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Sample records for thin dielectric films

  1. Dielectric loss of strontium titanate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalberth, Mark Joseph

    1999-12-01

    Interest in strontium titanate (STO) thin films for microwave device applications continues to grow, fueled by the telecommunications industry's interest in phase shifters and tunable filters. The optimization of these devices depends upon increasing the phase or frequency tuning and decreasing the losses in the films. Currently, the dielectric response of thin film STO is poorly understood through lack of data and a theory to describe it. We have studied the growth of STO using pulsed laser deposition and single crystal substrates like lanthanum aluminate and neodymium gallate. We have researched ways to use ring resonators to accurately measure the dielectric response as a function of temperature, electric field, and frequency from low radio frequencies to a few gigahertz. Our films grown on lanthanum aluminate show marked frequency dispersion in the real part of the dielectric constant and hints of thermally activated loss behavior. We also found that films grown with conditions that optimized the dielectric constant showed increased losses. In an attempt to simplify the system, we developed a technique called epitaxial lift off, which has allowed us to study films removed from their growth substrates. These free standing films have low losses and show obvious thermally activated behavior. The "amount of tuning," as measured by a figure of merit, KE, is greater in these films than in the films still attached to their growth substrates. We have developed a theory that describes the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The theory models the real part using a mean field description of the ionic motion in the crystal and includes the loss by incorporating the motion of charged defects in the films.

  2. Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jolly, M.R.; Amaden, C.A.; Gilman, S.E.; Sinicropi, M.J.; Diakomihalis, D.; Jacobs, S.D.

    1989-05-01

    A direct reading thermal comparator has been used to measure the thermal conductivity of dielectric thin film coatings. In the past, the thermal comparator has been used extensively to measure the thermal conductivity of bulk solids, liquids, and gases. The technique has been extended to thin film materials by making experimental improvements and by the application of an analytical heat flow model. Our technique also allows an estimation of the thermal resistance of the film/substrate interface which is shown to depend on the method of film deposition. The thermal conductivity of most thin films was found to be several orders of magnitude lower than that of the material in bulk form. This difference is attributed to structural disorder of materials deposited in thin film form. The experimentation to date has centered primarily on optical coating materials. These coatings, used to enhance the optical properties of components such as lenses and mirrors, are damaged by thermal loads applied in high-power laser applications. It has been widely postulated that there may be a correlation between the thermal conductivity and the damage threshold of these materials. 31 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Fullerene thin-film transistors fabricated on polymeric gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdollers, J. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, C/ Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: jpuigd@eel.upc.edu; Voz, C. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, C/ Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain); Cheylan, S. [ICFO - Mediterranean Technology Park, Avda del Canal Olimpic s/n, 08860-Castelldefels (Spain); Orpella, A.; Vetter, M.; Alcubilla, R. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, C/ Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul C4, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-16

    Thin-film transistors with fullerene as n-type organic semiconductor have been fabricated. A polymeric gate dielectric, polymethyl methacrylate, has been used as an alternative to usual inorganic dielectrics. No significant differences in the microstructure of fullerene thin-films grown on polymethyl methacrylate were observed. Devices with either gold or aluminium top electrodes have been fabricated. Although the lower work-function of aluminium compared to gold should favour electron injection, similar field-effect mobilities in the range of 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} were achieved in both cases. Actually, the output characteristics indicate that organic thin-film transistors behave more linearly with gold than with aluminium electrodes. These results confirm that not only energy barriers determine carrier injection at metal/organic interfaces, but also chemical interactions.

  4. Fullerene thin-film transistors fabricated on polymeric gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Cheylan, S.; Orpella, A.; Vetter, M.; Alcubilla, R.

    2007-01-01

    Thin-film transistors with fullerene as n-type organic semiconductor have been fabricated. A polymeric gate dielectric, polymethyl methacrylate, has been used as an alternative to usual inorganic dielectrics. No significant differences in the microstructure of fullerene thin-films grown on polymethyl methacrylate were observed. Devices with either gold or aluminium top electrodes have been fabricated. Although the lower work-function of aluminium compared to gold should favour electron injection, similar field-effect mobilities in the range of 10 -2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 were achieved in both cases. Actually, the output characteristics indicate that organic thin-film transistors behave more linearly with gold than with aluminium electrodes. These results confirm that not only energy barriers determine carrier injection at metal/organic interfaces, but also chemical interactions

  5. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Localized Electrical Charges in Ferrite Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, M. H.; Azab, A. A.; Moustafa, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    A thin film of Gd-doped Mn-Cr ferrite has been prepared by pulsed laser deposition from a bulk sample of the same ferrite prepared by the conventional double sintering ceramic technique. The charge localization and surface conduction in the ferromagnetic thin film were studied. The relaxation of the dielectric dipoles after exposure to an external alternating-current (AC) electric field was investigated. The effect of charge localization on the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric modulus was studied. The charge localization in the thin film was enhanced and thereby the Maxwell-Wagner-type interfacial polarization. The increase in interfacial polarization is a direct result of the enhanced charge localization. The sample was characterized in terms of its AC and direct-current (DC) electrical conductivity, and thermally stimulated discharge current.

  6. Thin film transistors for flexible electronics: Contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Quevedo-López, Manuel Angel Quevedo

    2011-06-01

    The development of low temperature, thin film transistor processes that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, radiation detectors, etc. In this paper, we review the impact of gate dielectrics, contacts and semiconductor materials on thin film transistors for flexible electronics applications. We present our recent results to fully integrate hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductors comprising inorganic and organic-based materials. In particular, we demonstrate novel gate dielectric stacks and semiconducting materials. The impact of source and drain contacts on device performance is also discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers.

  7. Preparation of high dielectric constant thin films of CaCu3 Ti4 O12 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preparation of sol–gel derived CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films using two different sols and their characterization including their dielectric response are reported. The properties of CCTO films depend heavily on solvents used to prepare the sols. Dielectric constant as high as ∼900 at 100 kHz could be obtained when acetic ...

  8. Bismuth pyrochlore thin films for dielectric energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Elizabeth K.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate, bismuth zinc tantalate, and bismuth zinc niobate tantalate were fabricated using chemical solution deposition. This family of materials exhibited moderate relative permittivities between 55 ± 2 and 145 ± 5 for bismuth zinc tantalate and bismuth zinc niobate, respectively, and low loss tangents on the order of 0.0008 ± 0.0001. Increases in the concentration of the tantalum end member increased the dielectric breakdown strength. For example, at 10 kHz, the room temperature breakdown strength of bismuth zinc niobate was 5.1 MV/cm, while that of bismuth zinc tantalate was 6.1 MV/cm. This combination of a high breakdown strength and a moderate permittivity led to a high discharged energy storage density for all film compositions. For example, at a measurement frequency of 10 kHz, bismuth zinc niobate exhibited a maximum recoverable energy storage density of 60.8 ± 2.0 J/cm 3 , while bismuth zinc tantalate exhibited a recoverable energy storage density of 60.7 ± 2.0 J/cm 3 . Intermediate compositions of bismuth zinc niobate tantalate offered higher energy storage densities; at 10 mol. % tantalum, the maximum recoverable energy storage density was ∼66.9 ± 2.4 J/cm 3

  9. Dielectric response of fully and partially depleted ferroelectric thin films and inversion of the thickness effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misirlioglu, I B; Yildiz, M

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of full and partial depletion on the dielectric response characteristics of ferroelectric thin films with impurities via a computational approach. Using a thermodynamic approach along with the fundamental equations for semiconductors, we show that films with partial depletion display unique features and an enhanced dielectric response compared with those fully depleted. We find that the capacitance peak at switching can be significantly suppressed in the case of high impurity densities (>10 25 m −3 ) with relatively low ionization energy, of the order of 0.5 eV. For conserved number of species in films, electromigration of ionized impurities at room temperature is negligible and has nearly no effect on the dielectric response. In films with high impurity density, the dielectric response at zero bias is enhanced with respect to charge-free films or those with relatively low impurity density ( 24 m −3 ). We demonstrate that partially depleted films should be expected to exhibit peculiar capacitance–voltage characteristics at low and high bias and that the thickness effect probed in experiments in ferroelectric thin films could be entirely inverted in thin films with depletion charges where a higher dielectric response can be measured in thicker films. Therefore, depletion charge densities in ferroelectric thin films should be estimated before size-effect-related studies. Finally, we noted that these findings are in good qualitative agreement with dielectric measurements carried out on PbZr x Ti 1−x O 3 . (paper)

  10. Plasmonic versus dielectric enhancement in thin-film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    -film semiconducting material. For a particular case, we show that coupling to the same type of localized slab-waveguide modes can be obtained by a surface modulation consisting of purely dielectric strips. The purely dielectric device turns out to have a significantly higher broadband enhancement factor compared...... to its metallic counterpart. We show that the enhanced normalized short-circuit current for a cell with silicon strips can be increased 4 times compared to the best performance for strips of silver, gold, or aluminium. For this particular case, the simple dielectric grating may outperform its plasmonic...

  11. Preparation of high dielectric constant thin films of CaCu3 Ti4 by sol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Preparation of sol–gel derived CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films using two different sols and their characterization including their ... Sol–gel preparation; thin film; electrical properties. 1. Introduction. High dielectric constant .... The dots on the plots are the experi- mental points and the lines show their fit to semicircles.

  12. Dielectric dynamics of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ren

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the detailed study on the low temperature dielectric dynamics of the epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrate. The results indicate that the contributions from the thin film dominate the dielectric response, although it comes from both the thin film and the electrode interface. Furthermore, the origins of the low temperature dielectric anomalies are investigated with electric circuit fittings. A possible phase transition at 210 K is revealed from analysis with dielectric loss tangent. The dielectric constants obtained from the constant phase elements (CPEs are more than 400 even at low temperatures. Finally, the physical significances of the CPE model are discussed.

  13. Structural, dielectric and AC conductivity study of Sb2O3 thin film ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    52

    However, to date, no reports have appeared on impedance spectroscopy, modulus behavior, electrical conductivity, dielectric relaxation and dielectric properties of crystalline Sb2O3 thin films. This paper deals for the first time with the frequency and temperature dependence of AC conductivity and complex electric modulus ...

  14. Solution-Processed Rare-Earth Oxide Thin Films for Alternative Gate Dielectric Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiaqing; Sun, Qi-Jun; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Zhou, Li; Yan, Yan; Peng, Haiyan; Venkatesh, Shishir; Wu, Wei; Li, Robert K Y; Roy, V A L

    2016-11-16

    Previous investigations on rare-earth oxides (REOs) reveal their high possibility as dielectric films in electronic devices, while complicated physical methods impede their developments and applications. Herein, we report a facile route to fabricate 16 REOs thin insulating films through a general solution process and their applications in low-voltage thin-film transistors as dielectrics. The formation and properties of REOs thin films are analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry, water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and electrical characterizations, respectively. Ultrasmooth, amorphous, and hydrophilic REO films with thickness around 10 nm have been obtained through a combined spin-coating and postannealing method. The compositional analysis results reveal the formation of RE hydrocarbonates on the surface and silicates at the interface of REOs films annealed on Si substrate. The dielectric properties of REO films are investigated by characterizing capacitors with a Si/Ln 2 O 3 /Au (Ln = La, Gd, and Er) structure. The observed low leakage current densities and large areal capacitances indicate these REO films can be employed as alternative gate dielectrics in transistors. Thus, we have successfully fabricated a series of low-voltage organic thin-film transistors based on such sol-gel derived REO films to demonstrate their application in electronics. The optimization of REOs dielectrics in transistors through further surface modification has also been studied. The current study provides a simple solution process approach to fabricate varieties of REOs insulating films, and the results reveal their promising applications as alternative gate dielectrics in thin-film transistors.

  15. High-κ Lanthanum Zirconium Oxide Thin Film Dielectrics from Aqueous Solution Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Keenan N; Chiang, Tsung-Han; Plassmeyer, Paul N; Kast, Matthew G; Lygo, Alexander C; Grealish, Aidan K; Boettcher, Shannon W; Page, Catherine J

    2017-03-29

    Metal oxide thin films are critical components in modern electronic applications. In particular, high-κ dielectrics are of interest for reducing power consumption in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field-effect transistors. Although thin-film materials are typically produced via vacuum-based methods, solution deposition offers a scalable and cost-efficient alternative. We report an all-inorganic aqueous solution route to amorphous lanthanum zirconium oxide (La 2 Zr 2 O 7 , LZO) dielectric thin films. LZO films were spin-cast from aqueous solutions of metal nitrates and annealed at temperatures between 300 and 600 °C to produce dense, defect-free, and smooth films with subnanometer roughness. Dielectric constants of 12.2-16.4 and loss tangents MIS devices utilizing LZO as the dielectric layer (1 kHz). Leakage currents <10 -7 A cm -2 at 4 MV cm -1 were measured for samples annealed at 600 °C. The excellent surface morphology, high dielectric constants, and low leakage current densities makes these LZO dielectrics promising candidates for thin-film transistor devices.

  16. Dual-angle, spectral reconstruction imaging method for the determination of dielectric thin-film thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschwitz, Jennifer D T; Berns, Roy S

    2017-08-01

    The thickness of optical thin films, such as dielectrics, can be determined by the use of a profilometer or by a spectrophotometer. Both of these standard methods have coated area size limitations. Converting a digital camera to a spectrophotometer eliminates these size limitations. This work reviews a simple method for determining the physical thickness of a dielectric film on a silicon wafer using two images from a digital camera.

  17. Bi-axially crumpled silver thin-film electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Sze-Hsien; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2014-01-01

    Metal thin films, which have high conductivity, are much stiffer and may fracture at a much lower strain than dielectric elastomers. In order to fabricate compliant electrodes for use in dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), metal thin films have been formed into either zigzag patterns or corrugations, which favour bending and only allow uniaxial DEA deformations. However, biaxially compliant electrodes are desired in order to maximize generated forces of DEA. In this paper, we present crumpled metal thin-film electrodes that are biaxially compliant and have full area coverage over the dielectric elastomer. These crumpled metal thin-film electrodes are more stretchable than flat metal thin films; they remain conductive beyond 110% radial strain. Also, crumpling reduced the stiffening effect of metal thin films on the soft elastomer. As such, DEAs using crumpled metal thin-film electrodes managed to attain relatively high actuated area strains of up to 128% at 1.8 kV (102 Vμm −1 ). (paper)

  18. The effect of flexoelectricity on the dielectric properties of inhomogeneously strained ferroelectric thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalan, G [Institut Mediterrani d' Estudis Avancats (IMEDEA), C/Miquel Marques 21, Esporles 07190, Mallorca (Spain); Sinnamon, L J [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Gregg, J M [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-07

    Recent experimental measurements of large flexoelectric coefficients in ferroelectric ceramics suggest that strain gradients can affect the polarization and permittivity behaviour of inhomogeneously strained ferroelectrics. Here we present a phenomenological model of the effect of flexoelectricity on the dielectric constant, polarization, Curie temperature (T{sub C}), temperature of maximum dielectric constant (T{sub m}) and temperature of the onset of reversible polarization (T{sub ferro}) for ferroelectric thin films subject to substrate-induced epitaxial strains that are allowed to relax with thickness, and the qualitative and quantitative predictions of the model are compared with experimental results for (Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} thin films on SrRuO{sub 3} electrodes. It is shown that flexoelectricity can play an important role in decreasing the maximum dielectric constant of ferroelectric thin films under inhomogeneous in-plane strain, regardless of the sign of the strain gradient.

  19. The effect of flexoelectricity on the dielectric properties of inhomogeneously strained ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, G; Sinnamon, L J; Gregg, J M

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental measurements of large flexoelectric coefficients in ferroelectric ceramics suggest that strain gradients can affect the polarization and permittivity behaviour of inhomogeneously strained ferroelectrics. Here we present a phenomenological model of the effect of flexoelectricity on the dielectric constant, polarization, Curie temperature (T C ), temperature of maximum dielectric constant (T m ) and temperature of the onset of reversible polarization (T ferro ) for ferroelectric thin films subject to substrate-induced epitaxial strains that are allowed to relax with thickness, and the qualitative and quantitative predictions of the model are compared with experimental results for (Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 thin films on SrRuO 3 electrodes. It is shown that flexoelectricity can play an important role in decreasing the maximum dielectric constant of ferroelectric thin films under inhomogeneous in-plane strain, regardless of the sign of the strain gradient

  20. Optically tuned dielectric property of barium titanate thin film by THz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siyan; Ji, Jie; Tian, Yue; Ling, Furi; Yu, Wenfeng

    2017-11-01

    The dielectric property of ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin film with optical field was investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy at room temperature. Experimental results showed that dielectric constant of BTO film was increased with the optical pump powers, and tunability of the real part of dielectric constant could be reached to74%. The reason of realizing high modulation depth could be explained as photorefractive and photothermal effects. Furthermore, the variation of refractive index displayed a monotonically increase with the optical powers.

  1. Dielectric properties of electron irradiated PbZrO3 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper deals with the study of the effects of electron (8 MeV) irradiation on the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PbZrO3 thin films grown by sol–gel technique. The films were (0.62 m thick) subjected to electron irradiation using Microtron accelerator (delivered dose 80, 100, 120 kGy). The films were well ...

  2. Dielectric properties of electron irradiated PbZrO 3 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper deals with the study of the effects of electron (8 MeV) irradiation on the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PbZrO3 thin films grown by sol–gel technique. The films were (0.62 m thick) subjected to electron irradiation using Microtron accelerator (delivered dose 80, 100, 120 kGy). The films were well ...

  3. Thin film plasma coatings from dielectric free-flowing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, L.A.; Katrich, S.A.; Solntsev, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film plasma coatings from insulating free-flowing materials is considered. Molybdenum-tart ammonium coating of 3...5 μ thickness deposited on glassy carbon, aluminium, silicon, nickel, cast iron and steel substrates in 'Bulat-ZT' machine using insulating free-flowing materials cathod was found to form due to adsorption, absorption and dissuasion processes. The use of insulating free-flowing materials coatings allow to exclude pure metals cathods in plasma-plating process

  4. Amorphous Dielectric Thin Films with Extremely Low Mechanical Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous low-energy excitations are one of the universal phenomena of amorphous solids. These excitations dominate the acoustic, dielectric, and thermal properties of structurally disordered solids. One exception has been a type of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H with 1 at.% H. Using low temperature elastic and thermal measurements of electron-beam evap-orated amorphous silicon (a-Si, we show that TLS can be eliminated in this system as the films become denser and more structurally ordered under certain deposition conditions. Our results demonstrate that TLS are not intrinsic to the glassy state but instead reside in low density regions of the amorphous network. This work obviates the role hydrogen was previously thought to play in removing TLS in a-Si:H and favors an ideal four-fold covalently bonded amorphous structure as the cause for the disappearance of TLS. Our result supports the notion that a-Si can be made a “perfect glass” with “crystal-like” properties, thus offering an encouraging opportunity to use it as a simple crystal dielectric alternative in applications, such as in modern quantum devices where TLS are the source of dissipation, decoherence and 1/f noise.

  5. Statistical analysis of absorptive laser damage in dielectric thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budgor, A.B.; Luria-Budgor, K.F.

    1978-09-11

    The Weibull distribution arises as an example of the theory of extreme events. It is commonly used to fit statistical data arising in the failure analysis of electrical components and in DC breakdown of materials. This distribution is employed to analyze time-to-damage and intensity-to-damage statistics obtained when irradiating thin film coated samples of SiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with tightly focused laser beams. The data used is furnished by Milam. The fit to the data is excellent; and least squared correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 are often obtained.

  6. Statistical analysis of absorptive laser damage in dielectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budgor, A.B.; Luria-Budgor, K.F.

    1978-01-01

    The Weibull distribution arises as an example of the theory of extreme events. It is commonly used to fit statistical data arising in the failure analysis of electrical components and in DC breakdown of materials. This distribution is employed to analyze time-to-damage and intensity-to-damage statistics obtained when irradiating thin film coated samples of SiO 2 , ZrO 2 , and Al 2 O 3 with tightly focused laser beams. The data used is furnished by Milam. The fit to the data is excellent; and least squared correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 are often obtained

  7. Investigation of high- k yttrium copper titanate thin films as alternative gate dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteduro, Anna Grazia; Ameer, Zoobia; Rizzato, Silvia; Martino, Maurizio; Caricato, Anna Paola; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Tasco, Vittorianna; Lekshmi, Indira Chaitanya; Hazarika, Abhijit; Choudhury, Debraj; Sarma, D D

    2016-01-01

    Nearly amorphous high- k yttrium copper titanate thin films deposited by laser ablation were investigated in both metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) and metal–insulator–metal (MIM) junctions in order to assess the potentialities of this material as a gate oxide. The trend of dielectric parameters with film deposition shows a wide tunability for the dielectric constant and AC conductivity, with a remarkably high dielectric constant value of up to 95 for the thick films and conductivity as low as 6  ×  10 −10 S cm −1 for the thin films deposited at high oxygen pressure. The AC conductivity analysis points out a decrease in the conductivity, indicating the formation of a blocking interface layer, probably due to partial oxidation of the thin films during cool-down in an oxygen atmosphere. Topography and surface potential characterizations highlight differences in the thin film microstructure as a function of the deposition conditions; these differences seem to affect their electrical properties. (paper)

  8. Sol–gel deposited ceria thin films as gate dielectric for CMOS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, cerium oxide thin films were prepared using cerium chloride heptahydrate, ethanol and citric acid as an additive by .... LCR meter. Electrical dielectric constant and density of inter- face traps (Dit) have been determined with the help of C–V and G–V curves. 2.1 MOS structure. The MOS capacitor structure is ...

  9. Thin dielectric film thickness determination by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, A.C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D.; Pennycook, S.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-09-01

    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by non-specialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods was steadily improved reaching now into the sub Angstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this paper, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this paper is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  10. Perovskite oxynitride LaTiOxNy thin films: Dielectric characterization in low and high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.; Ziani, A.; Le Paven-Thivet, C.; Benzerga, R.; Le Gendre, L.; Fasquelle, D.; Kassem, H.

    2011-01-01

    Lanthanum titanium oxynitride (LaTiO x N y ) thin films are studied with respect to their dielectric properties in low and high frequencies. Thin films are deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on different substrates. Effects of nitrogen content and crystalline quality on dielectric properties are investigated. In low-frequency range, textured LaTiO x N y thin films deposited on conductive single crystal Nb–STO show a dielectric constant ε′ ≈ 140 with low losses tanδ = 0.012 at 100 kHz. For the LaTiO x N y polycrystalline films deposited on conductive silicon substrates with platinum (Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si), the tunability reached up to 57% for a weak electric field of 50 kV/cm. In high-frequency range, epitaxial LaTiO x N y films deposited on MgO substrate present a high dielectric constant with low losses (ε′ ≈ 170, tanδ = 0.011, 12 GHz).

  11. Structure dependent resistivity and dielectric characteristics of tantalum oxynitride thin films produced by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, D., E-mail: daniel.cristea@unitbv.ro [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Crisan, A. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Cretu, N. [Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Department, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Borges, J. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, C.; Cunha, L. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Ion, V.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, “Photonic Processing of Advanced Materials” Group, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Apreutesei, M. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, 21 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully F-69134 (France); Munteanu, D. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Tantalum oxynitride thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering, in various configurations. • The rising of the reactive gases mixture flow has the consequence of a gradual increase in the non-metallic content in the films, which results in a 10 orders of magnitude resistivity domain. • The higher resistivity films exhibit dielectric constants up to 41 and quality factors up to 70. - Abstract: The main purpose of this work is to present and to interpret the change of electrical properties of Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} thin films, produced by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Some parameters were varied during deposition: the flow of the reactive gases mixture (N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, with a constant concentration ratio of 17:3); the substrate voltage bias (grounded, −50 V or −100 V) and the substrate (glass, (1 0 0) Si or high speed steel). The obtained films exhibit significant differences. The variation of the deposition parameters induces variations of the composition, microstructure and morphology. These differences cause variation of the electrical resistivity essentially correlated with the composition and structural changes. The gradual decrease of the Ta concentration in the films induces amorphization and causes a raise of the resistivity. The dielectric characteristics of some of the high resistance Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films were obtained in the samples with a capacitor-like design (deposited onto high speed steel, with gold pads deposited on the dielectric Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films). Some of these films exhibited dielectric constant values higher than those reported for other tantalum based dielectric films.

  12. Effect of La doping on crystalline orientation, microstructure and dielectric properties of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wencai; Li, Qi; Wang, Xing [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Yin, Zhifu [Jilin Univ., Changchun (China). Faculty of the School of Mechanical Science and Engineering; Zou, Helin [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). Key Lab. for Micro/Nano Systems and Technology

    2017-11-01

    Lanthanum (La)-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films with doping concentration from 0 to 5 at.-% have been fabricated by sol-gel methods to investigate the effects of La doping on crystalline orientation, microstructure and dielectric properties of the modified films. The characterization of PLZT thin films were performed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and precision impedance analysis. XRD analysis showed that PLZT films with La doping concentration below 4 at.-% exhibited (100) preferred orientation. SEM results indicated that PLZT films presented dense and columnar microstructures when La doping concentration was less than 3 at.-%, while the others showed columnar microstructures only at the bottom of the cross section. The maximum dielectric constant (1502.59 at 100 Hz) was obtained in a 2 at.-% La-doped film, which increased by 53.9 % compared with undoped film. Without introducing a seed layer, (100) oriented PLZT thin films were prepared by using conventional heat treatment process and adjusting La doping concentration.

  13. Influence of Doping Concentration on Dielectric, Optical, and Morphological Properties of PMMA Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PMMA thin films were deposited by sol gel spin coating method on ITO substrates. Toluene was used as the solvent to dissolve the PMMA powder. The PMMA concentration was varied from 30 ~ 120 mg. The dielectric properties were measured at frequency of 0 ~ 100 kHz. The dielectric permittivity was in the range of 7.3 to 7.5 which decreased as the PMMA concentration increased. The dielectric loss is in the range of 0.01 ~ –0.01. All samples show dielectric characteristics which have dielectric loss is less than 0.05. The optical properties for thin films were measured at room temperature across 200 ~ 1000 nm wavelength region. All samples are highly transparent. The energy band gaps are in the range of 3.6 eV to 3.9 eV when the PMMA concentration increased. The morphologies of the samples show that all samples are uniform and the surface roughness increased as the concentration increased. From this study, it is known that, the dielectric, optical, and morphology properties were influenced by the amount of PMMA concentration in the solution.

  14. PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films as gate dielectric for ZnO based thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acosta, M.D. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Quevedo-López, M.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Ramírez-Bon, R., E-mail: rrbon@qro.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we report a low temperature sol–gel deposition process of PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films, with variable dielectric properties depending on the composition of the precursor solution, for applications to gate dielectric layers in field-effect thin film transistors (FE-TFT). The hybrid layers were processed by a modified sol–gel route using as precursors Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and Methyl methacrylate (MMA), and 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) as the coupling agent. Three types of hybrid films were processed with molar ratios of the precursors in the initial solution 1.0: 0.25, 0.50, 0.75: 1.0 for TEOS: TMSPM: MMA, respectively. The hybrid films were deposited by spin coating of the hybrid precursor solutions onto p-type Si (100) substrates and heat-treated at 90 °C for 24 h. The chemical bonding in the hybrid films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to confirm their hybrid nature. The refractive index of the hybrid films as a function of the TMSPM coupling agent concentration, were determined from a simultaneous analysis of optical reflectance and spectroscopic ellipsometry experimental data. The PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films were studied as dielectric films using metal-insulator-metal structures. Capacitance–Voltage (C–V) and current–voltage (I–V) electrical methods were used to extract the dielectric properties of the different hybrid layers. The three types of hybrid films were tested as gate dielectric layers in thin film transistors with structure ZnO/PMMA–SiO{sub 2}/p-Si with a common bottom gate and patterned Al source/drain contacts, with different channel lengths. We analyzed the output electrical responses of the ZnO-based TFTs to determine their performance parameters as a function of channel length and hybrid gate dielectric layer. - Highlights: • PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films as dielectric material synthesized by sol–gel process at low temperature. • PMMA–SiO{sub 2

  15. Structural and magneto-dielectric property of (1-x)SBT-xLSMO nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Sarmistha; Bhattacharya, D.; Dhar, A.; Ray, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, interest in multiferroic materials has been increasing due to their potential applications. As single-phase multiferroic materials have very low room temperature magnetoelectric coefficient, recent studies have been concentrated on the possibility of attaining a coupling between the two order parameters by designing composites with magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases via stress mediation. Composite thin films with homogenous matrix, composition spread with terminal layers being ferromagnetic and ferroelectric, layer-by-layer growth, superlattices, as well as epitaxial growth of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric layers on suitable substrates are been currently considered. In the present work, a nanostructured composite thin film of strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) (ferroelectric layer) and lanthanum strontium manganese oxide (LSMO) (ferromagnetic layer) were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition. Phase separated multiferroic thin films with thickness varying from 50nm to 150nm were deposited from composite target (1-x)SBT-xLSMO with x=0.2, 0.5, 0.8. Grazing angle X-ray diffraction study combined with photo electron spectroscopy with depth profiling was carried out to study the phase separation. Interface quality of the thin film on silicon substrate was studied by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Influence of film thickness and composition (x) on the electrical property of film was examined using impedance spectroscopy. The composite films exhibited ferroelectric as well as ferromagnetic characteristics at room temperature. A small kink in the dielectric spectra near the Neel temperature of LSMO confirmed the magneto-electric effect in the nanocomposite films

  16. Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Gate Dielectrics for High-Performance Organic Thin Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyun Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A low-temperature solution-processed high-k gate dielectric layer for use in a high-performance solution-processed semiconducting polymer organic thin-film transistor (OTFT was demonstrated. Photochemical activation of sol-gel-derived AlOx films under 150 °C permitted the formation of a dense film with low leakage and relatively high dielectric-permittivity characteristics, which are almost comparable to the results yielded by the conventionally used vacuum deposition and high temperature annealing method. Octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA self-assembled monolayer (SAM treatment of the AlOx was employed in order to realize high-performance (>0.4 cm2/Vs saturation mobility and low-operation-voltage (<5 V diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP-based OTFTs on an ultra-thin polyimide film (3-μm thick. Thus, low-temperature photochemically-annealed solution-processed AlOx film with SAM layer is an attractive candidate as a dielectric-layer for use in high-performance organic TFTs operated at low voltages.

  17. Femtosecond-laser ablation dynamics of dielectrics: basics and applications for thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, P.; Schou, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    ejected from the dielectric following the femtosecond-laser excitation can potentially be used for thin-film deposition. The deposition rate is typically much smaller than that for nanosecond lasers, but film production by femtosecond lasers does possess several attractive features. First, the strong......-field excitation makes it possible to produce films of materials that are transparent to the laser light. Second, the highly localized excitation reduces the emission of larger material particulates. Third, lasers with ultrashort pulses are shown to be particularly useful tools for the production of nanocluster...... films. The important question of the film stoichiometry relative to that of the target will be thoroughly discussed in relation to the films reported in the literature....

  18. A new method of dielectric characterization in the microwave range for high-k ferroelectric thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Nadaud, Kevin; Gundel, Hartmut,; Borderon, Caroline; Gillard, Raphaël; Fourn, Erwan

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we propose a new method of dielectric characterization of high-k thin films based on the measurement of coplanar capacitor inserts between two coplanar waveguide transmission lines. The measurement geometry is deposed on the thin film which is elaborate on an insulating substrate. The thin film permittivity is extracted with the help of a mathematical model describing the capacitance between two conductor plates deposed on a 2-layers substrate. A simple c...

  19. Ta2O5 as gate dielectric material for low-voltage organic thin-film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartic, Carmen; Jansen, Henricus V.; Campitelli, Andrew; Borghs, Staf

    In this paper we report the use of Ta2O5 as gate dielectric material for organic thin-film transistors. Ta2O5 has already attracted a lot of attention as insulating material for VLSI applications. We have deposited Ta2O5 thin-films with different thickness by means of electron-beam evaporation.

  20. High performance In2O3 thin film transistors using chemically derived aluminum oxide dielectric

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2013-07-18

    We report high performance solution-deposited indium oxide thin film transistors with field-effect mobility of 127 cm2/Vs and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. This excellent performance is achieved by controlling the hydroxyl group content in chemically derived aluminum oxide (AlOx) thin-film dielectrics. The AlOx films annealed in the temperature range of 250–350 °C showed higher amount of Al-OH groups compared to the films annealed at 500 °C, and correspondingly higher mobility. It is proposed that the presence of Al-OH groups at the AlOx surface facilitates unintentional Al-doping and efficient oxidation of the indium oxide channel layer, leading to improved device performance.

  1. Dielectric Properties of Cd1-xZnxSe Thin Film Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, L.A.; Farrag, A.A.; Zayed, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Cd 1-x Zn x Se (x=0, 0.5 and 1) thin films of thickness 300 nm have been deposited on highly cleaned glass substrates (Soda-lime glass) by thermal evaporation technique under pressure 10-5 Torr. The crystal structure, lattice parameters and grain size were determined from X-ray diffraction patterns of these films. The dielectric response and ac conductivity of the films are investigated in the frequency range from 80 Hz to 5 MHz and temperature range from 300 K to 420 K. AC conductivity increases linearly with the frequency according to the power relation σ a c (ψ)=A (ψ) s . The dielectric constant and loss show low values at high frequencies. The relaxation time t, resistance R and capacitance C were calculated from Nyquist diagram. The behavior can be modeled by an equivalent parallel RC circuit.

  2. Structural, Optical, and Dielectric Properties of Azure B Thin Films and Impact of Thermal Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyada, H. M.; Zidan, H. M.; Abdelghany, A. M.; Abbas, I.

    2017-07-01

    Thin films of azure B (AB) have been prepared by thermal evaporation. Structural, optical, and dielectric characteristics of as-prepared and annealed samples were studied. AB is polycrystalline in as-synthesized powder form. Detailed x-ray diffraction studies showed amorphous structure for pristine and annealed films. Fourier-transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy indicated minor changes in molecular bonds of AB thin films either after deposition or after thermal annealing. Optical transmittance and reflection spectra of prepared thin films were studied at nearly normal light incidence in the spectral range from 200 nm to 2500 nm, showing marked changes without new peaks. Annealing increased the absorption coefficient and decreased the optical bandgap. Onset and optical energy gaps of pristine films were found to obey indirect allowed transition with values of 1.10 eV and 2.64 eV, respectively. Annealing decreased the onset and optical energy gaps to 1.0 eV and 2.57 eV, respectively. The dispersion parameters before and after annealing are discussed in terms of a single-oscillator model. The spectra of the dielectric constants ( ɛ 1, ɛ 2) were found to depend on the annealing temperature in addition to the incident photon energy.

  3. Nanomechanical probing of thin-film dielectric elastomer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, Bekim; Seifi, Saman; Park, Harold S.; Leung, Vanessa; Töpper, Tino; Müller, Bert

    2017-08-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers (DETs) have attracted interest as generators, actuators, sensors, and even as self-sensing actuators for applications in medicine, soft robotics, and microfluidics. Their performance crucially depends on the elastic properties of the electrode-elastomer sandwich structure. The compressive displacement of a single-layer DET can be easily measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the contact mode. While polymers used as dielectric elastomers are known to exhibit significant mechanical stiffening for large strains, their mechanical properties when subjected to voltages are not well understood. To examine this effect, we measured the depths of 400 nanoindentations as a function of the applied electric field using a spherical AFM probe with a radius of (522 ± 4) nm. Employing a field as low as 20 V/μm, the indentation depths increased by 42% at a load of 100 nN with respect to the field-free condition, implying an electromechanically driven elastic softening of the DET. This at-a-glance surprising experimental result agrees with related nonlinear, dynamic finite element model simulations. Furthermore, the pull-off forces rose from (23.0 ± 0.4) to (49.0 ± 0.7) nN implying a nanoindentation imprint after unloading. This embossing effect is explained by the remaining charges at the indentation site. The root-mean-square roughness of the Au electrode raised by 11% upon increasing the field from zero to 12 V/μm, demonstrating that the electrode's morphology change is an undervalued factor in the fabrication of DET structures.

  4. Deposition and characterization of titanium dioxide and hafnium dioxide thin films for high dielectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Meeyoung

    The industry's demand for higher integrated circuit density and performance has forced the gate dielectric layer thickness to decrease rapidly. The use of conventional SiO2 films as gate oxide is reaching its limit due to the rapid increase in tunneling current. Therefore, a need for a high dielectric material to produce large oxide capacitance and low leakage current has emerged. Metal-oxides such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are attractive candidates for gate dielectrics due to their electrical and physical properties suitable for high dielectric applications. MOCVD of TiO2 using titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) precursor on p-type Si(100) has been studied. Insertion of a TiO x buffer layer, formed by depositing metallic Ti followed by oxidation, at the TiO2/Si interface has reduced the carbon contamination in the TiO2 film. Elemental Ti films, analyzed by in-situ AES, were found to grow according to Stranski-Krastanov mode on Si(100). Carbon-free, stoichiometric TiO2 films were successfully produced on Si(100) without any parasitic SiO2 layers at the TiO 2/Si interface. Electron-beam deposition of HfO2 films on Si(100) has also been investigated in this work. HfO2 films are formed by depositing elemental Hf on Si(100) and then oxidizing it either in O2 or O 3. XPS results reveal that with oxidation Hf(4f) peak shifts +3.45eV with 02 and +3.65eV with O3 oxidation. LEED and AFM studies show that the initially ordered crystalline Hf becomes disordered after oxidation. The thermodynamic stability of HfO2 films on Si has been studied using a unique test-bed structure of Hf/O3/Si. Post-Oxidation of Layer Deposition (POLD) has been employed to produce HfO2 films with a desired thickness. XPS results indicate that stoichiometric HfO 2 films were successfully produced using the POLD process. The investigation of the growth and thin film properties of TiO 2 and HfO2 using oxygen and ozone has laid a foundation for the application of these metal

  5. In-plane microwave dielectric properties of paraelectric barium strontium titanate thin films with anisotropic epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Bellotti, J. A.

    2005-08-01

    In-plane dielectric properties of ⟨110⟩ oriented epitaxial (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 thin films in the thickness range from 25-1200nm have been investigated under the influence of anisotropic epitaxial strains from ⟨100⟩ NdGaO3 substrates. The measured dielectric properties show strong residual strain and in-plane directional dependence. Below 150nm film thickness, there appears to be a phase transition due to the anisotropic nature of the misfit strain relaxation. In-plane relative permittivity is found to vary from as much as 500-150 along [11¯0] and [001] respectively, in 600nm thick films, and from 75 to 500 overall. Tunability was found to vary from as much as 54% to 20% in all films and directions, and in a given film the best tunability is observed along the compressed axis in a mixed strain state, 54% along [11¯0] in the 600nm film for example.

  6. Lanthanum titanium perovskite compound: Thin film deposition and high frequency dielectric characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Paven, C., E-mail: claire.lepaven@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Lu, Y. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Nguyen, H.V. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); CEA LETI, Minatec Campus, 38054 Grenoble (France); Benzerga, R.; Le Gendre, L. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Rioual, S. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Brest (EA CNRS 4522), Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29000 Brest (France); Benzegoutta, D. [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris (INSP, UMR CNRS 7588), Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Tessier, F.; Cheviré, F. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (ISCR, UMR-CNRS 6226), Equipe Verres et Céramiques, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France); and others

    2014-02-28

    Perovskite lanthanum titanium oxide thin films were deposited on (001) MgO, (001) LaAlO{sub 3} and Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, using a La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} homemade target sputtered under oxygen reactive plasma. The films deposited at 800 °C display a crystalline growth different than those reported on monoclinic ferroelectric La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows the presence of titanium as Ti{sup 4+} ions, with no trace of Ti{sup 3+}, and provides a La/Ti ratio of 1.02. The depositions being performed from a La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} target under oxygen rich plasma, the same composition (La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}) is proposed for the deposited films, with an unusual orthorhombic cell and Cmc2{sub 1} space group. The films have a textured growth on MgO and Pt/Si substrates, and are epitaxially grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. The dielectric characterization displays stable values of the dielectric constant and of the losses in the frequency range [0.1–20] GHz. No variation of the dielectric constant has been observed when a DC electric field up to 250 kV/cm was applied, which does not match a classical ferroelectric behavior at high frequencies and room temperature for the proposed La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} orthorhombic phase. At 10 GHz and room temperature, the dielectric constant of the obtained La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} films is ε ∼ 60 and the losses are low (tanδ < 0.02). - Highlights: • Lanthanum titanium oxide films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • A La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} chemical composition is proposed, with an unusual orthorhombic cell. • At 10 GHz, the dielectric losses are lower than 0.02. • No variation of the dielectric constant is observed under DC electric biasing.

  7. Transport of hollow atoms through thin dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, T.; Wu, K.J.; Liechtenstein, V.Kh.

    2001-01-01

    We have determined exit charge states and energy losses of slow, highly charged gold ions after transmission of thin (7±3 nm) diamond like carbon foils. Average charge states of up to 37+ were observed for Th 80+ at 8.2 keV/u (0.57 v Bohr ). The final charge state is populated through re-arrangement processes after the projectile has left the foil. High final charge states indicate that none of the M-shell vacancies in Th 80+ could be filled inside the foil. The increase of the average exit charge state as a function of M-shell vacancies is a sign of strongly enhanced X-ray fluorescent yields for hollow atom decay in vacuum. (orig.)

  8. Solution processed lanthanum aluminate gate dielectrics for use in metal oxide-based thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esro, M.; Adamopoulos, G., E-mail: g.adamopoulos@lancaster.ac.uk [Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Mazzocco, R.; Kolosov, O.; Krier, A. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Vourlias, G. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Milne, W. I. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Department of Electrical and Computing Engineering, University of Canterbury, 4800 Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2015-05-18

    We report on ZnO-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) employing lanthanum aluminate gate dielectrics (La{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}O{sub y}) grown by spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere at 440 °C. The structural, electronic, optical, morphological, and electrical properties of the La{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}O{sub y} films and devices as a function of the lanthanum to aluminium atomic ratio were investigated using a wide range of characterization techniques such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and field-effect measurements. As-deposited LaAlO{sub y} dielectrics exhibit a wide band gap (∼6.18 eV), high dielectric constant (k ∼ 16), low roughness (∼1.9 nm), and very low leakage currents (<3 nA/cm{sup 2}). TFTs employing solution processed LaAlO{sub y} gate dielectrics and ZnO semiconducting channels exhibit excellent electron transport characteristics with hysteresis-free operation, low operation voltages (∼10 V), high on/off current modulation ratio of >10{sup 6}, subthreshold swing of ∼650 mV dec{sup −1}, and electron mobility of ∼12 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  9. Laser Direct Patterning of Organic Dielectric Passivation Layer for Fabricating Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Nan; Su, Kuo-Hui; Chen, Yeong-Chin

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a laser direct patterning process application in benzocyclobutene (BCB) organic dielectric passivation-based amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film transistor (TFT) device fabrication has been carried out using a KrF excimer laser. A BCB organic photoresist material of 2000 nm with a dielectric constant = 2.7 served as the dielectric passivation layer in our device. Compared with conventional processes, laser direct patterning combining BCB organic photoresist dielectric passivation could eliminate at least four process steps. The etching depth of the BCB organic material passivation layer depends on the laser energy density and number of irradiation shots. The hydrogenated a-Si TFT devices are fabricated by replacing the passivation layer and contact hole patterning process. The mobility and threshold voltage reached 0.16 cm2 V-1 s-1 and -3.5 V, respectively. For TFT device performance, laser direct patterning technology is a potential method of replacing photolithography technology in the application of BCB organic dielectric passivation-based TFT manufacture.

  10. Dynamics of poly(vinyl methyl ketone) thin films studied by local dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalini, R.; Labardi, M.; Roland, C. M.

    2017-05-01

    Local dielectric spectroscopy, which entails measuring the change in resonance frequency of the conducting tip of an atomic force microscope to determine the complex permittivity of a sample with high spatial (lateral) resolution, was employed to characterize the dynamics of thin films of poly(vinyl methyl ketone) (PVMK) having different substrate and top surface layers. A free surface yields the usual speeding up of the segmental dynamics, corresponding to a glass transition suppression of 6.5° for 18 nm film thickness. This result is unaffected by the presence of a glassy, compatible polymer, poly-4-vinyl phenol (PVPh), between the metal substrate and the PVMK. However, covering the top surface with a thin layer of the PVPh suppresses the dynamics. The speeding up of PVMK segmental motions observed for a free surface is absent due to interfacial interactions of the PVMK with the glass layer, an effect not seen when the top layer is an incompatible polymer.

  11. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free (Bi,Na)TiO3-based thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Safari, A.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2010-02-01

    Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of morphotropic phase boundary (Bi,Na)TiO3-(Bi,K)TiO3-BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films deposited on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO3 substrates were reported. Thin films of 350 nm thickness exhibited small signal dielectric permittivity and loss tangent values of 750 and 0.15, respectively, at 1 kHz. Ferroelectric hysteresis measurements indicated a remanent polarization value of 30 μC/cm2 with a coercive field of 85-100 kV/cm. The thin film transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f) of these films after poling at 600 kV/cm was found to be -2.2 C/m2. The results indicate that these BNT-based thin films are a potential candidate for lead-free piezoelectric devices.

  12. Temperature Effects on a-IGZO Thin Film Transistors Using HfO2 Gate Dielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the temperature effect on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs using hafnium oxide (HfO2 gate dielectric material. HfO2 is an attractive candidate as a high-κ dielectric material for gate oxide because it has great potential to exhibit superior electrical properties with a high drive current. In the process of integrating the gate dielectric and IGZO thin film, postannealing treatment is an essential process for completing the chemical reaction of the IGZO thin film and enhancing the gate oxide quality to adjust the electrical characteristics of the TFTs. However, the hafnium atom diffused the IGZO thin film, causing interface roughness because of the stability of the HfO2 dielectric thin film during high-temperature annealing. In this study, the annealing temperature was optimized at 200°C for a HfO2 gate dielectric TFT exhibiting high mobility, a high ION/IOFF ratio, low IOFF current, and excellent subthreshold swing (SS.

  13. Electrical properties of nanoscale metallic thin films on dielectric elastomer at various strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Md. Shahnewaz Sabit; Ye, Zhihang; Chen, Zheng; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) have significant applications in artificial muscle and other biomedical equipment and device fabrications. Metallic thin films by thin film transfer and sputter coating techniques can provide conductive surfaces on the DE samples, and can be used as electrodes for the actuators and other biomedical sensing devices. In the present study, 3M VHB 4910 tape was used as a DE for the coating and electrical characterization tests. A 150 nm thickness of gold was coated on the DE surfaces by sputter coating under vacuum with different pre-strains, ranging from 0 to 100%. Some of the thin films were transferred to the surface of the DEs. Sputter coating, and direct transferring gold leaf coating methods were studied and the results were analyzed in detail in terms of the strain rates and electrical resistivity changes. Initial studies indicated that the metallic surfaces remain conductive even though the DE films were considerably elongated. The coated DEs can be used as artificial muscle by applying electrical stimulation through the conductive surfaces. This study may provide great benefits to the readers, researchers, as well as companies involved in manufacturing of artificial muscles and actuators using smart materials.

  14. Low temperature dielectric relaxation and charged defects in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Artemenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a dielectric relaxation in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric thin films of different composition and with several growth modes: sputtering (with and without magnetron and sol-gel. The relaxation was observed at cryogenic temperatures (T < 100 K for frequencies from 100 Hz up to 10 MHz. This relaxation activation energy is always lower than 200 meV and is very similar to the relaxation that we reported in the parent bulk perovskites. Based on our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR investigation, we ascribe this dielectric relaxation to the hopping of electrons among Ti3+-V(O charged defects. Being dependent on the growth process and on the amount of oxygen vacancies, this relaxation can be a useful probe of defects in actual integrated capacitors with no need for specific shaping.

  15. Dielectric Property of Silicate-Doped CaBi4Ti4O15 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shota; Kondoh, Yohta; Kimura, Junichi; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Thin films of silicate-doped CaBi4Ti4O15 were fabricated to enhance the insulating property of one-axis-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 films under an applied electric field. The crystalline phase of CaBi4Ti4O15, a type of bismuth layer-structured dielectric (BLSD) compound, was successfully grown on (100)LaNiO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si with the preferential orientation of the (001) plane by the addition of bismuth silicate with a nominal composition of Bi12SiO20 up to 1.00%. The crystallographic orientation of the (001)BLSD plane normal to the substrate surface was degraded by excessive bismuth silicate addition above 1.50%. The breakdown electric field was increased by bismuth silicate addition up to 2.00% without the degraded relative dielectric permittivity (ɛr) of approximately 230. The bismuth silicate could precipitate between the grain boundaries in the CaBi4Ti4O15 films without an interface reaction or a solid solution that enhances the insulating behavior of the BLSD films.

  16. Pulsed-source MOCVD of high-k dielectric thin films with in situ monitoring by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchiya, Y; Tung, R T; Oda, S; Kurosawa, M; Hattori, T

    2003-01-01

    The formation of high-k thin films by pulsed-source metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been investigated with in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. It is demonstrated that spectroscopic ellipsometry is an effective method for in situ monitoring of the fabrication of high-k dielectric thin films with thicknesses of several nm's. Thin yttrium oxide films with average roughnesses smaller than the thickness of a single molecular layer, and with a capacitance equivalent thickness approx 1.7 nm were obtained. Thicknesses and optical properties of each individual layer were also extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry, by fitting to appropriate structural models. (author)

  17. The relationship between chemical structure and dielectric properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Hao [Materials Sci and Tech Applications, LLC, 409 Maple Springs Drive, Dayton OH 45458 (United States)]. E-mail: hao.jiang@wpafb.af.mil; Hong Lianggou [Materials Sci and Tech Applications, LLC, 409 Maple Springs Drive, Dayton OH 45458 (United States); Venkatasubramanian, N. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0168 (United States); Grant, John T. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0168 (United States); Eyink, Kurt [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Wiacek, Kevin [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7251 (United States); Fries-Carr, Sandra [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7251 (United States); Enlow, Jesse [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Bunning, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States)

    2007-02-26

    Polymer dielectric films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have unique properties due to their dense crosslinked bulk structure. These spatially uniform films exhibit good adhesion to a variety of substrates, excellent chemical inertness, high thermal resistance, and are formed from an inexpensive, solvent-free, room temperature process. In this work, we studied the dielectric properties of plasma polymerized (PP) carbon-based polymer thin films prepared from two precursors, benzene and octafluorocyclobutane. Two different monomer feed locations, directly in the plasma zone or in the downstream region (DS) and two different pressures, 80 Pa (high pressure) or 6.7 Pa (low pressure), were used. The chemical structure of the PECVD films was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The dielectric constant ({epsilon} {sub r}) and dielectric loss (tan {delta}) of the films were investigated over a range of frequencies up to 1 MHz and the dielectric strength (breakdown voltage) (F {sub b}) was characterized by the current-voltage method. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was performed to determine the film thickness and refractive index. Good dielectric properties were exhibited, as PP-benzene films formed in the high pressure, DS region showed a F{sub b} of 610 V/{mu}m, an {epsilon} {sub r} of 3.07, and a tan {delta} of 7.0 x 10{sup -3} at 1 kHz. The PECVD processing pressure has a significant effect on final film structure and the film's physical density has a strong impact on dielectric breakdown strength. Also noted was that the residual oxygen content in the PP-benzene films significantly affected the frequency dependences of the dielectric constant and loss.

  18. The relationship between chemical structure and dielectric properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hao; Hong Lianggou; Venkatasubramanian, N.; Grant, John T.; Eyink, Kurt; Wiacek, Kevin; Fries-Carr, Sandra; Enlow, Jesse; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer dielectric films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have unique properties due to their dense crosslinked bulk structure. These spatially uniform films exhibit good adhesion to a variety of substrates, excellent chemical inertness, high thermal resistance, and are formed from an inexpensive, solvent-free, room temperature process. In this work, we studied the dielectric properties of plasma polymerized (PP) carbon-based polymer thin films prepared from two precursors, benzene and octafluorocyclobutane. Two different monomer feed locations, directly in the plasma zone or in the downstream region (DS) and two different pressures, 80 Pa (high pressure) or 6.7 Pa (low pressure), were used. The chemical structure of the PECVD films was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The dielectric constant (ε r ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) of the films were investigated over a range of frequencies up to 1 MHz and the dielectric strength (breakdown voltage) (F b ) was characterized by the current-voltage method. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was performed to determine the film thickness and refractive index. Good dielectric properties were exhibited, as PP-benzene films formed in the high pressure, DS region showed a F b of 610 V/μm, an ε r of 3.07, and a tan δ of 7.0 x 10 -3 at 1 kHz. The PECVD processing pressure has a significant effect on final film structure and the film's physical density has a strong impact on dielectric breakdown strength. Also noted was that the residual oxygen content in the PP-benzene films significantly affected the frequency dependences of the dielectric constant and loss

  19. Optical and microwave dielectric properties of pulsed laser deposited Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Andrews; Goud, J. Pundareekam; Raju, K. C. James [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana 500046 (India); Emani, Sivanagi Reddy [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Telangana 500046 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited (PLD) sodium bismuth titanate thin films (NBT), are investigated at wavelengths of 190-2500 nm. Microwave dielectric properties were investigated using the Split Post Dielectric Resonator (SPDR) technique. At 10 GHz, the NBT films have a dielectric constant of 205 and loss tangent of 0.0373 at room temperature. The optical spectra analysis reveals that NBT thin films have an optical band gap E{sub g}=3.55 eV and it has a dielectric constant of 3.37 at 1000 nm with dielectric loss of 0.299. Hence, NBT is a promising candidate for photonic device applications.

  20. UV protection filters by dielectric multilayer thin films on Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, M.M.; Azim, Osama A.; Abdel-Wahab, L.A.; Seddik, Mohamed M.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing use of Ultraviolet (UV) light in medicine, industrial environments, for cosmetic use, and even in consumer products necessitates that greater attention be paid to the potential hazards of this type of electromagnetic radiation. To avoid any adverse effects of exposure to this type of radiation, four suitable protection filters were produced to block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters was done by optical thin film technology using the absorbing property of UV radiation for the substrates and dielectric materials. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Titanium dioxide (Ti 2 O 3 ), Hafnium dioxide (HfO 2 ), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 ); deposition being achieved using an electron beam gun. The output results of the theoretical and experimental transmittance values for spectral band from 200 nm to 800 nm were discussed in four processes. To analyze the suitability for use in 'real world' applications, the test pieces were subjected to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance, and humidity) according to Military Standard MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A

  1. UV protection filters by dielectric multilayer thin films on Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, M. M.; Azim, Osama A.; Abdel-Wahab, L. A.; Seddik, Mohamed M.

    2006-10-01

    The increasing use of Ultraviolet (UV) light in medicine, industrial environments, for cosmetic use, and even in consumer products necessitates that greater attention be paid to the potential hazards of this type of electromagnetic radiation. To avoid any adverse effects of exposure to this type of radiation, four suitable protection filters were produced to block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters was done by optical thin film technology using the absorbing property of UV radiation for the substrates and dielectric materials. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Titanium dioxide (Ti 2O 3), Hafnium dioxide (HfO 2), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO 2/Al 2O 3); deposition being achieved using an electron beam gun. The output results of the theoretical and experimental transmittance values for spectral band from 200 nm to 800 nm were discussed in four processes. To analyze the suitability for use in 'real world' applications, the test pieces were subjected to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance, and humidity) according to Military Standard MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

  2. Adjustable threshold-voltage in all-inkjet-printed organic thin film transistor using double-layer dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chang-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Hao; Yang, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2013-01-01

    An all-inkjet-printed organic thin film transistor (OTFT) with a double-layer dielectric structure is proposed and implemented in this study. By using the double-layer structure with different dielectric materials (i.e., polyvinylphenol with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)), the threshold-voltage of OTFT can be adjusted. The threshold-voltage shift can be controlled by changing the composition of dielectric layers. That is, an enhancement-mode OTFT can be converted to a depletion-mode OTFT by selectively printing additional dielectric layers to form a high-k/low-k double-layer structure. The printed OTFT has a carrier mobility of 5.0 × 10 −3 cm 2 /V-s. The threshold-voltages of the OTFTs ranged between − 13 V and 10 V. This study demonstrates an additional design parameter for organic electronics manufactured using inkjet printing technology. - Highlights: • A double-layer dielectric organic thin film transistor, OTFT, is implemented. • The threshold voltage of OTFT can be configured by the double dielectric structure. • The composition of the dielectric determines the threshold voltage shift. • The characteristics of OTFTs can be adjusted by double dielectric structures

  3. An electrode-free method of characterizing the microwave dielectric properties of high-permittivity thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bovtun, Viktor; Pashkov, V.; Kempa, Martin; Kamba, Stanislav; Eremenko, A.; Molchanov, V.; Poplavko, Y.; Yakymenko, Y.; Lee, J.H.; Schlom, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 2 (2011), 024106/1-024106/6 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0682 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : microwave characterization * ferroelectrics * thin film * dielectric resonator Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.168, year: 2011

  4. Pentacene-Based Thin Film Transistor with Inkjet-Printed Nanocomposite High-K Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Te Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocomposite gate insulating film of a pentacene-based thin film transistor was deposited by inkjet printing. In this study, utilizing the pearl miller to crumble the agglomerations and the dispersant to well stabilize the dispersion of nano-TiO2 particles in the polymer matrix of the ink increases the dose concentration for pico-jetting, which could be as the gate dielectric film made by inkjet printing without the photography process. Finally, we realized top contact pentacene-TFTs and successfully accomplished the purpose of directly patternability and increase the performance of the device based on the nanocomposite by inkjet printing. These devices exhibited p-channel TFT characteristics with a high field-effect mobility (a saturation mobility of ̃0.58 cm2 V−1 s−1, a large current ratio (>103 and a low operation voltage (<6 V. Furthermore, we accorded the deposited mechanisms which caused the interface difference between of inkjet printing and spin coating. And we used XRD, SEM, Raman spectroscopy to help us analyze the transfer characteristics of pentacene films and the performance of OTFTs.

  5. Phase sensitive molecular dynamics of self-assembly glycolipid thin films: A dielectric spectroscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, T. S.; Ng, B. K.; Gan, W. C.; Majid, W. H. Abd.; Hashim, R.; Zahid, N. I.; Chaiprapa, Jitrin

    2014-08-01

    Glycolipid, found commonly in membranes, is also a liquid crystal material which can self-assemble without the presence of a solvent. Here, the dielectric and conductivity properties of three synthetic glycolipid thin films in different thermotropic liquid crystal phases were investigated over a frequency and temperature range of (10-2-106 Hz) and (303-463 K), respectively. The observed relaxation processes distinguish between the different phases (smectic A, columnar/hexagonal, and bicontinuous cubic Q) and the glycolipid molecular structures. Large dielectric responses were observed in the columnar and bicontinuous cubic phases of the longer branched alkyl chain glycolipids. Glycolipids with the shortest branched alkyl chain experience the most restricted self-assembly dynamic process over the broad temperature range studied compared to the longer ones. A high frequency dielectric absorption (Process I) was observed in all samples. This is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network from the sugar group. An additional low-frequency mechanism (Process II) with a large dielectric strength was observed due to the internal dynamics of the self-assembly organization. Phase sensitive domain heterogeneity in the bicontinuous cubic phase was related to the diffusion of charge carriers. The microscopic features of charge hopping were modelled using the random walk scheme, and two charge carrier hopping lengths were estimated for two glycolipid systems. For Process I, the hopping length is comparable to the hydrogen bond and is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network. Additionally, that for Process II is comparable to the bilayer spacing, hence confirming that this low-frequency mechanism is associated with the internal dynamics within the phase.

  6. Effect of substitution group on dielectric properties of 4H-pyrano [3, 2-c] quinoline derivatives thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, M. Zeyada; F, M. El-Taweel; M, M. El-Nahass; M, M. El-Shabaan

    2016-07-01

    The AC electrical conductivity and dielectrical properties of 2-amino-6-ethyl-5-oxo-4-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrano[3, 2-c]quinoline-3-carbonitrile (Ph-HPQ) and 2-amino-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-5-oxo-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrano [3, 2-c] quinoline-3-carbonitrile (Ch-HPQ) thin films were determined in the frequency range of 0.5 kHz-5 MHz and the temperature range of 290-443 K. The AC electrical conduction of both compounds in thin film form is governed by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) mechanism. Some parameters such as the barrier height, the maximum barrier height, the density of charges, and the hopping distance were determined as functions of temperature and frequency. The phenoxyphenyl group has a greater influence on those parameters than the chlorophenyl group. The AC activation energies were determined at different frequencies and temperatures. The dielectric behaviors of Ph-HPQ and Ch-HPQ were investigated using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The impedance data are presented in Nyquist diagrams for different temperatures. The Ch-HPQ films have higher impedance than the Ph-HPQ films. The real dielectric constant and dielectric loss show a remarkable dependence on the frequency and temperature. The Ph-HPQ has higher dielectric constants than the Ch-HPQ.

  7. Nanostructured pyronin Y thin films as a new organic semiconductor: Linear/nonlinear optics, band gap and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, H. Y.; Yahia, I. S.; Alamri, F. H.

    2017-05-01

    Pyronin Y dye (PY) is a kind of xanthene derivatives. Thin films of pyronin Y were deposited onto highly cleaned glass substrates using low-cost/spin coating technique. The structure properties of pyronin Y thin films with different thicknesses were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). PY thin films for all the studied thicknesses have an amorphous structure supporting the short range order of the grain size. AFM supports the nanostructure with spherical/clusters morphologies of the investigated thin films. The optical constants of pyronin Y thin films for various thicknesses were studied by using UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 350-2500 nm. The transmittance T(λ), reflectance R(λ) spectral and absorbance (abs(λ)) were obtained for all film thicknesses at room temperature and the normal light incident. These films showed a high transmittance in the wide scale wavelengths. For different thicknesses of the studied thin films, the optical band gaps were determined and their values around 2 eV. Real and imaginary dielectric constants, dissipation factor and the nonlinear optical parameters were calculated in the wavelengths to the range 300-2500 nm. The pyronin Y is a new organic semiconductor with a good optical absorption in UV-vis regions and it is suitable for nonlinear optical applications.

  8. Ac-conductivity and dielectric relaxations above glass transition temperature for parylene-C thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahouli, A. [Joseph Fourier University (UJF), Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2ELab), Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Laboratory for Materials, Organization and Properties (LabMOP), Tunis (Tunisia); Sylvestre, A. [Joseph Fourier University (UJF), Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2ELab), Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jomni, F.; Yangui, B. [Laboratory for Materials, Organization and Properties (LabMOP), Tunis (Tunisia); Legrand, J. [Varioptic SA, Lyon (France)

    2012-03-15

    45% semi-crystalline parylene-C (-H{sub 2}C-C{sub 6}H{sub 3}Cl-CH{sub 2}-){sub n} thin films (5.8 {mu}m) polymers have been investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy for temperatures above the glass transition (T{sub g} =90 C). Good insulating properties of parylene-C were obtained until operating temperatures as high as 200 C. Thus, low-frequency conductivities from 10 {sup -15} to 10 {sup -12} S/cm were obtained for temperatures varying from 90 to 185 C, respectively. This conductivity is at the origin of a significant increase in the dielectric constant at low frequency and at high temperature. As a consequence, Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) polarization at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces is put in evidence with activation energy of 1.5 eV. Coupled TGA (Thermogravimetric analysis) and DTA (differential thermal analysis) revealed that the material is stable up to 400 C. This is particularly interesting to integrate this material for new applications as organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Electric conductivity measured at temperatures up to 200 C obeys to the well-known Jonscher law. The plateau observed in the low frequency part of this conductivity is temperature-dependent and follows Arrhenius behavior with activation energy of 0.97 eV (deep traps). (orig.)

  9. Thickness-dependent piezoelectric behaviour and dielectric properties of lanthanum modified BiFeO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Biasotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bi0.85La0.15FeO3 (BLFO thin films were deposited on Pt(111/Ti/SiO2 /Si substrates by the soft chemical method. Films with thicknesses ranging from 140 to 280 nm were grown on platinum coated silicon substrates at 500°C for 2 hours. The X-ray diffraction analysis of BLFO films evidenced a hexagonal structure over the entire thickness range investigated. The grain size of the film changes as the number of the layers increases, indicating thickness dependence. It is found that the piezoelectric response is strongly influenced by the film thickness. It is shown that the properties of BiFeO3 thin films, such as lattice parameter, dielectric permittivity, piezoeletric coefficient etc., are functions of misfit strains.

  10. Nanostructured pyronin Y thin films as a new organic semiconductor: Linear/nonlinear optics, band gap and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahran, H.Y. [Metallurgical Lab.1, Nanoscience Laboratory for Environmental and Bio-medical Applications (NLEBA), Semiconductor Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S., E-mail: dr_isyahia@yahoo.com [Metallurgical Lab.1, Nanoscience Laboratory for Environmental and Bio-medical Applications (NLEBA), Semiconductor Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Alamri, F.H. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-05-15

    Pyronin Y dye (PY) is a kind of xanthene derivatives. Thin films of pyronin Y were deposited onto highly cleaned glass substrates using low-cost/spin coating technique. The structure properties of pyronin Y thin films with different thicknesses were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). PY thin films for all the studied thicknesses have an amorphous structure supporting the short range order of the grain size. AFM supports the nanostructure with spherical/clusters morphologies of the investigated thin films. The optical constants of pyronin Y thin films for various thicknesses were studied by using UV–vis–NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The transmittance T(λ), reflectance R(λ) spectral and absorbance (abs(λ)) were obtained for all film thicknesses at room temperature and the normal light incident. These films showed a high transmittance in the wide scale wavelengths. For different thicknesses of the studied thin films, the optical band gaps were determined and their values around 2 eV. Real and imaginary dielectric constants, dissipation factor and the nonlinear optical parameters were calculated in the wavelengths to the range 300–2500 nm. The pyronin Y is a new organic semiconductor with a good optical absorption in UV–vis regions and it is suitable for nonlinear optical applications. - Highlights: • Pyronin Y (PY) nanostructured thin films were deposited by using spin coating technique. • XRD/AFM were used to study the structure of PY films. • The optical band gap was calculated on the basis of Tauc's model. • Linear/nonlinear optical parameters are calculated and interpreted via the applied optical theories. • PY thin films is a new organic semiconductor for its application in optoelectronic devices.

  11. A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. D.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Leong, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric function, band gap, and exciton binding energies of ultrathin ZnO films as a function of film thickness have been obtained with spectroscopic ellipsometry. As the film thickness decreases, both real (ε 1 ) and imaginary (ε 2 ) parts of the dielectric function decrease significantly, and ε 2 shows a blue shift. The film thickness dependence of the dielectric function is shown related to the changes in the interband absorption, discrete-exciton absorption, and continuum-exciton absorption, which can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect on both the band gap and exciton binding energies

  12. Impact of Gate Dielectric in Carrier Mobility in Low Temperature Chalcogenide Thin Film Transistors for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Salas-Villasenor, A. L.

    2010-06-29

    Cadmium sulfide thin film transistors were demonstrated as the n-type device for use in flexible electronics. CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (70° C) on either 100 nm HfO2 or SiO2 as the gate dielectrics. Common gate transistors with channel lengths of 40-100 μm were fabricated with source and drain aluminum top contacts defined using a shadow mask process. No thermal annealing was performed throughout the device process. X-ray diffraction results clearly show the hexagonal crystalline phase of CdS. The electrical performance of HfO 2 /CdS -based thin film transistors shows a field effect mobility and threshold voltage of 25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2 V, respectively. Improvement in carrier mobility is associated with better nucleation and growth of CdS films deposited on HfO2. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  13. Growth and characteristics of PbS/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites for flexible high dielectric thin film applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmar, J.J.L.; Majumder, T.; Mondal, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    PbS/polyvinyl alcohol (PbS/PVA) nanocomposites have been grown by a chemical bath deposition process at various growth temperatures (60–100 °C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study revealed the formation of PbS nanoparticles of diameter 6–20 nm encapsulated in PVA matrix. Optical band gap of the nanocomposite films have been found to decrease (1.45 eV–0.67 eV) with increase in growth temperature from 60 °C to 100 °C. The impedance measurements have been carried out by depositing the PbS/PVA films on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The room temperature dielectric permittivity and ac conductivity measurements have been carried out for ITO/PbS/PVA/Al devices deposited at various growth temperatures. The nanocomposite films demonstrate superior dielectric permittivity compare to pure PVA polymer. The flexibility studies of ITO/PbS/PVA/Al devices have been performed at different bending angles. - Highlights: • PbS nanoparticles of diameter 6–20 nm were grown in polyvinyl (PVA) matrix. • Optical band gap of nanocomposite films was varied from 1.45–0.67 eV. • The nanocomposite thin films demonstrated superior dielectric permittivity. • Flexibility study of thin film devices was performed at various bending angles.

  14. Atomic Layer Deposited Thin Films for Dielectrics, Semiconductor Passivation, and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Runshen

    , ultra-thin layer of encapsulating ZnS is coated on the surface of GaSb and GaSb/InAs substrates. The 2 nm-thick ZnS film is found to provide a long-term protection against reoxidation for one order and a half longer times than prior reported passivation likely due to its amorphous structure without pinholes. Finally, a combination of binary ALD processes is developed and demonstrated for the growth of yttria-stabilized zirconia films using alkylamido-cyclopentadiengyls zirconium and tris(isopropyl-cyclopentadienyl)yttrium, as zirconium and yttrium precursors, respectively, with ozone being the oxidant. The desired cubic structure of YSZ films is apparently achieved after post-deposition annealing. Further, platinum is atomic layer deposited as electrode on YSZ (8 mol% of Yttria) within the same system. In order to control the morphology of as-deposited Pt thin structure, the nucleation behavior of Pt on amorphous and cubic YSZ is investigated. Three different morphologies of Pt are observed, including nanoparticle, porous and dense films, which are found to depend on the ALD cycle number and the structure and morphology of they underlying ALD YSZ films.

  15. Effect of titanium oxide–polystyrene nanocomposite dielectrics on morphology and thin film transistor performance for organic and polymeric semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Pelle, Andrea M.; Maliakal, Ashok; Sidorenko, Alexander; Thayumanavan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that organic thin film transistors with pentacene deposited on gate dielectrics composed of a blend of high K titanium oxide–polystyrene core–shell nanocomposite (TiO 2 –PS) with polystyrene (PS) perform with an order of magnitude increase in saturation mobility for TiO 2 –PS (K = 8) as compared to PS devices (K = 2.5). The current study finds that this performance enhancement can be translated to alternative small single crystal organics such as α-sexithiophene (α-6T) (enhancement factor for field effect mobility ranging from 30-100× higher on TiO 2 –PS/PS blended dielectrics as compared to homogenous PS dielectrics). Interestingly however, in the case of semicrystalline polymers such as (poly-3-hexylthiophene) P3HT, this dramatic enhancement is not observed, possibly due to the difference in processing conditions used to fabricate these devices (film transfer as opposed to thermal evaporation). The morphology for α-sexithiophene (α-6T) grown by thermal evaporation on TiO 2 –PS/PS blended dielectrics parallels that observed in pentacene devices. Smaller grain size is observed for films grown on dielectrics with higher TiO 2 –PS content. In the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) devices, constructed via film transfer, morphological differences exist for the P3HT on different substrates, as discerned by atomic force microscopy studies. However, these devices only exhibit a modest (2×) increase in mobility with increasing TiO 2 –PS content in the films. After annealing of the transferred P3HT thin film transistor (TFT) devices, no appreciable enhancement in mobility is observed across the different blended dielectrics. Overall the results support the hypothesis that nucleation rate is responsible for changes in film morphology and device performance in thermally evaporated small molecule crystalline organic semiconductor TFTs. The increased nucleation rate produces organic polycrystalline films with small grain

  16. Effect of Pentacene-dielectric Affinity on Pentacene Thin Film Growth Morphology in Organic Field-effect Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Kim; M Jang; H Yang; C Park

    2011-12-31

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are fabricated by depositing a thin film of semiconductor on the functionalized surface of a SiO{sub 2} dielectric. The chemical and morphological structures of the interface between the semiconductor and the functionalized dielectric are critical for OFET performance. We have characterized the effect of the affinity between semiconductor and functionalized dielectric on the properties of the semiconductor-dielectric interface. The crystalline microstructure/nanostructure of the pentacene semiconductor layers, grown on a dielectric substrate that had been functionalized with either poly(4-vinyl pyridine) or polystyrene (to control hydrophobicity), and grown under a series of substrate temperatures and deposition rates, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, photoemission spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. By comparing the morphological features of the semiconductor thin films with the device characteristics (field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and hysteresis) of the OFET devices, the effect of affinity-driven properties on charge modulation, charge trapping, and charge carrier transport could be described.

  17. 7-Octenyltrichrolosilane/trimethyaluminum hybrid dielectrics fabricated by molecular-atomic layer deposition on ZnO thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Lee, Mingun; Lucero, Antonio T.; Cheng, Lanxia; Ha, Min-Woo; Kim, Jiyoung

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of 7-octenytrichlorosilane (7-OTS)/trimethylaluminum (TMA) organic-inorganic hybrid films using molecular-atomic layer deposition (MALD). The properties of 7-OTS/TMA hybrid films are extensively investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrical measurements. Our results suggest that uniform and smooth amorphous hybrid thin films with excellent insulating properties are obtained using the MALD process. Films have a relatively high dielectric constant of approximately 5.0 and low leakage current density. We fabricate zinc oxide (ZnO) based thin film transistors (TFTs) using 7-OTS/TMA hybrid material as a back gate dielectric with the top ZnO channel layer deposited in-situ via MALD. The ZnO TFTs exhibit a field effect mobility of approximately 0.43 cm2 V-1 s-1, a threshold voltage of approximately 1 V, and an on/off ratio of approximately 103 under low voltage operation (from -3 to 9 V). This work demonstrates an organic-inorganic hybrid gate dielectric material potentially useful in flexible electronics application.

  18. Enhanced ZnO Thin-Film Transistor Performance Using Bilayer Gate Dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Fwzah Hamud

    2016-08-24

    We report ZnO TFTs using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer gate dielectrics grown by atomic layer deposition. The saturation mobility of single layer Ta2O5 dielectric TFT was 0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1, but increased to 13.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer dielectric with significantly lower leakage current and hysteresis. We show that point defects present in ZnO film, particularly VZn, are the main reason for the poor TFT performance with single layer dielectric, although interfacial roughness scattering effects cannot be ruled out. Our approach combines the high dielectric constant of Ta2O5 and the excellent Al2O3/ZnO interface quality, resulting in improved device performance. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  19. Method for determining the optical constants of thin dielectric films with variable thickness using only their shrunk reflection spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Perez, J.J.; Gonzalez-Leal, J.M.; Marquez, E.; Minkov, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Thickness inhomogeneities in thin films have a large influence on their optical transmission and reflection spectra. If not taken into account, this may lead to rather large calculated values for the absorption coefficient or the erroneous presence of an absorption-band tail, as well as to significant errors in the calculated values of the refractive index and the film thickness. The effect of thickness variation on the optical reflection spectrum of a thin dielectric film covering a thick non-absorbing substrate, is analysed in detail in this paper, and analytical expressions are presented for such a reflection spectrum and its upper and lower envelopes. A method is suggested for determining the refractive index n(λ) and the extinction coefficient k(λ), as well as the average thickness and the thickness variation, of a thin dielectric film with variable thickness, by using only the two envelopes of the corresponding shrunk reflection spectrum. This method is used for the geometrical and optical characterization of thermally-evaporated amorphous chalcogenide films, deposited on glass substrates. (author)

  20. Dielectric properties of Li doped Li-Nb-O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perentzis, G.; Horopanitis, E.E.; Papadimitriou, L. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Durman, V.; Saly, V.; Packa, J. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 81219 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2007-03-15

    Lithium niobate LiNbO{sub 3} was prepared as a thin film layered structure deposited on stainless steel substrate using e-gun evaporation. The Li doping was provided for by the formation of Li-Nb-O/Li/LiNb-O sandwich structure and annealing at about 250 C. AC impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed on the samples at temperatures from the interval between 28 and 165 C and in a frequency range of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 6} Hz. Using the values Z' and Z'' at different frequencies, the dielectric parameters - parts of the complex permittivity {epsilon}' and {epsilon}'' and loss tangent tan {delta} were calculated. The results prove validity of the proposed equivalent circuit containing parallel RC elements connected in series where the first RC element represents the bulk of material and the second RC element belongs to the double layer at the metal interface. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. The Electrical Breakdown of Thin Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we model the electrothermal breakdown in thin PDMS based dielectric elastomers in order to evaluate the thermal mechanisms behind the electrical failures. The objective is to predict the operation range of PDMS based dielectric elastomers with respect to the temperature at given electric field....... We performed numerical analysis with a quasi-steady state approximation to predict thermal runaway of dielectric elastomer films. We also studied experimentally the effect of temperature on dielectric properties of different PDMS dielectric elastomers. Different films with different percentages...

  2. Comparison of neat and photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene thin film dielectrics formed by spin-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyore, O.D.; Roodenko, K.; Winkler, P.S.; Noriega, J.R.; Vasselli, J.J.; Chabal, Y.J.; Gnade, B.E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterization of photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) thin film, metal–insulator–metal capacitors fabricated using standard semiconductor processing techniques. We characterize the capacitors using in-situ vibrational spectroscopy during thermally-assisted poling and correlate the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. FTIR analysis of the neat PVDF-HFP showed α → β transformations during poling at room temperature and at 55 °C. α → β transformations were observed for the crosslinked polymer only during poling at 55 °C. XRD data revealed that photo-crosslinking caused the polymer to partially crystallize into the β-phase. The similar behavior of the neat and crosslinked samples at 55 °C suggests that a higher activation energy was needed for α → β transformations in crosslinked PVDF-HFP during poling. Electrical measurements showed that photo-crosslinking had no significant effect on the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of PVDF-HFP. However, the dielectric strength and maximum energy density of the crosslinked polymer were severely reduced. - Highlights: • Polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) dielectrics were studied. • Phase transformations were observed only at 55 °C for the crosslinked PVDF-HFP. • Crosslinking had no strong effect on the dielectric constant of PVDF-HFP. • Breakdown strengths were 620 MVm −1 and 362 MVm −1 for neat and crosslinked films

  3. Comparison of neat and photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene thin film dielectrics formed by spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyore, O.D.; Roodenko, K.; Winkler, P.S. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Noriega, J.R.; Vasselli, J.J. [Electrical Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75799 (United States); Chabal, Y.J. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Gnade, B.E., E-mail: gnade@utdallas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    We report the characterization of photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) thin film, metal–insulator–metal capacitors fabricated using standard semiconductor processing techniques. We characterize the capacitors using in-situ vibrational spectroscopy during thermally-assisted poling and correlate the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. FTIR analysis of the neat PVDF-HFP showed α → β transformations during poling at room temperature and at 55 °C. α → β transformations were observed for the crosslinked polymer only during poling at 55 °C. XRD data revealed that photo-crosslinking caused the polymer to partially crystallize into the β-phase. The similar behavior of the neat and crosslinked samples at 55 °C suggests that a higher activation energy was needed for α → β transformations in crosslinked PVDF-HFP during poling. Electrical measurements showed that photo-crosslinking had no significant effect on the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of PVDF-HFP. However, the dielectric strength and maximum energy density of the crosslinked polymer were severely reduced. - Highlights: • Polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) dielectrics were studied. • Phase transformations were observed only at 55 °C for the crosslinked PVDF-HFP. • Crosslinking had no strong effect on the dielectric constant of PVDF-HFP. • Breakdown strengths were 620 MVm{sup −1} and 362 MVm{sup −1} for neat and crosslinked films.

  4. Nano-scale Characterization of Ultra-thin Dielectrics/Conductive Films through Scanning Capacitance Microscopy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitou, Yuichi; Watanabe, Heiji

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) techniques to investigate the local electronic properties of the ultra-thin films are presented. In the first part, we show the application of SCM experiments for the high-permittivity (high-k) dielectric thin films. The static capacitance (dC/dZ) images and spatially resolved dC/dZ versus sample bias spectra have revealed the charge distributions within high-k dielectrics. Moreover, the bias stress examination has clearly imaged the charge-trapped region in the high-k stacked dielectrics. In the second part, we have demonstrated that the conductance variation ascribed to the graphene thickness can be probed through SCM measurements. The UHF field transmitted from SCM probe tip induces a local accumulation of carriers just beneath the tip. This causes carrier diffusion over the effective biased area of Seff on graphene films, which can be detected as the increment of dC/dZ signal intensity. These results indicate that our SCM technique provides a valuable method to explore the electronic characteristics of low-dimensional materials with nanoscale resolution.

  5. Epitaxial Growth of MOF Thin Film for Modifying the Dielectric Layer in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shan-Ci; Fu, Wen-Qiang; Zheng, Qingdong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films are important in the application of sensors and devices. However, the application of MOF thin films in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) is still a challenge to date. Here, we first use the MOF thin film prepared by a liquid-phase epitaxial (LPE) approach (also called SURMOFs) to modify the SiO 2 dielectric layer in the OFETs. After the semiconductive polymer of PTB7-Th (poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-co-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate]) was coated on MOF/SiO 2 and two electrodes on the semiconducting film were deposited sequentially, MOF-based OFETs were fabricated successfully. By controlling the LPE cycles of SURMOF HKUST-1 (also named Cu 3 (BTC) 2 , BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate), the performance of the HKUST-1/SiO 2 -based OFETs showed high charge mobility and low threshold voltage. This first report on the application of MOF thin film in OFETs will offer an effective approach for designing a new kind of materials for the OFET application.

  6. Room temperature analysis of dielectric function of ZnO-based thin film on fused quartz substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniawan, Robi; Sutjahja, Inge M.; Winata, Toto; Rusydi, Andrivo; Darma, Yudi

    2015-01-01

    A set of sample consist of pure ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO film were grown on fused-quartz substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Here, we report room temperature spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis (covering energy range of 0.5 to 6.3 eV) of pure ZnO film and Cu doped ZnO film at 8 in at. %. The thickness of pure ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO film using in this study is about 350 nm. To extract the dielectric function of ZnO thin film, multilayer modeling is performed which takes into account reflections at each interface through Fresnel coefficients. This method based on Drude-Lorentz models that connect with Kramers-Kronig relations. The best fitting of Ψ (amplitude ratio) and Δ (phase difference) taken by SE measurement are obtained reasonably well by mean the universal fitting of three different photon incident angles. The imaginary part of dielectric function (ε 2 ) show the broad peak at around 3.3 eV assigned as combination of optical band energy edge with excitonic states. The exitonic states could not be observed clearly in this stage. The evolution of extracted dielectric function is observable by introducing 8% Cu as indicated by decreasing of excitonic intensity. This result indicates the screening of excitonic state. This study will bring us to have a good undestanding for the role of Cu impurities for ZnO thin films

  7. Correlation between the dielectric constant and X-ray diffraction pattern of Si-O-C thin films with hydrogen bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Teresa; Oh, Kyoung Suk; Lee, Kwang-Man; Choi, Chi Kyu

    2004-01-01

    The amorphous structure of organic-inorganic hybrid type Si-O-C thin films was studied using the first principles molecular-dynamics method with density functional techniques. The correlation between the dielectric constant and the degree of amorphous structure in organic-inorganic hybrid type Si-O-C thin films was studied. Si-O-C thin films were deposited by high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition using bis-trimethylsilylmethane and oxygen precursors. As-deposited films and films annealed at 500 deg. C were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). For quantitative analysis, the X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples were transformed to the radial distribution function (RDF) using Fourier analysis. Hybrid type Si-O-C thin films can be divided into three types using their amorphous structure and the dielectric constant: those with organic, hybrid, and inorganic properties

  8. Chemical and Electronic Structure Studies of Refractory and Dielectric Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneille, Jason Stephen

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of oxide and refractory thin films under varying conditions. The deposition of the thin films is performed under vacuum conditions. The characterization of the growth, as well as the chemical and electronic properties of the thin films was accomplished using a broad array of surface analytical techniques. These model studies describe the relationship between the preparative processes and the stoichiometry, structure and electronic properties of the film products. From these efforts, the optimal deposition conditions for the production of high quality films have been established. The thin film oxides synthesized and studied here include magnesium oxide, silicon oxide and iron oxide. These oxides were synthesized on a refractory substrate using both post oxidation of thin films as well as reactive vapor deposition of the metals in the presence of an oxygen background. Comparisons and contrasts are presented for the various systems. Metallic magnesium films were grown and characterized as a preliminary study to the synthesis of magnesium oxide. Magnesium oxide (MgO(100)) was synthesized on Mo(100) by evaporating magnesium at a rate of one monolayer per minute in an oxygen background pressure of 1 times 10 ^{-6} Torr at room temperature. The resulting film was found to exhibit spectroscopic characteristics quite similar to those observed for bulk MgO. The acid/base characteristics of the films were studied using carbon monoxide, water and methanol as probe molecules. The film was found to exhibit essentially the same chemical properties as found in analogous powdered catalysts. Silicon dioxide was synthesized by evaporating silicon onto Mo(100) in an oxygen ambient. It is shown that the silicon oxide prepared at room temperature with a silicon deposition rate of {~ }{1.2}A/min and an oxygen pressure of 2 times 10^{ -8} Torr, consisted of predominantly silicon dioxide with a small fraction of suboxides. Annealing to

  9. Effects of surface characteristics of dielectric layers on polymer thin-film transistors obtained by spray methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Yun; Jin, Jun-Su; Yim, Sanggyu; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Phil-Hyun; Choi, Si-Kyung; Jang, Sung-Yeon

    2013-03-21

    The effect of surface characteristics of dielectric layers on the molecular orientation and device performance of sprayed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) obtained by a novel solvent-assisted post-treatment, called the solvent-sprayed overlayer (SSO) method, were investigated. The OFETs were fabricated by the spray method using regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) as an active material. The SSO treatment was applied on the as-sprayed active layers to arrange the molecular ordering. Bare thin SiO(2) layers and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-treated SiO(2) (OTS-SiO(2)) were employed as the dielectric materials. The resulting chain orientation, crystallinity, and device performance were correlated as a function of SSO treatment and dielectric layers. The intrinsic limitation of spray methods for polymer film formation was overcome regardless of the type of dielectric layer using the SSO treatment. The orientation direction of RR-P3HT was controlled by SSO treatment to an edge-on dominant orientation that is preferential for charge transport, regardless of the type of dielectric layer. The crystal growth was further enhanced on the OTS-SiO(2) layers because of the reduced nucleation sites. These effects were successfully reflected in the device performance, including an orders-of-magnitude increase in charge mobility. The SSO method is a powerful external treatment method for reorienting the molecular ordering of solidified active films of OFETs to the preferential edge-on packing. The growth of crystals was further optimized by controlling the surface characteristics of the dielectric layers. The purpose of this study was to find the full capabilities of the SSO treatment method that will facilitate the development of high-throughput, large-area organic electronic device manufacturing.

  10. Inkjet-printed thin film radio-frequency capacitors based on sol-gel derived alumina dielectric ink

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2017-05-03

    There has been significant interest in printing radio frequency passives, however the dissipation factor of printed dielectric materials has limited the quality factor achievable. Al2O3 is one of the best and widely implemented dielectrics for RF passive electronics. The ability to spatially pattern high quality Al2O3 thin films using, for example, inkjet printing would tremendously simplify the incumbent fabrication processes – significantly reducing cost and allowing for the development of large area electronics. To-date, particle based Al2O3 inks have been explored as dielectrics, although several drawbacks including nozzle clogging and grain boundary formation in the films hinder progress. In this work, a particle free Al2O3 ink is developed and demonstrated in RF capacitors. Fluid and jetting properties are explored, along with control of ink spreading and coffee ring suppression. The liquid ink is heated to 400 °C decomposing to smooth Al2O3 films ~120 nm thick, with roughness of <2 nm. Metal-insulator-metal capacitors, show high capacitance density >450 pF/mm2, and quality factors of ~200. The devices have high break down voltages, >25 V, with extremely low leakage currents, <2×10−9 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm. The capacitors compare well with similar Al2O3 devices fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

  11. Structural and dielectric studies of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural, dielectric and leakage current properties of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films deposited on platinized silicon (Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The role of oxygen mixing percentage (OMP on the growth, morphology, electrical and dielectric properties of the thin films has been investigated. A preferred orientation of grains along (110 direction has been observed with increasing the OMP. Such evolution of the textured growth is explained on the basis of the orientation factor analysis followed the Lotgering model. (Mg1-xCoxTiO3 (x = 0.05 thin films exhibits a maximum relative dielectric permittivity of ɛr = 12.20 and low loss (tan δ ∼ 1.2 × 10−3 over a wide range of frequencies for 75% OMP. The role of electric field frequency (f and OMP on the ac-conductivity of (Mg0.95Co0.05TiO3 have been studied. A progressive increase in the activation energy (Ea and relative permittivity ɛr values have been noticed up to 75% of OMP, beyond which the properties starts deteriorate. The I-V characteristics reveals that the leakage current density decreases from 9.93 × 10−9 to 1.14 × 10−9 A/cm2 for OMP 0% to 75%, respectively for an electric field strength of 250 kV/cm. Our experimental results reveal up to that OMP ≥ 50% the leakage current mechanism is driven by the ohmic conduction, below which it is dominated by the schottky emission.

  12. Selective femtosecond laser structuring of dielectric thin films with different band gaps: a time-resolved study of ablation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael; Huber, Heinz P.

    2016-12-01

    Ultrashort pulse lasers have been increasingly gaining importance for the selective structuring of dielectric thin films in industrial applications. In a variety of works the ablation of thin SiO2 and SiNx films from Si substrates has been investigated with near infrared laser wavelengths with photon energies of about 1.2 eV where both dielectrics are transparent (E_{{gap,SiO2}}≈ 8 eV; E_{{gap,SiN}x}≈ 2.5 eV). In these works it was found that few 100 nm thick SiO2 films are selectively ablated with a "lift-off" initiated by confined laser ablation whereas the SiN_{{x}} films are ablated by a combination of confined and direct laser ablation. In the work at hand, ultrafast pump-probe imaging was applied to compare the laser ablation dynamics of the two thin film systems directly with the uncoated Si substrate—on the same setup and under identical parameters. On the SiO2 sample, results show the pulse absorption in the Si substrate, leading to the confined ablation of the SiO2 layer by the expansion of the substrate. On the SiN_{{x}} sample, direct absorption in the layer is observed leading to its removal by evaporation. The pump-probe measurements combined with reflectivity corrected threshold fluence investigations suggest that melting of the Si substrate is sufficient to initiate the lift-off of an overlaying transparent film—evaporation of the substrate seems not to be necessary.

  13. Interference effects in the UV(VUV)-excited luminescence spectroscopy of thin dielectric films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntov, Evgeny; Zatsepin, Anatoly

    2013-05-01

    The problem of exciting UV and VUV light interference affecting experimental photoluminescence excitation spectra is analysed for the case of thin transparent films containing arbitrarily distributed emission centres. A numerical technique and supplied software aimed at modelling the phenomenon and correcting the distorted spectra are proposed. Successful restoration results of the experimental synchrotron data for ion-implanted silica films show that the suggested method has high potential.

  14. Solution processable high quality ZrO2 dielectric films for low operation voltage and flexible organic thin film transistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanfen; Zhao, Kai; He, Huixin; Cai, Wei; Tang, Naiwei; Ning, Honglong; Wu, Sujuan; Gao, Jinwei; Zhou, Guofu; Lu, Xubing; Liu, J.-M.

    2018-03-01

    Low temperature fabrication of high quality dielectric films for high performance flexible electronics is still a big challenge. In this work, we realized low temperature fabrication of high quality amorphous ZrO2 dielectric films via a low-cost solution process. The microstructure and electrical properties, as well as the electronic structures of solution processed ZrO2 films have been investigated systematically. The ZrO2 films with 160 °C annealed showed a low leakage current (3.6  ×  10‑5 A cm‑2 at  ‑3 V) and a high band gap (5.4 eV). The flexible organic thin film transistor (OTFT) made by using the solution-processed amorphous ZrO2 dielectric shows a low operation voltage of 4 V and a high drain current on/off ratio of 2.4  ×  105. The frequency response of the ZrO2-OTFT device is up to 51.8 KHz under a low gate voltage of  ‑3 V. Our work demonstrated that a solution processable ZrO2 film is promising for applications in future low power consumption and wearable flexible electronic devices.

  15. Dielectric properties of electron irradiated PbZrO3 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    As these hot electrons travel through the material they ionize other atoms, losing the energy of ionization ... The crystallization behaviour was examined on both unir- radiated and electron irradiated PZ thin films by X- .... the delivered dose, the stress is removed and the area under the loop increases. The broader hysteresis ...

  16. Fabrication of SiNx Thin Film of Micro Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor for Maskless Nanoscale Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of glow-to-arc transition exhibited by micro dielectric barrier discharge (MDBD, as well as its long lifetime, has generated much excitement across a variety of applications. Silicon nitride (SiNx is often used as a dielectric barrier layer in DBD due to its excellent chemical inertness and high electrical permittivity. However, during fabrication of the MDBD devices with multilayer films for maskless nano etching, the residual stress-induced deformation may bring cracks or wrinkles of the devices after depositing SiNx by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. Considering that the residual stress of SiNx can be tailored from compressive stress to tensile stress under different PECVD deposition parameters, in order to minimize the stress-induced deformation and avoid cracks or wrinkles of the MDBD device, we experimentally measured stress in each thin film of a MDBD device, then used numerical simulation to analyze and obtain the minimum deformation of multilayer films when the intrinsic stress of SiNx is −200 MPa compressive stress. The stress of SiNx can be tailored to the desired value by tuning the deposition parameters of the SiNx film, such as the silane (SiH4–ammonia (NH3 flow ratio, radio frequency (RF power, chamber pressure, and deposition temperature. Finally, we used the optimum PECVD process parameters to successfully fabricate a MDBD device with good quality.

  17. Epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  18. Thickness Dependent Structural and Dielectric Properties of Calcium Copper Titanate Thin Films Produced by Spin-Coating Method for Microelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruramanathan, P.; Sankar, S.; Marikani, A.; Madhavan, D.; Sharma, Sanjeev K.

    2017-07-01

    Calcium copper titanate (CaCu3Ti4O12, CCTO) thin films have been deposited on platinized silicon [(111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si] substrate through a sol-gel spin coating technique and annealed at 600-900°C with a variation of 100°C per sample for 3 h. The activation energy for crystalline growth, as well as optimal annealing temperature (900°C) of the CCTO crystallites was studied by x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Thickness dependent structural, morphological, and optical properties of CCTO thin films were observed. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) verified that the CCTO thin films are uniform, fully covered, densely packed, and the particle size was found to be increased with film thickness. Meanwhile, quantitative analysis of dielectric properties (interfacial capacitance, dead layers, and bulk dielectric constant) of CCTO thin film with metal-insulator-metal (M-I-M) structures has been investigated systematically using a series capacitor model. Room temperature dielectric properties of all the samples exhibit dispersion at low frequencies, which can be explained based on Maxwell-Wagner two-layer models and Koop's theory. It was found that the 483 nm thick CCTO film represents a high dielectric constant ( ɛ r = 3334), low loss (tan δ = 3.54), capacitance ( C = 4951 nF), which might satisfy the requirements of embedded capacitor.

  19. Investigation of the correlation between dielectric function, thickness and morphology of nano-granular ZnO very thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliot, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.gilliot@univ-reims.fr [Laboratoire d' Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (France); Hadjadj, Aomar [Laboratoire d' Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (France); Martin, Jérôme [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Université de Technologie de Troyes (France)

    2015-12-31

    Thin nano-granular ZnO layers were prepared using a sol–gel synthesis and spin-coating deposition process with a thickness ranging between 20 and 120 nm. The complex dielectric function (ϵ) of the ZnO film was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Up to a critical thickness close to 60 nm, the magnitude of both the real and the imaginary parts of ϵ rapidly increases and then slowly tends to values closer to the bulk ZnO material. This trend suggests a drastic change in the film porosity at both sides of this critical thickness, due to the pre-heating and post-crystallization processes, as confirmed by additional characterization of the structure and the morphology of the ZnO films. - Highlights: • c-Axis oriented ZnO thin films were grown with different morphological states. • The morphology and structures are controlled by controlling the thickness. • The optical properties are correlated to morphological evolution. • Two growth behaviors and property evolutions are identified around a critical thickness.

  20. Decay Rate of the Nuclear Isomer Th 229 (3 /2+,7.8 eV ) in a Dielectric Sphere, Thin Film, and Metal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalya, E. V.

    2018-03-01

    The main decay channels of the anomalous low-energy 3 /2+(7.8 ±0.5 eV ) isomeric level of the Th 229 nucleus, namely the γ emission and internal conversion, inside a dielectric sphere, dielectric thin film, and conducting spherical microcavity are investigated theoretically, taking into account the effect of media interfaces. It is shown that (1) the γ decay rate of the nuclear isomer inside a dielectric thin film and dielectric microsphere placed in a vacuum or in a metal cavity can decrease (increase) in dozen of times, (2) the γ activity of the distributed source as a function of time can be nonexponential, and (3) the metal cavity, whose size is of the order of the radiation wavelength, does not affect the probability of the internal conversion in Th 229 , because the virtual photon attenuates at much shorter distances and the reflected wave is very weak.

  1. Electrical characterization of graphene oxide and organic dielectric layers based on thin film transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karteri, İbrahim, E-mail: ibrahimkarteri@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science And Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaraş 4610 (Turkey); Karataş, Şükrü [Department of Physics, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaraş 4610 (Turkey); Yakuphanoğlu, Fahrettin [Department of Physics, Fırat University, Elazıg 2310 (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • We report the synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheets and electrical characterization of graphene oxide based thin film transistor. • Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by using modified Hummers method. • We used insulator layers which are polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyvinyl phenol (PVP) for graphene oxide based thin flim transistor. - Abstract: We have studied the electrical characteristics of graphene oxide based thin flim transistor with the polymer insulators such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP). Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by using modified Hummers method. The structural properties of GO nanosheets were characterized with Ultraviolet Visible (UV–vis), FT-IR spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction (XRD). Graphene oxide based thin flim transistor (GO-TFT) was prepared by a spin-coating and thermal evaporation technique. The electrical characterization of GO-TFT was analyzed by output and transfer characteristics by using Keithley-4200 semiconductor characterization system (SCS). The graphene oxide based thin flim transistor devices show p-type semiconducting behavior. The mobility, threshold voltage, sub-threshold swing value and I{sub on}/I{sub off} of GO-TFT were found to be 0.105 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, −8.7 V, 4.03 V/decade and 10, respectively.

  2. Interface Study on Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using High-k Gate Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsien Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs using different high-k gate dielectric materials such as silicon nitride (Si3N4 and aluminum oxide (Al2O3 at low temperature process (<300°C and compared them with low temperature silicon dioxide (SiO2. The IGZO device with high-k gate dielectric material will expect to get high gate capacitance density to induce large amount of channel carrier and generate the higher drive current. In addition, for the integrating process of integrating IGZO device, postannealing treatment is an essential process for completing the process. The chemical reaction of the high-k/IGZO interface due to heat formation in high-k/IGZO materials results in reliability issue. We also used the voltage stress for testing the reliability for the device with different high-k gate dielectric materials and explained the interface effect by charge band diagram.

  3. Dielectric properties of amorphous Zr–Al–O and Zr-Si-O thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Naoi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have systematically studied the composition dependence of the dielectric properties of Zr1-xAlxO2-x/2 and Zr1-xSixO2. An essentially linear variation of the static dielectric constant, εs, was observed as a function of composition, x, for compositions rich in the p-block element, i.e., x > 0.4, for both chemical systems. However an abrupt change in εs is found near x ≈ 0.35, associated with the onset of crystallinity in as-deposited films. Breakdown fields do not show a comparable composition dependence. Measurements of the index of refraction at optical frequencies, combined with a simple Clausius–Mossotti interpretation, indicates that low-frequency (ionic contributions to the polarizability exhibit systematic deviation with respect to values linearly interpolated from the endmembers. These trends are not consistently affected by the presence of crystalline order, but are related to changes associated with heterogeneous local oxygen coordination and bonding.

  4. Changes of optical, dielectric, and structural properties of Si15Sb85 phase change memory thin films under different initializing laser power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Zhang Lei; Wang Yang; Han Xiaodong; Wu Yiqun; Zhang Ze; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study the optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization. → The optical and dielectric constants, absorption coefficient of Si 15 Sb 85 change regularly with the increasing laser power. → The optical band gaps of Si 15 Sb 85 irradiated upon different power lasers were calculated. → HRTEM images of the samples were observed and the changes of optical and dielectric constants are determined by crystalline structures changes of the films. - Abstract: The optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization are studied by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The dependence of complex refractive index, dielectric functions, absorption coefficient, and optical band gap of the films on its crystallization extents formed by the different initialization laser power are analyzed in detail. The structural change from as-deposited amorphous phase to distorted rhombohedra-Sb-like crystalline structure with the increase of initialization laser power is clearly observed with sub-nanometer resolution. The optical and dielectric constants, the relationship between them, and the local atomic arrangements of this new phase change material can help explain the phase change mechanism and design the practical phase change memory devices.

  5. Frequency-Stable Ionic-Type Hybrid Gate Dielectrics for High Mobility Solution-Processed Metal-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sang Heo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate high mobility solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs by using a high-frequency-stable ionic-type hybrid gate dielectric (HGD. The HGD gate dielectric, a blend of sol-gel aluminum oxide (AlOx and poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP, exhibited high dielectric constant (ε~8.15 and high-frequency-stable characteristics (1 MHz. Using the ionic-type HGD as a gate dielectric layer, an minimal electron-double-layer (EDL can be formed at the gate dielectric/InOx interface, enhancing the field-effect mobility of the TFTs. Particularly, using the ionic-type HGD gate dielectrics annealed at 350 °C, InOx TFTs having an average field-effect mobility of 16.1 cm2/Vs were achieved (maximum mobility of 24 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the ionic-type HGD gate dielectrics can be processed at a low temperature of 150 °C, which may enable their applications in low-thermal-budget plastic and elastomeric substrates. In addition, we systematically studied the operational stability of the InOx TFTs using the HGD gate dielectric, and it was observed that the HGD gate dielectric effectively suppressed the negative threshold voltage shift during the negative-illumination-bias stress possibly owing to the recombination of hole carriers injected in the gate dielectric with the negatively charged ionic species in the HGD gate dielectric.

  6. Influence of metallic and dielectric nanowire arrays on the photoluminescence properties of P3HT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handloser, M; Wisnet, A; Scheu, C; Hartschuh, A; Dunbar, R B; Altpeter, P; Schmidt-Mende, L

    2012-01-01

    The optical properties of organic semiconductor thin films deposited on nanostructured surfaces are investigated using time-resolved two-photon photoluminescence (PL) microscopy. The surfaces consist of parallel aligned metallic or dielectric nanowires forming well-defined arrays on glass substrates. Keeping the nanowire dimensions constant and varying only their spacing from 40 to 400 nm, we study the range of different types of nanowire–semiconductor interactions. For silver nanowires and spacings below 100 nm, the PL intensity and lifetime of P3HT and MDMO-PPV decrease rapidly due to the short-ranged metal-induced quenching that dominates the PL response with respect to a possible plasmonic enhancement of optical transition rates. In the case of P3HT however, we observe an additional longer-ranged reduction of non-radiative losses for both metallic and dielectric nanowires that is not observed for MDMO-PPV. Excitation polarization dependent measurements indicate that this reduction is due to self-assembly of the P3HT polymer chains along the nanowires. In conclusion, nanostructured surfaces, when fabricated across large areas, could be used to control film morphologies and to improve energy transport and collection efficiencies in P3HT-based solar cells. (paper)

  7. A study of the microstructure and optical properties of thin lead-dielectric cermet films. Ph.D. Thesis - Va. Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy study involving direct and replicating techniques is directed to a definition of the microstructure of radio frequency-sputtered, thin lead-dielectric cermet films. Once defined, this microstructure is used to obtain theoretical film refractive indices. The Maxwell Garnett theory provides a basis for the theoretical results. Measurements of film transmission and reflectivity are used to obtain rough experimental values for film refractive indices by the Tekucheva method. More exact values are obtained via ellipsometry. The rough Tekucheva values are used to determine the range over which computer calculations interpreting the ellipsometric results must be made. This technique yields accurate values for the film refractive indices.

  8. AC electrical conductivity and dielectric relaxation studies on n-type organic thin films of N, N‧-Dimethyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (DMPDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qashou, Saleem I.; Darwish, A. A. A.; Rashad, M.; Khattari, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Both Alternating current (AC) conductivity and dielectric behavior of n-type organic thin films of N, N‧-Dimethyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (DMPDC) have been investigated. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is used for identifying both powder and film bonds which confirm that there are no observed changes in the bonds between the DMPDC powder and evaporated films. The dependence of AC conductivity on the temperature for DMPDC evaporated films was explained by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The calculated barrier height using CBH model shows a decreasing behavior with increasing temperature. The mechanism of dielectric relaxation was interpreted on the basis of the modulus of the complex dielectric. The calculated activation energy of the relaxation process was found to be 0.055 eV.

  9. Formation and dielectric properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers studied by a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Petra A; Wunderlich, Bernhard K; Klitzing, Regine V; Bausch, Andreas R

    2007-03-27

    The formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) is investigated using a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor which is sensitive to variations of the surface potential. The buildup of the PEMs at the silicon oxide surface of the device can be observed in real time as defined potential shifts. The influence of polymer charge density is studied using the strong polyanion poly(styrene sulfonate), PSS, combined with the statistical copolymer poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride-stat-N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide), P(DADMAC-stat-NMVA), at various degrees of charge (DC). The multilayer formation stops after a few deposition steps for a DC below 75%. We show that the threshold of surface charge compensation corresponds to the threshold of multilayer formation. However, no reversion of the preceding surface charge was observed. Screening of polyelectrolyte charges by mobile ions within the polymer film leads to a decrease of the potential shifts with the number of layers deposited. This decrease is much slower for PEMs consisting of P(DADMAC-stat-NMVA) and PSS as compared to PEMs consisting of poly(allylamine-hydrochloride), PAH, and PSS. From this, significant differences in the dielectric constants of the polyelectrolyte films and in the concentration of mobile ions within the films can be derived.

  10. Dielectric properties of thin C r2O3 films grown on elemental and oxide metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Ather; Street, Michael; Echtenkamp, Will; Kwan, Chun Pui; Bird, Jonathan P.; Binek, Christian

    2018-04-01

    In an attempt to optimize leakage characteristics of α-C r2O3 thin films, its dielectric properties were investigated at local and macroscopic scale. The films were grown on Pd(111), Pt(111), and V2O3 (0001), supported on A l2O3 substrate. The local conductivity was measured by conductive atomic force microscopy mapping of C r2O3 surfaces, which revealed the nature of defects that formed conducting paths with the bottom Pd or Pt layer. A strong correlation was found between these electrical defects and the grain boundaries revealed in the corresponding topographic scans. In comparison, the C r2O3 film on V2O3 exhibited no leakage paths at similar tip bias value. Electrical resistance measurements through e-beam patterned top electrodes confirmed the resistivity mismatch between the films grown on different electrodes. The x-ray analysis attributes this difference to the twin free C r2O3 growth on V2O3 seeding.

  11. Perovskite oxynitride LaTiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films: Dielectric characterization in low and high frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Ziani, A. [Institut d' Electronique et de Telecommunications de Rennes (IETR) UMR-CNRS 6164, groupe ' Antennes et Hyperfrequences' , University of Rennes 1, UEB, IUT Saint Brieuc, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22004 Saint Brieuc cedex (France); Le Paven-Thivet, C., E-mail: claire.lepaven@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d' Electronique et de Telecommunications de Rennes (IETR) UMR-CNRS 6164, groupe ' Antennes et Hyperfrequences' , University of Rennes 1, UEB, IUT Saint Brieuc, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22004 Saint Brieuc cedex (France); Benzerga, R.; Le Gendre, L. [Institut d' Electronique et de Telecommunications de Rennes (IETR) UMR-CNRS 6164, groupe ' Antennes et Hyperfrequences' , University of Rennes 1, UEB, IUT Saint Brieuc, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22004 Saint Brieuc cedex (France); Fasquelle, D. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Materiaux et des Composants pour l' Electronique (LEMCEL) UPRES-EA 2601, University of Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 50 rue Ferdinand Buisson, F-62228 Calais cedex (France); Kassem, H. [Laboratoire de l' Integration du Materiau au Systeme(IMS) UMR-CNRS 5218, groupe Materiaux, University of Bordeaux 1, 16 avenue Pey-Berland, 33607 Pessac (France); and others

    2011-11-01

    Lanthanum titanium oxynitride (LaTiO{sub x}N{sub y}) thin films are studied with respect to their dielectric properties in low and high frequencies. Thin films are deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on different substrates. Effects of nitrogen content and crystalline quality on dielectric properties are investigated. In low-frequency range, textured LaTiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films deposited on conductive single crystal Nb-STO show a dielectric constant {epsilon} Prime Almost-Equal-To 140 with low losses tan{delta} = 0.012 at 100 kHz. For the LaTiO{sub x}N{sub y} polycrystalline films deposited on conductive silicon substrates with platinum (Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si), the tunability reached up to 57% for a weak electric field of 50 kV/cm. In high-frequency range, epitaxial LaTiO{sub x}N{sub y} films deposited on MgO substrate present a high dielectric constant with low losses ({epsilon} Prime Almost-Equal-To 170, tan{delta} = 0.011, 12 GHz).

  12. Mechanical and dielectric characterization of lead zirconate titanate(PZT)/polyurethane(PU) thin film composite for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, S.; Rguiti, M.; Hajjaji, A.; Eddiai, A.; Courtois, C.; d'Astorg, S.

    2014-04-01

    The Lead Zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic is known by its piezoelectric feature, but also by its stiffness, the use of a composite based on a polyurethane (PU) matrix charged by a piezoelectric material, enable to generate a large deformation of the material, therefore harvesting more energy. This new material will provide a competitive alternative and low cost manufacturing technology of autonomous systems (smart clothes, car seat, boat sail, flag ...). A thin film of the PZT/PU composite was prepared using up to 80 vol. % of ceramic. Due to the dielectric nature of the PZT, inclusions of this one in a PU matrix raises the permittivity of the composite, on other hand this latter seems to decline at high frequencies.

  13. Pulsed laser deposition of aluminate YAlO3 and LaAlO3 thin films for alternative gate dielectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.-M.; Shi, G.H.; Yu, L.C.; Li, T.L.; Liu, Z.G.; Dai, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous aluminate YAlO 3 (YAO) thin films on n-type silicon wafers as gate dielectric layers of metal-oxide-semiconductor devices are prepared by pulsed laser deposition. As a comparison, amorphous aluminate LaAlO 3 (LAO) thin films are also prepared. The structural and electrical characterization shows that the as-prepared YAO films remain amorphous until 900 C and the dielectric constant is ∝14. The measured leakage current of less than 10 -3 A/cm 2 at a bias of V G =1.0 V for ∝40-nm-thick YAO and LAO films obeys the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism. It is revealed that the electrical property can be significantly affected by the oxygen pressure during deposition and post rapid thermal annealing, which may change the fixed negative charge density at the gate interface. (orig.)

  14. Thin Film

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    organic substances. KEY WORDS: Photoelectrocatalysis, Titanium dioxide, Cuprous oxide, Composite thin film, Photo electrode. INTRODUCTION ... reddish p-type semiconductor with a direct band gap of 2.0-2.2 eV [18, 19]. ... Photoelectrocatalytic removal of color from water using TiO2 and TiO2/Cu2O electrodes. Bull.

  15. Flexible SiInZnO thin film transistor with organic/inorganic hybrid gate dielectric processed at 150 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J. Y.; Kim, S.; Hwang, B.-U.; Lee, N.-E.; Lee, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon indium zinc oxide (SIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate by using organic/inorganic hybrid gate dielectrics of poly-4vinyl phenol (PVP) and Al2O3. To improve the mechanical stability, Al2O3 has been used as a buffer layer on the flexible substrate. The Al2O3 layer of hybrid gate dielectrics protected the organic gate dielectric and improved mechanical flexibility. The different surface roughness of the gate dielectrics is investigated. The performance of the device with smooth surface roughness was significantly improved. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the TFTs with hybrid gate dielectrics were measured as well as the promising electrical endurance characteristics at the bending radius of 5 mm.

  16. Corrosion in low dielectric constant Si-O based thin films: Buffer concentration effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, F. W.; Lane, M. W.; Gates, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Organosilicate glass (OSG) is often used as an interlayer dielectric (ILD) in high performance integrated circuits. OSG is a brittle material and prone to stress-corrosion cracking reminiscent of that observed in bulk glasses. Of particular concern are chemical-mechanical planarization techniques and wet cleans involving solvents commonly encountered in microelectronics fabrication where the organosilicate film is exposed to aqueous environments. Previous work has focused on the effect of pH, surfactant, and peroxide concentration on the subcritical crack growth of these films. However, little or no attention has focused on the effect of the conjugate acid/base concentration in a buffer. Accordingly, this work examines the “strength” of the buffer solution in both acidic and basic environments. The concentration of the buffer components is varied keeping the ratio of acid/base and therefore pH constant. In addition, the pH was varied by altering the acid/base ratio to ascertain any additional effect of pH. Corrosion tests were conducted with double-cantilever beam fracture mechanics specimens and fracture paths were verified with ATR-FTIR. Shifts in the threshold fracture energy, the lowest energy required for bond rupture in the given environment, G TH , were found to shift to lower values as the concentration of the base in the buffer increased. This effect was found to be much larger than the effect of the hydroxide ion concentration in unbuffered solutions. The results are rationalized in terms of the salient chemical bond breaking process occurring at the crack tip and modeled in terms of the chemical potential of the reactive species

  17. Corrosion in low dielectric constant Si-O based thin films: Buffer concentration effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, F. W.; Gates, S. M.; Lane, M. W.

    2014-05-01

    Organosilicate glass (OSG) is often used as an interlayer dielectric (ILD) in high performance integrated circuits. OSG is a brittle material and prone to stress-corrosion cracking reminiscent of that observed in bulk glasses. Of particular concern are chemical-mechanical planarization techniques and wet cleans involving solvents commonly encountered in microelectronics fabrication where the organosilicate film is exposed to aqueous environments. Previous work has focused on the effect of pH, surfactant, and peroxide concentration on the subcritical crack growth of these films. However, little or no attention has focused on the effect of the conjugate acid/base concentration in a buffer. Accordingly, this work examines the "strength" of the buffer solution in both acidic and basic environments. The concentration of the buffer components is varied keeping the ratio of acid/base and therefore pH constant. In addition, the pH was varied by altering the acid/base ratio to ascertain any additional effect of pH. Corrosion tests were conducted with double-cantilever beam fracture mechanics specimens and fracture paths were verified with ATR-FTIR. Shifts in the threshold fracture energy, the lowest energy required for bond rupture in the given environment, GTH, were found to shift to lower values as the concentration of the base in the buffer increased. This effect was found to be much larger than the effect of the hydroxide ion concentration in unbuffered solutions. The results are rationalized in terms of the salient chemical bond breaking process occurring at the crack tip and modeled in terms of the chemical potential of the reactive species.

  18. Charge Catastrophe and Dielectric Breakdown During Exposure of Organic Thin Films to Low-Energy Electron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, A.; Geelen, D.; van der Molen, S. J.; Tromp, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation are central in many areas of science and technology, including medicine and biology. Absorption of UV and soft-x-ray photons releases photoelectrons, followed by a cascade of lower energy secondary electrons with energies down to 0 eV. While these low energy electrons give rise to most chemical and physical changes, their interactions with soft materials are not well studied or understood. Here, we use a low energy electron microscope to expose thin organic resist films to electrons in the range 0-50 eV, and to analyze the energy distribution of electrons returned to the vacuum. We observe surface charging that depends strongly and nonlinearly on electron energy and electron beam current, abruptly switching sign during exposure. Charging can even be sufficiently severe to induce dielectric breakdown across the film. We provide a simple but comprehensive theoretical description of these phenomena, identifying the presence of a cusp catastrophe to explain the sudden switching phenomena seen in the experiments. Surprisingly, the films undergo changes at all incident electron energies, starting at ˜0 eV .

  19. Structure and property characterization of low-k dielectric porous thin films determined by x-ray reflectivity and small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Eric K.; Lee, Hae-jeong; Wang, Howard; Wu Wenli

    2001-01-01

    A novel methodology using a combination of high energy ion scattering, x-ray reflectivity, and small angle neutron scattering is developed to characterize the structure and properties of porous thin films for use as low-k dielectric materials. Ion scattering is used to determine the elemental composition of the film. X-ray reflectivity is used to measure the average electron density, film thickness, and electron density depth profile. Small angle neutron scattering is used to determine the pore structure and pore connectivity. Combining information from all three techniques, the film porosity and matrix material density can be uniquely determined

  20. Ferroelectric/Dielectric Double Gate Insulator Spin-Coated Using Barium Titanate Nanocrystals for an Indium Oxide Nanocrystal-Based Thin-Film Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hien Thu; Yang, Jin Ho; Lee, Don-Sung; Lee, Byoung Hun; Jeong, Hyun-Dam

    2016-03-23

    Barium titanate nanocrystals (BT NCs) were prepared under solvothermal conditions at 200 °C for 24 h. The shape of the BT NCs was tuned from nanodot to nanocube upon changing the polarity of the alcohol solvent, varying the nanosize in the range of 14-22 nm. Oleic acid-passivated NCs showed good solubility in a nonpolar solvent. The effect of size and shape of the BT NCs on the ferroelectric properties was also studied. The maximum polarization value of 7.2 μC/cm(2) was obtained for the BT-5 NC thin film. Dielectric measurements of the films showed comparable dielectric constant values of BT NCs over 1-100 kHz without significant loss. Furthermore, the bottom gate In2O3 NC thin film transistors exhibited outstanding device performance with a field-effect mobility of 11.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at a low applied gate voltage with BT-5 NC/SiO2 as the gate dielectric. The low-density trapped state was observed at the interface between the In2O3 NC semiconductor and the BT-5 NCs/SiO2 dielectric film. Furthermore, compensation of the applied gate field by an electric dipole-induced dipole field within the BT-5 NC film was also observed.

  1. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The anionic precursor was 1% H2O2 solution. Both the cationic and anionic precursors were kept at room temperature (∼300 K). One SILAR cycle consists of two steps: (i) adsorption of Sn4+ ions on the substrate surface for 20 s and (ii) reaction with H2O2 solution for 40 s to form stable SnO2:H2O thin film on the substrate.

  2. Functional organic thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Scharnberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Organic thin films are used in many technological and engineering applications nowadays. They find use as coatings, sensors, detectors, as matrix materials in nanocomposites, as self-assembled monolayers for surface functionalization, as low-k dielectrics in integrated circuits and in advanced organic electronic applications like organic light emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors and organic photovoltaics (esp. organic solar cells) and many other applications. OLED displays are n...

  3. Low-voltage Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) with Solution-processed High-k Dielectric cum Interface Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yaorong

    Although impressive progress has been made in improving the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), the high operation voltage resulting from the low gate areal capacitance of traditional SiO 2 remains a severe limitation that hinders OTFTs' development in practical applications. In this regard, developing new materials with high- k characteristics at low cost is of great scientific and technological importance in the area of both academia and industry. In this thesis, we first describe a simple solution-based method to fabricate a high-k bilayer Al2Oy/TiOx (ATO) dielectric system at low temperature. Then the dielectric properties of the ATO are characterized and discussed in detail. Furthermore, by employing the high-k ATO as gate dielectric, low-voltage copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based OTFTs are successfully developed. Interestingly, the obtained low-voltage CuPc TFT exhibits outstanding electrical performance, which is even higher than the device fabricated on traditional low-k SiO2. The above results seem to be contradictory to the reported results due to the fact that high-k usually shows adverse effect on the device performance. This abnormal phenomenon is then studied in detail. Characterization on the initial growth shows that the CuPc molecules assemble in a "rod-like" nano crystal with interconnected network on ATO, which probably promotes the charge carrier transport, whereas, they form isolated small islands with amorphous structure on SiO2. In addition, a better metal/organic contact is observed on ATO, which benefits the charge carrier injection. Our studies suggest that the low-temperature, solution-processed high-k ATO is a promising candidate for fabrication of high-performance, low-voltage OTFTs. Furthermore, it is well known that the properties of the dielectric/semiconductor and electrode/semiconductor interfaces are crucial in controlling the electrical properties of OTFTs. Hence, investigation the effects of interfaces

  4. Thin film silicon on silicon nitride for radiation hardened dielectrically isolated MISFET's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neamen, D.; Shedd, W.; Buchanan, B.

    1975-01-01

    The permanent ionizing radiation effects resulting from charge trapping in a silicon nitride isolation dielectric have been determined for a total ionizing dose up to 10 7 rads (Si). Junction FET's, whose active channel region is directly adjacent to the silicon-silicon nitride interface, were used to measure the effects of the radiation induced charge trapping in the Si 3 N 4 isolation dielectric. The JFET saturation current and channel conductance versus junction gate voltage and substrate voltage were characterized as a function of the total ionizing radiation dose. The experimental results on the Si 3 N 4 are compared to results on similar devices with SiO 2 dielectric isolation. The ramifications of using the silicon nitride for fabricating radiation hardened dielectrically isolated MIS devices are discussed

  5. Fabrication of Crack-Free Barium Titanate Thin Film with High Dielectric Constant Using Sub-Micrometric Scale Layer-by-Layer E-Jet Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junsheng; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Dazhi; Fang, Xu; Ding, Jiahong; Wu, Junxiong; Tang, Chang

    2016-01-19

    Dense and crack-free barium titanate (BaTiO₃, BTO) thin films with a thickness of less than 4 μm were prepared by using sub-micrometric scale, layer-by-layer electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) deposition of the suspension ink which is composed of BTO nanopowder and BTO sol. Impacts of the jet height and line-to-line pitch of the deposition on the micro-structure of BTO thin films were investigated. Results show that crack-free BTO thin films can be prepared with 4 mm jet height and 300 μm line-to-line pitch in this work. Dielectric constant of the prepared BTO thin film was recorded as high as 2940 at 1 kHz at room temperature. Meanwhile, low dissipation factor of the BTO thin film of about 8.6% at 1 kHz was also obtained. The layer-by-layer E-jet deposition technique developed in this work has been proved to be a cost-effective, flexible and easy to control approach for the preparation of high-quality solid thin film.

  6. Fabrication of Crack-Free Barium Titanate Thin Film with High Dielectric Constant Using Sub-Micrometric Scale Layer-by-Layer E-Jet Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense and crack-free barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO thin films with a thickness of less than 4 μm were prepared by using sub-micrometric scale, layer-by-layer electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet deposition of the suspension ink which is composed of BTO nanopowder and BTO sol. Impacts of the jet height and line-to-line pitch of the deposition on the micro-structure of BTO thin films were investigated. Results show that crack-free BTO thin films can be prepared with 4 mm jet height and 300 μm line-to-line pitch in this work. Dielectric constant of the prepared BTO thin film was recorded as high as 2940 at 1 kHz at room temperature. Meanwhile, low dissipation factor of the BTO thin film of about 8.6% at 1 kHz was also obtained. The layer-by-layer E-jet deposition technique developed in this work has been proved to be a cost-effective, flexible and easy to control approach for the preparation of high-quality solid thin film.

  7. Effect of post annealing on structural, optical and dielectric properties of MgTiO{sub 3} thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh Kumar, T.; Bhuyan, R.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Pamu, D., E-mail: pamu@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MgTiO{sub 3} thin films were grown on quartz and Pt-Si substrates by RF sputtering and MIM capacitors were fabricated at different O{sub 2}%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sputtering target was prepared by mechanical alloying for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of annealing and O{sub 2}% on structural, microstructural, optical and dielectric properties was studied systematically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increase in the refractive index and bandgap on annealing can be attributed to the improvement in packing density and crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The improvement in the dielectric properties is attributed to the increase in crystallinity and reduction in oxygen vacancies. - Abstract: MgTiO{sub 3} (MTO) thin films have been deposited on to quartz and platinized silicon (Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The metal-MTO-metal (Ag-MTO-Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si) thin film capacitors have been fabricated at different oxygen mixing percentage (OMP). The effects of OMP and post annealing on the structural, microstructural, optical and dielectric properties of MTO films were studied. The MTO target has been synthesized by mechanochemical synthesis method. The phase purity of the sputtering target was confirmed from X-ray diffraction pattern and refined to R3{sup Macron} space group with lattice parameters a = b = 5.0557(12) Angstrom-Sign , c = 13.9003(9) Angstrom-Sign . The chemical composition of the deposited films was confirmed from EDS spectra and all the films exhibited the composition of the sputtering target. The XRD patterns of the as-deposited films are amorphous and annealing at 700 Degree-Sign C for 1 h induced nanocrystallinity with the improved optical and dielectric properties. The annealed films exhibit refractive index in the range of 2.12-2.19 at 600 nm with an optical bandgap value in between 4.11 and 4.19 eV. The increase in the

  8. Positioning of the Precursor Gas Inlet in an Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Reactor, and its Effect on the Quality of Deposited TiOx Thin Film Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Píchal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin film technology has become pervasive in many applications in recent years, but it remains difficult to select the best deposition technique. A further consideration is that, due to ecological demands, we are forced to search for environmentally benign methods. One such method might be the application of cold plasmas, and there has already been a rapid growth in studies of cold plasma techniques. Plasma technologies operating at atmospheric pressure have been attracting increasing attention. The easiest way to obtain low temperature plasma at atmospheric pressure seems to be through atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (ADBD. We used the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD method applying atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (ADBD plasmafor TiOx thin films deposition, employing titanium isopropoxide (TTIP and oxygen as reactants, and argon as a working gas. ADBD was operated in filamentary mode. The films were deposited on glass. We studied the quality of the deposited TiOx thin film surface for various precursor gas inlet positions in the ADBD reactor. The best thin films quality was achieved when the precursor gases were brought close to the substrate surface directly through the inlet placed in one of the electrodes.High hydrophilicity of the samples was proved by contact angle tests (CA. The film morphology was tested by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The thickness of the thin films varied in the range of (80 ÷ 210 nm in dependence on the composition of the reactor atmosphere. XPS analyses indicate that composition of the films is more like the composition of TiOxCy.

  9. Pentacene thin-film transistors and inverters with plasma-enhanced atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jae Bon; Lim, Jung Wook; Kim, Seong Hyun; Yun, Sun Jin; Ku, Chan Hoe; Lim, Sang Chul; Lee, Jung Hun

    2007-01-01

    The performances of pentacene thin-film transistor with plasma-enhanced atomic-layer-deposited (PEALD) 150 nm thick Al 2 O 3 dielectric are reported. Saturation mobility of 0.38 cm 2 /V s, threshold voltage of 1 V, subthreshold swing of 0.6 V/decade, and on/off current ratio of about 10 8 have been obtained. Both depletion and enhancement mode inverter have been realized with the change of treatment method of hexamethyldisilazane on PEALD Al 2 O 3 gate dielectric. Full swing depletion mode inverter has been demonstrated at input voltages ranging from 5 V to - 5 V at supply voltage of - 5 V

  10. Ester-free cross-linker molecules for ultraviolet-light-cured polysilsesquioxane gate dielectric layers of organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shuichi; Nakahara, Yoshio; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    Pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated with ultraviolet-light (UV)-cured polysilsesquioxane (PSQ) gate dielectric layers using cross-linker molecules with or without ester groups. To polymerize PSQ without ester groups, thiol-ene reaction was adopted. The TFTs fabricated with PSQ layers comprising ester-free cross-linkers showed a higher carrier mobility than the TFTs with PSQ layers cross-linked with ester groups, which had large electric dipole moments that limited the carrier mobility. It was demonstrated that the thiol-ene reaction is more suitable than the conventional radical reaction for UV-cured PSQ with small dielectric constant.

  11. High temperature dielectric properties of (BxNyOz thin films deposited using ion source assisted physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Badi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric integrity has been one of the major obstacle in bringing out capacitor devices with suitable performance characteristics at high temperatures. In this paper, BxNyOz dielectric films for high temperature capacitors solutions are investigated. The films were grown on silicon substrate by using ion source assisted physical vapor deposition technique. The as-grown films were characterized by SEM, XRD, and XPS. The capacitor structures were fabricated using BxNyOz as a dielectric and titanium as metal electrodes. The elaborated devices were subjected to electrical and thermal characterization. They exhibited low electrical loss and very good stability when subjected to high temperature for a prolonged period of time.

  12. Organic thin film transistors with polymer brush gate dielectrics synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, J.C.; Whiting, G.L.; Khodabakhsh, S.

    2008-01-01

    , synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), were used to fabricate low voltage OFETs with both evaporated pentacene and solution deposited poly(3-hexylthiophene). The semiconductor-dielectric interfaces in these systems were studied with a variety of methods including scanning force microscopy...

  13. Phase transition, ferroelectric, and dielectric properties of layer-structured perovskite CaBi3Ti3O12-δ thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazumi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nishizawa, Kaori; Miki, Takeshi

    2001-07-01

    Thin films of a bismuth-based layer-structured perovskite compound with a number of oxygen octahedron along the c axis between Bi-O layers of three, CaBi3Ti3O12-δ, were prepared using a mixture solution of complex alkoxides. The films crystallized below 550 °C. The crystal structure and surface morphology of these films changed between 600 and 650 °C. The 650 °C-annealed thin film consisted of well-developed grains and exhibited polarization-electric hysteresis loops. The remanent polarization and coercive electric field were 8.5 μC/cm2 and 124 kV/cm, respectively, at 7 V. The dielectric constant and loss factor were about 250 and 0.048, respectively, at 100 kHz.

  14. Scattering effect of the high-index dielectric nanospheres for high performance hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhai; Gao, Pingqi; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Xiaofeng; Ye, Jichun

    2016-07-26

    Dielectric nanosphere arrays are considered as promising light-trapping designs with the capability of transforming the freely propagated sunlight into guided modes. This kinds of designs are especially beneficial to the ultrathin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells due to the advantages of using lossless material and easily scalable assembly. In this paper, we demonstrate numerically that the front-sided integration of high-index subwavelength titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanosphere arrays can significantly enhance the light absorption in 100 nm-thick a-Si:H thin films and thus the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of related solar cells. The main reason behind is firmly attributed to the strong scattering effect excited by TiO2 nanospheres in the whole waveband, which contributes to coupling the light into a-Si:H layer via two typical ways: 1) in the short-waveband, the forward scattering of TiO2 nanospheres excite the Mie resonance, which focuses the light into the surface of the a-Si:H layer and thus provides a leaky channel; 2) in the long-waveband, the transverse waveguided modes caused by powerful scattering effectively couple the light into almost the whole active layer. Moreover, the finite-element simulations demonstrate that photocurrent density (Jph) can be up to 15.01 mA/cm(2), which is 48.76% higher than that of flat system.

  15. Zirconium titanate thin film prepared by surface sol-gel process and effects of thickness on dielectric property

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C H

    2002-01-01

    Single phase of multicomponent oxide ZrTiO sub 4 film could be prepared through surface sol-gel route simply by coating the mixture of 100mM zirconium butoxide and titanium butoxide on Pt/Ti/SiO sub 2 /Si(100) substrate, following pyrolysis at 450 .deg. C, and annealing it at 770 .deg. C. The dielectric constant of the film was reduced as the film thickness decreased due to of the interfacial effects caused by layer/electrode and a few voids inside the multilayer. However, the dielectric property was independent of applied dc bias sweeps voltage (-2 to +2 V). The dielectric constant of bulk film, 31.9, estimated using series-connected capacitor model was independent of film thickness and frequency in the measurement range, but theoretical interfacial thickness, t sub i , was dependent on the frequency. It reached a saturated t sub i value, 6.9 A, at high frequency by extraction of some capacitance component formed at low frequency range. The dielectric constant of bulk ZrTiO sub 4 pellet-shaped material was 3...

  16. Structural and dielectric properties of (001) and (111)-oriented BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3 epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, J.; Fina, I.; Ferrater, C.; Langenberg, E.; Coy, L.E.; Polo, M.C.; Garcia-Cuenca, M.V.; Fabrega, L.; Varela, M.

    2010-01-01

    We have grown and characterized BaZr 0.2 Ti 0.8 O 3 (BZT) epitaxial thin films deposited on (001) and (111)-oriented SrRuO 3 -buffered SrTiO 3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Structural and morphological characterizations were performed using X-ray diffractometry and atomic force microscopy, respectively. A cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship was ascertained from the θ-2θ and φ diffractograms in both (001) and (111)-oriented films. The (001)-oriented films showed a smooth granular morphology, whereas the faceted pyramid-like crystallites of the (111)-oriented films led to a rough surface. The dielectric response of BZT at room temperature was measured along the growth direction. The films were found to be ferroelectric, although a well-saturated hysteresis loop was obtained only for the (001)-oriented films. High leakage currents were observed for the (111) orientation, likely associated to charge transport along the boundaries of its crystallites. The remanent polarization, coercive field, dielectric constant, and relative change of dielectric permittivity (tunability) of (111)-oriented BZT were higher than those of (001)-oriented BZT.

  17. Omnidirectional narrow bandpass filter based on metal-dielectric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-long; Shen, Wei-dong; Gu, Peifu; Zhang, Yue-guang; Jiang, Hai-tao; Liu, Xu

    2008-11-20

    We show that a metal-dielectric Fabry-Perot (FP) structure can exhibit an omnidirectional transmission for p-polarized light, which means a passband is independent of the incidence angle of light. The omnidirectional passband occurs when the sum of the reflection phase shift at the metal-spacer interface and the propagation shift in the spacer region is almost 2pi for every incidence angle. We numerically and experimentally demonstrate such an omnidirectional narrow bandpass filter in an air/Ag/ZnS/Ag/glass structure. Moreover, we introduce an antireflection coating on both sides of the metal-dielectric FP structure. The transmittance will increase obviously, while the omnidirectional property remains the same.

  18. Black metal thin films by deposition on dielectric antireflective moth-eye nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Caringal, Gideon Peter; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    2015-01-01

    frequency in the range 5-7 mu m(-1). A reflectance in the visible spectrum as low as 6%, and an absorbance of 90% was observed for an Al film of 100 nm thickness. Corresponding experiments on a planar film yielded 80% reflectance and 20% absorbance. The observed absorbance enhancement is attributed...

  19. Experimental determination of thermal conductivities of dielectric thin films; Determination experimentale des conductivites thermiques de couches minces dielectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scudeller, Y.; Hmina, N.; Lahmar, J.; Bardon, J.P. [Nantes Univ., 44 (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a method of measurement of thermal conductivity of sub-micron dielectric films in a direction perpendicular to the substrate. These films (oxides, nitrides, diamond..) are mainly used for the electrical insulation of semiconductor circuits and in optical treatments of high energy lasers. The principle of the method used and the experimental device are described. The results obtained with silicon oxides are discussed. (J.S.) 13 refs.

  20. Femtosecond Laser Desorption of Thin Polymer Films from a Dielectric Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercadier L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We desorb polymer films from fused silica with a femtosecond laser and characterize the results by atomic force microscopy. Our study as a function of beam geometry and energy reveals two ways of achieving spatially controlled nanodesorption.

  1. Study of Fluorine Addition Influence in the Dielectric Constant of Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Film Deposited by Reactive Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, S. C.; Mansano, R. D.

    The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) or DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) films are well known for exhibiting high electrical resistivity, low dielectric constant, high mechanical hardness, low friction coefficient, low superficial roughness and also for being inert. In this paper, we produced fluorinated DLC films (a-C:F), and studied the effect of adding CF4 on the above-mentioned properties of DLC films. These films were produced by a reactive RF magnetron sputtering system using a target of pure carbon in stable graphite allotrope. We performed measurements of electrical characteristic curves of capacitance as a function of applied tension (C-V) and current as a function of the applied tension (I-V). We showed the dielectric constant (k) and the resistivity (ρ) as functions of the CF4 concentration. On films with 65% CF4, we found that k = 2.7, and on films with 70% CF4, ρ = 12.3 × 1011 Ω cm. The value of the electrical breakdown field to films with 70% CF4 is 5.3 × 106 V/cm.

  2. Electrostatically assisted fabrication of silver-dielectric core/shell nanoparticles thin film capacitor with uniform metal nanoparticle distribution and controlled spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    An electrostatically-assisted strategy for fabrication of thin film composite capacitors with controllable dielectric constant (k) has been developed. The capacitor is composed of metal-dielectric core/shell nanoparticle (silver/silica, Ag@SiO2) multilayer films, and a backfilling polymer. Compared with the simple metal particle-polymer mixtures where the metal nanoparticles (NP) are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix, the metal volume fraction in our capacitor was significantly increased, owing to the densely packed NP multilayers formed by the electrostatically assisted assembly process. Moreover, the insulating layer of silica shell provides a potential barrier that reduces the tunneling current between neighboring Ag cores, endowing the core/shell nanocomposites with a stable and relatively high dielectric constant (k) and low dielectric loss (D). Our work also shows that the thickness of the SiO2 shell plays a dominant role in controlling the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. Control over metal NP separation distance was realized not only by variation the shell thickness of the core/shell NPs but also by introducing a high k nanoparticle, barium strontium titanate (BST) of relatively smaller size (∼8nm) compared to 80-160nm of the core/shell Ag@SiO2 NPs. The BST assemble between the Ag@SiO2 and fill the void space between the closely packed core/shell NPs leading to significant enhancement of the dielectric constant. This electrostatically assisted assembly method is promising for generating multilayer films of a large variety of NPs over large areas at low cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dielectric properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films deposited by mist plasma evaporation using aqueous solution precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Shi, Peng; Wang, Minqiang; Yao, Xi; Tan, O. K.

    2006-06-01

    Mist plasma evaporation (MPE) technique has been developed to deposit Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) thin films on SiO2/Si and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at atmospheric pressure using metal nitrate aqueous solution as precursor. MPE is characterized by the injection of liquid reactants into thermal plasma where the source materials in the droplets are evaporated by the high temperature of the thermal plasma. Nanometer-scale clusters are formed in the tail flame of the plasma, and then deposited and rearranged on the substrate at a lower temperature. Due to the high temperature annealing process of the thermal plasma before deposition, well-crystallized BST films were deposited at substrate temperature of 630 °C. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the film at 100 kHz are 715 and 0.24, respectively. Due to the good crystallinity of the BST films deposited by MPE, high dielectric tunability up to 39.3% is achieved at low applied electric field of 100 kV cm-1.

  4. Dielectric properties of Ca(Zr0.05Ti0.95)O3 thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Santos, L.P.S.; Santos, M.R.M.C.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ca(Zr 0.05 Ti 0.95 )O 3 (CZT) thin films were grown on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(100) substrates by the soft chemical method. The films were deposited from spin-coating technique and annealed at 928K for 4h under oxygen atmosphere. CZT films present orthorhombic structure with a crack free and granular microstructure. Atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed that CZT present grains with about 47nm and thickness about 450nm. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the films was approximately 210 at 100kHz and 0.032 at 1MHz. The Au/CZT/Pt capacitor shows a hysteresis loop with remnant polarization of 2.5μC/cm 2 , and coercive field of 18kV/cm, at an applied voltage of 6V. The leakage current density was about 4.6x10 -8 A/cm 2 at 3V. Dielectric constant-voltage curve is located at zero bias field suggesting the absence of internal electric fields

  5. Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmouss

    2003-01-01

    the optical absorption are consistent with the film color changes. Finally, the optical and electrochromic properties of the films prepared by this method are compared with those of our sputtered films already studied and with other works.

  6. Effects of biased irradiation on charge trapping in HfO2 dielectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yifei; Zhao, Ce Zhou; Lu, Qifeng; Zhao, Chun; Qi, Yanfei; Lam, Sang; Mitrovic, Ivona Z.; Taylor, Stephen; Chalker, Paul R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the low-dose-rate radiation response of Al-HfO2/SiO2-Si MOS devices, in which the gate dielectric was formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with 5-nm equivalent oxide thickness. The degradation of the devices was characterized by a pulse capacitance-voltage (CV) and on-site radiation response technique under continuous gamma (γ) ray exposure at a relatively low dose rate of 0.116 rad (HfO2)/s. Compared with conventional CV measurements, the proposed measurements extract significant variations of flat-band voltage shift of the hafnium based MOS devices. The large flat-band voltage shift is mainly attributed to the radiation-induced oxide trapped charges, which are not readily compensated by bias-induced charges produced over the measurement timescales (for timescales less than 5 ms). A negative flat-band voltage shift up to -1.02 V was observed under a positive biased irradiation with the total dose up to 40 krad (HfO2) and with the electric field of 0.5 MV/cm. This is attributed to net positive charge generation in the HfO2 oxide layer. The generated charges are transported towards the HfO2/SiO2 interface, and then form effective trapped holes in the HfO2. Similarly, a positive flat-band voltage shift up to 1.1 V was observed from irradiation under negative bias with an electric field of -0.5 MV/cm. The positive shift is mainly due to the accumulation of trapped electrons. Analyses of the experimental results suggest that both hole and electron trapping can dominate the radiation response performance of the HfO2-based MOS devices depending upon the applied bias. It was also found there was no distinct border traps with irradiation in all cases.

  7. Phosphorescence quenching of fac-tris(2-phenylpyridyl)iridium(iii) complexes in thin films on dielectric surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribierre, J C; Ruseckas, A; Staton, S V; Knights, K; Cumpstey, N; Burn, P L; Samuel, I D W

    2016-02-07

    We study the influence of the film thickness on the time-resolved phosphorescence and the luminescence quantum yield of fac-tris(2-phenylpyridyl)iridium(iii) [Ir(ppy)3]-cored dendrimers deposited on dielectric substrates. A correlation is observed between the surface quenching velocity and the quenching rate by intermolecular interactions in the bulk film, which suggests that both processes are controlled by dipole-dipole interactions between Ir(ppy)3 complexes at the core of the dendrimers. It is also found that the surface quenching velocity decreases as the refractive index of the substrate is increased. This can be explained by partial screening of dipole-dipole interactions by the dielectric environment.

  8. Tunable dielectric properties of TiO2 thin film based MOS systems for application in microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyanan; Mondal, Sandip; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-12-01

    Post-deposition annealing (PDA) is an inherent part of a sol-gel fabrication process to achieve the optimum device performance, especially in CMOS applications. Annealing removes the oxygen vacancies and improves the structural order of the dielectric films. The process also reduces the interface related defects and improves the interfacial properties. Here, we applied a sol-gel spin-coating technique to prepare high-k TiO2 films on the p-Si substrate. These films were fired at 400 °C for the duration of 20, 40, 60 and 80 min to know the effects of annealing time on the device characteristics. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of annealed TiO2 films were examined in Al/TiO2/p-Si device configuration at room temperature. The 60 min annealed film gives the optimum performance and contained 69.5% anatase and 39.5% rutile phase with refractive index 2.40 at 550 nm. The C-V and I-V characteristic showed a significant dependence on annealing time such as variation in dielectric constant and leakage current. This allows us to tune the various electrical properties of MOS systems. The accumulation capacitance (Cox), dielectric constant (κ) and the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the film fired for 60 min were found to be 458 pF, 33, and 4.25 nm, respectively with a low leakage current density (3.13 × 10-7 A/cm2) fired for 80 min at -1 V. The current conduction mechanisms at high bias voltage were dominated by trap-charge limited current (TCLC), while at small voltages, space charge limited current (SCLC) was more prominent.

  9. Study of surface-modified PVP gate dielectric in organic thin film transistors with the nano-particle silver ink source/drain electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ho-Jin; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Shin, Hong-Sik; Jeong, Kwang-Seok; Park, Jeong-Gyu; Choi, Deuk-Sung; Lee, Ga-Won

    2011-07-01

    We have fabricated the flexible pentacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with formulated poly[4-vinylphenol] (PVP) gate dielectrics treated by CF4/O2 plasma on poly[ethersulfones] (PES) substrate. The solution of gate dielectrics is made by adding methylated poly[melamine-co-formaldehyde] (MMF) to PVP. The PVP gate dielectric layer was cross linked at 90 degrees under UV ozone exposure. Source/drain electrodes are formed by micro contact printing (MCP) method using nano particle silver ink for the purposes of low cost and high throughput. The optimized OTFT shows the device performance with field effect mobility of the 0.88 cm2/V s, subthreshold slope of 2.2 V/decade, and on/off current ratios of 1.8 x 10(-6) at -40 V gate bias. We found that hydrophobic PVP gate dielectric surface can influence on the initial film morphologies of pentacene making dense, which is more important for high performance OTFTs than large grain size. Moreover, hydrophobic gate dielelctric surface reduces voids and -OH groups that interrupt the carrier transport in OTFTs.

  10. Low-voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) using crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) bilayer gate dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khound, Sagarika; Sarma, Ranjit

    2018-01-01

    We have reported here on the design, processing and dielectric properties of pentacene-based organic thin film transitors (OTFTs) with a bilayer gate dilectrics of crosslinked PVA/Nd2O3 which enables low-voltage organic thin film operations. The dielectric characteristics of PVA/Nd2O3 bilayer films are studied by capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current-voltage ( I- V) curves in the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure. We have analysed the output electrical responses and transfer characteristics of the OTFT devices to determine their performance of OTFT parameters. The mobility of 0.94 cm2/Vs, the threshold voltage of - 2.8 V, the current on-off ratio of 6.2 × 105, the subthreshold slope of 0.61 V/decade are evaluated. Low leakage current of the device is observed from current density-electric field ( J- E) curve. The structure and the morphology of the device are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. The study demonstrates an effective way to realize low-voltage, high-performance OTFTs at low cost.

  11. Direct patterning of solution-processed organic thin-film transistor by selective control of solution wettability of polymer gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Yoshihide; Ito, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Nakata, Mitsuru; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Furue, Hirokazu; Kurita, Taiichiro; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2013-04-01

    A simple direct patterning method for solution-processable organic semiconductors (OSCs) is demonstrated. The solution-wettable and nonwettable regions of a polymer gate dielectric layer were selectively controlled by a short tetrafluoromethane gas plasma treatment, and we precisely patterned the OSC film in the desired channel region by lamination coating. The patterned OSC films represent polycrystalline structures consisting of crystalline domains varying from 30 to 60 μm, and the resulting short-channel thin-film transistor (TFT) showed a high mobility of up to 1.3 cm2/Vs, a large on/off ratio over 108, and a negligible hysteresis curve. The proposed method is scalable for patterning TFT arrays with large-area dimensions.

  12. Effect of Deposition Rate on Structure and Surface Morphology of Thin Evaporated Al Films on Dielectrics and Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, K.; Rubahn, H. G.

    2012-01-01

    . The structure and surface morphology of the as-deposited Al films were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM imaging of the films showed that the mean grain size of thin Al films on all of the substrates increased from 20 nm - 30 nm to 50 nm - 70 nm...... with increase of the deposition rate. Quantitative AFM characterization showed that for all substrates the root mean square surface roughness increases monotonically with increasing the deposition rate from 0.1 nm/s to 2 nm/s. The observed effects of the deposition rate on the grain size and surface roughness...

  13. Internal residual stress studies and enhanced dielectric properties in La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 buffered (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengbo; Xu, Zhengkui

    2009-09-01

    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited on La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 (LSCO) buffered and unbuffered Pt (111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The former exhibits a (100) preferred orientation and the latter a random orientation, respectively. Grazing incident x-ray diffraction study revealed that the tensile residual stress observed in the latter is markedly reduced in the former. As a result, the dielectric property of the LSCO buffered BST thin film is greatly improved, which shows a larger dielectric constant and tunability, smaller loss tangent, and lower leakage current than those of the unbuffered BST thin film. The relaxation of the larger tensile residual stress is attributed to the larger grain size in the buffered BST thin film and to a closer match of thermal expansion coefficient between the BST and the LSCO buffer layer.

  14. Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength hole arrays in a thin gold film mounted with dielectric micro-domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2018-04-01

    Dielectric micro-domes were mounted on the subwavelength holes of a periodically perforated gold film such that a lens-like micro-dome covers each hole. In comparison to the extraordinary transmission through an array of bare holes in the gold film, this structure showed a further enhanced transmission over a larger range of incident angles with much larger bandwidth at mid-wave infrared wavelengths (3-4.5~μ m). The structure was fabricated using laser interference lithography, a novel back-exposure with an ultra-violet laser, and lift-off process that left behind the micro-domes of SU-8, covering each of the holes in the gold film. The measured transmittance of these perforated gold films, with and without the micro-domes, was verified by electromagnetic wave simulations. The enhanced transmittance arises from the scattered electromagnetic fields of the micro-domes, which couple the incident light efficiently via the scattered near-fields into the waveguide modes of holes in the plasmonic film. The increased transmittance and the highly enhanced and localized near-fields can be used to enhance the photo-response of infrared detectors over relevant bands, for example, the 3-4.5~μ m band that is used for thermal imaging applications.

  15. Spectral, structural, optical and dielectrical studies of UV irradiated Rose Bengal thin films prepared by spin coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeyada, H.M., E-mail: hzeyada@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, University of Damietta, 34517 (Egypt); Youssif, M.I.; El-Ghamaz, N.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, University of Damietta, 34517 (Egypt); Aboderbala, M.E.O. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, University of Damietta, 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, AlJabl Al Gharbi University (Libya)

    2017-02-01

    Optical properties of pristine and UV irradiated Rose Bengal (RB) films have been investigated using transmittance and reflectance methods. The refractive index(n) and extinction coefficient (k) have been calculated from the absolute values of transmission and reflection spectrum. Single oscillator parameters and Drude model of free carrier absorption have been applied for analysis of the refractive index dispersion. Within the frame work of the band-to-band electron transitions theory; the fundamental absorption edge data were analyzed. Our results suggest that thickness of RB films has no effect on the absorption or the refractive indices in the investigated thicknesses range and within the experimental error. Structural transformation of films from amorphous to polycrystalline has been observed upon UV irradiation. Accordingly, the decreases of all of the absorption coefficient, the energy gap and the refractive index of RB films have been detected. Furthermore, the dependence of the optical functions on UV exposure times has been discussed based on the spectral distribution of the dielectric constant.

  16. Low-temperature fabrication of sputtered high-k HfO2 gate dielectric for flexible a-IGZO thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rihui; Zheng, Zeke; Xiong, Mei; Zhang, Xiaochen; Li, Xiaoqing; Ning, Honglong; Fang, Zhiqiang; Xie, Weiguang; Lu, Xubing; Peng, Junbiao

    2018-03-01

    In this work, low temperature fabrication of a sputtered high-k HfO2 gate dielectric for flexible a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs) on polyimide substrates was investigated. The effects of Ar-pressure during the sputtering process and then especially the post-annealing treatments at low temperature (≤200 °C) for HfO2 on reducing the density of defects in the bulk and on the surface were systematically studied. X-ray reflectivity, UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and micro-wave photoconductivity decay measurements were carried out and indicated that the high quality of optimized HfO2 film and its high dielectric properties contributed to the low concentration of structural defects and shallow localized defects such as oxygen vacancies. As a result, the well-structured HfO2 gate dielectric exhibited a high density of 9.7 g/cm3, a high dielectric constant of 28.5, a wide optical bandgap of 4.75 eV, and relatively low leakage current. The corresponding flexible a-IGZO TFT on polyimide exhibited an optimal device performance with a saturation mobility of 10.3 cm2 V-1 s-1, an Ion/Ioff ratio of 4.3 × 107, a SS value of 0.28 V dec-1, and a threshold voltage (Vth) of 1.1 V, as well as favorable stability under NBS/PBS gate bias and bending stress.

  17. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  18. Substrate-dependent ferroelectric and dielectric properties of Mn doped Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} thin films derived by chemical solution decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Yang, C.H., E-mail: fengchao901008@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Zhou, Y.Y.; Geng, F.J.; Lv, P.P.; Yao, Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}(Ti{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02})O{sub 3} (NBTMn) thin films have been fabricated on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si and LaNiO{sub 3} (LNO)/Si substrates via chemical solution decomposition. The microstructure, ferroelectric and dielectric properties were investigated. Both films on different substrates can be crystallized into the phase-pure perovskite structures. The NBTMn thin film deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate shows random orientation with (l00) and (110) diffraction peaks, while the sample on LNO/Si exhibits preferred orientation with strong diffraction peaks of (l00). The NBTMn thin film deposited on LNO/Si substrate exhibits a denser and smoother microstructure. Compared with the round shaped polarization-electric field hysteresis loops of NBTMn on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, the enhanced ferroelectric property can be observed in NBTMn thin film fabricated on LNO/Si with a remanent polarization (P{sub r}) of 10.2 μC/cm{sup 2} due to the reduced leakage current. The dielectric tunabilities of two films increase gradually with the increasing of applied voltage, and the sample on LNO/Si substrate has a relatively larger dielectric tunability with 20% at 14 V and 1 MHz. - Graphical abstract: Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}(Ti{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02})O{sub 3} (NBTMn) thin films have been fabricated on Pt/Si and LaNiO{sub 3} (LNO)/Si substrates. Compared with the NBTMn thin film deposited on Pt/Si substrate which shows poor P-E loops with a round shaped feature because of the high leakage current, the NBTMn thin film on LNO/Si substrate exhibits much improved P-E loops with a slim shaped feature and a remanent polarization of 10.2 μC/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • The phase-pure perovskite can be obtained with both adopted substrates. • Obviously reduced leakage current can be obtained in thin film on LNO/Si substrate. • A well-defined P-E loop is achieved in NBTMn thin film on LNO/Si substrate. • The dielectric properties of

  19. Electromigration study of Al thin films deposited on low dielectric polyimide and SiO sub 2 ILD

    CERN Document Server

    Eun, B S

    1999-01-01

    The electromigration characteristics of Al-1 %Si-0.5 %Cu films deposited onto three kinds of polyimides (PI-2734, PI-2611, and BG-2480) and onto SiO sub 2 prepared by low pressure chemical vapor deposition have been investigated. The Al lines deposited onto SiO sub 2 showed about a one-order higher electromigration lifetime than those deposited onto polyimide interlayer dielectrics (ILDs). The electromigration characteristics degraded as the polyimide thickness increased. Joule heat which accumulated at the Al/polyimide interface was the main cause of the decrease in the electromigration reliability because the thermal conductivity of the polyimides was about one order lower than that of SiO sub 2.

  20. Synthesis and electrical characterization of low-temperature thermal-cured epoxy resin/functionalized silica hybrid-thin films for application as gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Moonkyong, E-mail: nmk@keri.re.kr [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); System on Chip Chemical Process Research Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Taec [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Cheol [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Dong [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-31

    Thermal-cured hybrid materials were synthesized from homogenous hybrid sols of epoxy resins and organoalkoxysilane-functionalized silica. The chemical structures of raw materials and obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal resistance of the hybrids was enhanced by hybridization. The interaction between epoxy matrix and the silica particles, which caused hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force was strengthened by organoalkoxysilane. The degradation temperature of the hybrids was improved by approximately 30 °C over that of the parent epoxy material. The hybrid materials were formed into uniformly coated thin films of about 50 nm-thick using a spin coater. An optimum mixing ratio was used to form smooth-surfaced hybrid films. The electrical property of the hybrid film was characterized, and the leakage current was found to be well below 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Preparation of thermal-curable hybrid materials using epoxy resin and silica. • The thermal stability was enhanced through hybridization. • The insulation property of hybrid film was investigated as gate dielectrics.

  1. Thin Film Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L.

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques. Key Features * Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes * Introduces new topics, and several key topics presented in the original volume are updated * Emphasizes practical applications of major thin film deposition and etching processes * Helps readers find the appropriate technology for a particular application

  2. Control of Nanoplane Orientation in voBN for High Thermal Anisotropy in a Dielectric Thin Film: A New Solution for Thermal Hotspot Mitigation in Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto, Olivier; Samani, Majid K; Liu, Bo; Sun, Shuangxi; Tsang, Siu Hon; Liu, Johan; Zhou, Kun; Teo, Edwin H T

    2017-03-01

    High anisotropic thermal materials, which allow heat to dissipate in a preferential direction, are of interest as a prospective material for electronics as an effective thermal management solution for hot spots. However, due to their preferential heat propagation in the in-plane direction, the heat spreads laterally instead of vertically. This limitation makes these materials ineffective as the density of hot spots increases. Here, we produce a new dielectric thin film material at room temperature, named vertically ordered nanocrystalline h-BN (voBN). It is produced such that its preferential thermally conductive direction is aligned in the vertical axis, which facilitates direct thermal extraction, thereby addressing the increasing challenge of thermal crosstalk. The uniqueness of voBN comes from its h-BN nanocrystals where all their basal planes are aligned in the direction normal to the substrate plane. Using the 3ω method, we show that voBN exhibits high anisotropic thermal conductivity (TC) with a 16-fold difference between through-film TC and in-plane TC (respectively 4.26 and 0.26 W·m -1 ·K -1 ). Molecular dynamics simulations also concurred with the experimental data, showing that the origin of this anisotropic behavior is due to the nature of voBN's plane ordering. While the consistent vertical ordering provides an uninterrupted and preferred propagation path for phonons in the through-film direction, discontinuity in the lateral direction leads to a reduced in-plane TC. In addition, we also use COMSOL to simulate how the dielectric and thermal properties of voBN enable an increase in hot spot density up to 295% compared with SiO 2 , without any temperature increase.

  3. Flexible Zinc-Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors Operating at 1 kV for Integrated Switching of Dielectric Elastomer Actuators Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marette, Alexis; Poulin, Alexandre; Besse, Nadine; Rosset, Samuel; Briand, Danick; Shea, Herbert

    2017-08-01

    Flexible high-voltage thin-film transistors (HVTFTs) operating at more than 1 kV are integrated with compliant dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) to create a flexible array of 16 independent actuators. To allow for high-voltage operation, the HVTFT implements a zinc-tin oxide channel, a thick dielectric stack, and an offset gate. At a source-drain bias of 1 kV, the HVTFT has a 20 µA on-current at a gate voltage bias of 30 V. Their electrical characteristics enable the switching of DEAs which require drive voltages of over 1 kV, making control of an array simpler in comparison to the use of external high-voltage switching. These HVTFTs are integrated in a flexible haptic display consisting of a 4 × 4 matrix of DEAs and HVTFTs. Using a single 1.4 kV supply, each DEA is independently switched by its associated HVTFT, requiring only a 30 V gate voltage for full DEA deflection. The 4 × 4 display operates well even when bent to a 5 mm radius of curvature. By enabling DEA switching at low voltages, flexible metal-oxide HVTFTs enable complex flexible systems with dozens to hundreds of independent DEAs for applications in haptics, Braille displays, and soft robotics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Dielectric spectroscopy of [P(NID2OD-T2)]n thin films: Effects of UV radiation on charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, Pablo I.; Rosado, Alexander O.; Pinto, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Poly[N,N′-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide) -2,6-diyll-alt-5,5′-(2,2′-bithiophene)]-[P(ND12OD-T2)] n is a n-doped polymer that is stable in air. Low frequency (40 Hz–30 kHz) dielectric spectroscopy shows that the polymer impedance strength is reduced under ultra-violet (UV) radiation as a result of charge increase in the bulk polymer. Photo-excitation and the creation of electron-hole pairs and subsequent hole recombination with electron trapping species adsorbed by the polymer are suggested as possible doping mechanisms. The relaxation times were also faster in the presence of UV indicating multiple pathways for oscillating dipoles to relax. These results imply increased polymer conductance with corresponding enhancement of charge mobility due to reduced scattering in the presence of UV radiation. A thin film field effect transistor was fabricated using this polymer as the active material and characterized in the presence of UV radiation. As expected, the device exhibited n-type behavior with a charge mobility of 3.0 × 10 −3 cm 2 /V-s. Exposure to UV radiation increased the channel current, shifted the threshold voltage to more negative values and doubled the value of the mobility. These results are consistent with dielectric measurements and suggest an easy method of increasing device currents and charge mobility in this polymer via UV irradiation. - Highlights: • Ultra-violet (UV) radiation dopes the polymer. • The doping is n-type. • UV radiation enhances charge mobility without post polymer processing. • Dielectric spectroscopy and field effect transistor results are self-consistent

  5. Dielectric spectroscopy of [P(NID2OD-T2)]{sub n} thin films: Effects of UV radiation on charge transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda, Pablo I.; Rosado, Alexander O.; Pinto, Nicholas J.

    2014-08-28

    Poly[N,N′-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide) -2,6-diyll-alt-5,5′-(2,2′-bithiophene)]-[P(ND12OD-T2)]{sub n} is a n-doped polymer that is stable in air. Low frequency (40 Hz–30 kHz) dielectric spectroscopy shows that the polymer impedance strength is reduced under ultra-violet (UV) radiation as a result of charge increase in the bulk polymer. Photo-excitation and the creation of electron-hole pairs and subsequent hole recombination with electron trapping species adsorbed by the polymer are suggested as possible doping mechanisms. The relaxation times were also faster in the presence of UV indicating multiple pathways for oscillating dipoles to relax. These results imply increased polymer conductance with corresponding enhancement of charge mobility due to reduced scattering in the presence of UV radiation. A thin film field effect transistor was fabricated using this polymer as the active material and characterized in the presence of UV radiation. As expected, the device exhibited n-type behavior with a charge mobility of 3.0 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V-s. Exposure to UV radiation increased the channel current, shifted the threshold voltage to more negative values and doubled the value of the mobility. These results are consistent with dielectric measurements and suggest an easy method of increasing device currents and charge mobility in this polymer via UV irradiation. - Highlights: • Ultra-violet (UV) radiation dopes the polymer. • The doping is n-type. • UV radiation enhances charge mobility without post polymer processing. • Dielectric spectroscopy and field effect transistor results are self-consistent.

  6. Optical thin film devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shuzheng

    1991-11-01

    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  7. Thin films on cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the work compiled in this thesis is to investigate thin films for integration in micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). The miniaturization of MEMS actuators and sensors without compromising their performance requires thin films of different active materials with specific

  8. Moderate temperature-dependent surface and volume resistivity and low-frequency dielectric constant measurements of pure and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) doped polyvinyl alcohol thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew; Guggilla, Padmaja; Reedy, Angela; Ijaz, Quratulann; Janen, Afef; Uba, Samuel; Curley, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we have reported measurements of temperature-dependent surface resistivity of pure and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNCT) doped amorphous Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) thin films. In the temperature range from 22 °C to 40 °C with humidity-controlled environment, we found the surface resistivity to decrease initially, but to rise steadily as the temperature continued to increase. Moreover, electric surface current density (Js) was measured on the surface of pure and MWCNT doped PVA thin films. In this regard, the surface current density and electric field relationship follow Ohm's law at low electric fields. Unlike Ohmic conduction in metals where free electrons exist, selected captive electrons are freed or provided from impurities and dopants to become conduction electrons from increased thermal vibration of constituent atoms in amorphous thin films. Additionally, a mechanism exists that seemingly decreases the surface resistivity at higher temperatures, suggesting a blocking effect for conducting electrons. Volume resistivity measurements also follow Ohm's law at low voltages (low electric fields), and they continue to decrease as temperatures increase in this temperature range, differing from surface resistivity behavior. Moreover, we report measurements of dielectric constant and dielectric loss as a function of temperature and frequency. Both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss were observed to be highest for MWCNT doped PVA compared to pure PVA and commercial paper, and with frequency and temperature for all samples.

  9. Epitaxial growth and dielectric properties of Bi sub 2 VO sub 5 sub . sub 5 thin films on TiN/Si substrates with SrTiO sub 3 buffer layers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H Y; Choi, B C; Jeong, J H; Joseph, M; Tabata, H; Kawai, T

    2000-01-01

    Bi sub 2 VO sub 5 sub . sub 5 (BVO) thin films were epitaxially grown on SrTiO sub 3 /TiN/Si substrates by using pulsed laser ablation. A TiN thin film was prepared at 700 .deg. C as a bottom electrode. The TiN film exhibited a high alpha axis orientation and a very smooth morphology. Before the preparation of the BVO thin film, a crystallized SrTiO sub 3 thin film was deposited as a buffer layer on TiN/Si. The BVO thin film grown at a substrate temperature at 700 .deg. C and an oxygen pressure of 50 mTorr was found to be epitaxial along the c-axis. Also, BVO films were observed to have flat surfaces and the step-flow modes. The dielectric constant of the BVO film on STO/TiN/Si was constant at about 8 approx 4 in the applied frequency range between 10 sup 2 and 10 sup 6 Hz.

  10. Low-voltage bendable pentacene thin-film transistor with stainless steel substrate and polystyrene-coated hafnium silicate dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seunghyup; Yong, Kijung; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2012-04-01

    The hafnium silicate and aluminum oxide high-k dielectrics were deposited on stainless steel substrate using atomic layer deposition process and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and polystyrene (PS) were treated improve crystallinity of pentacene grown on them. Besides, the effects of the pentacene deposition condition on the morphologies, crystallinities and electrical properties of pentacene were characterized. Therefore, the surface treatment condition on dielectric and pentacene deposition conditions were optimized. The pentacene grown on polystyrene coated high-k dielectric at low deposition rate and temperature (0.2-0.3 Å/s and R.T.) showed the largest grain size (0.8-1.0 μm) and highest crystallinity among pentacenes deposited various deposition conditions, and the pentacene TFT with polystyrene coated high-k dielectric showed excellent device-performance. To decrease threshold voltage of pentacene TFT, the polystyrene-thickness on high-k dielectric was controlled using different concentration of polystyrene solution. As the polystyrene-thickness on hafnium silicate decreases, the dielectric constant of polystyrene/hafnium silicate increases, while the crystallinity of pentacene grown on polystyrene/hafnium silicate did not change. Using low-thickness polystyrene coated hafnium silicate dielectric, the high-performance and low voltage operating (1 × 10(4)) and complementary inverter (DC gains, ~20) could be fabricated.

  11. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  12. Carbon thin film thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, R. S.; Sparks, L. L.; Strobridge, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    The work concerning carbon thin film thermometry is reported. Optimum film deposition parameters were sought on an empirical basis for maximum stability of the films. One hundred films were fabricated for use at the Marshall Space Flight Center; 10 of these films were given a precise quasi-continuous calibration of temperature vs. resistance with 22 intervals between 5 and 80 K using primary platinum and germanium thermometers. Sensitivity curves were established and the remaining 90 films were given a three point calibration and fitted to the established sensitivity curves. Hydrogen gas-liquid discrimination set points are given for each film.

  13. Novel negative tone photodefinable low dielectric constant hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, Thomas J.; Weigel, Scott J.; Kretz, Chris P.

    2005-05-01

    Multifunctional films have the potential to reduce the number of processing steps to prepare various complex electronic devices and thereby reduce the cost of manufacturing the device and increase the throughput of the process. By combining low dielectric thin film and photoresist technologies into one material, such an advantage could be provided to electronics device markets. Air Products and Chemicals has discovered negative tone photodefinable films having dielectric constant values less than 3.0 that are developable in water and/or aqueous TMAH solutions. The low dielectric films produced via a novel reaction pathway involving the use of photoacid generators (PAGs) provides a versatile link to various feature sizes depending on the choice of radiation source and PAG used. Specific examples of film properties and processing latitude will be presented for these developmental materials.

  14. Ag{sup 15+} and O{sup 7+} ion irradiation induced improvement in dielectric properties of the Ba(Co{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishnoi, Bhagwati [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390002, Gujarat (India); Mehta, P.K., E-mail: pkmehta_phy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390002, Gujarat (India); Panchal, C.J., E-mail: cjpanchal_msu@yahoo.com [Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat (India); Desai, M.S. [Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat (India); Kumar, Ravi [Material Science Division, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur 177005, Himachal Pradesh (India); Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017, Madhya Pradesh India (India)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Swift heavy ion irradiation helps in engineering the dielectric properties of conductive samples to be used as microwave device material. {yields} Irradiating the Ba(Co{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BCN) films with O{sup 7+} or Ag{sup 15+} beams induces better alignment of grain boundaries leading to significant reduction in dielectric loss. {yields} Compared to O{sup 7+} irradiation induced point/cluster defects Ag{sup 15+} induced columnar defects are more effective in reducing/pinning trapped charges within grains their by improving overall performance of electrical devices. - Abstract: We present the preliminary results of temperature and frequency dependent dielectric measurements on Ba(Co{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BCN) thin films. These films were prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates by the pulse laser deposition (PLD) technique. It exhibits single-phase hexagonal symmetry. These films were irradiated with Ag{sup 15+} (200 MeV) and O{sup 7+} (100 MeV) beams at the fluence 1 x 10{sup 11}, 1 x 10{sup 12}, and 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. On irradiating these films, its dielectric constant ({epsilon}') and dielectric loss (tan {delta}) parameters improve compared to un-irradiated film. Compared to O{sup 7+} irradiation induced point/cluster defects Ag{sup 15+} induced columnar defects are more effective in reducing/pinning trapped charges within grains. The present paper highlights the role of swift heavy ion irradiation in engineering the dielectric properties of conductive samples to enable them to be useful for microwave device applications.

  15. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Poli, Andrea A.; Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  16. A pentacene thin film transistor with good performance using sol-gel derived SiO2 gate dielectric layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, M.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Al-Hartomy, O. A.; El-Tantawy, F.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2013-02-01

    A low-voltage pentacene field-effect transistor with sol-gel derived SiO2 gate dielectric was fabricated. The mobility of the transistor was achieved as high as 1.526 cm2/V on the bared SiO2/Si substrate by a higher dielectric constant. The interface state density for the transistor was found to vary from 3.8 × 1010 to 7.5 × 1010 eV-1 cm-2 at frequency range of 100 kHz-1 MHz. It is evaluated that the SiO2 derived by low cost sol-gel is quite a promising candidate as a gate dielectric layer for low-voltage pentacene field-effect transistor.

  17. Thin film solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  18. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  19. Multifunctional thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  20. Characterizations of biodegradable epoxy-coated cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) thin film for flexible microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyi Mi; Chien-Hao Liu; Tzu-Husan Chang; Jung-Hun Seo; Huilong Zhang; Sang June Cho; Nader Behdad; Zhenqiang Ma; Chunhua Yao; Zhiyong Cai; Shaoqin Gong

    2016-01-01

    Wood pulp cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) thin film is a novel recyclable and biodegradable material. We investigated the microwave dielectric properties of the epoxy coated-CNF thin film for potential broad applications in flexible high speed electronics. The characterizations of dielectric properties were carried out in a frequency range of 1–10 GHz. The dielectric...

  1. Optical constant of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, D. I.; Fedyanin, D. Yu; Arsenin, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of metal-based devices is limited by ohmic losses in the metal, which are determined by electron scattering. The structural properties of gold thin films also play an important role in the film quality, which may affect its' optical properties and the overall capability of the dev......The performance of metal-based devices is limited by ohmic losses in the metal, which are determined by electron scattering. The structural properties of gold thin films also play an important role in the film quality, which may affect its' optical properties and the overall capability...... and spectroscopic ellipsometry, the structural morphology and optical properties of polycrystalline gold thin films (fabricated by e-beam deposition at a low sputtering rate smooth gold) in the thickness range of 20 - 200 nm. By extracting the real and imaginary dielectric function and the Drude parameter...... predicts optical losses based on structure of the gold films....

  2. Post Curing as an Effective Means of Ensuring the Long-term Reliability of PDMS Thin Films for Dielectric Elastomer Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    ’s moduli at 5% strain increase with post curing. Furthermore, the determined dielectric breakdown parameters from Weibull analyses showed that greater electrical stability and reliability could be achieved by post curing the PDMS films before usage, and this method therefore paves a way toward more...

  3. A complementary organic inverter of porphyrazine thin films: low-voltage operation using ionic liquid gate dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takuya; Miyoshi, Yasuhito; Matsushita, Michio M; Awaga, Kunio

    2011-05-28

    We studied a complementary organic inverter consisting of a p-type semiconductor, metal-free phthalocyanine (H(2)Pc), and an n-type semiconductor, tetrakis(thiadiazole)porphyrazine (H(2)TTDPz), operated through the ionic-liquid gate dielectrics of N,N-diethyl-N-methyl(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEME-TFSI). This organic inverter exhibits high performance with a very low operation voltage below 1.0 V and a dynamic response up to 20 Hz. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  4. Molecular beam deposition of high-permittivity polydimethylsiloxane for nanometer-thin elastomer films in dielectric actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Weiss, Florian; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Töpper, Tino

    2016-01-01

    monitoring. Using atomic force microscopy, the film surface morphology and mechanics were characterized after growth termination and subsequent curing. The Young's modulus of the elastomer corresponded to (1.8 ± 0.2) MPa and is thus a factor of two lower than that of DMS-V05. Consequently, the properties...

  5. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  6. Ferroelectricity in Sodium Nitrite Thin Films | Britwum | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations have been conducted on the ferroelectric property of thin films of NaNO2. The thin films were prepared with the dip coating technique. The phase transition was investigated by observing the change in the dielectric constant with temperature change. The presence of ferro-electricity was investigated with a ...

  7. Magnetically tunable dielectric, impedance and magnetoelectric response in MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/(Pb{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x})TiO{sub 3} composites thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Kanchan, E-mail: bala.kanchan1987@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India); Kotnala, R.K. [CSIR, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Negi, N.S., E-mail: nsn_phy_hpu@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India)

    2017-02-15

    We have synthesized piezomagnetic–piezoelectric composites thin films MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/(Pb{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x})TiO{sub 3}, where x=0.1, 0.2, and 0.3, using the metalorganic deposition (MOD) reaction method. The structural and microstructural analysis using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, and SEM reveals the presence of homogenous growth of both pervoskite and spinel phases in the composite films. Our results show that all the composites films exhibit good multiferroic as well as considerable magnetoelectric coupling. The impedance (Z′ and Z″) and electrical modulus (M′ and M″) Nyquist plots show distinct electrical responses with the magnetic field. Our analyses suggest that this electrical response arises due to the coexistence of the high resistive phase and the comparatively conductive phase in the MFO/PST composite films. The maximum magnetoelectric coefficient (α) is found to be 4.29 V Oe{sup −1} cm{sup −1} and 2.82 V Oe{sup −1} cm{sup −1} for compositions x=0.1 and 0.2. These values are substantially larger than those reported for bilayer composites thin films in literature and make them interesting for room temperature device applications. - Highlights: • Influence of Sr doping on multiferroic and magnetoelectric properties composites thin films of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and (Pb, Sr)TiO{sub 3}. • Dielectric constant and dielectric loss with application of magnetic field. • Magnetically tunable AC electrical properties. • Magnetoelectric coupling in MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/(Pb, Sr)TiO{sub 3} composite films by passive method.

  8. Interpretation of transmission through type II superconducting thin film on dielectric substrate as observed by laser thermal spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindler, Michal; Tesař, Roman; Koláček, Jan; Skrbek, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 483, DEC (2012), s. 127-135 ISSN 0921-4534 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0015 Grant - others:European Science Foundation(XE) NES, 2007 - 2012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : far- infrared transmission * NbN * superconducting film * vortices * terahertz waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2012

  9. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  10. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  11. Dielectric properties of BaMg1∕3Nb2∕3O3 doped Ba0.45Sr0.55Tio3 thin films for tunable microwave applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikadu Alema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ba(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3O3 (BMN doped and undoped Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 (BST thin films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Al2O3 substrates. The surface morphology and chemical state analyses of the films have shown that the BMN doped BST film has a smoother surface with reduced oxygen vacancy, resulting in an improved insulating properties of the BST film. Dielectric tunability, loss, and leakage current (LC of the undoped and BMN doped BST thin films were studied. The BMN dopant has remarkably reduced the dielectric loss (∼38% with no significant effect on the tunability of the BST film, leading to an increase in figure of merit (FOM. This is attributed to the opposing behavior of large Mg2+ whose detrimental effect on tunability is partially compensated by small Nb5+ as the two substitute Ti4+ in the BST. The coupling between MgTi″ and VO•• charged defects suppresses the dielectric loss in the film by cutting electrons from hopping between Ti ions. The LC of the films was investigated in the temperature range of 300–450K. A reduced LC measured for the BMN doped BST film was correlated to the formation of defect dipoles from MgTi″, VO•• and NbTi• charged defects. The carrier transport properties of the films were analyzed in light of Schottky thermionic emission (SE and Poole–Frenkel (PF emission mechanisms. The result indicated that while the carrier transport mechanism in the undoped film is interface limited (SE, the conduction in the BMN doped film was dominated by bulk processes (PF. The change of the conduction mechanism from SE to PF as a result of BMN doping is attributed to the presence of uncoupled NbTi• sitting as a positive trap center at the shallow donor level of the BST.

  12. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  13. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  14. Protein thin film machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fueled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model.

  15. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of strain-relieved epitaxial lead-free KNN-LT-LS ferroelectric thin films on SrTiO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Akdoǧan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2008-05-01

    We report the growth of single-phase (K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.10,Sb0.06)O3 thin films on SrRuO3 coated ⟨001⟩ oriented SrTiO3 substrates by using pulsed laser deposition. Films grown at 600°C under low laser fluence exhibit a ⟨001⟩ textured columnar grained nanostructure, which coalesce with increasing deposition temperature, leading to a uniform fully epitaxial highly stoichiometric film at 750°C. However, films deposited at lower temperatures exhibit compositional fluctuations as verified by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The epitaxial films of 400-600nm thickness have a room temperature relative permittivity of ˜750 and a loss tangent of ˜6% at 1kHz. The room temperature remnant polarization of the films is 4μC /cm2, while the saturation polarization is 7.1μC/cm2 at 24kV/cm and the coercive field is ˜7.3kV/cm. The results indicate that approximately 50% of the bulk permittivity and 20% of bulk spontaneous polarization can be retained in submicron epitaxial KNN-LT-LS thin film, respectively. The conductivity of the films remains to be a challenge as evidenced by the high loss tangent, leakage currents, and broad hysteresis loops.

  16. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  17. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  18. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  19. Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre......-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities...

  20. Structural properties 3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (pentacene) (TIPS-pentacene) thin films onto organic dielectric layer using slide coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnan, Fara Naila; Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Seria, Dzul Fahmi Mohd Husin; Saad, Ismail; Ghosh, Bablu K.; Alias, Afishah

    2015-01-01

    3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (Pentacene) (TIPS-Pentacene) compactable interface property is important in order to have a good arrangement of molecular structure. Comparison for TIPS-Pentacene deposited between two different surface layers conducted. 0.1wt% TIPS-Pentacene diluted in chloroform were deposited onto poly(methylmeaclyrate) (PMMA) layered transparent substrates using slide coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) used to determine crystallinity of thin films. Series of (00l) diffraction peaks obtained with sharp first peaks (001) for TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer at 5.35° and separation of 16.3 Å. Morphology and surface roughness were carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profilemeter LS500, respectively.TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer formed needled-like-shape grains with 10.26 nm surface roughness. These properties were related as thin film formed and its surface roughness plays important role towards good mobility devices

  1. Structural properties 3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (pentacene) (TIPS-pentacene) thin films onto organic dielectric layer using slide coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusnan, Fara Naila; Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Seria, Dzul Fahmi Mohd Husin; Saad, Ismail; Ghosh, Bablu K.; Alias, Afishah [Nano Engineering & Materials (NEMs) Research Group, Faculty of Engineering Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400 Sabah (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (Pentacene) (TIPS-Pentacene) compactable interface property is important in order to have a good arrangement of molecular structure. Comparison for TIPS-Pentacene deposited between two different surface layers conducted. 0.1wt% TIPS-Pentacene diluted in chloroform were deposited onto poly(methylmeaclyrate) (PMMA) layered transparent substrates using slide coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) used to determine crystallinity of thin films. Series of (00l) diffraction peaks obtained with sharp first peaks (001) for TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer at 5.35° and separation of 16.3 Å. Morphology and surface roughness were carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profilemeter LS500, respectively.TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer formed needled-like-shape grains with 10.26 nm surface roughness. These properties were related as thin film formed and its surface roughness plays important role towards good mobility devices.

  2. Review of the fundamentals of thin-film growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Norbert

    2002-06-01

    The properties of a thin film of a given material depend on the film's real structure. The real structure is defined as the link between a thin film's deposition parameters and its properties. To facilitate engineering the properties of a thin film by manipulating its real structure, thin-film formation is reviewed as a process starting with nucleation followed by coalescence and subsequent thickness growth, all stages of which can be influenced by deposition parameters. The focus in this review is on dielectric and metallic films and their optical properties. In contrast to optoelectronics all these film growth possibilities for the engineering of novel optical films with extraordinary properties are just beginning to be used.

  3. Epitaxial oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition: Retrospect and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epitaxial thin films of high c cuprates, metallic, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, dielectric oxides, super conduc tor-metal-superconductor Josephson junctions and oxide superlattices have been made by PLD. In this article, an overview of preparation, characterization and properties of epitaxial oxide films and their applications ...

  4. On the dielectric and optical properties of surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks: A study on epitaxially grown thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Engelbert; Wang, Zhengbang; Walheim, Stefan; Liu, Jinxuan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Wöll, Christof

    2013-08-01

    We determine the optical constants of two highly porous, crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Since it is problematic to determine the optical constants for the standard powder modification of these porous solids, we instead use surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs). These MOF thin films are grown using liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on modified silicon substrates. The produced SURMOF thin films exhibit good optical properties; these porous coatings are smooth as well as crack-free, they do not scatter visible light, and they have a homogenous interference color over the entire sample. Therefore, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) can be used in a straightforward fashion to determine the corresponding SURMOF optical properties. After careful removal of the solvent molecules used in the fabrication process as well as the residual water adsorbed in the voids of this highly porous solid, we determine an optical constant of n = 1.39 at a wavelength of 750 nm for HKUST-1 (stands for Hong Kong University of Science and Technology-1; and was first discovered there) or [Cu3(BTC)2]. After exposing these SURMOF thin films to moisture/EtOH atmosphere, the refractive index (n) increases to n = 1.55-1.6. This dependence of the optical properties on water/EtOH adsorption demonstrates the potential of such SURMOF materials for optical sensing.

  5. Structural-optical study of high-dielectric-constant oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry and INSTM Universita di bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: maria.losurdo@ba.imip.cnr.it; Giangregorio, M.M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry and INSTM Universita di bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Luchena, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry and INSTM Universita di bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Capezzuto, P. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry and INSTM Universita di bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Bruno, G. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry and INSTM Universita di bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Toro, R.G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Catania, and INSTM-UdR Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Malandrino, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Catania, and INSTM-UdR Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Fragala, I.L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Catania, and INSTM-UdR Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Nigro, R. Lo [Istituto di Microelettronica e Microsistemi, IMM-CNR, Stradale Primosole 50, I-95121 Catania (Italy)

    2006-10-31

    High-k polycrystalline Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and amorphous LaAlO{sub 3} oxide thin films deposited on Si(0 0 1) are studied. The microstructure is investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties are determined in the 0.75-6.5 eV photon energy range using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The polycrystalline Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} films have an optical gap of 3.86 eV and a dielectric constant of 16-26, which increases with film thickness. Similarly, very thin amorphous LaAlO{sub 3} films have the optical gap of 5.8 eV, and a dielectric constant below 14 which also increases with film thickness. The lower dielectric constant compared to crystalline material is an intrinsic characteristic of amorphous films.

  6. Modification of temperature dependence of dielectric properties by symmetry-controlled superlattice thin films of BaZrxTi1-xO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Ohno, Takahiro; Doi, Atsuhiro; Tabata, Hitoshi; Kawai, Tomoji; Hino, Takanori

    2006-01-01

    Symmetry-controlled ferroelectric superlattice thin films of BaZr x Ti 1-x O 3 (BZT) were fabricated by a pulse laser deposition (PLD) technique. To reduce the strain effects, we used 5-layer systems of BZT with x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1; we call these A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. We made two types of superlattice film, namely, ABCDE/ABCDE and ABCDE/EDCBA, where the total concentration of Zr was the same. The former exhibits symmetry breaking as in perovskite structures. In contrast, the latter has symmetry introduced by artificial structures. Superlattices show clear satellite peaks in XRD patterns and the structures are also confirmed by electron microscopy images. ABCDE/ABCDE films have larger relative permittivities than the ABCDE/EDCBA films. This property seems to be the symmetry effects in the superlattice structures. Both films have a weak temperature dependence near room temperature by the superlattice effects, which seems to be better for the application of the materials. (author)

  7. Joining Chemical Pressure and Epitaxial Strain to Yield Y-doped BiFeO3 Thin Films with High Dielectric Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarisoreanu, N. D.; Craciun, F.; Birjega, R.; Ion, V.; Teodorescu, V. S.; Ghica, C.; Negrea, R.; Dinescu, M.

    2016-05-01

    BiFeO3 is one of the most promising multiferroic materials but undergoes two major drawbacks: low dielectric susceptibility and high dielectric loss. Here we report high in-plane dielectric permittivity (ε’ ∼2500) and low dielectric loss (tan δ priced target.

  8. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  9. Optical properties of aluminum oxide thin films and colloidal nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koushki, E.; Mousavi, S.H.; Jafari Mohammadi, S.A.; Majles Ara, M.H.; Oliveira, P.W. de

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we prepared thin films of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) with different thicknesses, using a wet chemical process. The Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles with an average size of 40 nm were dispersed in water and deposited on soda glass substrates. The morphology of the resulting thin films was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy. The optical properties of the thin films were studied by measuring reflectance and transmittance. A theoretical description of the reflection and transmission mechanism of the films was developed by measuring the thickness and spectral behavior of the refractive index. Numerical evaluations were used for modeling the optical spectra of the thin films of alumina. By fitting numerical curves to the experimental data, the extinction coefficient and refractive index were obtained. The dielectric constant and optical properties of the colloidal solution of the particles were also studied. - Highlights: • Optical properties of alumina thin films and nanocolloids were investigated. • New theoretical depiction of transmission and reflection from the thin films was evaluated. • Interference in reflection from thin films was studied. • Real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant for alumina nanoparticles were calculated. • Using a novel method, evaluation of optical dispersion and UV–visible absorption were performed.

  10. Optical properties of aluminum oxide thin films and colloidal nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koushki, E., E-mail: ehsan.koushki@yahoo.com [Photonics Laboratory, Physics Faculty, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S.H. [INM—Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Jafari Mohammadi, S.A. [INM—Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majles Ara, M.H. [Photonics Laboratory, Physics Faculty, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Oliveira, P.W. de [INM—Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we prepared thin films of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with different thicknesses, using a wet chemical process. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles with an average size of 40 nm were dispersed in water and deposited on soda glass substrates. The morphology of the resulting thin films was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy. The optical properties of the thin films were studied by measuring reflectance and transmittance. A theoretical description of the reflection and transmission mechanism of the films was developed by measuring the thickness and spectral behavior of the refractive index. Numerical evaluations were used for modeling the optical spectra of the thin films of alumina. By fitting numerical curves to the experimental data, the extinction coefficient and refractive index were obtained. The dielectric constant and optical properties of the colloidal solution of the particles were also studied. - Highlights: • Optical properties of alumina thin films and nanocolloids were investigated. • New theoretical depiction of transmission and reflection from the thin films was evaluated. • Interference in reflection from thin films was studied. • Real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant for alumina nanoparticles were calculated. • Using a novel method, evaluation of optical dispersion and UV–visible absorption were performed.

  11. Understanding the Enhanced Mobility of Solution-Processed Metal-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Having High-k Gate Dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Zeumault, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Primarily used as transparent electrodes in solar-cells, more recently, physical vapor deposited(PVD) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) materials (e.g. ZnO, In2O3 and SnO2)also serve as the active layer in thin-film transistor (TFT) technology for modern liquidcrystaldisplays. Relative to a-Si:H and organic TFTs, commercial TCO TFTs have reducedoff-state leakage and higher on-state currents. Additionally, since they are transparent, theyhave the added potential to enable fully transparent TF...

  12. Ferromagnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kannan M.

    1994-01-01

    A ferromagnetic .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4 .+-.0.05.

  13. Properties of electropolymerised polypyrrole thin film on silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamadade, Shivaji A.; Puri, Vijaya

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the properties of electropolymerised polypyrrole thin film on silver. The transmission, reflection, conductivity and dielectric behavior of polypyrrole coated silver has been studied in the 8-12 GHz frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The polypyrrole thin film makes silver a better conductor for microwaves. The microwave conductivity is larger than the DC conductivity by many orders of magnitude. The real and imaginary part of dielectric constant increases in magnitude with increasing doping level and also it decreases in magnitude with increasing frequency.

  14. Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, Matthew J; Sweatlock, Luke A; Pacifici, Domenico; Lezec, Henri J; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Atwater, Harry A

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate control of the surface plasmon polariton wavevector in an active metal-dielectric plasmonic interferometer by utilizing electrooptic barium titanate as the dielectric layer. Arrays of subwavelength interferometers were fabricated from pairs of parallel slits milled in silver on barium titanate thin films. Plasmon-mediated transmission of incident light through the subwavelength slits is modulated by an external voltage applied across the barium titanate thin film. Transmitted light modulation is ascribed to two effects, electrically induced domain switching and electrooptic modulation of the barium titanate index.

  15. Mechanical stretch influence on lifetime of dielectric elastomer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannarelli, A.; Ghaffarian Niasar, M.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2017-01-01

    Film pre-stretching is a widely adopted solution to improve dielectric strength of the DEA systems. However, to date, long term reliability of this solution has not been investigated. In this work it is explored how the dielectric elastomer lifetime is affected by film pre-stretching. The dielectric

  16. Characterization of organic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham; Evans, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Thin films based upon organic materials are at the heart of much of the revolution in modern technology, from advanced electronics, to optics to sensors to biomedical engineering. This volume in the Materials Characterization series introduces the major common types of analysis used in characterizing of thin films and the various appropriate characterization technologies for each. Materials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films and self-assembled monolayers are first introduced, followed by analysis of surface properties and the various characterization technologies used for such. Readers will find detailed information on: -Various spectroscopic approaches to characterization of organic thin films, including infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy -X-Ray diffraction techniques, High Resolution EELS studies, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -Concise Summaries of major characterization technologies for organic thin films, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Tra...

  17. Enhanced sensitivity to dielectric function and thickness of absorbing thin films by combining total internal reflection ellipsometry with standard ellipsometry and reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizana, A; Foldyna, M; Garcia-Caurel, E; Stchakovsky, M; Georges, B; Nicolas, D

    2013-01-01

    High sensitivity of spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry for the characterization of thin films can strongly decrease when layers, typically metals, absorb a significant fraction of the light. In this paper, we propose a solution to overcome this drawback using total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and exciting a surface longitudinal wave: a plasmon-polariton. As in the attenuated total reflectance technique, TIRE exploits a minimum in the intensity of reflected transversal magnetic (TM) polarized light and enhances the sensitivity of standard methods to thicknesses of absorbing films. Samples under study were stacks of three films, ZnO : Al/Ag/ZnO : Al, deposited on glass substrates. The thickness of the silver layer varied from sample to sample. We performed measurements with a UV–visible phase-modulated ellipsometer, an IR Mueller ellipsometer and a UV–NIR reflectometer. We used the variance–covariance formalism to evaluate the sensitivity of the ellipsometric data to different parameters of the optical model. Results have shown that using TIRE doubled the sensitivity to the silver layer thickness when compared with the standard ellipsometry. Moreover, the thickness of the ZnO : Al layer below the silver layer can be reliably quantified, unlike for the fit of the standard ellipsometry data, which is limited by the absorption of the silver layer. (paper)

  18. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described [fr

  19. Method for fabrication of crack-free ceramic dielectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Beihai; Narayanan, Manoj; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Chao, Sheng; Liu, Shanshan

    2017-12-05

    The invention provides a process for forming crack-free dielectric films on a substrate. The process comprises the application of a dielectric precursor layer of a thickness from about 0.3 .mu.m to about 1.0 .mu.m to a substrate. The deposition is followed by low temperature heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization step for each layer. The deposition, heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization are repeated until the dielectric film forms an overall thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m and providing a final crystallization treatment to form a thick dielectric film. The process provides a thick crack-free dielectric film on a substrate, the dielectric forming a dense thick crack-free dielectric having an overall dielectric thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m.

  20. Low k thin films based on rf plasma-polymerized aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, S; Mathai, C Joseph; Venkatachalam, S; Anantharaman, M R

    2004-01-01

    Thermally stable materials with low dielectric constant (k<3.9) are being hotly pursued. They are essential as interlayer dielectrics/intermetal dielectrics in integrated circuit technology, which reduces parasitic capacitance and decreases the RC time constant. Most of the currently employed materials are based on silicon. Low k films based on organic polymers are supposed to be a viable alternative as they are easily processable and can be synthesized with simpler techniques. It is known that the employment of ac/rf plasma polymerization yields good quality organic thin films, which are homogenous, pinhole free and thermally stable. These polymer thin films are potential candidates for fabricating Schottky devices, storage batteries, LEDs, sensors, super capacitors and for EMI shielding. Recently, great efforts have been made in finding alternative methods to prepare low dielectric constant thin films in place of silicon-based materials. Polyaniline thin films were prepared by employing an rf plasma polymerization technique. Capacitance, dielectric loss, dielectric constant and ac conductivity were evaluated in the frequency range 100 Hz-1 MHz. Capacitance and dielectric loss decrease with increase of frequency and increase with increase of temperature. This type of behaviour was found to be in good agreement with an existing model. The ac conductivity was calculated from the observed dielectric constant and is explained based on the Austin-Mott model for hopping conduction. These films exhibit low dielectric constant values, which are stable over a wide range of frequencies and are probable candidates for low k applications

  1. Thermal conductivities of thin, sputtered optical films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Pawlewicz, W.T.

    1991-05-01

    The normal component of the thin film thermal conductivity has been measured for the first time for several advanced sputtered optical materials. Included are data for single layers of boron nitride (BN), aluminum nitride (AIN), silicon aluminum nitride (Si-Al-N), silicon aluminum oxynitride (Si-Al-O-N), silicon carbide (SiC), and for dielectric-enhanced metal reflectors of the form Al(SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 ) n and Al(Al 2 O 3 /AIN) n . Sputtered films of more conventional materials like SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Ta 2 O 5 , Ti, and Si have also been measured. The data show that thin film thermal conductivities are typically 10 to 100 times lower than conductivities for the same materials in bulk form. Structural disorder in the amorphous or very fine-grained films appears to account for most of the conductivity difference. Conclusive evidence for a film/substrate interface contribution is presented

  2. Characterization of superconducting thin films using mm-wave transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, B.J; Klaassen, F.C.; van der Marel, D.; Barber, Z.; Perez Pinaya, R.; Decroux, M.; Afsar, MN

    1996-01-01

    We present mm-wave transmission as a complementary technique to characterize the properties of superconducting thin films, obtaining information on both the real and imaginary part of the dielectric function. Examples are given to illustrate the strength of the technique to measure the response of

  3. Studies on thin film materials on acrylics for optical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Antireflection coatings made on PMMA substrate using Substance2 (H2) and SiO2 combination showed very fine cracks when observed under microscope. Optical performance of the coatings has been explained with the help of optical micrographs. Keywords. Coatings on acrylics; dielectric thin films; optical coatings; low ...

  4. Optical properties of CeO2 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    increase with increase in thickness. The values of absorp- tion coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index, dielectric constant, phase angle and loss angle were found to be in conformity with previous works. From the X-ray diffraction studies it is found that CeO2 thin film has crys- talline structure and a smaller crystallite ...

  5. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  6. Infrared reflectance measurement for InN thin film characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Kugumiya, Y.; Nakagawa, N.; Yamamoto, A.

    2006-01-01

    Infrared reflectance measurements of a series of InN thin films have been performed and attempt to derive carrier concentration and other physical constants for InN thin film characterization. Fitting calculations are performed by use of the dielectric function equation based on phonon-plasmon coupling model. Longitudinal and transverse optical phonon frequencies, plasma frequency and their damping parameters can be derived from fitting. From those results, electrical and phonon properties of InN and characterization of films are discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Dielectric Characterization of Poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) Block Copolymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Christopher; Durstock, Michael; Vaia, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Polymer films that incorporate nanoscale features have been previously investigated for their suitability as dielectric insulating materials, such as mixtures of high dielectric strength polymers with high permittivity nanoparticles. Block copolymers, due to their highly customizable molecular-scale morphologies, may exhibit useful energy storage properties. Spherical, cylindrical, or lamellar morphologies can all be generated by altering block size ratio. We report the dielectric study of thin, substrate supported poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) linear block copolymer films. Energy storage capabilities will be determined through dielectric strength and permittivity measurements. As both polymer blocks have similar permittivity, field enhancement effects that typically occur in inorganic nanoparticle/polymer composites are limited. Our experiments with block copolymers will more directly test how dielectric breakdown is influenced by interfacial interactions. We thank AFOSR and AFRL for their financial support.

  8. All 2D, high mobility, flexible, transparent thin film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Roelofs, Andreas

    2017-01-17

    A two-dimensional thin film transistor and a method for manufacturing a two-dimensional thin film transistor includes layering a semiconducting channel material on a substrate, providing a first electrode material on top of the semiconducting channel material, patterning a source metal electrode and a drain metal electrode at opposite ends of the semiconducting channel material from the first electrode material, opening a window between the source metal electrode and the drain metal electrode, removing the first electrode material from the window located above the semiconducting channel material providing a gate dielectric above the semiconducting channel material, and providing a top gate above the gate dielectric, the top gate formed from a second electrode material. The semiconducting channel material is made of tungsten diselenide, the first electrode material and the second electrode material are made of graphene, and the gate dielectric is made of hexagonal boron nitride.

  9. Surface properties of SiO2 with and without H2O2 treatment as gate dielectrics for pentacene thin-film transistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Cheng-Chun; Lin, Yow-Jon

    2018-01-01

    The effect of H2O2 treatment on the surface properties of SiO2 is studied. H2O2 treatment leads to the formation of Si(sbnd OH)x at the SiO2 surface that serves to reduce the number of trap states, inducing the shift of the Fermi level toward the conduction band minimum. H2O2 treatment also leads to a noticeable reduction in the value of the SiO2 capacitance per unit area. The effect of SiO2 layers with H2O2 treatment on the behavior of carrier transports for the pentacene/SiO2-based organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) is also studied. Experimental identification confirms that the shift of the threshold voltage towards negative gate-source voltages is due to the reduced number of trap states in SiO2 near the pentacene/SiO2 interface. The existence of a hydrogenated layer between pentacene and SiO2 leads to a change in the pentacene-SiO2 interaction, increasing the value of the carrier mobility.

  10. Finite-size effects and analytical modeling of electrostatic force microscopy applied to dielectric films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomila, G; Gramse, G; Fumagalli, L

    2014-06-27

    A numerical analysis of the polarization force between a sharp conducting probe and a dielectric film of finite lateral dimensions on a metallic substrate is presented with the double objective of (i) determining the conditions under which the film can be approximated by a laterally infinite film and (ii) proposing an analytical model valid in this limit. We show that, for a given dielectric film, the critical diameter above which the film can be modeled as laterally infinite depends not only on the probe geometry, as expected, but mainly on the film thickness. In particular, for films with intermediate to large thicknesses (>100 nm), the critical diameter is nearly independent from the probe geometry and essentially depends on the film thickness and dielectric constant following a relatively simple phenomenological expression. For films that can be considered as laterally infinite, we propose a generalized analytical model valid in the thin-ultrathin limit (<20-50 nm) that reproduces the numerical calculations and the experimental data. Present results provide a general framework under which accurate quantification of electrostatic force microscopy measurements on dielectric films on metallic substrates can be achieved.

  11. Plasma polymerised thin films for flexible electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Mohan V.; Olsen, Natalie S.; Anderson, Liam J.; Bazaka, Kateryna; Shanks, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The significant advancement and growth of organic and flexible electronic applications demand materials with enhanced properties. This paper reports the fabrication of a nonsynthetic polymer thin film using radio frequency plasma polymerisation of 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol. The fabricated optically transparent thin film exhibited refractive index of approximately 1.55 at 500 nm and rate of deposition was estimated to be 40 nm/min. The surface morphology and chemical properties of the thin films were also reported in this paper. The optical band gap of the material is around 2.8 eV. The force of adhesion and Young's modulus of the linalool polymer thin films were measured using force-displacement curves obtained from a scanning probe microscope. The friction coefficient of linalool polymer thin films was measured using the nanoscratch test. The calculated Young's modulus increased linearly with increase in input power while the friction coefficient decreased. - Highlights: • Fabrication of a novel polymer thin film from non-synthetic source • The surface, optical and chemical properties are reported. • The fabricated thin film is transparent and smooth. • An environmentally friendly material • Candidate for flexible electronics as dielectric layer or as an encapsulation layer

  12. Plasma polymerised thin films for flexible electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Mohan V., E-mail: mohan.jacob@jcu.edu.au [Electronic Materials Research Lab, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4811 (Australia); Olsen, Natalie S.; Anderson, Liam J.; Bazaka, Kateryna [Electronic Materials Research Lab, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4811 (Australia); Shanks, Robert A. [Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne 3001 (Australia)

    2013-11-01

    The significant advancement and growth of organic and flexible electronic applications demand materials with enhanced properties. This paper reports the fabrication of a nonsynthetic polymer thin film using radio frequency plasma polymerisation of 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol. The fabricated optically transparent thin film exhibited refractive index of approximately 1.55 at 500 nm and rate of deposition was estimated to be 40 nm/min. The surface morphology and chemical properties of the thin films were also reported in this paper. The optical band gap of the material is around 2.8 eV. The force of adhesion and Young's modulus of the linalool polymer thin films were measured using force-displacement curves obtained from a scanning probe microscope. The friction coefficient of linalool polymer thin films was measured using the nanoscratch test. The calculated Young's modulus increased linearly with increase in input power while the friction coefficient decreased. - Highlights: • Fabrication of a novel polymer thin film from non-synthetic source • The surface, optical and chemical properties are reported. • The fabricated thin film is transparent and smooth. • An environmentally friendly material • Candidate for flexible electronics as dielectric layer or as an encapsulation layer.

  13. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  14. Screening effects in metal sculptured thin films studied with terahertz Mueller matrix ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, T.; Knight, S.; Sekora, D.; Schmidt, D.; Herzinger, C. M.; Woollam, J. A.; Schubert, E.; Schubert, M.

    2017-11-01

    The anisotropic optical dielectric functions of a metal (cobalt) slanted columnar thin film deposited by electron-beam glancing angle deposition are reported for the terahertz (THz) frequency domain before and after the slanted columnar thin film was passivated by a conformal alumina coating. A simple effective medium dielectric function homogenization approach which describes isolated, electrically conductive columns rendering the thin film biaxial (orthorhombic) is used to model the observed optical responses. Upon passivating the slanted columnar thin film with a 3 nm thick alumina film an increase of both the real and the imaginary part of the dielectric function for all major polarizability directions is found and attributed to screening effects within the spatially coherent metal nanocolumns.

  15. Preparation of thin vyns films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Chedin, P.; Gizon, A.

    1965-01-01

    The fabrication of thin films of VYNS resin (copolymer of chloride and vinyl acetate) of superficial density from 3 to 50 μg/cm 2 with solutions in cyclohexanone is presented. Study and discussion of some properties compared with formvar film (polyvinyl formals). It appears that both can be used as source supports but formvar films are prepared more easily and more quickly, in addition they withstand higher temperatures. The main quality of VYNS is that they can be easily separated even several days after their preparation [fr

  16. Laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlome, R.; Strahm, B.; Sinquin, Y.; Feltrin, A.; Ballif, C.

    2009-01-01

    We review laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics (thin-film Si, CdTe, and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells). Lasers are applied in this growing field to manufacture modules, to monitor Si deposition processes, and to characterize opto-electrical properties of thin films. Unlike traditional panels based on crystalline silicon wafers, the individual cells of a thin-film photovoltaic module can be serially interconnected by laser scribing during fabrication. Laser scribing applications are descri...

  17. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  18. study in polymer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    carry out a careful study of steady state conduction of poly- styrene (PS) thin film thermo-electrets sandwiched be- tween metal electrodes both in doped and undoped forms. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Sample preparation. Polystyrene supplied by Polymer Chemical Industry,. Mumbai and naphthalene by S.G. Sisco Pvt Ltd., New ...

  19. Magnetization in permalloy thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1VES College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Sindhi Society, Chembur, Mumbai 400 071,. India. 2UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, R5 Shed, ... gas alone, while PNR measurements on 5 and 10% sample show splitting in the spin-up and spin-down reflectivity. Keywords. Permalloy; NiFe thin films; NiFe ...

  20. Growth and characterization of MMA/SiO2 hybrid low-k thin films for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    of the film. The refractive index of 1⋅31 was measured by ellipsometer for 0⋅5 ml MMA concentration film. These deposited thin films having low refractive index and dielectric constant are widely applicable for the optical interconnects and interlayer applications in integrated optical circuits and VLSI circuits. Keywords.

  1. Extruded Films From Modified Polypropylene Resin: Dielectric and Breakdown Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    antioxidants which would be normally adsorbed on powdered resin surfaces. These species would have become trapped within the PP film during melt extrusion ...AD-A261 382 SResearch and Development Technical Report SLCET-TR-91-29 EXTRUDED FILMS FROM MODIFIED POLYPROPYLENE RESIN: DIELECTRIC AND BREAKDOWN...Auq 91 ’ m u’ . .. . . -. ;M A . .. . .AS EXTRUDED FILMS FROM MODIFIED POLYPROPYLENE RESIN: PE: 61102 DIELECTRIC AND BREAKDOWN STUDIES PR: ILI B

  2. Epitaxial growth of high dielectric constant lead-free relaxor ferroelectric for high-temperature operational film capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaragurubaran, Somu [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044,Japan (Japan); Nagata, Takahiro, E-mail: NAGATA.Takahiro@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044,Japan (Japan); Tsunekawa, Yoshifumi; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Ri, Sung-Gi; Suzuki, Setsu [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044,Japan (Japan); Comet Inc., c/o National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba,Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Chikyow, Toyohiro [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044,Japan (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    An epitaxial thin-film capacitor based on relaxor ferroelectric oxide, BaTiO{sub 3}–Bi(Mg{sub 2/3}Nb{sub 1/3})O{sub 3} (BT–BMN), has been realized on Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. A high dielectric constant exceeding 400 was attained on high-temperature annealed films at frequencies below 100 kHz. BT–BMN thin-film exhibited a broad dielectric constant variation against temperature and also the frequency dependent dielectric-constant-maximum temperature. Excellent dielectric constant stability below 10% was achieved in 75–400 °C temperature range with a low dielectric loss. This exemplifies BT–BMN as a dielectric for monolithically integrated capacitors that can function up to 400 °C, breaking the present 175 °C limit of bulky capacitors, in high-power high-temperature electronic devices. - Highlights: • We optimized epitaxial growth conditions of lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics. • (111) oriented BaTiO{sub 3}–Bi(Mg{sub 2/3}Nb{sub 1/3})O{sub 3} film was grown on Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} substrate epitaxially. • High-temperature annealed films showed high dielectric constant exceeding 400. • Dielectric constant stability below 10% was achieved in 75–400 °C temperature range.

  3. Dimensional scaling of perovskite ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keech, Ryan R.

    Dimensional size reduction has been the cornerstone of the exponential improvement in silicon based logic devices for decades. However, fundamental limits in the device physics were reached ˜2003, halting further reductions in clock speed without significant penalties in power consumption. This has motivated the research into next generation transistors and switching devices to reinstate the scaling laws for clock speed. This dissertation aims to support the scaling of devices that are based on ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity and to provide a roadmap for the corresponding materials performance. First, a scalable growth process to obtain highly {001}-oriented lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PMN-PT) thin films was developed, motivated by the high piezoelectric responses observed in bulk single crystals. It was found that deposition of a 2-3 nm thick PbO buffer layer on {111} Pt thin film bottom electrodes, prior to chemical solution deposition of PMN-PT reduces the driving force for Pb diffusion from the PMN-PT to the bottom electrode, and facilitates nucleation of {001}-oriented perovskite grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that up to 10% of the Pb from a PMN-PT precursor solution may diffuse into the bottom electrode. PMN-PT grains with a mixed {101}/{111} orientation in a matrix of Pb-deficient pyrochlore phase were then promoted near the interface. When this is prevented, phase pure films with {001} orientation with Lotgering factors of 0.98-1.0, can be achieved. The resulting films of only 300 nm in thickness exhibit longitudinal effective d33,f coefficients of ˜90 pm/V and strain values of ˜1% prior to breakdown. 300 nm thick epitaxial and polycrystalline lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (70PMN-30PT) blanket thin films were studied for the relative contributions to property thickness dependence from interfacial and grain boundary low permittivity layers. Epitaxial PMN-PT films were grown on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO3, while

  4. Microstructure of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-07

    resultant film could be varied right up to virtually pure aluminum oxide simply by varying the background oxygen pressure. More recently we have been...aT , m..a, lot,, o ,,f,02,d I4 k -1-1..... autocovariance lengths, less than 0.5 um, indicate that , 514n, ob0 o p’,Ofclllc....,,o,,oy0,1- agua sblrt

  5. Cubic erbium trihydride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.P., E-mail: dpadams@sandia.gov; Rodriguez, M.A.; Romero, J.A.; Kotula, P.G.; Banks, J.

    2012-07-31

    High-purity, erbium hydride thin films have been deposited onto {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and oxidized Si by reactive sputtering methods. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and elastic recoil detection show that films deposited at temperatures of 35, 150 and 275 Degree-Sign C have a composition of 3H:1Er. Erbium trihydride films consist of a face-centered cubic erbium sub-lattice with a lattice parameter in the range of 5.11-5.20 A. The formation of cubic ErH{sub 3} is intriguing, because previous studies demonstrate a single trihydride phase with a hexagonal metal sub-lattice. The formation of a stable, cubic trihydride phase is attributed to a large, in-plane stress resulting from ion beam sputter deposition. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cubic erbium trihydride thin films produced by ion beam sputter deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Face-centered cubic metal sub-lattice verified by X-ray and electron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition evaluated using four different techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Film stress monitored during deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of cubic erbium trihydride attributed to a large, in-plane film stress.

  6. Nanostructured thin films for icephobic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammed, Saleema

    Icing on surfaces such as cables or high voltage insulators often leads to severe safety issues such as power outages in cold winter conditions. Conventional methods used to avoid such icing problems include mechanical deicing where the ice is scraped or broken and chemical deicing where deicers such as ethylene glycol are used. These methods have their own disadvantages of being destructive, expensive and time consuming. A better approach would be to prevent ice from forming in the first place by producing coating materials that are icephobic. Superhydrophobic surfaces, which demonstrate high water-repellency due to the negligible contact area of water with those surfaces, are also expected to minimize the contact area of ice. A low dielectric constant surface is also expected to reduce the adhesion of ice due to the screening of mirror charges, thereby eliminating one of the strongest interaction forces---the electrostatic forces of attraction at the ice-surface interface. In the present research work, both concepts were studied by producing superhydrophobic nanorough low-epsilon dielectric surfaces on aluminum or alumina substrates. Superhydrophobic properties were achieved on surfaces of aluminum or alumina by creating a certain nanoroughness using chemical methods followed by a low surface energy coating of rf-sputtered Teflon or fluoroalkyl-silane (FAS-17) providing a water contact angle greater than 160°. The same behavior is reported even when the nanorough substrates were coated with dielectric thin films of ZnO (lower epsilon) or TiO 2, (higher epsilon). It is found that the superhydrophobic nanorough low surface energy surfaces are also icephobic and the presence of a low dielectric constant surface coating of Teflon (lowest epsilon; epsilon = 2) allows a considerable reduction of the ice adhesion strength even on non-nanotextured surfaces where ice would stick. The superhydrophobic nanorough low-epsilon surfaces also demonstrate morphological and

  7. Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oates, T.W.H.; Wormeester, Herbert; Arwin, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of plasmon resonances at metal–dielectric interfaces of thin films are reviewed. We show how ellipsometry provides valuable non-invasive amplitude and phase information from which one can determine the effective dielectric functions, and how these

  8. Structural and electrical properties of Ta2O5 thin films prepared by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dielectric constant and leakage current density of the Ta2O5 thin films increase with increasing powers of the UV- lamps. Effects of UV- lamp powers on the structural and electrical properties were discussed. Keywords. Chemical vapour deposition processes; oxides; dielectric material; MOS capacitor. 1. Introduction.

  9. Enhancing THz Absorption using Thin-Film Multilayer Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbovic, Dragoslav; Bolakis, Christos; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2010-03-01

    Terahertz imaging has seen significant proliferation in recent years. This band of electromagnetic spectrum has been underutilized for a long time due to the lack of sufficiently powerful sources and sensitive detectors. Because of virtually harmless effects on living tissue, terahertz (THz) radiation is attractive for various applications, ranging from non-invasive medical diagnostics to detection of concealed weapons. Our work focuses on identifying materials, or more specifically a stack of thin-films with increased absorption in the band of interest. In this work, we demonstrate a method that combines finite element modeling, thin-film deposition and experimental characterization to create highly-absorptive multi-layer stacks. Finite element modeling is used to simulate the absorption of a combination of thin dielectric and metallic films. Metals are deposited using e-beam evaporation and dielectric films using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The simulated and measured THz absorption characteristics of the composite thin-film multilayer stacts will be presented.

  10. Printed Thin Film Transistors: Research from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sichao; Sun, Jia; Yang, Junliang

    2018-03-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) have experienced tremendous development during the past decades and show great potential applications in flat displays, sensors, radio frequency identification tags, logic circuit, and so on. The printed TFTs are the key components for rapid development and commercialization of printed electronics. The researchers in China play important roles to accelerate the development and commercialization of printed TFTs. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the research progress of printed TFTs on rigid and flexible substrates from China. The review will focus on printing techniques of TFTs, printed TFTs components including semiconductors, dielectrics and electrodes, as well as fully-printed TFTs and printed flexible TFTs. Furthermore, perspectives on the remaining challenges and future developments are proposed as well.

  11. Optical properties of WO{sub 3} thin films using surface plasmon resonance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com, E-mail: vgupta@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Indigenously assembled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique has been exploited to study the thickness dependent dielectric properties of WO{sub 3} thin films. WO{sub 3} thin films (80 nm to 200 nm) have been deposited onto gold (Au) coated glass prism by sputtering technique. The structural, optical properties and surface morphology of the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometer, Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD analysis shows that all the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films are exhibiting preferred (020) orientation and Raman data indicates that the films possess single phase monoclinic structure. SEM images reveal the variation in grain size with increase in thickness. The SPR reflectance curves of the WO{sub 3}/Au/prism structure were utilized to estimate the dielectric properties of WO{sub 3} thin films at optical frequency (λ = 633 nm). As the thickness of WO{sub 3} thin film increases from 80 nm to 200 nm, the dielectric constant is seen to be decreasing from 5.76 to 3.42, while the dielectric loss reduces from 0.098 to 0.01. The estimated value of refractive index of WO{sub 3} film is in agreement to that obtained from UV-visible spectroscopy studies. The strong dispersion in refractive index is observed with wavelength of incident laser light.

  12. Extraction and dielectric properties of curcuminoid films grown on Si substrate for high-k dielectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakhel, A.A.; Jasim, Khalil E. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Cassidy, S. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 15503 (Bahrain); Henari, F.Z., E-mail: fzhenari@rcsi-mub.com [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 15503 (Bahrain)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • The unknown insulating properties of curcuminoid extract are systematically studied. • Optical study gives a bandgap of 3.15 eV and a refractive index of 1.92 at 505 nm. • Turmeric is a high-k environmental friendly material for use in microelectronics. • Curcuminoid extract can be used as insulator of MIS devices with ε{sup ′}{sub ∞}≈54.2. -- Abstract: Curcuminoids were extracted from turmeric powder and evaporated in vacuum to prepare thin films on p-Si and glass substrates for dielectric and optical investigations. The optical absorption spectrum of the prepared amorphous film was not identical to that of the molecular one, which was identified by a strong wide absorption band in between ∼220 and 540 nm. The onset energy of the optical absorption of the film was calculated by using Hamberg et al. method. The dielectric properties of this material were systematically studied for future eco friendly applications in metal–insulator–semiconductor MIS field of applications. The complex dielectric properties were studied in the frequency range of 1–1000 kHz and was analysed in-terms of dielectric impedance Z{sup *}(ω) and modulus M{sup *}(ω). Generally, the curcuminoid complex can be considered as a high-k material and can be used in the environmental friendly production of microelectronic devices.

  13. Extraction and dielectric properties of curcuminoid films grown on Si substrate for high-k dielectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhel, A.A.; Jasim, Khalil E.; Cassidy, S.; Henari, F.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The unknown insulating properties of curcuminoid extract are systematically studied. • Optical study gives a bandgap of 3.15 eV and a refractive index of 1.92 at 505 nm. • Turmeric is a high-k environmental friendly material for use in microelectronics. • Curcuminoid extract can be used as insulator of MIS devices with ε ′ ∞ ≈54.2. -- Abstract: Curcuminoids were extracted from turmeric powder and evaporated in vacuum to prepare thin films on p-Si and glass substrates for dielectric and optical investigations. The optical absorption spectrum of the prepared amorphous film was not identical to that of the molecular one, which was identified by a strong wide absorption band in between ∼220 and 540 nm. The onset energy of the optical absorption of the film was calculated by using Hamberg et al. method. The dielectric properties of this material were systematically studied for future eco friendly applications in metal–insulator–semiconductor MIS field of applications. The complex dielectric properties were studied in the frequency range of 1–1000 kHz and was analysed in-terms of dielectric impedance Z * (ω) and modulus M * (ω). Generally, the curcuminoid complex can be considered as a high-k material and can be used in the environmental friendly production of microelectronic devices

  14. Optical methods for thickness measurements on thin metal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrowsky, P

    1991-08-01

    The thickness and the dielectric constants of thin metal films on glass substrates are determined by two different methods. The first method is a combination of transmission and ellipsometer measurements (TELL method) and the second is based on attenuated total reflection (ATR method in the Kretschmann arrangement). For comparison, both methods are applied to gold films within a thickness range of 20-80 nm. Furthermore, the TELL method was applied to chromium films of thicknesses up to 150 nm. All experiments are done with a He-Ne laser at 633-nm wavelength.

  15. Stable organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaojia; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Park, Youngrak; Kippelen, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) can be fabricated at moderate temperatures and through cost-effective solution-based processes on a wide range of low-cost flexible and deformable substrates. Although the charge mobility of state-of-the-art OTFTs is superior to that of amorphous silicon and approaches that of amorphous oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs), their operational stability generally remains inferior and a point of concern for their commercial deployment. We report on an exhaustive characterization of OTFTs with an ultrathin bilayer gate dielectric comprising the amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP and an Al2O3:HfO2 nanolaminate. Threshold voltage shifts measured at room temperature over time periods up to 5.9 × 105 s do not vary monotonically and remain below 0.2 V in microcrystalline OTFTs (μc-OTFTs) with field-effect carrier mobility values up to 1.6 cm2 V−1 s−1. Modeling of these shifts as a function of time with a double stretched-exponential (DSE) function suggests that two compensating aging mechanisms are at play and responsible for this high stability. The measured threshold voltage shifts at temperatures up to 75°C represent at least a one-order-of-magnitude improvement in the operational stability over previous reports, bringing OTFT technologies to a performance level comparable to that reported in the scientific literature for other commercial TFTs technologies. PMID:29340301

  16. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  17. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  18. Surface Morphology of Polyimide Thin Film Dip-Coated on Polyester Filament for Dielectric Layer in Fibrous Organic Field Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambausek Lina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of wearable electronics automatically leads to the concept of integrating electronic functions on textile substrates. Since this substrate type implies certain challenges in comparison with their rigid electronic companions, it is of utmost importance to investigate the application of materials for generating the electronic functions on the textile substrate. Only when interaction of materials and textile substrate is fully understood, the electronic function can be generated on the textile without changing the textile’s properties, being flexible or stretchable. This research deals with the optimization of the dielectric layer in a fibrous organic field effect transistor (OFET. A transistor can act as an electrical switch in a circuit. In this work, the polyimide layer was dip-coated on a copper-coated polyester filament. After thoroughly investigating the process conditions, best results with minimal thickness and roughness at full insulation could be achieved at a dip-coating speed of 50 mm/min. The polyimide solution was optimal at 15w% and the choice for the solvent NMP was made. In this paper, details on the pre-treatment methods, choice of solvent and dip-coating speed and their effect on layer morphology and thickness, electrical properties and roughness are reported. Results show that the use of polyimide as a dielectric layer in the architecture of a fibrous OFET is promising. Further research deals with the application of the semiconductor layer within the mentioned architecture, to finally build an OFET on a filament for application in smart textiles.

  19. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.

    2010-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  20. Mechanical stretch influence on lifetime of dielectric elastomer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannarelli, A.; Niasar, M. Ghaffarian

    2017-04-01

    Film pre-stretching is a widely adopted solution to improve dielectric strength of the DEA systems. However, to date, long term reliability of this solution has not been investigated. In this work it is explored how the dielectric elastomer lifetime is affected by film pre-stretching. The dielectric loss of soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films is studied for different stretch ratios by measuring tanδ. Additionally, time-to-breakdown was measured at DC electric stress for different stretch ratios. For this purpose, accelerated life test (ALT) were performed. The results obtained are compared with non-pre-stretched samples. This study suggests that no additional dielectric losses are caused by film stretching up to 80% of original dimensions.

  1. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  2. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Fernández, E.; Svalov, A.; Burgoa Beitia, A.; García-Arribas, A.; Larrañaga, A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti] 3 /Cu/[FeNi/Ti] 3 films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  3. Enhanced performance of Au/P3HT/ (bilayer dielectrics)/Si thin-film-transistor having gold nanoparticles chemically bonded to P3HT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mon-Chi; Yeh, Shin-Chi; Chiu, Li-Ko; Chen, Yen-Heng; Ho, Jeng-Rong; Tsiang, Raymond Chien-Chao

    2012-03-01

    The charge transport enhancement of using poly(3-hexylthiophene) covalently bonded with gold nanoparticles as an active layer in a bottom-gate/top contact, Au/(P3HT)/(bilayer dielectric)/Si OTFT device has been studied. P3HT was synthesized via the modified Grignard metathesis method and functionalized to have a thiol terminal (P3HT(SH)). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with sizes ranging from 2 to 10 nm were then formed via a reduction of HAuCl4 in the presence of P3HT(SH). Compared to the pristine P3HT, the AuNPs-containing P3HT composite materials have a higher energy level of HOMO and a smaller electrochemical bandgap E(g)chem. The smaller bandgap enhances the charge carrier mobility and the higher HOMO energy level indicates a reduced barrier and an increased injection rate for charge carrier at the source contact. Furthermore, the threshold voltage V(T) of AuNPs-containing P3HT samples remain nearly unchanged and their saturation current I(D) and the field-effect mobility are higher. An OTFT device fabricated with a composite sample containing 1.30% AuNPs has a carrier mobility and saturation current nearly two time higher than pristine P3HT.

  4. Spectroscopic Study of Plasma Polymerized a-C:H Films Deposited by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekaraiah, Thejaswini Halethimmanahally; Bogdanowicz, Robert; Rühl, Eckart; Danilov, Vladimir; Meichsner, Jürgen; Thierbach, Steffen; Hippler, Rainer

    2016-07-19

    Plasma polymerized a-C:H thin films have been deposited on Si (100) and aluminum coated glass substrates by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at medium pressure using C₂H m /Ar ( m = 2, 4, 6) gas mixtures. The deposited films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS), Raman spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. FT-IRRAS revealed the presence of sp ³ and sp ² C-H stretching and C-H bending vibrations of bonds in the films. The presence of D and G bands was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Thin films obtained from C₂H₄/Ar and C₂H₆/Ar gas mixtures have I D /I G ratios of 0.45 and 0.3, respectively. The refractive indices were 2.8 and 3.1 for C₂H₄/Ar and C₂H₆/Ar films, respectively, at a photon energy of 2 eV.

  5. Determination of dispersion parameters of thermally deposited CdTe thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimmar, J. M.; Desai, H. N.; Modi, B. P.

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin film was deposited onto glass substrates under a vacuum of 5 × 10-6 torr by using thermal evaporation technique. The prepared film was characterized for dispersion analysis from reflectance spectra within the wavelength range of 300 nm - 1100 nm which was recorded by using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The dispersion parameters (oscillator strength, oscillator wavelength, high frequency dielectric constant, long wavelength refractive index, lattice dielectric constant and plasma resonance frequency) of CdTe thin film were investigated using single sellimeir oscillator model.

  6. Determination of dispersion parameters of thermally deposited CdTe thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhimmar, J. M., E-mail: bharatpmodi@gmail.com; Desai, H. N.; Modi, B. P. [Department of Physics, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-23

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin film was deposited onto glass substrates under a vacuum of 5 × 10{sup −6} torr by using thermal evaporation technique. The prepared film was characterized for dispersion analysis from reflectance spectra within the wavelength range of 300 nm – 1100 nm which was recorded by using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The dispersion parameters (oscillator strength, oscillator wavelength, high frequency dielectric constant, long wavelength refractive index, lattice dielectric constant and plasma resonance frequency) of CdTe thin film were investigated using single sellimeir oscillator model.

  7. Thin-film-based sensitivity enhancement for total internal reflection fluorescence live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyujung; Cho, Eun-Jin; Huh, Yong-Min; Kim, Donghyun

    2007-11-01

    We investigated experimentally the evanescent field enhancement based on dielectric thin films in total internal reflection microscopy. The sample employed two layers of Al2O3 and SiO2 deposited on an SF10 glass substrate. Field intensity enhancement measured by fluorescent excitation of microbeads relative to that of a control sample without dielectric films was polarization dependent, determined as 4.2 and 2.4 for TE and TM polarizations, respectively, and was in good agreement with numerical results. The thin-film-based field enhancement was also applied to live-cell imaging of quantum dots, which confirmed the sensitivity enhancement qualitatively.

  8. Determination of dispersion parameters of thermally deposited CdTe thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhimmar, J. M.; Desai, H. N.; Modi, B. P.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin film was deposited onto glass substrates under a vacuum of 5 × 10 −6 torr by using thermal evaporation technique. The prepared film was characterized for dispersion analysis from reflectance spectra within the wavelength range of 300 nm – 1100 nm which was recorded by using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The dispersion parameters (oscillator strength, oscillator wavelength, high frequency dielectric constant, long wavelength refractive index, lattice dielectric constant and plasma resonance frequency) of CdTe thin film were investigated using single sellimeir oscillator model.

  9. Optimization of generalized dielectric nanostructures for enhanced light trapping in thin-film photovoltaics via boosting the local density of optical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Menon, Rajesh

    2014-01-13

    Recent work has shown that using a high-index cladding atop a lower-index photovoltaic absorber enables absorption of light beyond the ergodic (4n2) limit. In this paper, we propose a generalized optimization method for deriving optimal geometries that allow for such enhancement. Specifically, we adapted the direct-binary-search algorithm to optimize a complex 2-D multi-layer structure with the explicit goal of increasing photocurrent. We show that such an optimization results in enhancing the local density of optical states in an ultra-thin absorber, which forms a slot-waveguide geometry in the presence of a higher-index overcladding. Numerical simulations confirmed optical absorption approaching 100% and absorption-enhancement beyond the ergodic (4n2) limit for specific spectral bands of interest. Our method provides a direct, intuitive and computationally scalable approach for designing light-trapping nanostructures.

  10. A study on the etch characteristics of HfAlO{sub 3} dielectric thin film in Cl{sub 2}/Ar gas chemistry using inductively coupled plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Chang; Ha, Tae-Kyung; Um, Doo-Seung [School of Electrical and Electrics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Juyun; Kang, Yong-Cheol [Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Il, E-mail: cikim@cau.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Electrics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Thin films of HfAlO{sub 3}, a high-k material, were etched using inductively-coupled plasma. The dry etching mechanism of the HfAlO{sub 3} thin film was studied by varying the Cl{sub 2}/Ar gas mixing ratio, RF power, direct current bias voltage, and process pressure. The maximum etch rate of the HfAlO{sub 3} thin film was 16.9 nm/min at a C1{sub 2}/(C1{sub 2} + Ar) ratio of 80%. Our results showed that the highest etch rate of the HfAlO{sub 3} thin films was achieved by reactive ion etching using Cl radicals, due to the high volatility of the metal-chlorides. Consequently, the increased chemical effect caused an increase in the etch rate of the HfAlO{sub 3} thin film. Surface analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed evidence that Hf, Al and O reacted with Cl and formed nonvolatile metal-oxide compounds and volatile metal-chlorides. This effect may be related to the concurrence of chemical and physical pathways in the ion-assisted chemical reaction.

  11. Growth and characterization of MMA/SiO2 hybrid low-k thin films for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have successfully incorporated MMA monomer and eliminated the polymerization step to lower the dielectric constant of deposited thin film. The presence of peak of C=C bond in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and carbon peak in energy dispersive (EDAX) spectra confirms the incorporation of carbon in the film ...

  12. Study of PECVD films containing flourine and carbon and diamond like carbon films for ultra low dielectric constant interlayer dielectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Nandini Ganapathy

    precursors. Pre and post-anneal structural properties of the deposited thin film were studied using laser excitation of 633 nm in a Jobin Yvon Labram high-resolution micro-Raman spectrometer. The film was further characterized using AFM, FTIR, XRD, goniometry and electrical testing. Average film roughness as measured by AFM was less than 1 nm, the k-value was 2.5, and the contact angle with water was 42°. Lastly, layered dielectric films comprising of Diamond like Carbon (DLC) and Amorphous Fluorocarbon (a:C-F) were generated using three different stack configurations and subsequently evaluated. Seven unique process conditions generated promising stacks with k-values between 1.69 and 1.95. Of these, only one film exhibited very low shrinkage rates acceptable for semiconductor device processing. Annealed a:C-F films with DLC top coat are similar in bonding structure to as deposited FC films proving that DLC deposition significantly modified the bonding structure of the underlying annealed a:C-F film. Stacks comprised of a:C-F films with higher oxygen content, deposited using high FRRs exhibited both macro and microbuckling to a larger degree and extent. Film integrity was preserved by annealing the Fluorocarbon component or by providing a DLC base coat.

  13. Tunable pyroelectric properties of barium strontium titanate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, V B; Razumnaya, A G; Yuzyuk, Yu I

    2017-05-10

    We studied the influence of the induced strain and applied electric field on the ground state of ferroelectric Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 thin films, deposited on the cubic (0 0 1) substrate. The dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient on the applied field is calculated for the different values of the induced strain. We found that tuning of the misfit strain in the film under the dielectric bolometer mode by the proper selection of substrate makes it possible to create the structures with very large values of the pyroelectric coefficient.

  14. Schottky contact analysis of photovoltaic chalcopyrite thin film absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, E.; Mertens, V.; Parisi, J.; Reineke-Koch, R.; Koentges, M.

    2007-01-01

    Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements serve to analyze thermally evaporated Al Schottky contacts on Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 based photovoltaic thin film devices, either taken as grown or etched in a bromine-methanol solution. The characteristics of the Schottky contacts on the as-grown films give evidence for some dielectric layer developing between the metal and the semiconductor. Etching the semiconductor surface prior to evaporation of the Al front contact yields a pure metal-semiconductor behavior, including effects that can be attributed to an additional diode at the Mo contact. Simulations confirm the experimental results

  15. Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorner, John

    1999-01-01

    The Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications Topical Meeting provided an interdisciplinary forum for the presentation and discussion of new and previously unpublished results on advanced organic...

  16. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  17. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1992-01-01

    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  18. Progress in thin film techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingarten, W.

    1996-01-01

    Progress since the last Workshop is reported on superconducting accelerating RF cavities coated with thin films. The materials investigated are Nb, Nb 3 Sn, NbN and NbTiN, the techniques applied are diffusion from the vapour phase (Nb 3 Sn, NbN), the bronze process (Nb 3 Sn), and sputter deposition on a copper substrate (Nb, NbTiN). Specially designed cavities for sample evaluation by RF methods have been developed (triaxial cavity). New experimental techniques to assess the RF amplitude dependence of the surface resistance are presented (with emphasis on niobium films sputter deposited on copper). Evidence is increasing that they are caused by magnetic flux penetration into the surface layer. (R.P.)

  19. Minerals deposited as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Leyt, D.V. de; Custo, Graciela

    1987-01-01

    Free matrix effects are due to thin film deposits. Thus, it was decided to investigate this technique as a possibility to use pure oxide of the desired element, extrapolating its concentration from analytical curves made with avoiding, at the same time, mathematical corrections. The proposed method was employed to determine iron and titanium concentrations in geological samples. The range studied was 0.1-5%m/m for titanium and 5-20%m/m for iron. For both elements the reproducibility was about 7% and differences between this method and other chemical determinations were 15% for titanium and 7% for iron. (Author) [es

  20. Low temperature aluminum nitride thin films for sensory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarar, E.; Zamponi, C.; Piorra, A.; Quandt, E., E-mail: eq@tf.uni-kiel.de [Institute for Materials Science, Chair for Inorganic Functional Materials, Kiel University, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Hrkac, V.; Kienle, L. [Institute for Materials Science, Chair for Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    A low-temperature sputter deposition process for the synthesis of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films that is attractive for applications with a limited temperature budget is presented. Influence of the reactive gas concentration, plasma treatment of the nucleation surface and film thickness on the microstructural, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of AlN is investigated. An improved crystal quality with respect to the increased film thickness was observed; where full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the AlN films decreased from 2.88 ± 0.16° down to 1.25 ± 0.07° and the effective longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33,f}) increased from 2.30 ± 0.32 pm/V up to 5.57 ± 0.34 pm/V for film thicknesses in the range of 30 nm to 2 μm. Dielectric loss angle (tan δ) decreased from 0.626% ± 0.005% to 0.025% ± 0.011% for the same thickness range. The average relative permittivity (ε{sub r}) was calculated as 10.4 ± 0.05. An almost constant transversal piezoelectric coefficient (|e{sub 31,f}|) of 1.39 ± 0.01 C/m{sup 2} was measured for samples in the range of 0.5 μm to 2 μm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations performed on thin (100 nm) and thick (1.6 μm) films revealed an (002) oriented AlN nucleation and growth starting directly from the AlN-Pt interface independent of the film thickness and exhibit comparable quality with the state-of-the-art AlN thin films sputtered at much higher substrate temperatures.

  1. Stress effects in ferroelectric perovskite thin-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednik, Ricardo Johann

    The exciting class of ferroelectric materials presents the engineer with an array of unique properties that offer promise in a variety of applications; these applications include infra-red detectors ("night-vision imaging", pyroelectricity), micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS, piezoelectricity), and non-volatile memory (NVM, ferroelectricity). Realizing these modern devices often requires perovskite-based ferroelectric films thinner than 100 nm. Two such technologically important material systems are (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST), for tunable dielectric devices employed in wireless communications, and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), for ferroelectric non-volatile memory (FeRAM). In general, the material behavior is strongly influenced by the mechanical boundary conditions imposed by the substrate and surrounding layers and may vary considerably from the known bulk behavior. A better mechanistic understanding of these effects is essential for harnessing the full potential of ferroelectric thin-films and further optimizing existing devices. Both materials share a common crystal structure and similar properties, but face unique challenges due to the design parameters of these different applications. Tunable devices often require very low dielectric loss as well as large dielectric tunability. Present results show that the dielectric response of BST thin-films can either resemble a dipole-relaxor or follow the accepted empirical Universal Relaxation Law (Curie-von Schweidler), depending on temperature. These behaviors in a single ferroelectric thin-film system are often thought to be mutually exclusive. In state-of-the-art high density FeRAM, the ferroelectric polarization is at least as important as the dielectric response. It was found that these properties are significantly affected by moderate biaxial tensile and compressive stresses which reversibly alter the ferroelastic domain populations of PZT at room temperature. The 90-degree domain wall motion observed by high resolution

  2. Thin liquid films dewetting and polymer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Blossey, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films haven proven to be an invaluable experimental model system.   What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting, warranting a whole book? There are several answers to this. Firstly, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications, and with the increase in the number of technologies available to produce and to study them, this range is likely to expand. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films.   Secondly, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic. Interdisciplinary research is surely not an end to itself, but in this case it leads to a fairly heterogeneous community of theoretical and experimental physicists, engineers, physical chemists, mathematicians and others working on the...

  3. Light trapping in silicon-film solar cells with rear pigmented dielectric reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, Jeffrey E.; Hall, Robert B.; Mauk, Michael G.; Barnett, Allen M. [AstroPower Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the novel method of using pigmented dielectric reflectors to provide light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells. This type of reflecting material offers many potential advantages over specular metallic reflectors, including low cost, compatibility with high temperatures common to solar cell processing, and high, broadband and diffuse reflectance. As this is the first time this concept is described, the basic theory of the optical behavior of pigmented materials is presented by connecting the basic material properties of pigment and medium to their light-trapping benefit in thin silicon solar cells. Several general principles leading to maximum light-trapping benefit are identified, and experimental evidence is presented corroborating these general principles. Light trapping is demonstrated in thin silicon solar cells with pigmented dielectric reflectors by measurement and analysis of external quantum efficiency curves. (Author)

  4. Pulse electrodeposition of Prussian Blue thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafisayar, P.; Bahrololoom, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pulse electrodeposition parameters like peak current density and frequency on the electrochemical properties of Prussian Blue thin films were investigated. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry tests were carried out on Prussian Blue thin films which were pulse electrodeposited on Indium Tin Oxide coated glass substrates. The results showed that increase in the peak current densities and using higher pulsating frequencies during electrodeposition decreases the charge transfer resistance of the thin films while the diffusion coefficient of electroactive species in the films is increased as a consequence of using the same pulsating parameters. In addition, pulse electrodeposition technique does not alter deposition mechanism and morphology of the Prussian Blue thin films. - Highlights: • Prussian Blue thin films were pulse electrodeposited onto the ITO coated glass. • Pulse current condition affected thin films' electrochemical properties. • High pulsating current and frequency lower thin films' charge transfer resistance. • High pulsating current and frequency increase diffusion coefficient in thin films

  5. Synthesis of PVDF/SBT composite thin films by spin coating technology and their ferroelectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Changchun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectric composite thin films of x-SBT/PVDF with different SBT content (weight ratios of SBT to PVDF, x = 0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 % were prepared by spin-coating method. The crystal structures of x-SBT/PVDF films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, respectively. Experimental results demonstrated that both α, β-phases PVDF and the layered perovskite SBT co-existed in the x-SBT/PVDF samples. With an increase of SBT content in the x-SBT/PVDF thin films, both the dielectric constant and the saturated polarization were also increased, compared with those of pure PVDF thin film. More importantly, when the SBT content in the x-SBT/PVDF thin films was larger than 15 %, the coercive field of x-SBT/PVDF thin films was also decreased.

  6. Investigation of multi-layer thin films for energy storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, Timothy Jerome; Monson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    We investigate here the feasibility of increasing the energy density of thin-film capacitors by construction of a multi-layer capacitor device through ablation and redeposition of the capacitor materials using a high-power pulsed ion beam. The deposition experiments were conducted on the RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The dielectric capacitor filler material was a composition of Lead-Lanthanum-Zirconium-Titanium oxide (PLZT). The energy storage can be increased by using material of intrinsically high dielectric constant, and constructing many thin layers of this material. For successful device construction, there are a number of challenging requirements including correct stoichiometric and crystallographic composition of the deposited PLZT. This report details some success in satisfying these requirements, even though the attempt at device manufacture was unsuccessful. The conclusion that 900 C temperatures are necessary to reconstitute the deposited PLZT has implications for future manufacturing capability.

  7. Effects of background oxygen pressure on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of epitaxial (K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.10,Sb0.06)O3 thin films on SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Akdoǧan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2008-11-01

    Oxygen partial pressure (PO_2) in pulsed laser deposition significantly influences the composition, microstructure, and electrical properties of epitaxial misfit strain-relieved 450nm ⟨001⟩ oriented epitaxial (K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.10,Sb0.06)O3 thin films on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO3. Films deposited at 400mTorr exhibit high remnant and saturated polarization of 7.5 and 16.5μC /cm2, respectively, which is ˜100% increase over the ones grown at 100mTorr. The dielectric constant linearly increases from 220 to 450 with increasing PO2. The observed changes in surface morphology of the films and their properties are shown to be due to the suppression of volatile A-site cation loss.

  8. Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Glyn J; Kratzer, Martin; Dubs, Martin; Felzer, Heinz; Mamazza, Robert

    2012-04-10

    New apparatus and a new process for the sputter deposition of modified barium titanate thin-films were developed. Films were deposited at temperatures up to 900 °C from a Ba₀ .96 Ca 0. 04 Ti 0. 82 Zr 0. 18 O₃ (BCZTO) target directly onto Si, Ni and Pt surfaces and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Film texture and crystallinity were found to depend on both deposition temperature and substrate: above 600 °C, the as-deposited films consisted of well-facetted crystallites with the cubic perovskite structure. A strongly textured Pt (111) underlayer enhanced the (001) orientation of BCZTO films deposited at 900 °C, 10 mtorr pressure and 10% oxygen in argon. Similar films deposited onto a Pt (111) textured film at 700 °C and directly onto (100) Si wafers showed relatively larger (011) and diminished intensity (00ℓ) diffraction peaks. Sputter ambients containing oxygen caused the Ni underlayers to oxidize even at 700 °C: Raising the process temperature produced more diffraction peaks of NiO with increased intensities. Thin-film capacitors were fabricated using ~500 nm thick BCZTO dielectrics and both Pt and Ni top and bottom electrodes. Small signal capacitance measurements were carried out to determine capacitance and parallel resistance at low frequencies and from these data, the relative permittivity (e r ) and resistivity (r) of the dielectric films were calculated; values ranged from ~50 to >2,000, and from ~10⁴ to ~10 10 Ω∙cm, respectively.

  9. Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mamazza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New apparatus and a new process for the sputter deposition of modified barium titanate thin-films were developed. Films were deposited at temperatures up to 900 °C from a Ba0.96Ca0.04Ti0.82Zr0.18O3 (BCZTO target directly onto Si, Ni and Pt surfaces and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Film texture and crystallinity were found to depend on both deposition temperature and substrate: above 600 °C, the as-deposited films consisted of well-facetted crystallites with the cubic perovskite structure. A strongly textured Pt (111 underlayer enhanced the (001 orientation of BCZTO films deposited at 900 °C, 10 mtorr pressure and 10% oxygen in argon. Similar films deposited onto a Pt (111 textured film at 700 °C and directly onto (100 Si wafers showed relatively larger (011 and diminished intensity (00ℓ diffraction peaks. Sputter ambients containing oxygen caused the Ni underlayers to oxidize even at 700 °C: Raising the process temperature produced more diffraction peaks of NiO with increased intensities. Thin-film capacitors were fabricated using ~500 nm thick BCZTO dielectrics and both Pt and Ni top and bottom electrodes. Small signal capacitance measurements were carried out to determine capacitance and parallel resistance at low frequencies and from these data, the relative permittivity (er and resistivity (r of the dielectric films were calculated; values ranged from ~50 to >2,000, and from ~104 to ~1010 Ω∙cm, respectively.

  10. Electromechanical stability domain of dielectric elastomer film actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shouhua; Liu, Liwu; Zhang, Zhen; Yu, Kai; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2009-07-01

    The dielectric elastomer film will encounter electrical breaking-down frequently in its working state due to the coupling effect of electric field and mechanical force field. Referring to the electromechanical coupling system stability theory of dielectric elastomer proposed by Suo and Zhao, the electromechanical stability analysis of dielectric elastomer has been investigated. The free energy function of dielectric elastomer can be represented by the principle of superposition based on Suo's theory. Unstable domain of electromechanical coupling system of Neo-Hookean type silicone was analyzed by R. Díaz-Calleja et al. In the current work, the elastic strain energy function with two material constants was used to analyze the stable domain of electromechanical coupling system of Mooney-Rivlin type silicone, and the results seem to support R. Díaz-Calleja's theory. These results provide useful guidelines for the design and fabrication of actuators based on dielectric elastomer.

  11. Excimer Laser Deposition of PLZT Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, GAry

    1991-01-01

    .... In order to integrate these devices into optical systems, the production of high quality thin films with high transparency and perovskite crystal structure is desired. This requires development of deposition technologies to overcome the challenges of depositing and processing PLZT thin films.

  12. Permalloy Thin-film Magnetic Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.; Eijkel, C.J.M.; Fluitman, J.H.J.; de Ridder, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the theory of the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect in ferromagnetic thin films is given, ending in a treatment of the minimalization of the free energy which is the result of the intrinsic and extrinsic anisotropies of the thin-film structure. The anisotropic magnetoresistance

  13. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Structural, electrical and optical characteristics of CdTe thin films prepared by a chemical deposi- tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium acetate was used as cationic and sodium tellurite as anionic precursor in aqueous me-.

  14. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 29; Issue 2. Characterization of nanocrystalline ... Structural, electrical and optical characteristics of CdTe thin films prepared by a chemical deposition method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, ...

  15. Determination of the refractive index and thickness of a thin film embedded in a given stratified medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrier, G; Goudonnet, J P; Vernier, P

    1989-07-15

    A thin film deposited on the plane face of a glass substrate or a thin film embedded in a known stratified medium can be characterized by nondestructive optical measurements: transmittance and reflectance for several angles of incidence with s and p polarization. We present here a graphic method for determining the complex refractive index and thickness for thin film optical characterization. Light entering into the medium through a prism or half-cylinder [attenuated total reflection (ATR)] extends the usable angles. Applications are made to very thin metallic films and dielectric films (SiO(x)).

  16. Laser thermoreflectance for semiconductor thin films metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailly, P.; Hastanin, J.; Duterte, C.; Hernandez, Y.; Lecourt, J.-B.; Kupisiewicz, A.; Martin, P.-E.; Fleury-Frenette, K.

    2012-06-01

    We present a thermoreflectance-based metrology concept applied to compound semiconductor thin films off-line characterization in the solar cells scribing process. The presented thermoreflectance setup has been used to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of thin CdTe films and to measure eventual changes in the thermal properties of 5 μm CdTe films ablated by nano and picosecond laser pulses. The temperature response of the CdTe thin film to the nanosecond heating pulse has been numerically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The computational and experimental results have been compared.

  17. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  18. Organic thin film transistors with indium tin oxide bottom electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang-Wook; Shin, Hee-Sun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Han, Min-Koo; Pang, Hee-Suk; Kim, Ki-Yong; Chung, In-Jae; Pyo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kwan

    2006-01-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) which employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as source and drain electrodes instead of gold are fabricated. A double gate dielectric layer was used, which consists of benzocyclobutane (BCB) and silicon nitride (SiN x ). The pentacene TFT has lateral dimensions 192 μmx6 μm. The OTFT with the ITO bottom electrode shows a saturation mobility of 0.05∼0.09 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and an on-off current ratio of the order of 10 5 in a gate voltage span between 0 and -40 V. The TFT fabrication process steps had the beneficial side effect of changing the ITO surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This change allows pentacene films with larger grains, observed up to 0.5 μm, to be grown on TFT compared to as-deposited ITO film onto which high quality films cannot be grown

  19. Electrolytic Preparation of High Dielectric Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hultquist, A. E; Sibert, M. E

    1966-01-01

    .... Some attention is devoted to zirconates, niobates, and tantalates. In addition to barium compounds, the comparable calcium, magnesium, strontium and potassium double oxides are evaluated by the appropriate electrolytic techniques...

  20. Micromechanics of substrate-supported thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Han, Meidong; Wang, Shibin; Li, Lin-An; Xue, Xiuli

    2017-09-01

    The mechanical properties of metallic thin films deposited on a substrate play a crucial role in the performance of micro/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and flexible electronics. This article reviews ongoing study on the mechanics of substrate-supported thin films, with emphasis on the experimental characterization techniques, such as the rule of mixture and X-ray tensile testing. In particular, the determination of interfacial adhesion energy, film deformation, elastic properties and Bauschinger effect are discussed.

  1. Thin film bioreactors in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers us an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one important variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would enable us to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  2. BDS thin film damage competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  3. Dielectric-ferrite film heterostructures for magnetic field controlled resonance microwave components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavislyak, I.V., E-mail: zav@univ.kiev.ua [Faculty of Radiophysics, Electronics and Computer Systems, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Popov, M.A., E-mail: maxim_popov@univ.kiev.ua [Faculty of Radiophysics, Electronics and Computer Systems, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Solovyova, E.D., E-mail: solovyovak@mail.ru [Department of Solid State Chemistry, V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine); Solopan, S.A., E-mail: solopan@ukr.net [Department of Solid State Chemistry, V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine); Belous, A.G., E-mail: belous@ionc.kiev.ua [Department of Solid State Chemistry, V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thin films of M-type BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BHF) on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate have been produced. • Synthesis conditions of thermally stable film-forming solutions have been studied. • The temperature range for the pre-heat treatment of BHF films has been defined. • The BHF films after rapid heating are characterized by a c-axis magnetic texture. • Obtained BHF films are characterized by a c-axis magnetic texture. • The texture degree of obtained BHF films decreases with increasing film thickness. • Obtained BHF films are promising for application in high-density recording media. - Abstract: An investigation of the composite “α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric resonator-thick ferrite film” heterostructures magnetic field tunable microwave properties has been conducted. Thick high-density high-quality NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and M-type hexaferrite BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} films were deposited on the surface of the dielectric by tape-casting technique. Specific organic suspensions for ferrite films synthesis were developed; optimal conditions for pre-heat treatment and annealing have been defined. It was found, that magnetic field has a profound impact on microwave transmission characteristic of composite resonator, including peak absorption level and unloaded Q-factor. Both effects were attributed to increase of the magnetic part of the composite resonator internal losses at frequencies close to ferromagnetic resonance. Since qualitatively similar results were obtained for both cm-wave (with nickel ferrite) and mm-wave (with barium hexaferrite) resonators, the proposed method of electronic control over dielectric resonator properties can be successfully utilized in a very broad frequency range, basically, from few GHz to more than 100 GHz.

  4. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  5. Properties of RF-Sputtered PZT Thin Films with Ti/Pt Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of annealing temperature and thin film thickness on properties of Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT thin film deposited via radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate was investigated. Average grain sizes of the PZT thin film were measured by atomic force microscope; their preferred orientation was studied through X-ray diffraction analysis. Average residual stress in the thin film was estimated according to the optimized Stoney formula, and impedance spectroscopy characterization was performed via an intelligent LCR measuring instrument. Average grain sizes of PZT thin films were 60 nm~90 nm and their average roughness was less than 2 nm. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, 600°C is the optimal annealing temperature to obtain the PZT thin film with better crystallization. Average residual stress showed that thermal mismatch was the decisive factor of residual stress in Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate; the residual stress in PZT thin film decreased as their thickness increased and increased with annealing temperature. The dielectric constant and loss angle tangent were extremely increased with the thickness of PZT thin films. The capacitance of the device can be adjusted according to the thickness of PZT thin films.

  6. Device and method for luminescence enhancement by resonant energy transfer from an absorptive thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselrod, Gleb M.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Tischler, Jonathan R.; Tisdale, William A.; Walker, Brian J.

    2017-12-12

    Disclosed are a device and a method for the design and fabrication of the device for enhancing the brightness of luminescent molecules, nanostructures, and thin films. The device includes a mirror, a dielectric medium or spacer, an absorptive layer, and a luminescent layer. The absorptive layer is a continuous thin film of a strongly absorbing organic or inorganic material. The luminescent layer may be a continuous luminescent thin film or an arrangement of isolated luminescent species, e.g., organic or metal-organic dye molecules, semiconductor quantum dots, or other semiconductor nanostructures, supported on top of the absorptive layer.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of thin films and inhomogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivola, Yvete Aubrey

    In this work, processing-structure-property relationships of thin (˜1 mum) films are developed for materials with applications in microelectronics, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), or magnetic data storage through experimental studies to optimize material properties and improve device performance and reliability. Variations in film microstructure were achieved through changes in deposition conditions, curing conditions, or through direct changes in material density or composition. Changes in material properties as a result of these (chemical, structural, or physical) modifications are quantified through experimental measurements. Changes in mechanical behavior are quantified through ("nano"-scale) instrumented depth-sensing indentation (DSI) experiments. Changes in material structure and composition are quantified by infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, ion beam analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Structure-properties relationships are developed for organosilicate-based dielectric materials for microelectronic interconnection arrays with a focus on maximizing film modulus and hardness while minimizing dielectric constant. Relationships between film properties and film structure with changes in deposition conditions are developed for low-pressure chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride films used in MEMS and microelectronics. Specifically, changes in film composition as a result of deposition conditions are related to changes in film stress. DSI is used to measure the contact responses of silica foam films and flexible magnetic data storage tape for which the microstructural inhomogeneities are comparable to the scale of the indentations. Images of residual indentation impressions are used to determine deformation mechanisms, and contact responses are interpreted by a new method. Differences in the deformation of magnetic data storage tape are quantified using DSI through previously developed deconvolution models and also

  8. Planar integrated optical methods for examining thin films and their surface adlayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, T E; Saavedra, S S; Reichert, W M

    1998-03-01

    Thin film integrated optical waveguides (IOWs) have gained acceptance as a method for characterizing ultrathin dielectrical films and adlayers bound to the film surface. Here, we present the expressions that govern IOW methods as well as describe the common experimental configurations used in attenuated total reflection, fluorescence and Raman applications. The applications of these techniques to the study of adsorbed or surface-bound proteins to polymer and glass waveguides are reviewed.

  9. Polycrystalline Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on r-plane sapphire: Effect of film thickness on strain and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin, E. A.; Holland, A. S.; Ghorbani, K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Simon, W. K.; Safari, A.; Wang, J. Y.

    2006-10-01

    Polycrystalline Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) films grown on r-plane sapphire exhibit strong variation of in-plane strain over the thickness range of 25-400nm. At a critical thickness of ˜200nm, the films are strain relieved; in thinner films, the strain is tensile, while compressive strain was observed in the 400nm film. Microwave properties of the films were measured from 1to20GHz by the interdigital capacitor method. A capacitance tunability of 64% was observed in the 200nm film, while thinner films showed improved Q factor. These results demonstrate the possibility of incorporating frequency agile BST-based devices into the silicon on sapphire process.

  10. Study on Structural and Dielectric Properties of Ultra-Low-Fire Integratable Dielectric Film for High-Frequency and Microwave Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Sheng; Zhang, Jihua; Wu, Kaituo; Wang, Lei; Chen, Hongwei

    2018-03-01

    In this study, ultra-low-fire ceramic composites of Zn2Te3O8-30 wt.%TiTe3O8 (ZTT) were prepared by a solid-state reaction method. Densified at 600°C, the best microwave dielectric properties at 8.5 GHz were measured with the ɛ r , tan δ, Q × f, and τ f as 25.6, 1.5 × 10-4, 56191 GHz and 1.66 ppm/°C, respectively. Thin films of ultra-low-fire ZTT were prepared by a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method. ZTT films which deposited on Au/NiCr/SiO2/Si (100) substrates at 200°C showed good adhesion. From ultra-low-fire ceramic to ultra-low-fire ZTT thin films, the latter maintained all the good high-frequency dielectric properties of the former: high dielectric constant ( ɛ r ˜ 25) and low dissipation factor (tan δ < 5×10-3), low leakage current density (˜ 10-9 A/cm2) and ultra low processing temperature. These excellent properties of the ultra-low-fire ZTT thin film make it possible to be integrated in MMIC and be applied in the research of GaN and GaAs MOSFET devices.

  11. Plasmonic modes in thin films: quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio ePolitano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we discuss the status and the prospect of plasmonic modes in thin films. Plasmons are collective longitudinal modes of charge fluctuation in metal samples excited by an external electric field. Surface plasmons (SPs are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor with applications in magneto-optic data storage, optics, microscopy, and catalysis. In thin films the electronic response is influenced by electron quantum confinement. Confined electrons modify the dynamical screening processes at the film/substrate interface by introducing novel properties with potential applications and, moreover, they affect both the dispersion relation of SP frequency and the damping processes of the SP.Recent calculations indicate the emergence of acoustic surface plasmons (ASP in Ag thin films exhibiting quantum well states and in graphene films. The slope of the dispersion of ASP decreases with film thickness. We also discuss open issues in research on plasmonic modes in graphene/metal interfaes.

  12. Carbon nanotube network thin-film transistors on flexible/stretchable substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2016-03-29

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for flexible thin-film transistors. In one aspect, a device includes a polymer substrate, a gate electrode disposed on the polymer substrate, a dielectric layer disposed on the gate electrode and on exposed portions of the polymer substrate, a carbon nanotube network disposed on the dielectric layer, and a source electrode and a drain electrode disposed on the carbon nanotube network.

  13. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c...... or less; and e. repeating steps b. and c. a total of N times, such that N repeating pairs of layers (A/B) are built up, wherein N is 1 or more. The invention also provides a thin film multi-layered heterostructure as such, and the combination of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure and a substrate...

  14. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling

  15. Study of zinc oxide thin film characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Johari Shazlina; Muhammad Nazalea Yazmin; Zakaria Mohd Rosydi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of ZnO thin films with the thickness of 8nm, 30nm, and 200nm. The thin films were prepared using sol-gel method and has been deposited onto different substrate of silicon wafer, glass and quartz. The thin films were annealed at 400, 500 and 600°C. By using UV-Vis, the optical transmittance measurement were recorded by using a single beam spectrophotometer in the wavelength 250nm to 800nm. However, the transmittance in the visible range is hardly influe...

  16. Refractive index dispersion of swift heavy ion irradiated BFO thin films using Surface Plasmon Resonance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliwal, Ayushi [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Sharma, Savita [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Tomar, Monika [Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110075 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Investigated the optical properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin films after irradiation using SPR. • Otto configuration has been used to excite the surface plasmons using gold metal thin film. • BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique. • Examined the refractive index dispersion of pristine and irradiated BFO thin film. - Abstract: Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) is an effective technique to induce defects for possible modifications in the material properties. There is growing interest in studying the optical properties of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin films for optoelectronic applications. In the present work, BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and were irradiated using the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator with 100 MeV Au{sup 9+} ions at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2}. The as-grown films became rough and porous on ion irradiation. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique has been identified as a highly sensitive and powerful technique for studying the optical properties of a dielectric material. Optical properties of BFO thin films, before and after irradiation were studied using SPR technique in Otto configuration. Refractive index is found to be decreasing from 2.27 to 2.14 on ion irradiation at a wavelength of 633 nm. Refractive index dispersion of BFO thin film (from 405 nm to 633 nm) before and after ion radiation was examined.

  17. Nanoscale phenomena in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, Chandan S.

    Ferroelectric materials are a subject of intense research as potential candidates for applications in non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAM), piezoelectric actuators, infrared detectors, optical switches and as high dielectric constant materials for dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). With current trends in miniaturization, it becomes important that the fundamental aspects of scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties in these devices be studied thoroughly and their impact on the device reliability assessed. In keeping with this spirit of miniaturization, the dissertation has two broad themes: (a) Scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties and (b) The key reliability issue of retention loss. The thesis begins with a look at results on scaling studies of focused-ion-beam milled submicron ferroelectric capacitors using a variety of scanning probe characterization tools. The technique of piezoresponse microscopy, which is rapidly becoming an accepted form of domain imaging in ferroelectrics, has been used in this work for another very important application: providing reliable, repeatable and quantitative numbers for the electromechanical properties of submicron structures milled in ferroelectric films. This marriage of FIB and SPM based characterization of electromechanical and electrical properties has proven unbeatable in the last few years to characterize nanostructures qualitatively and quantitatively. The second half of this dissertation focuses on polarization relaxation in FeRAMs. In an attempt to understand the nanoscale origins of back-switching of ferroelectric domains, the time dependent relaxation of remnant polarization in epitaxial lead zirconate titanate (PbZr0.2Ti0.8O 3, PZT) ferroelectric thin films (used as a model system), containing a uniform 2-dimensional grid of 90° domains (c-axis in the plane of the film) has been examined using voltage modulated scanning force microscopy. A novel approach of

  18. Molecular tailoring of interfaces for thin film on substrate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Martha Elizabeth

    Thin film on substrate systems appear most prevalently within the microelectronics industry, which demands that devices operate in smaller and smaller packages with greater reliability. The reliability of these multilayer film systems is strongly influenced by the adhesion of each of the bimaterial interfaces. During use, microelectronic components undergo thermo-mechanical cycling, which induces interfacial delaminations leading to failure of the overall device. The ability to tailor interfacial properties at the molecular level provides a mechanism to improve thin film adhesion, reliability and performance. This dissertation presents the investigation of molecular level control of interface properties in three thin film-substrate systems: photodefinable polyimide films on passivated silicon substrates, self-assembled monolayers at the interface of Au films and dielectric substrates, and mechanochemically active materials on rigid substrates. For all three materials systems, the effect of interfacial modifications on adhesion is assessed using a laser-spallation technique. Laser-induced stress waves are chosen because they dynamically load the thin film interface in a precise, noncontacting manner at high strain rates and are suitable for both weak and strong interfaces. Photodefinable polyimide films are used as dielectrics in flip chip integrated circuit packages to reduce the stress between silicon passivation layers and mold compound. The influence of processing parameters on adhesion is examined for photodefinable polyimide films on silicon (Si) substrates with three different passivation layers: silicon nitride (SiNx), silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy), and the native silicon oxide (SiO2). Interfacial strength increases when films are processed with an exposure step as well as a longer cure cycle. Additionally, the interfacial fracture energy is assessed using a dynamic delamination protocol. The high toughness of this interface (ca. 100 J/m2) makes it difficult

  19. Crystal Structure and Dielectric Property of Bismuth Layer-Structured Dielectric Films with c-Axis Preferential Crystal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Yuki; Kiguchi, Takanori; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2010-09-01

    Thin films of bismuth layer-structured dielectrics (BLSDs), CaBi4Ti4O15, and SrBi4Ti4O15, were prepared by a chemical solution deposition (CSD) technique on various substrates, such as (111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si, (100)LaNiO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si, and (100)SrRuO3∥(100)SrTiO3 substrates. Conductive perovskite oxide LaNiO3 with (100) preferential crystal orientation was introduced into the interface between the BLSD film and the (111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si substrate to control the crystal orientation of BLSD by lattice matching between pseudo-perovskite blocks in the BLSD crystal and the (100)LaNiO3 plane with the perovskite structure. The (00l) planes of BLSD crystals were preferentially oriented on the substrate surface of the (100)LaNiO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si, whereas randomly-oriented BLSD crystals with lower crystallinity were only obtained on the surface of (111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si substrate. The (001)-oriented BLSD films exhibited the leakage current densities below 10-7 A/cm2 at ±50 kV/cm, which is significantly lower than those for randomly-oriented films, above 10-6 A/cm2, The room-temperature dielectric constants (ɛr) of CaBi4Ti4O15 and SrBi4Ti4O15 thin films on the (100)LaNiO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si substrate were both approximately 250, while those on the (100)SrRuO3∥(100)SrTiO3 substrate were approximately 220. The temperature dependence of the capacitances for the CaBi4Ti4O15 and SrBi4Ti4O15 films on the (100)LaNiO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si substrate were approximately +17 and +10%, respectively, in the temperature range from 25 to 400 °C. These values were slightly larger than those of epitaxial BLSD films, but smaller than those of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films.

  20. High density nonmagnetic cobalt in thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, Nasrin; Singh, Surendra; Basu, Saibal; Roy, Anupam; Movva, Hema C. P.; Dev, B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Recently high density (HD) nonmagnetic (NM) cobalt has been discovered in a cobalt thin film, grown on Si(111). This cobalt film had a natural cobalt oxide at the top. The oxide layer forms when the film is taken out of the electron-beam deposition chamber and exposed to air. Thin HD NM cobalt layers were found near the cobalt/silicon and the cobalt-oxide/cobalt interfaces, while the thicker mid-depth region of the film was hcp cobalt with normal density and normal magnetic moment. If an ultr...

  1. Multifunctional Parylene-C Microfibrous Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash

    Towards sustainable development, multifunctional products have many advantageous over single-function products: reduction in number of parts, raw material, assembly time, and cost involved in a product's life cycle. My goal for this thesis was to demonstrate the multifunctionalities of Parylene-C microfibrous thin films. To achieve this goal, I chose Parylene C, a polymer, because the fabrication of periodic mediums of Parylene C in the form of microfibrous thin films (muFTFs) was already established. A muFTFs is a parallel arrangement of identical micrometer-sized fibers of shapes cylindrical, chevronic, or helical. Furthermore, Parylene C had three existing functions: in medical-device industries as corrosion-resistive coatings, in electronic industries as electrically insulating coatings, and in biomedical research for tissue-culture substrates. As the functionalities of a material are dependent on the microstructure and physical properties, the investigation made for this thesis was two-fold: (1) Experimentally, I determined the wetting, mechanical, and dielectric properties of columnar muFTFs and examined the microstructural and molecular differences between bulk films and muFTFs. (2) Using physical properties of bulk film, I computationally determined the elastodynamic and determined the electromagnetic filtering capabilities of Parylene-C muFTFs. Several columnar muFTFs of Parylene C were fabricated by varying the monomer deposition angle. Following are the significant experimental findings: 1. Molecular and microstructural characteristics: The dependence of the microfiber inclination angle on the monomer deposition angle was classified into four regimes of two different types. X-ray diffraction experiments indicated that the columnar muFTFs contain three crystal planes not evident in bulk Parylene-C films and that the columnar muFTFs are less crystalline than bulk films. Infrared absorbance spectra revealed that the atomic bonding is the same in all

  2. Performance Characterization of Monolithic Thin Film Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rong

    Thin film resistors have a large resistance range and stable performance under high temperature operating condition. Thin film resistors trimmed by laser beam are able to achieve very high precision on resistance value. As a result, thin film resistors have been widely used to improve the performance of integrated circuits such as operational amplifier, analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital -to-analog (D/A) converters, etc. In this dissertation, a new class of thin film resistors, silicon chrome (SiCr) thin film resistors, has been investigated at length. From thin film characterization to aging behavior modelling, we have carried out a series of engineering activities. The characteristics of the SiCr thin film incorporated into three bipolar processes were first determined. After laser trimming, we have measured a couple of physical parameters of the SiCr film in the heat affected zone (HAZ). This is the first time the sheet resistance and the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of thin film in the HAZ have been characterized. Both thermal and d.c. load accelerated aging tests were performed. The test structures were subjected to the aging for 1000 hours. Based on the test data, we not only evaluated the classical thermal aging model for untrimmed thin film resistors, but also established several empirical thermal aging models for trimmed resistors and d.c. load aging models for both trimmed and untrimmed thin film resistors. All the experiments were carried out for both conventional bar resistors and our new Swiss Cheese (SC) resistors. For the first time, the performance of laser trimmed SC resistors, which was experimentally evaluated, shown a clear superiority over that of trimmed bar resistors. Besides these experiments, we have examined different die attach techniques and their effects on thin film resistors. Also, we have developed a number of hardware systems and software tools, such as a temperature controller, d.c. current source, temperature

  3. Thermal conductivity model for nanoporous thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Congliang; Zhao, Xinpeng; Regner, Keith; Yang, Ronggui

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films have attracted great interest because of their extremely low thermal conductivity and potential applications in thin thermal insulators and thermoelectrics. Although there are some numerical and experimental studies about the thermal conductivity of nanoporous thin films, a simplified model is still needed to provide a straightforward prediction. In this paper, by including the phonon scattering lifetimes due to film thickness boundary scattering, nanopore scattering and the frequency-dependent intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering, a fitting-parameter-free model based on the kinetic theory of phonon transport is developed to predict both the in-plane and the cross-plane thermal conductivities of nanoporous thin films. With input parameters such as the lattice constants, thermal conductivity, and the group velocity of acoustic phonons of bulk silicon, our model shows a good agreement with available experimental and numerical results of nanoporous silicon thin films. It illustrates that the size effect of film thickness boundary scattering not only depends on the film thickness but also on the size of nanopores, and a larger nanopore leads to a stronger size effect of the film thickness. Our model also reveals that there are different optimal structures for getting the lowest in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities.

  4. Casimir free energy of dielectric films: classical limit, low-temperature behavior and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M

    2017-07-12

    The Casimir free energy of dielectric films, both free-standing in vacuum and deposited on metallic or dielectric plates, is investigated. It is shown that the values of the free energy depend considerably on whether the calculation approach used neglects or takes into account the dc conductivity of film material. We demonstrate that there are material-dependent and universal classical limits in the former and latter cases, respectively. The analytic behavior of the Casimir free energy and entropy for a free-standing dielectric film at low temperature is found. According to our results, the Casimir entropy goes to zero when the temperature vanishes if the calculation approach with neglected dc conductivity of a film is employed. If the dc conductivity is taken into account, the Casimir entropy takes the positive value at zero temperature, depending on the parameters of a film, i.e. the Nernst heat theorem is violated. By considering the Casimir free energy of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 films deposited on a Au plate in the framework of two calculation approaches, we argue that physically correct values are obtained by disregarding the role of dc conductivity. A comparison with the well known results for the configuration of two parallel plates is made. Finally, we compute the Casimir free energy of SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and Ge films deposited on high-resistivity Si plates of different thicknesses and demonstrate that it can be positive, negative and equal to zero. The effect of illumination of a Si plate with laser light is considered. Possible applications of the obtained results to thin films used in microelectronics are discussed.

  5. Thin film production method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Moravsky, Alexander P.; Hassen, Charles N.

    2010-08-10

    A method for forming a thin film material which comprises depositing solid particles from a flowing suspension or aerosol onto a filter and next adhering the solid particles to a second substrate using an adhesive.

  6. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  7. Recent developments in reactively sputtered optical thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlewicz, W.T.; Martin, P.M.; Hays, D.D.; Mann, I.B.

    1981-12-01

    Highlights of a multiyear effort to develop new or improved thin film optical coating materials through the use of reactive sputtering techniques are presented. Reactive sputtering is shown to be an extremely versatile technique capable of synthesizing broad classes of materials in a straightfoward manner. The exceptional utility of sputtering for preparation of hard coatings such as oxides, nitrides and novel materials based on Si and Ge is described. Some of these coating materials cannot be made by conventional evaporative techniques. Reactive sputtering is shown to allow precise control of coating composition, microstructure and the resulting optical properties. Examples of multilayer coatings such as all-dielectric and dielectric-enhanced mirrors made from reactively sputtered materials are included, and simple yet elegant fabrication techniques are introduced. The reactive sputtering technique and equipment used specifically for optical coatings are briefly described, and comparison is made with the conventional evaporative approach.

  8. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au)

  9. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  10. Surface, interface and thin film characterization of nano-materials using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2005-01-01

    From the results of studies in the nanotechnology support project of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, several investigations on the surface, interface and thin film characterization of nano-materials are described; (1) the MgB 2 thin film by X-ray diffraction, (2) the magnetism of the Pt thin film on a Co film by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurement, (3) the structure and physical properties of oxygen molecules absorbed in a micro hole of the cheleted polymer crystal by the direct observation in X-ray powder diffraction, and (4) the thin film gate insulator with a large dielectric constant, thermally treated HfO 2 /SiO 2 /Si, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (M.H.)

  11. Quantum effects on propagation of bulk and surface waves in a thin quantum plasma film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-19

    The propagation of bulk and surface plasma waves in a thin quantum plasma film is investigated, taking into account the quantum effects. The generalized bulk and surface plasma dispersion relation due to quantum effects is derived, using the quantum hydrodynamic dielectric function and applying appropriate additional boundary conditions. The quantum mechanical and film geometric effects on the bulk and surface modes are discussed. It is found that quantum effects become important for a thin film of small thickness. - Highlights: • New bulk and surface plasma dispersion relations due to quantum effects are derived, in a thin quantum plasma film. • It is found that quantum effects become important for a thin quantum film of small thickness.

  12. Fully Integrated Applications of Thin Films on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose Wolf; Ken Peterson; Matt O' Keefe; Wayne Huebner; Bill Kuhn

    2012-04-19

    Thin film multilayers have previously been introduced on multilayer low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC), as well as initial thin film capacitors on LTCC. The ruggedness of a multipurpose Ti-Cu-Pt-Au stack for connectivity and RF conductivity has continued to benefit fabrication and reliability in state of-the-art modules, while the capacitors have followed the traditional Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) style. The full integration of thin film passives with thin film connectivity traces is presented. Certain passives, such as capacitors, require specifically tailored and separately patterned thin film (multi-)layers, including a dielectric. Different capacitance values are achieved by variation of both the insulator layer thickness and the active area of the capacitor. Other passives, such as filters, require only the conductor - a single thin film multilayer. This can be patterned from the same connectivity thin film material (Ti-Cu-Pt-Au), or a specially tailored thin film material (e.g. Ti-Cu-Au) can be deposited. Both versions are described, including process and integration details. Examples are discussed, ranging from patterning for maximum tolerances, to space and performance-optimized designs. Cross-sectional issues associated with integration are also highlighted in the discussion.

  13. Laser processing for thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.

    1995-04-01

    Over the past decade major advances have occurred in the field of thin- film photovoltaics (PV) with many of them a direct consequence of the application of laser processing. Improved cell efficiencies have been achieved in crystalline and polycrystalline Si, in hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and in two polycrystalline thin-film materials. The use of lasers in photovoltaics includes laser hole drilling for emitter wrap-through, laser trenching for buried bus lines, and laser texturing of crystalline and polycrystalline Si cells. In thin-film devices, laser scribing is gaining increased importance for module interconnects. Pulsed laser recrystallization of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon is used to form highly conductive p-layers in p-i-n amorphous silicon cells and in thin-film transistors. Optical beam melting appears to be an attractive method for forming metal semiconductor alloys for contact formation. Finally, pulsed lasers are used for deposition of the entire semiconductor absorber layer in two types of polycrystalline thin-film cells-those based on copper indium diselenide and those based on cadmium telluride. In our lab we have prepared and studied heavily doped polycrystalline silicon thin films and also have used laser physical vapor deposition (LPVD) to prepare 'all-LPVD' CdS/CdTe solar cells on glass with efficiencies tested at NREL at 10.5%. LPVD is highly flexible and ideally suited for prototyping PV cells using ternary or quaternary alloys and for exploring new dopant combinations.

  14. Laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlome, R.; Strahm, B.; Sinquin, Y.; Feltrin, A.; Ballif, C.

    2010-08-01

    We review laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics (thin-film Si, CdTe, and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells). Lasers are applied in this growing field to manufacture modules, to monitor Si deposition processes, and to characterize opto-electrical properties of thin films. Unlike traditional panels based on crystalline silicon wafers, the individual cells of a thin-film photovoltaic module can be serially interconnected by laser scribing during fabrication. Laser scribing applications are described in detail, while other laser-based fabrication processes, such as laser-induced crystallization and pulsed laser deposition, are briefly reviewed. Lasers are also integrated into various diagnostic tools to analyze the composition of chemical vapors during deposition of Si thin films. Silane (SiH4), silane radicals (SiH3, SiH2, SiH, Si), and Si nanoparticles have all been monitored inside chemical vapor deposition systems. Finally, we review various thin-film characterization methods, in which lasers are implemented.

  15. Future directions of positron annihilation spectroscopy in low-k dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidley, D.W.; Vallery, R.S.; Liu, M.; Peng, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Positronium Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) has become recognized in the microelectronics industry as one of only several methods capable of quantitatively characterizing engineered nanopores in next-generation (k < 2.2) interlayer dielectric (ILD) thin films. Successes and shortcomings of PALS to date will be assessed and compared with other methods of porosimetry such as ellipsometric and X-ray porosimetries (EP and XRP). A major theme in future low-k research focuses on the ability to integrate porous ILD's into chip fabrication; the vulnerability of porous dielectrics to etching, ashing, and chemical-mechanical polishing in process integration is delaying the introduction of ultra-low-k films. As device size approaches 45 nm the need to probe very small (sub-nanometer), semi-isolated pores beneath thin diffusion barriers is even more challenging. Depth-profiled PALS with its ability to determine a quantitative pore interconnection length and easily resolve 0.3 nm pores beneath diffusion barriers or in trench-patterned dielectrics should have a bright future in porous ILD research. The ability of PALS (and PAS in general) to deduce evolution and growth of pores with porosity should find broad applicability in the emerging field of high performance materials with strategically engineered nanopores. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Super miniaturization of film capacitor dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavene, B.

    1981-01-01

    The alignment of the stable electrical characteristics of film capacitors in the physical dimensions of ceramic and tantalum capacitors are discussed. The reliability of polycarbonate and mylar capacitors are described with respect to their compatibility with military specifications. Graphic illustrations are presented which show electrical and physical comparisons of film, ceramic, and tantalum capacitors. The major focus is on volumetric efficiency, weight reduction, and electrical stability.

  17. Growth and characterization of MMA/SiO2 hybrid low-k thin films for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The methylmethacrylate (MMA) incorporated SiO2 thin films having low dielectric constant. (k = 2⋅97) were deposited successfully to realize new interlayer material for the enhancement of electrical per- formance of on-chip wiring in very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. We have successfully incorporated.

  18. Growth and characterization of MMA/SiO2 hybrid low-k thin films for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The methylmethacrylate (MMA) incorporated SiO2 thin films having low dielectric constant ( = 2.97) were deposited successfully to realize new interlayer material for the enhancement of electrical performance of on-chip wiring in very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. We have successfully incorporated MMA monomer ...

  19. Thin film barium strontium titanate capacitors for tunable RF front-end applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of intensive electrical characterization, modeling and the design of hardware with thin film tunable capacitors, i.e., dielectric varactors, has been presented and discussed. Especially the quality factor Q and the tuning ratio of the tunable capacitors have been studied,

  20. Structural and electrical properties of Ta2O5 thin films prepared by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O5 thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic forcemicroscopy (AFM). The dielectric constant, leakage current density and breakdown electric field of the samples were studied by the capacitance–voltage (C–V) and ...

  1. Humidity sensing characteristics of hydrotungstite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    variety of tungstate materials, such as thick-film manga- nese tungstate, have been applied as humidity sensors. (Qu and Mayer 1997). The humidity sensing characteristics of bulk metal oxide–tungsten oxide systems have also been studied in the literature (Ichinose 1993). Thin films of tungsten oxide have been prepared ...

  2. A thin film magnetoresistive angle detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, C.J.M.; Wieberdink, Johan W.; Fluitman, J.H.J.; Popma, T.J.A.; Groot, Peter; Leeuwis, Henk

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the results of our research on a contactless angle detector based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect (AMR effect) in a permalloy thin film. The results of high-temperature annealing treatment of the pemalloy film are discussed. Such a treatment suppresses the effects

  3. Measurements of acoustic properties for thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushibiki, J.; Maehara, H.; Chubachi, N.

    1982-01-01

    A measurement method for determining thin-film acoustic properties, such as characteristic acoustic impedance, sound velocity, density, and stiffness constant, is developed with a simple measurement principle and high measurement accuracy. The acoustic properties are determined from a maximum reflection loss and a center frequency obtained through a frequency response of the reflection loss for an acoustic transmission line composed of a sapphire/film/water system by using the acoustic pulse mode measurement system in the UHF range. The determination of the acoustic properties is demonstrated for sputtered fused quartz film, low-expansion borosilicate glass films, and chalcogenide glass films of evaporated As 2 S 3 and As 2 Se 3 , within the measurement accuracy around 1--2%. It is also found that the acoustic properties of thin films are generally different from those of bulk materials, depending on the fabrication techniques and conditions

  4. Large grain gallium arsenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S. S.; Chu, T. L.; Firouzi, H.; Han, Y. X.; Chen, W. J.; Wang, Q. H.

    Polycrystalline gallium arsenide films deposited on tungsten/graphite substrates have been used for the fabrication of thin film solar cells. Gallium arsenide films deposited on foreign substrates of 10 microns or less thickness exhibit, in most cases, pronounced shunting effects due to grain boundaries. MOS solar cells of 9 sq cm area with an AM1 efficiency of 8.5 percent and p(+)/n/n(+) homojunction solar cells of 1 sq cm area with an AM1 efficiency of 8.8 percent have been prepared. However, in order to further improve the conversion efficiency before the development of effective passivation techniques, gallium arsenide films with large and uniform grain structure are necessary. The large grain gallium arsenide films have been prepared by using (1) the arsine treatment of a thin layer of molten gallium on the substrate surface and (2) the recrystallized germanium films on tungsten/graphite as substrates.

  5. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Structural and electrical characteristics of lanthanum oxide gate dielectric film on GaAs pHEMT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia-Song, Wu; Hsing-Chung, Liu

    2009-11-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using a lanthanum oxide thin film (La2O3) with a high dielectric constant as a gate dielectric on GaAs pHEMTs to reduce gate leakage current and improve the gate to drain breakdown voltage relative to the conventional GaAs pHEMT. An E/D mode pHEMT in a single chip was realized by selecting the appropriate La2O3 thickness. The thin La2O3 film was characterized: its chemical composition and crystalline structure were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. La2O3 exhibited good thermal stability after post-deposition annealing at 200, 400 and 600 °C because of its high binding-energy (835.6 eV). Experimental results clearly demonstrated that the La2O3 thin film was thermally stable. The DC and RF characteristics of Pt/La2O3/Ti/Au gate and conventional Pt/Ti/Au gate pHEMTs were examined. The measurements indicated that the transistor with the Pt/La2O3/Ti/Au gate had a higher breakdown voltage and lower gate leakage current. Accordingly, the La2O3 thin film is a potential high-k material for use as a gate dielectric to improve electrical performance and the thermal effect in high-power applications.

  6. Substrate-induced dielectric polarization in thin films of lead-free (Sr{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 6-δ} perovskites grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Serrano, I., E-mail: ias@ucm.es [Dpto. Química Inorgánica I, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz de Larramendi, I. [Dpto. Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); López, M.L.; Veiga, M.L. [Dpto. Química Inorgánica I, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Highly oriented SrBiMn{sub 2-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 6} thin films are successfully fabricated by PLD. • Thicknesses between 80 and 900 nm depending on x, substrate-type and chamber pressure. • Compositional A-segregation controlled by the STO substrate orientation. • Dielectric response analyzed under impedance and modulus formalisms. • Relaxor phenomena obtained related to NPRs formation and compositional scenario. - Abstract: Thin films of SrBiMn{sub 2-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 6-δ} have been fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition on SrTiO{sub 3} [100] and [111] substrates. Their texture, width, homogeneity and morphology are evaluated by means of XRD, SEM, XPS, whereas complex impedance spectroscopy is employed to analyze their electrical response. The thickness values range between 80 and 900 nm depending on the experimental conditions. The epitaxial growing could be interpreted in terms of two contributions of microstructural origin: a matrix part and some polycrystalline surface formations (hemi-spheres). Texture studies suggest a fiber-type orientated morphology coherently with the Scanning Electron Microscopy images. XPS analyses indicate a segregation regarding A-sublattice cations, which features depend on the substrate orientation. This segregation could be connected to the development of nanopolar regions. Impedance data show the electrical polarization in the samples to be enhanced compared to bulk response of corresponding powdered samples. A relaxor behavior which fits a Vogel-Fulcher law is obtained for x = 0.50 whereas an almost frequency-independent relaxor ferroelectric behavior is registered for the thinnest film of x = 0.25 composition grown on SrTiO{sub 3} [111] substrate. The influence of compositional and structural aspects in the obtained dielectric response is analyzed.

  7. Thermal pulse measurements of space charge distributions under an applied electric field in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feihu; An, Zhenlian; Zhang, Yewen; Liu, Chuandong; Lin, Chen; Lei, Qingquan

    2013-01-01

    The thermal pulse method is a powerful method to measure space charge and polarization distributions in thin dielectric films, but a complicated calibration procedure is necessary to obtain the real distribution. In addition, charge dynamic behaviour under an applied electric field cannot be observed by the classical thermal pulse method. In this work, an improved thermal pulse measuring system with a supplemental circuit for applying high voltage is proposed to realize the mapping of charge distribution in thin dielectric films under an applied field. The influence of the modified measuring system on the amplitude and phase of the thermal pulse response current are evaluated. Based on the new measuring system, an easy calibration approach is presented with some practical examples. The newly developed system can observe space charge evolution under an applied field, which would be very helpful in understanding space charge behaviour in thin films. (paper)

  8. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Hui-Yng; Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window

  9. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Hui-Yng [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore 569830 (Singapore); Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong, E-mail: mgklau@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.

  10. Relationships among surface processing at the nanometer scale, nanostructure and optical properties of thin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria

    2004-05-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to study the optical properties of nanostructured semiconductor oxide thin films. Various examples of models for the dielectric function, based on Lorentzian oscillators combined with the Drude model, are given based on the band structure of the analyzed oxide. With this approach, the optical properties of thin films are determined independent of the dielectric functions of the corresponding bulk materials, and correlation between the optical properties and nanostructure of thin films is investigated. In particular, in order to discuss the dependence of optical constants on grain size, CeO{sub 2} nanostructured films are considered and parameterized by two-Lorentzian oscillators or two-Tauc-Lorentz model depending on the nanostructure and oxygen deficiency. The correlation among anisotropy, crystalline fraction and optical properties parameterized by a four-Lorentz oscillator model is discussed for nanocrystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films. Indium tin oxide thin films are discussed as an example of the presence of graded optical properties related to interfacial reactivity activated by processing conditions. Finally, the example of ZnO shows the potential of ellipsometry in discerning crystal and epitaxial film polarity through the analysis of spectra and the detection of surface reactivity of the two polar faces, i.e. Zn-polarity and O-polarity.

  11. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei; Yuan Jinying; Shi Gaoquan

    2008-01-01

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. σ rt ∼ 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90 o /s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  12. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  13. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs

  14. Barium titanate thin films deposited by electrophoresis on p-Doped Si (001) substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, J G; Pereira, M R; Moura, C; Mendes, J A; Almeida, B G

    2011-10-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin films have been prepared by electrophoretic deposition on p-doped and platinum covered silicon (Si) substrates. Their structure, nanostructure and dielectric properties were characterized. The as-deposited films were polycrystalline and composed by barium titanate nanograins with an average grain size approximately 9 nm. Annealing at high temperatures promoted grain growth, so that the samples annealed at 600 degrees C presented average grain sizes approximately 24 nm. From Raman spectroscopy measurements it was found that the tetragonal (ferroelectric) BaTiO3 phase was stabilized on the films. Also, at higher annealing temperatures, cation disorder was reduced on the films. From measurements of the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity the corresponding paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition was determined. The observed transition temperature (approximately 100 degrees C) was found to be below the BaTiO3 bulk or thick film values, due to the small nanosized grains composing the films.

  15. Restructuring in block copolymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Zhang, Jianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) thin films have been proposed for a number of nanotechnology applications, such as nanolithography and as nanotemplates, nanoporous membranes and sensors. Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has emerged as a powerful technique for manipulating and controlling the structure of BCP...... thin films, e.g., by healing defects, by altering the orientation of the microdomains and by changing the morphology. Due to high time resolution and compatibility with SVA environments, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is an indispensable technique for studying the SVA process......, providing information of the BCP thin film structure both laterally and along the film normal. Especially, state-of-the-art combined GISAXS/SVA setups at synchrotron sources have facilitated in situ and real-time studies of the SVA process with a time resolution of a few seconds, giving important insight...

  16. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of as-prepared and annealed CdS:O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalilova, Khuraman; Hasanov, Ilham; Mamedov, Nazim [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, 1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Shim, YongGu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Asaba, Ryo; Wakita, Kazuki [Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Cadmium sulfide thin films on soda lime substrates were obtained by rf-magnetron sputtering in argon-oxygen atmosphere. As-prepared and vacuum annealed films were then studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry at room temperature over photon energy range from 0.5 to 6 eV. The obtained ellipsometric data were treated using optical dispersion models based on Gaussian type oscillators. Dielectric function of oxygen-free films, as well as those obtained under 3% of O/Ar partial pressure was reliably restored. At the same time, dielectric function obtained for 5% CdS:O can be regarded only as an average over several materials since our XPS examination disclosed presence of several compounds in thin films deposited at O/Ar ratios higher than 3%. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited cobalt sulphide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindasamy, Geetha [R& D Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Murugasen, Priya, E-mail: priyamurugasen15@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Saveetha Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sagadevan, Suresh [Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-01-15

    Cobalt sulphide (CoS) thin films were synthesized using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the structure and the crystallite size of CoS thin film. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies reveal the surface morphology of these films. The optical properties of the CoS thin films were determined using UV-Visible absorption spectrum. The optical band gap of the thin films was found to be 1.6 eV. Optical constants such as the refractive index, the extinction coefficient and the electric susceptibility were determined. The dielectric studies were carried out at different frequencies and at different temperatures for the prepared CoS thin films. In addition, the plasma energy of the valence electron, Penn gap or average energy gap, the Fermi energy and electronic polarizability of the thin films were determined. The AC electrical conductivity measurement was also carried out for the thin films. The activation energy was determined by using DC electrical conductivity measurement. (author)

  18. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  19. Critical behavior of ferromagnetic Ising thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossio, P.; Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we study the magnetic properties and critical behavior of simple cubic ferromagnetic thin films. We simulate LxLxd films with semifree boundary conditions on the basis of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model with nearest neighbor interactions. A Metropolis dynamics was implemented to carry out the energy minimization process. For different film thickness, in the nanometer range, we compute the temperature dependence of the magnetization, the magnetic susceptibility and the fourth order Binder's cumulant. Bulk and surface contributions of these quantities are computed in a differentiated fashion. Additionally, according to finite size scaling theory, we estimate the critical exponents for the correlation length, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization. Results reveal a strong dependence of critical temperature and critical exponents on the film thickness. The obtained critical exponents are finally compared to those reported in literature for thin films

  20. Magnetostrictive thin films prepared by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabias, I.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Pina, E.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Hernando, A.; Crespo, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 80 B 20 thin films have been prepared by ion beam sputtering magnetron on room temperature. The films were fabricated on different substrates to compare the different magnetic and structural properties. In particular the growth of films on flexible substrates (PDMS, Kapton) has been studied to allow a simple integration of the system in miniaturized magnetostrictive devices. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that films are mainly amorphous although the presence of some Fe nanoparticles cannot be ruled out. The coercive field of thin films ranges between 15 and 35 Oe, depending on substrate. Magnetostriction measurements indicate the strong dependence of the saturation magnetostriction with the substrate. Samples on flexible substrates exhibit a better performance than samples deposited onto glass substrates

  1. Dynamics of Polymer Thin Film Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besancon, Brian M.; Green, Peter F.; Soles, Christopher L.

    2006-03-01

    We examined the influence of film thickness and composition on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and mean square atomic displacements (MSD) of thin film mixtures of deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and tetramethyl bisphenol-A polycarbonate (TMPC) on Si/SiOx substrates using incoherent elastic neutron scattering (ICNS). The onset of dissipative motions, such as those associated with the glass transition and sub-Tg relaxations, are manifested as ``kinks'' in the curve of elastic intensity (or MSD) versus temperature. From the relevant kinks, the Tg was determined as a function of composition and of film thickness. The dependence of the Tg on film thickness exhibited qualitatively similar trends, at a given composition, as determined by the ICNS and ellipsometry measurements. However, with increasing PS content, the values of Tg measured by INS were consistently larger then those measured by ellipsometry. These results are examined in light of existing models on the thin film glass transition and component blend dynamics.

  2. Improvement in interfacial characteristics of low-voltage carbon nanotube thin-film transistors with solution-processed boron nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jun-Young; Ha, Tae-Jun, E-mail: taejunha0604@gmail.com

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the potential of solution-processed boron nitride (BN) thin films for nanoelectronics. • Improved interfacial characteristics reduced the leakage current by three orders of magnitude. • The BN encapsulation improves all the device key metrics of low-voltage SWCNT-TFTs. • Such improvements were achieved by reduced interaction of interfacial localized states. - Abstract: In this article, we demonstrate the potential of solution-processed boron nitride (BN) thin films for high performance single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistors (SWCNT-TFTs) with low-voltage operation. The use of BN thin films between solution-processed high-k dielectric layers improved the interfacial characteristics of metal-insulator-metal devices, thereby reducing the current density by three orders of magnitude. We also investigated the origin of improved device performance in SWCNT-TFTs by employing solution-processed BN thin films as an encapsulation layer. The BN encapsulation layer improves the electrical characteristics of SWCNT-TFTs, which includes the device key metrics of linear field-effect mobility, sub-threshold swing, and threshold voltage as well as the long-term stability against the aging effect in air. Such improvements can be achieved by reduced interaction of interfacial localized states with charge carriers. We believe that this work can open up a promising route to demonstrate the potential of solution-processed BN thin films on nanoelectronics.

  3. Thin Films in the Photovoltaic Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-03-01

    In the past years, the yearly world market growth rate for Photovoltaics was an average of more than 40%, which makes it one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. Today PV is still dominated by wafer based Crystalline Silicon Technology as the 'working horse' in the global market, but thin films are gaining market shares. For 2007 around 12% are expected. The current silicon shortage and high demand has kept prices higher than anticipated from the learning curve experience and has widened the windows of opportunities for thin film solar modules. Current production capacity estimates for thin films vary between 3 and 6 GW in 2010, representing a 20% market share for these technologies. Despite the higher growth rates for thin film technologies compared with the industry average, Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies are still facing a number of challenges to maintain this growth and increase market shares. The four main topics which were discussed during the workshop were: Potential for cost reduction; Standardization; Recycling; Performance over the lifetime.

  4. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  5. Junctionless Thin-Film Transistors Gated by an H₃PO₄-Incorporated Chitosan Proton Conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huixuan; Xun, Damao

    2018-04-01

    We fabricated an H3PO4-incorporated chitosan proton conductor film that exhibited the electric double layer effect and showed a high specific capacitance of 4.42 μF/cm2. Transparent indium tin oxide thin-film transistors gated by H3PO4-incorporated chitosan films were fabricated by sputtering through a shadow mask. The operating voltage was as low as 1.2 V because of the high specific capacitance of the H3PO4-incorporated chitosan dielectrics. The junctionless transparent indium tin oxide thin film transistors exhibited good performance, including an estimated current on/off ratio and field-effect mobility of 1.2 × 106 and 6.63 cm2V-1s-1, respectively. These low-voltage thin-film electric-double-layer transistors gated by H3PO4-incorporated chitosan are promising for next generation battery-powered "see-through" portable sensors.

  6. The Effects of ph on Structural and Optical Characterization of Iron Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Fatma Meydaneri; Özdemir, Osman; Kariper, I. Afşin

    In this study, the iron oxide thin films have been produced by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method as a function of pH onto amorphous glass substrates. The surface images of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The crystal structures, orientation of crystallization, crystallite sizes, and dislocation density i.e. structural properties of the thin films were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical band gap (Eg), optical transmission (T%), reflectivity (R%), absorption coefficient (α), refraction index (n), extinction coefficient (k) and dielectric constant (ɛ) of the thin films were investigated depending on pH, deposition time, solution temperature, substrate temperature, thickness of the films by UV-VIS spectrometer.

  7. The effect of Nb doping on ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared from polymeric precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.C.F.; Simoes, A.Z.; Cilense, M.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Pure and Nb doped PbZr 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 3 thin films was prepared by the polymeric precursor method and deposited by spin coating on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si (100) substrates and annealed at 700 deg. C. The films are oriented in (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) direction. The electric properties of PZT thin films show strong dependence of the crystallographic orientation. The P-E hysteresis loops for the thin film with composition PbZr 0.39 Ti 0.6 Nb 0.1 O 3 showed good saturation, with values for coercive field (E c ) equal to 60 KV cm -1 and for remanent polarization (P r ) equal to 20 μC cm -2 . The measured dielectric constant (ε) is 1084 for this film. These results show good potential for application in FERAM

  8. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1995-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  9. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  10. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  11. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  12. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  13. Capillary stress in microporous thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, J.; Hurd, A.J.; Frink, L.J.D.; Swol, F. van [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Ceramic Processing Science Dept.]|[Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Micro Engineering Ceramics; Raman, N.K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Micro Engineered Ceramics

    1996-06-01

    Development of capillary stress in porous xerogels, although ubiquitous, has not been systematically studied. The authors have used the beam bending technique to measure stress isotherms of microporous thin films prepared by a sol-gel route. The thin films were prepared on deformable silicon substrates which were then placed in a vacuum system. The automated measurement was carried out by monitoring the deflection of a laser reflected off the substrate while changing the overlying relative pressure of various solvents. The magnitude of the macroscopic bending stress was found to reach a value of 180 MPa at a relative pressure of methanol, P/Po = 0.001. The observed stress is determined by the pore size distribution and is an order of magnitude smaller in mesoporous thin films. Density Functional Theory (DFT) indicates that for the microporous materials, the stress at saturation is compressive and drops as the relative pressure is reduced.

  14. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  15. Spectroscopic Study of Plasma Polymerized a-C:H Films Deposited by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thejaswini Halethimmanahally Chandrashekaraiah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasma polymerized a-C:H thin films have been deposited on Si (100 and aluminum coated glass substrates by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD operated at medium pressure using C2Hm/Ar (m = 2, 4, 6 gas mixtures. The deposited films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS, Raman spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. FT-IRRAS revealed the presence of sp3 and sp2 C–H stretching and C–H bending vibrations of bonds in the films. The presence of D and G bands was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Thin films obtained from C2H4/Ar and C2H6/Ar gas mixtures have ID/IG ratios of 0.45 and 0.3, respectively. The refractive indices were 2.8 and 3.1 for C2H4/Ar and C2H6/Ar films, respectively, at a photon energy of 2 eV.

  16. Bi modification for low-temperature processing of YMnO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taekjib; Lee, Jaichan

    2004-06-01

    YMnO3 thin films have been modified by Bi for low-temperature processing. YMnO3 thin-film growth typically requires high temperatures possibly leading to undesirable interface reaction and device failure in further processing. We have proposed Bi modification into YMnO3 (YBM) thin films grown on Si (100) by pulsed-laser deposition for reduced temperature processing. The growth temperature of YBM films was significantly reduced by more than 150 °C from the typical growth temperature of YMnO3 films. Highly c-axis-oriented growth of hexagonal YBM films at low temperatures was effective above 5% Bi content modification. Surface analysis on YBM films suggests that very thin Bi oxide layer forms on the topmost growing surface of YBM films and enhances the surface mobility of adatoms, leading to enhanced crystallization and low-temperature processing. The Bi modification did not deteriorate the electrical properties of YMnO3 such as dielectric constant and leakage current. This Bi modification can be an effective method to reduce processing temperature for other oxide thin films in physical vapor deposition.

  17. The future of rare earth thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasgnier, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents some recent applications in the rare earth field and also may be, some of the future new developments of laboratory works. The field of investigations will concern only materials which contain at least one rare earth element (lanthanide series, from La to Lu, Sc and Y). After a rapid survey of the experimental procedures relative to the preparation and to the analytical characterization of thin films, technological applications in various fields of research are briefly reviewed: for polycrystalline metals (superconductors, neutron absorption, photovoltaic effect...), alloys (hydrogen storage, superconductors) and compounds (target for intense neutron sources, radiology...) and for amorphous magnetic thin films. 81 refs [fr

  18. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...... and strain sensitivity using two- and four-point measurement method. We have found that polyaniline has a negative gauge factor of K = -4.9, which makes it a candidate for piezoresistive read-out in polymer based MEMS-devices. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Micro-sensor thin-film anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); McGinley, Catherine B. (Inventor); Spina, Eric F. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M. (Inventor); Hopson, Jr., Purnell (Inventor); Cruz, Vincent B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A device for measuring turbulence in high-speed flows is provided which includes a micro-sensor thin-film probe. The probe is formed from a single crystal of aluminum oxide having a 14.degree. half-wedge shaped portion. The tip of the half-wedge is rounded and has a thin-film sensor attached along the stagnation line. The bottom surface of the half-wedge is tilted upward to relieve shock induced disturbances created by the curved tip of the half-wedge. The sensor is applied using a microphotolithography technique.

  20. A generalized theory of thin film growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Huang, Hanchen

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports a theory of thin film growth that is generalized for arbitrary incidence angle during physical vapor deposition in two dimensions. The accompanying kinetic Monte Carlo simulations serve as verification. A special theory already exists for thin film growth with zero incidence angle, and another theory also exists for nanorod growth with a glancing angle. The theory in this report serves as a bridge to describe the transition from thin film growth to nanorod growth. In particular, this theory gives two critical conditions in analytical form of critical coverage, ΘI and ΘII. The first critical condition defines the onset when crystal growth or step dynamics stops following the wedding cake model for thin film growth. The second critical condition defines the onset when multiple-layer surface steps form to enable nanorod growth. Further, this theory also reveals a critical incidence angle, below which nanorod growth is impossible. The critical coverages, together with the critical incidence angle, defines a phase diagram of thin growth versus nanorod growth.

  1. Study on chitosan film properties as a green dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, I.; Nasution, T. I.; Putri, S. R. E.; Azdena, D.; Balyan, M.; Agusnar, H.

    2018-02-01

    Chitosan film dielectrics to produce an electrostatic capacitor were prepared by the solution cast technique. The charging and discharging of the capacitor were done using RC series circuit with DC voltage supply because chitosan has bipolar properties. First testing was by varying supply voltage of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 V, respectively, and could be determined that the most effective voltage for chitosan film can be well polarised is 5 V. The results of second testing for the use of 5 V supply showed that the capacitance of a chitosan film capacitor decreased with the increase in load value. For loads of 100, 1K, 10K, 100K and 1M Ω, the capacitance values of the chitosan film capacitor were 3.1725, 0.4136, 0.05379, 0.007917 and 0.001522 F, respectively. It was also found that the increase in voltage of the capacitor at charging process was faster for the lower load. Therefore, the research result has corresponded to the general formula that used to calculate the capacitance value and thus, the biopolymer chitosan has potential as a sustainable green dielectric.

  2. Lattice Mismatch in Crystalline Nanoparticle Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, Paul A; Seo, Soyoung E; Wang, Mary X; Oh, EunBi; Macfarlane, Robert J; Mirkin, Chad A

    2018-01-10

    For atomic thin films, lattice mismatch during heteroepitaxy leads to an accumulation of strain energy, generally causing the films to irreversibly deform and generate defects. In contrast, more elastically malleable building blocks should be better able to accommodate this mismatch and the resulting strain. Herein, that hypothesis is tested by utilizing DNA-modified nanoparticles as "soft," programmable atom equivalents to grow a heteroepitaxial colloidal thin film. Calculations of interaction potentials, small-angle X-ray scattering data, and electron microscopy images show that the oligomer corona surrounding a particle core can deform and rearrange to store elastic strain up to ±7.7% lattice mismatch, substantially exceeding the ±1% mismatch tolerated by atomic thin films. Importantly, these DNA-coated particles dissipate strain both elastically through a gradual and coherent relaxation/broadening of the mismatched lattice parameter and plastically (irreversibly) through the formation of dislocations or vacancies. These data also suggest that the DNA cannot be extended as readily as compressed, and thus the thin films exhibit distinctly different relaxation behavior in the positive and negative lattice mismatch regimes. These observations provide a more general understanding of how utilizing rigid building blocks coated with soft compressible polymeric materials can be used to control nano- and microstructure.

  3. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  4. Silver buffer layers for YBCO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, J. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Center for Technol. Education Holon

    1999-09-01

    A simple economical conventional vacuum system was used for evaporation of YBCO thin films on as-deposited unbuffered Ag layers on MgO substrates. The subsequent heat treatment was carried out in low oxygen partial pressure at a relative low temperature and short dwelling time. The films thus obtained were characterized for electrical properties using dc four probe electrical measurements and inspected for structural properties and chemical composition by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (orig.)

  5. Mechanical integrity of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical considerations starting with the initial film deposition including questions of adhesion and grading the interface are reviewed. Growth stresses, limiting thickness, stress relief, control aging, and creep are described

  6. THIN FILMS OF A NEW ORGANIC SINGLE-COMPONENT FERROELECTRIC 2-METHYLBENZIMIDAZOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Balashova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present results of structural and dielectric study of organic ferroelectric 2-methylbenzimidazole (MBI thin films. Method. The films have been grown on substrates of leuco-sapphire, fused and crystalline silica, neodymium gallate, bismuth germanate, gold, aluminium, platinum. The films have been grown by two different methods: substrate covering by ethanol solution of MBI and subsequent ethanol evaporation; sublimation at the temperature near 375 K under atmospheric pressure. Crystallographic orientation studies have been performed by means of «DRON-3» X-ray diffractometer, block structure of the films has been determined by «LaboPol-3» polarizing microscope. Small-signal dielectric response has been received with the use of «MIT 9216A» digital LCR-meter, while strong-signal dielectric response has been studied by Sawyer-Tower circuit. Main Resuts. We have shown that the films obtained by evaporation are continuous and textured. Obtained film structure depends on the concentration of the solution. Films may consist of blocks that are splitted crystals like spherulite. Spontaneous polarization components in such films may be directed both perpendicularly and in the film plane. We have also obtained structures consisting of single-crystal blocks with spontaneous polarization components being allocated in the film plane. Block sizes vary from a few to hundreds of microns. Films obtained by sublimation are amorphous or dendritic. The dielectric properties of the films obtained by evaporation have been studied. We have shown that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent increase under heating. The dielectric hysteresis loops are observed at the temperature equal to 291-379 K. The remnant polarization increases with temperature for constant amplitude of the external electric field, and achieves 4.5mC/cm2, while the coercive field remains constant. We propose that such behavior is explained by increase of the

  7. Interfacial interaction and glassy dynamics in stacked thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuhiko; Segawa, Kenta; Sadakane, Koichiro; Fukao, Koji; Yamada, Norifumi L.

    2017-05-01

    Neutron reflectivity and dielectric permittivity of alternately stacked thin films of protonated and deuterated poly(methyl methacrylate) were measured to elucidate a correlation between the time evolution of the interfacial structure and the segmental dynamics in the stacked thin polymer films during isothermal annealing above the glass transition temperature. The roughness at the interface between two thin layers increases with the annealing time, whereas the relaxation rate and strength of the α-process decrease with an increase in the annealing time. A strong correlation between the time evolution of the interfacial structure and the dynamics of the α-process during annealing could be observed using neutron reflectivity and dielectric relaxation measurements.

  8. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, P.; Sharman, J.; Elliott, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.

  9. Magnetocaloric effect of thin Terbium films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, V. D.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Almeida, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    We report a theoretical study of the magnetocaloric effect of Terbium (Tb) thin films due to finite size and surface effects in the helimagnetic phase, corresponding to a temperature range from TC=219 K to TN=231 K, for external fields of the order of kOe. For a Tb thin film of 6 monolayers submitted to an applied field (ΔH =30 kOe, ΔH =50 kOe and ΔH = 70 kOe) we report a significative change in adiabatic temperature, ΔT / ΔH , near the Néel temperature, of the order ten times higher than that observed for Tb bulk. On the other hand, for small values of the magnetic field, large thickness effects are found. For external field strength around few kOe, we have found that the thermal caloric efficiency increases remarkably for ultrathin films. For an ultrathin film with 6 monolayers, we have found ΔT / ΔH = 43 K/T while for thicker films, with 20 monolayers, ΔT / ΔH = 22 K/T. Our results suggest that thin films of Tb are a promising material for magnetocaloric effect devices for applications at intermediate temperatures.

  10. Sputtered highly oriented PZT thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpat, Sriram S.

    Recently there has been an explosion of interest in the field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS device technology has become critical in the growth of various fields like medical, automotive, chemical, and space technology. Among the many applications of ferroelectric thin films in MEMS devices, microfluidics is a field that has drawn considerable amount of research from bio-technology industries as well as chemical and semiconductor manufacturing industries. PZT thin films have been identified as best suited materials for micro-actuators and micro-sensors used in MEMS devices. A promising application for piezoelectric thin film based MEMS devices is disposable drug delivery systems that are capable of sensing biological parameters, mixing and delivering minute and precise amounts of drugs using micro-pumps or micro mixers. These devices call for low driving voltages, so that they can be battery operated. Improving the performance of the actuator material is critical in achieving battery operated disposal drug delivery systems. The device geometry and power consumption in MEMS devices largely depends upon the piezoelectric constant of the films, since they are most commonly used to convert electrical energy into a mechanical response of a membrane or cantilever and vice versa. Phenomenological calculation on the crystal orientation dependence of piezoelectric coefficients for PZT single crystal have reported a significant enhancement of the piezoelectric d33 constant by more than 3 times along [001] in the rhombohedral phase as compared to the conventionally used orientation PZT(111) since [111] is the along the spontaneous polarization direction. This could mean considerable improvement in the MEMS device performance and help drive the operating voltages lower. The motivation of this study is to investigate the crystal orientation dependence of both dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films in order to select the appropriate

  11. Optical characterization of niobium pentoxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicka, A.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films of Nb 2 O 5 were obtained by sol-gel method using ultrasonic irradiation and deposited by dip-coating technique. After calcination at temperatures superior than 500 deg C these films (300 nm thick) were characterized by cyclic voltametry and cronoamperometry. The memory measurements, color efficiency, optical density as a function of wave number and applied potential were effectuated to determine their electrochromic properties. The study of electrochromic properties of these films shows that the insertion process of lithium is reversible and changes their coloration from transparent (T=80%) to dark blue (T=20%). (author)

  12. Pyroelectric coupling in thin film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, Victor G.; Shvydka, Diana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We propose a theory of thin film photovoltaics in which one of the polycrystalline films is made of a pyroelectric material grains such as CdS. That film is shown to generate strong polarization improving the device open circuit voltage. Implications and supporting facts for the major photovoltaic types based on CdTe and CuIn(Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber layers are discussed. Band diagram of a pyroelectric (CdS) based PV junction. Arrows represent the charge carrier photo-generation. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  14. Tailored piezoelectric thin films for energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, X.

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent materials to transfer mechanical energy into electrical energy, which can be stored and used to power other devices. PiezoMEMS is a good way to combine silicon wafer processing and piezoelectric thin film technology and lead to a variety of miniaturized and

  15. Reliability growth of thin film resistors contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugin A. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of resistive layer growth under the contact and in the contact zone of resistive element is shown in order to reduce peak values of current flow and power dissipation in the contact of thin film resistor, thereby to increase the resistor stability to parametric and catastrophic failures.

  16. Thermoviscoelastic models for polyethylene thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jun; Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a constitutive thermoviscoelastic model for thin films of linear low-density polyethylene subject to strains up to yielding. The model is based on the free volume theory of nonlinear thermoviscoelasticity, extended to orthotropic membranes. An ingredient of the present approach...

  17. Incipient plasticity in metallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W. A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Minor, A. M.; Shan, Z.; Asif, S. A. Syed; Warren, O. L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have compared the incipient plastic behaviors of Al and Al-Mg thin films during indentation under load control and displacement control. In Al-Mg, solute pinning limits the ability of dislocations to propagate into the crystal and thus substantially affects the appearance of plastic

  18. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  19. Polyaniline. Thin films and colloidal dispersions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Sapurina, I.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2005), s. 815-826 ISSN 0033-4545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 539; GA AV ČR IAA4050313 Grant - others:IUPAC project 2002-019-1-400 Keywords : polyaniline * thin films * dispersions Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.679, year: 2005

  20. A ferroelectric transparent thin-film transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, MWJ; GrosseHolz, KO; Muller, G; Cillessen, JFM; Giesbers, JB; Weening, RP; Wolf, RM

    1996-01-01

    Operation is demonstrated of a field-effect transistor made of transparant oxidic thin films, showing an intrinsic memory function due to the usage of a ferroelectric insulator. The device consists of a high mobility Sb-doped n-type SnO2 semiconductor layer, PbZr0.2Ti0.8Os3 as a ferroelectric

  1. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning, E-mail: xjiang5@ncsu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Shu, Longlong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Maria, Jon-Paul [Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 μC/m at Curie temperature (∼28 °C) and 17.44 μC/m at 41 °C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100 μC/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  2. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning; Shu, Longlong; Maria, Jon-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 μC/m at Curie temperature (∼28 °C) and 17.44 μC/m at 41 °C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100 μC/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  3. Magnetic surfaces, thin films, and multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, S.S.P.; Renard, J.P.; Shinjo, T.; Zinn, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper details recent developments in the magnetism of surfaces, thin films and multilayers. More than 20 invited contributions and more than 60 contributed papers attest to the great interest and vitality of this subject. In recent years the study of magnetic surfaces, thin films and multilayers has undergone a renaissance, partly motivated by the development of new growth and characterization techniques, but perhaps more so by the discovery of many exciting new properties, some quite unanticipated. These include, most recently, the discovery of enormous values of magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers far exceeding those found in magnetic single layer films and the discovery of oscillatory interlayer coupling in transition metal multilayers. These experimental studies have motivated much theoretical work. However these developments are to a large extent powered by materials engineering and our ability to control and understand the growth of thin layers just a few atoms thick. The preparation of single crystal thin film layers and multilayers remains important for many studies, in particular, for properties dependent. These studies obviously require engineering not just a layer thicknesses but of lateral dimensions as well. The properties of such structures are already proving to be a great interest

  4. Functional planar thin film optical waveguide lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2012), 91-99 ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/10/1477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : waveguide laser * planar waveguides * thin films * pulsed laser deposition * optical waveguides * laser materials Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.714, year: 2012

  5. Gravitationally driven drainage of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naire, Shailesh

    In this thesis we develop theory for an experiment done by Snow and coworkers at Dow Corning that involves a vertically-oriented, thinned polyurethane film with silicone surfactant, draining under gravity. We present the mathematical formulation for a 1+1- and 2+1-dimensional model to study the evolution of a vertically-oriented thin liquid film draining under gravity when there is an insoluble surfactant with finite surface viscosity on its free surface. This formulation has all the ingredients that include: surface tension, gravity, surface viscosity, the Marangoni effect, convective and diffusive surfactant transport; essential to describe the behavior of a vertical draining film with surfactant. We study a hierarchy of mathematical models with increasing complexity starting with the flat film model where gravity balances viscous shear and surface tension is neglected, this is generalized to include surface tension. We further generalize to incorporate variable surface viscosity and more complicated constitutive laws for surface tension as a function of surfactant concentration. Lubrication theory is employed to derive three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) describing the free surface shape, a component of surface velocity and the surfactant transport at leading order. A large surface viscosity limit recovers the tangentially-immobile model; for small surface viscosity, the film is mobile. Transition from a mobile to an immobile film is observed for intermediate values of surface viscosity and Marangoni number. The above models reproduce a number of features observed in experiments, these include film shapes and thinning rates which can be correlated to experiment. The 2+1-dimensional model for simplified surface properties has also been studied. Numerical experiments were performed to understand the stability of the system to perturbations across the film. An instability was seen in the mobile case; this was caused by a competition

  6. Thin film preparation of semiconducting iron pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, Greg P.; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut; Kautek, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    Pyrite (Fe52) has been investigated as a promising new absorber material for thin film solar cell applications because of its high optical absorption coefficient of 1OL cm1, and its bandgap of 0.9 to 1.0 eV. Thin layers have been prepared by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, MOCVD, Chemical Spray Pyrolysis, CSP, Chemical Vapor Transport, CVT, and Sulfurization of Iron Oxide films, 510. It is postulated that for the material FeS2, if x is not zero, a high point defect concentration results from replacing 2 dipoles by single S atoms. This causes the observed photovoltages and solar conversion efficiencies to be lower than expected. Using the Fe-O-S ternary phase diagram and the related activity plots, a thermodynamic understanding is formulated for the resulting composition of each of these types of films. It is found that by operating in the oxide portion of the phase diagram, the resulting oxidation state favors pyrite formation over FeS. By proper orientation of the grains relative to the film surface, and by control of pinholes and stoichiometry, an efficient thin film photovolatic solar cell material could be achieved.

  7. Study of zinc oxide thin film characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johari Shazlina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characterization of ZnO thin films with the thickness of 8nm, 30nm, and 200nm. The thin films were prepared using sol-gel method and has been deposited onto different substrate of silicon wafer, glass and quartz. The thin films were annealed at 400, 500 and 600°C. By using UV-Vis, the optical transmittance measurement were recorded by using a single beam spectrophotometer in the wavelength 250nm to 800nm. However, the transmittance in the visible range is hardly influenced by the film thickness, substrate used and annealed temperature and the averages are all above 80%. On surface morphology observed by AFM and FESEM, the results show that the increase of film thickness and annealed temperature will increase the mean grain size, surface-to-volume ration and RMS roughness. Besides that, higher annealing temperature cause the crystalline quality to gradually improve and the wurtzite structure of ZnO can be seen more clearly. Nonetheless, the substrate used had no effect on surface morphology, yet the uniformity of deposition on silicon wafer is better than glass and quartz.

  8. Practical design and production of optical thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Willey, Ronald R

    2002-01-01

    Fundamentals of Thin Film Optics and the Use of Graphical Methods in Thin Film Design Estimating What Can Be Done Before Designing Fourier Viewpoint of Optical Coatings Typical Equipment for Optical Coating Production Materials and Process Know-How Process Development Monitoring and Control of Thin Film Growth Appendix: Metallic and Semiconductor Material Graphs Author IndexSubject Index

  9. Density functional study of ferromagnetism in alkali metal thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model (UJM), and it is argued that within LSDA or GGA, alkali metal thin films cannot be claimed to have an FM ground state. Relevance of these results to the experiments on transition metal-doped alkali metal thin films and bulk hosts are also discussed. Keywords. Alkali metal; thin films; magnetism; density functional ...

  10. Optical and electrical properties of nickel xanthate thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Nickel xanthate thin film; organometallic thin film; chemical bath deposition. Abstract. Nickel xanthate thin films (NXTF) were successfully deposited by chemical bath deposition, on to amorphous glass substrates, as well as on - and -silicon, indium tin oxide and poly(methyl methacrylate). The structure of the ...

  11. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mei [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yuan Jinying [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: yuanjy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Shi Gaoquan [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: gshi@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2008-04-30

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. {sigma}{sub rt} {approx} 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90{sup o}/s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  12. Structural and electrical properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3 thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbhar S.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate (BaTiO3 thin films have been prepared using the spray pyrolysis method. The films were deposited onto a glass substrate at varying substrate temperature ranging from 250 to 350 °C with the interval of 50 °C. The structural, morphological, electrical and dielectric properties of the deposited films have been studied. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the films with a cubic crystal structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed a good agreement of the thin films stoichiometry with BaTiO3. A presence of Ba, Ti and O in the BaTiO3 thin films was observed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the heterogeneous distribution of cubical grains all over the substrate. The grain size decreased with an increase in substrate temperature. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss showed the dispersion behaviour as a function of frequency, measured in the frequency range of 20 Hz to 1 MHz. The AC conductivity (σac measurement showed the linear nature of obtained films, which confirms conduction mechanism due to small polarons. Impedance spectroscopy has been used to study the electrical behaviour of BaTiO3 ferroelectric thin films. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop has been recorded at room temperature.

  13. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  14. Zeolite thin films: from computer chips to space stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Christopher M; Cai, Rui; Yan, Yushan

    2010-02-16

    Zeolites are a class of crystalline oxides that have uniform and molecular-sized pores (3-12 A in diameter). Although natural zeolites were first discovered in 1756, significant commercial development did not begin until the 1950s when synthetic zeolites with high purity and controlled chemical composition became available. Since then, major commercial applications of zeolites have been limited to catalysis, adsorption, and ion exchange, all using zeolites in powder form. Although researchers have widely investigated zeolite thin films within the last 15 years, most of these studies were motivated by the potential application of these materials as separation membranes and membrane reactors. In the last decade, we have recognized and demonstrated that zeolite thin films can have new, diverse, and economically significant applications that others had not previously considered. In this Account, we highlight our work on the development of zeolite thin films as low-dielectric constant (low-k) insulators for future generation computer chips, environmentally benign corrosion-resistant coatings for aerospace alloys, and hydrophilic and microbiocidal coatings for gravity-independent water separation in space stations. Although these three applications might not seem directly related, they all rely on the ability to fine-tune important macroscopic properties of zeolites by changing their ratio of silicon to aluminum. For example, pure-silica zeolites (PSZs, Si/Al = infinity) are hydrophobic, acid stable, and have no ion exchange capacity, while low-silica zeolites (LSZs, Si/Al zeolites that have not been exploited before, such as a higher elastic modulus, hardness, and heat conductivity than those of amorphous porous silicas, and microbiocidal capabilities derived from their ion exchange capacities. Finally, we briefly discuss our more recent work on polycrystalline zeolite thin films as promising biocompatible coatings and environmentally benign wear-resistant and

  15. P{sup 2}IMS depth profile analysis of high temperature boron oxynitride dielectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badi, N., E-mail: nbadi@uh.edu [Center for Advanced Materials (CAM), University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5004 (United States); Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Vijayaraghavan, S. [Center for Advanced Materials (CAM), University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5004 (United States); Benqaoula, A. [Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Tempez, A.; Tauziède, C.; Chapon, P. [Horiba Jobin Yvon, Longjumeau, F-91160 Paris (France)

    2014-02-15

    Existing silicon oxynitride (SiON) dielectric can only provide a very near term solution for the metal oxide semiconductor technology. The emerging high-k dielectric materials have a limited thermal stability and are prone to electrical behavior degradation which is associated with unwanted chemical reactions with silicon (Si). We investigated here applicability of amorphous boron oxynitride (BON) thin films as an emerging dielectric for high temperature capacitors. BON samples of thickness varying from 200 nm down to 10 nm were deposited in a high vacuum reactor using ion source assisted physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. Plasma profiling ion mass spectrometry (P{sup 2}IMS) was utilized to specifically determine the interface quality and best capacitor performance as a function of growth temperatures of a graded sample with alternate layers of deposited titanium (Ti) and BON layers on Si. P{sup 2}IMS depth profiling of these layers were also performed to evaluate the stability of the dielectric layers and their efficacy against B dopant diffusion simulating processes occurring in activated polySi-based devices. For this purpose, BON layers were deposited on boron-isotope 10 (B{sup 10}) implanted Si substrates and subsequently annealed at high temperatures up to 1050 °C for about 10 s. Results comparing inter-diffusion of B{sup 10} intensities at the interfaces of BON–Si and SiON–Si samples suggest suitability of BON as barrier layers against boron diffusion at high temperature. Stable Ti/BON/Ti capacitor behavior was achieved at optimum growth temperature of 600 °C of the BON dielectric layer. Capacitance change with frequency (10 kHz to 2 MHz) and temperature up to 400 °C is about 1% and 10%, respectively.

  16. Optical and structural properties of natural MnSeO{sub 4} mineral thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariper, Ishak Afsin, E-mail: akariper@gmail.com [Erciyes University, Education Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Manganese selenite (MnSeO{sub 4}) crystalline thin film has been produced with chemical bath deposition on substrates (commercial glass). Properties of the thin film, such as transmittance, absorption, and optical band gap and refraction index have been investigated via UV/VIS Spectrum. The structural properties of orthorhombic form have been observed in XRD. The structural and optical properties of MnSeO{sub 4} thin films, deposited at different pH levels were analyzed. Some properties of the films have been changed with the change of pH level, which has been deeply investigated. The grain size of MnSeO{sub 4} thin film has reached its highest value at pH 9. The refraction index and extinction coefficient of MnSeO{sub 4} thin films were measured to be 1.53, 2.86, 2.07, 1.53 (refraction index) and 0.005, 0.029, 0.014, 0.005 (extinction coefficient) for grain sizes 21, 13, 26, and 5 nm respectively. The band gaps (Eg) of the films were measured to be 2.06, 2.57, 2.04, and 2.76 eV for the grain sizes mentioned above. The value of dielectric constant at pH 10 was calculated as 1.575. (author)

  17. Flexible magnetic thin films and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ping; Wang, Baomin; Li, Runwei

    2018-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices are highly attractive for a variety of applications such as flexible circuit boards, solar cells, paper-like displays, and sensitive skin, due to their stretchable, biocompatible, light-weight, portable, and low cost properties. Due to magnetic devices being important parts of electronic devices, it is essential to study the magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices fabricated on flexible substrates. In this review, we mainly introduce the recent progress in flexible magnetic thin films and devices, including the study on the stress-dependent magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices, and controlling the properties of flexible magnetic films by stress-related multi-fields, and the design and fabrication of flexible magnetic devices. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFA0201102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51571208, 51301191, 51525103, 11274321, 11474295, 51401230), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2016270), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-M05), the Ningbo Major Project for Science and Technology (No. 2014B11011), the Ningbo Science and Technology Innovation Team (No. 2015B11001), and the Ningbo Natural Science Foundation (No. 2015A610110).

  18. Nanocomposite thin films for triggerable drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Lorenzo; Iacovacci, Veronica; Menciassi, Arianna; Ricotti, Leonardo

    2018-05-01

    Traditional drug release systems normally rely on a passive delivery of therapeutic compounds, which can be partially programmed, prior to injection or implantation, through variations in the material composition. With this strategy, the drug release kinetics cannot be remotely modified and thus adapted to changing therapeutic needs. To overcome this issue, drug delivery systems able to respond to external stimuli are highly desirable, as they allow a high level of temporal and spatial control over drug release kinetics, in an operator-dependent fashion. Areas covered: On-demand drug delivery systems actually represent a frontier in this field and are attracting an increasing interest at both research and industrial level. Stimuli-responsive thin films, enabled by nanofillers, hold a tremendous potential in the field of triggerable drug delivery systems. The inclusion of responsive elements in homogeneous or heterogeneous thin film-shaped polymeric matrices strengthens and/or adds intriguing properties to conventional (bare) materials in film shape. Expert opinion: This Expert Opinion review aims to discuss the approaches currently pursued to achieve an effective on-demand drug delivery, through nanocomposite thin films. Different triggering mechanisms allowing a fine control on drug delivery are described, together with current challenges and possible future applications in therapy and surgery.

  19. Thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.

    1987-10-01

    Cadmium telluride, with a room-temperature band-gap energy of 1.5 eV, is a promising thin-film photovoltaic material. The major objective of this research has been to demonstrate thin-film CdTe heterojunction solar cells with a total area greater than 1 sq cm and photovoltaic efficiencies of 13 percent or more. Thin-film p-CdTe/CdS/SnO2:F/glass solar cells with an AM1.5 efficiency of 10.5 percent have been reported previously. This report contains results of work done on: (1) the deposition, resistivity control, and characterization of p-CdTe films by the close-spaced sublimation process; (2) the deposition of large-band-gap window materials; (3) the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions; (4) the formation of stable, reproducible, ohmic contacts (such as p-HgTe) to p-CdTe; and (5) the preparation and evaluation of heterojunction solar cells.

  20. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis E.

    1994-01-01

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber.

  1. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  2. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  3. Investigation of electrodeposited cuprous oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Emma L.

    This dissertation focuses on improvements to electrodeposited cuprous oxide as a candidate for the absorber layer for a thin film solar cell that could be integrated into a mechanical solar cell stack. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an earth abundant material that has a bandgap of 2 eV with absorption coefficients around 102-106 cm-1. This bandgap is not optimized for use as a single-junction solar cell, but could be ideal for use in a tandem solar cell device. The theoretical efficiency of a material with a bandgap of 2.0 eV is 20%. The greatest actual efficiency that has been achieved for a Cu2O solar cell is only 8.1%. For the present work the primary focus has been on improving the microstructure of the absorber layer film. The Cu2O films were fabricated using electrodeposition. A seeding layer was developed using gold (Au); which was manipulated into nano-islands and used as the substrate for the Cu2O electrodeposition. The films were characterized and compared to determine the growth mechanism of each film using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to establish and compare the chemical phases that were present in each of the films. The crystal structure of the Cu2O film grown on gold was explored using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and this helped confirm the effect that the gold had on the growth of Cu2O. The Tauc method was then used to determine the bandgap of the films of Cu2O grown on both substrates and this showed that the Au based Cu2O film was a superior film. Electrical tests were also completed using a solar simulator and this established that the film grown on gold exhibited photoconductivity that was not seen on the film without gold. In addition, for this thesis, a method for depositing an n-type Cu2O film, based on a Cu-metal solution-boiling process, was investigated. Three forms of copper were tested: a sheet of copper, electrodeposited copper, and sputtered copper. The chemical phases were observed using

  4. Microwave surface impedance of MgB2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, B B; Klein, N; Kang, W N; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Choi, Eun-Mi; Lee, Sung-I K; Dahm, T; Maki, K

    2003-01-01

    The microwave surface impedance Z s = R s + jωμ 0 λ was measured with dielectric resonator techniques for two c-axis-oriented MgB 2 thin films. The temperature dependence of the penetration depth λ measured with a sapphire resonator at 17.93 GHz can be well fitted from 5 K close to T c by the standard BCS integral expression assuming the reduced energy gap Δ(0)/kT c to be as low as 1.13 and 1.03 for the two samples. From these fits the penetration depth at zero temperatures was determined to be 102 nm and 107 nm, respectively. The results clearly indicate the s-wave nature of the order parameter. The temperature dependence of surface resistance R s , measured with a rutile dielectric resonator, shows an exponential behaviour below about T c /2 with a reduced energy gap being consistent with the one determined from the λ data. The R s value at 4.2 K was found to be as low as 19 μΩ at 7.2 GHz, which is comparable with that of a high-quality high-temperature thin film of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . A higher-order mode at 17.9 GHz was employed to determine the frequency f dependence of R s ∝ f n(T) . Our results revealed a decrease of n with increasing temperature ranging from n = 2 below 8 K to n 1 from 13 to 34 K

  5. Multifunctional Ceramic Nanostructure Thin Films Prepared by Solution Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jong Hyun

    Oxide semiconductor coatings have been studied for the development of their nanostructures that can be tailored for multifunctional surface properties. We employed solution processing methods such as chemical bath deposition and hydrothermal process to deposit TiO2 and ZnO thin film nanostructures on various substrates including transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), polymers (polycarbonate, Teflon), and metals (stainless steels, Ti). In particular, low dimensional nanostructures (1D, 2D) were tailored by different solution process conditions. Especially, the 1D TiO2 nanorod structure were shown to grow via a non-classical crystallization way. The performances of vertically aligned TiO2 (rutile) nanorod thin films were evaluated for its use as a photoanode in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and as a photocatalytic surface for organic dye degradation. In addition, densely packed 2-dimensional rutile nanoblade structure was examined for a high-k dielectric layer. And the vertically aligned ZnO nanorod thin films were grown as photocatalytic coatings and antimicrobial surfaces. The latter aspect resulted from the strong photocatalytic behavior, as well as the nanoshape effects. To control the nano- and microstructures of TiO2 and ZnO through process parameters, we used the degree of 'supersaturation' that was calculated from aqueous thermodynamics. When the thermodynamics data were not available, it was obtained through experimental measurements. In an effort to maximize the photo-responsive capacity, the hybrid structures consisting of TiO2/ZnO and ZnO/P3HT[Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)] were investigated for further enhancement of the photoanode properties and photocurrent generation, respectively. This work shows that highly multifunctional oxide surface properties can be made possible through the developments of low-temperature, solution-grown nanostructures with precise process controls.

  6. Comparative study of pore size of low-dielectric-constant porous spin-on-glass films using different methods of nondestructive instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Eiichi; Baklanov, M.R.; Lin, E.; Gidley, D.; Nakashima, Akira

    2001-01-01

    The pore size of hydrogen-methyl-siloxane-based porous spin-on-glass(SOG) thin films having different k values (k=1.8-2.5) are comparatively studied using different nondestructive instrumental ways and also with reference to sorption porosimetry. The pore size and its spread are found to increase with increasing porosity, or with decreasing dielectric constant. (author)

  7. Deposition and characterization of CuInS2 thin films deposited over copper thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Titu; Kumar, K. Rajeev; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-06-01

    Simple, cost effective and versatile spray pyrolysis method is effectively combined with vacuum evaporation for the deposition of CuIns2 thin films for photovoltaic applications. In the present study In2s3 was spray deposited over vacuum evaporated Cu thin films and Cu was allowed to diffuse in to the In2S3 layer to form CuInS2. To analyse the dependence of precursor volume on the formation of CuInS2 films structural, electrical and morphological analzes are carried out. Successful deposition of CuInS2thin films with good crystallinity and morphology with considerably low resistivity is reported in this paper.

  8. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  9. Fabrication of high refractive index TiO2 films using electron beam evaporator for all dielectric metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Salman Ahmed, Qazi; Akram, Mahreen; Abbas, Naseem; Khalid, Ayesha; Khalil, Arslan; Luqman Khalid, Muhammad; Mudassar Mehar, Muhammad; Riaz, Kashif; Qasim Mehmood, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Flat optics suffer meager efficiency due to plasmonic losses at visible wavelengths. This issue has been addressed in this study by the substitution of dielectric materials. For this purpose, optical parameters (real and imaginary parts of refractive index) and surface roughness of TiO2 films were optimized, which are pre-requisite for the development of highly efficient dielectric metasurface devices. Electron beam evaporator was employed to deposit various ultrathin TiO2 films with subwavelength thickness. These deposited films were further processed via annealing at various temperatures to achieve the appropriate optical parameters. SEM analysis confirmed the absence of craters, cracks and rugged type features, whereas, AFM analysis revealed the smoothness of deposited films with least roughness. High refractive index above 2.2 with minimum absorption coefficient in the visible region was studied through ellipsometry analysis. FTIR spectroscopy showed transmission over 90% from the deposited thin film on glass substrate. The results of this study would have significant implications for material processing at nanoscale and dielectric metasurface fabrication which would in turn eliminate the requirement of costly and sophisticated setups for such fabrications.

  10. Optical properties of CeO2 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    The values of absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index, dielectric constant, phase angle and loss angle have been calculated from the optical measurements. The X-ray diffraction of the film showed that the film is crystalline in nature. The crystallite size of CeO2 films have been evaluated and found to be.

  11. Investigation of the structural, optical and dielectric properties of highly (1 0 0)-oriented (Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20})TiO{sub 3} thin films on LaNiO{sub 3} bottom electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, D.S.L. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Cerâmica, Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km 235, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Pontes, F.M., E-mail: fenelon@fc.unesp.br [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 473, 17033-360 Bauru, São Paulo (Brazil); Chiquito, A.J. [NanO LaB, Transporte Eletrônico em Nanoestruturas, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km 235, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Longo, E. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Cerâmica, Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km 235, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Highly (h 0 0) oriented LNO and PCST thin films were grown on LAO(1 0 0) substrate. • PCST/LNO/LAO structure shown classic ferroelectric–paraelectric phase transition. • PCST/LNO/LAO structure shows superior dielectric properties. • PCST/LAO films showed a direct allowed optical transition. - Abstract: Highly (1 0 0)-oriented Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3}/LNO/LAO structure was fabricated using a chemical deposition process via spin-coating technique. XRD revealed that both LNO and Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3} films grown on LAO(1 0 0) substrate and LNO/LAO(1 0 0) structure were crystallized to be highly (h 0 0)-oriented, respectively. AFM images revealed smooth surfaces, spherical-shaped grains and a crack-free surface with a roughness of about 3–7 nm. The tetragonal perovskite phase was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy for Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3}/LNO/LAO and Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3}/LAO structures. The optical transmittance of 340 nm thick Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3} films on a LAO(1 0 0) substrate exhibited an average transmittance above 80% in the wavelength range of 500–1000 nm and an optical band gap E{sub g} of 3.56 and 2.87 eV for the direct and indirect transition processes, respectively. The Au/Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3}/LNO/LAO structure has a hysteresis loop with remnant polarization, P{sub r}, of 12 μC/cm{sup 2}, and a coercive field, E{sub c}, of 46 kV/cm for an electric field at 370 kV/cm along with a dielectric constant over 1200.

  12. PZT thin films for piezoelectric MEMS mechanical energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Charles

    damage to the PZT film. An energy harvester was fabricated by etching the MgO substrate down to 10-20 mum under a circular diaphragm device; this structure had a natural frequency of 2.7 kHz and was estimated to provide a maximum RMS power of 8.8 muW/cm2-g2. Due to the lack of selectivity in the patterning, MgO was not as versatile as silicon substrates, which can be etched rapidly by wet and dry methods. To successfully release a PZT film onto a polymer passive elastic layer, dry (gas) etch methods were preferable. This protected the interfacial bonding between PZT films and Parylene. A 2 cm2 thin film membrane (15 mum Parylene/ 3 mum Cyclotene 4022/ 0.1 mum Pt-Ti/ 1.4 mum PZT (52/48)/ 0.14 mum Pt-Ti/ 1 mum SiO2) was released from a silicon substrate and operated with a 5 Hz natural frequency, the lowest reported for a thin film energy harvester operating in resonant excitation. Though problems existed with buckling of the beam due to tension in the Cyclotene 4022 (a benzocyclobutene, BCB, resin) from curing on a silicon substrate, the cantilevered device was calculated to output up to RMS 0.53 muW/cm2 when swept through an arc >30°. Silicon substrates facilitated scaling in size and quantity of devices compared to MgO substrates, which motivated an investigation into the reduction of 90° domain walls for thin films released from substrate clamping conditions. Circular test structures were designed to produce systematic changes in the clamping condition of {001} PZT thin films. The stiffness of the substrate interface was modified either by using a PZT buffer layer on the substrate or by removing the substrate completely. Films allowed to stress relax upon release, via curling, had reduced domain wall restoring force compared to fully clamped structures, leading to a 72% increase in irreversible domain wall contributions for freestanding 300 mum features. The irreversible dielectric Raleigh coefficient, alpha, for a 1.64 mum {001} PZT film measured at 20 Hz increased

  13. Properties of reactively radio frequency-magnetron sputtered (Zr,Sn)TiO4 dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-L.; Hsu, C.-H.

    2004-01-01

    Zirconium tin titanium oxide doped 1 wt % ZnO thin films on n-type Si substrate were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering at a fixed rf power of 350 W with various argon-oxygen (Ar/O 2 ) mixture and different substrate temperatures. Electrical properties and microstructures of ZnO-doped (Zr 0.8 Sn 0.2 )TiO 4 thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering on n-type Si(100) substrates at different Ar/O 2 ratios and substrate temperatures have been investigated. The surface structural and morphological characteristics analyzed by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope were sensitive to the deposition conditions, such as Ar/O 2 ratio (100/0-80/20) and substrate temperature (350 deg. C-450 deg. C). The selected-area diffraction pattern showed that the deposited films exhibited a polycrystalline microstructure. All films exhibited ZST (111) orientation perpendicular to the substrate surface and the grain size as well as the deposition rate of the films increased with the increase of both the Ar partial pressure and the substrate temperature. At a Ar/O 2 ratio of 100/0, rf power level of 350 W and substrate temperature of 450 deg. C, the Zr 0.8 Sn 0.2 TiO 4 films with 6.44 μm thickness possess a dielectric constant of 42 (at 10 MHz), a dissipation factor of 0.065 (at 10 MHz), and a leakage current density of 2x10 -7 A/cm 2 at an electrical field of 1 kV/cm

  14. Thin-film thermomechanical sensors embedded in metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnas, Anastasios M.

    2000-10-01

    The ability to monitor in real time the thermo-mechanical responses of tools, equipment, and structural components has been very appealing to the aerospace, automotive, drilling, and manufacturing industries. So far, the challenge has been to instrument the tools, equipment, or structural components with a number of sensors in an economical way and also protect the sensors from the environment which the tools, etc. are exposed to. In this work, a sequence of manufacturing processes that can be used to build thin-film temperature and strain sensors on internal surfaces of metallic structures is proposed and demonstrated. The use of thin-film techniques allows the parallel fabrication of sensor arrays, whereas a layered manufacturing scheme permits the creation of sensors on the internal surfaces of metallic parts and their subsequent embedding. Thin-film sensors are deposited on an aluminum oxide film, which is grown on a stainless steel substrate. The oxide is deposited by reactive sputtering. The sensors are sputter-deposited from alloy targets, shaped via micromachining and partially covered with a passivation layer of aluminum oxide. The thin-film structure is then covered by two protective electroplated layers of copper and nickel for protection during the deposition of the embedding layers. Embedding is accomplished by using a high-power infrared laser to melt an invar powder bed on top of the protective layers. Among the issues that emerged during the definition of the fabrication sequence were: the long-term stability of reactive deposition, the presence of pinholes in the dielectric layers, the optimal combination of materials and thickness of the protective layers, the bonding at the various interfaces, and the heat input and residual stresses resulting from the high-temperature embedding process. Finally, a finite element model was constructed in order to simulate the high-temperature embedding process. The heat transfer analysis performed on the model

  15. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Steve R.

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  16. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chengliang

    2015-05-26

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  17. Quantifying clustering in disordered carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The quantification of disorder and the effects of clustering in the sp 2 phase of amorphous carbon thin films are discussed. The sp 2 phase is described in terms of disordered nanometer-sized conductive sp 2 clusters embedded in a less conductive sp 3 matrix. Quantification of the clustering of the sp 2 phase is estimated from optical as well as from electron and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Unlike in other disordered group IV thin film semiconductors, we show that care must be exercised in attributing a meaning to the Urbach energy extracted from absorption measurements in the disordered carbon system. The influence of structural disorder, associated with sp 2 clusters of similar size, and topological disorder due to undistorted clusters of different sizes is also discussed. Extensions of this description to other systems are also presented

  18. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  19. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr 0.48 Ti 0.52 O 3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue

  20. Nanosecond laser-induced nanostructuring of thin metal layers and dielectric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, P.; Klöppel, M.; Ehrhardt, M.; Zimmer, K.; Schwaller, P.

    2015-03-01

    Nanostructuring of dielectric surfaces has a widespread field of applications. In this work the recently introduced laser method validates this novel concept for complex nanostructuring of dielectric surfaces. This concept combines the mechanism of self-assembly of metal films due to laser irradiation with the concept of laser-assisted transfer of these patterns into the underlying material. The present work focuses on pattern formation in fused silica near the border of the laser spot, where distorted nested ring-like patterns were found in contrast to concentric ring patterns at homogeneous laser irradiation. For the experiments a lateral homogeneous spot of a KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm) and a Gaussian beam Yb fiber laser (λ = 1064 nm) was used for irradiation of a thin chromium layer onto fused silica resulting in the formation of different ring structures into the fused silica surface. The obtained structures were analysed by AFM and SEM. It is found that the mechanism comprises laser-induced metal film melting, contraction of the molten metal, and successive transfer of the metal hole geometry to the fused silica. Simulations taking into account the heat and the Navier-Stokes equations were compared with the experimental results. A good agreement of simulation results with experimental data was found. These first results demonstrate that the variation of the laser beam profile allows the local control of the melt dynamics which causes changes of the shape and the size of the ring patterns. Hence, a light-controlled self-assembly is feasible.

  1. The thickness of DLC thin film affects the thermal conduction of HPLED lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming Seng; Huang, Jen Wei; Shyu, Feng Lin

    2016-09-01

    Thermal dissipation had an important influence in the quantum effect and life of light emitting diodes (LED) because it enabled heat transfer away from electric devices to the aluminum plate for heat removal. In the industrial processing, the quality of the thermal dissipation was decided by the gumming technique between the PCB and aluminum plate. In this study, we made the ceramic thin films of diamond like carbon (DLC) by vacuum sputtering between the substrate and high power light emitting diodes (HPLED) light to check the influence of heat transfer by DLC thin films. The ceramic dielectric coatings were characterized by several subsequent analyses, especially the measurement of real work temperature of HPLEDs. The X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) patterns revealed that ceramic phases were successfully grown onto the substrate. At the same time, the real work temperatures showed the thickness of DLC thin film coating effectively affected the thermal conduction of HPLEDs.

  2. Thin films for gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Jose Miguel Alves Correia

    Nos ultimos anos tem-se assistido a um aumento dos investimentos na investigacao de novos materiais para aplicacao em sensores. Apesar de ja existir um bom numero de dispositivos explorados comercialmente, muitas vezes, quer devido aos elevados custos de producao, quer devido a uma crescente exigencia do ponto de vista das caracteristicas de funcionamento, continua a ser necessario procurar novos materiais ou novas formas de producao que permitam baixar os custos e melhorar o desempenho dos dispositivos. No campo dos sensores de gases tem-se verificado continuos avancos nos ultimos anos. Continua todavia a ser necessario conhecer melhor, tanto os processos de producao dos materiais, como os mecanismos que regulam a sensibilidade dos dispositivos aos gases, de modo a orientar adequadamente a investigacao dos novos materiais, nomeadamente no que se refere a optimizacao dos parâmetros que nao satisfazem ainda os requisitos do mercado. Um dos materiais que tem mostrado melhores qualidades para aplicacao em sensores de gases de tipo resistivo e o dioxido de estanho. Este material tem sido produzido sob diversas formas e usando diferentes tecnicas, como sejam: sol-gel [1], pulverizacao catodica (sputtering) por magnetrao [2-4], sinterizacao de pos [5, 6], ablacao laser [7] ou RGTO [8]. Os resultados obtidos revelam que as caracteristicas dos dispositivos sao muito dependentes das tecnicas usadas na sua producao. A deposicao usando sputtering reactivo por magnetrao e uma tecnica que permite obter filmes finos de oxido de estanho com diferentes caracteristicas, quer do ponto de vista da estrutura, quer da composicao, e por isso, tambem, com diferentes sensibilidades aos gases. No âmbito deste trabalho, foram produzidos filmes de SnO2 usando sputtering DC reactivo com diferentes condicoes de deposicao. Os substratos usados foram lâminas de vidro e o alvo foi estanho com 99.9% de pureza. Foi estudada a influencia da atmosfera de deposicao, da pressao parcial do O2, da

  3. The carbonization of thin polyaniline films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Exnerová, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 520, č. 19 (2012), s. 6088-6094 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * thin films * infrared spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2012

  4. Thin film interfaces for microelectrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarozek, Vladimir; Ivanic, Rastislav; Jakubec, Andrej; Novotny, Ivan; Rehacek, Vlastimil

    2001-09-01

    Planar microelectrochemical chips with thin film electodes of different shapes and arrangement, have been developed and fabricated. Micro electrochemical cell with closely vertically spaced electrodes allows to exploit the effect of redox recycling and an increase of collection efficiency for a high current amplification. PC simulations of electro- mechanical properties of sl-BLM is useful tool for evaluation and prediction of BLM behavior. Non-symmetric microelectrode arrays were designed and fabricated for electrical monitoring of human skin.

  5. Thin-film silicon solar cell technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, A. V.; Schade, H.; Vaněček, Milan; Meier, J.; Vallat-Sauvain, E.; Wyrsch, N.; Kroll, U.; Droz, C.; Bailat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), s. 113-142 ISSN 1062-7995 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SN/320/11/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : thin-film silicon modules * hydrogenerated amorphous silicon(a-Si:H) * hydrogenerated microcrystalline (ćc-Si:H) * transparent conductive oxydes(TCOs) * building -integrated photovoltaics(BIPV) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2004

  6. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya, Peter; Sharman, Jonathan; Elliott, James A.

    2017-01-01

    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane-electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains with carbon and quartz as confining materials for a wide range of operational water contents and...

  7. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya, Peter; Sharman, J; Elliott, James Arthur

    2017-01-01

    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains with carbon and quartz as confining materials for a wide range of operational water contents and...

  8. Optical characterization of thin solid films

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlídal, Miloslav

    2018-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date survey of the major optical characterization techniques for thin solid films. Emphasis is placed on practicability of the various approaches. Relevant fundamentals are briefly reviewed before demonstrating the application of these techniques to practically relevant research and development topics. The book is written by international top experts, all of whom are involved in industrial research and development projects.

  9. P-type CuxS thin films: Integration in a thin film transistor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Parreira, P.; Lavareda, G.; Brogueira, P.; Amaral, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cu x S thin films, 80 nm thick, are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation of sulfur-rich powder mixture, Cu 2 S:S (50:50 wt.%) with no intentional heating of the substrate. The process of deposition occurs at very low deposition rates (0.1–0.3 nm/s) to avoid the formation of Cu or S-rich films. The evolution of Cu x S films surface properties (morphology/roughness) under post deposition mild annealing in air at 270 °C and their integration in a thin film transistor (TFT) are the main objectives of this study. Accordingly, Scanning Electron Microscopy studies show Cu x S films with different surface morphologies, depending on the post deposition annealing conditions. For the shortest annealing time, the Cu x S films look to be constructed of grains with large dimension at the surface (approximately 100 nm) and consequently, irregular shape. For the longest annealing time, films with a fine-grained surface are found, with some randomly distributed large particles bound to this fine-grained surface. Atomic Force Microscopy results indicate an increase of the root-mean-square roughness of Cu x S surface with annealing time, from 13.6 up to 37.4 nm, for 255 and 345 s, respectively. The preliminary integration of Cu x S films in a TFT bottom-gate type structure allowed the study of the feasibility and compatibility of this material with the remaining stages of a TFT fabrication as well as the determination of the p-type characteristic of the Cu x S material. - Highlights: • Surface properties of annealed Cu x S films. • Variation of conductivity with annealing temperatures of Cu x S films. • Application of evaporated Cu x S films in a thin film transistor (TFT) structure. • Determination of Cu x S p-type characteristic from TFT behaviour

  10. Self-assembled single-phase perovskite nanocomposite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Bi, Lei; Paik, Hanjong; Yang, Dae-Jin; Park, Yun Chang; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2010-02-10

    Thin films of perovskite-structured oxides with general formula ABO(3) have great potential in electronic devices because of their unique properties, which include the high dielectric constant of titanates, (1) high-T(C) superconductivity in cuprates, (2) and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. (3) These properties are intimately dependent on, and can therefore be tailored by, the microstructure, orientation, and strain state of the film. Here, we demonstrate the growth of cubic Sr(Ti,Fe)O(3) (STF) films with an unusual self-assembled nanocomposite microstructure consisting of (100) and (110)-oriented crystals, both of which grow epitaxially with respect to the Si substrate and which are therefore homoepitaxial with each other. These structures differ from previously reported self-assembled oxide nanocomposites, which consist either of two different materials (4-7) or of single-phase distorted-cubic materials that exhibit two or more variants. (8-12) Moreover, an epitaxial nanocomposite SrTiO(3) overlayer can be grown on the STF, extending the range of compositions over which this microstructure can be formed. This offers the potential for the implementation of self-organized optical/ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid nanostructures integrated on technologically important Si substrates with applications in magnetooptical or spintronic devices.

  11. Aluminum nitride and nanodiamond thin film microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoebber, Fabian; Bludau, Oliver; Roehlig, Claus-Christian; Williams, Oliver; Sah, Ram Ekwal; Kirste, Lutz; Cimalla, Volker; Lebedev, Vadim; Nebel, Christoph; Ambacher, Oliver [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, aluminum nitride (AlN) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film microstructures have been developed. Freestanding NCD membranes were coated with a piezoelectrical AlN layer in order to build tunable micro-lens arrays. For the evaluation of the single material quality, AlN and NCD thin films on silicon substrates were fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering and microwave chemical vapor deposition techniques, respectively. The crystal quality of AlN was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} was determined by scanning laser vibrometry. The NCD thin films were optimized with respect to surface roughness, mechanical stability, intrinsic stress and transparency. To determine the mechanical properties of the materials, both, micromechanical resonator and membrane structures were fabricated and measured by magnetomotive resonant frequency spectroscopy and bulging experiments, respectively. Finally, the behavior of AlN/NCD heterostructures was modeled using the finite element method and the first structures were characterized by piezoelectrical measurements.

  12. Multiferroic RMnO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroic materials have received an astonishing attention in the last decades due to expectations that potential coupling between distinct ferroic orders could inspire new applications and new device concepts. As a result, a new knowledge on coupling mechanisms and materials science has dramatically emerged. Multiferroic RMnO3 perovskites are central to this progress, providing a suitable platform to tailor spin-spin and spin-lattice interactions. With views towards applications, the development of thin films of multiferroic materials have also progressed enormously and nowadays thin-film manganites are available, with properties mimicking those of bulk compounds. Here we review achievements on the growth of hexagonal and orthorhombic RMnO3 epitaxial thin films and the characterization of their magnetic and ferroelectric properties, we discuss some challenging issues, and we suggest some guidelines for future research and developments. En ce qui concerne les applications, le développement de films minces de matériaux multiferroïques a aussi énormément progressé, et de nos jours des films minces de manganites avec des propriétés similaires à celles des matériaux massifs existent. Nous passons en revue ici les résultats obtenus dans le domaine de la croissance de couches minces épitaxiés de RMnO3 hexagonal et orthorhombique et de la caractérisation de leurs propriétés magnétiques et ferroélectriques. Nous discutons certains enjeux et proposons quelques idées pour des recherches et développements futurs.

  13. Morphology and microstructure of picene thin-films for air-operating transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, Abdou Karim [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CINaM UMR 7325, 13288 Marseille (France); Kurihara, Ryouta [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Yoshimoto, Noriyuki, E-mail: yoshimoto@iwate-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Videlot-Ackermann, Christine, E-mail: videlot@cinam.univ-mrs.fr [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CINaM UMR 7325, 13288 Marseille (France)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Vacuum deposition of picene active layer for devices operating in air. • Morphology and microstructure of picene thin-films. • Low temperature thermal annealing for air-performing transistors based on picene. - Abstract: Picene, a p-type organic semiconductor, was involved as active layer in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Picene thin films were realized by vacuum evaporation on gate dielectrics based on bare silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) or coated with polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA). Assisted by a controlled post-deposition annealing at low temperature (<100 °C), OTFTs were characterized in air to provide a hole mobility up to 0.2 cm{sup 2}/V s. Thin-film morphology and microstructure were studied in details by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray film diffractometry (XRD) before and after the post-annealing as thickness and vacuum conditions dependences. While any molecular reorganization was induced by such thermal post-treatment, the unavoidable presence of H{sub 2}O molecules in air and their diffusion in thin films were consistently reduced to offer air-operating OTFTs.

  14. Crystallinity and electrical properties of neodymium-substituted bismuth titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Hsiung, C.-P.; Chen, C.-Y.; Gan, J.-Y.; Sun, Y.-M.; Lin, C.-P.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the properties of Nd-substituted bismuth titanate Bi 4-x Nd x Ti 3 O 12 (BNdT) thin films for ferroelectric non-volatile memory applications. The Nd-substituted bismuth titanate thin films fabricated by modified chemical solution deposition technique showed much improved properties compared to pure bismuth titanate. A pyrochlore free crystalline phase was obtained at a low annealing temperature of 640 deg. C and grain size was found to be considerably increased as the annealing temperature increased. The film properties were found to be strongly dependent on the Nd content and annealing temperatures. The measured dielectric constant of BNdT thin films was in the range 172-130 for Bi 4-x Nd x Ti 3 O 12 with x 0.0-0.75. Ferroelectric properties of Nd-substituted bismuth titanate thin films were significantly improved compared to pure bismuth titanate. For example, the observed 2P r and E c for Bi 3.25 Nd 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 , annealed at 680 deg. C, were 38 μC/cm 2 and 98 kV/cm, respectively. The improved microstructural and ferroelectric properties of BNdT thin films suggest their suitability for high density ferroelectric random access memory applications

  15. Additives to silane for thin film silicon photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Patrick Timothy; Ridgeway, Robert Gordon; Hutchison, Katherine Anne; Langan, John Giles

    2013-09-17

    Chemical additives are used to increase the rate of deposition for the amorphous silicon film (.alpha.Si:H) and/or the microcrystalline silicon film (.mu.CSi:H). The electrical current is improved to generate solar grade films as photoconductive films used in the manufacturing of Thin Film based Photovoltaic (TFPV) devices.

  16. Thermal oxidation of Ni films for p-type thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    p-Type nanocrystal NiO-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) are fabricated by simply oxidizing thin Ni films at temperatures as low as 400 °C. The highest field-effect mobility in a linear region and the current on-off ratio are found to be 5.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.2 × 103, respectively. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electrical performances of the TFTs with "top contact" and "bottom contact" channels suggest that the upper parts of the Ni films are clearly oxidized. In contrast, the lower parts in contact with the gate dielectric are partially oxidized to form a quasi-discontinuous Ni layer, which does not fully shield the gate electric field, but still conduct the source and drain current. This simple method for producing p-type TFTs may be promising for the next-generation oxide-based electronic applications. © 2013 the Owner Societies.

  17. Electrical resistivity of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Wissmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give an actual survey on the resistivity of thin metal and semiconductor films interacting with gases. We discuss the influence of the substrate material and the annealing treatment of the films, presenting our experimental data as well as theoretical models to calculate the scattering cross section of the conduction electrons in the frame-work of the scattering hypothesis. Main emphasis is laid on the comparison of gold and silver films which exhibit nearly the same lattice structure but differ in their chemical activity. In conclusion, the most important quantity for the interpretation is the surface charging z while the correlation with the optical data or the frustrated IR vibrations seems the show a more material-specific character. Z can be calculated on the basis of the density functional formalism or the self-consistent field approximation using Mulliken’s population analysis.

  18. Thermal properties of methyltrimethoxysilane aerogel thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro N. Acquaroli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerogels are light and porous solids whose properties, largely determined by their nanostructure, are useful in a wide range of applications, e.g., thermal insulation. In this work, as-deposited and thermally treated air-filled silica aerogel thin films synthesized using the sol-gel method were studied for their thermal properties using the 3-omega technique, at ambient conditions. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity were found to increase as the porosity of the aerogel decreased. Thermally treated films show a clear reduction in thermal conductivity compared with that of as-deposited films, likely due to an increase of porosity. The smallest thermal conductivity and diffusivity found for our aerogels were 0.019 W m−1 K−1 and 9.8 × 10-9 m2 s−1. A model was used to identify the components (solid, gaseous and radiative of the total thermal conductivity of the aerogel.

  19. Deposition and characterization of ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Sinan; Gökmen, F. Özge; Yaman, Elif; Nebi, Murat

    2018-02-01

    ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films were deposited at different deposition times by using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. Effects of deposition time on structural, morphological and optical properties of the obtained thin films were characterized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the structural properties of ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films. It was found that ZnSe thin films have a cubic structure with a preferentially orientation of (111). The calculated average grain size value was about 28-30 nm. The surface morphology of these films was studied by the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The surfaces of the thin films were occurred from small stacks and nano-sized particles. The band gap values of the ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films were determined by UV-Visible absorption spectrum and the band gap values were found to be between 2.65-2.86 eV.

  20. Atomic-Layer-Deposition of Indium Oxide Nano-films for Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Zheng, He-Mei; Shao, Yan; Zhu, Bao; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2018-01-01

    Atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) of In2O3 nano-films has been investigated using cyclopentadienyl indium (InCp) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as precursors. The In2O3 films can be deposited preferentially at relatively low temperatures of 160-200 °C, exhibiting a stable growth rate of 1.4-1.5 Å/cycle. The surface roughness of the deposited film increases gradually with deposition temperature, which is attributed to the enhanced crystallization of the film at a higher deposition temperature. As the deposition temperature increases from 150 to 200 °C, the optical band gap (Eg) of the deposited film rises from 3.42 to 3.75 eV. In addition, with the increase of deposition temperature, the atomic ratio of In to O in the as-deposited film gradually shifts towards that in the stoichiometric In2O3, and the carbon content also reduces by degrees. For 200 °C deposition temperature, the deposited film exhibits an In:O ratio of 1:1.36 and no carbon incorporation. Further, high-performance In2O3 thin-film transistors with an Al2O3 gate dielectric were achieved by post-annealing in air at 300 °C for appropriate time, demonstrating a field-effect mobility of 7.8 cm2/Vṡs, a subthreshold swing of 0.32 V/dec, and an on/off current ratio of 107. This was ascribed to passivation of oxygen vacancies in the device channel.

  1. Optical Properties of Al- and Sb-Doped CdTe Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. J. Al-Douri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondoped and (Al, Sb-doped CdTe thin films with 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5  wt.%, respectively, were deposited by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum onto Corning 7059 glass at substrate temperatures ( of room temperature (RT and 423 K. The optical properties of deposited CdTe films such as band gap, refractive index (n, extinction coefficient (, and dielectric coefficients were investigated as function of Al and Sb wt.% doping, respectively. The results showed that films have direct optical transition. Increasing and the wt.% of both types of dopant, the band gap decrease but the optical is constant as n, and real and imaginary parts of the dielectric coefficient increase.

  2. TXRF analysis of trace metals in thin silicon nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereecke, G.; Arnauts, S.; Verstraeten, K.; Schaekers, M.; Heyrts, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    As critical dimensions of integrated circuits continue to decrease, high dielectric constant materials such as silicon nitride are being considered to replace silicon dioxide in capacitors and transistors. The achievement of low levels of metal contamination in these layers is critical for high performance and reliability. Existing methods of quantitative analysis of trace metals in silicon nitride require high amounts of sample (from about 0.1 to 1 g, compared to a mass of 0.2 mg for a 2 nm thick film on a 8'' silicon wafer), and involve digestion steps not applicable to films on wafers or non-standard techniques such as neutron activation analysis. A novel approach has recently been developed to analyze trace metals in thin films with analytical techniques currently used in the semiconductor industry. Sample preparation consists of three steps: (1) decomposition of the silicon nitride matrix by moist HF condensed at the wafer surface to form ammonium fluosilicate. (2) vaporization of the fluosilicate by a short heat treatment at 300 o C. (3) collection of contaminants by scanning the wafer surface with a solution droplet (VPD-DSC procedure). The determination of trace metals is performed by drying the droplet on the wafer and by analyzing the residue by TXRF, as it offers the advantages of multi-elemental analysis with no dilution of the sample. The lower limits of detection for metals in 2 nm thick films on 8'' silicon wafers range from about 10 to 200 ng/g. The present study will focus on the matrix effects and the possible loss of analyte associated with the evaporation of the fluosilicate salt, in relation with the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The benefits of using an internal standard will be assessed. Results will be presented from both model samples (ammonium fluoride contaminated with metallic salts) and real samples (silicon nitride films from a production tool). (author)

  3. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Pb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Michael

    2010-12-13

    The present thesis deals with the electronic structure, work function and single-atom contact conductance of Pb thin films, investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The electronic structure of Pb(111) thin films on Ag(111) surfaces is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Quantum size effects, in particular, quantum well states (QWSs), play a crucial role in the electronic and physical properties of these films. Quantitative analysis of the spectra yields the QWS energies as a function of film thickness, the Pb bulk-band dispersion in {gamma}-L direction, scattering phase shifts at the Pb/Ag interface and vacuum barrier as well as the lifetime broadening at anti {gamma}. The work function {phi} is an important property of surfaces, which influences catalytic reactivity and charge injection at interfaces. It controls the availability of charge carriers in front of a surface. Modifying {phi} has been achieved by deposition of metals and molecules. For investigating {phi} at the atomic scale, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has become a widely used technique. STM measures an apparent barrier height {phi}{sub a}, which is commonly related to the sample work function {phi}{sub s} by: {phi}{sub a}=({phi}{sub s}+{phi}{sub t}- vertical stroke eV vertical stroke)/2, with {phi}{sub t} the work function of the tunneling tip, V the applied tunneling bias voltage, and -e the electron charge. Hence, the effect of the finite voltage in STM on {phi}{sub a} is assumed to be linear and the comparison of {phi}{sub a} measured at different surface sites is assumed to yield quantitative information about work function differences. Here, the dependence of {phi}{sub a} on the Pb film thickness and applied bias voltage V is investigated. {phi}{sub a} is found to vary significantly with V. This bias dependence leads to drastic changes and even inversion of contrast in spatial maps of {phi}{sub a}, which are related to the QWSs in the Pb

  4. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies on CdSe thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. Thin films of CdSe were deposited by potentiostatic mode on different substrates such as stainless steel, titanium and fluorine tin–oxide (FTO) coated glass using non-aqueous bath. The preparative parameters were optimized to get good quality CdSe thin films. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction.

  5. Oriented growth of thin films of samarium oxide by MOCVD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Infrared spectroscopic study reveals that films grown above 600°C are free of carbon. Keywords. MOCVD; thin films .... Simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) of the complex was carried ..... quality thin films of rare earth oxides by MOCVD, using the phenanthroline adducts of pentadionate ...

  6. Dynamics of a spreading thin film with gravitational counterflow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, dynamics of a thin film spreading due to a thermocapillary stress is mod- eled within lubrication approximation. In microscale flows, the large surface to volume ratios allow interfacial stresses to exert a driving influence. This ability to drive thin film using thermo- capillary stress is used to spread film for ...

  7. Structural characterization of vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The lattice parameter, grain size, average internal stress, microstrain, dislocation density and degree of pre- ferred orientation in the film are calculated and correlated with Ts. Keywords. ZnSe thin films; X-ray diffraction; average internal stress; microstrain; dislocation density. 1. Introduction. Thin films of ZnSe has attracted ...

  8. Dielectric Measurements on Sol-Gel Derived Titania Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capan, Rifat; Ray, Asim K.

    2017-11-01

    Alternating current (AC) impedance measurements were performed on 37 nm thick nanostructured sol-gel derived anatase titania films on ultrasonically cleaned (100) p-silicon substrates at temperatures T ranging from 100 K to 300 K over a frequency range between 20 Hz and 1 MHz. The frequency-dependent behavior of the AC conductivity σ ac( f, T) obeys the universal power law, and the values of the effective hopping barrier and hopping distance were found to be 0.79 eV and 6.7 × 10-11 m from an analysis due to the correlated barrier-hopping model. The dielectric relaxation was identified as a thermally activated non-Debye process involving an activation energy of 41.5 meV.

  9. Enhancement and Tunability of Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer Mediated by Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Thin Plasmonic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Boriskina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The properties of thermal radiation exchange between hot and cold objects can be strongly modified if they interact in the near field where electromagnetic coupling occurs across gaps narrower than the dominant wavelength of thermal radiation. Using a rigorous fluctuational electrodynamics approach, we predict that ultra-thin films of plasmonic materials can be used to dramatically enhance near-field heat transfer. The total spectrally integrated film-to-film heat transfer is over an order of magnitude larger than between the same materials in bulk form and also exceeds the levels achievable with polar dielectrics such as SiC. We attribute this enhancement to the significant spectral broadening of radiative heat transfer due to coupling between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs on both sides of each thin film. We show that the radiative heat flux spectrum can be further shaped by the choice of the substrate onto which the thin film is deposited. In particular, substrates supporting surface phonon polaritons (SPhP strongly modify the heat flux spectrum owing to the interactions between SPPs on thin films and SPhPs of the substrate. The use of thin film phase change materials on polar dielectric substrates allows for dynamic switching of the heat flux spectrum between SPP-mediated and SPhP-mediated peaks.

  10. Transparent thin films of indium tin oxide: Morphology-optical investigations, inter dependence analyzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepelita, P.; Filipescu, M.; Stavarache, I.; Garoi, F.; Craciun, D.

    2017-12-01

    Using a fast and eco-friendly deposition method, ITO thin films with different thicknesses (0.5 μm-0.7 μm) were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. A comparative analysis of these oxide films was then carried out. AFM investigations showed that the deposited films were smooth, uniform and having a surface roughness smaller than 10 nm. X-ray diffraction investigations showed that all samples were polycrystalline and the grain sizes of the films, corresponding to (222) cubic reflection, were found to increase with the increasing film thickness. The optical properties, evaluated by UV-VIS-NIR (190-3000 nm) spectrophotometer, evidenced that the obtained thin films were highly transparent, with a transmission coefficient between 90 and 96%, depending on the film thickness. Various methods (Swanepoel and Drude) were employed to appreciate the optimal behaviour of transparent oxide films, in determining the dielectric optical parameters and refractive index dispersion for ITO films exhibiting interference patterns in the optical transmission spectra. The electrical conductivity also increased as the film thickness increased.

  11. Optical and microwave properties of CaBi4Ti4O15 ferroelectric thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emani, Sivanagi Reddy; Joseph, Andrews; Raju, K. C. James

    2016-05-01

    Transparent CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBTi) ferroelectric thin films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition method. The structural, optical and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. CBTi thin films had polycrystalline bismuth-layered perovskite structure and exhibited excellent optical properties. The X-ray analysis of the thin film demonstrates the phase formation and crystallinity. The optical transmission studies show that film is transparent in VIS-NIR region with a direct band gap of 3.53 EV. Morphological studies provide surface roughness as 3 mm. Dielectric constant and loss factors were 48 and 0.060 respectively, at 10GHz. These results suggest that CBTi thin films are promising multifunctional materials for applications in optoelectronic and microwave devices.

  12. Investigation of the effects of misfit strain on barium strontium titanate thin films deposited on base metal substrates by a modified phenomenological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hanting; Li, Hongfang; Chen, Jianguo; Jin, Dengren; Cheng, Jinrong

    2017-10-01

    The Landau-Devonshire phenomenological model, which has been utilized to investigate epitaxial barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films, was modified to investigate the effects of misfit strain on the dielectric properties of polycrystalline BST thin films deposited on base metal substrates. The modification considers the relaxation of lattice misfit stress resulting from the formation of in-plane misfit dislocations. The modified lattice misfit strain was calculated by referring to the ferroelectric critical grain size. Moreover, the misfit strain and dielectric properties of BST thin films with different structures and substrates were investigated by the models. It was found that the measured dielectric constant and tunability of BST thin films on different metal substrates overall agreed with the computed data. In addition, the good agreement was also observed for sandwich-like structural BST thin films deposited on LNO buffered stainless steel plates. Our results indicated that the modified L-D models might be utilized to predict dielectric properties of polycrystalline BST thin films for varied substrates and multilayer structures.

  13. Transparent Oxide Thin-Film Transistors: Production, Characterization and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquinha, Pedro Miguel Candido

    This dissertation is devoted to the study of the emerging area of transparent electronics, summarizing research work regarding the development of n-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on sputtered oxide semiconductors. All the materials are produced without intentional substrate heating, with annealing temperatures of only 150-200 °C being used to optimize transistor performance. The work is based on the study and optimization of active semiconductors from the gallium-indium-zinc oxide system, including both the binary compounds Ga2O3, In2O3 and ZnO, as well as ternary and quaternary oxides based on mixtures of those, such as IZO and GIZO with different atomic ratios. Several topics are explored, including the study and optimization of the oxide semiconductor thin films, their application as channel layers on TFTs and finally the implementation of the optimized processes to fabricate active matrix backplanes to be integrated in liquid crystal display (LCD) prototypes. Sputtered amorphous dielectrics with high dielectric constant (high-kappa) based on mixtures of tantalum-silicon or tantalum-aluminum oxides are also studied and used as the dielectric layers on fully transparent TFTs. These devices also include transparent and highly conducting IZO thin films as source, drain and gate electrodes. Given the flexibility of the sputtering technique, oxide semiconductors are analyzed regarding several deposition parameters, such as oxygen partial pressure and deposition pressure, as well as target composition. One of the most interesting features of multicomponent oxides such as IZO and GIZO is that, due to their unique electronic configuration and carrier transport mechanism, they allow to obtain amorphous structures with remarkable electrical properties, such as high hall-effect mobility that exceeds 60 cm2 V -1 s-1 for IZO. These properties can be easily tuned by changing the processing conditions and the atomic ratios of the multicomponent oxides, allowing to

  14. Metallic Thin-Film Bonding and Alloy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor); Campbell, Geoff (Inventor); Peotter, Brian S. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion bonding a stack of aluminum thin films is particularly challenging due to a stable aluminum oxide coating that rapidly forms on the aluminum thin films when they are exposed to atmosphere and the relatively low meting temperature of aluminum. By plating the individual aluminum thin films with a metal that does not rapidly form a stable oxide coating, the individual aluminum thin films may be readily diffusion bonded together using heat and pressure. The resulting diffusion bonded structure can be an alloy of choice through the use of a carefully selected base and plating metals. The aluminum thin films may also be etched with distinct patterns that form a microfluidic fluid flow path through the stack of aluminum thin films when diffusion bonded together.

  15. Electrical Properties of Thin-Film Capacitors Fabricated Using High Temperature Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Glyn J; Kratzer, Martin; Dubs, Martin; Felzer, Heinz; Mamazza, Robert

    2012-04-13

    Simple thin-film capacitor stacks were fabricated from sputter-deposited doped barium titanate dielectric films with sputtered Pt and/or Ni electrodes and characterized electrically. Here, we report small signal, low frequency capacitance and parallel resistance data measured as a function of applied DC bias, polarization versus applied electric field strength and DC load/unload experiments. These capacitors exhibited significant leakage (in the range 8-210 μA/cm²) and dielectric loss. Measured breakdown strength for the sputtered doped barium titanate films was in the range 200 kV/cm -2 MV/cm. For all devices tested, we observed clear evidence for dielectric saturation at applied electric field strengths above 100 kV/cm: saturated polarization was in the range 8-15 μC/cm². When cycled under DC conditions, the maximum energy density measured for any of the capacitors tested here was ~4.7 × 10 -2 W-h/liter based on the volume of the dielectric material only. This corresponds to a specific energy of ~8 × 10 -3 W-h/kg, again calculated on a dielectric-only basis. These results are compared to those reported by other authors and a simple theoretical treatment provided that quantifies the maximum energy that can be stored in these and similar devices as a function of dielectric strength and saturation polarization. Finally, a predictive model is developed to provide guidance on how to tailor the relative permittivities of high-k dielectrics in order to optimize their energy storage capacities.

  16. Electrical Properties of Thin-Film Capacitors Fabricated Using High Temperature Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mamazza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Simple thin-film capacitor stacks were fabricated from sputter-deposited doped barium titanate dielectric films with sputtered Pt and/or Ni electrodes and characterized electrically. Here, we report small signal, low frequency capacitance and parallel resistance data measured as a function of applied DC bias, polarization versus applied electric field strength and DC load/unload experiments. These capacitors exhibited significant leakage (in the range 8–210 μA/cm2 and dielectric loss. Measured breakdown strength for the sputtered doped barium titanate films was in the range 200 kV/cm −2 MV/cm. For all devices tested, we observed clear evidence for dielectric saturation at applied electric field strengths above 100 kV/cm: saturated polarization was in the range 8–15 μC/cm2. When cycled under DC conditions, the maximum energy density measured for any of the capacitors tested here was ~4.7 × 10−2 W-h/liter based on the volume of the dielectric material only. This corresponds to a specific energy of ~8 × 10−3 W-h/kg, again calculated on a dielectric-only basis. These results are compared to those reported by other authors and a simple theoretical treatment provided that quantifies the maximum energy that can be stored in these and similar devices as a function of dielectric strength and saturation polarization. Finally, a predictive model is developed to provide guidance on how to tailor the relative permittivities of high-k dielectrics in order to optimize their energy storage capacities.

  17. Microstructure, vertical strain control and tunable functionalities in self-assembled, vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Aiping; Bi, Zhenxing; Jia, Quanxi; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films have recently stimulated a significant amount of research interest owing to their novel architecture, vertical interfacial strain control and tunable material functionalities. In this work, the growth mechanisms of VAN thin films have been investigated by varying the composite material system, the ratio of the two constituent phases, and the thin film growth conditions including deposition temperature and oxygen pressure as well as growth rate. It has been shown that thermodynamic parameters, elastic and interfacial energies and the multiple phase ratio play dominant roles in the resulting microstructure. In addition, vertical interfacial strain has been observed in BiFeO 3 (BFO)- and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO)-based VAN thin film systems; the vertical strain could be tuned by the growth parameters and selection of a suitable secondary phase. The tunability of physical properties such as dielectric loss in BFO:Sm 2 O 3 VAN and low-field magnetoresistance in LSMO-based VAN systems has been demonstrated. The enhancement and tunability of those physical properties have been attributed to the unique VAN architecture and vertical strain control. These results suggest that VAN architecture with novel microstructure and unique vertical strain tuning could provide a general route for tailoring and manipulating the functionalities of oxide thin films

  18. Porous Organic Cage Thin Films and Molecular-Sieving Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qilei; Jiang, Shan; Hasell, Tom; Liu, Ming; Sun, Shijing; Cheetham, Anthony K; Sivaniah, Easan; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-04-06

    Porous organic cage molecules are fabricated into thin films and molecular-sieving membranes. Cage molecules are solution cast on various substrates to form amorphous thin films, with the structures tuned by tailoring the cage chemistry and processing conditions. For the first time, uniform and pinhole-free microporous cage thin films are formed and demonstrated as molecular-sieving membranes for selective gas separation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Solution processed pentacene thin films and their structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Chunlan; Zhang Xuhui; Zhang Fujia; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Haoli

    2007-01-01

    The paper reported the solution process of pentacene thin films from organic solvent O-dichlorobenzene. The pentacene thin films obtained from different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The result shows that the pentacene solution was successfully obtained at a minimum temperature of 40 deg. C. The optimum temperature of forming pentacene thin films was 100 deg. C

  20. Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1996-02-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells convert thermal energy to electricity. Modularity, portability, silent operation, absence of moving parts, reduced air pollution, rapid start-up, high power densities, potentially high conversion efficiencies, choice of a wide range of heat sources employing fossil fuels, biomass, and even solar radiation are key advantages of TPV cells in comparison with fuel cells, thermionic and thermoelectric convertors, and heat engines. The potential applications of TPV systems include: remote electricity supplies, transportation, co-generation, electric-grid independent appliances, and space, aerospace, and military power applications. The range of bandgaps for achieving high conversion efficiencies using low temperature (1000-2000 K) black-body or selective radiators is in the 0.5-0.75 eV range. Present high efficiency convertors are based on single crystalline materials such as In1-xGaxAs, GaSb, and Ga1-xInxSb. Several polycrystalline thin films such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, and Pb1-xCdxTe, etc., have great potential for economic large-scale applications. A small fraction of the high concentration of charge carriers generated at high fluences effectively saturates the large density of defects in polycrystalline thin films. Photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of polycrystalline thin films and PV solar cells are comparable to single crystalline Si solar cells, e.g., 17.1% for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 and 15.8% for CdTe. The best recombination-state density Nt is in the range of 10-15-10-16 cm-3 acceptable for TPV applications. Higher efficiencies may be achieved because of the higher fluences, possibility of bandgap tailoring, and use of selective emitters such as rare earth oxides (erbia, holmia, yttria) and rare earth-yttrium aluminium garnets. As compared to higher bandgap semiconductors such as CdTe, it is easier to dope the lower bandgap semiconductors. TPV cell development can benefit from the more mature PV solar cell and opto

  1. Characterization of thin films using local magneometer

    CERN Document Server

    Katyan N.

    2016-01-01

    SIS nanocomposite (Superconductor/Insulator/Superconductor) could improve efficiency of accelerating cavities. The SRF multilayers concept focuses on the enhancement of HC1 using thin layers (d~λ). The use of thin layers makes it easier to avoid avalanche penetration of vortices in case of local defects. Several layers are needed in order to attenuate the external field to values below Nb HC1, decoupled using dielectric layers. We don’t know yet how the predicted properties evolve in realistic conditions; hence it seems reasonable to do their optimization. Two parameters need to be measured to study their behavior in cavity operating conditions: HC1 and Rs surface resistance (especially residual). For that purpose two instruments were developed in Saclay and in Orsay. A local magnetometer allows measuring the vortex penetration on samples without the orientation and edge effects encountered in SQUID magnetometers. Its operating conditions range from 2-40 K, with field up to 150 mT, and upgradation to highe...

  2. Optical constants of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-07-14

    The lack of optical constants information for hybrid perovskite of CH3NH3PbBr3 in thin films form can delay the progress of efficient LED or laser demonstration. Here, we report on the optical constants (complex refractive index and dielectric function) of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Due to the existence of voids, the refractive index of the thin films is around 8% less than the single crystals counterpart. The energy bandgap is around 2.309 eV as obtained from photoluminescence and spectrophotometry spectra, and calculated from the SE analysis. The precise measurement of optical constants will be useful in designing optical devices using CH3NH3PbBr3 thin films.

  3. Properties of SrBi sub 2 Nb sub 2 O sub 9 thin films on Pt-coated Si

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, R E; Martin, V D C; Fernandez, L M; Sylvester, G S; Retuert, P J; Gramsch, E

    2002-01-01

    SrBi sub 2 Nb sub 2 O sub 9 powders and thin films, on Pt-coated Si, were synthesised by the sol-gel method. Three-layer thin films appear homogeneous down to the 100 nm scale, polycrystalline in the tetragonal Aurivillius phase, at a average thickness of 40 nm per layer. The index of refraction at the center of the visible range increases with the sintering temperature from roughly 2.1 (at 400 Centigrade) to 2.5 (at 700 Centigrade). The expression n sup 2 -1 increases linearly with the relative density of the thin films, in similar fashion as previous studies in PbTiO sub 3 thin films. The dielectric constant in quasistatic and high frequency (1 MHz) modes, is between 160 and 230. (Author)

  4. Properties of SrBi2Nb2O9 thin films on Pt-coated Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.E.; Navarro, P.O.; Martin, V. del C.; Fernandez, L.M.; Sylvester, G.; Retuert, P.J.; Gramsch, E.

    2002-01-01

    SrBi 2 Nb 2 O 9 powders and thin films, on Pt-coated Si, were synthesised by the sol-gel method. Three-layer thin films appear homogeneous down to the 100 nm scale, polycrystalline in the tetragonal Aurivillius phase, at a average thickness of 40 nm per layer. The index of refraction at the center of the visible range increases with the sintering temperature from roughly 2.1 (at 400 Centigrade) to 2.5 (at 700 Centigrade). The expression n 2 -1 increases linearly with the relative density of the thin films, in similar fashion as previous studies in PbTiO 3 thin films. The dielectric constant in quasistatic and high frequency (1 MHz) modes, is between 160 and 230. (Author)

  5. Effect of UV-light illumination on oxide-based electric-double-layer thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jumei; Hu, Yunping

    2017-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated using porous SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition as dielectrics. The results showed that the porous SiO2 film exhibited a high electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance. Devices gated by the EDL dielectric exhibited a high drain current on/off ratio of >106 and a low operation voltage of <2.0 V in the dark. When illuminated by 254 nm UV light, ITO-based EDL TFTs gated by a single SiO2 dielectric displayed weak photo-responses. However, devices gated by a stacked Al2O3/EDL dielectric displayed a high photo responsivity of more than 104 with a gate bias of -0.5 V (depletion state).

  6. Progress on thin-film sensors for space propulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Walter S.

    1987-01-01

    The objective is to develop thin-film thermocouples for Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components. Thin-film thermocouples have been developed for aircraft gas turbine engines and are in use for temperature measurement on turbine blades to 1800 F. The technology established for aircraft gas turbine engines will be adapted to the materials and environment encountered in the SSME. Specific goals are to expand the existing in-house thin-film sensor technology and to test the survivability and durability of thin-film sensors in the SSME environment.

  7. Physics of thin films advances in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Georg; Vossen, John L

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 12 reviews advances that have been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films. This volume covers a wide range of preparative approaches, physics phenomena, and applications related to thin films. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with a discussion on metal coatings and protective layers for front surface mirrors used at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Thin-film materials and deposition conditions suitable for minimizing reflectance changes with

  8. Sputtering materials for VLSI and thin film devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Jaydeep

    2010-01-01

    An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall p

  9. Crystalline thin films: The electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) view

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical atomic layer deposition technique is selected as one of the methods to prepare thin films for various applications, including electrocatalytic materials and compound....

  10. Thin-Film Materials Synthesis and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a wide capability for deposition and processing of thin films, including sputter and ion-beam deposition, thermal evaporation, electro-deposition,...

  11. Seebeck effect of some thin film carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beensh-Marchwicka, G.; Prociow, E.

    2002-01-01

    Several materials have been investigated for high-temperature thin film thermocouple applications. These include silicon carbide with boron (Si-C-B), ternary composition based on Si-C-Mn, fourfold composition based on Si-C-Zr-B and tantalum carbide (TaC). All materials were deposited on quartz or glass substrates using the pulse sputter deposition technique. Electrical conduction and thermoelectric power were measured for various compositions at 300-550 K. It has been found, that the efficiency of thermoelectric power of films containing Si-C base composition was varied from 0.0015-0.034 μW/cmK 2 . However for TaC the value about 0.093 μW/cmK 2 was obtained. (author)

  12. TEM characterization of nanodiamond thin films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, L.-C.; Zhou, D.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    The microstructure of thin films grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) from fullerene C{sub 60} precursors has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), bright-field electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). The films are composed of nanosize crystallites of diamond, and no graphitic or amorphous phases were observed. The diamond crystallite size measured from lattice images shows that most grains range between 3-5 nm, reflecting a gamma distribution. SAED gave no evidence of either sp2-bonded glassy carbon or sp3-bonded diamondlike amorphous carbon. The sp2-bonded configuration found in PEELS was attributed to grain boundary carbon atoms, which constitute 5-10% of the total. Occasionally observed larger diamond grains tend to be highly faulted.

  13. Thin Film Photovoltaics: Markets and Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger-Waldau, Arnulf

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, total PV production increased almost by two orders of magnitude, with a compound annual growth rate of over 52%. The most rapid growth in annual cell and module production over the last five years could be observed in Asia, where China and Taiwan together now account for about 60% of worldwide production. Between 2005 and 2009, thin film production capacity and volume increased more than the overall industry but did not keep up in 2010 and 2011 due to the rapid price decline for s...

  14. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlow, S.L.

    1981-02-01

    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.

  15. Thin molecular films of supramolecular porphyrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOITI ARAKI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A relevant series of symmetric supramolecular porphyrins has been obtained by attaching four [Ru II(bipy2Cl] groups to the pyridyl substituents of meso-tetra(4-pyridylporphyrin and its metallated derivatives. These compounds display a rich electrochemistry and versatile catalytic, electrocatalytic and photochemical properties, associated with the ruthenium-bipyridine and the porphyrin complexes. These properties can be transferred to the electrodes by attaching thin molecular films of the compounds, by dip-coating, electrostatic assembly or electropolymerization. In this way, the interesting properties of those supermolecules and supramolecular assemblies can be used to prepare molecular devices and sensors.

  16. Infrared control coating of thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne; Hollingsworth, Russell

    2017-02-28

    Systems and methods for creating an infrared-control coated thin film device with certain visible light transmittance and infrared reflectance properties are disclosed. The device may be made using various techniques including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, sputter deposition, and sol-gel processes. In particular, a pulsed energy microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process may be used. Production of the device may occur at speeds greater than 50 Angstroms/second and temperatures lower than 200.degree. C.

  17. Grain Boundary Induced Bias Instability in Soluble Acene-Based Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ky V.; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Lee, Jung Hun; Song, Eunjoo; Kang, Boseok; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Wi Hyoung

    2016-09-01

    Since the grain boundaries (GBs) within the semiconductor layer of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have a strong influence on device performance, a substantial number of studies have been devoted to controlling the crystallization characteristics of organic semiconductors. We studied the intrinsic effects of GBs within 5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene (TES-ADT) thin films on the electrical properties of OFETs. The GB density was easily changed by controlling nulceation event in TES-ADT thin films. When the mixing time was increased, the number of aggregates in as-spun TES-ADT thin films were increased and subsequent exposure of the films to 1,2-dichloroethane vapor led to a significant increase in the number of nuleation sites, thereby increasing the GB density of TES-ADT spherulites. The density of GBs strongly influences the angular spread and crystallographic orientation of TES-ADT spherulites. Accordingly, the FETs with higher GB densities showed much poorer electrical characteristics than devices with lower GB density. Especially, GBs provide charge trapping sites which are responsible for bias-stress driven electrical instability. Dielectric surface treatment with a polystyrene brush layer clarified the GB-induced charge trapping by reducing charge trapping at the semiconductor-dielectric interface. Our study provides an understanding on GB induced bias instability for the development of high performance OFETs.

  18. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S

    2015-05-27

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly characterized and their spectral properties well established. We report the successful growth of a three- dimensional, vitreous silicon dioxide thin film on the Pt(111) surface and reproduce the closed bilayer structure previously reported. The confirmation of the three dimensional nature of the film is unequivocally shown by the infrared absorption band at 1252 cm−1. Temperature programmed desorption was used to show that this three-dimensional thin film covers the Pt(111) surface to such an extent that its application as a catalyst support for clusters/nanoparticles is possible. The growth of a three-dimensional film was seen to be directly correlated with the amount of oxygen present on the surface after the silicon evaporation process. This excess of oxygen is tentatively attributed to atomic oxygen being generated in the evaporator. The identification of atomic oxygen as a necessary building block for the formation of a three-dimensional thin film opens up new possibilities for thin film growth on metal supports, whereby simply changing the type of oxygen enables thin films with different atomic structures to be synthesized. This is a novel approach to tune the synthesis parameters of thin films to grow a specific structure and expands the options for modeling common amorphous silica supports under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  19. The field induced e31,f piezoelectric and Rayleigh response in barium strontium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, L. M.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2014-01-01

    The electric field induced e 31,f piezoelectric response and tunability of Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 (70:30) and Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO 3 (60:40) thin films on MgO and silicon was measured. The relative dielectric tunabilities for the 70:30 and 60:40 compositions on MgO were 83% and 70%, respectively, with a dielectric loss of less than 0.011 and 0.004 at 100 kHz. A linear increase in induced piezoelectricity to −3.0 C/m 2 and −1.5 C/m 2 at 110 kV/cm was observed in Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO 3 on MgO and Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 on Si. Hysteresis in the piezoelectric and dielectric response of the 70:30 composition films was consistent with the positive irreversible dielectric Rayleigh coefficient. Both indicate a ferroelectric contribution to the piezoelectric and dielectric response over 40–80 °C above the global paraelectric transition temperature.

  20. High power impulse magnetron sputtering of CIGS thin films for high efficiency thin film solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejníček, Jiří; Hubička, Zdeněk; Kohout, Michal; Kšírová, Petra; Kment, Štěpán; Brunclíková, Michaela; Čada, Martin; Darveau, S.A.; Exstrom, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2014), s. 135-137 ISSN 2336-2626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12045 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CIGS * HiPIMS * emission spectroscopy * thin films * magnetron sputtering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://fyzika.feld.cvut.cz/misc/ppt/articles/2014/olejnicek.pdf