 V−1 s−1, and an on/off ratio as high as 7.6 × 105. The offset of the threshold voltage was less than 0.6 V under positive and negative bias stress for 3600 s.

  15. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  16. Electromagnetic Scattering from a PEC Wedge Capped with Cylindrical Layers with Dielectric and Conductive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ozturk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic scattering from a layered capped wedge is studied. The wedge is assumed infinite in z-direction (longitudinal and capped with arbitrary layers of dielectric with varying thicknesses and dielectric properties including conductive loss. Scalar Helmholtz equation in two dimensions is formulated for each solution region and a matrix of unknown coefficients are arrived at for electric field representation. Closed form expressions are derived for 2- and 3-layer geometries. Numerical simulations are performed for different wedge shapes and dielectric layer properties and compared to PEC-only case. It has been shown that significant reduction in scattered electric field can be obtained with 2- and 3-layered cap geometries. Total electric field in the far field normalized to incident field is also computed as a precursor to RCS analysis. Analytical results can be useful in radar cross section analysis for aerial vehicles.

  17. Constant-current corona triode adapted and optimized for the characterization of thin dielectric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, José A.

    2018-05-01

    This work describes an enhanced corona triode with constant current adapted to characterize the electrical properties of thin dielectric films used in organic electronic devices. A metallic grid with a high ionic transparency is employed to charge thin films (100 s of nm thick) with a large enough charging current. The determination of the surface potential is based on the grid voltage measurement, but using a more sophisticated procedure than the previous corona triode. Controlling the charging current to zero, which is the open-circuit condition, the potential decay can be measured without using a vibrating grid. In addition, the electric capacitance and the characteristic curves of current versus the stationary surface potential can also be determined. To demonstrate the use of the constant current corona triode, we have characterized poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films with films with thicknesses in the range from 300 to 500 nm, frequently used as gate dielectric in organic field-effect transistors.

  18. Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim D.; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat s...... layers, Fracture mechanics, Crack closure, Steady state crack propagation.......An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...... results for the fracture mechanical properties have been obtained, and these are applied in a study of the effect of contacting crack faces. Special attention has been given to analyse conditions under which steady state propagation of buckling driven delamination takes place. Keywords: Delamination, Thin...

  19. Analysis of transmittance properties in 1D hybrid dielectric photonic crystal containing superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Osswa; Zaghdoudi, Jihene; Kanzari, Mounir

    2018-06-01

    By means of two fluid model and transfer matrix method (TMM), we investigate theoretically the transmittance properties of a defective hybrid dielectric-dielectric photonic crystal that contains a superconducting material as a defect layer. The considered hybrid photonic structure is: H(LH) 7(HLSLH) P H(LH) 7 , where H is the high refractive index dielectric, L is the low refractive index dielectric, S is the superconducting material and P is the repetitive number. The results show that the variation of the number and the positions of the transmissions modes depend strongly on the repetitive number P, the temperature T and the thickness of the layer S. An improvement of the spectral response is obtained with the exponential gradation of layer thicknesses dj =d0 + βejα , where d0 is the initial thickness of the layer j, α and β are two particular constants for each material. In addition, the effect of the incident angle for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations on the transmittance spectrum is discussed. As a result, we propose a tunable narrow stop-band polychromatic filter that covers the visible wavelength.

  20. Understanding the influence of surface chemical states on the dielectric tunability of sputtered Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Saravanan, K; James Raju, K C

    2014-01-01

    The surface chemical states of RF-magnetron sputtered Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BST5) thin films deposited at different oxygen mixing percentage (OMP) was examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The O1s XPS spectra indicate the existence of three kinds of oxygen species (dissociated oxygen ion O 2 − , adsorbed oxide ion O − and lattice oxide ion O 2− ) on the films’ surface, which strongly depends on OMP. The presence of oxygen species other than lattice oxygen ion makes the films’ surface highly reactivity to atmospheric gases, resulting in the formation of undesired surface layers. The XPS results confirm the formation of surface nitrates for the films deposited under oxygen deficient atmosphere (OMP not ≦ 25%), whereas the films deposited in oxygen rich atmosphere (OMP not ≧ 75%) show the presence of metal-hydroxide. The influence of a surface dead layer on the tunable dielectric properties of BST5 films have been studied in detail and are reported. Furthermore, our observations indicate that an optimum ratio of Ar:O 2 is essential for achieving desired material and dielectric properties in BST5 thin films. The films deposited at 50% OMP have the highest dielectric tunability of ∼65% (@280 kV cm −1 ), with good ϵ r -E curve symmetry of 98% and low tan δ of 0.018. The figure of merit for these films is about 35, which is promising for frequency agile device applications. (papers)

  1. Vertical dielectric screening of few-layer van der Waals semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jahyun; Gao, Shiyuan; Lee, Hoonkyung; Yang, Li

    2017-10-05

    Vertical dielectric screening is a fundamental parameter of few-layer van der Waals two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors. However, unlike the widely-accepted wisdom claiming that the vertical dielectric screening is sensitive to the thickness, our first-principles calculation based on the linear response theory (within the weak field limit) reveals that this screening is independent of the thickness and, in fact, it is the same as the corresponding bulk value. This conclusion is verified in a wide range of 2D paraelectric semiconductors, covering narrow-gap ones and wide-gap ones with different crystal symmetries, providing an efficient and reliable way to calculate and predict static dielectric screening of reduced-dimensional materials. Employing this conclusion, we satisfactorily explain the tunable band gap in gated 2D semiconductors. We further propose to engineer the vertical dielectric screening by changing the interlayer distance via vertical pressure or hybrid structures. Our predicted vertical dielectric screening can substantially simplify the understanding of a wide range of measurements and it is crucial for designing 2D functional devices.

  2. Electrical and physical characteristics for crystalline atomic layer deposited beryllium oxide thin film on Si and GaAs substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, J.H.; Akyol, T.; Lei, M.; Ferrer, D.A.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Downer, M.; Bielawski, C.W.; Bersuker, G.; Lee, J.C.; Banerjee, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, atomic layer deposited (ALD) BeO exhibited less interface defect density and hysteresis, as well as less frequency dispersion and leakage current density, at the same equivalent oxide thickness than Al 2 O 3 . Furthermore, its self-cleaning effect was better. In this study, the physical and electrical characteristics of ALD BeO grown on Si and GaAs substrates are further evaluated as a gate dielectric layer in III–V metal-oxide-semiconductor devices using transmission electron microscopy, selective area electron diffraction, second harmonic generation, and electrical analysis. An as-grown ALD BeO thin film was revealed as a layered single crystal structure, unlike the well-known ALD dielectrics that exhibit either poly-crystalline or amorphous structures. Low defect density in highly ordered ALD BeO film, less variability in electrical characteristics, and great stability under electrical stress were demonstrated. - Highlights: ► BeO is an excellent electrical insulator, but good thermal conductor. ► Highly crystalline film of BeO has been grown using atomic layer deposition. ► An ALD BeO precursor, which is not commercially available, has been synthesized. ► Physical and electrical characteristics have been investigated.

  3. Numerical simulations for quantitative analysis of electrostatic interaction between atomic force microscopy probe and an embedded electrode within a thin dielectric: meshing optimization, sensitivity to potential distribution and impact of cantilever contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azib, M.; Baudoin, F.; Binaud, N.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Bugarin, F.; Segonds, S.; Teyssedre, G.

    2018-04-01

    Recent experimental results demonstrated that an electrostatic force distance curve (EFDC) can be used for space charge probing in thin dielectric layers. A main advantage of the method is claimed to be its sensitivity to charge localization, which, however, needs to be substantiated by numerical simulations. In this paper, we have developed a model which permits us to compute an EFDC accurately by using the most sophisticated and accurate geometry for the atomic force microscopy probe. To avoid simplifications and in order to reproduce experimental conditions, the EFDC has been simulated for a system constituted of a polarized electrode embedded in a thin dielectric layer (SiN x ). The individual contributions of forces on the tip and on the cantilever have been analyzed separately to account for possible artefacts. The EFDC sensitivity to potential distribution is studied through the change in electrode shape, namely the width and the depth. Finally, the numerical results have been compared with experimental data.

  4. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin film oxygen barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Woo-Sik; Rawson, Ian; Grunlan, Jaime C.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of sodium montmorillonite clay and cationic polyacrylamide were grown on a polyethylene terephthalate film using layer-by-layer assembly. After 30 clay-polymer layers are deposited, with a thickness of 571 nm, the resulting transparent film has an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below the detection limit of commercial instrumentation ( 2 /day/atm). This low OTR, which is unprecedented for a clay-filled polymer composite, is believed to be due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay in polymeric mortar. With an optical transparency greater than 90% and potential for microwaveability, this thin composite is a good candidate for foil replacement in food packaging and may also be useful for flexible electronics packaging

  5. Solid-State Densification of Spun-Cast Self-Assembled Monolayers for Use in Ultra-Thin Hybrid Dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Daniel O; Acton, Orb; Weidner, Tobias; Cernetic, Nathan; Baio, Joe E; Castner, David G; Ma, Hong; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2012-11-15

    Ultra-thin self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-oxide hybrid dielectrics have gained significant interest for their application in low-voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). A [8-(11-phenoxy-undecyloxy)-octyl]phosphonic acid (PhO-19-PA) SAM on ultrathin AlO x (2.5 nm) has been developed to significantly enhance the dielectric performance of inorganic oxides through reduction of leakage current while maintaining similar capacitance to the underlying oxide structure. Rapid processing of this SAM in ambient conditions is achieved by spin coating, however, as-cast monolayer density is not sufficient for dielectric applications. Thermal annealing of a bulk spun-cast PhO-19-PA molecular film is explored as a mechanism for SAM densification. SAM density, or surface coverage, and order are examined as a function of annealing temperature. These SAM characteristics are probed through atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). It is found that at temperatures sufficient to melt the as-cast bulk molecular film, SAM densification is achieved; leading to a rapid processing technique for high performance SAM-oxide hybrid dielectric systems utilizing a single wet processing step. To demonstrate low-voltage devices based on this hybrid dielectric (with leakage current density of 7.7×10 -8 A cm -2 and capacitance density of 0.62 µF cm -2 at 3 V), pentacene thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are fabricated and yield sub 2 V operation and charge carrier mobilites of up to 1.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 .

  6. Compositional characterization of atomic layer deposited alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, Anu; Thomas, Subin; Kumar, K. Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    As the microelectronic industry demands feature size in the order of few and sub nanometer regime, the film composition and other film properties become critical issues and ALD has emerged as the choice of industry. Aluminum oxide is a material with wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and protective and ion barrier layers. Al 2 O 3 is an excellent dielectric because of its large band gap (8.7eV), large band offsets with silicon. We have deposited thin layers of alumina on silicon wafer (p-type) for gate dielectric applications by ALD technique and compositional characterizations of the deposited thin films were done using EDS, XPS and FTIR spectra

  7. Compositional characterization of atomic layer deposited alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Anu; Thomas, Subin; Kumar, K. Rajeev [Department of Instrumentation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    As the microelectronic industry demands feature size in the order of few and sub nanometer regime, the film composition and other film properties become critical issues and ALD has emerged as the choice of industry. Aluminum oxide is a material with wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and protective and ion barrier layers. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an excellent dielectric because of its large band gap (8.7eV), large band offsets with silicon. We have deposited thin layers of alumina on silicon wafer (p-type) for gate dielectric applications by ALD technique and compositional characterizations of the deposited thin films were done using EDS, XPS and FTIR spectra.

  8. Behavior of pentacene initial nucleation on various dielectrics and its effect on carrier transport in organic field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qiong; Yu, Aifang; Wang, Liangmin; Jiang, Chao

    2010-11-01

    The influence of dielectric surface energy on the initial nucleation and the growth of pentacene films as well as the electrical properties of the pentacene-based field-effect transistors are investigated. We have examined a range of organic and inorganic dielectrics with different surface energies, such as polycarbonate/SiO2, polystyrene/SiO2, and PMMA/SiO2 bi-layered dielectrics and also the bare SiO2 dielectric. Atomic force microscopy measurements of sub-monolayer and thick pentacene films indicated that the growth of pentacene film was in Stranski-Kranstanow growth mode on all the dielectrics. However, the initial nucleation density and the size of the first-layered pentacene islands deposited on different dielectrics are drastically influenced by the dielectric surface energy. With the increasing of the surface energy, the nucleation density increased and thus the average size of pentacene islands for the first mono-layer deposition decreased. The performance of fabricated pentacene-based thin film transistors was found to be highly related to nucleation density and the island size of deposited Pentacene film, and it had no relationship to the final particle size of the thick pentacene film. The field effect mobility of the thin film transistor could be achieved as high as 1.38 cm2Ns with on/off ratio over 3 x 10(7) on the PS/SiO2 where the lowest surface energy existed among all the dielectrics. For comparison, the values of mobility and on/off ratio were 0.42 cm2Ns and 1 x 10(6) for thin film transistor deposited directly on bare SiO2 having the highest surface energy.

  9. Carbon nanotube network thin-film transistors on flexible/stretchable substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2016-03-29

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for flexible thin-film transistors. In one aspect, a device includes a polymer substrate, a gate electrode disposed on the polymer substrate, a dielectric layer disposed on the gate electrode and on exposed portions of the polymer substrate, a carbon nanotube network disposed on the dielectric layer, and a source electrode and a drain electrode disposed on the carbon nanotube network.

  10. Thin layer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickert, H.; Fehsenfeld, P.

    1995-01-01

    The reliability of industrial equip ment is substantially influenced by wear and corrosion; monitoring can prevent accidents and avoid down-time. One powerful tool is thin layer activation analysis (TLA) using accelerator systems. The information is used to improve mechanical design and material usage; the technology is used by many large companies, particularly in the automotive industry, e.g. Daimler Benz. A critical area of a machine component receives a thin layer of radioactivity by irradiation with charged particles from an accelerator - usually a cyclotron. The radioactivity can be made homogeneous by suitable selection of particle, beam energy and angle of incidence. Layer thickness can be varied from 20 microns to around 1 mm with different depth distributions; the position and size of the wear zone can be set to within 0.1 mm. The machine is then reassembled and operated so that wear can be measured. An example is a combustion engine comprising piston ring, cylinder wall, cooling water jacket and housing wall, where wear measurements on the cylinder wall are required in a critical zone around the dead-point of the piston ring. Proton beam bombardment creates a radioactive layer whose thickness is known accurately, and characteristic gamma radiation from this radioactive zone penetrates through the engine and is detected externally. Measurements can be made either of the activity removed from the surface, or of the (reduced) residual activity; wear measurement of the order of 10 -9 metres is possible

  11. Perovskite oxynitride LaTiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films: Dielectric characterization in low and high frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Ziani, A. [Institut d' Electronique et de Telecommunications de Rennes (IETR) UMR-CNRS 6164, groupe ' Antennes et Hyperfrequences' , University of Rennes 1, UEB, IUT Saint Brieuc, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22004 Saint Brieuc cedex (France); Le Paven-Thivet, C., E-mail: claire.lepaven@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d' Electronique et de Telecommunications de Rennes (IETR) UMR-CNRS 6164, groupe ' Antennes et Hyperfrequences' , University of Rennes 1, UEB, IUT Saint Brieuc, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22004 Saint Brieuc cedex (France); Benzerga, R.; Le Gendre, L. [Institut d' Electronique et de Telecommunications de Rennes (IETR) UMR-CNRS 6164, groupe ' Antennes et Hyperfrequences' , University of Rennes 1, UEB, IUT Saint Brieuc, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22004 Saint Brieuc cedex (France); Fasquelle, D. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Materiaux et des Composants pour l' Electronique (LEMCEL) UPRES-EA 2601, University of Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 50 rue Ferdinand Buisson, F-62228 Calais cedex (France); Kassem, H. [Laboratoire de l' Integration du Materiau au Systeme(IMS) UMR-CNRS 5218, groupe Materiaux, University of Bordeaux 1, 16 avenue Pey-Berland, 33607 Pessac (France); and others

    2011-11-01

    Lanthanum titanium oxynitride (LaTiO{sub x}N{sub y}) thin films are studied with respect to their dielectric properties in low and high frequencies. Thin films are deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on different substrates. Effects of nitrogen content and crystalline quality on dielectric properties are investigated. In low-frequency range, textured LaTiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films deposited on conductive single crystal Nb-STO show a dielectric constant {epsilon} Prime Almost-Equal-To 140 with low losses tan{delta} = 0.012 at 100 kHz. For the LaTiO{sub x}N{sub y} polycrystalline films deposited on conductive silicon substrates with platinum (Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si), the tunability reached up to 57% for a weak electric field of 50 kV/cm. In high-frequency range, epitaxial LaTiO{sub x}N{sub y} films deposited on MgO substrate present a high dielectric constant with low losses ({epsilon} Prime Almost-Equal-To 170, tan{delta} = 0.011, 12 GHz).

  12. Laser-induced damage to thin film dielectric coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The laser-induced damage thresholds of dielectric thin film coatings have been found to be more than an order of magnitude lower than the bulk material damage thresholds. Prior damage studies have been inconclusive in determining the damage mechanism which is operative in thin films. A program was conducted in which thin film damage thresholds were measured as a function of laser wavelength (1.06 μm, 0.53 μm, 0.35 μm and 0.26 μm), laser pulse length (5 and 15 nanoseconds), film materials and film thickness. The large matrix of data was compared to predictions given by avalanche ionization, multiphoton ionization and impurity theories of laser damage. When Mie absorption cross-sections and the exact thermal equations were included into the impurity theory excellent agreement with the data was found. The avalanche and multiphoton damage theories could not account for most parametric variations in the data. For example, the damage thresholds for most films increased as the film thickness decreased and only the impurity theory could account for this behavior. Other observed changes in damage threshold with changes in laser wavelength, pulse length and film material could only be adequately explained by the impurity theory. The conclusion which results from this study is that laser damage in thin film coatings results from absorbing impurities included during the deposition process

  13. Optical properties of palladium nanoparticles under exposure of hydrogen and inert gas prepared by dewetting synthesis of thin-sputtered layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kracker, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Kracker@uni-jena.de; Worsch, Christian; Ruessel, Christian [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Thin layers of palladium with a thickness of 5 nm were sputtered on fused silica substrates. Subsequently, the coated glasses were annealed at a temperature of 900 Degree-Sign C for 1 h. This resulted in the formation of small and well-separated palladium nanoparticles with diameters in the range from 20 to 200 nm on the glass surface. The existence of a palladium oxide layer can be detected using optical absorption spectroscopy. Purging with hydrogen leads to an irreversible change in the optical spectra due to the reduction of PdO to metallic palladium. Changing the gas atmosphere from hydrogen to argon leads to significant reversible changes in the optical properties of the particle layer. Based on Mie theory and the respective dielectric functions, the spectra were calculated using the real particle size distribution, weighted dispersions relation to adapt the geometrical conditions and complex dielectric functions of palladium and palladium hydride. A good agreement with measured spectra was found and the dependency of the surrounding media can be explained.Graphical Abstract.

  14. Dielectric properties of electron irradiated PbZrO 3 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper deals with the study of the effects of electron (8 MeV) irradiation on the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PbZrO3 thin films grown by sol–gel technique. The films were (0.62 m thick) subjected to electron irradiation using Microtron accelerator (delivered dose 80, 100, 120 kGy). The films were well ...

  15. Atomic layer deposition for graphene device integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, R.H.J.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bol, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Graphene is a two dimensional material with extraordinary properties, which make it an interesting material for many optical and electronic devices. The integration of graphene in these devices often requires the deposition of thin dielectric layers on top of graphene. Atomic layer deposition (ALD)

  16. Zinc oxide nanowire-poly(methyl methacrylate) dielectric layers for polymer capacitive pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Sheng; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Chen, Shih-Ping; Tseng, Pin-Yen; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-14

    Polymer capacitive pressure sensors based on a dielectric composite layer of zinc oxide nanowire and poly(methyl methacrylate) show pressure sensitivity in the range of 2.63 × 10(-3) to 9.95 × 10(-3) cm(2) gf(-1). This represents an increase of capacitance change by as much as a factor of 23 over pristine polymer devices. An ultralight load of only 10 mg (corresponding to an applied pressure of ∼0.01 gf cm(-2)) can be clearly recognized, demonstrating remarkable characteristics of these nanowire-polymer capacitive pressure sensors. In addition, optical transmittance of the dielectric composite layer is approximately 90% in the visible wavelength region. Their low processing temperature, transparency, and flexible dielectric film makes them a highly promising means for flexible touching and pressure-sensing applications.

  17. Dielectric properties investigation of Cu2O/ZnO heterojunction thin films by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiang; Xu, Mengmeng; Fan, Huiqing; Wang, Hairong; Peng, Biaolin; Long, Changbai; Zhai, Yuchun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bottom-up self-assembly Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction was fabricated by electrochemical deposition on indium tin oxide (ITO) flexible substrate (polyethylene terephthalate-PET). ► The dielectric response of Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction thin films had been investigated. ► The universal dielectric response was used to investigate the hopping behavior in Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction. -- Abstract: Structures and morphologies of the Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction electrodeposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) flexible substrate (polyethylene terephthalate-PET) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. The dielectric response of bottom-up self-assembly Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction was investigated. The low frequency dielectric dispersion (LFDD) was observed. The universal dielectric response (UDR) was used to investigate the frequency dependence of dielectric response for Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction, which was attributed to the long range and the short range hopping charge carriers at the low frequency and the high frequency region, respectively

  18. Low voltage operation of IGZO thin film transistors enabled by ultrathin Al2O3 gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengfei; Du, Lulu; Wang, Yiming; Jiang, Ran; Xin, Qian; Li, Yuxiang; Song, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    An ultrathin, 5 nm, Al2O3 film grown by atomic-layer deposition was used as a gate dielectric for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The Al2O3 layer showed a low surface roughness of 0.15 nm, a low leakage current, and a high breakdown voltage of 6 V. In particular, a very high gate capacitance of 720 nF/cm2 was achieved, making it possible for the a-IGZO TFTs to not only operate at a low voltage of 1 V but also exhibit desirable properties including a low threshold voltage of 0.3 V, a small subthreshold swing of 100 mV/decade, and a high on/off current ratio of 1.2 × 107. Furthermore, even under an ultralow operation voltage of 0.6 V, well-behaved transistor characteristics were still observed with an on/off ratio as high as 3 × 106. The electron transport through the Al2O3 layer has also been analyzed, indicating the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism.

  19. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge

  20. Optical and microwave dielectric properties of pulsed laser deposited Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Andrews; Goud, J. Pundareekam; Raju, K. C. James [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana 500046 (India); Emani, Sivanagi Reddy [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Telangana 500046 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited (PLD) sodium bismuth titanate thin films (NBT), are investigated at wavelengths of 190-2500 nm. Microwave dielectric properties were investigated using the Split Post Dielectric Resonator (SPDR) technique. At 10 GHz, the NBT films have a dielectric constant of 205 and loss tangent of 0.0373 at room temperature. The optical spectra analysis reveals that NBT thin films have an optical band gap E{sub g}=3.55 eV and it has a dielectric constant of 3.37 at 1000 nm with dielectric loss of 0.299. Hence, NBT is a promising candidate for photonic device applications.

  1. Method for manufacturing a solar cell with a surface-passivating dielectric double layer, and corresponding solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    We will describe a solar cell with a Dielektrikumdoppelschicht and a method for their preparation. It comprises a first dielectric layer (3) containing aluminum oxide or consisting of alumina, and a second, hydrogen-containing dielectric layer (5) is produced by sequential vapor deposition, whereby

  2. Visualization of dielectric constant-electric field-temperature phase maps for imprinted relaxor ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, J. C.; Kim, T. H.; Maeng, W.; Brewer, A. A.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Saenrang, W.; Vaithyanathan, V.; Schlom, D. G.; Li, F.; Chen, L.-Q.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric phase transition behavior of imprinted lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric thin films was mapped as a function of temperature and dc bias. To compensate for the presence of internal fields, an external electric bias was applied while measuring dielectric responses. The constructed three-dimensional dielectric maps provide insight into the dielectric behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric films as well as the temperature stability of the imprint. The transition temperature and diffuseness of the dielectric response correlate with crystallographic disorder resulting from strain and defects in the films grown on strontium titanate and silicon substrates; the latter was shown to induce a greater degree of disorder in the film as well as a dielectric response lower in magnitude and more diffuse in nature over the same temperature region. Strong and stable imprint was exhibited in both films and can be utilized to enhance the operational stability of piezoelectric devices through domain self-poling.

  3. Electrostatically assisted fabrication of silver-dielectric core/shell nanoparticles thin film capacitor with uniform metal nanoparticle distribution and controlled spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    An electrostatically-assisted strategy for fabrication of thin film composite capacitors with controllable dielectric constant (k) has been developed. The capacitor is composed of metal-dielectric core/shell nanoparticle (silver/silica, Ag@SiO2) multilayer films, and a backfilling polymer. Compared with the simple metal particle-polymer mixtures where the metal nanoparticles (NP) are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix, the metal volume fraction in our capacitor was significantly increased, owing to the densely packed NP multilayers formed by the electrostatically assisted assembly process. Moreover, the insulating layer of silica shell provides a potential barrier that reduces the tunneling current between neighboring Ag cores, endowing the core/shell nanocomposites with a stable and relatively high dielectric constant (k) and low dielectric loss (D). Our work also shows that the thickness of the SiO2 shell plays a dominant role in controlling the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. Control over metal NP separation distance was realized not only by variation the shell thickness of the core/shell NPs but also by introducing a high k nanoparticle, barium strontium titanate (BST) of relatively smaller size (∼8nm) compared to 80-160nm of the core/shell Ag@SiO2 NPs. The BST assemble between the Ag@SiO2 and fill the void space between the closely packed core/shell NPs leading to significant enhancement of the dielectric constant. This electrostatically assisted assembly method is promising for generating multilayer films of a large variety of NPs over large areas at low cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quenching Mo optical losses in CIGS solar cells by a point contacted dual-layer dielectric spacer: a 3-D optical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Nasim; Isabella, Olindo; Vroon, Zeger; Zeman, Miro

    2018-01-22

    A 3-D optical modelling was calibrated to calculate the light absorption and the total reflection of fabricated CIGS solar cells. Absorption losses at molybdenum (Mo) / CIGS interface were explained in terms of plasmonic waves. To quench these losses, we assumed the insertion of a lossless dielectric spacer between Mo and CIGS, whose optical properties were varied. We show that such a spacer with low refractive index and proper thickness can significantly reduce absorption in Mo in the long wavelength regime and improve the device's rear reflectance, thus leading to enhanced light absorption in the CIGS layer. Therefore, we optimized a realistic two-layer MgF 2 / Al 2 O 3 dielectric spacer to exploit (i) the passivation properties of ultra-thin Al 2 O 3 on the CIGS side for potential high open-circuit voltage and (ii) the low refractive index of MgF 2 on the Mo side to reduce its optical losses. Combining our realistic spacer with optically-optimized point contacts increases the implied photocurrent density of a 750 nm-thick CIGS layer by 10% for the wavelengths between 700 and 1150 nm with respect to the reference cell. The elimination of plasmonic resonances in the new structure leads to a higher electric field magnitude at the bottom of CIGS layer and justifies the improved optical performance.

  5. Electrical characteristics of top contact pentacene organic thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated using pentacene as the active layer with two different gate dielectrics, namely SiO2 and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), in top contact geometry for comparative studies. OTFTs with SiO2 as dielectric and gold deposited on the rough side of highly doped silicon (n+ -Si) ...

  6. Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric characterization of PZT thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo E.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work ferroelectric thin films of PZT were prepared by the oxide precursor method, deposited on Pt/Si substrate. Films of 0.5 mm average thickness were obtained. Electrical and ferroelectric characterization were carried out in these films. The measured value of the dielectric constant for films was 455. Ferroelectricity was confirmed by Capacitance-Voltage (C-V characteristics and P-E hysteresis loops. Remanent polarization for films presented value around 5.0 µC/cm2 and a coercive field of 88.8 kV/cm.

  7. Processing of Dielectric Optical Coatings by Nanosecond and Femtosecond UV Laser Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihlemann, J.; Bekesi, J.; Klein-Wiele, J.H.; Simon, P.

    2008-01-01

    Micro processing of dielectric optical coatings by UV laser ablation is demonstrated. Excimer laser ablation at deep UV wavelengths (248 nm, 193 nm) is used for the patterning of thin oxide films or layer stacks. The layer removal over extended areas as well as sub-μm-structuring is possible. The ablation of SiO2, Al2O3, HfO2, and Ta2O5 layers and layer systems has been investigated. Due to their optical, chemical, and thermal stability, these inorganic film materials are well suited for optical applications, even if UV-transparency is required. Transparent patterned films of SiO2 are produced by patterning a UV-absorbing precursor SiOx suboxide layer and oxidizing it afterwards to SiO2. In contrast to laser ablation of bulk material, in the case of thin films, the layer-layer or layer-substrate boundaries act as predetermined end points, so that precise depth control and a very smooth surface can be achieved. For large area ablation, nanosecond lasers are well suited; for patterning with submicron resolution, femtosecond excimer lasers are applied. Thus the fabrication of optical elements like dielectric masks, pixelated diffractive elements, and gratings can be accomplished.

  8. Mechanistic interaction study of thin oxide dielectric with conducting organic electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Himani; Sethi, Kanika; Raj, P. Markondeya; Gerhardt, R.A.; Tummala, Rao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thin film-oxide dielectric-organic electrode interface studies for investigating the leakage mechanism. ► XPS to elucidate chemical-structural changes on dielectric oxide surface. ► Correlates structural characterization data with capacitor leakage current and impedance spectroscopy characteristics. - Abstract: This paper aims at understanding the interaction of intrinsic conducting polymer, PEDT, with ALD-deposited Al 2 O 3 and thermally oxidized Ta 2 O 5 dielectrics, and the underlying mechanisms for increase in leakage currents in PEDT-based capacitors. Conducting polymers offer several advantages as electrodes for high surface area capacitors because of their lower resistance, self-healing and enhanced conformality. However, capacitors with in situ polymerized PEDT show poor electrical properties that are attributed to the interfacial interaction between the organic electrode and the oxide dielectric. This study focuses on characterizing these interactions. A combination of compositional, structural and electrical characterization techniques was applied to polymer-solid-state-capacitor to understand the interfacial chemical behavior and dielectric property deterioration of alumina and tantalum-oxide films. XPS and impedance studies were employed to understand the stiochiometric and compositional changes that occur in the dielectric film on interaction with in situ deposited PEDT. Based on the observations from several complimentary techniques, it is concluded that tantalum-pentoxide has more resistance towards chemical interaction with in situ polymerized PEDT. The thermally oxidized Ta 2 O 5 -PEDT system showed leakage current of 280 nA μF −1 at 3 V with a breakdown voltage of 30 V. On the other hand, Al 2 O 3 -PEDT capacitor showed leakage current of 50 μA μF −1 and a breakdown voltage of 40 V. The study reports direct evidence for the mechanism of resistivity drop in alumina dielectric with in situ polymerized PEDT electrode.

  9. Solid-state densification of spun-cast self-assembled monolayers for use in ultra-thin hybrid dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, Daniel O.; Acton, Orb [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Weidner, Tobias [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cernetic, Nathan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Baio, Joe E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Castner, David G. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Ma, Hong, E-mail: hma@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Jen, Alex K.-Y., E-mail: ajen@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid processing of SAM in ambient conditions is achieved by spin coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal annealing of a bulk spun-cast molecular film is explored as a mechanism for SAM densification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-performance SAM-oxide hybrid dielectric is obtained utilizing a single wet processing step. - Abstract: Ultra-thin self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-oxide hybrid dielectrics have gained significant interest for their application in low-voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). A [8-(11-phenoxy-undecyloxy)-octyl]phosphonic acid (PhO-19-PA) SAM on ultrathin AlO{sub x} (2.5 nm) has been developed to significantly enhance the dielectric performance of inorganic oxides through reduction of leakage current while maintaining similar capacitance to the underlying oxide structure. Rapid processing of this SAM in ambient conditions is achieved by spin coating, however, as-cast monolayer density is not sufficient for dielectric applications. Thermal annealing of a bulk spun-cast PhO-19-PA molecular film is explored as a mechanism for SAM densification. SAM density, or surface coverage, and order are examined as a function of annealing temperature. These SAM characteristics are probed through atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). It is found that at temperatures sufficient to melt the as-cast bulk molecular film, SAM densification is achieved; leading to a rapid processing technique for high performance SAM-oxide hybrid dielectric systems utilizing a single wet processing step. To demonstrate low-voltage devices based on this hybrid dielectric (with leakage current density of 7.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} A cm{sup -2} and capacitance density of 0.62 {mu}F cm{sup -2} at 3 V), pentacene thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are fabricated and yield sub 2 V operation and charge carrier mobilites of up to

  10. Low dielectric constant-based organic field-effect transistors and metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukah, Ndubuisi Benjamin

    This thesis describes a study of PFB and pentacene-based organic field-effect transistors (OFET) and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors with low dielectric constant (k) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) and cross-linked PVP (c-PVP) gate dielectrics. A physical method -- matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) -- of fabricating all-polymer field-effect transistors and MIS capacitors that circumvents inherent polymer dissolution and solvent-selectivity problems, is demonstrated. Pentacene-based OFETs incorporating PMMA and PVP gate dielectrics usually have high operating voltages related to the thickness of the dielectric layer. Reduced PMMA layer thickness (≤ 70 nm) was obtained by dissolving the PMMA in propylene carbonate (PC). The resulting pentacene-based transistors exhibited very low operating voltage (below -3 V), minimal hysteresis in their transfer characteristics, and decent electrical performance. Also low voltage (within -2 V) operation using thin (≤ 80 nm) low-k and hydrophilic PVP and c-PVP dielectric layers obtained via dissolution in high dipole moment and high-k solvents -- PC and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), is demonstrated to be a robust means of achieving improved electrical characteristics and high operational stability in OFETs incorporating PVP and c-PVP dielectrics.

  11. Dielectrophoretic deformation of thin liquid films induced by surface charge patterns on dielectric substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, C.W.J.; Kuijpers, C.J.; Zeegers, J.C.H.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the deformation of thin liquid films induced by surface charge patterns at the solid–liquid interface quantitatively by experiments and numerical simulations. We deposited a surface charge distribution on dielectric substrates by applying potential differences between a conductive liquid

  12. High dielectric constant and energy density induced by the tunable TiO2 interfacial buffer layer in PVDF nanocomposite contained with core-shell structured TiO2@BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Penghao; Jia, Zhuye; Shen, Zhonghui; Wang, Peng; Liu, Xiaoru

    2018-05-01

    To realize application in high-capacity capacitors and portable electric devices, large energy density is eagerly desired for polymer-based nanocomposite. The core-shell structured nanofillers with inorganic buffer layer are recently supposed to be promising in improving the dielectric property of polymer nanocomposite. In this work, core-shell structured TO@BT nanoparticles with crystalline TiO2 buffer layer coated on BaTiO3 nanoparticle were fabricated via solution method and heat treatment. The thickness of the TO buffer layer can be tailored by modulating the additive amount of the titanate coupling agent in preparation process, and the apparent dielectric properties of nanocomposite are much related to the thickness of the TO layer. The relatively thin TO layer prefer to generate high polarization to increase dielectric constant while the relatively thick TO layer would rather to homogenize field to maintain breakdown strength. Simulation of electric field distribution in the interfacial region reveals the improving effect of the TO buffer layer on the dielectric properties of nanocomposite which accords with the experimental results well. The optimized nanoparticle TO@BT-2 with a mean thickness of 3-5 nm buffer layer of TO is effective in increasing both the ε and Eb in the PVDF composite film. The maximal discharged energy density of 8.78 J/cm3 with high energy efficiency above 0.6 is obtained in TO@BT-2/PVDF nanocomposite with 2.5 vol% loading close to the breakdown strength of 380 kV/mm. The present study demonstrates the approach to optimize the structure of core-shell nanoparticles by modulating buffer layer and provides a new way to further enlarge energy density in polymer nanocomposite.

  13. Studies of low current back-discharge in point-plane geometry with dielectric layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworek, A.; Rajch, E.; Czech, T.; Lackowski, M

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results of spectroscopic investigations of back-discharge generated in the point-plane electrode geometry in air at atmospheric pressure, with the plane covered with fly ash layer. Four forms of the discharges were studied: onset streamers, glow, breakdown streamers and low-current back-arc discharge. Both polarities of the active discharge electrode, positive and negative, were tested. The back discharge is a type of DC electrical discharge, which take place when the passive plane electrode is covered with a dielectric layer. The layer can be made of solid material or a packed bed of dust or powder of low conductivity. The charge produced due to ionisation processes in the vicinity of the active point electrode is accumulated on the dielectric surface, and generates high electric field through this layer. When critical electric field through the layer is attained an electrical breakdown of the layer take place. The point of breakdown becomes a new source of ions of polarity opposite to those generated by the active electrode. The dielectric layer on the passive electrode causes that gaseous discharges such as breakdown streamers or arc start at lower voltages than they could in the case of normal corona discharge. The visual forms of the discharge were recorded and correlated with the current-voltage characteristics and optical emission spectra. Emission spectra of the discharge were measured in the light wavelength range of 200 to 600 nm to get information about excitation and ionisation processes. The light spectra were analysed by monochromator SPM-2 Karl-Zeiss-Jena with diffraction grating of 1302 grooves/mm and photomultiplier R375 (Hamamatsu) and signal preamplifier unit C7319 (Hamamatsu). The spectral analysis showed that the nitrogen molecular bands were dominant, but the emission of negative ions from the dielectric layer material were also detected. The most noticeable light emission in the range from 280 to 490 nm due to second

  14. SEM and XPS study of layer-by-layer deposited polypyrrole thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigois-Landureau, E.; Nicolau, Y. F.; Delamar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of thin films (a few nm) of polypyrrole was carried out on various substrates such as silver, platinum, electrochemically oxidized aluminum and pretreated glass. SEM micrographs showed that the deposited layers nucleate by an island-type mechanism on hydrated alumina and KOH-pretreated (hydrophilic) glass before forming a continuous film. However, continuous thin films are obtained on chromic acid pretreated (hydrophobic) glass and sputtered Ag or Pt on glass after only 3-4 deposition cycles. The mean deposition rate evaluated by XPS for the first deposition cycles on Ag and Pt is 3 and 4 nm/cycle, respectively, in agreement with previous gravimetric determinations on thicker films, proving the constancy of the deposition rate. The XPS study of the very thin films obtained by a few deposition cycles shows that the first polypyrrole layers are dedoped by hydroxydic (basic) substrate surfaces.

  15. Low temperature dielectric relaxation and charged defects in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Artemenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a dielectric relaxation in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric thin films of different composition and with several growth modes: sputtering (with and without magnetron and sol-gel. The relaxation was observed at cryogenic temperatures (T < 100 K for frequencies from 100 Hz up to 10 MHz. This relaxation activation energy is always lower than 200 meV and is very similar to the relaxation that we reported in the parent bulk perovskites. Based on our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR investigation, we ascribe this dielectric relaxation to the hopping of electrons among Ti3+-V(O charged defects. Being dependent on the growth process and on the amount of oxygen vacancies, this relaxation can be a useful probe of defects in actual integrated capacitors with no need for specific shaping.

  16. Theoretical Modeling and Analysis of L- and P-band Radar Backscatter Sensitivity to Soil Active Layer Dielectric Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Du

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-thaw (FT and moisture dynamics within the soil active layer are critical elements of boreal, arctic and alpine ecosystems, and environmental change assessments. We evaluated the potential for detecting dielectric changes within different soil layers using combined L- and P-band radar remote sensing as a prerequisite for detecting FT and moisture profile changes within the soil active layer. A two-layer scattering model was developed and validated for simulating radar responses from vertically inhomogeneous soil. The model simulations indicated that inhomogeneity in the soil dielectric profile contributes to both L- and P-band backscatter, but with greater P-band sensitivity at depth. The difference in L- and P-band responses to soil dielectric profile inhomogeneity appears suitable for detecting associated changes in soil active layer conditions. Additional evaluation using collocated airborne radar (AIRSAR observations and in situ soil moisture measurements over alpine tundra indicates that combined L- and P-band SAR observations are sensitive to soil dielectric profile heterogeneity associated with variations in soil moisture and FT conditions.

  17. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of a pH-Responsive and Electrochromic Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Daniel J.; Pridgen, Eric M.; Hammond, Paula T.; Love, J. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes an experiment on thin-film fabrication with layer-by-layer assembly that is appropriate for undergraduate laboratory courses. The purpose of this experiment is to teach students about self-assembly in the context of thin films and to expose students to the concepts of functional polymeric coatings. Students dip coat…

  18. SEM and XPS study of layer-by-layer deposited polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigois-Landureau, E.; Nicolau, Y.F.; Delamar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of thin films (a few nm) of polypyrrole was carried out on various substrates such as silver, platinum, electrochemically oxidized aluminum and pretreated glass. SEM micrographs showed that the deposited layers nucleate by an island-type mechanism on hydrated alumina and KOH-pretreated (hydrophilic) glass before forming a continuous film. However, continuous thin films are obtained on chromic acid pretreated (hydrophobic) glass and sputtered Ag or Pt on glass after only 3 endash 4 deposition cycles. The mean deposition rate evaluated by XPS for the first deposition cycles on Ag and Pt is 3 and 4 nm/cycle, respectively, in agreement with previous gravimetric determinations on thicker films, proving the constancy of the deposition rate. The XPS study of the very thin films obtained by a few deposition cycles shows that the first polypyrrole layers are dedoped by hydroxydic (basic) substrate surfaces. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Fabrication of air-stable n-type carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible substrates using bilayer dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanhong; Li, Qunqing; Jin, Yuanhao; Zhao, Yudan; Xiao, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Kaili; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-11-14

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin-film transistors hold great potential for flexible electronics. However, fabrication of air-stable n-type devices by methods compatible with standard photolithography on flexible substrates is challenging. Here, we demonstrated that by using a bilayer dielectric structure of MgO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 or HfO2, air-stable n-type devices can be obtained. The mechanism for conduction type conversion was elucidated and attributed to the hole depletion in SWNT, the decrease of the trap state density by MgO assimilating adsorbed water molecules in the vicinity of SWNT, and the energy band bending because of the positive fixed charges in the ALD layer. The key advantage of the method is the relatively low temperature (120 or 90 °C) required here for the ALD process because we need not employ this step to totally remove the absorbates on the SWNTs. This advantage facilitates the integration of both p-type and n-type transistors through a simple lift off process and compact CMOS inverters were demonstrated. We also demonstrated that the doping of SWNTs in the channel plays a more important role than the Schottky barriers at the metal contacts in carbon nanotube thin-film transistors, unlike the situation in individual SWNT-based transistors.

  20. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  1. Correlation between the dielectric constant and X-ray diffraction pattern of Si-O-C thin films with hydrogen bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Teresa; Oh, Kyoung Suk; Lee, Kwang-Man; Choi, Chi Kyu

    2004-01-01

    The amorphous structure of organic-inorganic hybrid type Si-O-C thin films was studied using the first principles molecular-dynamics method with density functional techniques. The correlation between the dielectric constant and the degree of amorphous structure in organic-inorganic hybrid type Si-O-C thin films was studied. Si-O-C thin films were deposited by high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition using bis-trimethylsilylmethane and oxygen precursors. As-deposited films and films annealed at 500 deg. C were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). For quantitative analysis, the X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples were transformed to the radial distribution function (RDF) using Fourier analysis. Hybrid type Si-O-C thin films can be divided into three types using their amorphous structure and the dielectric constant: those with organic, hybrid, and inorganic properties

  2. Fabrication and Performance Study of Uniform Thin Film Integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission line model of a uniform rectangular thin film R-C-KR structure consisting of a dielectric layer of constant per unit shunt capacitance C sandwiched between two resistive thin films of constant per unit length resistances R and KR has been analysed using the concept of matrix parameter functions. The above ...

  3. Structural and electrical characteristics of high-κ ErTixOy gate dielectrics on InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fa-Hsyang; Her, Jim-Long; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Wei-Chen; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Pan, Tung-Ming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the structural properties and electrical characteristics of high-κ ErTi x O y gate dielectrics on indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs). We used X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy to investigate the structural and morphological features of these dielectric films after they had been subjected to annealing at various temperatures. The high-κ ErTi x O y IGZO TFT device annealed at 400 °C exhibited better electrical characteristics in terms of a large field-effect mobility (8.24 cm 2 /V-s), low threshold voltage (0.36 V), small subthreshold swing (130 mV/dec), and high I on/off ratio(3.73 × 10 6 ). These results are attributed to the reduction of the trap states and oxygen vacancies between the ErTi x O y film and IGZO active layer interface during high-temperature annealing in oxygen ambient. The reliability of voltage stress also can be improved by the oxygen annealing at 400 °C. - Highlights: • ErTi x O y InGaZnO thin-film transistors (TFT). • Structural and electrical properties of the TFT were investigated. • TFT device annealed at 400 °C exhibited better electrical characteristics. • Reliability of TFT device can be improved by annealing at 400 °C

  4. Dielectric Properties of Cd1-xZnxSe Thin Film Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, L.A.; Farrag, A.A.; Zayed, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Cd 1-x Zn x Se (x=0, 0.5 and 1) thin films of thickness 300 nm have been deposited on highly cleaned glass substrates (Soda-lime glass) by thermal evaporation technique under pressure 10-5 Torr. The crystal structure, lattice parameters and grain size were determined from X-ray diffraction patterns of these films. The dielectric response and ac conductivity of the films are investigated in the frequency range from 80 Hz to 5 MHz and temperature range from 300 K to 420 K. AC conductivity increases linearly with the frequency according to the power relation σ a c (ψ)=A (ψ) s . The dielectric constant and loss show low values at high frequencies. The relaxation time t, resistance R and capacitance C were calculated from Nyquist diagram. The behavior can be modeled by an equivalent parallel RC circuit.

  5. Integration of atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on GaSb via hydrogen plasma exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B. Ruppalt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter we report the efficacy of a hydrogen plasma pretreatment for integrating atomic layer deposited (ALD high-k dielectric stacks with device-quality p-type GaSb(001 epitaxial layers. Molecular beam eptiaxy-grown GaSb surfaces were subjected to a 30 minute H2/Ar plasma treatment and subsequently removed to air. High-k HfO2 and Al2O3/HfO2 bilayer insulating films were then deposited via ALD and samples were processed into standard metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS capacitors. The quality of the semiconductor/dielectric interface was probed by current-voltage and variable-frequency admittance measurements. Measurement results indicate that the H2-plamsa pretreatment leads to a low density of interface states nearly independent of the deposited dielectric material, suggesting that pre-deposition H2-plasma exposure, coupled with ALD of high-k dielectrics, may provide an effective means for achieving high-quality GaSb MOS structures for advanced Sb-based digital and analog electronics.

  6. Copper diffusion in TaN-based thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazon, J. [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, cc 1504, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Fraisse, B. [Laboratoire Structure, Proprietes et Modelisation des Solides (UMR 8580), Ecole Centrale de Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Sarradin, J. [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, cc 1504, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Fries, S.G. [SGF Scientific Consultancy, Arndt str.9, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Tedenac, J.C. [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, cc 1504, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Frety, N. [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, cc 1504, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: Nicole.Frety@univ-montp2.fr

    2008-07-15

    The diffusion of Cu through TaN-based thin layers into a Si substrate has been studied. The barrier efficiency of TaN/Ta/TaN multilayers of 150 nm in thickness has been investigated and is compared with that of TaN single layers. Thermal stabilities of these TaN-based thin layers against Cu diffusion were determined from in situ X-ray diffraction experiments, conducted in the temperature range of 773-973 K. The TaN/Ta/TaN barrier appeared to be more efficient in preventing Cu diffusion than the TaN single layer.

  7. Structure dependent resistivity and dielectric characteristics of tantalum oxynitride thin films produced by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, D., E-mail: daniel.cristea@unitbv.ro [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Crisan, A. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Cretu, N. [Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Department, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Borges, J. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, C.; Cunha, L. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Ion, V.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, “Photonic Processing of Advanced Materials” Group, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Apreutesei, M. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, 21 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully F-69134 (France); Munteanu, D. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Tantalum oxynitride thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering, in various configurations. • The rising of the reactive gases mixture flow has the consequence of a gradual increase in the non-metallic content in the films, which results in a 10 orders of magnitude resistivity domain. • The higher resistivity films exhibit dielectric constants up to 41 and quality factors up to 70. - Abstract: The main purpose of this work is to present and to interpret the change of electrical properties of Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} thin films, produced by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Some parameters were varied during deposition: the flow of the reactive gases mixture (N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, with a constant concentration ratio of 17:3); the substrate voltage bias (grounded, −50 V or −100 V) and the substrate (glass, (1 0 0) Si or high speed steel). The obtained films exhibit significant differences. The variation of the deposition parameters induces variations of the composition, microstructure and morphology. These differences cause variation of the electrical resistivity essentially correlated with the composition and structural changes. The gradual decrease of the Ta concentration in the films induces amorphization and causes a raise of the resistivity. The dielectric characteristics of some of the high resistance Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films were obtained in the samples with a capacitor-like design (deposited onto high speed steel, with gold pads deposited on the dielectric Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films). Some of these films exhibited dielectric constant values higher than those reported for other tantalum based dielectric films.

  8. Stop Band Gap in Periodic Layers of Confined Atomic Vapor/Dielectric Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan-Yuan; Li Li; Lu Yi-Xin; Zhang Yan-Peng; Xu Ke-Wei

    2013-01-01

    A stop band gap is predicted in periodic layers of a confined atomic vapor/dielectric medium. Reflection and transmission profile of the layers over the band gap can be dramatically modified by the confined atoms and the number of layer periods. These gap and line features can be ascribed to the enhanced contribution of slow atoms induced by atom-wall collision, transient behavior of atom-light interaction and Fabry—Pérot effects in a thermal confined atomic system

  9. Device and method for luminescence enhancement by resonant energy transfer from an absorptive thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod, Gleb M.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Tischler, Jonathan R.; Tisdale, William A.; Walker, Brian J.

    2017-12-12

    Disclosed are a device and a method for the design and fabrication of the device for enhancing the brightness of luminescent molecules, nanostructures, and thin films. The device includes a mirror, a dielectric medium or spacer, an absorptive layer, and a luminescent layer. The absorptive layer is a continuous thin film of a strongly absorbing organic or inorganic material. The luminescent layer may be a continuous luminescent thin film or an arrangement of isolated luminescent species, e.g., organic or metal-organic dye molecules, semiconductor quantum dots, or other semiconductor nanostructures, supported on top of the absorptive layer.

  10. Monolithic growth of partly cured polydimethylsiloxane thin film layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    at different curing times. The monolithic films are investigated by rheology, scanning electron microscope, mechanical testing, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology, mechanical and dielectric properties, as well...... to enable interlayer crosslinking reactions either by application of an adhesion promoter or by ensuring that there are reactive, complementary sites available on the two surfaces. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used polymer for DEAPs. In this work, two-layered PDMS films are adhered together...... as thermal stabilities of the bilayer elastomer films are observed to change with the curing time of the monolayers before lamination. The objective of this work is to create adhesion of two layers without destroying the original viscoelastic properties of the PDMS films, and hence enable, for example...

  11. High carrier mobility of CoPc wires based field-effect transistors using bi-layer gate dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Gedda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and anodized Al2O3 layers were used as bi-layer gate for the fabrication of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc wire base field-effect transistors (OFETs. CoPc wires were grown on SiO2 surfaces by organic vapor phase deposition method. These devices exhibit a field-effect carrier mobility (μEF value of 1.11 cm2/Vs. The high carrier mobility for CoPc molecules is attributed to the better capacitive coupling between the channel of CoPc wires and the gate through organic-inorganic dielectric layer. Our measurements also demonstrated the way to determine the thicknesses of the dielectric layers for a better process condition of OFETs.

  12. Multilayer thin films with compositional PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 layers for tunable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shihui; Li, Lingxia; Zhang, Weifeng; Sun, Zheng; Dong, Helei

    2015-01-01

    The dielectric properties and tunability of multilayer thin films with compositional PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 (PZT/BZN) layers (PPBLs) fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate have been investigated. Dielectric measurements indicate that the PZT/BZN bilayer thin films exhibit medium dielectric constant of about 490, low loss tangent of 0.017, and superior tunable dielectric properties (tunability = 49.7% at 500 kV/cm) at a PZT/BZN thickness ratio of 3, while the largest figure of merit is obtained as 51.8. The thickness effect is discussed with a series connection model of bilayer capacitors, and the calculated dielectric constant and loss tangent are obtained. Furthermore, five kinds of thin–film samples comprising single bilayers, two, three, four and five PPBLs were also elaborated with the final same thickness. The four PPBLs show the largest dielectric constant of ~538 and tunability of 53.3% at a maximum applied bias field of 500 kV/cm and the lowest loss tangent of ~0.015, while the largest figure of merit is 65.6. The results indicate that four PPBLs are excellent candidates for applications of tunable devices. PMID:25960043

  13. Investigation of the correlation between dielectric function, thickness and morphology of nano-granular ZnO very thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliot, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.gilliot@univ-reims.fr [Laboratoire d' Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (France); Hadjadj, Aomar [Laboratoire d' Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (France); Martin, Jérôme [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Université de Technologie de Troyes (France)

    2015-12-31

    Thin nano-granular ZnO layers were prepared using a sol–gel synthesis and spin-coating deposition process with a thickness ranging between 20 and 120 nm. The complex dielectric function (ϵ) of the ZnO film was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Up to a critical thickness close to 60 nm, the magnitude of both the real and the imaginary parts of ϵ rapidly increases and then slowly tends to values closer to the bulk ZnO material. This trend suggests a drastic change in the film porosity at both sides of this critical thickness, due to the pre-heating and post-crystallization processes, as confirmed by additional characterization of the structure and the morphology of the ZnO films. - Highlights: • c-Axis oriented ZnO thin films were grown with different morphological states. • The morphology and structures are controlled by controlling the thickness. • The optical properties are correlated to morphological evolution. • Two growth behaviors and property evolutions are identified around a critical thickness.

  14. Co-firing behavior of ZnTiO3-TiO2 dielectrics/hexagonal ferrite composites for multi-layer LC filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mao; Zhou Ji; Yue Zhenxing; Li Longtu; Gui Zhilun

    2003-01-01

    The low-temperature co-firing compatibility between ferrite and dielectric materials is the key issue in the production process of multi-layer chip LC filters. This paper presents the co-firing behavior and interfacial diffusion of ZnTiO 3 -TiO 2 dielectric/Co 2 Z hexagonal ferrite multi-layer composites. It has been testified that proper constitutional modification is feasible to diminish co-firing mismatch and enhance co-firing compatibility. Interfacial reactions occur at the interface, which can strengthen combinations between ferrite layers and dielectric layers. Titanium and barium tend to concentrate at the interface; iron and zinc have a wide diffusion range

  15. Frequency dispersion analysis of thin dielectric MOS capacitor in a five-element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xizhen; Zhang, Sujuan; Zhu, Huichao; Pan, Xiuyu; Cheng, Chuanhui; Yu, Tao; Li, Xiangping; Cheng, Yi; Xing, Guichao; Zhang, Daming; Luo, Xixian; Chen, Baojiu

    2018-02-01

    An Al/ZrO2/IL/n-Si (IL: interface layer) MOS capacitor has been fabricated by metal organic decomposition of ZrO2 and thermal deposition Al. We have measured parallel capacitance (C m) and parallel resistance (R m) versus bias voltage curves (C m, R m-V) at different AC signal frequency (f), and C m, R m-f curves at different bias voltage. The curves of C m, R m-f measurements show obvious frequency dispersion in the range of 100 kHz-2 MHz. The energy band profile shows that a large voltage is applied on the ZrO2 layer and IL at accumulation, which suggests possible dielectric polarization processes by some traps in ZrO2 and IL. C m, R m-f data are used for frequency dispersion analysis. To exclude external frequency dispersion, we have extracted the parameters of C (real MOS capacitance), R p (parallel resistance), C IL (IL capacitance), R IL (IL resistance) and R s (Si resistance) in a five-element model by using a three-frequency method. We have analyzed intrinsic frequency dispersion of C, R p, C IL, R IL and R s by studying the dielectric characteristics and Si surface layer characteristics. At accumulation, the dispersion of C and R p is attributed to dielectric polarization such as dipolar orientation and oxide traps. The serious dispersion of C IL and R IL are relative to other dielectric polarization, such as border traps and fixed oxide traps. The dispersion of R s is mainly attributed to contact capacitance (C c) and contact resistance (R c). At depletion and inversion, the frequency dispersion of C, R p, C IL, R IL, and R s are mainly attributed to the depletion layer capacitance (C D). The interface trap capacitance (C it) and interface trap resistance (R it) are not dominant for the dispersion of C, R p, C IL, R IL, and R s.

  16. Dry etching of MgCaO gate dielectric and passivation layers on GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlad, M.; Voss, L.; Gila, B.P.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.

    2006-01-01

    MgCaO films grown by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and capped with Sc 2 O 3 are promising candidates as surface passivation layers and gate dielectrics on GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal-oxide semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs), respectively. Two different plasma chemistries were examined for etching these thin films on GaN. Inductively coupled plasmas of CH 4 /H 2 /Ar produced etch rates only in the range 20-70 A/min, comparable to the Ar sputter rates under the same conditions. Similarly slow MgCaO etch rates (∼100 A/min) were obtained with Cl 2 /Ar discharges under the same conditions, but GaN showed rates almost an order of magnitude higher. The MgCaO removal rates are limited by the low volatilities of the respective etch products. The CH 4 /H 2 /Ar plasma chemistry produced a selectivity of around 2 for etching the MgCaO with respect to GaN

  17. Electrowetting Performances of Novel Fluorinated Polymer Dielectric Layer Based on Poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoroctylmethacrylate Nanoemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Hou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In electrowetting devices, hydrophobic insulating layer, namely dielectric layer, is capable of reversibly switching surface wettability through applied electric field. It is critically important but limited by material defects in dielectricity, reversibility, film forming, adhesiveness, price and so on. To solve this key problem, we introduced a novel fluorinated polyacrylate—poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoroctylmethacrylate (PFMA to construct micron/submicron-scale dielectric layer via facile spray coating of nanoemulsion for replacing the most common Teflon AF series. All the results illustrated that, continuous and dense PFMA film with surface relief less than 20 nm was one-step fabricated at 110 °C, and exhibited much higher static water contact angle of 124°, contact angle variation of 42°, dielectric constant of about 2.6, and breakdown voltage of 210 V than Teflon AF 1600. Particularly, soft and highly compatible polyacrylate mainchain assigned five times much better adhesiveness than common adhesive tape, to PFMA layer. As a promising option, PFMA dielectric layer may further facilitate tremendous development of electrowetting performances and applications.

  18. All-solution-processed bottom-gate organic thin-film transistor with improved subthreshold behaviour using functionalized pentacene active layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinwoo; Jeong, Jaewook; Cho, Hyun Duk; Lee, Changhee; Hong, Yongtaek; Kim, Seul Ong; Kwon, Soon-Ki

    2009-01-01

    We report organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) made by simple solution processes in an ambient air environment. Inkjet-printed silver electrodes were used for bottom-gate and bottom-contacted source/drain electrodes. A spin-coated cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and a spin-coated 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) were used as a gate dielectric layer and an active layer, respectively. A high-boiling-point solvent was used for TIPS-pentacene and the resulting film showed stem-like morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement showed the spin-coated active layer was well crystallized, showing the (0 0 1) plane. The reasonable mobility, on/off ratio and threshold voltage of the fabricated device, which are comparable to those of the previously reported TIPS-pentacene OTFT with gold electrodes, show that the printed silver electrodes worked successfully as gate and source/drain electrodes. Furthermore, the device showed a subthreshold slope of 0.61 V/dec in the linear region (V DS = -5 V), which is the lowest value for spin-coated TIPS-pentacene TFT ever reported, and much lower than that of the thermally evaporated pentacene OTFTs. It is thought that the surface energy of the PVP dielectric layer is well matched with that of a well-ordered TIPS-pentacene (0 0 1) surface when a high-boiling-point solvent and a low-temperature drying process are used, thereby making good interface properties, and showing higher performances than those for pentacene TFT with the same structure.

  19. Atomic scale engineering of HfO2-based dielectrics for future DRAM applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Modern dielectrics in combination with appropriate metal electrodes have a great potential to solve many difficulties associated with continuing miniaturization process in the microelectronic industry. One significant branch of microelectronics incorporates dynamic random access memory (DRAM) market. The DRAM devices scaled for over 35 years starting from 4 kb density to several Gb nowadays. The scaling process led to the dielectric material thickness reduction, resulting in higher leakage current density, and as a consequence higher power consumption. As a possible solution for this problem, alternative dielectric materials with improved electrical and material science parameters were intensively studied by many research groups. The higher dielectric constant allows the use of physically thicker layers with high capacitance but strongly reduced leakage current density. This work focused on deposition and characterization of thin insulating layers. The material engineering process was based on Si cleanroom compatible HfO 2 thin films deposited on TiN metal electrodes. A combined materials science and dielectric characterization study showed that Ba-added HfO 2 (BaHfO 3 ) films and Ti-added BaHfO 3 (BaHf 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 3 ) layers are promising candidates for future generation of state-of-the-art DRAMs. In especial a strong increase of the dielectric permittivity k was achieved for thin films of cubic BaHfO 3 (k∝38) and BaHf 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 3 (k∝90) with respect to monoclinic HfO 2 (k∝19). Meanwhile the CET values scaled down to 1 nm for BaHfO 3 and ∝0.8 nm for BaHf 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 3 with respect to HfO 2 (CET=1.5 nm). The Hf 4+ ions substitution in BaHfO 3 by Ti 4+ ions led to a significant decrease of thermal budget from 900 C for BaHfO 3 to 700 C for BaHf 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 3 . Future studies need to focus on the use of appropriate metal electrodes (high work function) and on film deposition process (homogeneity) for better current leakage control. (orig.)

  20. Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott Ryan; Olson, Dana C.; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2018-01-02

    Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers are provided. In one embodiment, a method for forming a thin film charge selective transport layer comprises: providing a precursor solution comprising a metal containing reactive precursor material dissolved into a complexing solvent; depositing the precursor solution onto a surface of a substrate to form a film; and forming a charge selective transport layer on the substrate by annealing the film.

  1. Organic thin film transistors using a liquid crystalline palladium phthalocyanine as active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Tejada, Juan A.; Lopez-Varo, Pilar; Chaure, Nandu B.; Chambrier, Isabelle; Cammidge, Andrew N.; Cook, Michael J.; Jafari-Fini, Ali; Ray, Asim K.

    2018-03-01

    70 nm thick solution-processed films of a palladium phthalocyanine (PdPc6) derivative bearing eight hexyl (-C6H13) chains at non-peripheral positions have been employed as active layers in the fabrication of bottom-gate bottom-contact organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) deposited on highly doped p-type Si (110) substrates with SiO2 gate dielectric. The dependence of the transistor electrical performance upon the mesophase behavior of the PdPc6 films has been investigated by measuring the output and transfer characteristics of the OTFT having its active layer ex situ vacuum annealed at temperatures between 500 °C and 200 °C. A clear correlation between the annealing temperature and the threshold voltage and carrier mobility of the transistors, and the transition temperatures extracted from the differential scanning calorimetric curves for bulk materials has been established. This direct relation has been obtained by means of a compact electrical model in which the contact effects are taken into account. The precise determination of the contact-voltage drain-current curves allows for obtaining such a relation.

  2. Stable dielectric response of low-loss aromatic polythiourea thin films on Pt/SiO2 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eršte

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated dielectric properties of aromatic polythiourea (ArPTU, a polar polymer containing high dipolar moments with very low defect levels thin films that were developed on Pt/SiO2 substrate. The detected response is compared to the response of commercially available polymers, such as high density polyethylene (HDPE and polypropylene (PP, which are at present used in foil capacitors. Stable values of the dielectric constant ε′≈5 (being twice higher than in HDPE and PP over broad temperature and frequency ranges and dielectric losses as low as in commercial systems suggest ArPTU as a promising candidate for future use in a variety of applications.

  3. Effect of thickness on the structural and optical properties of CuO thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaltun, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    CuO thin films were synthesised on glass substrates at room temperature using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of film thickness on characteristic parameters such as the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all of the films exhibited polycrystalline structure with monoclinic phases and covered the glass substrates well. The crystalline and morphology of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The optical band gap decreased from 2.03 to 1.79 eV depending on the film thickness. The refractive index (n), electron effective mass (m_e"⁎/m_o) and static and frequency dielectric constants (ε_o, ε_∞) were determined using the energy band gap values. - Highlights: • CuO thin films were deposited using SILAR method. • The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated. • Characterisation of the films has been performed using XRD, SEM, Raman and optical measurements. • The d values of the planes of with thickness show no variation.

  4. High performance organic field-effect transistors with ultra-thin HfO2 gate insulator deposited directly onto the organic semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.; Häusermann, R.; Chiba, D.; Shimamura, K.; Ono, T.; Batlogg, B.

    2014-01-01

    We have produced stable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with an ultra-thin HfO 2 gate insulator deposited directly on top of rubrene single crystals by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We find that ALD is a gentle deposition process to grow thin films without damaging rubrene single crystals, as results these devices have a negligibly small threshold voltage and are very stable against gate-bias-stress, and the mobility exceeds 1 cm 2 /V s. Moreover, the devices show very little degradation even when kept in air for more than 2 months. These results demonstrate thin HfO 2 layers deposited by ALD to be well suited as high capacitance gate dielectrics in OFETs operating at small gate voltage. In addition, the dielectric layer acts as an effective passivation layer to protect the organic semiconductor

  5. Effect of La and W dopants on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    La or W-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films (PLZT or PZTW) were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by sol-gel process. The effects of La or W dopant on the phase development, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of films were studied. For PLZT films, the optimum doping concentration was found to be 2 mol%. While for PZTW films, the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were found to be improved as the doping concentration increased. The fatigue properties of PLZT and PZTW thin films were also investigated, the results showed that A- or B-site donor doping could improve the fatigue properties of PZT thin films. The theory of oxygen vacancy was used to explain the performance improvement caused by donor doping. (orig.)

  6. Effect of La and W dopants on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    La or W-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films (PLZT or PZTW) were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by sol-gel process. The effects of La or W dopant on the phase development, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of films were studied. For PLZT films, the optimum doping concentration was found to be 2 mol%. While for PZTW films, the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were found to be improved as the doping concentration increased. The fatigue properties of PLZT and PZTW thin films were also investigated, the results showed that A- or B-site donor doping could improve the fatigue properties of PZT thin films. The theory of oxygen vacancy was used to explain the performance improvement caused by donor doping.

  7. Growth Related Carrier Mobility Enhancement of Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors with High-k Oxide Gate Dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai-Fang, Yu; Qiong, Qi; Peng, Jiang; Chao, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Carrier mobility enhancement from 0.09 to 0.59 cm 2 /Vs is achieved for pentacene-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) by modifying the HfO 2 gate dielectric with a polystyrene (PS) thin film. The improvement of the transistor's performance is found to be strongly related to the initial film morphologies of pentacene on the dielectrics. In contrast to the three-dimensional island-like growth mode on the HfO 2 surface, the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode on the smooth and nonpolar PS/HfO 2 surface is believed to be the origin of the excellent carrier mobility of the TFTs. A large well-connected first monolayer with fewer boundaries is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode, which facilitates a charge transport parallel to the substrate and promotes higher carrier mobility. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  8. Relaxorlike dielectric behavior in Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednik, Ricardo J.; McIntyre, Paul C.; Baniecki, John D.; Ishii, Masatoshi; Shioga, Takeshi; Kurihara, Kazuaki

    2007-03-01

    We present the results of a systematic dielectric study for sputter deposited barium strontium titanate thin film planar capacitors measured over a wide temperature range of 20-575K for frequencies between 1kHz and 1MHz. Our observations of dielectric loss peaks in the temperature and frequency domains cannot be understood in the typical framework of intrinsic phonon losses. We find that the accepted phenomenological Curie-von Schweidler dielectric behavior (universal relaxation law) in our barium strontium titanate films is only applicable over a narrow temperature range. An excellent fit to the Vogel-Fulcher expression suggests relaxorlike behavior in these films. The activation energy of the observed phenomenon suggests that oxygen ion motion play a role in the apparent relaxor behavior, although further experimental work is required to test this hypothesis.

  9. Dielectric properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered Al2O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, S.; Mohan Rao, G.; Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Ganesan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) thin films were sputter deposited over well-cleaned glass and Si substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering under various oxygen gas pressures and sputtering powers. The composition of the films was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an optimal O/Al atomic ratio of 1.59 was obtained at a reactive gas pressure of 0.03 Pa and sputtering power of 70 W. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the films were amorphous until 550 °C. The surface morphology of the films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and the as-deposited films were found to be smooth. The topography of the as-deposited and annealed films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and a progressive increase in the rms roughness of the films from 3.2 nm to 4.53 nm was also observed with increase in the annealing temperature. Al-Al 2 O 3 -Al thin film capacitors were then fabricated on glass substrates to study the effect of temperature and frequency on the dielectric property of the films. Temperature coefficient of capacitance, AC conductivity and activation energy were determined and the results are discussed. - Highlights: ► Al 2 O 3 thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. ► The films were found to be amorphous up to annealing temperature of 550 C. ► An increase in rms roughness of the films was observed with annealing. ► Al-Al 2 O 3 -Al thin film capacitors were fabricated and dielectric constant was 7.5. ► The activation energy decreased with increase in frequency.

  10. Dielectric and diffusion barrier multilayer for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells integration on stainless steel sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouzou, Dodji, E-mail: dodji.amouzou@fundp.ac.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles, 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Guaino, Philippe; Fourdrinier, Lionel; Richir, Jean-Baptiste; Maseri, Fabrizio [CRM-Group, Boulevard de Colonster, B 57, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Sporken, Robert [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles, 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2013-09-02

    For the fabrication of monolithically integrated flexible Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2}, CIGS modules on stainless steel, individual photovoltaic cells must be insulated from metal substrates by a barrier layer that can sustain high thermal treatments. In this work, a combination of sol–gel (organosilane-sol) and sputtered SiAlxOy forming thin diffusion barrier layers (TDBL) was prepared on stainless steel substrates. The deposition of organosilane-sol dielectric layers on the commercial stainless steel (maximal roughness, Rz = 500 nm and Root Mean Square roughness, RMS = 56 nm) induces a planarization of the surface (RMS = 16.4 nm, Rz = 176 nm). The DC leakage current through the dielectric layers was measured for the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junctions that act as capacitors. This method allowed us to assess the quality of our TDBL insulating layer and its lateral uniformity. Indeed, evaluating a ratio of the number of valid MIM capacitors to the number of tested MIM capacitors, a yield of ∼ 95% and 50% has been reached respectively with non-annealed and annealed samples based on sol–gel double layers. A yield of 100% was achieved for sol–gel double layers reinforced with a sputtered SiAlxOy coating and a third sol–gel monolayer. Since this yield is obtained on several samples, it can be extrapolated to any substrate size. Furthermore, according to Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy measurements, these barrier layers exhibit excellent barrier properties against the diffusion of undesired atoms which could otherwise spoil the electronic and optical properties of CIGS photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • We functionalize steel for monolithically integrated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells • Thin dielectric and diffusion barrier layers (TDDBL) prepared on steel • Reliability and breakdown voltage of dielectric layers have been studied. • Investigation of thermal treatment effect on dielectric

  11. Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim D.; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...

  12. Optical constants, dispersion energy parameters and dielectric properties of ultra-smooth nanocrystalline BiVO4 thin films prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S.; Das, N. S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    BiVO4 thin films have been prepared through radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering of a pre-fabricated BiVO4 target on ITO coated glass (ITO-glass) substrate and bare glass substrates. BiVO4 target material was prepared through solid-state reaction method by heating Bi2O3 and V2O5 mixture at 800 °C for 8 h. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, LCR meter, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. BiVO4 thin films deposited on the ITO-glass substrate are much smoother compared to the thin films prepared on bare glass substrate. The rms surface roughness calculated from the AFM images comes out to be 0.74 nm and 4.2 nm for the films deposited on the ITO-glass substrate and bare glass substrate for the deposition time 150 min respectively. Optical constants and energy dispersion parameters of these extra-smooth BiVO4 thin films have been investigated in detail. Dielectric properties of the BiVO4 thin films on ITO-glass substrate were also investigated. The frequency dependence of dielectric constant of the BiVO4 thin films has been measured in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 2 MHz. It was found that the dielectric constant increased from 145 to 343 at 20 Hz as the film thickness increased from 90 nm to 145 nm (deposition time increased from 60 min to 150 min). It shows higher dielectric constant compared to the literature value of BiVO4.

  13. Conduction and stability of holmium titanium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castán, H., E-mail: helena@ele.uva.es [Department of Electronic, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); García, H.; Dueñas, S.; Bailón, L. [Department of Electronic, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Miranda, E. [Departament d' Enginyería Electrònica, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Kukli, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, EE-50411,Tartu (Estonia); Kemell, M.; Ritala, M.; Leskelä, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-09-30

    Holmium titanium oxide (HoTiO{sub x}) thin films of variable chemical composition grown by atomic layer deposition are studied in order to assess their suitability as dielectric materials in metal–insulator–metal electronic devices. The correlation between thermal and electrical stabilities as well as the potential usefulness of HoTiO{sub x} as a resistive switching oxide are also explored. It is shown that the layer thickness and the relative holmium content play important roles in the switching behavior of the devices. Cycled current–voltage measurements showed that the resistive switching is bipolar with a resistance window of up to five orders of magnitude. In addition, it is demonstrated that the post-breakdown current–voltage characteristics in HoTiO{sub x} are well described by a power-law model in a wide voltage and current range which extends from the soft to the hard breakdown regimes. - Highlights: • Gate and memory suitabilities of atomic layer deposited holmium titanium oxide. • Holmium titanium oxide exhibits resistive switching. • Layer thickness and holmium content influence the resistive switching. • Low and high resistance regimes follow a power-law model. • The power-law model can be extended to the hard breakdown regime.

  14. Determining the thermal expansion coefficient of thin films for a CMOS MEMS process using test cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chao-Lin; Fang, Weileun; Tsai, Ming-Han

    2015-01-01

    Many standard CMOS processes, provided by existing foundries, are available. These standard CMOS processes, with stacking of various metal and dielectric layers, have been extensively applied in integrated circuits as well as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). It is of importance to determine the material properties of the metal and dielectric films to predict the performance and reliability of micro devices. This study employs an existing approach to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of metal and dielectric films for standard CMOS processes. Test cantilevers with different stacking of metal and dielectric layers for standard CMOS processes have been designed and implemented. The CTEs of standard CMOS films can be determined from measurements of the out-of-plane thermal deformations of the test cantilevers. To demonstrate the feasibility of the present approach, thin films prepared by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacture Company 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process are characterized. Eight test cantilevers with different stacking of CMOS layers and an auxiliary Si cantilever on a SOI wafer are fabricated. The equivalent elastic moduli and CTEs of the CMOS thin films including the metal and dielectric layers are determined, respectively, from the resonant frequency and static thermal deformation of the test cantilevers. Moreover, thermal deformations of cantilevers with stacked layers different to those of the test beams have been employed to verify the measured CTEs and elastic moduli. (paper)

  15. Poly(methyl methacrylate) as a self-assembled gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanne, A.; Movva, H. C. P.; Kang, S.; McClellan, C.; Corbet, C. M.; Banerjee, S. K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    We investigate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a low thermal budget organic gate dielectric for graphene field effect-transistors (GFETs) based on a simple process flow. We show that high temperature baking steps above the glass transition temperature (∼130 °C) can leave a self-assembled, thin PMMA film on graphene, where we get a gate dielectric almost for “free” without additional atomic layer deposition type steps. Electrical characterization of GFETs with PMMA as a gate dielectric yields a dielectric constant of k = 3.0. GFETs with thinner PMMA dielectrics have a lower dielectric constant due to decreased polarization arising from neutralization of dipoles and charged carriers as baking temperatures increase. The leakage through PMMA gate dielectric increases with decreasing dielectric thickness and increasing electric field. Unlike conventional high-k gate dielectrics, such low-k organic gate dielectrics are potentially attractive for devices such as the proposed Bilayer pseudoSpin Field-Effect Transistor or flexible high speed graphene electronics.

  16. Effective dielectric functions of samples obtained by evaporation of alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, J.; Grosse, P.; Theiss, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the dielectric properties of inhomogeneous samples consisting of small alkali halide particles (NaCl, KBr) on gold-coated substrates. Our reflection measurements in the far infrared can be simulated as a thin layer of the power with an effective dielectric function on a perfectly reflecting substrate. Scanning electron micrographs provide useful information about sample topology. Several mixing formulas (e.g. the Maxwell-Garnett, the Bruggeman- and the Looyenga-formula) lead to effective dielectric functions neglecting the individual arrangement of the particles. The essence of our work is that, in contrast, the general ansatz of the Bergman spectral representation has to be employed in order to take into account topology effects on the dielectric function based on the so-called spectral density g adjustable to the specific situation. (orig.)

  17. Micromachined Thin-Film Sensors for SOI-CMOS Co-Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconte, Jean; Flandre, D.; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    Co-integration of sensors with their associated electronics on a single silicon chip may provide many significant benefits regarding performance, reliability, miniaturization and process simplicity without significantly increasing the total cost. Micromachined Thin-Film Sensors for SOI-CMOS Co-integration covers the challenges and interests and demonstrates the successful co-integration of gas flow sensors on dielectric membrane, with their associated electronics, in CMOS-SOI technology. We firstly investigate the extraction of residual stress in thin layers and in their stacking and the release, in post-processing, of a 1 μm-thick robust and flat dielectric multilayered membrane using Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) silicon micromachining solution.

  18. Infrared characterization of strontium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, B.G.; Pietka, A.; Mendes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strontium titanate thin films have been prepared at different oxygen pressures with various post-deposition annealing treatments. The films were deposited by pulsed laser ablation at room temperature on Si(0 0 1) substrates with a silica buffer layer. Infrared reflectance measurements were performed in order to determine relevant film parameters such as layer thicknesses and chemical composition. The infrared reflectance spectra were fitted by using adequate dielectric function forms for each layer. The fitting procedure provided the extraction of the dielectric functions of the strontium titanate film, the silica layer and the substrate. The as-deposited films are found to be amorphous, and their infrared spectra present peaks corresponding to modes with high damping constants. As the annealing time and temperature increases the strontium titanate layer becomes more ordered so that it can be described by its SrTiO 3 bulk mode parameters. Also, the silica layer grows along with the ordering of the strontium titanate film, due to oxidation during annealing

  19. Influence of the polarity of the applied voltage on the reignition of a discharge below a dielectric layer in air at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechereau, François; Bourdon, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of an atmospheric pressure air discharge in a point-to-plane geometry with a dielectric layer obstacle on the discharge path is investigated numerically for different applied voltages. Whatever the polarity of the voltage applied, first, a streamer discharge of the same polarity ignites at the point and propagates towards the dielectric layer. After the impact on the dielectric surface, the streamer discharge spreads along the upper dielectric surface and charges it positively or negatively depending on its polarity. On the bottom surface of the dielectric layer, charges with an opposite polarity are deposited. Surface charges on both faces of the dielectric layer are shown to have a significant influence on the discharge reignition for a negative applied voltage, but not for a positive one. Furthermore, it is shown that the dynamics of the discharge reignition below the dielectric layer depends on the polarity of the applied voltage at the point electrode. For a positive applied voltage, the reignited discharge is a positive ionization wave propagating towards the grounded plane. For a negative applied voltage, a double headed discharge is observed with positive and negative fronts propagating in opposite directions. Finally, the minimal value of the ionization integral to have a discharge reignition below the dielectric obstacle is found to be less for a negative applied voltage than for a positive one. (paper)

  20. Pentacene Active Channel Layers Prepared by Spin-Coating and Vacuum Evaporation Using Soluble Precursors for OFET Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Palanisamy, Kumar; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Shin, Paik-Kyun

    2012-01-01

    Pentacene OFETs of bottom-gate/bottom-contact were fabricated with three types of pentacene organic semiconductors and cross linked Poly(4-vinylphenol) or polycarbonate as gate dielectric layer. Two different processes were used to prepare the pentacene active channel layers: (1) spin-coating on dielectric layer using two different soluble pentacene precursors of SAP and DMP; (2) vacuum evaporation on PC insulator. X-ray diffraction studies revealed coexistence of thin film and bulk phase of ...

  1. Black metal thin films by deposition on dielectric antireflective moth-eye nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Caringal, Gideon Peter; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    2015-01-01

    Although metals are commonly shiny and highly reflective, we here show that thin metal films appear black when deposited on a dielectric with antireflective moth-eye nanostructures. The nanostructures were tapered and close-packed, with heights in the range 300-600 nm, and a lateral, spatial...... frequency in the range 5-7 mu m(-1). A reflectance in the visible spectrum as low as 6%, and an absorbance of 90% was observed for an Al film of 100 nm thickness. Corresponding experiments on a planar film yielded 80% reflectance and 20% absorbance. The observed absorbance enhancement is attributed...... to a gradient effect causing the metal film to be antireflective, analogous to the mechanism in dielectrics and semiconductors. We find that the investigated nanostructures have too large spatial frequency to facilitate efficient coupling to the otherwise non-radiating surface plasmons. Applications...

  2. Restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and subwavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gawhary, Omar; Schilder, Nick J; Costa Assafrao, Alberto da; Pereira, Silvania F; Paul Urbach, H

    2012-01-01

    It was predicted a few years ago that a medium with negative index of refraction would allow for perfect imaging. Although no material has been found so far that behaves as a perfect lens, some experiments confirmed the theoretical predictions in the near-field, or quasi-static, regime where the behaviour of a negative index medium can be mimicked by a thin layer of noble metal, such as silver. These results are normally attributed to the excitation of surface plasmons in the metal, which only leads to the restoration of p-polarized evanescent waves. In this work, we show that the restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and, correspondingly, sub-wavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab are possible. Specifically, we show that at λ = 632 nm a thin layer of GaAs behaves as a superlens for s-polarized waves. Replacing the single-metal slab by a dielectric is not only convenient from a technical point of view, it being much easier to deposit and control the thickness and flatness of dielectric films than metal ones, but also invites us to re-think the connection between surface plasmon excitation and the theory of negative refraction. (paper)

  3. ANTIREFLECTION MULTILAYER COATINGS WITH THIN METAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of anti-reflective coatings for metal surfaces of Al, Ti, N,i Cr is proposed. The coatings have the form of alternating layers of dielectric/metal/dielectric with the number of cells up to15. The method of calculation of such coatings is proposed. We have calculated the coatings of the type [HfO2/Cr/HfO2]15, [ZrO2/Ti/Al2O3]15, [ZrO2/Cr/ZrO2]15. It is shown that the proposed interference coatings provide reduction of the residual reflectance of the metal several times (from 3.5 to 6.0 in a wide spectral range (300-1000 nm. The proposed coatings can be recommended as anti-reflective coatings for energy saving solar systems and batteries, and photovoltaic cells.

  4. Adsorption properties of BSA and DsRed proteins deposited on thin SiO2 layers: optically non-absorbing versus absorbing proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarangella, A.; Soumbo, M.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Mlayah, A.; Bonafos, C.; Monje, M.-C.; Roques, C.; Makasheva, K.

    2018-03-01

    Protein adsorption on solid surfaces is of interest for many industrial and biomedical applications, where it represents the conditioning step for micro-organism adhesion and biofilm formation. To understand the driving forces of such an interaction we focus in this paper on the investigation of the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) (optically non-absorbing, model protein) and DsRed (optically absorbing, naturally fluorescent protein) on silica surfaces. Specifically, we propose synthesis of thin protein layers by means of dip coating of the dielectric surface in protein solutions with different concentrations (0.01-5.0 g l-1). We employed spectroscopic ellipsometry as the most suitable and non-destructive technique for evaluation of the protein layers’ thickness and optical properties (refractive index and extinction coefficient) after dehydration, using two different optical models, Cauchy for BSA and Lorentz for DsRed. We demonstrate that the thickness, the optical properties and the wettability of the thin protein layers can be finely controlled by proper tuning of the protein concentration in the solution. These results are correlated with the thin layer morphology, investigated by AFM, FTIR and PL analyses. It is shown that the proteins do not undergo denaturation after dehydration on the silica surface. The proteins arrange themselves in a lace-like network for BSA and in a rod-like structure for DsRed to form mono- and multi-layers, due to different mechanisms driving the organization stage.

  5. Optical and electrical characteristics of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition boron carbonitride thin films derived from N-trimethylborazine precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulyaeva, Veronica S.; Kosinova, Marina L.; Rumyantsev, Yurii M.; Kuznetsov, Fedor A.; Kesler, Valerii G.; Kirienko, Viktor V.

    2014-01-01

    Thin BC x N y films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using N-trimethylborazine as a precursor. The films were deposited on Si(100) and fused silica substrates. The grown films were characterized by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements. The deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature (373–973 K) and gas phase composition were varied. Low temperature BC x N y films were found to be high optical transparent layers in the range of 300–2000 nm, the transmittance as high as 93% has been achieved. BC x N y layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9 depending on the synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • Thin BC x N y films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • N-trimethylborazine was used as a precursor. • Low temperature BC x N y films were found to be high optical transparent layers (93%). • BC x N y layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9

  6. Surface Passivation of Silicon Using HfO2 Thin Films Deposited by Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Hsu, Chia-Hsun; Lien, Shui-Yang; Chen, Song-Yan; Huang, Wei; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Kung, Chung-Yuan; Zhu, Wen-Zhang; Xiong, Fei-Bing; Meng, Xian-Guo

    2017-12-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) thin films have attracted much attention owing to their usefulness in equivalent oxide thickness scaling in microelectronics, which arises from their high dielectric constant and thermodynamic stability with silicon. However, the surface passivation properties of such films, particularly on crystalline silicon (c-Si), have rarely been reported upon. In this study, the HfO 2 thin films were deposited on c-Si substrates with and without oxygen plasma pretreatments, using a remote plasma atomic layer deposition system. Post-annealing was performed using a rapid thermal processing system at different temperatures in N 2 ambient for 10 min. The effects of oxygen plasma pretreatment and post-annealing on the properties of the HfO 2 thin films were investigated. They indicate that the in situ remote plasma pretreatment of Si substrate can result in the formation of better SiO 2 , resulting in a better chemical passivation. The deposited HfO 2 thin films with oxygen plasma pretreatment and post-annealing at 500 °C for 10 min were effective in improving the lifetime of c-Si (original lifetime of 1 μs) to up to 67 μs.

  7. Thin layer model for nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, K. G.; Wang, L. F.; Xue, C.; Ye, W. H.; Wu, J. F.; Ding, Y. K.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2018-03-01

    On the basis of the thin layer approximation [Ott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1429 (1972)], a revised thin layer model for incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability has been developed to describe the deformation and nonlinear evolution of the perturbed interface. The differential equations for motion are obtained by analyzing the forces (the gravity and pressure difference) of fluid elements (i.e., Newton's second law). The positions of the perturbed interface are obtained from the numerical solution of the motion equations. For the case of vacuum on both sides of the layer, the positions of the upper and lower interfaces obtained from the revised thin layer approximation agree with that from the weakly nonlinear (WN) model of a finite-thickness fluid layer [Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 122710 (2014)]. For the case considering the fluids on both sides of the layer, the bubble-spike amplitude from the revised thin layer model agrees with that from the WN model [Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052305 (2010)] and the expanded Layzer's theory [Goncharov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 134502 (2002)] in the early nonlinear growth regime. Note that the revised thin layer model can be applied to investigate the perturbation growth at arbitrary Atwood numbers. In addition, the large deformation (the large perturbed amplitude and the arbitrary perturbed distributions) in the initial stage can also be described by the present model.

  8. Temperature-dependent field-effect carrier mobility in organic thin-film transistors with a gate SiO2 dielectric modified by H2O2 treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Hung, Cheng-Chun

    2018-02-01

    The effect of the modification of a gate SiO2 dielectric using an H2O2 solution on the temperature-dependent behavior of carrier transport for pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is studied. H2O2 treatment leads to the formation of Si(-OH) x (i.e., the formation of a hydroxylated layer) on the SiO2 surface that serves to reduce the SiO2 capacitance and weaken the pentacene-SiO2 interaction, thus increasing the field-effect carrier mobility ( µ) in OTFTs. The temperature-dependent behavior of carrier transport is dominated by the multiple trapping model. Note that H2O2 treatment leads to a reduction in the activation energy. The increased value of µ is also attributed to the weakening of the interactions of the charge carriers with the SiO2 dielectric that serves to reduce the activation energy.

  9. Cross-Field Current Instabilities in Thin Ionization Layers and the Enhanced Aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jay R.; Okuda, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    Nearly half of the time, auroral displays exhibit thin, bright layers known as 'enhanced aurora'. There is a substantial body of evidence that connects these displays with thin, dense, heavy ion layers in the E-region. Based on the spectral characteristics of the enhanced layers, it is believed that they result when wave-particle interaction heats ambient electrons to energies at or just above the 17 eV ionization energy of N2. While there are several possible instabilities that could produce suprathermal electrons in thin layers, there has been no clear theoretical investigation which examines in detail how wave instabilities in the thin ionization layers could develop and produce the suprathermal electrons. We examine instabilities which would occur in thin, dense, heavy ion layers using extensive analytical analysis combined with particle simulations. We analyze a cross field current instability that is found to be strongly unstable in the heavy ion layers. Electrostatic simulations show that substantial heating of the ambient electrons occurs with energization at or above the N2 ionization energy.

  10. Formation of a Refracted Electromagnetic Wave at the Output from a Plane-Parallel Dielectric Layer and Interference Nature of Fermat's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbukh, B. B.; Averbukh, I. B.

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that a transition layer representing a spatial region in which field propagation is analogous to refraction in an inhomogeneous medium exists after a dielectric layer. In this region located within the near field zone the direction of the wave vector of the transmitted field varies smoothly, and with increasing distance from the layer, approaches to that of the wave incident on the layer. It is shown that such behavior of the field and occurrence of the transition layer are caused by the interference of the incident wave field and the fields of secondary sources excited in the dielectric by the incident wave field. It is shown that the refraction of the field in a homogeneous medium after the dielectric corresponds to Fermat's principle, and the interference nature of Fermat's principle is justified.

  11. Thermal conductivity measurement of amorphous dielectric multilayers for phase-change memory power reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, S. W., E-mail: swfong@stanford.edu; Wong, H.-S. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Sood, A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Chen, L. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiatong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Kumari, N.; Gibson, G. A. [Hewlett-Packard Labs, 1501 Page Mill Rd., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Asheghi, M.; Goodson, K. E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    In this work, we investigate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of few nanometer thick alternating stacks of amorphous dielectrics, specifically SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Experiments using steady-state Joule-heating and electrical thermometry, while using a micro-miniature refrigerator over a wide temperature range (100–500 K), show that amorphous thin-film multilayer SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibit through-plane room temperature effective thermal conductivities of about 1.14 and 0.48 W/(m × K), respectively. In the case of SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the reduced conductivity is attributed to lowered film density (7.03 → 5.44 × 10{sup 28 }m{sup –3} for SiO{sub 2} and 10.2 → 8.27 × 10{sup 28 }m{sup –3} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) caused by atomic layer deposition of thin-films as well as a small, finite, and repeating thermal boundary resistance (TBR) of 1.5 m{sup 2} K/GW between dielectric layers. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that vibrational mismatch between amorphous oxide layers is small, and that the TBR between layers is largely due to imperfect interfaces. Finally, the impact of using this multilayer dielectric in a dash-type phase-change memory device is studied using finite-element simulations.

  12. Fabrication of Hyperbolic Metamaterials using Atomic Layer Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy

     technology allowing thickness control on atomic scale. As the deposition relies on a surface reaction, conformal pinhole free films can be deposited on various substrates with advanced topology. This method has been a central theme of the project and a core fabrication technique of plasmonic and dielectric...... in dielectric host, the fabrication is still challenging, since ultrathin, continuous, pinhole free nanometer-scale coatings are desired. The required high-quality thin layers have been fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD). It is a relatively new, cyclic, self-limiting thin film deposition......, especially in the infrared range, result in high loss and weak connement to the surface. Additionally, the most implemented metals in plasmonics such as Au and Ag are diffcult to pattern at nanoscale due to their limited chemistry, adhesion or oxidation issues. Therefore the implementation of...

  13. Ion beam analysis of aluminium in thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, M.J.F.; Pidduck, A.J.; Dollinger, G.; Gorgens, L.; Bergmaier, A.

    2002-01-01

    This work quantifies aluminium in thin surface and near surface layers. In one example, the layer overlies a thin gallium nitride layer on an aluminium oxide substrate and in a second example the aluminium exists just below the surface of an indium arsenide substrate. The technique of non-Rutherford elastic backscattering of protons was used for the samples where aluminum in the layer of interest needed to be resolved from aluminium in the sapphire substrate and the results were corroborated at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen using heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis. In the second example, where it was unnecessary to isolate the signal of aluminium in the layer of interest (as the substrate contained no aluminium), then the 27 Al(d,p 01 ) 28 Al nuclear reaction was used. The elastic proton scattering cross section of aluminum was found to vary very rapidly over the energy range of interest

  14. Application of thin-layer chromatography in radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Yasuyuki; Murakami, Yukio.

    1976-01-01

    In relation to the experimental procedures of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in radiochemistry, the authors explained the preparation and development of radioactive test solutions, the methods of detection by autoradiography of isolated spots and by the calculation of measuring apparatus, and the identification of isolated spots. Next they outlined the carrier-free isolation and purification of nuclides, the quantification in combination with γ-ray spectrum, confirmation of the purity of RI-labeled medical supplies, their application to RI generator, thin-layer electrophoresis, in which electrophoresis and TLC were combined, and the application of this electrophoresis to isolation in recoil chemistry and to analysis and identification in carrier-free chemistry. (Kanao, K.)

  15. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David M [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H M [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of thermal annealing temperature and high-k dielectrics on amorphous InGaZnO thin films by using pseudo-MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Se-Won; Cho, Won-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The effects of annealing temperatures and high-k gate dielectric materials on the amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) were investigated using pseudo-metal-oxide semiconductor transistors (Ψ-MOSFETs), a method without conventional source/drain (S/D) layer deposition. Annealing of the a-IGZO film was carried out at 150 - 900 .deg. C in a N 2 ambient for 30 min. As the annealing temperature was increased, the electrical characteristics of Ψ-MOSFETs on a-IGZO were drastically improved. However, when the annealing temperature exceeded 700 .deg. C, a deterioration of the MOS parameters was observed, including a shift of the threshold voltage (V th ) in a negative direction, an increase in the subthreshold slope (SS) and hysteresis, a decrease in the field effect mobility (μ FE ), an increase in the trap density (N t ), and a decrease in the on/off ratio. Meanwhile, the high-k gate dielectrics enhanced the performance of a-IGZO Ψ-MOSFETs. The ZrO 2 gate dielectrics particularly exhibited excellent characteristics in terms of SS (128 mV/dec), μ FE (10.2 cm -2 /V·s), N t (1.1 x 10 12 cm -2 ), and on/off ratio (5.3 x 10 6 ). Accordingly, the Ψ-MOSFET structure is a useful method for rapid evaluation of the effects of the process and the material on a-IGZO TFTs without a conventional S/D layer deposition.

  17. Nonlinear dielectric response in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lente, M. H.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrical permittivity dependence on electric external bias field was investigated in PZT thin films. The results revealed the existence of two mechanisms contributing to the electrical permittivity. The first one was related to the domain reorientation, which was responsible for a strong no linear dielectric behavior, acting only during the poling process. The second mechanism was associated with the domain wall vibrations, which presented a reasonable linear electrical behavior with the applied bias field, contributing always to the permittivity independently of the poling state of the sample. The results also indicated that the gradual reduction of the permittivity with the increase of the bias field strength may be related to the gradual bending of the domain walls. It is believed that the domain wall bending induces a hardening and/or a thinning of the walls, thus reducing the electrical permittivity. A reinterpretation of the model proposed in the literature to explain the dielectric characteristics of ferroelectric materials at high electric field regime is proposed.

    Se ha estudiado la dependencia de la permitividad eléctrica con un campo bias externo en láminas delgadas de PZT. Los resultados revelaron la existencia de dos mecanismos que contribuyen a la permitividad eléctrica. El primero está relacionado con la reorientación de dominios, actúa sólo durante el proceso de polarización y es responsable de un comportamiento dieléctrico fuertemente no lineal. El segundo mecanismo se asocia a las vibraciones de las paredes de dominio, presentando un comportamiento eléctrico razonablemente lineal con el campo bias aplicado, contribuyendo siempre a la permitividad independientemente del estado de polarización de la muestra. Los resultados indicaron también que la reducción gradual de la permitividad con el aumento de la fuerza del campo bias podría estar relacionada con el “bending” gradual de las paredes de dominio

  18. Enhancement of absorption and color contrast in ultra-thin highly absorbing optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, Mikhail A.; Byrnes, Steven J.; Blanchard, Romain; Kolle, Mathias; Genevet, Patrice; Aizenberg, Joanna; Capasso, Federico

    2013-09-01

    Recently a new class of optical interference coatings was introduced which comprises ultra-thin, highly absorbing dielectric layers on metal substrates. We show that these lossy coatings can be augmented by an additional transparent subwavelength layer. We fabricated a sample comprising a gold substrate, an ultra-thin film of germanium with a thickness gradient, and several alumina films. The experimental reflectivity spectra showed that the additional alumina layer increases the color range that can be obtained, in agreement with calculations. More generally, this transparent layer can be used to enhance optical absorption, protect against erosion, or as a transparent electrode for optoelectronic devices.

  19. Optical characterizations of silver nanoprisms embedded in polymer thin film layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Miriam; Pourcin, Florent; Margeat, Olivier; Le Rouzo, Judikael; Berginc, Gerard; Sauvage, Rose-Marie; Ackermann, Jorg; Escoubas, Ludovic

    2017-10-01

    The precise control of light-matter interaction has a wide range of applications and is currently driven by the use of nanoparticles (NPs) by the recent advances in nanotechnology. Taking advantage of the material, size, shape, and surrounding media dependence of the optical properties of plasmonic NPs, thin film layers with tunable optical properties are achieved. The NPs are synthesized by wet chemistry and embedded in a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer thin film layer. Spectrophotometer and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements are coupled to finite-difference time domain numerical modeling to optically characterize the heterogeneous thin film layers. Silver nanoprisms of 10 to 50 nm edge size exhibit high absorption through the visible wavelength range. A simple optical model composed of a Cauchy law and a Lorentz law, accounting for the optical properties of the nonabsorbing polymer and the absorbing property of the nanoprisms, fits the spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Knowing the complex optical indices of heterogeneous thin film layers let us design layers of any optical properties.

  20. Effect of thickness on the structural and optical properties of CuO thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaltun, Yunus, E-mail: yakaltun@erzincan.edu.tr

    2015-11-02

    CuO thin films were synthesised on glass substrates at room temperature using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of film thickness on characteristic parameters such as the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all of the films exhibited polycrystalline structure with monoclinic phases and covered the glass substrates well. The crystalline and morphology of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The optical band gap decreased from 2.03 to 1.79 eV depending on the film thickness. The refractive index (n), electron effective mass (m{sub e}{sup ⁎}/m{sub o}) and static and frequency dielectric constants (ε{sub o}, ε{sub ∞}) were determined using the energy band gap values. - Highlights: • CuO thin films were deposited using SILAR method. • The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated. • Characterisation of the films has been performed using XRD, SEM, Raman and optical measurements. • The d values of the planes of with thickness show no variation.

  1. Approximate reflection coefficients for a thin VTI layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi; Stovas, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    We present an approximate method to derive simple expressions for the reflection coefficients of P- and SV-waves for a thin transversely isotropic layer with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) embedded in a homogeneous VTI background. The layer

  2. Pulsed laser deposition of oxide gate dielectrics for pentacene organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaginuma, S.; Yamaguchi, J.; Itaka, K.; Koinuma, H.

    2005-01-01

    We have fabricated Al 2 O 3 , LaAlO 3 (LAO), CaHfO 3 (CHO) and CaZrO 3 (CZO) thin films for the dielectric layers of field-effect transistors (FETs) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films exhibited very smooth surfaces with root-mean-squares (rms) roughnesses of ∼1.3 A as evaluated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The breakdown electric fields of Al 2 O 3 , LAO, CHO and CZO films were 7, 6, 10 and 2 MV/cm, respectively. The magnitude of the leak current in each film was low enough to operate FET. We performed a comparative study of pentacene FET fabricated using these oxide dielectrics as gate insulators. High field-effect mobility of 1.4 cm 2 /V s and on/off current ratio of 10 7 were obtained in the pentacene FET using LAO gate insulating film. Use of the LAO films as gate dielectrics has been found to suppress the hysteresis of pentacene FET operations. The LAO films are relevant to the dielectric layer of organic FETs

  3. Lanthanum titanium perovskite compound: Thin film deposition and high frequency dielectric characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Paven, C.; Lu, Y.; Nguyen, H.V.; Benzerga, R.; Le Gendre, L.; Rioual, S.; Benzegoutta, D.; Tessier, F.; Cheviré, F.

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite lanthanum titanium oxide thin films were deposited on (001) MgO, (001) LaAlO 3 and Pt(111)/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /(001)Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, using a La 2 Ti 2 O 7 homemade target sputtered under oxygen reactive plasma. The films deposited at 800 °C display a crystalline growth different than those reported on monoclinic ferroelectric La 2 Ti 2 O 7 films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows the presence of titanium as Ti 4+ ions, with no trace of Ti 3+ , and provides a La/Ti ratio of 1.02. The depositions being performed from a La 2 Ti 2 O 7 target under oxygen rich plasma, the same composition (La 2 Ti 2 O 7 ) is proposed for the deposited films, with an unusual orthorhombic cell and Cmc2 1 space group. The films have a textured growth on MgO and Pt/Si substrates, and are epitaxially grown on LaAlO 3 substrate. The dielectric characterization displays stable values of the dielectric constant and of the losses in the frequency range [0.1–20] GHz. No variation of the dielectric constant has been observed when a DC electric field up to 250 kV/cm was applied, which does not match a classical ferroelectric behavior at high frequencies and room temperature for the proposed La 2 Ti 2 O 7 orthorhombic phase. At 10 GHz and room temperature, the dielectric constant of the obtained La 2 Ti 2 O 7 films is ε ∼ 60 and the losses are low (tanδ < 0.02). - Highlights: • Lanthanum titanium oxide films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • A La 2 Ti 2 O 7 chemical composition is proposed, with an unusual orthorhombic cell. • At 10 GHz, the dielectric losses are lower than 0.02. • No variation of the dielectric constant is observed under DC electric biasing

  4. Stress effects of the inter-level dielectric layer on the ferroelectric performance of integrated SrBi2Ta2O9 capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Suk-Kyoung; Yang, B.; Oh, Sang Hyun; Kang, Young Min; Kang, Nam Soo; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Kwon, Oh Seong

    2001-01-01

    The thermal stress effects of the inter-level dielectric (ILD) layer on the ferroelectric performance of integrated Pt/SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT)/Pt capacitors were investigated. Two different thin film materials, pure SiO 2 grown at 650 degree C and B- and P-doped SiO 2 grown at 400 degree C by chemical vapor deposition techniques, were tested as an ILD layer. The ILD layer encapsulated the SBT capacitor array. During high temperature thermal cycling (up to 800 degree C) after ILD deposition, which is used for both densifying the ILD and curing of the various damage imposed on the SBT capacitors, a large thermal stress occurred in the bottom Pt layer due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the various layers. In particular, the pure SiO 2 ILD layer between the capacitors did not allow thermal expansion of the Pt layers, which led to a large accumulation of compressive stress in the layer. This resulted in hillock formation in the bottom Pt layer and eventual capacitor failure. However, the B- and P-doped SiO 2 ILD layer contracted during thermal cycling by removing residual impurities, which allowed greater expansion of the Pt layer. Therefore, compressive stress accumulation did not occur and excellent ferroelectric properties were thus obtained from the integrated capacitor array. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  5. Electrical characteristics of GdTiO{sub 3} gate dielectric for amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Jim-Long [Division of Natural Science, Center for General Education, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Pan, Tung-Ming, E-mail: tmpan@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Liu, Jiang-Hung; Wang, Hong-Jun; Chen, Ching-Hung [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Koyama, Keiichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)

    2014-10-31

    In this article, we studied the structural properties and electrical characteristics of GdTiO{sub 3} gate dielectric for amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) applications. The a-IGZO TFT device featuring the GdTiO{sub 3} gate dielectric exhibited better electrical characteristics, including a small threshold voltage of 0.14 V, a large field-effect mobility of 32.3 cm{sup 2}/V-s, a high I{sub on}/I{sub off} current ratio of 4.2 × 10{sup 8}, and a low subthreshold swing of 213 mV/decade. Furthermore, the electrical instability of GdTiO{sub 3} a-IGZO TFTs was investigated under both positive gate-bias stress (PGBS) and negative gate-bias stress (NGBS) conditions. The electron charge trapping in the gate dielectric dominates the PGBS degradation, while the oxygen vacancies control the NGBS degradation. - Highlights: • Indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) • Structural and electrical properties of the GdTiO{sub 3} film were studied. • a-IGZO TFT featuring GdTi{sub x}O{sub y} dielectric exhibited better electrical characteristics. • TFT instability investigated under positive and negative gate-bias stress conditions.

  6. Fabrication of ATO/Graphene Multi-layered Transparent Conducting Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Chuanbin; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2013-03-01

    A novel transparent conducting oxide based on the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films has been developed to satisfy the application of transparent conductive electrode in solar cells. The ATO thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition method with high quality, namely the sheet resistance of 49.5 Ω/sq and average transmittance of 81.9 %. The prepared graphene sheet is well reduced and shows atomically thin, spotty distributed appearance on the top of the ATO thin films. The XRD and optical micrographs are used to confirm the successfully preparation of the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films. The Hall measurements and UV-Vis spectrophotometer are conducted to evaluate the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the innovative structure. It is found that graphene can improve the electrical properties of the ATO thin films with little influence on the optical transmittance.

  7. Fabrication of ATO/Graphene Multi-layered Transparent Conducting Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Na; Chen Fei; Shen Qiang; Wang Chuanbin; Zhang Lianmeng

    2013-01-01

    A novel transparent conducting oxide based on the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films has been developed to satisfy the application of transparent conductive electrode in solar cells. The ATO thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition method with high quality, namely the sheet resistance of 49.5 Ω/sq and average transmittance of 81.9 %. The prepared graphene sheet is well reduced and shows atomically thin, spotty distributed appearance on the top of the ATO thin films. The XRD and optical micrographs are used to confirm the successfully preparation of the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films. The Hall measurements and UV-Vis spectrophotometer are conducted to evaluate the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the innovative structure. It is found that graphene can improve the electrical properties of the ATO thin films with little influence on the optical transmittance.

  8. Band Offsets and Interfacial Properties of HfAlO Gate Dielectric Grown on InP by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lifeng; Wang, Tao; Zou, Ying; Lu, Hong-Liang

    2017-12-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have been used to determine interfacial properties of HfO 2 and HfAlO gate dielectrics grown on InP by atomic layer deposition. An undesirable interfacial InP x O y layer is easily formed at the HfO 2 /InP interface, which can severely degrade the electrical performance. However, an abrupt interface can be achieved when the growth of the HfAlO dielectric on InP starts with an ultrathin Al 2 O 3 layer. The valence and conduction band offsets for HfAlO/InP heterojunctions have been determined to be 1.87 ± 0.1 and 2.83 ± 0.1 eV, respectively. These advantages make HfAlO a potential dielectric for InP MOSFETs.

  9. Growth and characteristics of PbS/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites for flexible high dielectric thin film applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmar, J.J.L.; Majumder, T.; Mondal, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    PbS/polyvinyl alcohol (PbS/PVA) nanocomposites have been grown by a chemical bath deposition process at various growth temperatures (60–100 °C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study revealed the formation of PbS nanoparticles of diameter 6–20 nm encapsulated in PVA matrix. Optical band gap of the nanocomposite films have been found to decrease (1.45 eV–0.67 eV) with increase in growth temperature from 60 °C to 100 °C. The impedance measurements have been carried out by depositing the PbS/PVA films on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The room temperature dielectric permittivity and ac conductivity measurements have been carried out for ITO/PbS/PVA/Al devices deposited at various growth temperatures. The nanocomposite films demonstrate superior dielectric permittivity compare to pure PVA polymer. The flexibility studies of ITO/PbS/PVA/Al devices have been performed at different bending angles. - Highlights: • PbS nanoparticles of diameter 6–20 nm were grown in polyvinyl (PVA) matrix. • Optical band gap of nanocomposite films was varied from 1.45–0.67 eV. • The nanocomposite thin films demonstrated superior dielectric permittivity. • Flexibility study of thin film devices was performed at various bending angles.

  10. A general analytical equation for phase diagrams of an N-layer ferroelectric thin film with two surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z X; Teng, B H; Rong, Y H; Lu, X H; Yang, X [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail: phytbh@163.com

    2010-03-15

    Within the framework of effective-field theory with correlations, the phase diagrams of an N-layer ferroelectric thin film with two surface layers are studied by the differential operator technique based on the spin-1/2 transverse Ising model. A general analytical equation for the phase diagram of a ferroelectric thin film with arbitrary layer number as well as exchange interactions and transverse fields is derived, and then the effects of exchange interactions and transverse fields on phase diagrams are discussed for an arbitrary layer number N. Meanwhile, the crossover features, from the ferroelectric-dominant phase diagram (FPD) to the paraelectric-dominant phase diagram (PPD), for various parameters of an N-layer ferroelectric thin film with two surface layers are investigated. As a result, an N-independent common intersection point equation is obtained, and the three-dimensional curved surfaces for the crossover values are constructed. In comparison with the usual mean-field approximation, the differential operator technique with correlations reduces to some extent the ferroelectric features of a ferroelectric thin film.

  11. Pulsed electromagnetic field radiation from a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Štumpf, M.; De Hoop, A.T.; Lager, I.E.

    2010-01-01

    Analytic time domain expressions are derived for the pulsed electromagnetic field radiated by a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer in a two?dimensional model configuration. In any finite time window of observation, exact pulse shapes for the propagated, reflected, and refracted wave

  12. Process for obtaining multiple sheet resistances for thin film hybrid microcircuit resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A standard thin film circuit containing Ta/sub 2/N (100 ohms/square) resistors is fabricated by depositing on a dielectric substrate successive layers of Ta/sub 2/N, Ti and Pd, with a gold layer to provide conductors. The addition of a few simple photoprocessing steps to the standard TFN manufacturing process enables the formation of Ta/sub 2/N + Ti (10 ohms/square) and Ta/sub 2/N + Ti + Pd (1 ohm/square) resistors in the same otherwise standard thin film circuit structure

  13. Optical and electrical characteristics of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition boron carbonitride thin films derived from N-trimethylborazine precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulyaeva, Veronica S., E-mail: veronica@niic.nsc.ru [Department of Functional Materials Chemistry, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kosinova, Marina L.; Rumyantsev, Yurii M.; Kuznetsov, Fedor A. [Department of Functional Materials Chemistry, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, Valerii G. [Laboratory of Physical Principles for Integrated Microelectronics, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kirienko, Viktor V. [Laboratory of Nonequilibrium Semiconductors Systems, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-02

    Thin BC{sub x}N{sub y} films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using N-trimethylborazine as a precursor. The films were deposited on Si(100) and fused silica substrates. The grown films were characterized by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements. The deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature (373–973 K) and gas phase composition were varied. Low temperature BC{sub x}N{sub y} films were found to be high optical transparent layers in the range of 300–2000 nm, the transmittance as high as 93% has been achieved. BC{sub x}N{sub y} layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9 depending on the synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • Thin BC{sub x}N{sub y} films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • N-trimethylborazine was used as a precursor. • Low temperature BC{sub x}N{sub y} films were found to be high optical transparent layers (93%). • BC{sub x}N{sub y} layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9.

  14. Electrical and materials properties of ZrO2 gate dielectrics grown by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Charles M.; Triplett, Baylor B.; McIntyre, Paul C.; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Haukka, Suvi; Tuominen, Marko

    2001-04-01

    Structural and electrical properties of gate stack structures containing ZrO2 dielectrics were investigated. The ZrO2 films were deposited by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD) after different substrate preparations. The structure, composition, and interfacial characteristics of these gate stacks were examined using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ZrO2 films were polycrystalline with either a cubic or tetragonal crystal structure. An amorphous interfacial layer with a moderate dielectric constant formed between the ZrO2 layer and the substrate during ALCVD growth on chemical oxide-terminated silicon. Gate stacks with a measured equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 1.3 nm showed leakage values of 10-5 A/cm2 at a bias of -1 V from flatband, which is significantly less than that seen with SiO2 dielectrics of similar EOT. A hysteresis of 8-10 mV was seen for ±2 V sweeps while a midgap interface state density (Dit) of ˜3×1011 states/cm eV was determined from comparisons of measured and ideal capacitance curves.

  15. Atomic scale engineering of HfO{sub 2}-based dielectrics for future DRAM applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Piotr

    2011-02-14

    Modern dielectrics in combination with appropriate metal electrodes have a great potential to solve many difficulties associated with continuing miniaturization process in the microelectronic industry. One significant branch of microelectronics incorporates dynamic random access memory (DRAM) market. The DRAM devices scaled for over 35 years starting from 4 kb density to several Gb nowadays. The scaling process led to the dielectric material thickness reduction, resulting in higher leakage current density, and as a consequence higher power consumption. As a possible solution for this problem, alternative dielectric materials with improved electrical and material science parameters were intensively studied by many research groups. The higher dielectric constant allows the use of physically thicker layers with high capacitance but strongly reduced leakage current density. This work focused on deposition and characterization of thin insulating layers. The material engineering process was based on Si cleanroom compatible HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited on TiN metal electrodes. A combined materials science and dielectric characterization study showed that Ba-added HfO{sub 2} (BaHfO{sub 3}) films and Ti-added BaHfO{sub 3} (BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) layers are promising candidates for future generation of state-of-the-art DRAMs. In especial a strong increase of the dielectric permittivity k was achieved for thin films of cubic BaHfO{sub 3} (k{proportional_to}38) and BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (k{proportional_to}90) with respect to monoclinic HfO{sub 2} (k{proportional_to}19). Meanwhile the CET values scaled down to 1 nm for BaHfO{sub 3} and {proportional_to}0.8 nm for BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} with respect to HfO{sub 2} (CET=1.5 nm). The Hf{sup 4+} ions substitution in BaHfO{sub 3} by Ti{sup 4+} ions led to a significant decrease of thermal budget from 900 C for BaHfO{sub 3} to 700 C for BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. Future studies need to focus

  16. Reflectance properties of one-dimensional metal-dielectric ternary photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, G. N., E-mail: gnpandey2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, AmityUniversity, Noida (U.P.) (India); Kumar, Narendra [Department of Physics (CASH), Modi University of Science and Technology, Lakshmangarh, Sikar, Rajsthan (India); Thapa, Khem B. [Department of Physics, U I E T, ChhatrapatiShahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur- (UP) (India); Ojha, S. P. [Department of Physics IIT, Banaras Hindu University (India)

    2016-05-06

    Metallic photonic crystal has a very important application in absorption enhancement in solar cells. It has been found that an ultra-thin metallic layer becomes transparent due to internal scattering of light through the each interface of the dielectric and metal surfaces. The metal has absorption due to their surface plasmon and the plasmon has important parameters for changing optical properties of the metal. We consider ternary metallic-dielectric photonic crystal (MDPC) for having large probabilities to change the optical properties of the MDPC and the photonic crystals may be changed by changing dimensionality, symmetry, lattice parameters, Filling fraction and effective refractive index refractive index contrast. In this present communication, we try to show that the photonic band gap in ternary metal-dielectric photonic crystal can be significantly enlarged when air dielectric constant is considered. All the theoretical analyses are made based on the transfer matrix method together with the Drude model of metal.

  17. Suppression in the electrical hysteresis by using CaF2 dielectric layer for p-GaN MIS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Liwen; Ren, Bing; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2018-04-01

    The capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis in the bidirectional measurements of the p-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor is suppressed by using a CaF2 dielectric layer and a post annealing treatment. The density of trapped charge states at the CaF2/p-GaN interface is dramatically reduced from 1.3 × 1013 cm2 to 1.1 × 1011/cm2 compared to that of the Al2O3/p-GaN interface with a large C-V hysteresis. It is observed that the disordered oxidized interfacial layer can be avoided by using the CaF2 dielectric. The downward band bending of p-GaN is decreased from 1.51 to 0.85 eV as a result of the low-density oxides-related trap states. Our work indicates that the CaF2 can be used as a promising dielectric layer for the p-GaN MIS structures.

  18. Influence of stress on the structural and dielectric properties of rf magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rashmi; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-05-01

    Highly c axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared on 1737 Corning glass substrate by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50mTorr) and different oxygen percentage (40%-100%) in reactive gas mixtures. The as-grown ZnO thin films were found to have stress over a wide range from -6×1010to-9×107dynes/cm2. The presence of stress depends strongly on processing conditions, and films become almost stress free under a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. The studies show a correlation of stress with structural and electrical properties of the ZnO thin film. The stressed films possess high electrical conductivity and exhibits strong dielectric dispersion over a wide frequency (1kHz-1MHz). The dielectric constant ɛ'(ω) of stress free ZnO film was almost frequency independent and was close to the bulk value. The measured value of dc conductivity, σdc(ω) and ac conductivity σac(ω) of stress free ZnO film was 1.3×10-9 and 6.8×10-5Ω-1cm-1, respectively. The observed variation in the structural and electrical properties of ZnO thin film with stress has been analyzed in the light of growth kinetics.

  19. Thin-layer voltammetry of soluble species on screen-printed electrodes: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botasini, S; Martí, A C; Méndez, E

    2016-10-17

    Thin-layer diffusion conditions were accomplished on screen-printed electrodes by placing a controlled-weight onto the cast solution and allowing for its natural spreading. The restricted diffusive conditions were assessed by cyclic voltammetry at low voltage scan rates and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The relationship between the weight exerted over the drop and the thin-layer thickness achieved was determined, in such a way that the simple experimental set-up designed for this work could be developed into a commercial device with variable control of the thin-layer conditions. The experimental results obtained resemble those reported for the voltammetric features of electroactive soluble species employing electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes or graphene layers, suggesting that the attainment of the benefits reported for these nanomaterials could be done simply by forcing the solution to spread over the screen-printed electrodic system to form a thin layer solution. The advantages of thin-layer voltammetry in the kinetic characterization of quasi-reversible and irreversible processes are highlighted.

  20. Studies of oxide-based thin-layered heterostructures by X-ray scattering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, O. [Thales Research and Technology France, Route Departementale 128, F-91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France)]. E-mail: olivier.durand@thalesgroup.com; Rogers, D. [Nanovation SARL, 103 bis rue de Versailles 91400 Orsay (France); Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 10-12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 (France); Teherani, F. Hosseini [Nanovation SARL, 103 bis rue de Versailles 91400 Orsay (France); Andrieux, M. [LEMHE, ICMMOCNRS-UMR 8182, Universite d' Orsay, Batiment 410, 91410 Orsay (France); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland)

    2007-06-04

    Some X-ray scattering methods (X-ray reflectometry and Diffractometry) dedicated to the study of thin-layered heterostructures are presented with a particular focus, for practical purposes, on the description of fast, accurate and robust techniques. The use of X-ray scattering metrology as a routinely working non-destructive testing method, particularly by using procedures simplifying the data-evaluation, is emphasized. The model-independent Fourier-inversion method applied to a reflectivity curve allows a fast determination of the individual layer thicknesses. We demonstrate the capability of this method by reporting X-ray reflectometry study on multilayered oxide structures, even when the number of the layers constitutive of the stack is not known a-priori. Fast Fourier transform-based procedure has also been employed successfully on high resolution X-ray diffraction profiles. A study of the reliability of the integral-breadth methods in diffraction line-broadening analysis applied to thin layers, in order to determine coherent domain sizes, is also reported. Examples from studies of oxides-based thin-layers heterostructures will illustrate these methods. In particular, X-ray scattering studies performed on high-k HfO{sub 2} and SrZrO{sub 3} thin-layers, a (GaAs/AlOx) waveguide, and a ZnO thin-layer are reported.

  1. Impedance spectroscopic and dielectric analysis of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouahi, A.; Kahouli, A.; Sylvestre, A.; Defaÿ, E.; Yangui, B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The material exhibits the contribution of both grain and grain boundaries in the electric response of Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 . ► The plot of normalized complex dielectric modulus and impedance as a function of frequency exhibits both short and long-range conduction in the film. ► The frequency dependence of ac conductivity exhibits a polaron hopping mechanism with activation energy of 0.38 eV. ► The complex dielectric modulus analysis confirmed the presence of a non-Debye type of conductivity relaxation deduced from the KWW function. - Abstract: Polycrystalline Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 thin film with Pt/BST/Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 structure was prepared by ion beam sputtering. The film was post annealed at 700 °C. The dielectric and electric modulus properties were studied by impedance spectroscopy over a wide frequency range [0.1–10 5 Hz] at different temperatures [175–350 °C]. The Nyquist plots (Z″ vs . Z′) show the contribution of both grain and grain boundaries at higher temperature on the electric response of BST thin films. Moreover, the resistance of grains decreases with the rise in temperature and the material exhibits a negative temperature coefficient of resistance. The electric modulus plot indicates the non-Debye type of dielectric relaxation. The values of the activation energy computed from both plots of Z″ and M″ are 0.86 eV and 0.81 eV respectively, which reveals that the species responsible for conduction are the same. The scaling behavior of M ″ /M ″ max shows the temperature independent nature of relaxation time. The plot of normalized complex dielectric modulus and impedance as a function of frequency exhibits both short and long-range conduction in the film.

  2. Preparation of nanoporous polyimide thin films via layer-by-layer self-assembly of cowpea mosaic virus and poly(amic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Bo; Wu Guojun; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wang Qian [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208 (United States); Su Zhaohui, E-mail: zhsu@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Low dielectric (low-{kappa}) materials are of key importance for the performance of microchips. In this study, we show that nanosized cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles can be assembled with poly(amic acid) (PAA) in aqueous solutions via the layer-by-layer technique. Then, upon thermal treatment CPMV particles are removed and PAA is converted into polyimide in one step, resulting in a porous low-{kappa} polyimide film. The multilayer self-assembly process was monitored by quartz crystal microbalance and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Imidization and the removal of the CPMV template was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively. The dielectric constant of the nanoporous polyimide film thus prepared was 2.32 compared to 3.40 for the corresponding neat polyimide. This work affords a facile approach to fabrication of low-{kappa} polyimide ultrathin films with tunable thickness and dielectric constant.

  3. Stress measurements of planar dielectric elastomer actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, Bekim; Aeby, Elise A.; Müller, Bert [Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel, Gewerbestrasse 14, 4123 Allschwil (Switzerland)

    2016-05-15

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) micro- and nano-structures are referred to artificial muscles because of their specific continuous power and adequate time response. The bending measurement of an asymmetric, planar DEA is described. The asymmetric cantilevers consist of 1 or 5 μm-thin DEAs deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates 16, 25, 38, or 50 μm thick. The application of a voltage to the DEA electrodes generates an electrostatic pressure in the sandwiched silicone elastomer layer, which causes the underlying PEN substrate to bend. Optical beam deflection enables the detection of the bending angle vs. applied voltage. Bending radii as large as 850 m were reproducibly detected. DEA tests with electric fields of up to 80 V/μm showed limitations in electrode’s conductivity and structure failures. The actuation measurement is essential for the quantitative characterization of nanometer-thin, low-voltage, single- and multi-layer DEAs, as foreseen for artificial sphincters to efficiently treat severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  4. Stress measurements of planar dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Bekim; Aeby, Elise A.; Müller, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) micro- and nano-structures are referred to artificial muscles because of their specific continuous power and adequate time response. The bending measurement of an asymmetric, planar DEA is described. The asymmetric cantilevers consist of 1 or 5 μm-thin DEAs deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates 16, 25, 38, or 50 μm thick. The application of a voltage to the DEA electrodes generates an electrostatic pressure in the sandwiched silicone elastomer layer, which causes the underlying PEN substrate to bend. Optical beam deflection enables the detection of the bending angle vs. applied voltage. Bending radii as large as 850 m were reproducibly detected. DEA tests with electric fields of up to 80 V/μm showed limitations in electrode’s conductivity and structure failures. The actuation measurement is essential for the quantitative characterization of nanometer-thin, low-voltage, single- and multi-layer DEAs, as foreseen for artificial sphincters to efficiently treat severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  5. Polyimide Dielectric Layer on Filaments for Organic Field Effect Transistors: Choice of Solvent, Solution Composition and Dip-Coating Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambausek Lina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s research, smart textiles is an established topic in both electronics and the textile fields. The concept of producing microelectronics directly on a textile substrate is not a mere idea anymore and several research institutes are working on its realisation. Microelectronics like organic field effect transistor (OFET can be manufactured with a layered architecture. The production techniques used for this purpose can also be applied on textile substrates. Besides gate, active and contact layers, the isolating or dielectric layer is of high importance in the OFET architecture. Therefore, generating a high quality dielectric layer that is of low roughness and insulating at the same time is one of the fundamental requirements in building microelectronics on textile surfaces. To evaluate its potential, we have studied polyimide as a dielectric layer, dip-coated onto copper-coated polyester filaments. Accordingly, the copper-coated polyester filament was dip-coated from a polyimide solution with two different solvents, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP and dimethylformaldehyde. A variety of dip-coating speeds, solution concentrations and solvent-solute combinations have been tested. Their effect on the quality of the layer was analysed through microscopy, leak current measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Polyimide dip-coating with polyimide resin dissolved in NMP at a concentration of 15w% in combination with a dip-coating speed of 50 mm/min led to the best results in electrical insulation and roughness. By optimising the dielectric layer’s properties, the way is paved for applying the subsequent semi-conductive layer. In further research, we will be working with the organic semiconductor material TIPS-Pentacene

  6. Changes of optical, dielectric, and structural properties of Si15Sb85 phase change memory thin films under different initializing laser power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Zhang Lei; Wang Yang; Han Xiaodong; Wu Yiqun; Zhang Ze; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study the optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization. → The optical and dielectric constants, absorption coefficient of Si 15 Sb 85 change regularly with the increasing laser power. → The optical band gaps of Si 15 Sb 85 irradiated upon different power lasers were calculated. → HRTEM images of the samples were observed and the changes of optical and dielectric constants are determined by crystalline structures changes of the films. - Abstract: The optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization are studied by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The dependence of complex refractive index, dielectric functions, absorption coefficient, and optical band gap of the films on its crystallization extents formed by the different initialization laser power are analyzed in detail. The structural change from as-deposited amorphous phase to distorted rhombohedra-Sb-like crystalline structure with the increase of initialization laser power is clearly observed with sub-nanometer resolution. The optical and dielectric constants, the relationship between them, and the local atomic arrangements of this new phase change material can help explain the phase change mechanism and design the practical phase change memory devices.

  7. Dielectric anomaly and relaxation natures in a Zn-Cr pillar−layered metal−organic framework with cages and channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Chen; Yao, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Shao-Xian; Luo, Hong-Bin [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zou, Yang, E-mail: zouyang@njtech.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Li [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ren, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xmren@njtech.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-06-15

    A bimetallic metal–organic framework (MOF) with the formula [Zn{sub 3}btc{sub 2}(Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH))]·(DMF){sub 15.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8} (H{sub 3}btc=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid; isonic=isonicotinicate) shows a pillar-layered structure. The monolayer consists of hexagon-like rings formed by the [Zn(isonic){sub 2}(btc){sub 2}] tetrahedral and the consecutive monolayers are pillared by trigonal–prismatic clusters of [Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH)]through the remaining binding sites of the Zn{sup 2+} ions. DMF and water molecules are confined in the cages and channels. TGA indicates that the lattice DMF and water molecules begin to be released at temperatures above 363 K. Dielectric measurements were carried out in the range of 173–363 K and 1–10{sup 7} Hz for three successive thermal cycles. The dielectric spectroscopy obtained in the first thermal cycle was different from that observed in the next two thermal cycles, while the dielectric spectra in the last two thermal cycles were almost identical. The dielectric nature of this MOF is discussed in detail for each thermal cycle. Since MOFs are unique host–guest systems in which the structure of the host framework is designable and the guests are exchangeable, it is no doubt those MOFs are materials with a variety of dielectric natures. This study gives a fresh impetus to achieve MOFs–based dielectric materials. - Graphical abstract: The bimetallic MOF [Zn{sub 3}btc{sub 2}(Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH))]·(DMF){sub 15.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}1, shows a pillar-layered open-framework structure. The dielectric spectra of 1 are almost identical in the last two thermal cycles, whereas significantly different from that observed in the first thermal cycle. The novel dielectric anomaly associated with a stacked structure transformation of the disordered guests. - Highlights: • A bimetallic metal-organic framework shows a pillar-layered structure.

  8. AlGaN/GaN MISHEMTs with AlN gate dielectric grown by thermal ALD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yong; Zhao, Sheng-Xun; Zhang, Lin-Qing; Huang, Hong-Fan; Shi, Jin-Shan; Zhang, Chun-Min; Lu, Hong-Liang; Wang, Peng-Fei; Zhang, David Wei

    2015-01-01

    Recently, AlN plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) passivation technique had been proposed and investigated for suppressing the dynamic on-resistance degradation behavior of high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). In this paper, a novel gate dielectric and passivation technique for GaN-on-Si AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MISHEMTs) is presented. This technique features the AlN thin film grown by thermal ALD at 400°C without plasma enhancement. A 10.6-nm AlN thin film was grown upon the surface of the HEMT serving as the gate dielectric under the gate electrode and as the passivation layer in the access region at the same time. The MISHEMTs with thermal ALD AlN exhibit enhanced on/off ratio, reduced channel sheet resistance, reduction of gate leakage by three orders of magnitude at a bias of 4 V, reduced threshold voltage hysteresis of 60 mV, and suppressed current collapse degradation.

  9. Multilayered gold/silica nanoparticulate bilayer devices using layer-by-layer self organisation for flexible bending and pressure sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah Alam, Md. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, 12120 Pathumthani (Thailand); Mohammed, Waleed S., E-mail: waleed.m@bu.ac.th [Center of Research in Optoelectronics, Communication and Control System (BU-CROCCS), School of Engineering, Bangkok University, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Dutta, Joydeep, E-mail: dutta@squ.edu.om [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, 12120 Pathumthani (Thailand); Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al Khoud 123 (Oman)

    2014-02-17

    A pressure and bending sensor was fabricated using multilayer thin films fabricated on a flexible substrate based on layer-by-layer self-organization of 18 nm gold nanoparticles separated by a dielectric layer of 30 nm silica nanoparticles. 50, 75, and 100 gold-silica bi-layered films were deposited and the device characteristics were studied. A threshold voltage was required for electron conduction which increases from 2.4 V for 50 bi-layers to 3.3 V for 100 bi-layers. Upon bending of the device up to about 52°, the threshold voltage and slope of the I-V curves change linearly. Electrical characterization of the multilayer films was carried out under ambient conditions with different pressures and bending angles in the direct current mode. This study demonstrates that the developed multilayer thin films can be used as pressure as well as bending sensing applications.

  10. Thin films for precision optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.F.; Maurici, N.; Castro, J.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The technology of producing dielectric and/or metallic thin films for high precision optical components is discussed. Computer programs were developed in order to calculate and register, graphically, reflectance and transmittance spectra of multi-layer films. The technology of vacuum evaporation of several materials was implemented in our thin-films laboratory; various films for optics were then developed. The possibility of first calculate film characteristics and then produce the film is of great advantage since it reduces the time required to produce a new type of film and also reduces the cost of the project. (C.L.B.) [pt

  11. Crystallinity Improvement of Zn O Thin Film on Different Buffer Layers Grown by MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao-Ying, T.; Che-Hao, L.; Wen-Ming, Ch.; Yang, C.C.; Po-Ju, Ch.; Hsiang-Chen, W.; Ya-Ping, H.

    2012-01-01

    The material and optical properties of Zn O thin film samples grown on different buffer layers on sapphire substrates through a two-step temperature variation growth by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The thin buffer layer between the Zn O layer and the sapphire substrate decreased the lattice mismatch to achieve higher quality Zn O thin film growth. A Ga N buffer layer slightly increased the quality of the Zn O thin film, but the threading dislocations still stretched along the c-axis of the Ga N layer. The use of Mg O as the buffer layer decreased the surface roughness of the Zn O thin film by 58.8% due to the suppression of surface cracks through strain transfer of the sample. From deep level emission and rocking curve measurements it was found that the threading dislocations play a more important role than oxygen vacancies for high-quality Zn O thin film growth.

  12. Crystallinity Improvement of ZnO Thin Film on Different Buffer Layers Grown by MBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ying Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The material and optical properties of ZnO thin film samples grown on different buffer layers on sapphire substrates through a two-step temperature variation growth by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The thin buffer layer between the ZnO layer and the sapphire substrate decreased the lattice mismatch to achieve higher quality ZnO thin film growth. A GaN buffer layer slightly increased the quality of the ZnO thin film, but the threading dislocations still stretched along the c-axis of the GaN layer. The use of MgO as the buffer layer decreased the surface roughness of the ZnO thin film by 58.8% due to the suppression of surface cracks through strain transfer of the sample. From deep level emission and rocking curve measurements it was found that the threading dislocations play a more important role than oxygen vacancies for high-quality ZnO thin film growth.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of a shape memory Ni-Ti bi-layer thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohri, Maryam [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud, E-mail: nili@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ivanisenko, Julia [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schwaiger, Ruth [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hahn, Horst; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-05-29

    Two different single-layers and a bi-layer Ni-Ti thin films with chemical compositions of Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5}, Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2} and Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2}/Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5} (numbers indicate at.%) determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were deposited on Si (111) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. The structures, surface morphology and transformation temperatures of annealed thin films at 500 °C for 15 min and 1 h were studied using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties. The DSC and X-ray diffraction results indicated the austenitic structure of the Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2} and martensitic structure of the Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5} thin films while the bi-layer was composed of austenitic and martensitic thin films. TEM study revealed that copper encourages crystallization in the bi-layer such that crystal structure containing nano-precipitates in the Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5} layer was detected after 15 min annealing while the Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2} layer crystallized after 60 min at 500 °C. Furthermore, after annealing at 500 °C for 15 min, a precipitate free zone and thin layer amorphous were observed closely to the interface in the top layer. The bi-layer was completely crystallized at 500 °C for 1 h and the orientation of the Ni-rich precipitates indicated a stress gradient in the bi-layer. The bi-layer thin film showed different transformation temperatures and mechanical behavior from the single-layers. The developed bi-layer has different phase transformation temperatures, the higher temperatures of shape memory effect and lower temperature of pseudo-elastic behavior compared to the single-layers. Also, the bi-layer thin film exhibited a combined pseudo-elastic behavior and shape memory effect with a reduced

  14. Pentacene based thin film transistors with high-k dielectric Nd2O3 as a gate insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, R.; Saikia, D.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the pentacene based Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) with high-k dielectric Nd 2 O 3 . Use of high dielectric constant (high-k) gate insulator Nd 2 O 3 reduces the threshold voltage and sub threshold swing of the OTFTs. The calculated threshold voltage -2.2V and sub-threshold swing 1V/decade, current ON-OFF ratio is 1.7 X 10 4 and mobility is 0.13cm 2 /V.s. Pentacene film is deposited on Nd 2 O 3 surface using two step deposition method. Deposited pentacene film is found poly crystalline in nature. (author)

  15. Organic field-effect transistors with surface modification by using a PVK buffer layer on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyung, Gun Woo; Lee, Dong Hyung; Koo, Ja Ryong; Kim, Young Kwan [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hoon [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    We have fabricated pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a gate dielectric such as crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (c-PVA), with poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) buffer layer on a polyethersulfone (PES) flexible substrate, and with substrate heating at a temperature below 120 .deg. C, and we demonstrated the possibility of using an organic gate dielectric layer as a potential pentacene TFT with a PVK buffer layer for low-voltage operation on a plastic substrate. We report the excellent electrical properties of organic TFTs with a PVK buffer layer. The PVK buffer layer improves the performance of the devices and reduces the operating voltage of the devices. Our pentacene TFTs can be fabricated with mobilities > 2.54 cm{sup 2}/Vs and on/off current ratios > 7.5E5 and with flexible organic dielectrics and substrates.

  16. Thin layer activation techniques in research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    The following key application of thin layer activation technique (TLA) are discussed: ion-erosion in fusion tokamaks, bio-engineering technology, automobile industry. Future developments of the techniques, such as fission fragment TLA, multi-layer TLA and recoil implantation are discussed as well. 7 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  17. Interfacial nucleation behavior of inkjet-printed 6,13 bis(tri-isopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene on dielectric surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xianghua; Lv, Shenchen; Chen, Mengjie; Qiu, Longzhen; Zhang, Guobing; Lu, Hongbo; Yuan, Miao; Qin, Mengzhi

    2015-01-01

    The performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) is heavily dependent on the interface property between the organic semiconductor and the dielectric substrate. Device fabrication with bottom-gate architecture by depositing the semiconductors with a solution method is highly recommended for cost-effectiveness. Surface modification of the dielectric layer is employed as an effective approach to control film growth. Here, we perform surface modification via a self-assembled monolayer of silanes, a spin-coated polymer layer or UV-ozone cleaning, to prepare surfaces with different surface polarities and morphologies. The semiconductor is inkjet-printed on the surface-treated substrates as single-line films with overlapping drop assignment. Surface morphologies of the dielectric before film deposition and film morphologies of the inkjet-printed semiconductor are characterized with polarized microscopy and AFM. Electrical properties of the films are studied through organic thin-film transistors with bottom-gate/bottom-contact structure. With reduced surface polarity and nanoscale aggregation of silane molecules on the substrates, semiconductor nucleates from the interior interface between the ink solution and the substrate, which contributes to film growth with higher crystal coverage and better film quality at the interface. Surface treatment with hydrophobic silanes is a promising approach to fabrication of high performance OTFTs with nonpolar conjugated molecules via solution methods

  18. Interfacial nucleation behavior of inkjet-printed 6,13 bis(tri-isopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene on dielectric surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianghua, E-mail: xhwang@hfut.edu.cn; Lv, Shenchen; Chen, Mengjie; Qiu, Longzhen, E-mail: lzhqiu@hfut.edu.cn; Zhang, Guobing; Lu, Hongbo [Key Lab of Special Display Technology, Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Special Display Technology, National Key Lab of Advanced Display Technology, Academy of Opto-Electronic Technology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Yuan, Miao; Qin, Mengzhi [Key Lab of Special Display Technology, Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Special Display Technology, National Key Lab of Advanced Display Technology, Academy of Opto-Electronic Technology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-01-14

    The performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) is heavily dependent on the interface property between the organic semiconductor and the dielectric substrate. Device fabrication with bottom-gate architecture by depositing the semiconductors with a solution method is highly recommended for cost-effectiveness. Surface modification of the dielectric layer is employed as an effective approach to control film growth. Here, we perform surface modification via a self-assembled monolayer of silanes, a spin-coated polymer layer or UV-ozone cleaning, to prepare surfaces with different surface polarities and morphologies. The semiconductor is inkjet-printed on the surface-treated substrates as single-line films with overlapping drop assignment. Surface morphologies of the dielectric before film deposition and film morphologies of the inkjet-printed semiconductor are characterized with polarized microscopy and AFM. Electrical properties of the films are studied through organic thin-film transistors with bottom-gate/bottom-contact structure. With reduced surface polarity and nanoscale aggregation of silane molecules on the substrates, semiconductor nucleates from the interior interface between the ink solution and the substrate, which contributes to film growth with higher crystal coverage and better film quality at the interface. Surface treatment with hydrophobic silanes is a promising approach to fabrication of high performance OTFTs with nonpolar conjugated molecules via solution methods.

  19. Combined effect of preferential orientation and Zr/Ti atomic ratio on electrical properties of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Wen; Li Jingfeng; Chu Xiangcheng; Gui Zhilun; Li Longtu

    2004-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 , PZT] thin films with various compositions, whose Zr/Ti ratio were varied as 40/60, 48/52, 47/53, and 60/40, were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates by sol-gel method. A seeding layer was introduced between the PZT layer and the bottom electrode to control the texture of overlaid PZT thin films. A single perovskite PZT thin film with absolute (100) texture was obtained, when lead oxide was used as the seeding crystal, whereas titanium dioxide resulted in highly [111]-oriented PZT films. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT films with different preferential orientations were evaluated systemically as a function of composition. The maximums of relative dielectric constant were obtained in the morphotropic phase boundary region for both (100)- and (111)-textured PZT films. The ferroelectric properties also greatly depend on films' texture and composition. The intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to dielectric and ferroelectric properties were discussed

  20. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  1. Inkjet-printed p-type nickel oxide thin-film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailong; Zhu, Jingguang; Chen, Maosheng; Guo, Tailiang; Li, Fushan

    2018-05-01

    High-performance inkjet-printed nickel oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with Al2O3 high-k dielectric have been fabricated using a sol-gel precursor ink. The "coffee ring" effect during the printing process was facilely restrained by modifying the viscosity of the ink to control the outward capillary flow. The impacts on the device performance was studied in detail in consideration of annealing temperature of the nickel oxide film and the properties of dielectric layer. The optimized switching ability of the device were achieved at an annealing temperature of 280 °C on a 50-nm-thick Al2O3 dielectric layer, with a hole mobility of 0.78 cm2/V·s, threshold voltage of -0.6 V and on/off current ratio of 5.3 × 104. The as-printed p-type oxide TFTs show potential application in low-cost, large-area complementary electronic devices.

  2. Radiation and Internal Charging Environments for Thin Dielectrics in Interplanetary Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Altstatt, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft designs using solar sails for propulsion or thin membranes to shade instruments from the sun to achieve cryogenic operating temperatures are being considered for a number of missions in the next decades. A common feature of these designs are thin dielectric materials that will be exposed to the solar wind, solar energetic particle events, and the distant magnetotail plasma environments encountered by spacecraft in orbit about the Earth-Sun L2 point. This paper will discuss the relevant radiation and internal charging environments developed to support spacecraft design for both total dose radiation effects as well as dose rate dependent phenomenon, such as internal charging in the solar wind and distant magnetotail environments. We will describe the development of radiation and internal charging environment models based on nearly a complete solar cycle of Ulysses solar wind plasma measurements over a complete range of heliocentric latitudes and the early years of the Geotail mission where distant magnetotail plasma environments were sampled beyond X(sub GSE) = -100 Re to nearly L2 (X(sub GSE) -236 Re). Example applications of the environment models are shown to demonstrate the radiation and internal charging environments of thin materials exposed to the interplanetary space plasma environments.

  3. Solution-Processed Dielectrics Based on Thickness-Sorted Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jian; Kang, Joohoon; Kang, Junmo; Jariwala, Deep; Wood, Joshua D.; Seo, Jung-Woo T.; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2015-10-14

    Gate dielectrics directly affect the mobility, hysteresis, power consumption, and other critical device metrics in high-performance nanoelectronics. With atomically flat and dangling bond-free surfaces, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has emerged as an ideal dielectric for graphene and related two-dimensional semiconductors. While high-quality, atomically thin h-BN has been realized via micromechanical cleavage and chemical vapor deposition, existing liquid exfoliation methods lack sufficient control over h-BN thickness and large-area film quality, thus limiting its use in solution-processed electronics. Here, we employ isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation for the preparation of monodisperse, thickness-sorted h-BN inks, which are subsequently layer-by-layer assembled into ultrathin dielectrics with low leakage currents of 3 × 10–9 A/cm2 at 2 MV/cm and high capacitances of 245 nF/cm2. The resulting solution-processed h-BN dielectric films enable the fabrication of graphene field-effect transistors with negligible hysteresis and high mobilities up to 7100 cm2 V–1 s–1 at room temperature. These h-BN inks can also be used as coatings on conventional dielectrics to minimize the effects of underlying traps, resulting in improvements in overall device performance. Overall, this approach for producing and assembling h-BN dielectric inks holds significant promise for translating the superlative performance of two-dimensional heterostructure devices to large-area, solution-processed nanoelectronics.

  4. Lanthanum titanium perovskite compound: Thin film deposition and high frequency dielectric characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Paven, C., E-mail: claire.lepaven@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Lu, Y. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Nguyen, H.V. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); CEA LETI, Minatec Campus, 38054 Grenoble (France); Benzerga, R.; Le Gendre, L. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Rioual, S. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Brest (EA CNRS 4522), Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29000 Brest (France); Benzegoutta, D. [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris (INSP, UMR CNRS 7588), Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Tessier, F.; Cheviré, F. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (ISCR, UMR-CNRS 6226), Equipe Verres et Céramiques, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France); and others

    2014-02-28

    Perovskite lanthanum titanium oxide thin films were deposited on (001) MgO, (001) LaAlO{sub 3} and Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, using a La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} homemade target sputtered under oxygen reactive plasma. The films deposited at 800 °C display a crystalline growth different than those reported on monoclinic ferroelectric La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows the presence of titanium as Ti{sup 4+} ions, with no trace of Ti{sup 3+}, and provides a La/Ti ratio of 1.02. The depositions being performed from a La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} target under oxygen rich plasma, the same composition (La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}) is proposed for the deposited films, with an unusual orthorhombic cell and Cmc2{sub 1} space group. The films have a textured growth on MgO and Pt/Si substrates, and are epitaxially grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. The dielectric characterization displays stable values of the dielectric constant and of the losses in the frequency range [0.1–20] GHz. No variation of the dielectric constant has been observed when a DC electric field up to 250 kV/cm was applied, which does not match a classical ferroelectric behavior at high frequencies and room temperature for the proposed La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} orthorhombic phase. At 10 GHz and room temperature, the dielectric constant of the obtained La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} films is ε ∼ 60 and the losses are low (tanδ < 0.02). - Highlights: • Lanthanum titanium oxide films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • A La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} chemical composition is proposed, with an unusual orthorhombic cell. • At 10 GHz, the dielectric losses are lower than 0.02. • No variation of the dielectric constant is observed under DC electric biasing.

  5. Mathematical modeling of thin layer drying of pistachio by using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, A [University of Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kucuk, H [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical modeling of thin layer forced and natural solar drying of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples. In order to estimate and select the suitable form of solar drying curves, eight different mathematical models, which are semi-theoretical and/or empirical, were applied to the experimental data and compared according to their coefficients of determination (r,{chi}{sup 2}), which were predicted by non-linear regression analysis using the Statistical Computer Program. It was deduced that the logarithmic model could sufficiently describe thin layer forced solar drying of shelled and unshelled pistachio, while the two term model could define thin layer natural solar drying of these products in evaluation by considering the coefficients of determination, r{sub sfsd}=0.9983, {chi}{sup 2}{sub sfsd}=2.697x10{sup -5}; r{sub ufsd}=0.9990, {chi}{sup 2}{sub ufsd}=1.639x10{sup -5} for thin layer forced solar drying and r{sub snsd}=0.9990, {chi}{sup 2}{sub snsd}=3.212x10{sup -6}; r{sub unsd}=0.9970, {chi}{sup 2}{sub unsd}=4.590x10{sup -5} for thin layer natural solar drying. (Author)

  6. Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Seok; Liu, Yingnan; Zhu, Weinan; Kim, Seohee; Wu, Di; Tao, Li; Dodabalapur, Ananth; Lai, Keji; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-01-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP), also known as phosphorene, is poised to be the most attractive graphene analogue owing to its high mobility approaching that of graphene, and its thickness-tunable band gap that can be as large as that of molybdenum disulfide. In essence, phosphorene represents the much sought after high-mobility, large direct band gap two-dimensional layered crystal that is ideal for optoelectronics and flexible devices. However, its instability in air is of paramount concern for practical applications. Here, we demonstrate air-stable BP devices with dielectric and hydrophobic encapsulation. Microscopy, spectroscopy, and transport techniques were employed to elucidate the aging mechanism, which can initiate from the BP surface for bare samples, or edges for samples with thin dielectric coating, highlighting the ineffectiveness of conventional scaled dielectrics. Our months-long studies indicate that a double layer capping of Al2O3 and hydrophobic fluoropolymer affords BP devices and transistors with indefinite air-stability for the first time, overcoming a critical material challenge for applied research and development. PMID:25758437

  7. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  8. Structural and dielectric characterization of sputtered Tantalum Titanium Oxide thin films for high temperature capacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouahi, A., E-mail: rouahi_ahlem@yahoo.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 (France); Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Challali, F. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux (LSPM)-CNRS-UPR3407, Université Paris13, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430, Villetaneuse (France); Dakhlaoui, I. [Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Vallée, C. [CNRS, LTM, CEA-LETI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Salimy, S. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN) UMR CNRS 6502, Université de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssinière, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Jomni, F.; Yangui, B. [Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Besland, M.P.; Goullet, A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN) UMR CNRS 6502, Université de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssinière, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Sylvestre, A. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 (France)

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the dielectric properties of metal-oxide-metal capacitors based on Tantalum Titanium Oxide (TiTaO) thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on aluminum bottom electrode are investigated. The structure of the films was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The dielectric properties of TiTaO thin films were studied by complex impedance spectroscopy over a wide frequency range (10{sup -2} - to 10{sup 5} Hz) and temperatures in -50 °C to 325 °C range. The contributions of different phases, phases’ boundaries and conductivity effect were highlighted by Cole – Cole diagram (ε” versus ε’). Two relaxation processes have been identified in the electric modulus plot. A first relaxation process appears at low temperature with activation energy of 0.37 eV and it is related to the motion of Ti{sup 4+} (Skanavi’s model). A second relaxation process at high temperature is related to Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation with activation energy of 0.41 eV. - Highlights: • Titanium Tantalum Oxide thin films are grown on Aluminum substrate. • The existence of phases was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • Conductivity effect appears in Cole-Cole plot. • At low temperatures, a relaxation phenomenon obeys to Skanavi’s model. • Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization is processed at high temperatures.

  9. Critical Transitions in Thin Layer Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Santiago; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2017-11-01

    We investigate a model of thin layer turbulence that follows the evolution of the two-dimensional motions u2 D (x , y) along the horizontal directions (x , y) coupled to a single Fourier mode along the vertical direction (z) of the form uq (x , y , z) = [vx (x , y) sin (qz) ,vy (x , y) sin (qz) ,vz (x , y) cos (qz) ] , reducing thus the system to two coupled, two-dimensional equations. Its reduced dimensionality allows a thorough investigation of the transition from a forward to an inverse cascade of energy as the thickness of the layer H = π / q is varied.Starting from a thick layer and reducing its thickness it is shown that two critical heights are met (i) one for which the forward unidirectional cascade (similar to three-dimensional turbulence) transitions to a bidirectional cascade transferring energy to both small and large scales and (ii) one for which the bidirectional cascade transitions to a unidirectional inverse cascade when the layer becomes very thin (similar to two-dimensional turbulence). The two critical heights are shown to have different properties close to criticality that we are able to analyze with numerical simulations for a wide range of Reynolds numbers and aspect ratios. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of MesoPSL financed by the Region Ile de France and the project Equip@Meso (reference ANR-10-EQPX-29-01).

  10. Oxide-nitride-oxide dielectric stacks with Si nanoparticles obtained by low-energy ion beam synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou-Sougleridis, V; Dimitrakis, P; Vamvakas, V Em; Normand, P; Bonafos, C; Schamm, S; Mouti, A; Assayag, G Ben; Paillard, V

    2007-01-01

    Formation of a thin band of silicon nanoparticles within silicon nitride films by low-energy (1 keV) silicon ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing is demonstrated. Electrical characterization of metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors reveals that oxide/Si-nanoparticles-nitride/oxide dielectric stacks exhibit enhanced charge transfer characteristics between the substrate and the silicon nitride layer compared to dielectric stacks using unimplanted silicon nitride. Attractive results are obtained in terms of write/erase memory characteristics and data retention, indicating the large potential of the low-energy ion-beam-synthesis technique in SONOS memory technology

  11. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness.

  12. Ion exchange of alkaline metals on the thin-layer zinc ferrocyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betenekov, N.D.; Buklanov, G.V.; Ipatova, E.G.; Korotkin, Yu.S.

    1991-01-01

    Basic regularities of interphase distribution in the system of thin-layer sorbent on the basis of mixed zinc ferrocyanide (FZ)-alkaline metal solution (Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) in the column chromatography made are studied. It is established that interphase distribution of microgram amounts of alkaline metals in the systems thin-layer FZ-NH 4 NO 3 electrolyte solutions is of ion-exchange character and subjected to of law effective mass. It is shown that FZ thin-layer material is applicable for effective chromatographic separation of alkaline metal trace amounts. An approach to the choice of a conditions of separate elution of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr in the column chromatography mode

  13. Modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier behaviour by atomic layer deposition of ultra-thin Al2O3 interlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Lalit; Gupta, Suman; Jaiswal, Piyush; Bhat, Navakanta; Shivashankar, S.A.; Hughes, G.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of inserting ultra-thin atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 dielectric layers (1 nm and 2 nm thick) on the Schottky barrier behaviour for high (Pt) and low (Al) work function metals on n- and p-doped InGaAs substrates has been investigated. Rectifying behaviour was observed for the p-type substrates (both native oxide and sulphur passivated) for both the Al/p-InGaAs and Al/Al 2 O 3 /p-InGaAs contacts. The Pt contacts directly deposited on p-InGaAs displayed evidence of limited rectification which increased with Al 2 O 3 interlayer thickness. Ohmic contacts were formed for both metals on n-InGaAs in the absence of an Al 2 O 3 interlayer, regardless of surface passivation. However, limited rectifying behaviour was observed for both metals on the 2 nm Al 2 O 3 /n-InGaAs samples for the sulphur passivated InGaAs surface, indicating the importance of both surface passivation and the presence of an ultra-thin dielectric interlayer on the current–voltage characteristics displayed by these devices. - Highlights: • Investigation of the modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier (SB) behaviour • Improving metal–InGaAs interface by sulphur passivation and ultrathin interlayer • Examine the effect of low work function and high work function metals on SB • Different SB behaviours observed on both n-type InGaAs and p-type InGaAs • Metal/n-InGaAs interface is more strongly pinned than the metal/p-InGaAs interface

  14. Characterization of the porosity of silicon nitride thin layers by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrès, T.; Tribollet, B.; Stephan, O.; Montigaud, H.; Boinet, M.; Cohin, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon nitride thin films are widely used as diffusion barriers within stacks in the glass industry but turn out to be porous at the nanometric scale. EIS measurements were conducted on SiNx thin layers deposited on a gold layer. An electrochemical model was established to fit the EIS measurements making use of data from other complementary techniques. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscopy was performed on these thin layers to determine the diameter and the qualitative morphology of the pores. A quantitative determination of the through-porosity of the layer was deduced from the EIS model and was in good agreement with TEM measurements. Moreover, combining EIS with local observations enabled inhomogeneities in the layer to be probed by highlighting a specific region in the layer.

  15. Studies of void growth in a thin ductile layer between ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1997-01-01

    The growth of voids in a thin ductile layer between ceramics is analysed numerically, using an axisymmetric cell model to represent an array of uniformly distributed spherical voids at the central plane of the layer. The purpose is to determine the full traction-separation law relevant to crack...... growth by a ductile mechanism along the thin layer. Plastic flow in the layer is highly constrained by the ceramics, so that a high. level of triaxial tension develops, leading in some cases to cavitation instabilities. The computations are continued to a state near the occurrence of void coalescence....

  16. Dielectric properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna, S. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Mohan Rao, G. [Department of Instrumentation, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, 560 012 (India); Jayakumar, S., E-mail: s_jayakumar_99@yahoo.com [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Kannan, M.D. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Ganesan, V. [Low Temperature Lab, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (CSR), Indore, 452 017 (India)

    2012-01-31

    Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were sputter deposited over well-cleaned glass and Si < 100 > substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering under various oxygen gas pressures and sputtering powers. The composition of the films was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an optimal O/Al atomic ratio of 1.59 was obtained at a reactive gas pressure of 0.03 Pa and sputtering power of 70 W. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the films were amorphous until 550 Degree-Sign C. The surface morphology of the films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and the as-deposited films were found to be smooth. The topography of the as-deposited and annealed films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and a progressive increase in the rms roughness of the films from 3.2 nm to 4.53 nm was also observed with increase in the annealing temperature. Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al thin film capacitors were then fabricated on glass substrates to study the effect of temperature and frequency on the dielectric property of the films. Temperature coefficient of capacitance, AC conductivity and activation energy were determined and the results are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films were found to be amorphous up to annealing temperature of 550 C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in rms roughness of the films was observed with annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al thin film capacitors were fabricated and dielectric constant was 7.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activation energy decreased with increase in frequency.

  17. Epitaxial growth of metallic buffer layer structure and c-axis oriented Pb(Mn1/3,Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin film on Si for high performance piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Pham Ngoc; Yoshida, Shinya; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a metallic buffer layer structure, (100) SrRuO3 (SRO)/(100) Pt/(100) Ir/(100) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers for the epitaxial growth of a c-axis oriented Pb(Mn1/3,Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PMnN-PZT) thin film on a (100) Si wafer for piezoelectric micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) application. The stacking layers were epitaxially grown on a Si substrate under the optimal deposition condition. A crack-free PMnN-PZT epitaxial thin films was obtained at a thickness up to at least 1.7 µm, which is enough for MEMS applications. The unimorph MEMS cantilevers based on the PMnN-PZT thin film were fabricated and characterized. As a result, the PMnN-PZT thin film exhibited -10 to -12 C/m2 as a piezoelectric coefficient e 31,f and ˜250 as a dielectric constants ɛr. The resultant FOM for piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) is higher than those of general PZT and AlN thin films. This structure has a potential to provide high-performance pMUTs.

  18. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T. O.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  19. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  20. Polymer thin film as coating layer to prevent corrosion of metal/metal oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Kundu, Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    Thin film of polymer is used as coating layer and the corrosion of metal/metal oxide layer is studied with the variation of the thickness of the coating layer. The thin layer of polystyrene is fabricated using spin coating method on copper oxide (CuO) film which is deposited on glass substrate using DC magnetron sputtering technique. Thickness of the polystyrene and the CuO layers are determined using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) technique. CuO thin films coated with the polystyrene layer are exposed to acetic acid (2.5 v/v% aqueous CH3COOH solution) environments and are subsequently analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface morphology of the film before and after interaction with the acidic environment is determined using AFM. Results obtained from the XRR and UV-Vis spectroscopy confirm that the thin film of polystyrene acts as an anticorrosion coating layer and the strength of the coating depends upon the polymer layer thickness at a constant acid concentration.

  1. Dielectric relaxation dependent memory elements in pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bi-layer field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoungnam

    2015-03-02

    We fabricate a pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bi-layer field effect transistor (FET) featuring large hysteresis that can be used as memory elements. Intentional introduction of excess electron traps in a PCBM layer by exposure to air caused large hysteresis in the FET. The memory window, characterized by the threshold voltage difference, increased upon exposure to air and this is attributed to an increase in the number of electron trapping centers and (or) an increase in the dielectric relaxation time in the underlying PCBM layer. Decrease in the electron conduction in the PCBM close to the SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric upon exposure to air is consistent with the increase in the dielectric relaxation time, ensuring that the presence of large hysteresis in the FET originates from electron trapping at the PCBM not at the pentacene. - Highlights: • Charge trapping-induced memory effect was clarified using transistors. • The memory window can be enhanced by controlling charge trapping mechanism. • Memory transistors can be optimized by controlling dielectric relaxation time.

  2. Light scattering in plane dielectric layers: Modeling in the 2d reciprocal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexey A.; Tishchenko, Alexandre V.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized source method previously developed for the light diffraction calculation on periodic dielectric structures is applied for the light scattering calculation in non-periodic planar media. This significantly enlarges the domain of applicability of Fourier-methods in light scattering modeling since the generalized source method is of much less numerical complexity than other rigorous methods used. -- Highlights: ► Method for light scattering simulation in planar layers. ► The approach is fairly independent of scattering particles’ shape. ► The method is based on the rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations. ► Each calculation stage allows the accuracy control by the convergence monitoring. ► Possibility to consider any practically possible dielectric materials.

  3. Field Enhancement in a Grounded Dielectric Slab by Using a Single Superstrate Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos A. Valagiannopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of a dielectric layer on a slab configuration is frequently utilized in various electromagnetic devices in order to give them certain desired operational characteristics. In this work, we consider a grounded dielectric film-slab, which is externally excited by a normally-incident Gaussian beam. On top of the film-slab, we use an additional suitably selected single isotropic superstrate layer in order to increase the field concentration inside the slab and hence achieve optimal power transfer from the external source to the internal region. We define a quantity of interest, called “enhancement factor,” expressing the increase of the field concentration in the film-slab when the superstrate is present compared to the case that it is absent. It is shown that large enhancement factor values may be achieved by choosing properly the permittivity, the permeability, and the thickness of the superstrate. In particular, it is demonstrated that the field in the film-slab is significantly enhanced when the slab is composed by an ϵ-near-zero (ENZ or low-index metamaterial.

  4. Studies on dielectric properties, opto-electrical parameters and electronic polarizability of thermally evaporated amorphous Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanien, Ahmed Saeed, E-mail: a.s.hassanien@gmail.com [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering (Shoubra), Benha University (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities in Ad-Dawadmi, Shaqra University, 11911 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-25

    The objective of this work is to study the influence of the addition of more Se on dielectric properties, opto-electrical parameters and electronic polarizability of amorphous chalcogenide Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} thin films (30 ≤ x ≤ 50 at%). Thin films of thickness 200 nm were synthesized by vacuum deposition at ≈8.2 × 10{sup −4} Pa. Both refractive index and extinction coefficient were used to obtain all the studied parameters. The high frequency dielectric constant, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were discussed. Drude theory was applied to investigate opto-electrical parameters, like optical carrier concentration, optical mobility and optical resistivity. Moreover, other parameters were investigated and studied, e.g. Drude parameters, volume and surface energy loss functions, dielectric loss factor, dielectric relaxation time, complex optical conductivity and electronic polarizability as well as optical electronegativity and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility. Values of electronic polarizability and nonlinear optical susceptibility were found to be decreased while optical electronegativity increased as Se-content was increased. Increment of Se-content in amorphous Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} thin films has also led to minimize the energy losses when electromagnetic waves propagate through films as well as optical conductivity and the speed of light increased. The other studied properties and parameters of Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} films were found to be strongly dependent upon Se-content. - Highlights: • Thermally evaporated amorphous Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} (30 ≤ x ≤ 50) thin films were deposited. • Refractive index and absorption index were used to determine almost all properties. • Dielectric properties, Drude parameters and electronic polarizability were studied. • Addition of more Se to CdSSe matrix led to improve the opto-electrical properties. • New data were obtained and

  5. Characterization of thin films using local magneometer

    CERN Document Server

    Katyan N.

    2016-01-01

    SIS nanocomposite (Superconductor/Insulator/Superconductor) could improve efficiency of accelerating cavities. The SRF multilayers concept focuses on the enhancement of HC1 using thin layers (d~λ). The use of thin layers makes it easier to avoid avalanche penetration of vortices in case of local defects. Several layers are needed in order to attenuate the external field to values below Nb HC1, decoupled using dielectric layers. We don’t know yet how the predicted properties evolve in realistic conditions; hence it seems reasonable to do their optimization. Two parameters need to be measured to study their behavior in cavity operating conditions: HC1 and Rs surface resistance (especially residual). For that purpose two instruments were developed in Saclay and in Orsay. A local magnetometer allows measuring the vortex penetration on samples without the orientation and edge effects encountered in SQUID magnetometers. Its operating conditions range from 2-40 K, with field up to 150 mT, and upgradation to highe...

  6. Effect of yttrium doping on the dielectric properties of CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} thin film produced by chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Viswanathan S., E-mail: vssaji@chosun.ac.k [Chosun University, College of Dentistry and 2nd Stage of Brain Korea 21 for College of Dentistry, Gwangju-501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Han Cheol [Chosun University, College of Dentistry and 2nd Stage of Brain Korea 21 for College of Dentistry, Gwangju-501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Pure and yttrium substituted CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4-x}Y{sub x}O{sub 12-x/} {sub 2} (x = 0, 0.02, 0.1) thin films were prepared on boron doped silica substrate employing chemical solution deposition, spin coating and rapid thermal annealing. The phase and microstructure of the sintered films were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Dielectric properties of the films were measured at room temperature using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Highly ordered polycrystalline CCTO thin film with bimodal grain size distribution was achieved at a sintering temperature of 800 {sup o}C. Yttrium doping was found to have beneficial effects on the dielectric properties of CCTO thin film. Dielectric parameters obtained for a CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4-x}Y{sub x}O{sub 12-x} {sub /2} (x = 0.02) film at 1 KHz were k {approx} 2700 and tan {delta} {approx} 0.07.

  7. A quick method to determine the capacitance characteristics of thin layer X5R multilayer capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikkenie, R.; Steigelmann, O.; Groen, W.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Y2O3 concentration on the dielectric properties of ceramic disc capacitors and multilayer capacitors containing 50 dielectric layers with an approximate thickness of 3 μm were investigated. The relative permittivity and temperature coefficient of capacity of multilayer capacitors at

  8. A quick method to determine the capacitance characteristics of thin layer X5R multilayer capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikkenie, R.; Steigelmann, O.; Groen, W.A.; Elshof, J.E. ten

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Y2O3 concentration on the dielectric properties of ceramic disc capacitors and multilayer capacitors containing 50 dielectric layers with an approximate thickness of 3µm were investigated. The relative permittivity and temperature coefficient of capacity of multilayer capacitors at low

  9. Physicochemical, thin layer and gas-liquid chromatographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2012-05-22

    May 22, 2012 ... PEG (3 m × 3 mm I. D.) was used for gas chromatography. Physicochemical analysis ... subjected to thin layer chromatography on plates (20 × 20 cm) having 0.25 mm thick silica gel ..... Headspace solid- phase microextraction ...

  10. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  11. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" data-affiliation=" (Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" >Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia

  12. Improved ITO thin films for photovoltaic applications with a thin ZnO layer by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, J.; Guillen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The improvement of the optical and electrical characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) layers is pursued to achieve a higher efficiency in its application as frontal electrical contacts in thin film photovoltaic devices. In order to take advantage of the polycrystalline structure of ZnO films as growth support, the properties of ITO layers prepared at room temperature by sputtering onto bare and ZnO-coated substrates have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction, optical and electrical measurements. It has been found that by inserting a thin ZnO layer, the ITO film resistivity can be reduced as compared to that of a single ITO film with similar optical transmittance. The electrical quality improvement is related to ITO grain growth enhancement onto the polycrystalline ZnO underlayer

  13. Structural, electrical, and dielectric properties of Cr doped ZnO thin films: Role of Cr concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürbüz, Osman, E-mail: osgurbuz@yildiz.edu.tr; Okutan, Mustafa

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Magnetic material of Cr and semiconductor material of ZnO were grown by the magnetron sputtering co-sputter technique. • Perfect single crystalline structures were grown. • DC and AC conductivity with dielectric properties as a function of frequency (f = 5Hz–13 MHz) at room temperature were measured and compared. • Cr doped ZnO can be used in microwave, sensor and optoelectronic devices as the electrical conductivity increases while dielectric constant decreases with the Cr content. - Abstract: An undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) and different concentrations of chromium (Cr) doped ZnO Cr{sub x}ZnO{sub 1−x} (x = 3.74, 5.67, 8.10, 11.88, and 15.96) thin films were prepared using a magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), and Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). XRD patterns of all the films showed that the films possess crystalline structure with preferred orientation along the (100) crystal plane. The average crystallite size obtained was found to be between 95 and 83 nm which was beneficial in high intensity recording peak. Both crystal quality and crystallite sizes decrease with increasing Cr concentration. The crystal and grain sizes of the all film were investigated using SEM analysis. The surface morphology that is grain size changes with increase Cr concentration and small grains coalesce together to form larger grains for the Cr{sub 11.88}ZnO and Cr{sub 15.96}ZnO samples. Impedance spectroscopy studies were carried out in the frequencies ranging from 5 Hz to 13 MHz at room temperature. The undoped ZnO film had the highest dielectric value, while dielectric values of other films decreased as doping concentrations increased. Besides, the dielectric constants decreased whereas the loss tangents increased with increasing Cr content. This was considered to be related to the reduction of grain size as Cr content in Zn

  14. Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured CsPbBr3 perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikova, A. A.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Andronov, A. A.; Sokolov, V. S.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured perovskites cesium lead halide thin films is described. The method of deposition is based on alternate immersion of the substrate in the precursor solutions or colloidal solution of nanocrystals and methyl acetate/lead nitrate solution using the device for deposition of films by SILAR and dip-coating techniques. An example of obtaining a photosensitive structure based on nanostructures of ZnO nanowires and layers of CsBbBr3 nanocrystals is also shown.

  15. High-current electron beam coupling to hybrid waveguide and plasma modes in a dielectric Cherenkov maser with a plasma layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlapakovski, Anatoli S.

    2002-01-01

    The linear theory of a dielectric Cherenkov maser with a plasma layer has been developed. The dispersion relation has been derived for the model of infinitely thin, fully magnetized, monoenergetic hollow electron beam, in the axisymmetric case. The results of the numerical solution of the dispersion relation and the analysis of the beam coupling to hybrid waves, both hybrid waveguide and hybrid plasma modes, are presented. For the hybrid waveguide mode, spatial growth rate dependences on frequency at different plasma densities demonstrate improvement in gain for moderate densities, but strong shifting the amplification band and narrowing the bandwidth. For the hybrid plasma mode, the case of mildly relativistic, 200-250 keV beams is of interest, so that the wave phase velocity is just slightly greater than the speed of light in a dielectric medium. It has been shown that depending on beam and plasma parameters, the hybrid plasma mode can be separated from the hybrid waveguide mode, or be coupled to it through the beam resulting in strong gain increase, or exhibit a flat gain vs frequency dependence over a very broad band. The parameters, at which the -3 dB bandwidth calculated for 30 dB peak gain exceeds an octave, have been found

  16. A high voltage DC-DC converter driving a Dielectric Electro Active Polymer actuator for wind turbine flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) material is a very thin (~80 μm) silicone elastomer film with a compliant metallic electrode layer on both sides. The DEAP is fundamentally a capacitor that is capable of very high strain. The property that the polymer changes its shape, as a result...

  17. The relationship between chemical structure and dielectric properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Hao [Materials Sci and Tech Applications, LLC, 409 Maple Springs Drive, Dayton OH 45458 (United States)]. E-mail: hao.jiang@wpafb.af.mil; Hong Lianggou [Materials Sci and Tech Applications, LLC, 409 Maple Springs Drive, Dayton OH 45458 (United States); Venkatasubramanian, N. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0168 (United States); Grant, John T. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0168 (United States); Eyink, Kurt [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Wiacek, Kevin [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7251 (United States); Fries-Carr, Sandra [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7251 (United States); Enlow, Jesse [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Bunning, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States)

    2007-02-26

    Polymer dielectric films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have unique properties due to their dense crosslinked bulk structure. These spatially uniform films exhibit good adhesion to a variety of substrates, excellent chemical inertness, high thermal resistance, and are formed from an inexpensive, solvent-free, room temperature process. In this work, we studied the dielectric properties of plasma polymerized (PP) carbon-based polymer thin films prepared from two precursors, benzene and octafluorocyclobutane. Two different monomer feed locations, directly in the plasma zone or in the downstream region (DS) and two different pressures, 80 Pa (high pressure) or 6.7 Pa (low pressure), were used. The chemical structure of the PECVD films was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The dielectric constant ({epsilon} {sub r}) and dielectric loss (tan {delta}) of the films were investigated over a range of frequencies up to 1 MHz and the dielectric strength (breakdown voltage) (F {sub b}) was characterized by the current-voltage method. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was performed to determine the film thickness and refractive index. Good dielectric properties were exhibited, as PP-benzene films formed in the high pressure, DS region showed a F{sub b} of 610 V/{mu}m, an {epsilon} {sub r} of 3.07, and a tan {delta} of 7.0 x 10{sup -3} at 1 kHz. The PECVD processing pressure has a significant effect on final film structure and the film's physical density has a strong impact on dielectric breakdown strength. Also noted was that the residual oxygen content in the PP-benzene films significantly affected the frequency dependences of the dielectric constant and loss.

  18. The relationship between chemical structure and dielectric properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hao; Hong Lianggou; Venkatasubramanian, N.; Grant, John T.; Eyink, Kurt; Wiacek, Kevin; Fries-Carr, Sandra; Enlow, Jesse; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer dielectric films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have unique properties due to their dense crosslinked bulk structure. These spatially uniform films exhibit good adhesion to a variety of substrates, excellent chemical inertness, high thermal resistance, and are formed from an inexpensive, solvent-free, room temperature process. In this work, we studied the dielectric properties of plasma polymerized (PP) carbon-based polymer thin films prepared from two precursors, benzene and octafluorocyclobutane. Two different monomer feed locations, directly in the plasma zone or in the downstream region (DS) and two different pressures, 80 Pa (high pressure) or 6.7 Pa (low pressure), were used. The chemical structure of the PECVD films was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The dielectric constant (ε r ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) of the films were investigated over a range of frequencies up to 1 MHz and the dielectric strength (breakdown voltage) (F b ) was characterized by the current-voltage method. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was performed to determine the film thickness and refractive index. Good dielectric properties were exhibited, as PP-benzene films formed in the high pressure, DS region showed a F b of 610 V/μm, an ε r of 3.07, and a tan δ of 7.0 x 10 -3 at 1 kHz. The PECVD processing pressure has a significant effect on final film structure and the film's physical density has a strong impact on dielectric breakdown strength. Also noted was that the residual oxygen content in the PP-benzene films significantly affected the frequency dependences of the dielectric constant and loss

  19. High mobility and low operating voltage ZnGaO and ZnGaLiO transistors with spin-coated Al2O3 as gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, D X; Xu, J B

    2010-01-01

    Spin-coated alumina serving as a gate dielectric in thin film transistors shows interesting dielectric properties for low-voltage applications, despite a moderate capacitance. With Ga singly doped and Ga, Li co-doped ZnO as the active channel layers, typical mobilities of 4.7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 2.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 are achieved, respectively. At a given gate bias, the operation current is much smaller than the previously reported values in low-voltage thin film transistors, primarily relying on the giant-capacitive dielectric. The reported devices combine advantages of high mobility, low power consumption, low cost and ease of fabrication. In addition to the transparent nature of both the dielectric and semiconducting active channels, the superior electrical properties of the devices may provide a new avenue for future transparent electronics. (fast track communication)

  20. Study on the dielectric properties of Al2O3/TiO2 sub-nanometric laminates: effect of the bottom electrode and the total thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Elbahri, M.; Kahouli, A.; Mercey, B.; Lebedev, O.; Donner, W.; Lüders, U.

    2018-02-01

    Dielectrics based on amorphous sub-nanometric laminates of TiO2 and Al2O3 are subject to elevated dielectric losses and leakage currents, in large parts due to the extremely thin individual layer thickness chosen for the creation of the Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and therefore the high apparent dielectric constants. The optimization of performances of the laminate itself being strongly limited by this contradiction concerning its internal structure, we will show in this study that modifications of the dielectric stack of capacitors based on these sub-nanometric laminates can positively influence the dielectric losses and the leakage, as for example the nature of the electrodes, the introduction of thick insulating layers at the laminate/electrode interfaces and the modification of the total laminate thickness. The optimization of the dielectric stack leads to the demonstration of a capacitor with an apparent dielectric constant of 90, combined with low dielectric loss (tan δ) of 7 · 10-2 and with leakage currents smaller than 1  ×  10-6 A cm-2 at 10 MV m-1.

  1. Structural and dielectric studies of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural, dielectric and leakage current properties of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films deposited on platinized silicon (Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The role of oxygen mixing percentage (OMP on the growth, morphology, electrical and dielectric properties of the thin films has been investigated. A preferred orientation of grains along (110 direction has been observed with increasing the OMP. Such evolution of the textured growth is explained on the basis of the orientation factor analysis followed the Lotgering model. (Mg1-xCoxTiO3 (x = 0.05 thin films exhibits a maximum relative dielectric permittivity of ɛr = 12.20 and low loss (tan δ ∼ 1.2 × 10−3 over a wide range of frequencies for 75% OMP. The role of electric field frequency (f and OMP on the ac-conductivity of (Mg0.95Co0.05TiO3 have been studied. A progressive increase in the activation energy (Ea and relative permittivity ɛr values have been noticed up to 75% of OMP, beyond which the properties starts deteriorate. The I-V characteristics reveals that the leakage current density decreases from 9.93 × 10−9 to 1.14 × 10−9 A/cm2 for OMP 0% to 75%, respectively for an electric field strength of 250 kV/cm. Our experimental results reveal up to that OMP ≥ 50% the leakage current mechanism is driven by the ohmic conduction, below which it is dominated by the schottky emission.

  2. PLZT capacitor and method to increase the dielectric constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Fairchild, Manuel Ray; Balachjandran, Uthamalingam; Lee, Tae H.

    2017-12-12

    A ceramic-capacitor includes a first electrically-conductive-layer, a second electrically-conductive-layer arranged proximate to the first electrically-conductive-layer, and a dielectric-layer interposed between the first electrically-conductive-layer and the second electrically-conductive-layer. The dielectric-layer is formed of a lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate material (PLZT), wherein the PLZT is characterized by a dielectric-constant greater than 125, when measured at 25 degrees Celsius and zero Volts bias, and an excitation frequency of ten-thousand Hertz (10 kHz). A method for increasing a dielectric constant of the lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate material (PLZT) includes the steps of depositing PLZT to form a dielectric-layer of a ceramic-capacitor, and heating the ceramic-capacitor to a temperature not greater than 300.degree. C.

  3. Influence of dielectric protective layer on laser damage resistance of gold coated gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kepeng; Ma, Ping; Pu, Yunti; Xia, Zhilin

    2016-03-01

    Aiming at the problem that the damage threshold of gold coated grating is relatively low, a dielectric film is considered on the gold coated gratings as a protective layer. The thickness range of the protective layer is determined under the prerequisite that the diffraction efficiency of the gold coated grating is reduced to an acceptable degree. In this paper, the electromagnetic field, the temperature field and the stress field distribution in the grating are calculated when the silica and hafnium oxide are used as protective layers, under the preconditions of the electromagnetic field distribution of the gratings known. The results show that the addition of the protective layer changes the distribution of the electromagnetic field, temperature field and stress field in the grating, and the protective layer with an appropriate thickness can improve the laser damage resistance of the grating.

  4. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-10-24

    Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.). Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity (ε) is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ε of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  5. Diblock Copolymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite Thin Film Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limary, Ratchana; Green, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The stability of thin film symmetric diblock copolymers blended with layered silicate nanocomposites were examined using a combination of optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Two cases were examined PS-b-PMMA (polystyrene-b-polymethylacrylate) blended with montmorillonite stoichiometrically loaded with alkyl ammonium ions, OLS(S), and PS-b-PMMA blended with montmorillonite loaded with excess alkyl ammonium ions, OLS(E). XRD spectra show an increase in the gallery spacing of the OLSs, indicating that the copolymer chains have intercalated the layered silicates. AFM images reveal a distinct difference between the two nanocomposite thin films: regions in the vicinity of OLS(S) aggregates were depleted of material, while in the vicinity of OLS(E) aggregates, dewetting of the substrate occurred. We show that the stability of the copolymer/OLS nanocomposite films is determined by the enthalpic driving force associated with intercalation of the copolymer chains into the galleries of the modified OLS layers and by the substrate/organic modifier interactions.

  6. Lanthanide-Assisted Deposition of Strongly Electro-optic PZT Thin Films on Silicon: Toward Integrated Active Nanophotonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J P; Smet, P F; Botterman, J; Bliznuk, V; Woestenborghs, W; Van Thourhout, D; Neyts, K; Beeckman, J

    2015-06-24

    The electro-optical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films depend strongly on the quality and crystallographic orientation of the thin films. We demonstrate a novel method to grow highly textured PZT thin films on silicon using the chemical solution deposition (CSD) process. We report the use of ultrathin (5-15 nm) lanthanide (La, Pr, Nd, Sm) based intermediate layers for obtaining preferentially (100) oriented PZT thin films. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate preferentially oriented intermediate Ln2O2CO3 layers providing an excellent lattice match with the PZT thin films grown on top. The XRD and scanning electron microscopy measurements reveal that the annealed layers are dense, uniform, crack-free and highly oriented (>99.8%) without apparent defects or secondary phases. The EDX and HRTEM characterization confirm that the template layers act as an efficient diffusion barrier and form a sharp interface between the substrate and the PZT. The electrical measurements indicate a dielectric constant of ∼650, low dielectric loss of ∼0.02, coercive field of 70 kV/cm, remnant polarization of 25 μC/cm(2), and large breakdown electric field of 1000 kV/cm. Finally, the effective electro-optic coefficients of the films are estimated with a spectroscopic ellipsometer measurement, considering the electric field induced variations in the phase reflectance ratio. The electro-optic measurements reveal excellent linear effective pockels coefficients of 110 to 240 pm/V, which makes the CSD deposited PZT thin film an ideal candidate for Si-based active integrated nanophotonic devices.

  7. Dielectric properties of thin C r2O3 films grown on elemental and oxide metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Ather; Street, Michael; Echtenkamp, Will; Kwan, Chun Pui; Bird, Jonathan P.; Binek, Christian

    2018-04-01

    In an attempt to optimize leakage characteristics of α-C r2O3 thin films, its dielectric properties were investigated at local and macroscopic scale. The films were grown on Pd(111), Pt(111), and V2O3 (0001), supported on A l2O3 substrate. The local conductivity was measured by conductive atomic force microscopy mapping of C r2O3 surfaces, which revealed the nature of defects that formed conducting paths with the bottom Pd or Pt layer. A strong correlation was found between these electrical defects and the grain boundaries revealed in the corresponding topographic scans. In comparison, the C r2O3 film on V2O3 exhibited no leakage paths at similar tip bias value. Electrical resistance measurements through e-beam patterned top electrodes confirmed the resistivity mismatch between the films grown on different electrodes. The x-ray analysis attributes this difference to the twin free C r2O3 growth on V2O3 seeding.

  8. Sodium beta-alumina thin films as gate dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN metal—insulator—semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Ben-Lang; Chen Chao; Li Yan-Rong; Zhang Wan-Li; Liu Xing-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Sodium beta-alumina (SBA) is deposited on AlGaN/GaN by using a co-deposition process with sodium and Al 2 O 3 as the precursors. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum reveals that the deposited thin film is amorphous. The binding energy and composition of the deposited thin film, obtained from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement, are consistent with those of SBA. The dielectric constant of the SBA thin film is about 50. Each of the capacitance—voltage characteristics obtained at five different frequencies shows a high-quality interface between SBA and AlGaN. The interface trap density of metal—insulator—semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MISHEMT) is measured to be (3.5∼9.5)×10 10 cm −2 ·eV −1 by the conductance method. The fixed charge density of SBA dielectric is on the order of 2.7×10 12 cm −2 . Compared with the AlGaN/GaN metal—semiconductor heterostructure high-electron-mobility transistor (MESHEMT), the AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT usually has a threshold voltage that shifts negatively. However, the threshold voltage of the AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT using SBA as the gate dielectric shifts positively from −5.5 V to −3.5 V. From XPS results, the surface valence-band maximum (VBM-EF) of AlGaN is found to decrease from 2.56 eV to 2.25 eV after the SBA thin film deposition. The possible reasons why the threshold voltage of AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT with the SBA gate dielectric shifts positively are the influence of SBA on surface valence-band maximum (VBM-EF), the reduction of interface traps and the effects of sodium ions, and/or the fixed charges in SBA on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  9. High energy density capacitors fabricated by thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T W; Johnson, G W; Wagner, A V.

    1999-01-01

    Low energy density in conventional capacitors severely limits efforts to miniaturize power electronics and imposes design limitations on electronics in general. We have successfully applied physical vapor deposition technology to greatly increase capacitor energy density. The high dielectric breakdown strength we have achieved in alumina thin films allows high energy density to be achieved with this moderately low dielectric constant material. The small temperature dependence of the dielectric constant, and the high reliability, high resistivity, and low dielectric loss of Al 2 O 3 , make it even more appealing. We have constructed single dielectric layer thin film capacitors and shown that they can be stacked to form multilayered structures with no loss in yield for a given capacitance. Control of film growth morphology is critical for achieving the smooth, high quality interfaces between metal and dielectric necessary for device operation at high electric fields. Most importantly, high rate deposition with extremely low particle generation is essential for achieving high energy storage at a reasonable cost. This has been achieved by reactive magnetron sputtering in which the reaction to form the dielectric oxide has been confined to the deposition surface. By this technique we have achieved a yield of over 50% for 1 cm 2 devices with an energy density of 14 J per cubic centimeter of Al 2 O 3 dielectric material in 1.2 kV, 4 nF devices. By further reducing defect density and increasing the dielectric constant of the material, we will be able to increase capacitance and construct high energy density devices to meet the requirements of applications in power electronics

  10. Hybrid nanomembrane-based capacitors for the determination of the dielectric constant of semiconducting molecular ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Paula A.; Silva, Ricardo M. L.; de Oliveira, Rafael F.; Merces, Leandro; Bof Bufon, Carlos C.

    2018-06-01

    Considerable advances in the field of molecular electronics have been achieved over the recent years. One persistent challenge, however, is the exploitation of the electronic properties of molecules fully integrated into devices. Typically, the molecular electronic properties are investigated using sophisticated techniques incompatible with a practical device technology, such as the scanning tunneling microscopy. The incorporation of molecular materials in devices is not a trivial task as the typical dimensions of electrical contacts are much larger than the molecular ones. To tackle this issue, we report on hybrid capacitors using mechanically-compliant nanomembranes to encapsulate ultrathin molecular ensembles for the investigation of molecular dielectric properties. As the prototype material, copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) has been chosen as information on its dielectric constant (k CuPc) at the molecular scale is missing. Here, hybrid nanomembrane-based capacitors containing metallic nanomembranes, insulating Al2O3 layers, and the CuPc molecular ensembles have been fabricated and evaluated. The Al2O3 is used to prevent short circuits through the capacitor plates as the molecular layer is considerably thin (electrical measurements of devices with molecular layers of different thicknesses, the CuPc dielectric constant has been reliably determined (k CuPc = 4.5 ± 0.5). These values suggest a mild contribution of the molecular orientation on the CuPc dielectric properties. The reported nanomembrane-based capacitor is a viable strategy for the dielectric characterization of ultrathin molecular ensembles integrated into a practical, real device technology.

  11. Improvement in interfacial characteristics of low-voltage carbon nanotube thin-film transistors with solution-processed boron nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jun-Young; Ha, Tae-Jun, E-mail: taejunha0604@gmail.com

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the potential of solution-processed boron nitride (BN) thin films for nanoelectronics. • Improved interfacial characteristics reduced the leakage current by three orders of magnitude. • The BN encapsulation improves all the device key metrics of low-voltage SWCNT-TFTs. • Such improvements were achieved by reduced interaction of interfacial localized states. - Abstract: In this article, we demonstrate the potential of solution-processed boron nitride (BN) thin films for high performance single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistors (SWCNT-TFTs) with low-voltage operation. The use of BN thin films between solution-processed high-k dielectric layers improved the interfacial characteristics of metal-insulator-metal devices, thereby reducing the current density by three orders of magnitude. We also investigated the origin of improved device performance in SWCNT-TFTs by employing solution-processed BN thin films as an encapsulation layer. The BN encapsulation layer improves the electrical characteristics of SWCNT-TFTs, which includes the device key metrics of linear field-effect mobility, sub-threshold swing, and threshold voltage as well as the long-term stability against the aging effect in air. Such improvements can be achieved by reduced interaction of interfacial localized states with charge carriers. We believe that this work can open up a promising route to demonstrate the potential of solution-processed BN thin films on nanoelectronics.

  12. Interface Study on Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using High-k Gate Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsien Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs using different high-k gate dielectric materials such as silicon nitride (Si3N4 and aluminum oxide (Al2O3 at low temperature process (<300°C and compared them with low temperature silicon dioxide (SiO2. The IGZO device with high-k gate dielectric material will expect to get high gate capacitance density to induce large amount of channel carrier and generate the higher drive current. In addition, for the integrating process of integrating IGZO device, postannealing treatment is an essential process for completing the process. The chemical reaction of the high-k/IGZO interface due to heat formation in high-k/IGZO materials results in reliability issue. We also used the voltage stress for testing the reliability for the device with different high-k gate dielectric materials and explained the interface effect by charge band diagram.

  13. Interface Study on Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using High-k Gate Dielectric Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y. H.; Chou, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFT_s) using different high-Κ gate dielectric materials such as silicon nitride (Si_3N_4) and aluminum oxide (Al_2O_3) at low temperature process (<300 degree) and compared them with low temperature silicon dioxide (SiO_2). The IGZO device with high-Κ gate dielectric material will expect to get high gate capacitance density to induce large amount of channel carrier and generate the higher drive current. In addition, for the integrating process of integrating IGZO device, post annealing treatment is an essential process for completing the process. The chemical reaction of the high-κ/IGZO interface due to heat formation in high-Κ/IGZO materials results in reliability issue. We also used the voltage stress for testing the reliability for the device with different high-Κ gate dielectric materials and explained the interface effect by charge band diagram.

  14. Transfer matrix approach for the Kerr and Faraday rotation in layered nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széchenyi, Gábor; Vigh, Máté; Kormányos, Andor; Cserti, József

    2016-09-21

    To study the optical rotation of the polarization of light incident on multilayer systems consisting of atomically thin conductors and dielectric multilayers we present a general method based on transfer matrices. The transfer matrix of the atomically thin conducting layer is obtained using the Maxwell equations. We derive expressions for the Kerr (Faraday) rotation angle and for the ellipticity of the reflected (transmitted) light as a function of the incident angle and polarization of the light. The method is demonstrated by calculating the Kerr (Faraday) angle for bilayer graphene in the quantum anomalous Hall state placed on the top of dielectric multilayers. The optical conductivity of the bilayer graphene is calculated in the framework of a four-band model.

  15. Thin-layer electrochemistry of ferrocenylbenzene derivatives: Intramolecular electronic communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael C.P.; Li Yunchao; Merbouh, Nabyl; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Three arylferrocene derivatives, ferrocenylbenzene (MFcB), 1,3-diferrocenylbenzene (DFcB), and 1,3,5-triferrocenylbenzene (TFcB), were prepared and their redox properties systematically explored by thin-layer cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential-pulse voltammetry (DPV). In contrast to conventional CV measurements that produced only a single pair of redox waves for all three compounds, the thin-layer technique discriminated between the multistep electron-transfer processes of DFcB and TFcB. In particular, two and three pairs of symmetric peaks were observed, respectively, when CV curves were recorded at a graphite electrode coated with a DFcB-containing and a TFcB-containing thin film of nitrobenzene and immersed in aqueous sodium perchlorate solution. These results demonstrate that the ferrocenyl moieties attached to the meta-positions of a benzene ring communicate electronically with each other, as a result of their distinct face-to-face orientations

  16. Comparison of neat and photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene thin film dielectrics formed by spin-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyore, O.D.; Roodenko, K.; Winkler, P.S.; Noriega, J.R.; Vasselli, J.J.; Chabal, Y.J.; Gnade, B.E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterization of photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) thin film, metal–insulator–metal capacitors fabricated using standard semiconductor processing techniques. We characterize the capacitors using in-situ vibrational spectroscopy during thermally-assisted poling and correlate the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. FTIR analysis of the neat PVDF-HFP showed α → β transformations during poling at room temperature and at 55 °C. α → β transformations were observed for the crosslinked polymer only during poling at 55 °C. XRD data revealed that photo-crosslinking caused the polymer to partially crystallize into the β-phase. The similar behavior of the neat and crosslinked samples at 55 °C suggests that a higher activation energy was needed for α → β transformations in crosslinked PVDF-HFP during poling. Electrical measurements showed that photo-crosslinking had no significant effect on the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of PVDF-HFP. However, the dielectric strength and maximum energy density of the crosslinked polymer were severely reduced. - Highlights: • Polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) dielectrics were studied. • Phase transformations were observed only at 55 °C for the crosslinked PVDF-HFP. • Crosslinking had no strong effect on the dielectric constant of PVDF-HFP. • Breakdown strengths were 620 MVm −1 and 362 MVm −1 for neat and crosslinked films

  17. Multi-layered dielectric cladding plasmonic microdisk resonator filter and coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Cheng, Bo; Lan, Yung-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    This work develops the plasmonic microdisk filter/coupler, whose effectiveness is evaluated by finite-difference time-domain simulation and theoretical analyses. Multi-layer dielectric cladding is used to prevent the scattering of surface plasmons (SPs) from a silver microdisk. This method allows devices that efficiently perform filter/coupler functions to be developed. The resonant conditions and the effective refractive index of bounded SP modes on the microdisk are determined herein. The waveguide-to-microdisk distance barely influences the resonant wavelength but it is inversely related to the bandwidth. These findings are consistent with predictions made using the typical ring resonator model.

  18. Effect of titanium oxide-polystyrene nanocomposite dielectrics on morphology and thin film transistor performance for organic and polymeric semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Pelle, Andrea M. [LGS Innovations, 15 Vreeland Rd., Florham Park, NJ 07932 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St. Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Maliakal, Ashok, E-mail: maliakal@lgsinnovations.com [LGS Innovations, 15 Vreeland Rd., Florham Park, NJ 07932 (United States); Sidorenko, Alexander [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of the Sciences, 600 South 43rd St., Philadelphia, PA 191034 (United States); Thayumanavan, S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St. Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Previous studies have shown that organic thin film transistors with pentacene deposited on gate dielectrics composed of a blend of high K titanium oxide-polystyrene core-shell nanocomposite (TiO{sub 2}-PS) with polystyrene (PS) perform with an order of magnitude increase in saturation mobility for TiO{sub 2}-PS (K = 8) as compared to PS devices (K = 2.5). The current study finds that this performance enhancement can be translated to alternative small single crystal organics such as {alpha}-sexithiophene ({alpha}-6T) (enhancement factor for field effect mobility ranging from 30-100 Multiplication-Sign higher on TiO{sub 2}-PS/PS blended dielectrics as compared to homogenous PS dielectrics). Interestingly however, in the case of semicrystalline polymers such as (poly-3-hexylthiophene) P3HT, this dramatic enhancement is not observed, possibly due to the difference in processing conditions used to fabricate these devices (film transfer as opposed to thermal evaporation). The morphology for {alpha}-sexithiophene ({alpha}-6T) grown by thermal evaporation on TiO{sub 2}-PS/PS blended dielectrics parallels that observed in pentacene devices. Smaller grain size is observed for films grown on dielectrics with higher TiO{sub 2}-PS content. In the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) devices, constructed via film transfer, morphological differences exist for the P3HT on different substrates, as discerned by atomic force microscopy studies. However, these devices only exhibit a modest (2 Multiplication-Sign ) increase in mobility with increasing TiO{sub 2}-PS content in the films. After annealing of the transferred P3HT thin film transistor (TFT) devices, no appreciable enhancement in mobility is observed across the different blended dielectrics. Overall the results support the hypothesis that nucleation rate is responsible for changes in film morphology and device performance in thermally evaporated small molecule crystalline organic semiconductor TFTs. The increased nucleation

  19. Effect of titanium oxide–polystyrene nanocomposite dielectrics on morphology and thin film transistor performance for organic and polymeric semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Pelle, Andrea M.; Maliakal, Ashok; Sidorenko, Alexander; Thayumanavan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that organic thin film transistors with pentacene deposited on gate dielectrics composed of a blend of high K titanium oxide–polystyrene core–shell nanocomposite (TiO 2 –PS) with polystyrene (PS) perform with an order of magnitude increase in saturation mobility for TiO 2 –PS (K = 8) as compared to PS devices (K = 2.5). The current study finds that this performance enhancement can be translated to alternative small single crystal organics such as α-sexithiophene (α-6T) (enhancement factor for field effect mobility ranging from 30-100× higher on TiO 2 –PS/PS blended dielectrics as compared to homogenous PS dielectrics). Interestingly however, in the case of semicrystalline polymers such as (poly-3-hexylthiophene) P3HT, this dramatic enhancement is not observed, possibly due to the difference in processing conditions used to fabricate these devices (film transfer as opposed to thermal evaporation). The morphology for α-sexithiophene (α-6T) grown by thermal evaporation on TiO 2 –PS/PS blended dielectrics parallels that observed in pentacene devices. Smaller grain size is observed for films grown on dielectrics with higher TiO 2 –PS content. In the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) devices, constructed via film transfer, morphological differences exist for the P3HT on different substrates, as discerned by atomic force microscopy studies. However, these devices only exhibit a modest (2×) increase in mobility with increasing TiO 2 –PS content in the films. After annealing of the transferred P3HT thin film transistor (TFT) devices, no appreciable enhancement in mobility is observed across the different blended dielectrics. Overall the results support the hypothesis that nucleation rate is responsible for changes in film morphology and device performance in thermally evaporated small molecule crystalline organic semiconductor TFTs. The increased nucleation rate produces organic polycrystalline films with small grain

  20. Comparative studies of AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs with stacked gate dielectrics by the mixed thin film growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Liu, Han-Yin; Ho, Chiu-Sheng; Lee, Ching-Sung

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports Al 0.27 Ga 0.73 N/GaN metal–oxide–semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with stacked Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 gate dielectrics by using hydrogen peroxideoxidation/sputtering techniques. The Al 2 O 3 employed as a gate dielectric and surface passivation layer effectively suppresses the gate leakage current, improves RF drain current collapse and exhibits good thermal stability. Moreover, by stacking the good insulating high-k HfO 2 dielectric further suppresses the gate leakage, enhances the dielectric breakdown field and power-added efficiency, and decreases the equivalent oxide thickness. The present MOS-HEMT design has demonstrated superior improvements of 10.1% (16.4%) in the maximum drain–source current (I DS,max ), 11.4% (22.5%) in the gate voltage swing and 12.5%/14.4% (21.9%/22.3%) in the two-terminal gate–drain breakdown/turn-on voltages (BV GD /V ON ), and the present design also demonstrates the lowest gate leakage current and best thermal stability characteristics as compared to two reference MOS-HEMTs with a single Al 2 O 3 /(HfO 2 ) dielectric layer of the same physical thickness. (invited paper)

  1. Nanomechanical probing of thin-film dielectric elastomer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, Bekim; Seifi, Saman; Park, Harold S.; Leung, Vanessa; Töpper, Tino; Müller, Bert

    2017-08-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers (DETs) have attracted interest as generators, actuators, sensors, and even as self-sensing actuators for applications in medicine, soft robotics, and microfluidics. Their performance crucially depends on the elastic properties of the electrode-elastomer sandwich structure. The compressive displacement of a single-layer DET can be easily measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the contact mode. While polymers used as dielectric elastomers are known to exhibit significant mechanical stiffening for large strains, their mechanical properties when subjected to voltages are not well understood. To examine this effect, we measured the depths of 400 nanoindentations as a function of the applied electric field using a spherical AFM probe with a radius of (522 ± 4) nm. Employing a field as low as 20 V/μm, the indentation depths increased by 42% at a load of 100 nN with respect to the field-free condition, implying an electromechanically driven elastic softening of the DET. This at-a-glance surprising experimental result agrees with related nonlinear, dynamic finite element model simulations. Furthermore, the pull-off forces rose from (23.0 ± 0.4) to (49.0 ± 0.7) nN implying a nanoindentation imprint after unloading. This embossing effect is explained by the remaining charges at the indentation site. The root-mean-square roughness of the Au electrode raised by 11% upon increasing the field from zero to 12 V/μm, demonstrating that the electrode's morphology change is an undervalued factor in the fabrication of DET structures.

  2. Microstructural and dielectric properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4Ti1-xZrxO3 based combinatorial thin film capacitors library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guozhen; Wolfman, Jerome; Autret-Lambert, Cecile; Sakai, Joe; Roger, Sylvain; Gervais, Monique; Gervais, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 Ti 1-x Zr x O 3 (0≤x≤0.3) composition spread thin film library on SrRuO 3 /SrTiO 3 layer by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is reported. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy studies showed an accurate control of the film phase and composition by combinatorial PLD. A complex evolution of the microstructure and morphology with composition of the library is described, resulting from the interplay between epitaxial stress, increased chemical pressure, and reduced elastic energy upon Zr doping. Statistical and temperature-related capacitive measurements across the library showed unexpected variations in the dielectric properties. Doping windows with enhanced permittivity and tunability are identified, and correlated to microstructural properties.

  3. Nano-Photonic Structures for Light Trapping in Ultra-Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap Pathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thick wafer-silicon is the dominant solar cell technology. It is of great interest to develop ultra-thin solar cells that can reduce materials usage, but still achieve acceptable performance and high solar absorption. Accordingly, we developed a highly absorbing ultra-thin crystalline Si based solar cell architecture using periodically patterned front and rear dielectric nanocone arrays which provide enhanced light trapping. The rear nanocones are embedded in a silver back reflector. In contrast to previous approaches, we utilize dielectric photonic crystals with a completely flat silicon absorber layer, providing expected high electronic quality and low carrier recombination. This architecture creates a dense mesh of wave-guided modes at near-infrared wavelengths in the absorber layer, generating enhanced absorption. For thin silicon (<2 μm and 750 nm pitch arrays, scattering matrix simulations predict enhancements exceeding 90%. Absorption approaches the Lambertian limit at small thicknesses (<10 μm and is slightly lower (by ~5% at wafer-scale thicknesses. Parasitic losses are ~25% for ultra-thin (2 μm silicon and just 1%–2% for thicker (>100 μm cells. There is potential for 20 μm thick cells to provide 30 mA/cm2 photo-current and >20% efficiency. This architecture has great promise for ultra-thin silicon solar panels with reduced material utilization and enhanced light-trapping.

  4. Photo-induced tunneling currents in MOS structures with various HfO2/SiO2 stacking dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Sheng Pang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the current conduction mechanisms of structures with tandem high-k dielectric in illumination are discussed. Samples of Al/SiO2/Si (S, Al/HfO2/SiO2/Si (H, and Al/3HfO2/SiO2/Si (3H were examined. The significant observation of electron traps of sample H compares to sample S is found under the double bias capacitance-voltage (C-V measurements in illumination. Moreover, the photo absorption sensitivity of sample H is higher than S due to the formation of HfO2 dielectric layer, which leads to larger numbers of carriers crowded through the sweep of VG before the domination of tunneling current. Additionally, the HfO2 dielectric layer would block the electrons passing through oxide from valance band, which would result in less electron-hole (e−-h+ pairs recombination effect. Also, it was found that both of the samples S and H show perimeter dependency of positive bias currents due to strong fringing field effect in dark and illumination; while sample 3H shows area dependency of positive bias currents in strong illumination. The non-uniform tunneling current through thin dielectric and through HfO2 stacking layers are importance to MOS(p tunneling photo diodes.

  5. Advanced passivation techniques for Si solar cells with high-κ dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Huijuan; Lin, Tingjui; Letha, Ayra Jagadhamma; Hwang, Huey-Liang; Kyznetsov, Fedor A.; Smirnova, Tamara P.; Saraev, Andrey A.; Kaichev, Vasily V.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic recombination losses at the wafer surface significantly reduce the efficiency of Si solar cells. Surface passivation using a suitable thin dielectric layer can minimize the recombination losses. Herein, advanced passivation using simple materials (Al 2 O 3 , HfO 2 ) and their compounds H (Hf) A (Al) O deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was investigated. The chemical composition of Hf and Al oxide films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS depth profiles exhibit continuous uniform dense layers. The ALD-Al 2 O 3 film has been found to provide negative fixed charge (−6.4 × 10 11  cm −2 ), whereas HfO 2 film provides positive fixed charge (3.2 × 10 12  cm −2 ). The effective lifetimes can be improved after oxygen gas annealing for 1 min. I-V characteristics of Si solar cells with high-κ dielectric materials as passivation layers indicate that the performance is significantly improved, and ALD-HfO 2 film would provide better passivation properties than that of the ALD-Al 2 O 3 film in this research work.

  6. Process for forming epitaxial perovskite thin film layers using halide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Paul G.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Voigt, James A.; Ashley, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an epitaxial perovskite-phase thin film on a substrate. This thin film can act as a buffer layer between a Ni substrate and a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor layer. The process utilizes alkali or alkaline metal acetates dissolved in halogenated organic acid along with titanium isopropoxide to dip or spin-coat the substrate which is then heated to about 700.degree. C. in an inert gas atmosphere to form the epitaxial film on the substrate. The YBCO superconductor can then be deposited on the layer formed by this invention.

  7. High thermal conductivity lossy dielectric using co-densified multilayer configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    2003-06-17

    Systems and methods are described for loss dielectrics. A method of manufacturing a lossy dielectric includes providing at least one high dielectric loss layer and providing at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer and then densifying together. The systems and methods provide advantages because the lossy dielectrics are less costly and more environmentally friendly than the available alternatives.

  8. Medium band gap polymer based solution-processed high-κ composite gate dielectrics for ambipolar OFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canımkurbey, Betül; Unay, Hande; Çakırlar, Çiğdem; Büyükköse, Serkan; Çırpan, Ali; Berber, Savas; Altürk Parlak, Elif

    2018-03-01

    The authors present a novel ambipolar organic filed-effect transistors (OFETs) composed of a hybrid dielectric thin film of Ta2O5:PMMA nanocomposite material, and solution processed poly(selenophene, benzotriazole and dialkoxy substituted [1,2-b:4, 5-b‧] dithiophene (P-SBTBDT)-based organic semiconducting material as the active layer of the device. We find that the Ta2O5:PMMA insulator shows n-type conduction character, and its combination with the p-type P-SBTBDT organic semiconductor leads to an ambipolar OFET device. Top-gated OFETs were fabricated on glass substrate consisting of interdigitated ITO electrodes. P-SBTBDT-based material was spin coated on the interdigitated ITO electrodes. Subsequently, a solution processed Ta2O5:PMMA nanocomposite material was spin coated, thereby creating the gate dielectric layer. Finally, as a gate metal, an aluminum layer was deposited by thermal evaporation. The fabricated OFETs exhibited an ambipolar performance with good air-stability, high field-induced current and relatively high electron and hole mobilities although Ta2O5:PMMA nanocomposite films have slightly higher leakage current compared to the pure Ta2O5 films. Dielectric properties of the devices with different ratios of Ta2O5:PMMA were also investigated. The dielectric constant varied between 3.6 and 5.3 at 100 Hz, depending on the Ta2O5:PMMA ratio.

  9. Modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier behaviour by atomic layer deposition of ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalit [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Gupta, Suman; Jaiswal, Piyush; Bhat, Navakanta; Shivashankar, S.A. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering (CeNSE), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Hughes, G. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2015-08-31

    The effect of inserting ultra-thin atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric layers (1 nm and 2 nm thick) on the Schottky barrier behaviour for high (Pt) and low (Al) work function metals on n- and p-doped InGaAs substrates has been investigated. Rectifying behaviour was observed for the p-type substrates (both native oxide and sulphur passivated) for both the Al/p-InGaAs and Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-InGaAs contacts. The Pt contacts directly deposited on p-InGaAs displayed evidence of limited rectification which increased with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayer thickness. Ohmic contacts were formed for both metals on n-InGaAs in the absence of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayer, regardless of surface passivation. However, limited rectifying behaviour was observed for both metals on the 2 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/n-InGaAs samples for the sulphur passivated InGaAs surface, indicating the importance of both surface passivation and the presence of an ultra-thin dielectric interlayer on the current–voltage characteristics displayed by these devices. - Highlights: • Investigation of the modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier (SB) behaviour • Improving metal–InGaAs interface by sulphur passivation and ultrathin interlayer • Examine the effect of low work function and high work function metals on SB • Different SB behaviours observed on both n-type InGaAs and p-type InGaAs • Metal/n-InGaAs interface is more strongly pinned than the metal/p-InGaAs interface.

  10. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Johnson, Gary W.

    1998-04-21

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate.

  11. ZnO as dielectric for optically transparent non-volatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, N. Tjitra; Aw, K.C.; Gao, W.; Wright, Bryon E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a DC sputtered ZnO thin film as a dielectric in an optically transparent non-volatile memory. The main motivation for using ZnO as a dielectric is due to its optical transparency and mechanical flexibility. We have established the relationship between the electrical resistivity (ρ) and the activation energy (E a ) of the electron transport in the conduction band of the ZnO film. The ρ of 2 x 10 4 -5 x 10 7 Ω-cm corresponds to E a of 0.36-0.76 eV, respectively. The k-value and optical band-gap for films sputtered with Ar:O 2 ratio of 4:1 are 53 ± 3.6 and 3.23 eV, respectively. In this paper, the basic charge storage element for a non-volatile memory is a triple layer dielectric structure in which a 50 nm thick ZnO film is sandwiched between two layers of methyl silsesquioxane sol-gel dielectric of varying thickness. A pronounced clockwise capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis was observed with a memory window of 6 V. The integration with a solution-processable pentacene, 13,6-N-Sulfinylacetamodipentacene resulted in an optically transparent organic field effect transistor non-volatile memory (OFET-NVM). We have demonstrated that this OFET-NVM can be electrically programmed and erased at low voltage (± 10 V) with a threshold voltage shift of 4.0 V.

  12. Properties of SrBi2Nb2O9 thin films on Pt-coated Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.E.; Navarro, P.O.; Martin, V. del C.; Fernandez, L.M.; Sylvester, G.; Retuert, P.J.; Gramsch, E.

    2002-01-01

    SrBi 2 Nb 2 O 9 powders and thin films, on Pt-coated Si, were synthesised by the sol-gel method. Three-layer thin films appear homogeneous down to the 100 nm scale, polycrystalline in the tetragonal Aurivillius phase, at a average thickness of 40 nm per layer. The index of refraction at the center of the visible range increases with the sintering temperature from roughly 2.1 (at 400 Centigrade) to 2.5 (at 700 Centigrade). The expression n 2 -1 increases linearly with the relative density of the thin films, in similar fashion as previous studies in PbTiO 3 thin films. The dielectric constant in quasistatic and high frequency (1 MHz) modes, is between 160 and 230. (Author)

  13. Embedded layer of Ag nanoparticles prepared by a combined PECVD/PVD process producing SiOxCy-Ag nanocomposite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Laurent; Cayron, Cyril; Jouve, Michel; Maury, Francis

    2012-01-13

    Structural properties of SiO(x)C(y)-Ag nanocomposite thin films prepared by a dual process PVD-PECVD in the same reactor have been investigated. The experimental results have demonstrated the influence of a PECVD process carried out at room temperature for the growth of a dielectric matrix on the size and the distribution density of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) deposited beforehand by magnetron sputtering. The plasma during the growth of the encapsulation SiO(x)C(y) layer caused a diffusion of silver from NPs through the SiO(x)C(y) matrix associated with a decrease in the average size of nanoparticles and an increase of their distribution density. Silver diffusion is blocked at a barrier interface to form a buried layer of individual Ag NPs which, for instance, can find plasmonic applications. Silver also diffuses toward the outer surface inducing antibacterial properties. In both cases initial Ag NPs act as reservoirs for multifunctional properties of advanced nanostructured films.

  14. Multilayer graphene growth on polar dielectric substrates using chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, S.; Çelik, K.; Shah Zaman, S.; Oral, A.

    2018-06-01

    High quality of graphene is necessary for its applications at industrial scale production. The most convenient way is its direct growth on dielectrics which avoid the transfer route of graphene from metal to dielectric substrate usually followed by graphene community. The choice of a suitable dielectric for the gate material which can replace silicon dioxide (SiO2) is in high demand. Various properties like permittivity, thermodynamic stability, film morphology, interface quality, bandgap and band alignment of other dielectrics with graphene needs more exploration. A potential dielectric material is required which could be used to grow graphene with all these qualities. Direct growth of graphene on magnesium oxide (MgO) substrates is an interesting idea and will be a new addition in the library of 2D materials. The present work is about the direct growth of graphene on MgO substrates by an ambient pressure chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. We address the surface instability issue of the polar oxides which is the most challenging factor in MgO. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements showed the topographical features of the graphene coated on MgO. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study is carried out to extract information regarding the presence of necessary elements, their bonding with substrates and to confirm the sp-2 hybridization of carbon, which is a characteristic feature of graphene film. The chemical shift is due to the surface reconstruction of MgO in the prepared samples. For graphene-MgO interface, valence band offset (VBO) and conduction band offset (CBO) extracted from valence band spectra reported. Further, we predicted the energy band diagram for single layer and thin film of graphene. By using the room-temperature energy band gap values of MgO and graphene, the CBO is calculated to be 6.85 eV for single layer and 5.66 eV for few layer (1-3) of graphene layers.

  15. Outdoor open thin-layer microalgal photobioreactor: potential productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucha, Jiří; Lívanský, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2009), s. 111-117 ISSN 0921-8971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : productivity * photobioreactor * thin layer Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.018, year: 2009

  16. All-optical tuning of EIT-like dielectric metasurfaces by means of chalcogenide phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijevic, E; Sibilia, C

    2016-12-26

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a pump-induced narrowband transparency window within an absorption line of the probe beam spectrum in an atomic system. In this paper we propose a way to bring together the all-dielectric metamaterials to have EIT-like effects and to optically tune the response by hybridizing them with a layer of a phase change material. We propose a design of the metamaterial based on Si nanoresonators that can support an EIT-like resonant response. On the top of the resonators we consider a thin layer of a chalcogenide phase change material, which we will use to tune the optical response. Our choice is Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST), since it has two stable phases at room temperature, namely amorphous and crystalline, between which it can be switched quickly, nonvolatively and reversibly, sustaining a large number of switching cycles. They differ in optical properties, while still having moderately low losses in telecom range. Since such dielectric resonators do not have non-radiative losses of metals around 1550nm, they can lead to a high-Q factor of the EIT-like response in this range. Firstly, we optimize the starting structure so that it gives an EIT-like response at 1550 nm when the GST layer is in the amorphous state. Our starting design uses glass as a substrate, but we also consider implementation in SOI technology. If we then switch the thin layer of GST to its crystalline phase, which has higher losses, the EIT-like response is red shifted, providing around 10:1 contrast at 1550nm. This reversible tuning can be done with an ns visible pulsed laser. We discuss the results of the simulation of the dielectric metasurface for different configurations and the tuning possibility.

  17. Stress effects in ferroelectric perovskite thin-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednik, Ricardo Johann

    The exciting class of ferroelectric materials presents the engineer with an array of unique properties that offer promise in a variety of applications; these applications include infra-red detectors ("night-vision imaging", pyroelectricity), micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS, piezoelectricity), and non-volatile memory (NVM, ferroelectricity). Realizing these modern devices often requires perovskite-based ferroelectric films thinner than 100 nm. Two such technologically important material systems are (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST), for tunable dielectric devices employed in wireless communications, and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), for ferroelectric non-volatile memory (FeRAM). In general, the material behavior is strongly influenced by the mechanical boundary conditions imposed by the substrate and surrounding layers and may vary considerably from the known bulk behavior. A better mechanistic understanding of these effects is essential for harnessing the full potential of ferroelectric thin-films and further optimizing existing devices. Both materials share a common crystal structure and similar properties, but face unique challenges due to the design parameters of these different applications. Tunable devices often require very low dielectric loss as well as large dielectric tunability. Present results show that the dielectric response of BST thin-films can either resemble a dipole-relaxor or follow the accepted empirical Universal Relaxation Law (Curie-von Schweidler), depending on temperature. These behaviors in a single ferroelectric thin-film system are often thought to be mutually exclusive. In state-of-the-art high density FeRAM, the ferroelectric polarization is at least as important as the dielectric response. It was found that these properties are significantly affected by moderate biaxial tensile and compressive stresses which reversibly alter the ferroelastic domain populations of PZT at room temperature. The 90-degree domain wall motion observed by high resolution

  18. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  19. Layer-by-layer thinning of MoSe_2 by soft and reactive plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Yunfei; Xiao, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xiumei; Qin, Fang; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Soft plasma etching technique using SF_6 + N_2 as precursors for layer-by-layer thinning of MoSe_2 was adopted in this work. • Optical microscopy, Raman, photoluminescence and atomic force microscopy measurements were used to confirm the thickness change. • Layer-dependent vibrational and photoluminescence spectra of the etched MoSe_2 were also demonstrated. • Equal numbers of MoSe_2 layers can be removed uniformly without affecting the underlying SiO_2 substrate and the remaining MoSe_2 layers. - Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) like molybdenum diselenide (MoSe_2) have recently gained considerable interest since their properties are complementary to those of graphene. Unlike gapless graphene, the band structure of MoSe_2 can be changed from the indirect band gap to the direct band gap when MoSe_2 changed from bulk material to monolayer. This transition from multilayer to monolayer requires atomic-layer-precision thining of thick MoSe_2 layers without damaging the remaining layers. Here, we present atomic-layer-precision thinning of MoSe_2 nanaosheets down to monolayer by using SF_6 + N_2 plasmas, which has been demonstrated to be soft, selective and high-throughput. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectra suggest that equal numbers of MoSe_2 layers can be removed uniformly regardless of their initial thickness, without affecting the underlying SiO_2 substrate and the remaining MoSe_2 layers. By adjusting the etching rates we can achieve complete MoSe_2 removal and any disired number of MoSe_2 layers including monolayer. This soft plasma etching method is highly reliable and compatible with the semiconductor manufacturing processes, thereby holding great promise for various 2D materials and TMD-based devices.

  20. Investigation of some properties of the dielectric particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavalyan, V.G.; Gukasyan, S.M.; Kavalov, R.L.; Karapetyan, R.A.; Lorikyan, M.P. (Erevanskij Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1981-01-01

    Results of investigation into temporary dispersion and amplitude resolution of a dielectric detector (DD) of particles are given. In this detector secondary electrons produced by a particle passing through a dielectric layer are gathered on thin anode filaments strenched inside the dielectric layer. As a working substance of the detector investigated used was CsI having 1.7% relative density of monocrystal, gap between planes of 20 ..mu..m diameter anode filaments and cathode electrodes was approximately equal to 200 ..mu..m, distance between anode filaments was approximately 250 ..mu..m. DD having working area S=5 cm/sup 2/ was placed at a distance of 2 cm from 5 MeV radioactive alpha source of 10/sup 4/ particle/s intensity. Curve of particle detection efficiency for this detector reached plateau at a level of 100% in the range of working voltages from 800 to 1200 V. Coincidence method together with a time-amplitude converter, at inlets of which applied were pulses from DD and a scintillation counter placed under DD, were used to measure temporary dispersion. Data on behaviour of particle registration efficiency depending on time of continuous effect of working and inverse voltages are given. It is found that temporary dispersion of the DD and scintillation counter system is a value of order of 1 ns and amplitude resolution of DD is an order of 100%.

  1. Thin hybrid pixel assembly fabrication development with backside compensation layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R., E-mail: richard.bates@glasgow.ac.uk [Experimental Particle Physics Group, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Buttar, C.; McMullen, T.; Cunningham, L.; Ashby, J.; Doherty, F. [Experimental Particle Physics Group, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pares, G.; Vignoud, L.; Kholti, B. [CEA Leti, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, F38054, Grenoble (France); Vahanen, S. [Advacam Oy, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2017-02-11

    The ATLAS and CMS experiments will both replace their entire tracking systems for operation at the HL-LHC in 2026. This will include a significantly larger pixel systems, for example, for ATLAS approximately 15 m{sup 2}. To keep the tracker material budget low it is crucial to minimize the mass of the pixel modules via thinning both the sensor and readout chip to about 150 μm each. The bump yield of thin module assemblies using solder based bump bonding can be problematic due to wafer bowing during solder reflow at high temperature. A new bump-bonding process using backside compensation on the readout chip to address the issue of low yield will be presented. The objective is to compensate dynamically the stress of the front side stack by adding a compensating layer to the backside of the wafer. A SiN and Al:Si stack has been chosen for the backside layer. The bow reducing effect of applying a backside compensation layer will be demonstrated using the FE-I4 wafer. The world's first results from assemblies produced from readout wafers thinned to 100 μm with a stress compensation layer are presented with bond yields close to 100% measured using the FE-I4 readout chip.

  2. Ferroelectricity, Piezoelectricity, and Dielectricity of 0.06PMnN-0.94PZT(45/55 Thin Film on Silicon Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high piezoelectricity and high quality factor ferroelectric thin films are important for electromechanical applications especially the micro electromechanical system (MEMS. The ternary compound ferroelectric thin films 0.06Pb(Mn1/3, Nb2/3O3 + 0.94Pb(Zr0.45, Ti0.55O3 (0.06PMnN-0.94PZT(45/55 were deposited on silicon(100 substrates by RF magnetron sputtering method considering that Mn and Nb doping will improve PZT properties in this research. For comparison, nondoped PZT(45/55 films were also deposited. The results show that both of thin films show polycrystal structures with the main (111 and (101 orientations. The transverse piezoelectric coefficients are e31,eff=−4.03 C/m2 and e31,eff=-3.5 C/m2, respectively. These thin films exhibit classical ferroelectricity, in which the coercive electric field intensities are 2Ec=147.31 kV/cm and 2Ec=135.44 kV/cm, and the saturation polarization Ps=30.86 μC/cm2 and Ps=17.74 μC/cm2, and the remnant polarization Pr=20.44 μC/cm2 and Pr=9.87 μC/cm2, respectively. Moreover, the dielectric constants and loss are εr=681 and D=5% and εr=537 and D=4.3%, respectively. In conclusion, 0.06PMnN-0.94PZT(45/55 thin films act better than nondoped films, even though their dielectric constants are higher. Their excellent ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and high power and energy storage property, especially the easy fabrication, integration realizable, and potentially high quality factor, make this kind of thin films available for the realistic applications.

  3. Actuated polymer based dielectric mirror for visual spectral range applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Pedro P.; Lunardi, Leda

    2017-08-01

    Miniature dielectric mirrors are useful components for lasers, thin film beam splitters and high quality mirrors in optics. These mirrors usually made from rigid inorganic materials can achieve a reflectance of almost one hundred percent. Being structural components, as soon as fabricated their reflectance and/or bandwidth remains constant. Here it is presented a novel fabrication process of a dielectric mirror based on free standing polymer layers. By applying an electrostatic force between the top and the bottom layers the reflectance can be changed. The large difference between the polymers refractive index and the air allows to achieve a reflectance of more than 85% using only six pairs of nanolayers. Preliminary simulations indicate an actuation speed of less than 1ms. Experimental optical characterization of fabricated structures agrees well with simulation results. Furthermore, structures can be designed to reflect a particular set of colors and/or isolated by using color filters, so a color pixel is fabricated, where the reflectance for each isolated color can be voltage controlled. Potential applications include an active component in a reflective screen display.

  4. Moderate temperature-dependent surface and volume resistivity and low-frequency dielectric constant measurements of pure and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) doped polyvinyl alcohol thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew; Guggilla, Padmaja; Reedy, Angela; Ijaz, Quratulann; Janen, Afef; Uba, Samuel; Curley, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we have reported measurements of temperature-dependent surface resistivity of pure and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNCT) doped amorphous Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) thin films. In the temperature range from 22 °C to 40 °C with humidity-controlled environment, we found the surface resistivity to decrease initially, but to rise steadily as the temperature continued to increase. Moreover, electric surface current density (Js) was measured on the surface of pure and MWCNT doped PVA thin films. In this regard, the surface current density and electric field relationship follow Ohm's law at low electric fields. Unlike Ohmic conduction in metals where free electrons exist, selected captive electrons are freed or provided from impurities and dopants to become conduction electrons from increased thermal vibration of constituent atoms in amorphous thin films. Additionally, a mechanism exists that seemingly decreases the surface resistivity at higher temperatures, suggesting a blocking effect for conducting electrons. Volume resistivity measurements also follow Ohm's law at low voltages (low electric fields), and they continue to decrease as temperatures increase in this temperature range, differing from surface resistivity behavior. Moreover, we report measurements of dielectric constant and dielectric loss as a function of temperature and frequency. Both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss were observed to be highest for MWCNT doped PVA compared to pure PVA and commercial paper, and with frequency and temperature for all samples.

  5. Low operating voltage InGaZnO thin-film transistors based on Al2O3 high-k dielectrics fabricated using pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, G. Z.; Liu, G. X.; Zhang, Q.; Shan, F. K.; Lee, W. J.; Shin, B. C.; Cho, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Low-voltage-driven amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an Al 2 O 3 dielectric were fabricated on a Si substrate by using pulsed laser deposition. Both Al 2 O 3 and IGZO thin films are amorphous, and the thin films have very smooth surfaces. The Al 2 O 3 gate dielectric exhibits a very low leakage current density of 1.3 x 10 -8 A/cm 2 at 5 V and a high capacitance density of 60.9 nF/cm 2 . The IGZO TFT with a structure of Ni/IGZO/Al 2 O 3 /Si exhibits high performance with a low threshold voltage of 1.18 V, a high field effect mobility of 20.25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , an ultra small subthreshold swing of 87 mV/decade, and a high on/off current ratio of 3 x 10 7 .

  6. Stochastic and deterministic causes of streamer branching in liquid dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadidian, Jouya; Zahn, Markus; Lavesson, Nils; Widlund, Ola; Borg, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Streamer branching in liquid dielectrics is driven by stochastic and deterministic factors. The presence of stochastic causes of streamer branching such as inhomogeneities inherited from noisy initial states, impurities, or charge carrier density fluctuations is inevitable in any dielectric. A fully three-dimensional streamer model presented in this paper indicates that deterministic origins of branching are intrinsic attributes of streamers, which in some cases make the branching inevitable depending on shape and velocity of the volume charge at the streamer frontier. Specifically, any given inhomogeneous perturbation can result in streamer branching if the volume charge layer at the original streamer head is relatively thin and slow enough. Furthermore, discrete nature of electrons at the leading edge of an ionization front always guarantees the existence of a non-zero inhomogeneous perturbation ahead of the streamer head propagating even in perfectly homogeneous dielectric. Based on the modeling results for streamers propagating in a liquid dielectric, a gauge on the streamer head geometry is introduced that determines whether the branching occurs under particular inhomogeneous circumstances. Estimated number, diameter, and velocity of the born branches agree qualitatively with experimental images of the streamer branching

  7. Characteristics of the surface layer of barium strontium titanate thin films deposited by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, V.; Singh, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BST) thin films grown on Si by an in situ ultraviolet-assisted pulsed laser deposition (UVPLD) technique exhibited significantly higher dielectric constant and refractive index values and lower leakage current densities than films grown by conventional PLD under similar conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigations have shown that the surface layer of the grown films contained, besides the usual BST perovskite phase, an additional phase with Ba atoms in a different chemical state. PLD grown films always exhibited larger amounts of this phase, which was homogeneously mixed with the BST phase up to several nm depth, while UVPLD grown films exhibited a much thinner (∼1 nm) and continuous layer. The relative fraction of this phase was not correlated with the amount of C atoms present on the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not find any BaCO 3 contamination layer, which was believed to be related to this new phase. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that although PLD grown films contained less oxygen atoms, the lattice parameter was closer to the bulk value than that of UVPLD grown films. After 4 keV Ar ion sputtering for 6 min, XPS analysis revealed a small suboxide Ba peak for the PLD grown films. This finding indicates that the average Ba-O bonds are weaker in these films, likely due to the presence of oxygen vacancies. It is suggested here that this new Ba phase corresponds to a relaxed BST surface layer. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  8. Characteristics of the surface layer of barium strontium titanate thin films deposited by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, V.; Singh, R. K.

    2000-04-01

    Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST) thin films grown on Si by an in situ ultraviolet-assisted pulsed laser deposition (UVPLD) technique exhibited significantly higher dielectric constant and refractive index values and lower leakage current densities than films grown by conventional PLD under similar conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigations have shown that the surface layer of the grown films contained, besides the usual BST perovskite phase, an additional phase with Ba atoms in a different chemical state. PLD grown films always exhibited larger amounts of this phase, which was homogeneously mixed with the BST phase up to several nm depth, while UVPLD grown films exhibited a much thinner (˜1 nm) and continuous layer. The relative fraction of this phase was not correlated with the amount of C atoms present on the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not find any BaCO3 contamination layer, which was believed to be related to this new phase. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that although PLD grown films contained less oxygen atoms, the lattice parameter was closer to the bulk value than that of UVPLD grown films. After 4 keV Ar ion sputtering for 6 min, XPS analysis revealed a small suboxide Ba peak for the PLD grown films. This finding indicates that the average Ba-O bonds are weaker in these films, likely due to the presence of oxygen vacancies. It is suggested here that this new Ba phase corresponds to a relaxed BST surface layer.

  9. Hybrid nanomembrane-based capacitors for the determination of the dielectric constant of semiconducting molecular ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Paula Andreia; Lopes da Silva, Ricardo Magno; de Oliveira, Rafael Furlan; Merces, Leandro; Bufon, Carlos César Bof

    2018-04-06

    Considerable advances in the field of molecular electronics have been achieved over the recent years. One persistent challenge, however, is the exploitation of the electronic properties of molecules fully integrated into devices. Typically, the molecular electronic properties are investigated using sophisticated techniques incompatible with a practical device technology, such as the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The incorporation of molecular materials in devices is not a trivial task since the typical dimensions of electrical contacts are much larger than the molecular ones. To tackle this issue, we report on hybrid capacitors using mechanically-compliant nanomembranes to encapsulate ultrathin molecular ensembles for the investigation of molecular dielectric properties. As the prototype material, copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) has been chosen as information on its dielectric constant (kCuPc) at the molecular scale is missing. Here, hybrid nanomembrane-based capacitors containing metallic nanomembranes, insulating Al2O3 layers, and the CuPc molecular ensemble have been fabricated and evaluated. The Al2O3 is used to prevent short circuits through the capacitor plates as the molecular layer is considerably thin (< 30 nm). From the electrical measurements of devices with molecular layers of different thicknesses, the CuPc dielectric constant has been reliably determined (kCuPc = 4.5 ± 0.5). These values suggest a mild contribution of molecular orientation in the CuPc dielectric properties. The reported nanomembrane-based capacitor is a viable strategy for the dielectric characterization of ultrathin molecular ensembles integrated into a practical, real device technology. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Thin-layer chromatography can resolve phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine, and phosphothreonine in a protein hydrolyzate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, E.; Goren, H.J.; Boland, D.

    1989-01-01

    A solution of propionic acid, 1 M ammonium hydroxide, and isopropyl alcohol (45/17.5/17.5, v/v) was the ascending solvent in the separation of phosphotyrosine, phosphothreonine, and phosphoserine by thin-layer chromatography. The immobile phase was cellulose. The relative migrations were 0.44, 0.38, and 0.2, respectively. A previously described thin-layer system consisting of isobutyric acid and 0.5 M ammonium hydroxide (50/30, v/v) gave very similar relative migrations. To determine the usefulness of thin-layer chromatography in phosphoamino acid analysis, the propionic acid/ammonium hydroxide/isopropyl alcohol solution was used to characterize phosphorylated residues in a plasma membrane protein which is a substrate for the insulin receptor kinase, in insulin receptor phosphorylated histone H2B, and in an in vivo phosphorylated 90000-Da protein from IM9 cells. 32 P-labeled proteins were separated by dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis, digested with trypsin, and then hydrolyzed with 6 N HCl, 2 h, 110 degrees C. Following thin-layer chromatography of the hydrolyzates and autoradiography, phosphotyrosine was detected in insulin receptor substrates, and phosphoserine and phosphothreonine were found in the in vivo-phosphorylated protein. This study supports previous reports about the practicality of thin-layer chromatography in phosphoamino acid analysis and it demonstrates that a propionic acid, ammonium hydroxide, isoprophyl alcohol solution may be a useful ascending solvent mixture for this purpose

  11. Enhanced transmission through arrays of subwavelength holes in gold films coated by a finite dielectric layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Qiu, M.

    2007-01-01

    resonances attributing to the enhanced transmission: the localized waveguide resonance and periodic surface plasmon resonances. For the film coated with dielectric layers, calculated results show that in the wavelength region of interest the localized waveguide resonant mode attributes to sensing rather than...

  12. Monochromatic filter with multiple manipulation approaches by the layered all-dielectric patch array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoshan; Liu, Guiqiang; Fu, Guolan; Liu, Mulin; Liu, Zhengqi

    2016-01-01

    Monochromatic filtering with ultra-narrowband and high spectral contrast is desirable for wide applications in display, image, and other optoelectronics. However, owing to the inherent omhic losses in the metallic materials, a broadband spectrum with a low Q-factor down to 10 inevitably limits the device performance. Herein, we for the first time theoretically propose and demonstrate an ultra-narrowband color-filtering platform based on the layered all-dielectric meta-material (LADM), which consists of a triple-layer high/low/high-index dielectrics cavity structure. Owing to the lossless dielectric materials used, sharp resonances with the bandwidth down to sub-10 nm are observed in the sub-wavelength LADM-based filters. A spectral Q-factor of 361.6 is achieved, which is orders of magnitude larger than that of the plasmonic resonators. Moreover, for the other significant factor for evaluation of filtering performance, the spectral contrast reaches 94.5%. These optical properties are the main results of the excitation of the resonant modes in the LADMs. Furthermore, polarization-manipulated light filtering is realized in this LADM. The classical Malus law is also confirmed in the reflective spectrum by tuning the polarization state. More interestingly and importantly, the filtering phenomenon shows novel features of the wavelength-independent and tunable resonant intensity for the reflective spectrum when the LADM-based filter is illuminated under an oblique state. High scalability of the sharp reflective spectrum is obtained by tuning the structural parameters. A single-wavelength reflective filtering window is also achieved in the visible frequencies. These features hold promise for the LADM-based filter with wide applications in color engineering, displaying, imaging, etc. (paper)

  13. (AJST) THIN- LAYER DRYING OF DICED CASSAVA ROOTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    effect of drying temperature on thin-layer drying was high, followed by initial moisture .... The moisture content was converted to moisture ratio (MR) using the non-exponential part .... The Potential of Cassava As a Cash. Crop For Small Holder ...

  14. Layer-by-Layer-Assembled High-Performance Broadband Antireflection Coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Shimomura, Hiroomi

    2010-03-24

    Nanoparticles are indispensable ingredients of solution-processed optical, dielectric, and catalytic thin films. Although solution-based methods are promising low-cost alternatives to vacuum methods, they can have significant limitations. Coating uniformity, thickness control, roughness control, mechanical durability, and incorporation of a diverse set of functional organic molecules into nanoparticle thin films are major challenges. We have used the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly technique to make uniform, conformal multistack nanoparticle thin films for optical applications with precise thickness control over each stack. Two particularly sought-after optical applications are broadband antireflection and structural color. The effects of interstack and surface roughness on optical properties of these constructs (e.g., haze and spectral response) have been studied quantitatively using a combination of Fourier-transform methods and atomic force microscopy measurements. Deconvoluting root-mean-square roughness into its large-, intermediate-, and small-scale components enables enhanced optical simulations. A 4-stack broadband antireflection coating (<0.5% average reflectance in the visible range, and 0.2% haze) composed of alternating high-index (n ≈ 1.96) and low-index (n ≈ 1.28) stacks has been made on glass substrate. Films calcinated at 550 °C endure a one-hour-long cloth cleaning test under 100 kPa normal stress. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    plate capacitor will reduce the net field to an unprecedented extent. This family of materials can form materials with dielectric values orders of... Capacitor -Increase Area (A)............8 b. Multi-layer Ceramic Capacitor -Decrease Thickness (d) .......10 c. Super Dielectric Material-Increase...circuit modeling, from [44], and B) SDM capacitor charge and discharge ...................................................22 Figure 15. Dielectric

  16. Thin layer activation and ultra thin layer activation: two complementary techniques for wear and corrosion studies in various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvage, T.; Vincent, L.; Blondiaux, G.

    2002-01-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) is widely used since more than 25 years to study surface wear or corrosion. This well known technique uses most of the time charged particles activation, which gives sensitivity in the range of the micrometer, except when the fluid mode of detection is utilized. In this case application of the method is limited to phenomena where we have transport of radioactive fragments to detection point. The main disadvantage of this procedure is the error due to trapping phenomena between the wear or corrosion point and detection setup. So the ultra thin layer activation (UTLA) has been developed to get nanometric sensitivity without using any fluid for radioactivity transportation, which is the main source of error of the TLA technique. In this paper we shall briefly describe the TLA technique and the most important fields of application. Then we shall emphasise on UTLA with a presentation of the principle of the method and actual running of application. The main problem concerning UTLA is calibration which requires the use of thin films (usually 10 to 100 nanometers) deposited on substrate. This process is time consuming and we shall demonstrate how running software developed in the lab can solve it. We shall finish the presentation by giving some potential application of the technique in various fields. (authors)

  17. Comparison of neat and photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene thin film dielectrics formed by spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyore, O.D.; Roodenko, K.; Winkler, P.S. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Noriega, J.R.; Vasselli, J.J. [Electrical Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75799 (United States); Chabal, Y.J. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Gnade, B.E., E-mail: gnade@utdallas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    We report the characterization of photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) thin film, metal–insulator–metal capacitors fabricated using standard semiconductor processing techniques. We characterize the capacitors using in-situ vibrational spectroscopy during thermally-assisted poling and correlate the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. FTIR analysis of the neat PVDF-HFP showed α → β transformations during poling at room temperature and at 55 °C. α → β transformations were observed for the crosslinked polymer only during poling at 55 °C. XRD data revealed that photo-crosslinking caused the polymer to partially crystallize into the β-phase. The similar behavior of the neat and crosslinked samples at 55 °C suggests that a higher activation energy was needed for α → β transformations in crosslinked PVDF-HFP during poling. Electrical measurements showed that photo-crosslinking had no significant effect on the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of PVDF-HFP. However, the dielectric strength and maximum energy density of the crosslinked polymer were severely reduced. - Highlights: • Polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) dielectrics were studied. • Phase transformations were observed only at 55 °C for the crosslinked PVDF-HFP. • Crosslinking had no strong effect on the dielectric constant of PVDF-HFP. • Breakdown strengths were 620 MVm{sup −1} and 362 MVm{sup −1} for neat and crosslinked films.

  18. Phase sensitive molecular dynamics of self-assembly glycolipid thin films: A dielectric spectroscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, T. S.; Ng, B. K.; Gan, W. C.; Majid, W. H. Abd.; Hashim, R.; Zahid, N. I.; Chaiprapa, Jitrin

    2014-08-01

    Glycolipid, found commonly in membranes, is also a liquid crystal material which can self-assemble without the presence of a solvent. Here, the dielectric and conductivity properties of three synthetic glycolipid thin films in different thermotropic liquid crystal phases were investigated over a frequency and temperature range of (10-2-106 Hz) and (303-463 K), respectively. The observed relaxation processes distinguish between the different phases (smectic A, columnar/hexagonal, and bicontinuous cubic Q) and the glycolipid molecular structures. Large dielectric responses were observed in the columnar and bicontinuous cubic phases of the longer branched alkyl chain glycolipids. Glycolipids with the shortest branched alkyl chain experience the most restricted self-assembly dynamic process over the broad temperature range studied compared to the longer ones. A high frequency dielectric absorption (Process I) was observed in all samples. This is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network from the sugar group. An additional low-frequency mechanism (Process II) with a large dielectric strength was observed due to the internal dynamics of the self-assembly organization. Phase sensitive domain heterogeneity in the bicontinuous cubic phase was related to the diffusion of charge carriers. The microscopic features of charge hopping were modelled using the random walk scheme, and two charge carrier hopping lengths were estimated for two glycolipid systems. For Process I, the hopping length is comparable to the hydrogen bond and is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network. Additionally, that for Process II is comparable to the bilayer spacing, hence confirming that this low-frequency mechanism is associated with the internal dynamics within the phase.

  19. Interest in broadband dielectric spectroscopy to study the electronic transport in materials for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badot, Jean-Claude, E-mail: jc.badot@chimie-paristech.fr [Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, UMR CNRS 8247, Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l' Energie (RS2E), Chimie Paris Tech, PSL*, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75231 Cedex 05 Paris (France); Lestriez, Bernard [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, UMR CNRS 6502, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP32229, 44322 Nantes (France); Dubrunfaut, Olivier [GeePs | Group of electrical engineering – Paris, UMR CNRS 8507, CentraleSupélec, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 3 & 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, Paris (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Broadband dielectric spectroscopy measures the multiscale electronic conductivity from macroscopic to interatomic sizes. • There is an influence of the surface states on the electronic transfer of powdered materials (e.g. thin insulating layer of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on LiNiO{sub 2} and carbon coating on LiFePO{sub 4}). • Electrical relaxations resulting from the interfacial polarizations at the different scales of the carbon black network are evidenced. - Abstract: Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) is used to measure complex permittivity and conductivity of conducting materials for lithium batteries at frequencies from a few Hz to several GHz with network and impedance analysers. Under the influence of an electric field, there will be charge density fluctuations in the conductor mainly due to electronic transfer. These fluctuations result in dielectric relaxations for frequencies below 100 GHz. The materials are compacted powders in which each element (particles, agglomerates of particles) can have different sizes and morphologies. In the present review, studies are reported on the influence of surface states in LiNiO{sub 2} (ageing and degradation in air) and LiFePO{sub 4} (carbon coating thin layer), and on a composite electrode based on the lithium trivanadate (Li{sub 1.1}V{sub 3}O{sub 8}) active material. The results have shown that the BDS technique is very sensitive to the different scales of materials architectures involved in electronic transport, from interatomic distances to macroscopic sizes.

  20. Interest in broadband dielectric spectroscopy to study the electronic transport in materials for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badot, Jean-Claude; Lestriez, Bernard; Dubrunfaut, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Broadband dielectric spectroscopy measures the multiscale electronic conductivity from macroscopic to interatomic sizes. • There is an influence of the surface states on the electronic transfer of powdered materials (e.g. thin insulating layer of Li_2CO_3 on LiNiO_2 and carbon coating on LiFePO_4). • Electrical relaxations resulting from the interfacial polarizations at the different scales of the carbon black network are evidenced. - Abstract: Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) is used to measure complex permittivity and conductivity of conducting materials for lithium batteries at frequencies from a few Hz to several GHz with network and impedance analysers. Under the influence of an electric field, there will be charge density fluctuations in the conductor mainly due to electronic transfer. These fluctuations result in dielectric relaxations for frequencies below 100 GHz. The materials are compacted powders in which each element (particles, agglomerates of particles) can have different sizes and morphologies. In the present review, studies are reported on the influence of surface states in LiNiO_2 (ageing and degradation in air) and LiFePO_4 (carbon coating thin layer), and on a composite electrode based on the lithium trivanadate (Li_1_._1V_3O_8) active material. The results have shown that the BDS technique is very sensitive to the different scales of materials architectures involved in electronic transport, from interatomic distances to macroscopic sizes.

  1. The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Ozaki, Kimihiro

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on the open-circuit voltage generated by thin-film thermoelectric modules of Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 (p-type) and Bi 2 Te 2.7 Se 0.3 (n-type) materials was investigated. A Cr buffer layer, whose thickness generally needs to be optimized to improve adhesion depending on the substrate surface condition, such as roughness, was deposited between thermoelectric thin films and glass substrates. When the Cr buffer layer was 1 nm thick, the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivity of 1 µm thermoelectric thin films with the buffer layers were approximately equal to those of the thermoelectric films without the buffer layers. When the thickness of the Cr buffer layer was 1 µm, the same as the thermoelectric films, the Seebeck coefficients of the bilayer films were reduced by an electrical current flowing inside the Cr buffer layer and the generation of Cr 2 Te 3 . The open-circuit voltage of the thin-film thermoelectric modules decreased with an increase in the thickness of the Cr buffer layer, which was primarily induced by the electrical current flow. The reduction caused by the Cr 2 Te 3 generation was less than 10% of the total voltage generation of the modules without the Cr buffer layers. The voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules could be controlled by the Cr buffer layer thickness. (paper)

  2. Broadband dielectric characterization of sapphire/TiOx/Ba₀.₃Sr₀.₇TiO₃ (111)-oriented thin films for the realization of a tunable interdigitated capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalem, Areski; Ponchel, Freddy; Remiens, Denis; Legier, Jean-Francois; Lasri, Tuami

    2013-05-01

    A complete microwave characterization up to 67 GHz using specific coplanar waveguides was performed to determine the dielectric properties (permittivity, losses, and tunability) of sapphire/TiOx/Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 (BST) (111)-oriented thin films. To that end, BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on sapphire (0001) substrate. To control the preferred (111) orientation, a TiOx buffer layer was deposited on sapphire. According to the detailed knowledge of the material properties, it has been possible to conceive, fabricate, and test interdigitated capacitors, the basic element for future microwave tunable applications. Retention of capacitive behavior up to 67 GHz and a tunability of 32% at 67 GHz at an applied voltage of 30 V (150 kV/cm) were observed. The Q-factor remains greater than 30 over the entire frequency band. The possibility of a complete characterization of the material for the realization of high-performance interdigitated capacitors opens the door to microwave device fabrication.

  3. Origin of switching current transients in TIPS-pentacene based organic thin-film transistor with polymer dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Subhash; Mohapatra, Y. N.

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated switch-on drain-source current transients in fully solution-processed thin film transistors based on 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) using cross-linked poly-4-vinylphenol as a dielectric. We show that the nature of the transient (increasing or decreasing) depends on both the temperature and the amplitude of the switching pulse at the gate. The isothermal transients are analyzed spectroscopically in a time domain to extract the degree of non-exponentiality and its possible origin in trap kinetics. We propose a phenomenological model in which the exchange of electrons between interfacial ions and traps controls the nature of the drain current transients dictated by the Fermi level position. The origin of interfacial ions is attributed to the essential fabrication step of UV-ozone treatment of the dielectric prior to semiconductor deposition.

  4. Transfer matrix approach for the Kerr and Faraday rotation in layered nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Széchenyi, Gábor; Vigh, Máté; Cserti, József; Kormányos, Andor

    2016-01-01

    To study the optical rotation of the polarization of light incident on multilayer systems consisting of atomically thin conductors and dielectric multilayers we present a general method based on transfer matrices. The transfer matrix of the atomically thin conducting layer is obtained using the Maxwell equations. We derive expressions for the Kerr (Faraday) rotation angle and for the ellipticity of the reflected (transmitted) light as a function of the incident angle and polarization of the light. The method is demonstrated by calculating the Kerr (Faraday) angle for bilayer graphene in the quantum anomalous Hall state placed on the top of dielectric multilayers. The optical conductivity of the bilayer graphene is calculated in the framework of a four-band model. (paper)

  5. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2015-01-01

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe 3 O 4 thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe 3 O 4 thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H 2 /Ar at 400 °C, the as-grown α−Fe 2 O 3 sample is reduced to Fe 3 O 4 phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications

  6. A simplified computing method of pile group to seismic loads using thin layer element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masao, T.; Hama, I.

    1995-01-01

    In the calculation of pile group, it is said that the results of response by thin layer method give the correct solution with the isotropic and homogeneous soil material in each layer, on the other hand this procedure spends huge computing time. Dynamic stiffness matrix of thin layer method is obtained from inversion of flexibility matrix between pile-i and pile-j. This flexibility matrix is full matrix and its size increase in proportion to the number of piles and thin layers. The greater part of run time is taken into the inversion of flexibility matrix against point loading. We propose the method of decreasing the run time for computing by reducing to banded matrix of flexibility matrix. (author)

  7. In-plane microwave dielectric properties of paraelectric barium strontium titanate thin films with anisotropic epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Bellotti, J. A.

    2005-08-01

    In-plane dielectric properties of ⟨110⟩ oriented epitaxial (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 thin films in the thickness range from 25-1200nm have been investigated under the influence of anisotropic epitaxial strains from ⟨100⟩ NdGaO3 substrates. The measured dielectric properties show strong residual strain and in-plane directional dependence. Below 150nm film thickness, there appears to be a phase transition due to the anisotropic nature of the misfit strain relaxation. In-plane relative permittivity is found to vary from as much as 500-150 along [11¯0] and [001] respectively, in 600nm thick films, and from 75 to 500 overall. Tunability was found to vary from as much as 54% to 20% in all films and directions, and in a given film the best tunability is observed along the compressed axis in a mixed strain state, 54% along [11¯0] in the 600nm film for example.

  8. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-05-19

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves the use of underpotential deposition of a first element to mediate the growth of a second material by overpotential deposition. Deposition occurs between a potential positive to the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element where a full monolayer of mediating element forms, and a potential which is less than, or only slightly greater than, the bulk deposition potential of the material to be deposited. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis. This process is especially suitable for the formation of a catalytically active layer on core-shell particles for use in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells.

  9. On the possibility of superluminal energy propagation in a hyperbolic metamaterial of metal-dielectric layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Gang Luan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy propagation of electromagnetic fields in the effective medium of a one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of dielectric and metallic layers is investigated. We show that the medium behaves like Drude and Lorentz medium, respectively, when the electric field is parallel and perpendicular to the layers. For arbitrary time-varying electromagnetic fields in this medium, the energy density formula is derived. We prove rigorously that the group velocity of any propagating mode obeying the hyperbolic dispersion must be slower than the speed of light in vacuum, taking into account the frequency dependence of the permittivity tensor. That is, it is not possible to have superluminal propagation in this dispersive hyperbolic medium consisting of real dielectric and metallic material layers. The propagation velocity of a wave packet is also studied numerically. This packet velocity is very close to the velocity of the propagating mode having the central frequency and central wave vector of the wave packet. When the frequency spread of the wave packet is not narrow enough, small discrepancy between these two velocities manifests, which is caused by the non-penetration effect of the evanescent modes. This work reveals that no superluminal phenomenon can happen in a dispersive anisotropic metamaterial medium made of real materials.

  10. Physical mechanisms of SiNx layer structuring with ultrafast lasers by direct and confined laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, S.; Heinrich, G.; Wollgarten, M.; Huber, H. P.; Schmidt, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the production process of silicon microelectronic devices and high efficiency silicon solar cells, local contact openings in thin dielectric layers are required. Instead of photolithography, these openings can be selectively structured with ultra-short laser pulses by confined laser ablation in a fast and efficient lift off production step. Thereby, the ultrafast laser pulse is transmitted by the dielectric layer and absorbed at the substrate surface leading to a selective layer removal in the nanosecond time domain. Thermal damage in the substrate due to absorption is an unwanted side effect. The aim of this work is to obtain a deeper understanding of the physical laser-material interaction with the goal of finding a damage-free ablation mechanism. For this, thin silicon nitride (SiN x ) layers on planar silicon (Si) wafers are processed with infrared fs-laser pulses. Two ablation types can be distinguished: The known confined ablation at fluences below 300 mJ/cm 2 and a combined partial confined and partial direct ablation at higher fluences. The partial direct ablation process is caused by nonlinear absorption in the SiN x layer in the center of the applied Gaussian shaped laser pulses. Pump-probe investigations of the central area show ultra-fast reflectivity changes typical for direct laser ablation. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate that the Si surface under the remaining SiN x island is not damaged by the laser ablation process. At optimized process parameters, the method of direct laser ablation could be a good candidate for damage-free selective structuring of dielectric layers on absorbing substrates

  11. Mathematical modelling of thin layer drying of pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovska Monika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a thin - layer drying of pear slices as a function of drying conditions were examined. The experimental data set of thin - layer drying kinetics at five drying air temperatures 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70°C, and three drying air velocities 1, 1.5 and 2 m s-1 were obtained on the experimental setup, designed to imitate industrial convective dryer. Five well known thin - layer drying models from scientific literature were used to approximate the experimental data in terms of moisture ratio. In order to find which model gives the best results, numerical experiments were made. For each model and data set, the statistical performance index, (φ, and chi-squared, (χ2, value were calculated and models were ranked afterwards. The performed statistical analysis shows that the model of Midilli gives the best statistical results. Because the effect of drying air temperature and drying air velocity on the empirical parameters was not included in the base Midilli model, in this study the generalized form of this model was developed. With this model, the drying kinetic data of pear slices can be approximated with high accuracy. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick’s second laws. The obtained values of the effective moisture diffusivity, (Deff, during drying ranged between 6.49 x 10-9 and 3.29 x 10-8 m2 s-1, while the values of activation energy (E0 varied between 28.15 to 30.51 kJ mol-1.

  12. Application of thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations near maximum lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. K.; Thomas, J. L.; Rumsey, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    The flowfield about a NACA 0012 airfoil at a Mach number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 1 million is computed through an angle of attack range, up to 18 deg, corresponding to conditions up to and beyond the maximum lift coefficient. Results obtained using the compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are presented as well as results from the compressible Euler equations with and without a viscous coupling procedure. The applicability of each code is assessed and many thin-layer Navier-Stokes benchmark solutions are obtained which can be used for comparison with other codes intended for use at high angles of attack. Reasonable agreement of the Navier-Stokes code with experiment and the viscous-inviscid interaction code is obtained at moderate angles of attack. An unsteady solution is obtained with the thin-layer Navier-Stokes code at the highest angle of attack considered. The maximum lift coefficient is overpredicted, however, in comparison to experimental data, which is attributed to the presence of a laminar separation bubble near the leading edge not modeled in the computations. Two comparisons with experimental data are also presented at a higher Mach number.

  13. Breakthrough to Non-Vacuum Deposition of Single-Crystal, Ultra-Thin, Homogeneous Nanoparticle Layers: A Better Alternative to Chemical Bath Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kuang Liao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most thin-film techniques require a multiple vacuum process, and cannot produce high-coverage continuous thin films with the thickness of a few nanometers on rough surfaces. We present a new ”paradigm shift” non-vacuum process to deposit high-quality, ultra-thin, single-crystal layers of coalesced sulfide nanoparticles (NPs with controllable thickness down to a few nanometers, based on thermal decomposition. This provides high-coverage, homogeneous thickness, and large-area deposition over a rough surface, with little material loss or liquid chemical waste, and deposition rates of 10 nm/min. This technique can potentially replace conventional thin-film deposition methods, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD and chemical bath deposition (CBD as used by the Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS thin-film solar cell industry for decades. We demonstrate 32% improvement of CIGS thin-film solar cell efficiency in comparison to reference devices prepared by conventional CBD deposition method by depositing the ZnS NPs buffer layer using the new process. The new ZnS NPs layer allows reduction of an intrinsic ZnO layer, which can lead to severe shunt leakage in case of a CBD buffer layer. This leads to a 65% relative efficiency increase.

  14. Electromagnetic Pulse Generated by a Horizontal Electric Dipole over a Perfect Conductor Covered with a Dielectric Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Juan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electromagnetic pulse due to a delta-function current excitation has been derived on the planar surface of a perfect conductor coated by a dielectric layer. The approximate expression of wave component is obtained when both the transmitting source and the receiving antennas are located on the surface of the dielectric. When the thickness of the intermediate layer is subjected to the condition of k1l<<0.6, this physical model is applied to the microstrip circuit. Analysis and computations of the wave components are carried out on the microstrip circuit, including the surface trapped wave vector which had been ignored in former studies. It is shown that the trapped-surface-wave terms should have been taken into consideration as the main contribution in total transient field in the far-field radiations.

  15. Highway pavement performance test for colored thin anti-skidding layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Cui, Wei; Xu, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Based on the actual service condition of highway pavement colored thin anti-skidding layers, with materials of color quartz sand and two-component acrylic resin as basis, we designed such tests as the bond strength, shearing strength, tear strength, fatigue performance and aggregate polished value, and included the freeze-thaw cycle and de-icing salt and other factors in the experiment, connecting with the climate characteristics of circumpolar latitude and low altitude in Heilongjiang province. Through the pavement performance test, it is confirmed that the colored thin anti-skidding layers can adapt to cold and humid climate conditions, and its physical mechanical properties are good.

  16. Sorption and movement of pesticides on thin layer plates of Brazilain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, K.A.; Helene, C.G.; Andrea, M.M. de; Ruegg, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption from aqueous solution, and movement in water on thin layers plates of 7 soils of 3 organochlorine, 2 organophosphorus and 1 carbamate insecticide was determined in the laboratory. Generally, all substances were sorbed most and moved least on soils richest in organic matter. However, sorption was not a function of organic matter content alone. Aldrin and DDT were most strongly sorbed and did not move from the point of application on the thin layer plates of any soil. On all 7 soils, carbaryl was the least strongly sorbed insecticide. On 5 soils, lindane, parathion and malathion were increasingly strongly sorbed, but on the other 2 soils lindane was mostly strongly sorbed. The apparent greater mobility of 14 C-labelled malathion on thin layers of soils repeatedly leached could be explained by the formation of more polar substances. (author) [pt

  17. Artificial dispersion via high-order homogenization: magnetoelectric coupling and magnetism from dielectric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Guenneau, Sébastien; Gralak, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a high-order homogenization (HOH) algorithm for periodic multi-layered stacks. The mathematical tool of choice is a transfer matrix method. Expressions for effective permeability, permittivity and magnetoelectric coupling are explored by frequency power expansions. On the physical side, this HOH uncovers a magnetoelectric coupling effect (odd-order approximation) and artificial magnetism (even-order approximation) in moderate contrast photonic crystals. Comparing the effective parameters' expressions of a stack with three layers against that of a stack with two layers, we note that the magnetoelectric coupling effect vanishes while the artificial magnetism can still be achieved in a centre-symmetric periodic structure. Furthermore, we numerically check the effective parameters through the dispersion law and transmission property of a stack with two dielectric layers against that of an effective bianisotropic medium: they are in good agreement throughout the low-frequency (acoustic) band until the first stop band, where the analyticity of the logarithm function of the transfer matrix () breaks down. PMID:24101891

  18. Zirconium titanate thin film prepared by surface sol-gel process and effects of thickness on dielectric property

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C H

    2002-01-01

    Single phase of multicomponent oxide ZrTiO sub 4 film could be prepared through surface sol-gel route simply by coating the mixture of 100mM zirconium butoxide and titanium butoxide on Pt/Ti/SiO sub 2 /Si(100) substrate, following pyrolysis at 450 .deg. C, and annealing it at 770 .deg. C. The dielectric constant of the film was reduced as the film thickness decreased due to of the interfacial effects caused by layer/electrode and a few voids inside the multilayer. However, the dielectric property was independent of applied dc bias sweeps voltage (-2 to +2 V). The dielectric constant of bulk film, 31.9, estimated using series-connected capacitor model was independent of film thickness and frequency in the measurement range, but theoretical interfacial thickness, t sub i , was dependent on the frequency. It reached a saturated t sub i value, 6.9 A, at high frequency by extraction of some capacitance component formed at low frequency range. The dielectric constant of bulk ZrTiO sub 4 pellet-shaped material was 3...

  19. Thin-layer chromatography of radioactively labelled cholesterol and precursors from biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pill, J.; Aufenanger, J.; Stegmeier, K.; Schmidt, F.H.; Mueller, D.; Boehringer Mannheim G.m.b.H.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation methods of the action of xenobiotics on sterol biosynthesis from 14 C-acetate in rat hepatocyte cultures can be developed, with regard to extraction using Extrelut and the separation of the sterol pattern by thin-layer chromatography, in such a way that they are suitable for wider application, e.g., screening. Good visualisation and recognition of changes in the sterol pattern are possible using autoradiography of the thin-layer chromatogram. (orig.)

  20. Electroresistance Effect in Gold Thin Film Induced by Ionic-Liquid-Gated Electric Double Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakayama, Hiroyasu; Ye, Jianting; Ohtani, Takashi; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Ando, Kazuya; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Eiji

    Electroresistance effect was detected in a metallic thin film using ionic-liquid-gated electric-double-layer transistors (EDLTs). We observed reversible modulation of the electric resistance of a Au thin film. In this system, we found that an electric double layer works as a nanogap capacitor with

  1. Nonequilibrium temperatures and second-sound propagation along nanowires and thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, D.; Cimmelli, V.A.; Sellitto, A.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the dispersion relation of heat waves along nanowires or thin layers could allow to compare two different definitions of nonequilibrium temperature, since thermal waves are predicted to propagate with different phase speed depending on the definition of nonequilibrium temperature being used. The difference is small, but it could be in principle measurable in nanosystems, as for instance nanowires and thin layers, in a given frequency range. Such an experiment could provide a deeper view on the problem of the definition of temperature in nonequilibrium situations.

  2. Heat transfer enhancement induced by electrically generated convection in a plane layer of dielectric liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traoré, P; Wu, J; Romat, H; Louste, C; Perez, A; Koulova, D

    2012-01-01

    The electro-thermo-convective motion in a plane horizontal dielectric liquid layer subjected to simultaneous action of electric field and thermal gradient is numerically investigated. We consider the case of a strong unipolar charge injection C = 10 from above or below. Therefore in this context, we only take into account the Coulomb force, disregarding the dielectric one. The effect of the electric field on the heat transfer is analyzed through the characterization of the time history of the Nusselt number as well as its evolution according to the characteristic dimensionless electric parameter T. It is demonstrated that the electric effects dominate the buoyancy ones resulting in an electrically induced convection which significantly enhance the heat transfer.

  3. Impedance Characterization of the Capacitive field-Effect pH-Sensor Based on a thin-Layer Hafnium Oxide Formed by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael LEE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a sensing element, silicon dioxide (SiO2 has been applied within ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFET. However, a requirement of increasing pH-sensitivity and stability has observed an increased number of insulating materials that obtain high-k gate being applied as FETs. The increased high-k gate reduces the required metal oxide layer and, thus, the fabrication of thin hafnium oxide (HfO2 layers by atomic layer deposition (ALD has grown with interest in recent years. This metal oxide presents advantageous characteristics that can be beneficial for the advancements within miniaturization of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology. In this article, we describe a process for fabrication of HfO2 based on ALD by applying water (H2O as the oxygen precursor. As a first, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements were performed with varying pH (2-10 to demonstrate the sensitivity of HfO2 as a potential pH sensing material. The Nyquist plot demonstrates a high clear shift of the polarization resistance (Rp between pH 6-10 (R2 = 0.9986, Y = 3,054X + 12,100. At acidic conditions (between pH 2-10, the Rp change was small due to the unmodified oxide gate (R2 = 0.9655, Y = 2,104X + 4,250. These preliminary results demonstrate the HfO2 substrate functioned within basic to neutral conditions and establishes a great potential for applying HfO2 as a dielectric material for future pH measuring FET sensors.

  4. Time-dependent electrophoresis of a dielectric spherical particle embedded in Brinkman medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, E. I.; Faltas, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    An expression for electrophoretic apparent velocity slip in the time-dependent flow of an electrolyte solution saturated in a charged porous medium within an electric double layer adjacent to a dielectric plate under the influence of a tangential uniform electric field is derived. The velocity slip is used as a boundary condition to solve the electrophoretic motion of an impermeable dielectric spherical particle embedded in an electrolyte solution saturated in porous medium under the unsteady Darcy-Brinkman model. Throughout the system, a uniform electric field is applied and maintains with constant strength. Two cases are considered, when the electric double layer enclosing the particle is thin, but finite and when of a particle with a thick double layer. Expressions for the electrophoretic mobility of the particle as functions of the relevant parameters are found. Our results indicate that the time scale for the growth of mobility is significant and small for high permeability. Generally, the effect of the relaxation time for starting electrophoresis is negligible, irrespective of the thickness of the double layer and permeability of the medium. The effects of the elapsed time, permeability, mass density and Debye length parameters on the fluid velocity, the electrophoretic mobility and the acceleration are shown graphically.

  5. Evaluation of a thin-layer chromatographic technique for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extracts of both fistula and bush samples were prepared and analysed by thin-layer chromatography. Chromatoplates, when visualised under ultraviolet light, revealed a number of fluorescent compounds, some of which were common in both the fistula and bush sample extracts. By comparing the presence of ...

  6. Thin Cell Layer technology in ornamental plant micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin cell layer (TCL) technology originated almost 30 years ago with the controlled development of flowers, roots, shoots and somatic embryos on tobacco pedicel longitudinal TCLs. Since then TCLs have been successfully used in the micropropagation of many ornamental plant species whose previous in vitro ...

  7. Indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin film transistors with a hybrid-channel structure for defect suppression and mobility improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Huang-Kai; Su, Liang-Yu; Hung, Chia-Chin; Huang, JianJang

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we explore an indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistor structure with a vacuum annealed IGZO thin film inserted between the dielectric and typical channel layers. The device demonstrates a better subthreshold swing and field-effect mobility due to the suppression of defects in the channel and the channel/dielectric interface. The hybrid channel structure also exhibits the flexibility of adjusting the threshold voltage. The superior carrier mobility was then verified from the transient response of the inverter circuit constructed by the devices. - Highlights: • Additional in-situ annealed In–Ga–ZnO film was inserted in thin film transistor (TFT). • Traps are suppressed and field effect mobility is improved in the TFT. • An inverter with the device structure has a better transient response

  8. Indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin film transistors with a hybrid-channel structure for defect suppression and mobility improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huang-Kai; Su, Liang-Yu; Hung, Chia-Chin [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, JianJang, E-mail: jjhuang@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we explore an indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistor structure with a vacuum annealed IGZO thin film inserted between the dielectric and typical channel layers. The device demonstrates a better subthreshold swing and field-effect mobility due to the suppression of defects in the channel and the channel/dielectric interface. The hybrid channel structure also exhibits the flexibility of adjusting the threshold voltage. The superior carrier mobility was then verified from the transient response of the inverter circuit constructed by the devices. - Highlights: • Additional in-situ annealed In–Ga–ZnO film was inserted in thin film transistor (TFT). • Traps are suppressed and field effect mobility is improved in the TFT. • An inverter with the device structure has a better transient response.

  9. Novel charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET as a biosensor for label-free detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Manash; Dey, Prithu; De, Swapnadip; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET (CP-DIMOSFET) has been proposed for the first time to ease the label free detection of biomolecules. The concept of CP-DIMOSFET is proposed and analyzed on basis of simulated data using SILVACO ATLAS. Low thermal budgeting and thin silicon layer without any dopant implantations make the proposed structure advantageous compared to the existing MOSFET based biosensors. The results show that the proposed device is capable to detect the presence of biomolecules. Simple fabrication schemes, miniaturization, high sensitivity, dominance of dielectric modulation make the proposed biosensor a promising one that could one day revolutionize the healthcare industry.

  10. Impact of Gate Dielectric in Carrier Mobility in Low Temperature Chalcogenide Thin Film Transistors for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Salas-Villasenor, A. L.; Mejia, I.; Hovarth, J.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Cha, D. K.; Ramirez-Bon, R.; Gnade, B. E.; Quevedo-Lopez, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide thin film transistors were demonstrated as the n-type device for use in flexible electronics. CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (70° C) on either 100 nm HfO2 or SiO2 as the gate dielectrics. Common gate transistors with channel lengths of 40-100 μm were fabricated with source and drain aluminum top contacts defined using a shadow mask process. No thermal annealing was performed throughout the device process. X-ray diffraction results clearly show the hexagonal crystalline phase of CdS. The electrical performance of HfO 2 /CdS -based thin film transistors shows a field effect mobility and threshold voltage of 25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2 V, respectively. Improvement in carrier mobility is associated with better nucleation and growth of CdS films deposited on HfO2. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  11. Impact of Gate Dielectric in Carrier Mobility in Low Temperature Chalcogenide Thin Film Transistors for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Salas-Villasenor, A. L.

    2010-06-29

    Cadmium sulfide thin film transistors were demonstrated as the n-type device for use in flexible electronics. CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (70° C) on either 100 nm HfO2 or SiO2 as the gate dielectrics. Common gate transistors with channel lengths of 40-100 μm were fabricated with source and drain aluminum top contacts defined using a shadow mask process. No thermal annealing was performed throughout the device process. X-ray diffraction results clearly show the hexagonal crystalline phase of CdS. The electrical performance of HfO 2 /CdS -based thin film transistors shows a field effect mobility and threshold voltage of 25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2 V, respectively. Improvement in carrier mobility is associated with better nucleation and growth of CdS films deposited on HfO2. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  12. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mami N; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-12-18

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices.

  13. Size effects on structural and dielectric properties of PZT thin films at compositions around the morpho tropic phase boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Elton Carvalho; Araujo, Eudes Borges; Souza Filho, Antonio Gomes de; Bdikin, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The demand for portability in consumer electronics has motivated the understanding of size effects on ferroelectric thin films. The actual comprehension of these effects in ferroelectrics is unsatisfactory, since the polarization interacts more strongly than other order parameters such as strain and charge. As a result, extrinsic effects are produced if these variables are uncontrolled and problems such as ferroelectric paraelectric phase transition at nanometers scale remains an unsolved issue. In the present work, the effects of thickness and compositional fractions on the structural and dielectric properties of PbZr 1-x Ti x O 3 (PZT) thin films were studied at a composition around the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.50). For this purpose, thin films with different thicknesses and different PbO excess were deposited on Si(100) and Pt=T iO 2 =SiO 2 =Si substrates by a chemical method and crystallized in electric furnace at 700 deg C for 1 hour. The effects of substrate, pyrolysis temperature and excess lead addition in the films are reported. For films with 10 mol% PbO in excess, the pyrolysis in the regime of 300 deg C for 30 minutes was observed to yield PZT pyrochlore free thin films deposited on Pt=T iO 2 =SiO 2 =Si substrate. Out this condition, the transformation from amorphous to the pyrochlore metastable phase is kinetically more favorable that a transformation to the perovskite phase, which is thermodynamically stable. Rietveld refinements based on X-ray diffraction results showed that films present a purely tetragonal phase and that this phase does not change when the film thickness decreases. The dielectric permittivity measurements showed a monoclinic → tetragonal phase transition at 198K. Results showed that the dielectric permittivity (ε) increases continuously from 257 to 463, while the thickness of the PZT films increases from 200 to 710 nm. These results suggests that interface pinning centers can be the responsible mechanism by

  14. Questing and the application for silicon based ternary compound within ultra-thin layer of SIS intermediate region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shumin; Gao, Ming; Wan, Yazhou; Du, Huiwei; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhongquan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new kind of functional material with plasticity of dielectric was obtained. • Powerful characterization methods was exploited to determine this ultra-thin layer. • The electronic structures and properties of this intermediate layer were analyzed. • A potential application of this structure were investigated. - Abstract: A silicon based ternary compound was supposed to be solid synthesized with In, Si and O elements by magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide target (ITO) onto crystal silicon substrate at 250 °C. To make clear the configuration of the intermediate region, a potential method to obtain the chemical bonding of Si with other existing elements was exploited by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrument combined with other assisted techniques. The phase composition and solid structure of the interfacial region between ITO and Si substrate were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). A photovoltaic device with structure of Al/Ag/ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al was assembled by depositing ITO films onto the p-Si substrate by using magnetron sputtering. The new matter has been assumed to be a buffer layer for semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) photovoltaic device and plays critical role for the promotion of optoelectronic conversion performance from the view point of device physics.

  15. Questing and the application for silicon based ternary compound within ultra-thin layer of SIS intermediate region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shumin; Gao, Ming; Wan, Yazhou; Du, Huiwei; Li, Yong [SHU-SolarE R& D Lab, Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ma, Zhongquan, E-mail: zqma@shu.edu.cn [SHU-SolarE R& D Lab, Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Instrumental Analysis & Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A new kind of functional material with plasticity of dielectric was obtained. • Powerful characterization methods was exploited to determine this ultra-thin layer. • The electronic structures and properties of this intermediate layer were analyzed. • A potential application of this structure were investigated. - Abstract: A silicon based ternary compound was supposed to be solid synthesized with In, Si and O elements by magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide target (ITO) onto crystal silicon substrate at 250 °C. To make clear the configuration of the intermediate region, a potential method to obtain the chemical bonding of Si with other existing elements was exploited by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrument combined with other assisted techniques. The phase composition and solid structure of the interfacial region between ITO and Si substrate were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). A photovoltaic device with structure of Al/Ag/ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al was assembled by depositing ITO films onto the p-Si substrate by using magnetron sputtering. The new matter has been assumed to be a buffer layer for semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) photovoltaic device and plays critical role for the promotion of optoelectronic conversion performance from the view point of device physics.

  16. Search for Rayleigh-Taylor instability in laser irradiated layered thin foil targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.; Hares, J.D.; Rumsby, P.T.

    1980-01-01

    An experiment to measure the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the vacuum-ablation surface of laser irradiated layered targets by time resolved x-ray spectroscopy is described. The time taken to burn through a layer of material is measured to be the same for massive targets as for thin foil accelerating targets. It is inferred that the thin foil targets might be Rayleigh-Taylor stable despite the values of γtauapproximately equal to15 calculated from classical theory. (author)

  17. UV protection filters by dielectric multilayer thin films on Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, M.M.; Azim, Osama A.; Abdel-Wahab, L.A.; Seddik, Mohamed M.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing use of Ultraviolet (UV) light in medicine, industrial environments, for cosmetic use, and even in consumer products necessitates that greater attention be paid to the potential hazards of this type of electromagnetic radiation. To avoid any adverse effects of exposure to this type of radiation, four suitable protection filters were produced to block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters was done by optical thin film technology using the absorbing property of UV radiation for the substrates and dielectric materials. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Titanium dioxide (Ti 2 O 3 ), Hafnium dioxide (HfO 2 ), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 ); deposition being achieved using an electron beam gun. The output results of the theoretical and experimental transmittance values for spectral band from 200 nm to 800 nm were discussed in four processes. To analyze the suitability for use in 'real world' applications, the test pieces were subjected to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance, and humidity) according to Military Standard MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A

  18. UV protection filters by dielectric multilayer thin films on Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, M. M.; Azim, Osama A.; Abdel-Wahab, L. A.; Seddik, Mohamed M.

    2006-10-01

    The increasing use of Ultraviolet (UV) light in medicine, industrial environments, for cosmetic use, and even in consumer products necessitates that greater attention be paid to the potential hazards of this type of electromagnetic radiation. To avoid any adverse effects of exposure to this type of radiation, four suitable protection filters were produced to block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters was done by optical thin film technology using the absorbing property of UV radiation for the substrates and dielectric materials. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Titanium dioxide (Ti 2O 3), Hafnium dioxide (HfO 2), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO 2/Al 2O 3); deposition being achieved using an electron beam gun. The output results of the theoretical and experimental transmittance values for spectral band from 200 nm to 800 nm were discussed in four processes. To analyze the suitability for use in 'real world' applications, the test pieces were subjected to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance, and humidity) according to Military Standard MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

  19. Ultra-thin, single-layer polarization rotator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Son

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate light polarization control over a broad spectral range by a uniform layer of vanadium dioxide as it undergoes a phase transition from insulator to metal. Changes in refractive indices create unequal phase shifts on s- and p-polarization components of incident light, and rotation of linear polarization shows intensity modulation by a factor of 103 when transmitted through polarizers. This makes possible polarization rotation devices as thin as 50 nm that would be activated thermally, optically or electrically.

  20. Impedance spectroscopic and dielectric analysis of Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouahi, A. [Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2E Lab), CNRS, University of Grenoble (UJF), 25 Rue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Laboratory of Materials, Organization and Properties (LMOP), Campus Universities, El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kahouli, A., E-mail: kahouli.kader@yahoo.fr [Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2E Lab), CNRS, University of Grenoble (UJF), 25 Rue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Laboratory of Materials, Organization and Properties (LMOP), Campus Universities, El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Sylvestre, A., E-mail: alain.sylvestre@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2E Lab), CNRS, University of Grenoble (UJF), 25 Rue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Defaye, E. [CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Yangui, B. [Laboratory of Materials, Organization and Properties (LMOP), Campus Universities, El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material exhibits the contribution of both grain and grain boundaries in the electric response of Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plot of normalized complex dielectric modulus and impedance as a function of frequency exhibits both short and long-range conduction in the film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The frequency dependence of ac conductivity exhibits a polaron hopping mechanism with activation energy of 0.38 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complex dielectric modulus analysis confirmed the presence of a non-Debye type of conductivity relaxation deduced from the KWW function. - Abstract: Polycrystalline Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with Pt/BST/Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} structure was prepared by ion beam sputtering. The film was post annealed at 700 Degree-Sign C. The dielectric and electric modulus properties were studied by impedance spectroscopy over a wide frequency range [0.1-10{sup 5} Hz] at different temperatures [175-350 Degree-Sign C]. The Nyquist plots (Z Double-Prime vs . Z Prime ) show the contribution of both grain and grain boundaries at higher temperature on the electric response of BST thin films. Moreover, the resistance of grains decreases with the rise in temperature and the material exhibits a negative temperature coefficient of resistance. The electric modulus plot indicates the non-Debye type of dielectric relaxation. The values of the activation energy computed from both plots of Z Double-Prime and M Double-Prime are 0.86 eV and 0.81 eV respectively, which reveals that the species responsible for conduction are the same. The scaling behavior of M{sup Double-Prime }/M{sup Double-Prime }{sub max} shows the temperature independent nature of relaxation time. The plot of normalized complex dielectric modulus and impedance as a function of frequency exhibits both short and long-range conduction in the film.

  1. Thin Layer Drying Kinetics of Pineapple: Effect of Blanching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four thin-layer drying models were fitted to the experimental drying data. The .... MATLAB software package (version 6.5). The correlation ... to evaluate the goodness of fit of the simulation ... during the oven-drying process of pineapple slices.

  2. SiO2/AlON stacked gate dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN MOS heterojunction field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Terashima, Daiki; Nozaki, Mikito; Yamada, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Ishida, Masahiro; Anda, Yoshiharu; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2018-06-01

    Stacked gate dielectrics consisting of wide bandgap SiO2 insulators and thin aluminum oxynitride (AlON) interlayers were systematically investigated in order to improve the performance and reliability of AlGaN/GaN metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) devices. A significantly reduced gate leakage current compared with that in a single AlON layer was achieved with these structures, while maintaining the superior thermal stability and electrical properties of the oxynitride/AlGaN interface. Consequently, distinct advantages in terms of the reliability of the gate dielectrics, such as an improved immunity against electron injection and an increased dielectric breakdown field, were demonstrated for AlGaN/GaN MOS capacitors with optimized stacked structures having a 3.3-nm-thick AlON interlayer.

  3. Transparent thin-film transistor exploratory development via sequential layer deposition and thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, David; Chiang, Hai Q.; Presley, Rick E.; Dehuff, Nicole L.; Bender, Jeffrey P.; Park, Cheol-Hee; Wager, John F.; Keszler, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    A novel deposition methodology is employed for exploratory development of a class of high-performance transparent thin-film transistor (TTFT) channel materials involving oxides composed of heavy-metal cations with (n - 1)d 10 ns 0 (n ≥ 4) electronic configurations. The method involves sequential radio-frequency sputter deposition of thin, single cation oxide layers and subsequent post-deposition annealing in order to obtain a multi-component oxide thin film. The viability of this rapid materials development methodology is demonstrated through the realization of high-performance TTFTs with channel layers composed of zinc oxide/tin oxide, and tin oxide/indium oxide

  4. Transparent Flash Memory using Single Ta2O5 Layer for both Charge Trapping and Tunneling Dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2017-06-08

    We report reproducible multibit transparent flash memory in which a single solution-derived Ta2O5 layer is used simultaneously as charge trapping and tunneling layer. This is different from conventional flash cells, where two different dielectric layers are typically used. Under optimized programming/erasing operations, the memory device shows excellent programmable memory characteristics with a maximum memory window of ~10 V. Moreover, the flash memory device shows a stable 2-bit memory performance, good reliability, including data retention for more than 104 sec and endurance performance for more than 100 cycles. The use of a common charge trapping and tunneling layer can simplify advanced flash memory fabrication.

  5. Transparent Flash Memory using Single Ta2O5 Layer for both Charge Trapping and Tunneling Dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Alshammari, Fwzah H.; Salama, Khaled N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    We report reproducible multibit transparent flash memory in which a single solution-derived Ta2O5 layer is used simultaneously as charge trapping and tunneling layer. This is different from conventional flash cells, where two different dielectric layers are typically used. Under optimized programming/erasing operations, the memory device shows excellent programmable memory characteristics with a maximum memory window of ~10 V. Moreover, the flash memory device shows a stable 2-bit memory performance, good reliability, including data retention for more than 104 sec and endurance performance for more than 100 cycles. The use of a common charge trapping and tunneling layer can simplify advanced flash memory fabrication.

  6. Loading Effects on Resolution in Thin Layer Chromatography and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 11. Loading Effects on Resolution in Thin Layer Chromatography and Paper Chromatography. K Girigowda V H Mulimani. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 11 November 2005 pp 79-84 ...

  7. Wear resistant PTFE thin film enabled by a polydopamine adhesive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckford, Samuel; Zou, Min

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a polydopamine (PDA) adhesive layer on the friction and wear resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films coated on stainless steel was investigated. The friction and wear tests were carried out using a ball on flat configuration under a normal load of 50 g, sliding speed of 2.5 mm/s, and stroke length of 15 mm. It is found that the PDA/PTFE film is able to withstand approximately 500 times more rubbing cycles than the PTFE film alone. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that a tenacious layer of PTFE remains adhered to the PDA layer, which enables the durability of the PDA/PTFE film. Because of the relatively low thickness of the film, PDA/PTFE shows great potential for use in applications where durable, thin films are desirable

  8. Ultrafast atomic layer-by-layer oxygen vacancy-exchange diffusion in double-perovskite LnBaCo2O5.5+δ thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shanyong; Ma, Chunrui; Chen, Garry; Xu, Xing; Enriquez, Erik; Chen, Chonglin; Zhang, Yamei; Bettis, Jerry L; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Dong, Chuang; Zhang, Qingyu

    2014-04-22

    Surface exchange and oxygen vacancy diffusion dynamics were studied in double-perovskites LnBaCo2O5.5+δ (LnBCO) single-crystalline thin films (Ln = Er, Pr; -0.5 atoms in the LnBCO thin films is taking the layer by layer oxygen-vacancy-exchange mechanism. The first principles density functional theory calculations indicate that hydrogen atoms are present in LnBCO as bound to oxygen forming O-H bonds. This unprecedented oscillation phenomenon provides the first direct experimental evidence of the layer by layer oxygen vacancy exchange diffusion mechanism.

  9. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction with thin CoFeB/Ta/Co/Pd/Co reference layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Huadong, E-mail: huadong@avalanche-technology.com; Malmhall, Roger; Wang, Zihui; Yen, Bing K; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiaobin; Zhou, Yuchen; Hao, Xiaojie; Jung, Dongha; Satoh, Kimihiro; Huai, Yiming [Avalanche Technology, 46600 Landing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    Integration of high density spin transfer torque magnetoresistance random access memory requires a thin stack (less than 15 nm) of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ). We propose an innovative approach to solve this challenging problem by reducing the thickness and/or moment of the reference layer. A thin reference layer structure of CoFeB/Ta/Co/Pd/Co has 60% magnetic moment of the conventional thick structure including [Co/Pd] multilayers. We demonstrate that the perpendicular magnetization of the CoFeB/Ta/Co/Pd/Co structure can be realized by anti-ferromagnetically coupling to a pinned layer with strong perpendicular anisotropy via Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction. The pMTJ with thin CoFeB/Ta/Co/Pd/Co reference layer has a comparable TMR ratio (near 80%) as that with thick reference layer after annealing at 280 °C. The pMTJ with thin reference layer has a total thickness less than 15 nm, thereby significantly increasing the etching margin required for integration of high density pMTJ array on wafers with form factor of 300 mm and beyond.

  10. Theoretical model for thin ferroelectric films and the multilayer structures based on them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, A. S., E-mail: starkov@iue.tuwien.ac.at; Pakhomov, O. V. [St. Petersburg National Research Univeristy ITMO, Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies (Russian Federation); Starkov, I. A. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Microelectronics (Austria)

    2013-06-15

    A modified Weiss mean-field theory is used to study the dependence of the properties of a thin ferroelectric film on its thickness. The possibility of introducing gradient terms into the thermodynamic potential is analyzed using the calculus of variations. An integral equation is introduced to generalize the well-known Langevin equation to the case of the boundaries of a ferroelectric. An analysis of this equation leads to the existence of a transition layer at the interface between ferroelectrics or a ferroelectric and a dielectric. The permittivity of this layer is shown to depend on the electric field direction even if the ferroelectrics in contact are homogeneous. The results obtained in terms of the Weiss model are compared with the results of the models based on the correlation effect and the presence of a dielectric layer at the boundary of a ferroelectric and with experimental data.

  11. Theoretical model for thin ferroelectric films and the multilayer structures based on them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, A. S.; Pakhomov, O. V.; Starkov, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    A modified Weiss mean-field theory is used to study the dependence of the properties of a thin ferroelectric film on its thickness. The possibility of introducing gradient terms into the thermodynamic potential is analyzed using the calculus of variations. An integral equation is introduced to generalize the well-known Langevin equation to the case of the boundaries of a ferroelectric. An analysis of this equation leads to the existence of a transition layer at the interface between ferroelectrics or a ferroelectric and a dielectric. The permittivity of this layer is shown to depend on the electric field direction even if the ferroelectrics in contact are homogeneous. The results obtained in terms of the Weiss model are compared with the results of the models based on the correlation effect and the presence of a dielectric layer at the boundary of a ferroelectric and with experimental data

  12. Theoretical model for thin ferroelectric films and the multilayer structures based on them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, A. S.; Pakhomov, O. V.; Starkov, I. A.

    2013-06-01

    A modified Weiss mean-field theory is used to study the dependence of the properties of a thin ferroelectric film on its thickness. The possibility of introducing gradient terms into the thermodynamic potential is analyzed using the calculus of variations. An integral equation is introduced to generalize the well-known Langevin equation to the case of the boundaries of a ferroelectric. An analysis of this equation leads to the existence of a transition layer at the interface between ferroelectrics or a ferroelectric and a dielectric. The permittivity of this layer is shown to depend on the electric field direction even if the ferroelectrics in contact are homogeneous. The results obtained in terms of the Weiss model are compared with the results of the models based on the correlation effect and the presence of a dielectric layer at the boundary of a ferroelectric and with experimental data.

  13. Thermally tunable VO2-SiO2 nanocomposite thin-film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Narayanachari, K. V. L. V.; Wan, Chenghao; Sun, Xing; Wang, Haiyan; Cooley, Kayla A.; Mohney, Suzanne E.; White, Doug; Duwel, Amy; Kats, Mikhail A.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2018-03-01

    We present a study of co-sputtered VO2-SiO2 nanocomposite dielectric thin-film media possessing continuous temperature tunability of the dielectric constant. The smooth thermal tunability is a result of the insulator-metal transition in the VO2 inclusions dispersed within an insulating matrix. We present a detailed comparison of the dielectric characteristics of this nanocomposite with those of a VO2 control layer and of VO2/SiO2 laminate multilayers of comparable overall thickness. We demonstrated a nanocomposite capacitor that has a thermal capacitance tunability of ˜60% between 25 °C and 100 °C at 1 MHz, with low leakage current. Such thermally tunable capacitors could find potential use in applications such as sensing, thermal cloaks, and phase-change energy storage devices.

  14. Two-dimensional optical simulation on a visible ray passing through inter-metal dielectric layers of CMOS image sensor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan-Gyu; Kim, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jeen; Kim, Sang-Young; Hwang, Sung-Bo; Lee, Jeong-Gun

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional optical simulation has been performed for investigating light propagation through a micro lens and inter-metal dielectric (IMD) layers in an Al and Cu back-end of line (BEOL) onto a Si photodiode, and its effects on the wave power, as well as optical carriers generated by a visible ray in the silicon substrate area, i.e. photodiode of a CMOS image sensor pixel. The number of optically generated carriers in an Al-BEOL has been compared to a Cu-BEOL. It is shown that more optical carriers are generated in the Cu-BEOL for the red color because a higher permittivity dielectric material like SiC is used in the Cu-BEOL to prevent Cu from diffusing into the dielectric material, resulting in higher optical loss in the higher- permittivity dielectric layers. Thus, the optical power density arriving in the silicon substrate is higher in the Al-BEOL than in the Cu-BEOL when the wavelength is blue (470 nm) or green (550 nm) in the visible ray spectrum. In conclusion, the structure of a Cu-BEOL in a CMOS image sensor has to be optimized for generating more optical carriers through lower-permittivity IMD materials or by reducing the permittivity difference between SiC (or SiN) and IMD materials, without deteriorating the capability as a barrier to Cu diffusion.

  15. Use of a wedge cuvette in thin layer photometry and its application to oximetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J. A.; Garred, L. J.; van de Borne, P.

    1977-01-01

    A wedge cuvette was constructed by fixing 2 glass plates at a known angle with a spacer at one end. This resulted in a thin layer with thickness varying from 0 to 250 micrometer. By measuring the intensity of a beam of light through the thin layer as a function of distance along the wedge (and thus

  16. Direct growth of nanocrystalline hexagonal boron nitride films on dielectric substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Roland Yingjie [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories@NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tsang, Siu Hon [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Loeblein, Manuela; Chow, Wai Leong [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CNRS-International NTU Thales Research Alliance CINTRA UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Loh, Guan Chee [Institue of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Toh, Joo Wah; Ang, Soon Loong [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Teo, Edwin Hang Tong, E-mail: htteo@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-03-09

    Atomically thin hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN) films are primarily synthesized through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on various catalytic transition metal substrates. In this work, a single-step metal-catalyst-free approach to obtain few- to multi-layer nanocrystalline h-BN (NCBN) directly on amorphous SiO{sub 2}/Si and quartz substrates is demonstrated. The as-grown thin films are continuous and smooth with no observable pinholes or wrinkles across the entire deposited substrate as inspected using optical and atomic force microscopy. The starting layers of NCBN orient itself parallel to the substrate, initiating the growth of the textured thin film. Formation of NCBN is due to the random and uncontrolled nucleation of h-BN on the dielectric substrate surface with no epitaxial relation, unlike on metal surfaces. The crystallite size is ∼25 nm as determined by Raman spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the NCBN formed sheets of multi-stacked layers with controllable thickness from ∼2 to 25 nm. The absence of transfer process in this technique avoids any additional degradation, such as wrinkles, tears or folding and residues on the film which are detrimental to device performance. This work provides a wider perspective of CVD-grown h-BN and presents a viable route towards large-scale manufacturing of h-BN substrates and for coating applications.

  17. A simple model for quantifying the degree of layer-by-layer growth in low energy ion deposition of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtamaeki, T.; Jahma, M.O.; Koponen, I.T.

    2007-01-01

    Layer-by-layer growth of thin films can be promoted by using low energy ion deposition (LEID) techniques. The basic process affecting the growth are often quite diverse, but often the ion impact induced inter layer mass transfer processes due to adatom insertion to lower step edges or pile-ups to step edges above dominate. In this paper we propose a simple phenomenological model which describes the growth of thin films in LEID under these conditions. The model makes possible to distinguish the dominant growth, the detection of the transition from the 3D growth to 2D growth, and it can be used to quantify the degree of layer-by-layer growth. The model contains only two parameters, which can be phenomenologically related to the properties of the bombarding ion beam

  18. Reaching state-of-the art requirements for MIM capacitors with a single-layer anodic Al2O3 dielectric and imprinted electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdakis, Emmanouel; Nassiopoulou, Androula G.

    2017-07-01

    Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors with a high capacitance density and low non-linearity coefficient using a single-layer dielectric of barrier-type anodic alumina (Al2O3) and an imprinted bottom Al electrode are presented. Imprinting of the bottom electrode aimed at increasing the capacitor effective surface area by creating a three-dimensional MIM capacitor architecture. The bottom Al electrode was only partly nanopatterned so as to ensure low series resistance of the MIM capacitor. With a 3 nm thick anodic Al2O3 dielectric, the capacitor with the imprinted electrode showed a 280% increase in capacitance density compared to the flat electrode capacitor, reaching a value of 20.5 fF/μm2. On the other hand, with a 30 nm thick anodic Al2O3 layer, the capacitance density was 7.9 fF/μm2 and the non-linearity coefficient was as low as 196 ppm/V2. These values are very close to reaching all requirements of the last International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors for MIM capacitors [ITRS, http://www.itrs2.net/2013-itrs.html for ITRS Roadmap (2013)], and they are achieved by a single-layer dielectric instead of the complicated dielectric stacks of the literature. The obtained results constitute a real progress compared to previously reported results by our group for MIM capacitors using imprinted electrodes.

  19. Accretion disc boundary layers - geometrically and optically thin case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regev, Oded; Hougerat, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to an optically and geometrically thin boundary layer between an accretion disc and the accreting star. Analytical solutions are presented for a particular viscosity prescription in the boundary layer. For a typical example we find that the disc closely resembles standard steady-disc theory. It is identical to it everywhere save a narrow boundary layer, where the temperature increases rapidly inward (by an order of magnitude), the angular velocity achieves maximum and decreases to its surface value and other variables also undergo rapid changes. This and previous work can now be used to calculate the emission from accretion discs including the boundary layers for a wide range of parameters. (author)

  20. Processes for multi-layer devices utilizing layer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Kim, Bongsang; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2015-02-03

    A method includes forming a release layer over a donor substrate. A plurality of devices made of a first semiconductor material are formed over the release layer. A first dielectric layer is formed over the plurality of devices such that all exposed surfaces of the plurality of devices are covered by the first dielectric layer. The plurality of devices are chemically attached to a receiving device made of a second semiconductor material different than the first semiconductor material, the receiving device having a receiving substrate attached to a surface of the receiving device opposite the plurality of devices. The release layer is etched to release the donor substrate from the plurality of devices. A second dielectric layer is applied over the plurality of devices and the receiving device to mechanically attach the plurality of devices to the receiving device.

  1. Preparation of Ferroelectric Thin Films of Bismuth Layer Structured Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Mihara, Takashi; Yoshimori, Hiroyuki; Araujo, Carlos

    1995-09-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of bismuth layer structured compounds, SrBi2Ta2O9, SrBi2Nb2O9, SrBi4Ti4O15 and their solid solutions, were formed onto a sputtered platinum layer on a silicon substrate using spin-on technique and metal-organic decomposition (MOD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and some electrical measurements were performed on the prepared thin films. XRD results of SrBi2(Ta1- x, Nb x)2O9 films (0≤x≤1) showed that niobium ions substitute for tantalum ions in an arbitrary ratio without any change of the layer structure and lattice constants. Furthermore, XRD results of SrBi2 xTa2O9 films (0≤x≤1.5) indicated that the formation of the bismuth layer structure does not always require an accurate bismuth content. The layer structure was formed above 50% of the stoichiometric bismuth content in the general formula. SrBi2(Ta1- x, Nb x)2O9 films with various Ta/Nb ratios have large enough remanent polarization for nonvolatile memory application and have shown high fatigue resistance against 1011 cycles of full switching of the remanent polarization. Mixture films of the three compounds were also investigated.

  2. Atomic layer-deposited Al–HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} bi-layers towards 3D charge trapping non-volatile memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congedo, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.congedo@mdm.imm.cnr.it; Wiemer, Claudia; Lamperti, Alessio; Cianci, Elena; Molle, Alessandro; Volpe, Flavio G.; Spiga, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.spiga@mdm.imm.cnr

    2013-04-30

    A metal/oxide/high-κ dielectric/oxide/silicon (MOHOS) planar charge trapping memory capacitor including SiO{sub 2} as tunnel oxide, Al–HfO{sub 2} as charge trapping layer, SiO{sub 2} as blocking oxide and TaN metal gate was fabricated and characterized as test vehicle in the view of integration into 3D cells. The thin charge trapping layer and blocking oxide were grown by atomic layer deposition, the technique of choice for the implementation of these stacks into 3D structures. The oxide stack shows a good thermal stability for annealing temperature of 900 °C in N{sub 2}, as required for standard complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor processes. MOHOS capacitors can be efficiently programmed and erased under the applied voltages of ± 20 V to ± 12 V. When compared to a benchmark structure including thin Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as charge trapping layer, the MOHOS cell shows comparable program characteristics, with the further advantage of the equivalent oxide thickness scalability due to the high dielectric constant (κ) value of 32, and an excellent retention even for strong testing conditions. Our results proved that high-κ based oxide structures grown by atomic layer deposition can be of interest for the integration into three dimensionally stacked charge trapping devices. - Highlights: ► Charge trapping device with Al–HfO{sub 2} storage layer is fabricated and characterized. ► Al–HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} blocking oxides are deposited by atomic layer deposition. ► The oxide stack shows a good thermal stability after annealing at 900 °C. ► The device can be efficiently programmed/erased and retention is excellent. ► The oxide stack could be used for 3D-stacked Flash non-volatile memories.

  3. Layer-by-layer thinning of MoSe{sub 2} by soft and reactive plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, Yunfei [Engineering Research Center of IoT Technology Applications (Ministry of Education), Department of Electronic Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Xiao, Shaoqing, E-mail: larring0078@hotmail.com [Engineering Research Center of IoT Technology Applications (Ministry of Education), Department of Electronic Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhang, Xiumei [Engineering Research Center of IoT Technology Applications (Ministry of Education), Department of Electronic Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Qin, Fang [Analysis & Testing Center, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Gu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xfgu@jiangnan.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of IoT Technology Applications (Ministry of Education), Department of Electronic Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Soft plasma etching technique using SF{sub 6} + N{sub 2} as precursors for layer-by-layer thinning of MoSe{sub 2} was adopted in this work. • Optical microscopy, Raman, photoluminescence and atomic force microscopy measurements were used to confirm the thickness change. • Layer-dependent vibrational and photoluminescence spectra of the etched MoSe{sub 2} were also demonstrated. • Equal numbers of MoSe{sub 2} layers can be removed uniformly without affecting the underlying SiO{sub 2} substrate and the remaining MoSe{sub 2} layers. - Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) like molybdenum diselenide (MoSe{sub 2}) have recently gained considerable interest since their properties are complementary to those of graphene. Unlike gapless graphene, the band structure of MoSe{sub 2} can be changed from the indirect band gap to the direct band gap when MoSe{sub 2} changed from bulk material to monolayer. This transition from multilayer to monolayer requires atomic-layer-precision thining of thick MoSe{sub 2} layers without damaging the remaining layers. Here, we present atomic-layer-precision thinning of MoSe{sub 2} nanaosheets down to monolayer by using SF{sub 6} + N{sub 2} plasmas, which has been demonstrated to be soft, selective and high-throughput. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectra suggest that equal numbers of MoSe{sub 2} layers can be removed uniformly regardless of their initial thickness, without affecting the underlying SiO{sub 2} substrate and the remaining MoSe{sub 2} layers. By adjusting the etching rates we can achieve complete MoSe{sub 2} removal and any disired number of MoSe{sub 2} layers including monolayer. This soft plasma etching method is highly reliable and compatible with the semiconductor manufacturing processes, thereby holding great promise for various 2D materials and TMD-based devices.

  4. Effect of p-layer properties on nanocrystalline absorber layer and thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Amartya; Adhikary, Koel; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Ray, Swati

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the p-layer on the crystallinity of the absorber layer and nanocrystalline silicon thin film solar cells has been studied. Boron doped Si : H p-layers of different crystallinities have been prepared under different power pressure conditions using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. The crystalline volume fraction of p-layers increases with the increase in deposition power. Optical absorption of the p-layer reduces as the crystalline volume fraction increases. Structural studies at the p/i interface have been done by Raman scattering studies. The crystalline volume fraction of the i-layer increases as that of the p-layer increases, the effect being more prominent near the p/i interface. Grain sizes of the absorber layer decrease from 9.2 to 7.2 nm and the density of crystallites increases as the crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer increases and its grain size decreases. With increasing crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer solar cell efficiency increases

  5. AC electrical conductivity and dielectric relaxation studies on n-type organic thin films of N, N‧-Dimethyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (DMPDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qashou, Saleem I.; Darwish, A. A. A.; Rashad, M.; Khattari, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Both Alternating current (AC) conductivity and dielectric behavior of n-type organic thin films of N, N‧-Dimethyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (DMPDC) have been investigated. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is used for identifying both powder and film bonds which confirm that there are no observed changes in the bonds between the DMPDC powder and evaporated films. The dependence of AC conductivity on the temperature for DMPDC evaporated films was explained by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The calculated barrier height using CBH model shows a decreasing behavior with increasing temperature. The mechanism of dielectric relaxation was interpreted on the basis of the modulus of the complex dielectric. The calculated activation energy of the relaxation process was found to be 0.055 eV.

  6. Properties of SrBi sub 2 Nb sub 2 O sub 9 thin films on Pt-coated Si

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, R E; Martin, V D C; Fernandez, L M; Sylvester, G S; Retuert, P J; Gramsch, E

    2002-01-01

    SrBi sub 2 Nb sub 2 O sub 9 powders and thin films, on Pt-coated Si, were synthesised by the sol-gel method. Three-layer thin films appear homogeneous down to the 100 nm scale, polycrystalline in the tetragonal Aurivillius phase, at a average thickness of 40 nm per layer. The index of refraction at the center of the visible range increases with the sintering temperature from roughly 2.1 (at 400 Centigrade) to 2.5 (at 700 Centigrade). The expression n sup 2 -1 increases linearly with the relative density of the thin films, in similar fashion as previous studies in PbTiO sub 3 thin films. The dielectric constant in quasistatic and high frequency (1 MHz) modes, is between 160 and 230. (Author)

  7. Grain Boundary Induced Bias Instability in Soluble Acene-Based Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ky V.; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Lee, Jung Hun; Song, Eunjoo; Kang, Boseok; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Wi Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Since the grain boundaries (GBs) within the semiconductor layer of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have a strong influence on device performance, a substantial number of studies have been devoted to controlling the crystallization characteristics of organic semiconductors. We studied the intrinsic effects of GBs within 5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene (TES-ADT) thin films on the electrical properties of OFETs. The GB density was easily changed by controlling nulceation event in TES-ADT thin films. When the mixing time was increased, the number of aggregates in as-spun TES-ADT thin films were increased and subsequent exposure of the films to 1,2-dichloroethane vapor led to a significant increase in the number of nuleation sites, thereby increasing the GB density of TES-ADT spherulites. The density of GBs strongly influences the angular spread and crystallographic orientation of TES-ADT spherulites. Accordingly, the FETs with higher GB densities showed much poorer electrical characteristics than devices with lower GB density. Especially, GBs provide charge trapping sites which are responsible for bias-stress driven electrical instability. Dielectric surface treatment with a polystyrene brush layer clarified the GB-induced charge trapping by reducing charge trapping at the semiconductor-dielectric interface. Our study provides an understanding on GB induced bias instability for the development of high performance OFETs. PMID:27615358

  8. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the effect of SiO2 content in gate dielectrics on work function shift induced by nanoscale capping layers

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Wang, H.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of SiO2 content in ultrathin gate dielectrics on the magnitude of the effective work function (EWF) shift induced by nanoscale capping layers has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The magnitude of the effective work function shift for four different capping layers (AlN, Al2O3, La2O3, and Gd2O3) is measured as a function of SiO2 content in the gate dielectric. A nearly linear increase of this shift with SiO2 content is observed for all capping layers. The origin of this dependence is explained using density functional theory simulations.

  9. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the effect of SiO2 content in gate dielectrics on work function shift induced by nanoscale capping layers

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.

    2012-09-10

    The impact of SiO2 content in ultrathin gate dielectrics on the magnitude of the effective work function (EWF) shift induced by nanoscale capping layers has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The magnitude of the effective work function shift for four different capping layers (AlN, Al2O3, La2O3, and Gd2O3) is measured as a function of SiO2 content in the gate dielectric. A nearly linear increase of this shift with SiO2 content is observed for all capping layers. The origin of this dependence is explained using density functional theory simulations.

  10. Method for the manufacture of a thin-layer battery stack on a three-dimensional substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the manufacture of a thin-layer battery stack on a three-dimensional substrate. The invention further relates to a thin-layer battery stack on a three-dimensional substrate obtainable by such a method. Moreover, the invention relates to a device comprising such

  11. Low operating voltage InGaZnO thin-film transistors based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high-k dielectrics fabricated using pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, G. Z.; Liu, G. X.; Zhang, Q.; Shan, F. K. [Qingdao University, Qingdao (China); DongEui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. J.; Shin, B. C. [DongEui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, C. R. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Low-voltage-driven amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric were fabricated on a Si substrate by using pulsed laser deposition. Both Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and IGZO thin films are amorphous, and the thin films have very smooth surfaces. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric exhibits a very low leakage current density of 1.3 x 10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2} at 5 V and a high capacitance density of 60.9 nF/cm{sup 2}. The IGZO TFT with a structure of Ni/IGZO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si exhibits high performance with a low threshold voltage of 1.18 V, a high field effect mobility of 20.25 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}, an ultra small subthreshold swing of 87 mV/decade, and a high on/off current ratio of 3 x 10{sup 7}.

  12. Significance of the double-layer capacitor effect in polar rubbery dielectrics and exceptionally stable low-voltage high transconductance organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Wen-Ya; Kong, Desheng; Pfattner, Raphael; Schweicher, Guillaume; Nakajima, Reina; Lu, Chien; Mei, Jianguo; Lee, Tae Hoon; Wu, Hung-Chin; Lopez, Jeffery; Diao, Ying; Gu, Xiaodan; Himmelberger, Scott; Niu, Weijun; Matthews, James R; He, Mingqian; Salleo, Alberto; Nishi, Yoshio; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-12-14

    Both high gain and transconductance at low operating voltages are essential for practical applications of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we describe the significance of the double-layer capacitance effect in polar rubbery dielectrics, even when present in a very low ion concentration and conductivity. We observed that this effect can greatly enhance the OFET transconductance when driven at low voltages. Specifically, when the polar elastomer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (e-PVDF-HFP) was used as the dielectric layer, despite a thickness of several micrometers, we obtained a transconductance per channel width 30 times higher than that measured for the same organic semiconductors fabricated on a semicrystalline PVDF-HFP with a similar thickness. After a series of detailed experimental investigations, we attribute the above observation to the double-layer capacitance effect, even though the ionic conductivity is as low as 10(-10) S/cm. Different from previously reported OFETs with double-layer capacitance effects, our devices showed unprecedented high bias-stress stability in air and even in water.

  13. Significance of the double-layer capacitor effect in polar rubbery dielectrics and exceptionally stable low-voltage high transconductance organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Wen-Ya; Kong, Desheng; Pfattner, Raphael; Schweicher, Guillaume; Nakajima, Reina; Lu, Chien; Mei, Jianguo; Lee, Tae Hoon; Wu, Hung-Chin; Lopez, Jeffery; Diao, Ying; Gu, Xiaodan; Himmelberger, Scott; Niu, Weijun; Matthews, James R.; He, Mingqian; Salleo, Alberto; Nishi, Yoshio; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-01-01

    Both high gain and transconductance at low operating voltages are essential for practical applications of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we describe the significance of the double-layer capacitance effect in polar rubbery dielectrics, even when present in a very low ion concentration and conductivity. We observed that this effect can greatly enhance the OFET transconductance when driven at low voltages. Specifically, when the polar elastomer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (e-PVDF-HFP) was used as the dielectric layer, despite a thickness of several micrometers, we obtained a transconductance per channel width 30 times higher than that measured for the same organic semiconductors fabricated on a semicrystalline PVDF-HFP with a similar thickness. After a series of detailed experimental investigations, we attribute the above observation to the double-layer capacitance effect, even though the ionic conductivity is as low as 10–10 S/cm. Different from previously reported OFETs with double-layer capacitance effects, our devices showed unprecedented high bias-stress stability in air and even in water. PMID:26658331

  14. Surface plasmons based terahertz modulator consisting of silicon-air-metal-dielectric-metal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Dongxiao; Qian, Zhenhai

    2018-05-01

    An optically controlled modulator of the terahertz wave, which is composed of a metal-dielectric-metal structure etched with circular loop arrays on both the metal layers and a photoexcited silicon wafer separated by an air layer, is proposed. Simulation results based on experimentally measured complex permittivities predict that modification of complex permittivity of the silicon wafer through excitation laser leads to a significant tuning of transmission characteristics of the modulator, forming the modulation depths of 59.62% and 96.64% based on localized surface plasmon peak and propagating surface plasmon peak, respectively. The influences of the complex permittivity of the silicon wafer and the thicknesses of both the air layer and the silicon wafer are numerically studied for better understanding the modulation mechanism. This study proposes a feasible methodology to design an optically controlled terahertz modulator with large modulation depth, high speed and suitable insertion loss, which is useful for terahertz applications in the future.

  15. Thin-Layer Solutions of the Helmholtz and Related Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ockendon, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns a certain class of two-dimensional solutions to four generic partial differential equations-the Helmholtz, modified Helmholtz, and convection-diffusion equations, and the heat conduction equation in the frequency domain-and the connections between these equations for this particular class of solutions.S pecifically, we consider thin-layer solutions, valid in narrow regions across which there is rapid variation, in the singularly perturbed limit as the coefficient of the Laplacian tends to zero.F or the wellstudied Helmholtz equation, this is the high-frequency limit and the solutions in question underpin the conventional ray theory/WKB approach in that they provide descriptions valid in some of the regions where these classical techniques fail.E xamples are caustics, shadow boundaries, whispering gallery, and creeping waves and focusing and bouncing ball modes.It transpires that virtually all such thin-layer models reduce to a class of generalized parabolic wave equations, of which the heat conduction equation is a special case. Moreover, in most situations, we will find that the appropriate parabolic wave equation solutions can be derived as limits of exact solutions of the Helmholtz equation.W e also show how reasonably well-understood thin-layer phenomena associated with any one of the four generic equations may translate into less well-known effects associated with the others.In addition, our considerations also shed some light on the relationship between the methods of matched asymptotic, WKB, and multiple-scales expansions. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Formation and dielectric properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers stud