WorldWideScience

Sample records for thickness space minimization

  1. Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.

  2. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L 1 . The spaces L 1 are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles. (paper)

  3. Minimal and Maximal Operator Space Structures on Banach Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    P., Vinod Kumar; Balasubramani, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a Banach space $X$, there are many operator space structures possible on $X$, which all have $X$ as their first matrix level. Blecher and Paulsen identified two extreme operator space structures on $X$, namely $Min(X)$ and $Max(X)$ which represents respectively, the smallest and the largest operator space structures admissible on $X$. In this note, we consider the subspace and the quotient space structure of minimal and maximal operator spaces.

  4. On minimalism in architecture - space as experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilski Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Architecture has to be experienced to be understood. The complexity of the experience is seen through a better understanding of the relationship between objectivity (architecture and subjectivity (our life. Being physically, emotionally and psychologically aware of the space we occupy is an experience that could be described as being present, which is a sensation that is personal and difficult to explicitly describe. Research into experience through perception and emotion positions architecture within scientific fields, in particular psychological disciplines. Relying on the standpoints of Immanuel Kant, the paper considers the juxtaposition between (minimalism in architecture and philosophy on the topic of experience. Starting from the basic aspects of perception and representation of the world around us, a thesis is presented in which the notions of silence and light as experienced in minimalism (in architecture are considered as adequate counterparts to Kant’s factors of experience - the awareness of the objective order of events and the impossibility to perceive time itself. Through a case study we verify the starting hypothesis on minimalism (in architecture whereby space becomes an experience of how the world touches us.

  5. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Saenz-Frances

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness (pupil center in relation to the corneal apex.METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex (AT, minimum corneal thickness (MT and corneal thickness at the pupil center (PT were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT (MD and PT (PD were calculated and their quadrant position (taking the corneal apex as the reference determined:point of minimum thickness (MC and point of central thickness (PC depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume (determined using the Pentacam and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models.RESULTS: MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex (79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant. PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume (B=-0.024; 95%CI:-0.043 to -0.004. No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logistic regressions for MC and PC.CONCLUSION: MT was typically located at the inferior-temporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume.

  6. Transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammady, M.; Roohi, M.; Delavar, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to introduce the concepts of transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces. Also, some characterizations of them are considered. Further, the notion of minimal local intersection property will be introduced and characterized. Moreover, some maximal element theorems via minimal transfer closed multimaps and minimal local intersection property are given.

  7. Gravity localization in non-minimally coupled scalar thick braneworlds with a Gauss-Bonnet term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagon-Morejon, D; Quiros, I; Herrera-Aguilar, A

    2011-01-01

    We consider a warped five-dimensional thick braneworld with a four-dimensional Poincare invariant space-time in the framework of scalar matter non-minimally coupled to gravity plus a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. Scalar field and higher curvature corrections to the background equations as well as the perturbed equations are shown. A relationship between 4-dimensional and 5-dimensional Planck masses is studied in general terms. By imposing finiteness of the 4-dimensional Planck mass and regularity of the geometry, the localization properties of the tensor modes of the first order perturbed geometry are analized for an important class of solutions motivated by models with scalar fields which are minimally coupled to gravity. In order to study the gravity localization properties for this model, the normalizability condition for the lowest level of the tensor fluctuations is analized. We see that for the class of solutions examined, gravity in 4 dimensions is recovered if the curvature invariants are regular and Planck masses are finite.

  8. State space analysis of minimal channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelavara, Shreyas Acharya; Duguet, Yohann; Lusseyran, François, E-mail: acharya@limsi.fr [LIMSI-CNRS, Campus Universitaire d’Orsay, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2017-06-15

    Turbulence and edge states are investigated numerically in a plane Poiseuille flow driven by a fixed pressure gradient. Simulations are carried out within the minimal flow unit, a concept introduced by Jiménez and Moin (1991 J . Fluid Mech. 225 213–40) to unravel the dynamics of near-wall structures in the absence of outer large-scale motions. For both turbulent and edge regimes the activity appears to be localised near only one wall at a time, and the long term dynamics features abrupt reversals. The dynamics along one reversal is structured around the transient visit to a subspace of symmetric flow fields. An exact travelling wave solution is found to exist very close to this subspace. Additionally the self-similarity of the asymmetric states is addressed. Contrary to most studies focusing on symmetric solutions, the present study suggests that edge states, when localised near one wall, do not scale in outer units. The current study suggests a composite scaling. (paper)

  9. Minimization of thermal insulation thickness taking into account condensation on external walls

    OpenAIRE

    Nurettin Yamankaradeniz

    2015-01-01

    Condensation occurs in the inner layers of construction materials at whatever point the partial pressure of water vapor diffuses and reaches its saturation pressure. Condensation, also called sweating, damages materials, reduces thermal resistance, and by increasing the total heat transfer coefficient, results in unwanted events such as increased heat loss. This study applied minimization of thermal insulation thickness with consideration given to condensation in the external walls. The calcu...

  10. Quantization of the minimal and non-minimal vector field in curved space

    OpenAIRE

    Toms, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The local momentum space method is used to study the quantized massive vector field (the Proca field) with the possible addition of non-minimal terms. Heat kernel coefficients are calculated and used to evaluate the divergent part of the one-loop effective action. It is shown that the naive expression for the effective action that one would write down based on the minimal coupling case needs modification. We adopt a Faddeev-Jackiw method of quantization and consider the case of an ultrastatic...

  11. Minimization of thermal insulation thickness taking into account condensation on external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Yamankaradeniz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Condensation occurs in the inner layers of construction materials at whatever point the partial pressure of water vapor diffuses and reaches its saturation pressure. Condensation, also called sweating, damages materials, reduces thermal resistance, and by increasing the total heat transfer coefficient, results in unwanted events such as increased heat loss. This study applied minimization of thermal insulation thickness with consideration given to condensation in the external walls. The calculations of heat and mass transfers in the structure elements are expressed in a graphical form. While there was an increase in the required thermal insulation thickness subsequent to an increase in the internal environment’s temperature, relative humidity, and the external environment’s relative humidity, the required thickness decreased with an increase in the external environment’s temperature. The amount of water vapor transferred varied with internal or external conditions and the thickness of the insulation. A change in the vapor diffusion resistance of the insulation material can increase the risk of condensation on the internal or external surfaces of the insulation.

  12. Absolutely minimal extensions of functions on metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, V A

    1999-01-01

    Extensions of a real-valued function from the boundary ∂X 0 of an open subset X 0 of a metric space (X,d) to X 0 are discussed. For the broad class of initial data coming under discussion (linearly bounded functions) locally Lipschitz extensions to X 0 that preserve localized moduli of continuity are constructed. In the set of these extensions an absolutely minimal extension is selected, which was considered before by Aronsson for Lipschitz initial functions in the case X 0 subset of R n . An absolutely minimal extension can be regarded as an ∞-harmonic function, that is, a limit of p-harmonic functions as p→+∞. The proof of the existence of absolutely minimal extensions in a metric space with intrinsic metric is carried out by the Perron method. To this end, ∞-subharmonic, ∞-superharmonic, and ∞-harmonic functions on a metric space are defined and their properties are established

  13. Thick Disks in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Tompkins, Brittany; Jenks, Leah G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Thick disk evolution is studied using edge-on galaxies in two Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field Parallels. The galaxies were separated into 72 clumpy types and 35 spiral types with bulges. Perpendicular light profiles in F435W, F606W, and F814W ( B , V , and I ) passbands were measured at 1 pixel intervals along the major axes and fitted to sech{sup 2} functions convolved with the instrument line spread function (LSF). The LSF was determined from the average point spread function of ∼20 stars in each passband and field, convolved with a line of uniform brightness to simulate disk blurring. A spread function for a clumpy disk was also used for comparison. The resulting scale heights were found to be proportional to galactic mass, with the average height for a 10{sup 10±0.5} M {sub ⊙} galaxy at z = 2 ± 0.5 equal to 0.63 ± 0.24 kpc. This value is probably the result of a blend between thin and thick disk components that cannot be resolved. Evidence for such two-component structure is present in an inverse correlation between height and midplane surface brightness. Models suggest that the thick disk is observed best between the clumps, and there the average scale height is 1.06 ± 0.43 kpc for the same mass and redshift. A 0.63 ± 0.68 mag V − I color differential with height is also evidence for a mixture of thin and thick components.

  14. Minimal surfaces in AdS space and integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrington, Benjamin A.; Gao, Peng

    2010-04-01

    We consider the Pohlmeyer reduction for spacelike minimal area worldsheets in AdS5. The Lax pair for the reduced theory is found, and written entirely in terms of the A3 = D3 root system, generalizing the B2 affine Toda system which appears for the AdS4 string. For the B2 affine Toda system, we show that the area of the worlsheet is obtainable from the moduli space Kähler potential of a related Hitchin system. We also explore the Saveliev-Leznov construction for solutions of the B2 affine Toda system, and recover the rotationally symmetric solution associated to Painleve transcendent.

  15. Minimalism

    CERN Document Server

    Obendorf, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    The notion of Minimalism is proposed as a theoretical tool supporting a more differentiated understanding of reduction and thus forms a standpoint that allows definition of aspects of simplicity. This book traces the development of minimalism, defines the four types of minimalism in interaction design, and looks at how to apply it.

  16. Frequentist analysis of the parameter space of minimal supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, O.; Colling, D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). High Energy Physics Group; Cavanaugh, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (US). Physics Dept.] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    We make a frequentist analysis of the parameter space of minimal supergravity (mSUGRA), in which, as well as the gaugino and scalar soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters being universal, there is a specific relation between the trilinear, bilinear and scalar supersymmetry-breaking parameters, A{sub 0}=B{sub 0}+m{sub 0}, and the gravitino mass is fixed by m{sub 3/2}=m{sub 0}. We also consider a more general model, in which the gravitino mass constraint is relaxed (the VCMSSM). We combine in the global likelihood function the experimental constraints from low-energy electroweak precision data, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, the lightest Higgs boson mass M{sub h}, B physics and the astrophysical cold dark matter density, assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is a neutralino. In the VCMSSM, we find a preference for values of m{sub 1/2} and m{sub 0} similar to those found previously in frequentist analyses of the constrained MSSM (CMSSM) and a model with common non-universal Higgs masses (NUHM1). On the other hand, in mSUGRA we find two preferred regions: one with larger values of both m{sub 1/2} and m{sub 0} than in the VCMSSM, and one with large m{sub 0} but small m{sub 1/2}. We compare the probabilities of the frequentist fits in mSUGRA, the VCMSSM, the CMSSM and the NUHM1: the probability that mSUGRA is consistent with the present data is significantly less than in the other models. We also discuss the mSUGRA and VCMSSM predictions for sparticle masses and other observables, identifying potential signatures at the LHC and elsewhere. (orig.)

  17. Distributed Submodular Minimization And Motion Coordination Over Discrete State Space

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan

    2017-09-21

    Submodular set-functions are extensively used in large-scale combinatorial optimization problems arising in complex networks and machine learning. While there has been significant interest in distributed formulations of convex optimization, distributed minimization of submodular functions has not received significant attention. Thus, our main contribution is a framework for minimizing submodular functions in a distributed manner. The proposed framework is based on the ideas of Lovasz extension of submodular functions and distributed optimization of convex functions. The framework exploits a fundamental property of submodularity that the Lovasz extension of a submodular function is a convex function and can be computed efficiently. Moreover, a minimizer of a submodular function can be computed by computing the minimizer of its Lovasz extension. In the proposed framework, we employ a consensus based distributed optimization algorithm to minimize set-valued submodular functions as well as general submodular functions defined over set products. We also identify distributed motion coordination in multiagent systems as a new application domain for submodular function minimization. For demonstrating key ideas of the proposed framework, we select a complex setup of the capture the flag game, which offers a variety of challenges relevant to multiagent system. We formulate the problem as a submodular minimization problem and verify through extensive simulations that the proposed framework results in feasible policies for the agents.

  18. Hydrogen atom in momentum space with a minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouaziz, Djamil; Ferkous, Nourredine

    2010-01-01

    A momentum representation treatment of the hydrogen atom problem with a generalized uncertainty relation, which leads to a minimal length ΔX imin =(ℎ/2π)√(3β+β ' ), is presented. We show that the distance squared operator can be factorized in the case β ' =2β. We analytically solve the s-wave bound-state equation. The leading correction to the energy spectrum caused by the minimal length depends on √(β). An upper bound for the minimal length is found to be about 10 -9 fm.

  19. The Effect of Microneedle Thickness on Pain During Minimally Invasive Facial Procedures: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Billur; Ozel, Bora; Bulam, Hakan; Guney, Kirdar; Tuncer, Serhan; Cenetoglu, Seyhan

    2014-07-01

    Minimally invasive procedures are becoming increasingly popular because they require minimal downtime and are effective for achieving a more youthful appearance. The choice of needle for minimally invasive procedures can be a major factor in the patient's comfort level, which in turn affects the physician's comfort level. In this comparative study, the authors assessed levels of pain and bruising after participants were injected with 30-gauge or 33-gauge (G) microneedles, which are commonly used for minimally invasive injection procedures. Twenty healthy volunteers were recruited for this prospective study. Eight injection points (4 on each side of the face) were determined for each patient. All participants received injections of saline with both microneedles in a randomized, blinded fashion. Levels of pain and bruising were assessed and analyzed for significance. The highest level of pain was in the malar region, and the lowest level was in the glabella. Although all pain scores were lower for the 33-G microneedle, the difference was significant only for the forehead. Because most minimally invasive procedures require multiple injections during the same sitting, the overall procedure was evaluated as well. Assessment of the multiple-injection process demonstrated a significant difference in pain level, favoring the 33-G needle. Although the difference in bruising was not statistically significant between the 2 needles, the degree of bruising was lower with the 33-G needle. For procedures that involve multiple injections to the face (such as mesotherapy and injection of botulinum toxin A), thinner needles result in less pain, making the overall experience more comfortable for the patient and the physician. 3. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  20. Minimal computational-space implementation of multiround quantum protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Chiribella, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    A single-party strategy in a multiround quantum protocol can be implemented by sequential networks of quantum operations connected by internal memories. Here, we provide an efficient realization in terms of computational-space resources.

  1. Minimizing Warehouse Space through Inventory Reduction at Reckitt Benckiser

    OpenAIRE

    KILINC, IZGI SELEN

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation represents a ten week internship at pharmaceutical plant of Reckitt Benckiser for the Warehouse Stock Reduction Project. Due to foreseeable growth by the factory, there is increasing pressure to utilise existing warehouse space by reducing the existing stock level by 50 %. Therefore, this study aims to identify the opportunities to reduce the physical stock held in raw/pack materials in the warehouse and save space for additional manufacturing resources. The analysis demo...

  2. Feed-Forward Neural Networks and Minimal Search Space Learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 12 (2005), s. 1867-1872 ISSN 1109-2750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : search space * feed-forward networks * genetic algorithm s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. Emergence of cosmic space and minimal length in quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag Ali, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, 12588 (Egypt); Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt)

    2014-05-01

    An emergence of cosmic space has been suggested by Padmanabhan in [1]. This new interesting approach argues that the expansion of the universe is due to the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on a holographic surface and the one in the emerged bulk. In this paper, we derive, using emergence of cosmic space framework, the general dynamical equation of FRW universe filled with a perfect fluid by considering a generic form of the entropy as a function of area. Our derivation is considered as a generalization of emergence of cosmic space with a general form of entropy. We apply our equation with higher dimensional spacetime and derive modified Friedmann equation in Gauss–Bonnet gravity. We then apply our derived equation with the corrected entropy-area law that follows from Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) and derive a modified Friedmann equations due to the GUP. We then derive the modified Raychaudhuri equation due to GUP in emergence of cosmic space framework and investigate it using fixed point method. Studying this modified Raychaudhuri equation leads to nonsingular solutions which may resolve singularities in FRW universe.

  4. Minimal surfaces in symmetric spaces with parallel second ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaoxiang Jiao

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... space and its non-compact dual by totally real, totally complex, and invariant immersions. ... frame fields, let θ1,θ2 and ω1,...,ωn be their dual frames. ... where ˜∇ is the induced connection of the pull-back bundle f. −1. T(N), which is defined by. ˜∇X W = ¯∇ f∗ X W for W ∈ f. −1. T(N) and X ∈ T(M). Let f∗(ei ) ...

  5. The Single Transmembrane Segment of Minimal Sensor DesK Senses Temperature via a Membrane-Thickness Caliper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Maria E; Oliveira, Rafael G; de Mendoza, Diego; Cybulski, Larisa E

    2016-11-01

    Thermosensors detect temperature changes and trigger cellular responses crucial for survival at different temperatures. The thermosensor DesK is a transmembrane (TM) histidine kinase which detects a decrease in temperature through its TM segments (TMS). Here, we address a key issue: how a physical stimulus such as temperature can be converted into a cellular response. We show that the thickness of Bacillus lipid membranes varies with temperature and that such variations can be detected by DesK with great precision. On the basis of genetic studies and measurements of in vitro activity of a DesK construct with a single TMS (minimal sensor DesK [MS-DesK]), reconstituted in liposomes, we propose an interplay mechanism directed by a conserved dyad, phenylalanine 8-lysine 10. This dyad is critical to anchor the only transmembrane segment of the MS-DesK construct to the extracellular water-lipid interphase and is required for the transmembrane segment of MS-DesK to function as a caliper for precise measurement of membrane thickness. The data suggest that positively charged lysine 10, which is located in the hydrophobic core of the membrane but is close to the water-lipid interface, pulls the transmembrane region toward the water phase to localize its charge at the interface. Nevertheless, the hydrophobic residue phenylalanine 8, located at the N-terminal extreme of the TMS, has a strong tendency to remain in the lipid phase, impairing access of lysine 10 to the water phase. The outcome of this interplay is a fine-tuned sensitivity to membrane thickness that elicits conformational changes that favor different signaling states of the protein. The ability to sense and respond to extracellular signals is essential for cell survival. One example is the cellular response to temperature variation. How do cells "sense" temperature changes? It has been proposed that the bacterial thermosensor DesK acts as a molecular caliper measuring membrane thickness variations that would occur

  6. On the minimizers of calculus of variations problems in Hilbert spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-19

    The objective of this paper is to discuss existence, uniqueness and regularity issues of minimizers of one dimensional calculus of variations problem in Hilbert spaces. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. On the minimizers of calculus of variations problems in Hilbert spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss existence, uniqueness and regularity issues of minimizers of one dimensional calculus of variations problem in Hilbert spaces. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Effect of Lamina Thickness of Prepreg on the Surface Accuracy of Carbon Fiber Composite Space Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhanwen; Xie, Yongjie; Shi, Hanqiao; Zhang, Boming; Guo, Hongjun

    2018-02-01

    Composite space mirror can completely replicate the high-precision surface of mould by replication process, but the actual surface accuracy of the replication composite mirror always decreases. Lamina thickness of prepreg affects the layers and layup sequence of composite space mirror, and which would affect surface accuracy of space mirror. In our research, two groups of contrasting cases through finite element analyses (FEA) and comparative experiments were studied; the effect of different lamina thicknesses of prepreg and corresponding lay-up sequences was focused as well. We describe a special analysis model, validated process and result analysis. The simulated and measured surface figures both get the same conclusion. Reducing lamina thickness of prepreg used in replicating composite space mirror is propitious to optimal design of layup sequence for fabricating composite mirror, and could improve its surface accuracy.

  9. Quantum Field Theory with a Minimal Length Induced from Noncommutative Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bing-Sheng; Chen Wei; Heng Tai-Hua

    2014-01-01

    From the inspection of noncommutative quantum mechanics, we obtain an approximate equivalent relation for the energy dependence of the Planck constant in the noncommutative space, which means a minimal length of the space. We find that this relation is reasonable and it can inherit the main properties of the noncommutative space. Based on this relation, we derive the modified Klein—Gordon equation and Dirac equation. We investigate the scalar field and ϕ 4 model and then quantum electrodynamics in our theory, and derive the corresponding Feynman rules. These results may be considered as reasonable approximations to those of noncommutative quantum field theory. Our theory also shows a connection between the space with a minimal length and the noncommutative space. (physics of elementary particles and fields)

  10. Measurement of the thickness of the urethrovaginal space in women with or without vaginal orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Brandetti, Fulvia; Martini, Paolo; Carosa, Eleonora; Di Stasi, Savino M; Morano, Susanna; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2008-03-01

    The physiology and anatomy of female sexual function are poorly understood. The differences in sexual function among women may be partly attributed to anatomical factors. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to evaluate the anatomical variability of the urethrovaginal space in women with and without vaginal orgasm. Twenty healthy, neurologically intact volunteers were recruited from a population of women who were a part of a previous published study. All women underwent a complete urodynamic evaluation and those with clinical and urodynamic urinary incontinence, idiopathic detrusor overactivity, or micturition disorders, as well as postmenopausal women and those with sexual dysfunction were excluded. The reported experience of vaginal orgasm was investigated. The urethrovaginal space thickness as measured by ultrasound was chosen as the indicator of urogenital anatomical variability. Designated evaluators carried out the measurements in a blinded fashion. The urethrovaginal space and distal, middle, and proximal urethrovaginal segments were thinner in women without vaginal orgasm. A direct correlation between the presence of vaginal orgasm and the thickness of urethrovaginal space was found. Women with a thicker urethrovaginal space were more likely to experience vaginal orgasm (r = 0.884; P = 0.015). A direct and significant correlation between the thickness of each urethrovaginal segment and the presence of vaginal orgasm was found, with the best correlation observed for the distal segment (r = 0.863; P orgasm.

  11. Thick epitaxial CdTe films grown by close space sublimation on Ge substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q; Haliday, D P; Tanner, B K; Brinkman, A W [Department of Physics, University of Durham. Science Site, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Cantwell, B J; Mullins, J T; Basu, A [Durham Scientific Crystals Ltd., NetPark, Thomas Wright Way, Sedgefield, County Durham, TS21 3FD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Q.Z.Jiang@durham.ac.uk

    2009-01-07

    This paper reports, for the first time, the successful growth of 200 {mu}m thick CdTe films on mis-oriented Ge(1 0 0) substrates by a cost-effective optimized close space sublimation method. It is found that, as the thickness increases to a few hundred micrometres, subgrains are formed probably as a result of the large density of dislocations and strain within the initial interfacial layers. The films are of high quality (x-ray rocking curve width {approx}100 arcsec) and high resistance ({approx}10{sup 9} {omega} cm), and are thus candidates for x-ray and {gamma}-ray detectors. (fast track communication)

  12. Families of bitangent planes of space curves and minimal non-fibration families

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    A cone curve is a reduced sextic space curve which lies on a quadric cone and does not pass through the vertex. We classify families of bitangent planes of cone curves. The methods we apply can be used for any space curve with ADE singularities, though in this paper we concentrate on cone curves. An embedded complex projective surface which is adjoint to a degree one weak Del Pezzo surface contains families of minimal degree rational curves, which cannot be defined by the fibers of a map. Such families are called minimal non-fibration families. Families of bitangent planes of cone curves correspond to minimal non-fibration families. The main motivation of this paper is to classify minimal non-fibration families. We present algorithms which compute all bitangent families of a given cone curve and their geometric genus. We consider cone curves to be equivalent if they have the same singularity configuration. For each equivalence class of cone curves we determine the possible number of bitangent families and the number of rational bitangent families. Finally we compute an example of a minimal non-fibration family on an embedded weak degree one Del Pezzo surface.

  13. Thickness and Closure Kinetics of the Suprachoroidal Space Following Microneedle Injection of Liquid Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Bryce; Venugopal, Nitin; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Jung, Jae Hwan; Edelhauser, Henry F; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effect of injection volume and formulation of a microneedle injection into the suprachoroidal space (SCS) on SCS thickness and closure kinetics. Microneedle injections containing 25 to 150 μL Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) were performed in the rabbit SCS ex vivo. Distribution of SCS thickness was measured by ultrasonography and three-dimensional (3D) cryo-reconstruction. Microneedle injections were performed in the rabbit SCS in vivo using HBSS, Discovisc, and 1% to 5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in HBSS. Ultrasonography was used to track SCS thickness over time. Increasing HBSS injection volume increased the area of expanded SCS, but did not increase SCS thickness ex vivo. With SCS injections in vivo, the SCS initially expanded to thicknesses of 0.43 ± 0.06 mm with HBSS, 1.5 ± 0.4 mm with Discovisc, and 0.69 to 2.1 mm with 1% to 5% CMC. After injection with HBSS, Discovisc, and 1% CMC solution, the SCS collapsed to baseline with time constants of 19 minutes, 6 hours, and 2.4 days, respectively. In contrast, injections with 3% to 5% CMC solution resulted in SCS expansion to 2.3 to 2.8 mm over the course of 2.8 to 9.1 hours, after which the SCS collapsed to baseline with time constants of 4.5 to 9.2 days. With low-viscosity formulations, SCS expands to a thickness that remains roughly constant, independent of the volume of fluid injected. Increasing injection fluid viscosity significantly increased SCS thickness. Expansion of the SCS is hypothesized to be controlled by a balance between the viscous forces of the liquid formulation and the resistive biomechanical forces of the tissue.

  14. Optimizing rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios in orthotropic decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fettahoglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthotropic decks are composed of deck plate, ribs, and cross-beams and are frequently used in industry to span long distances, due to their light structures and load carrying capacities. Trapezoidal ribs are broadly preferred as longitudinal stiffeners in design of orthotropic decks. They supply the required stiffness to the orthotropic deck in traffic direction. Trapezoidal ribs are chosen in industrial applications because of their high torsional and buckling rigidity, less material and welding needs. Rib width, height, spacing, thickness of deck plate are important parameters for designing of orthotropic decks. In the scope of this study, rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios are assessed by means of the stresses developed under different ratios of these parameters. For this purpose a FE-model of orthotropic bridge is generated, which encompasses the entire bridge geometry and conforms to recommendations given in Eurocode 3 Part 2. Afterwards necessary FE-analyses are performed to reveal the stresses developed under different rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios. Based on the results obtained in this study, recommendations regarding these ratios are provided for orthotropic steel decks occupying trapezoidal ribs.

  15. Minimally Invasive Subcortical Parafascicular Transsulcal Access for Clot Evacuation (Mi SPACE for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ritsma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is common and causes significant mortality and morbidity. To date, optimal medical and surgical intervention remains uncertain. A lack of definitive benefit for operative management may be attributable to adverse surgical effect, collateral tissue injury. This is particularly relevant for ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS offers the potential advantage of reduced collateral damage. MIS utilizing a parafascicular approach has demonstrated such benefit for intracranial tumor resection. Methods. We present a case of dominant hemisphere spontaneous ICH evacuated via the minimally invasive subcortical parafascicular transsulcal access clot evacuation (Mi SPACE model. We use this report to introduce Mi SPACE and to examine the application of this novel MIS paradigm. Case Presentation. The featured patient presented with a left temporal ICH and severe global aphasia. The hematoma was evacuated via the Mi SPACE approach. Postoperative reassessments showed significant improvement. At two months, bedside language testing was normal. MRI tractography confirmed limited collateral injury. Conclusions. This case illustrates successful application of the Mi SPACE model to ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex and subcortical regions. MRI tractography illustrates collateral tissue preservation. Safety and feasibility studies are required to further assess this promising new therapeutic paradigm.

  16. The Surface Extraction from TIN based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Myoung-Jong; Howat, Ian M.

    2017-07-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) provide critical information for a wide range of scientific, navigational and engineering activities. Submeter resolution, stereoscopic satellite imagery with high geometric and radiometric quality, and wide spatial coverage are becoming increasingly accessible for generating stereo-photogrammetric DEMs. However, low contrast and repeatedly-textured surfaces, such as snow and glacial ice at high latitudes, and mountainous terrains challenge existing stereo-photogrammetric DEM generation techniques, particularly without a-priori information such as existing seed DEMs or the manual setting of terrain-specific parameters. To utilize these data for fully-automatic DEM extraction at a large scale, we developed the Surface Extraction from TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) algorithm. SETSM is fully automatic (i.e. no search parameter settings are needed) and uses only the sensor model Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs). SETSM adopts a hierarchical, combined image- and object-space matching strategy utilizing weighted normalized cross-correlation with both original distorted and geometrically corrected images for overcoming ambiguities caused by foreshortening and occlusions. In addition, SETSM optimally minimizes search-spaces to extract optimal matches over problematic terrains by iteratively updating object surfaces within a Triangulated Irregular Network, and utilizes a geometric-constrained blunder and outlier detection in object space. We prove the ability of SETSM to mitigate typical stereo-photogrammetric matching problems over a range of challenging terrains. SETSM is the primary DEM generation software for the US National Science Foundation's ArcticDEM project.

  17. Differential calculus on the space of Steiner minimal trees in Riemannian manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2001-01-01

    It is proved that the length of a minimal spanning tree, the length of a Steiner minimal tree, and the Steiner ratio regarded as functions of finite subsets of a connected complete Riemannian manifold have directional derivatives in all directions. The derivatives of these functions are calculated and some properties of their critical points are found. In particular, a geometric criterion for a finite set to be critical for the Steiner ratio is found. This criterion imposes essential restrictions on the geometry of the sets for which the Steiner ratio attains its minimum, that is, the sets on which the Steiner ratio of the boundary set is equal to the Steiner ratio of the ambient space

  18. Null polygonal Wilson loops and minimal surfaces in Anti-de-Sitter space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Maldacena, Juan

    2009-01-01

    We consider minimal surfaces in three dimensional anti-de-Sitter space that end at the AdS boundary on a polygon given by a sequence of null segments. The problem can be reduced to a certain generalized Sinh-Gordon equation and to SU(2) Hitchin equations. We describe in detail the mathematical problem that needs to be solved. This problem is mathematically the same as the one studied by Gaiotto, Moore and Neitzke in the context of the moduli space of certain supersymmetric theories. Using their results we can find the explicit answer for the area of a surface that ends on an eight-sided polygon. Via the gauge/gravity duality this can also be interpreted as a certain eight-gluon scattering amplitude at strong coupling. In addition, we give fairly explicit solutions for regular polygons.

  19. Investigations on the transverse phase space at a photo injector for minimized emittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miltchev, V.

    2006-08-15

    Radio frequency photoinjectors are electron sources able to generate beams of extremely high brightness, which are applicable to linac driven Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Because of the high phase space density, the dynamics of the electron beam is dominated by space charge interactions between the particles. This thesis studies the transverse phase space of space charge dominated electron beams produced by the Photo Injector Test Facility in Zeuthen (PITZ). The operation conditions for minimizing the transverse emittance are studied experimentally, theoretically and in simulations. The influence of the longitudinal profile of the driving UV laser pulse on the transverse emittance is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the experimental study of the emittance as a function of different machine parameters like the laser beam spot size, the amplitude of the focusing magnetic field, the rf phase and the electron bunch charge. First investigations on the thermal emittance for Cs{sub 2}Te photocathodes under rf operating conditions are presented. Measurements of the thermal emittance scaling with the photocathode laser spot size are analyzed. The significance of the applied rf field in the emittance formation process is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Investigations on the transverse phase space at a photo injector for minimized emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miltchev, V.

    2006-08-01

    Radio frequency photoinjectors are electron sources able to generate beams of extremely high brightness, which are applicable to linac driven Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Because of the high phase space density, the dynamics of the electron beam is dominated by space charge interactions between the particles. This thesis studies the transverse phase space of space charge dominated electron beams produced by the Photo Injector Test Facility in Zeuthen (PITZ). The operation conditions for minimizing the transverse emittance are studied experimentally, theoretically and in simulations. The influence of the longitudinal profile of the driving UV laser pulse on the transverse emittance is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the experimental study of the emittance as a function of different machine parameters like the laser beam spot size, the amplitude of the focusing magnetic field, the rf phase and the electron bunch charge. First investigations on the thermal emittance for Cs 2 Te photocathodes under rf operating conditions are presented. Measurements of the thermal emittance scaling with the photocathode laser spot size are analyzed. The significance of the applied rf field in the emittance formation process is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Minimally invasive endoscope-assisted trans-oral excision of huge parapharyngeal space tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shang-Yi; Hsu, Ching-Hui; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-04-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare head and neck neoplasms, and most are benign lesions. Complete excision of these tumors is difficult because of the complexity of the surrounding anatomic structures. The algorithm for excision of these tumors is typically based on the tumor's characteristics; excision is performed via approaches such as the trans-oral route, the trans-cervical route, and even a combination of the trans-parotid route and mandibulotomy. However, each of these approaches is associated with some complications. Endoscope-assisted minimally invasive surgery is being increasingly employed for surgeries in the head and neck regions. It has the advantage of leaving no facial scars, and ensures better patient comfort after the operation. Here, we report the use of endoscope-assisted trans-oral surgery for excision of parapharyngeal space tumors. The technique yields an excellent outcome and should be a feasible, safe, and economic method for these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On the compactification of the moduli space of branched minimal immersions of S2 into S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.

    1992-01-01

    We study the natural compactification of the moduli space of branched minimal immersions of S 2 into S 4 . We prove that the (compactified) moduli space M d is a connected projective variety of dimension 2d+4. It is irreducible when d=1,2, and it has two irreducible components when d ≥ 3. We discuss the bubbling phenomenon at the boundary of the moduli space. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs

  3. Embeddings of graphs into Euclidean space under which the number of points that belong to a hyperplane is minimal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblakov, Konstantin I; Oblakova, Tat' yana A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-31

    The paper is devoted to the characteristic of a graph that is the minimal (over all embeddings of the graph into a space of given dimension) number of points that belong to the same hyperplane. Upper and lower estimates for this number are given that linearly depend on the dimension of the space. For trees a more precise upper estimate is obtained, which asymptotically coincides with the lower one for large dimension of the space. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  4. Families of bitangent planes of space curves and minimal non-fibration families

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    . Such families are called minimal non-fibration families. Families of bitangent planes of cone curves correspond to minimal non-fibration families. The main motivation of this paper is to classify minimal non-fibration families. We present algorithms which

  5. General Space-Confined On-Substrate Fabrication of Thickness-Adjustable Hybrid Perovskite Single-Crystalline Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Xuan; Ge, Qian-Qing; Shi, Yang; Liu, Jie; Xue, Ding-Jiang; Ma, Jing-Yuan; Ding, Jie; Yan, Hui-Juan; Hu, Jin-Song; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-12-21

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite single-crystalline thin films (SCTFs) are promising for enhancing photoelectric device performance due to high carrier mobility, long diffusion length, and carrier lifetime. However, bulk perovskite single crystals available today are not suitable for practical device application due to the unfavorable thickness. Herein, we report a facile space-confined solution-processed strategy to on-substrate grow various hybrid perovskite SCTFs in a size of submillimeter with adjustable thicknesses from nano- to micrometers. These SCTFs exhibit photoelectric properties comparable to bulk single crystals with low defect density and good air stability. The clear thickness-dependent colors allow fast visual selection of SCTFs with a suitable thickness for specific device application. The present substrate-independent growth of perovskite SCTFs opens up opportunities for on-chip fabrication of diverse high-performance devices.

  6. Thickly Syndetical Sensitivity of Topological Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider the surjective continuous map f:X→X, where X is a compact metric space. In this paper we give several stronger versions of sensitivity, such as thick sensitivity, syndetic sensitivity, thickly syndetic sensitivity, and strong sensitivity. We establish the following. (1 If (X,f is minimal and sensitive, then (X,f is syndetically sensitive. (2 Weak mixing implies thick sensitivity. (3 If (X,f is minimal and weakly mixing, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. (4 If (X,f is a nonminimal M-system, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. Devaney chaos implies thickly periodic sensitivity. (5 We give a syndetically sensitive system which is not thickly sensitive. (6 We give thickly syndetically sensitive examples but not cofinitely sensitive ones.

  7. Space- and time-resolved resistive measurements of liquid metal wall thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirhoseini, S. M. H.; Volpe, F. A., E-mail: fvolpe@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    In a fusion reactor internally coated with liquid metal, it will be important to diagnose the thickness of the liquid at various locations in the vessel, as a function of time, and possibly respond to counteract undesired bulging or depletion. The electrical conductance between electrodes immersed in the liquid metal can be used as a simple proxy for the local thickness. Here a matrix of electrodes is shown to provide spatially and temporally resolved measurements of liquid metal thickness in the absence of plasma. First a theory is developed for m × n electrodes, and then it is experimentally demonstrated for 3 × 1 electrodes, as the liquid stands still or is agitated by means of a shaker. The experiments were carried out with Galinstan, but are easily extended to lithium or other liquid metals.

  8. Space- and time-resolved resistive measurements of liquid metal wall thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirhoseini, S. M. H.; Volpe, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    In a fusion reactor internally coated with liquid metal, it will be important to diagnose the thickness of the liquid at various locations in the vessel, as a function of time, and possibly respond to counteract undesired bulging or depletion. The electrical conductance between electrodes immersed in the liquid metal can be used as a simple proxy for the local thickness. Here a matrix of electrodes is shown to provide spatially and temporally resolved measurements of liquid metal thickness in the absence of plasma. First a theory is developed for m × n electrodes, and then it is experimentally demonstrated for 3 × 1 electrodes, as the liquid stands still or is agitated by means of a shaker. The experiments were carried out with Galinstan, but are easily extended to lithium or other liquid metals.

  9. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  10. Minimally Manipulated Bone Marrow Concentrate Compared with Microfracture Treatment of Full-Thickness Chondral Defects: A One-Year Study in an Equine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Constance R; Fortier, Lisa A; Williams, Ashley; Payne, Karin A; McCarrel, Taralyn M; Bowers, Megan E; Jaramillo, Diego

    2018-01-17

    Microfracture is commonly performed for cartilage repair but usually results in fibrocartilage. Microfracture augmented by autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) was previously shown to yield structurally superior cartilage repairs in an equine model compared with microfracture alone. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that autologous BMC without concomitant microfracture improves cartilage repair compared with microfracture alone. Autologous sternal bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was concentrated using a commercial system. Cells from BMC were evaluated for chondrogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. Bilateral full-thickness chondral defects (15-mm diameter) were created on the midlateral trochlear ridge in 8 horses. Paired defects were randomly assigned to treatment with BMC without concomitant microfracture, or to microfracture alone. The repairs were evaluated at 1 year by in vitro assessment, arthroscopy, morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), quantitative T2-weighted and ultrashort echo time enhanced T2* (UTE-T2*) MRI mapping, and histological assessment. Culture-expanded but not freshly isolated cells from BMA and BMC underwent cartilage differentiation in vitro. In vivo, cartilage repairs in both groups were fibrous to fibrocartilaginous at 1 year of follow-up, with no differences observed between BMC and microfracture by arthroscopy, T2 and UTE-T2* MRI values, and histological assessment (p > 0.05). Morphological MRI showed subchondral bone changes not observed by arthroscopy and improved overall outcomes for the BMC repairs (p = 0.03). Differences in repair tissue UTE-T2* texture features were observed between the treatment groups (p BMC was applied directly to critical-sized, full-thickness chondral defects in an equine model, the cartilage repair results were similar to those of microfracture. Our data suggest that, given the few mesenchymal stem cells in minimally manipulated BMC, other mechanisms such as paracrine, anti

  11. Standard symmetric operators in Pontryagin spaces : a generalized von Neumann formula and minimality of boundary coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azizov, Tomas; Ćurgus, Branko; Dijksma, Aad

    2003-01-01

    Certain meromorphic matrix valued functions on C\\R, the so-called boundary coefficients, are characterized in terms of a standard symmetric operator S in a Pontryagin space with finite (not necessarily equal) defect numbers, a meromorphic mapping into the defect subspaces of S, and a boundary

  12. Trajectory Planning of 7-DOF Space Manipulator for Minimizing Base Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the free-floating mode, there is intense dynamic coupling existing between the space manipulator and the base, and the base attitude may change while performing a motion with its manipulator. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the interference that resulted from the manipulator movement. For planning trajectories of the space manipulator with 7 degrees of freedom (7-DOF, simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SAPSO algorithm is presented in the paper. Firstly, kinematics equations are setup. Secondly, the joint functions are parameterized by sinusoidal functions, and the objective function is defined according to the motion constraints of manipulator and accuracy requirements of the base attitude. Finally, SAPSO algorithm is used to search the optimal trajectory. The simulation results verify the proposed method.

  13. Using Microporous Polytetrafluoroethylene Thin Sheets as a Flexible Solar Diffuser to Minimize Sunlight Glint to Cameras in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  14. A Minimally Invasive, Translational Method to Deliver Hydrogels to the Heart Through the Pericardial Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R. Garcia, MS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials are a new treatment strategy for cardiovascular diseases but are difficult to deliver to the heart in a safe, precise, and translatable way. We developed a method to deliver hydrogels to the epicardium through the pericardial space. Our device creates a temporary compartment for hydrogel delivery and gelation using anatomic structures. The method minimizes risk to patients from embolization, thrombotic occlusion, and arrhythmia. In pigs there were no clinically relevant acute or subacute adverse effects from pericardial hydrogel delivery, making this a translatable strategy to deliver biomaterials to the heart.

  15. Using microporous polytetrafluoroethylene thin sheets as a flexible solar diffuser to minimize sunlight glint to cameras in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-09-01

    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  16. Constraining the mSUGRA (minimal supergravity) parameter space using the entropy of dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Núñez, Darío; Zavala, Jesús; Nellen, Lukas; Sussman, Roberto A; Cabral-Rosetti, Luis G; Mondragón, Myriam

    2008-01-01

    We derive an expression for the entropy of a dark matter halo described using a Navarro–Frenk–White model with a core. The comparison of this entropy with that of dark matter in the freeze-out era allows us to constrain the parameter space in mSUGRA models. Moreover, combining these constraints with the ones obtained from the usual abundance criterion and demanding that these criteria be consistent with the 2σ bounds for the abundance of dark matter: 0.112≤Ω DM h 2 ≤0.122, we are able to clearly identify validity regions among the values of tanβ, which is one of the parameters of the mSUGRA model. We found that for the regions of the parameter space explored, small values of tanβ are not favored; only for tan β ≃ 50 are the two criteria significantly consistent. In the region where the two criteria are consistent we also found a lower bound for the neutralino mass, m χ ≥141 GeV

  17. Constraining the mSUGRA (minimal supergravity) parameter space using the entropy of dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Dario; Zavala, Jesus; Nellen, Lukas; Sussman, Roberto A [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM), AP 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico); Cabral-Rosetti, Luis G [Departamento de Posgrado, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion y Docencia en Educacion Tecnica (CIIDET), Avenida Universidad 282 Pte., Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 752, C. P. 76000, Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Mondragon, Myriam, E-mail: nunez@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: jzavala@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: jzavala@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: lukas@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: sussman@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: lgcabral@ciidet.edu.mx, E-mail: myriam@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (IF-UNAM), Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico DF (Mexico); Collaboration: For the Instituto Avanzado de Cosmologia, IAC

    2008-05-15

    We derive an expression for the entropy of a dark matter halo described using a Navarro-Frenk-White model with a core. The comparison of this entropy with that of dark matter in the freeze-out era allows us to constrain the parameter space in mSUGRA models. Moreover, combining these constraints with the ones obtained from the usual abundance criterion and demanding that these criteria be consistent with the 2{sigma} bounds for the abundance of dark matter: 0.112{<=}{Omega}{sub DM}h{sup 2}{<=}0.122, we are able to clearly identify validity regions among the values of tan{beta}, which is one of the parameters of the mSUGRA model. We found that for the regions of the parameter space explored, small values of tan{beta} are not favored; only for tan {beta} Asymptotically-Equal-To 50 are the two criteria significantly consistent. In the region where the two criteria are consistent we also found a lower bound for the neutralino mass, m{sub {chi}}{>=}141 GeV.

  18. Minimally invasive estimation of ventricular dead space volume through use of Frank-Starling curves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Davidson

    Full Text Available This paper develops a means of more easily and less invasively estimating ventricular dead space volume (Vd, an important, but difficult to measure physiological parameter. Vd represents a subject and condition dependent portion of measured ventricular volume that is not actively participating in ventricular function. It is employed in models based on the time varying elastance concept, which see widespread use in haemodynamic studies, and may have direct diagnostic use. The proposed method involves linear extrapolation of a Frank-Starling curve (stroke volume vs end-diastolic volume and its end-systolic equivalent (stroke volume vs end-systolic volume, developed across normal clinical procedures such as recruitment manoeuvres, to their point of intersection with the y-axis (where stroke volume is 0 to determine Vd. To demonstrate the broad applicability of the method, it was validated across a cohort of six sedated and anaesthetised male Pietrain pigs, encompassing a variety of cardiac states from healthy baseline behaviour to circulatory failure due to septic shock induced by endotoxin infusion. Linear extrapolation of the curves was supported by strong linear correlation coefficients of R = 0.78 and R = 0.80 average for pre- and post- endotoxin infusion respectively, as well as good agreement between the two linearly extrapolated y-intercepts (Vd for each subject (no more than 7.8% variation. Method validity was further supported by the physiologically reasonable Vd values produced, equivalent to 44.3-53.1% and 49.3-82.6% of baseline end-systolic volume before and after endotoxin infusion respectively. This method has the potential to allow Vd to be estimated without a particularly demanding, specialised protocol in an experimental environment. Further, due to the common use of both mechanical ventilation and recruitment manoeuvres in intensive care, this method, subject to the availability of multi-beat echocardiography, has the potential to

  19. Direct linear measurement of root dentin thickness and dentin volume changes with post space preparation: A cone-beam computed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb Yakub Shaikh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the present study was direct linear measurement of dentin thickness and dentin volume changes for post space preparation with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: Ten maxillary central incisors were scanned, before and after root canal and post space preparation, with Orthophos XG three-dimensional hybrid unit. Thirteen axial section scans of each tooth from orifice to apex and dentin thickness for buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal were measured using proprietary measuring tool and thereafter subjected to statistical analysis. Furthermore, dentin volume was evaluated using ITK-SNAP software. Results: There was statistically significant difference between the dentin thickness in pre- and postinstrumentation (paired t-test and also between different groups (one-way ANOVA. In the shortest post length of 4.5mm the post space preparation resulted in 2.17% loss of hard tissue volume, where as 11mm longest post length post space preparation resulted in >40% loss of hard tissue volume. Conclusion: CBCT axial section scan for direct measurements of root dentin thickness can be guideline before and after post space preparation for selection of drill length and diameter.

  20. The Clue to Minimizing the Developer-User Divide by Good Practice in Earth and Space Science Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerotti, M.

    2009-04-01

    Earth and Space Science research, as well as many other disciplines, can nowadays benefit from advanced data handling techniques and tools capable to significantly relieve the scientist of the burden of data search, retrieval, visualization and manipulation, and to exploit the data information content. Some typical examples are Virtual Observatories (VO) specific to a variety of sub-disciplines but anyway interlinked, a feature intrinsic to the VO architecture, Virtual Globes as advanced 3D selection and visualization interfaces to distributed data repositories, and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems. These information systems are proving also effective in education and outreach activities as they are usable via web interfaces to give access to, to display and to download nonhomogeneous datasets in order to raise the awareness of the students and the public on the relevant disciplines. Despite of that, all of this effective machineries are still poorly used both by the scientific community and by the community active in education and outreach. All such infrastructures are designed and developed according to the state-of-the-art information and computer engineering techniques and are provided with top features such as ontology- and semantics-based data management, and advanced unified web-based interfaces. Anyway, a careful analysis of the issue mentioned above indicates a key aspect that play a major role, i.e., the inadequate interaction with the users' communities during the design, the development, the deployment and the test phases. Even the best technical tool can appear inadequate to the final user when it does not meet the user's requirements in terms of achievable goals and use friendliness. In this work, we consider the user-side features to be taken into account for the optimum exploitation of an information system in the framework of the interaction among the design engineers and the target communities towards the setting of a good practice

  1. Correspondence optimization in 2D standardized carotid wall thickness map by description length minimization: A tool for increasing reproducibility of 3D ultrasound-based measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yimin; Chiu, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    The previously described 2D standardized vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (VWT) maps constructed from 3D ultrasound vessel wall measurements using an arc-length (AL) scaling approach adjusted the geometric variability of carotid arteries and has allowed for the comparisons of VWT distributions in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. However, this mapping technique did not optimize point correspondence of the carotid arteries investigated. The potential misalignment may lead to errors in point-wise VWT comparisons. In this paper, we developed and validated an algorithm based on steepest description length (DL) descent to optimize the point correspondence implied by the 2D VWT maps. The previously described AL approach was applied to obtain initial 2D maps for a group of carotid arteries. The 2D maps were reparameterized based on an iterative steepest DL descent approach, which consists of the following two steps. First, landmarks established by resampling the 2D maps were aligned using the Procrustes algorithm. Then, the gradient of the DL with respect to horizontal and vertical reparameterizations of each landmark on the 2D maps was computed, and the 2D maps were subsequently deformed in the direction of the steepest descent of DL. These two steps were repeated until convergence. The quality of the correspondence was evaluated in a phantom study and an in vivo study involving ten carotid arteries enrolled in a 3D ultrasound interscan variability study. The correspondence quality was evaluated in terms of the compactness and generalization ability of the statistical shape model built based on the established point correspondence in both studies. In the in vivo study, the effect of the proposed algorithm on interscan variability of VWT measurements was evaluated by comparing the percentage of landmarks with statistically significant VWT-change before and after point correspondence optimization. The statistical shape model constructed with optimized

  2. The minimally tuned minimal supersymmetric standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, Rouven; Fortin, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    The regions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with the minimal amount of fine-tuning of electroweak symmetry breaking are presented for general messenger scale. No a priori relations among the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters are assumed and fine-tuning is minimized with respect to all the important parameters which affect electroweak symmetry breaking. The superpartner spectra in the minimally tuned region of parameter space are quite distinctive with large stop mixing at the low scale and negative squark soft masses at the high scale. The minimal amount of tuning increases enormously for a Higgs mass beyond roughly 120 GeV

  3. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  4. Measures for minimizing radiation hazardous to the environment in the advent of large-scale space commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of hazardous effects from radio-frequency (RF), light, infrared, and nuclear radiation on human and other biological species in the advent of large-scale space commercialization is considered. Attention is focused on RF/microwave radiation from earth antennas and domestic picture phone communication links, exposure to microwave radiation from space solar-power satellites, and the continuous transmission of information from spacecraft as well as laser radiation from space. Measures for preventing and/or reducing these effects are suggested, including the use of interlocks for cutting off radiation toward ground, off-pointing microwave energy beams in cases of altitude failure, limiting the satellite off-axis gain data-rate product, the use of reflective materials on buildings and in personnel clothing to protect from space-borne lasers, and underwater colonies in cases of high-power lasers. For nuclear-power satellites, deposition in stable points in the solar system is proposed. 12 refs

  5. A method of retrieving cloud top height and cloud geometrical thickness with oxygen A and B bands for the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission: Radiative transfer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Mao, Jianping; Lyapustin, Alexei; Herman, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) was designed to measure the atmosphere and surface properties over the whole sunlit half of the Earth from the L1 Lagrangian point. It has 10 spectral channels ranging from the UV to the near-IR, including two pairs of oxygen (O 2 ) A-band (779.5 and 764 nm) and B-band (680 and 687.75 nm) reference and absorption channels selected for the cloud height measurements. This paper presents the radiative transfer analysis pertinent to retrieving cloud top height and cloud geometrical thickness with EPIC A- and B-band observations. Due to photon cloud penetration, retrievals from either O 2 A- or B-band channels alone gives the corresponding cloud centroid height, which is lower than the cloud top. However, we show both the sum and the difference between the retrieved cloud centroid heights in the A and B bands are functions of cloud top height and cloud geometrical thickness. Based on this fact, the paper develops a new method to retrieve cloud top height and cloud geometrical thickness simultaneously for fully cloudy scenes over ocean surface. First, cloud centroid heights are calculated for both A and B bands using the ratios between the reflectances of the absorbing and reference channels; then the cloud top height and the cloud geometrical thickness are retrieved from the two dimensional look up tables that relate the sum and the difference between the retrieved centroid heights for A and B bands to the cloud top height and the cloud geometrical thickness. This method is applicable for clouds thicker than an optical depth of 5. -- Highlights: ► EPIC onboard DSCOVR is equipped with O 2 A and B band channels. ► Photon cloud penetration depths of A and B bands contain information of cloud thickness. ► A method is developed to retrieve cloud top height and cloud geometrical thickness with EPIC O 2 A- and B-band

  6. Minimal L-infinity-type spaces on strictly pseudoconvex domains on which the Bergman projection is continuous

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav; Hänninen, T.; Taskinen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2006), s. 253-275 ISSN 0362-1588 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/03/0041; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Bergman projection * weighted supremum norms * locally convex space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.354, year: 2006

  7. Minimizing guard ring dead space in silicon detectors with an n-type guard ring at the edge of the detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palviainen, Tanja; Tuuva, Tuure; Leinonen, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Detectors with n-type silicon with an n + -type guard ring were investigated. In the present work, a new p + /n/n + detector structure with an n + guard ring is described. The guard ring is placed at the edge of the detector. The detector depletion region extends also sideways, allowing for signal collection very close to the n-guard ring. In this kind of detector structure, the dead space of the detector is minimized to be only below the guard ring. This is proved by simulations done using Silvaco/ATLAS software

  8. Minimizing guard ring dead space in silicon detectors with an n-type guard ring at the edge of the detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palviainen, Tanja [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)]. E-mail: tanja.palviainen@lut.fi; Tuuva, Tuure [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Leinonen, Kari [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2007-04-01

    Detectors with n-type silicon with an n{sup +}-type guard ring were investigated. In the present work, a new p{sup +}/n/n{sup +} detector structure with an n{sup +} guard ring is described. The guard ring is placed at the edge of the detector. The detector depletion region extends also sideways, allowing for signal collection very close to the n-guard ring. In this kind of detector structure, the dead space of the detector is minimized to be only below the guard ring. This is proved by simulations done using Silvaco/ATLAS software.

  9. Hand joint space narrowing and osteophytes are associated with magnetic resonance imaging-defined knee cartilage thickness and radiographic knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Ida K; Cotofana, Sebastian; Englund, Martin; Kvien, Tore K; Dreher, Donatus; Nevitt, Michael; Lane, Nancy E; Eckstein, Felix

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether features of radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA) are associated with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-defined knee cartilage thickness, radiographic knee OA, and 1-year structural progression. A total of 765 participants in Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI; 455 women, mean age 62.5 yrs, SD 9.4) obtained hand radiographs (at baseline), knee radiographs (baseline and Year 1), and knee MRI (baseline and Year 1). Hand radiographs were scored for presence of osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN). Knee radiographs were scored according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Cartilage thickness in the medial and lateral femorotibial compartments was measured quantitatively from coronal FLASHwe images. We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between features of hand OA (total osteophyte and JSN scores) and knee cartilage thickness, 1-year knee cartilage thinning (above smallest detectable change), presence of knee OA (KL grade ≥ 3), and progression of knee OA (KL change ≥ 1) by linear and logistic regression. Both hand OA features were included in a multivariate model (if p ≤ 0.25) adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Hand JSN was associated with reduced knee cartilage thickness (ß = -0.02, 95% CI -0.03, -0.01) in the medial femorotibial compartment, while hand osteophytes were associated with the presence of radiographic knee OA (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18; multivariate models) with both hand OA features as independent variables adjusted for age, sex, and BMI). Radiographic features of hand OA were not associated with 1-year cartilage thinning or radiographic knee OA progression. Our results support a systemic OA susceptibility and possibly different mechanisms for osteophyte formation and cartilage thinning.

  10. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for CubeSat Deployments to Minimize Collision Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, James H.; Aviles, Jorge; Myers, Ralph; Parris, Joshua; Corley, Bryan; Hehn, Garrett; Pascucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe global precipitation, extending the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), which was launched by H-IIA from Tanegashima in Japan on February 28TH, 2014 directly into its 407km operational orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an international human research facility operated jointly by Russia and the USA from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston Texas. Mission priorities lowered the operating altitude of ISS from 415km to 400km in early 2105, effectively placing both vehicles into the same orbital regime. The ISS has begun a program of deployments of cost effective CubeSats from the ISS that allow testing and validation of new technologies. With a major new asset flying at the same effective altitude as the ISS, CubeSat deployments became a serious threat to GPM and therefore a significant indirect threat to the ISS. This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  11. Strategies for "minimal growth maintenance" of cell cultures: a perspective on management for extended duration experimentation in the microgravity environment of a Space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    How cells manage without gravity and how they change in the absence of gravity are basic questions that only prolonged life on a Space station will enable us to answer. We know from investigations carried out on various kinds of Space vehicles and stations that profound physiological effects can and often to occur. We need to know more of the basic biochemistry and biophysics both of cells and of whole organisms in conditions of reduced gravity. The unique environment of Space affords plant scientists an unusual opportunity to carry out experiments in microgravity, but some major challenges must be faced before this can be done with confidence. Various laboratory activities that are routine on Earth take on special significance and offer problems that need imaginative resolution before even a relatively simple experiment can be reliably executed on a Space station. For example, scientists might wish to investigate whether adaptive or other changes that have occurred in the environment of Space are retained after return to Earth-normal conditions. Investigators seeking to carry out experiments in the low-gravity environment of Space using cultured cells will need to solve the problem of keeping cultures quiescent for protracted periods before an experiment is initiated, after periodic sampling is carried out, and after the experiment is completed. This review gives an evaluation of a range of strategies that can enable one to manipulate cell physiology and curtail growth dramatically toward this end. These strategies include cryopreservation, chilling, reduced oxygen, gel entrapment strategies, osmotic adjustment, nutrient starvation, pH manipulation, and the use of mitotic inhibitors and growth-retarding chemicals. Cells not only need to be rendered quiescent for protracted periods but they also must be recoverable and further grown if it is so desired. Elaboration of satisfactory procedures for management of cells and tissues at "near zero or minimal growth" will

  12. Thick Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find ...

  13. A perturbation technique for shield weight minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, E.F.; Greenspan, E.

    1993-01-01

    The radiation shield optimization code SWAN (Ref. 1) was originally developed for minimizing the thickness of a shield that will meet a given dose (or another) constraint or for extremizing a performance parameter of interest (e.g., maximizing energy multiplication or minimizing dose) while maintaining the shield volume constraint. The SWAN optimization process proved to be highly effective (e.g., see Refs. 2, 3, and 4). The purpose of this work is to investigate the applicability of the SWAN methodology to problems in which the weight rather than the volume is the relevant shield characteristic. Such problems are encountered in shield design for space nuclear power systems. The investigation is carried out using SWAN with the coupled neutron-photon cross-section library FLUNG (Ref. 5)

  14. Taxonomic minimalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattle, A J; Oliver, I

    1994-12-01

    Biological surveys are in increasing demand while taxonomic resources continue to decline. How much formal taxonomy is required to get the job done? The answer depends on the kind of job but it is possible that taxonomic minimalism, especially (1) the use of higher taxonomic ranks, (2) the use of morphospecies rather than species (as identified by Latin binomials), and (3) the involvement of taxonomic specialists only for training and verification, may offer advantages for biodiversity assessment, environmental monitoring and ecological research. As such, formal taxonomy remains central to the process of biological inventory and survey but resources may be allocated more efficiently. For example, if formal Identification is not required, resources may be concentrated on replication and increasing sample sizes. Taxonomic minimalism may also facilitate the inclusion in these activities of important but neglected groups, especially among the invertebrates, and perhaps even microorganisms. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. On the statistics of the minimal solution of a linear Diophantine equation and uniform distribution of the real part of orbits in hyperbolic spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten S.; Rudnick, Zeev

    We study a variant of a problem considered by Dinaburg and Sinai on the statistics of the minimal solution to a linear Diophantine equation. We show that the signed ratio between the Euclidean norms of the minimal solution and the coefficient vector is uniformly distributed modulo one. We reduce ...

  16. Minimal Surfaces for Hitchin Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiongling; Dai, Song

    2018-01-01

    . In this paper, we investigate the properties of immersed minimal surfaces inside symmetric space associated to a subloci of Hitchin component: $q_n$ and $q_{n-1}$ case. First, we show that the pullback metric of the minimal surface dominates a constant multiple of the hyperbolic metric in the same conformal...... class and has a strong rigidity property. Secondly, we show that the immersed minimal surface is never tangential to any flat inside the symmetric space. As a direct corollary, the pullback metric of the minimal surface is always strictly negatively curved. In the end, we find a fully decoupled system...

  17. The relative volume growth of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2002-01-01

    The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature.......The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature....

  18. Comparative Performance in Single-Port Versus Multiport Minimally Invasive Surgery, and Small Versus Large Operative Working Spaces: A Preclinical Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Hani J; Seneci, Carlo A; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Nandi, Dipankar; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara

    2016-04-01

    Surgical approaches such as transanal endoscopic microsurgery, which utilize small operative working spaces, and are necessarily single-port, are particularly demanding with standard instruments and have not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare simultaneously surgical performance in single-port versus multiport approaches, and small versus large working spaces. Ten novice, 4 intermediate, and 1 expert surgeons were recruited from a university hospital. A preclinical randomized crossover study design was implemented, comparing performance under the following conditions: (1) multiport approach and large working space, (2) multiport approach and intermediate working space, (3) single-port approach and large working space, (4) single-port approach and intermediate working space, and (5) single-port approach and small working space. In each case, participants performed a peg transfer and pattern cutting tasks, and each task repetition was scored. Intermediate and expert surgeons performed significantly better than novices in all conditions (P Performance in single-port surgery was significantly worse than multiport surgery (P performance in the intermediate versus large working space. In single-port surgery, there was a converse trend; performances in the intermediate and small working spaces were significantly better than in the large working space. Single-port approaches were significantly more technically challenging than multiport approaches, possibly reflecting loss of instrument triangulation. Surprisingly, in single-port approaches, in which triangulation was no longer a factor, performance in large working spaces was worse than in intermediate and small working spaces. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Thick brane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Minamitsuji, Masato; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive review on thick brane solutions and related topics. Such models have attracted much attention from many aspects since the birth of the brane world scenario. In many works, it has been usually assumed that a brane is an infinitely thin object; however, in more general situations, one can no longer assume this. It is also widely considered that more fundamental theories such as string theory would have a minimal length scale. Many multidimensional field theories coupled to gravitation have exact solutions of gravitating topological defects, which can represent our brane world. The inclusion of brane thickness can realize a variety of possible brane world models. Given our understanding, the known solutions can be classified into topologically non-trivial solutions and trivial ones. The former class contains solutions of a single scalar (domain walls), multi-scalar, gauge-Higgs (vortices), Weyl gravity and so on. As an example of the latter class, we consider solutions of two interacting scalar fields. Approaches to obtain cosmological equations in the thick brane world are reviewed. Solutions with spatially extended branes (S-branes) and those with an extra time-like direction are also discussed.

  20. Motivation for a near term gun launch to space demonstration and a variable induction power supply concept to minimize initial demonstration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the Gun Launch to Space (GLTS) concept is briefly reviewed along with recent progress and motivations for a near term launch demonstration. A current multiplying reconfigurable inductor design is developed which could couple to an existing battery system to power a GLTS railgun demonstration at the 300 megajoule muzzle energy level. The design is developed using proven approaches and performance levels and appears capable of reducing the power supply cost for an initial GLTS demonstration below that of a simple battery charged inductor system. Possible uses are (1) launching of space weapons; (2) launching of communication satellites; (3) and launching of satellites for space disposal of radioactive wastes

  1. Minimal Webs in Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    For a given combinatorial graph $G$ a {\\it geometrization} $(G, g)$ of the graph is obtained by considering each edge of the graph as a $1-$dimensional manifold with an associated metric $g$. In this paper we are concerned with {\\it minimal isometric immersions} of geometrized graphs $(G, g......)$ into Riemannian manifolds $(N^{n}, h)$. Such immersions we call {\\em{minimal webs}}. They admit a natural 'geometric' extension of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian. The geometric Laplacian on minimal webs enjoys standard properties such as the maximum principle and the divergence theorems, which...... are of instrumental importance for the applications. We apply these properties to show that minimal webs in ambient Riemannian spaces share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in such spaces. In particular we use appropriate versions of the divergence...

  2. A thick-walled sphere rotating in a uniform magnetic field: The next step to de-spin a space object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark A.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Caracciolo, Ryan A.; Peck, Mason; Leve, Frederick A.

    2017-08-01

    Modeling the interaction between a moving conductor and a static magnetic field is critical to understanding the operation of induction motors, eddy current braking, and the dynamics of satellites moving through Earth's magnetic field. Here, we develop the case of a thick-walled sphere rotating in a uniform magnetic field, which is the simplest, non-trivial, magneto-statics problem that leads to complete closed-form expressions for the resulting potentials, fields, and currents. This solution requires knowledge of all of Maxwell's time independent equations, scalar and vector potential equations, and the Lorentz force law. The paper presents four cases and their associated experimental results, making this topic appropriate for an advanced student lab project.

  3. Confirmation of the Galactic Thick Disk Component by the Basle RGU-and UBV-photometric space densities. II. (Synopsis of 25 years Basle Halo Program; II: Plaut I, NGC 6171, SA 158, M 13)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenkart, R.

    1989-01-01

    This contribution treats four fields, all with directions pointing into the galactic centre hemisphere (270 0 0 ). The purpose of the comparison-phase of the BHP is to homogeneously compare the three-colour photometrically determined space densities for different luminosity groups of the combined (photometric) populations I and II with the gradients predicted for the involved direction by a representative set of current standard multi-component models for the stellar space distribution in the Galaxy and to evaluate a best-fitting model by a simple quantitative procedure. In no case the existence of a Thick Disk component is ruled out by the findings; in the safer directions it is even slightly indicated, though much less compellingly than in all previous investigations of the model-comparison phase

  4. Cultivation in space flight produces minimal alterations in the susceptibility of Bacillus subtilis cells to 72 different antibiotics and growth-inhibiting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Michael D; Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2017-08-18

    Past results have suggested that bacterial antibiotic susceptibility is altered during space flight. To test this notion, Bacillus subtilis cells were cultivated in matched hardware, medium, and environmental conditions either in spaceflight microgravity on the International Space Station, termed Flight (FL) samples, or at Earth-normal gravity, termed Ground Control (GC) samples. Susceptibility of FL and GC samples was compared to 72 antibiotics and growth-inhibitory compounds using the Omnilog Phenotype Microarray (PM) system. Only 9 compounds were identified by PM screening as exhibiting significant differences ( P flight. Importance: This study addresses a major concern of mission planners for human spaceflight, that bacteria accompanying astronauts on long-duration missions might develop a higher level of resistance to antibiotics due to exposure to the spaceflight environment. The results of this study do not support that notion. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Vestibular cerebellum of thick-toed geckos (Chondrodactylus turnery GRAY, 1864) and C57/BL6N mice after the long-term space flight on the biosatellite BION-M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra, Proshchina; Anastasia, Kharlamova; Valeriy, Barabanov; Victoria, Gulimova; Sergey, Saveliev

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of long-term space flights on neuronal and glial cells of the vestibular cerebellum of C57/BL6N mice and thick-toed geckos (Chondrodactylus turnery GRAY, 1864). The cerebella from 26 mice and 13 geckos were used in this study. Ten mice and five geckos were flown aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite. The other animals were used as controls. We used immunohistochemical techniques and classical histological method to reveal cell types in the vestibular cerebellum. Nonspecific pathomorphological changes in the Purkinje cells (such as chromatolysis, vacuolization and hyperchromatosis) were observed in the flight groups. However, these changes are reversible and were also found in some neurons in the control groups. In addition, as the vestibular cerebellum is an evolutionarily stable structure, thick-toed geckos may be a useful model for space flight studies on the vertebrate cerebellum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. DactyLoc : A minimally geo-referenced WiFi+GSM-fingerprint-based localization method for positioning in urban spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cujia, Kristian; Wirz, Martin; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprinting-based localization methods relying on WiFi and GSM information provide sufficient localization accuracy for many mobile phone applications. Most of the existing approaches require a training set consisting of geo-referenced fingerprints to build a reference database. We propose...... a collaborative, semi-supervised WiFi+GSM fingerprinting method where only a small fraction of all fingerprints needs to be geo-referenced. Our approach enables indexing of areas in the absence of GPS reception as often found in urban spaces and indoors without manual labeling of fingerprints. The method takes...

  7. Isoperimetric inequalities for minimal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacelli Bessa, G.; Montenegro, J.F.

    2007-09-01

    Based on Markvorsen and Palmer's work on mean time exit and isoperimetric inequalities we establish slightly better isoperimetric inequalities and mean time exit estimates for minimal graphs in N x R. We also prove isoperimetric inequalities for submanifolds of Hadamard spaces with tamed second fundamental form. (author)

  8. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  9. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice,...

  10. The minimal non-minimal standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bij, J.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter I discuss a class of extensions of the standard model that have a minimal number of possible parameters, but can in principle explain dark matter and inflation. It is pointed out that the so-called new minimal standard model contains a large number of parameters that can be put to zero, without affecting the renormalizability of the model. With the extra restrictions one might call it the minimal (new) non-minimal standard model (MNMSM). A few hidden discrete variables are present. It is argued that the inflaton should be higher-dimensional. Experimental consequences for the LHC and the ILC are discussed

  11. Minimizing convex functions by continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Aizicovici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study continuous descent methods for minimizing convex functions, defined on general Banach spaces, which are associated with an appropriate complete metric space of vector fields. We show that there exists an everywhere dense open set in this space of vector fields such that each of its elements generates strongly convergent trajectories.

  12. Transience and capacity of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2003-01-01

    We prove explicit lower bounds for the capacity of annular domains of minimal submanifolds P-m in ambient Riemannian spaces N-n with sectional curvatures bounded from above. We characterize the situations in which the lower bounds for the capacity are actually attained. Furthermore we apply...... these bounds to prove that Brownian motion defined on a complete minimal submanifold is transient when the ambient space is a negatively curved Hadamard-Cartan manifold. The proof stems directly from the capacity bounds and also covers the case of minimal submanifolds of dimension m > 2 in Euclidean spaces....

  13. Is non-minimal inflation eternal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that the non-minimal coupling inflation could be eternal is investigated. We calculate the quantum fluctuation of the inflaton in a Hubble time and find that it has the same value as that in the minimal case in the slow-roll limit. Armed with this result, we have studied some concrete non-minimal inflationary models including the chaotic inflation and the natural inflation, in which the inflaton is non-minimally coupled to the gravity. We find that the non-minimal coupling inflation could be eternal in some parameter spaces.

  14. Non-minimal inflation revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozari, Kourosh; Shafizadeh, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    We reconsider an inflationary model that inflaton field is non-minimally coupled to gravity. We study the parameter space of the model up to the second (and in some cases third) order of the slow-roll parameters. We calculate inflation parameters in both Jordan and Einstein frames, and the results are compared in these two frames and also with observations. Using the recent observational data from combined WMAP5+SDSS+SNIa datasets, we study constraints imposed on our model parameters, especially the non-minimal coupling ξ.

  15. Thick Description beyond the Digital Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnix Beyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The arrival and rapid spread of digital media can help the humanities better discern general patterns in human societies and cultures, and single out instances or moments which need an in-depth analysis. However, the process of digitization also poses certain threats to the humanities: it introduces new and possibly distorting filters between ourselves and our object of research, it can make us blind to the social, political and cultural situatedness of the sources, and it can cause us to forget that certain aspects of human life are simply too complex to be digitally understood. Briefly elaborating on the case of parliamentary irony in Belgian history, I try to demonstrate the need to combine “flat” digital searches with multilayered hermeneutic approaches based on traditional philological research.

  16. Impact of plasma tube wall thickness on power coupling in ICP sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Herdrich, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The inductively heated plasma source at the Institute of Space Systems was investigated with respect to the wall thickness of the plasma tube using an air plasma. For this, the wall thickness of the quartz tube was reduced in steps from 2.5 to 1.25 mm. The significance of reducing the wall thickness was analyzed with respect to both the maximum allowable tube cooling power and the coupling efficiency. While the former results from thermal stresses in the tube's wall, the latter results from a minimization of magnetic field losses near the coil turns of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. Analysis of the thermal stress could be validated by experimental data, i.e. the measurement of the tube cooling power when the respective tube structure failed. The coupling efficiency could be assessed qualitatively by simplified models, and the experimental data recorded show that coupling was improved far more than predicted.

  17. High-Performance Reaction Wheel Optimization for Fine-Pointing Space Platforms: Minimizing Induced Vibration Effects on Jitter Performance plus Lessons Learned from Hubble Space Telescope for Current and Future Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasha, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) applies large-diameter optics (2.5-m primary mirror) for diffraction-limited resolution spanning an extended wavelength range (approx. 100-2500 nm). Its Pointing Control System (PCS) Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWAs), in the Support Systems Module (SSM), acquired an unprecedented set of high-sensitivity Induced Vibration (IV) data for 5 flight-certified RWAs: dwelling at set rotation rates. Focused on 4 key ratios, force and moment harmonic values (in 3 local principal directions) are extracted in the RWA operating range (0-3000 RPM). The IV test data, obtained under ambient lab conditions, are investigated in detail, evaluated, compiled, and curve-fitted; variational trends, core causes, and unforeseen anomalies are addressed. In aggregate, these values constitute a statistically-valid basis to quantify ground test-to-test variations and facilitate extrapolations to on-orbit conditions. Accumulated knowledge of bearing-rotor vibrational sources, corresponding harmonic contributions, and salient elements of IV key variability factors are discussed. An evolved methodology is presented for absolute assessments and relative comparisons of macro-level IV signal magnitude due to micro-level construction-assembly geometric details/imperfections stemming from both electrical drive and primary bearing design parameters. Based upon studies of same-size/similar-design momentum wheels' IV changes, upper estimates due to transitions from ground tests to orbital conditions are derived. Recommended HST RWA choices are discussed relative to system optimization/tradeoffs of Line-Of-Sight (LOS) vector-pointing focal-plane error driven by higher IV transmissibilities through low-damped structural dynamics that stimulate optical elements. Unique analytical disturbance results for orbital HST accelerations are described applicable to microgravity efforts. Conclusions, lessons learned, historical context/insights, and perspectives on future applications

  18. Characteristics of the thick, compound refractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, Richard H.; Feinstein, Joseph; Beguiristain, H. Raul; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Cremer, Jay T.

    2003-01-01

    A compound refractive lens (CRL), consisting of a series of N closely spaced lens elements each of which contributes a small fraction of the total focusing, can be used to focus x rays or neutrons. The thickness of a CRL can be comparable to its focal length, whereupon a thick-lens analysis must be performed. In contrast with the conventional optical lens, where the ray inside the lens follows a straight line, the ray inside the CRL is continually changing direction because of the multiple refracting surfaces. Thus the matrix representation for the thick CRL is quite different from that for the thick optical lens. Principal planes can be defined such that the thick-lens matrix can be converted to that of a thin lens. For a thick lens the focal length is greater than for a thin lens with the same lens curvature, but this lengthening effect is less for the CRL than for the conventional optical lens

  19. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-07-29

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  20. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  1. Confirmation of the Galactic thick disk component by the Basle RGU- and UBV-photometric space densities. Synopsis of 25 years Basle Halo Program. III - RGU + UBV: SA 82, SA 133, SA 57, SA 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkart, R.

    1989-10-01

    The stars in four fields of the Basle Halo Program (BHP), henceforth called "UBV-fields", had been (photographically) observed in RGU and in UBV, in order to treat their data in both photometric systems with the same stellar-statistical method for the determination of space density gradients, developed by Becker (1%5) for the RGU-fields of the BHP The purpose was to compare the corresponding results in both systems and to obtain an idea about their mutual performance with respect to this method. All four investigations (references in Tab. I) proved it to work about equally well in both systems, if the outcome is measured in terms of a relatively rough criterion, the so-called "mean misidentification-rate per system" (MMRS). In order to obtain a better founded view about the degree of equivalence of both systems with respect to their application for the three-colour photometrical purposes of the Basle programs, we decided to treat the UBV-fields in this third contribution to the present model-comparison synopsis, in RGU and in UBV, too, by comparing the total space densities observed in both systems with the five standard model gradients and according to the comparison method homogeneously used within the "comparison-phase" of the BHP which was initiated by del Rio and Fenkart (1987). In the appendix, as in paper I, the first contribution to this synopsis (Fenkart, 1989a), we give a full description of the comparison method, and the definition of the five standard models for the space density distribution in the Galaxy which are essentially three versions of the Bahcall-Soneira (1980) two-component model. BS II i(i = 1, 2, 3), as well as a three- and a four-component version of the Gilmore-Wyse (1985) model, without and with a Thick Disk component, GW III and GW IV respectively, together with their parameters in table In addition to that, paper I contains a full account of the almost 25 years old history of the BHP, of the motivation for this synopsis and of its

  2. Minimal mirror twin Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Riccardo [Institute of Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich,CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke [Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-11-29

    In a Mirror Twin World with a maximally symmetric Higgs sector the little hierarchy of the Standard Model can be significantly mitigated, perhaps displacing the cutoff scale above the LHC reach. We show that consistency with observations requires that the Z{sub 2} parity exchanging the Standard Model with its mirror be broken in the Yukawa couplings. A minimal such effective field theory, with this sole Z{sub 2} breaking, can generate the Z{sub 2} breaking in the Higgs sector necessary for the Twin Higgs mechanism. The theory has constrained and correlated signals in Higgs decays, direct Dark Matter Detection and Dark Radiation, all within reach of foreseen experiments, over a region of parameter space where the fine-tuning for the electroweak scale is 10-50%. For dark matter, both mirror neutrons and a variety of self-interacting mirror atoms are considered. Neutrino mass signals and the effects of a possible additional Z{sub 2} breaking from the vacuum expectation values of B−L breaking fields are also discussed.

  3. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  4. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  5. Subspace Correction Methods for Total Variation and $\\ell_1$-Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Fornasier, Massimo; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical minimization of energy functionals in Hilbert spaces involving convex constraints coinciding with a seminorm for a subspace. The optimization is realized by alternating minimizations of the functional on a

  6. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  7. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  8. Minimally invasive orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Cory M; Kaban, Leonard B; Troulis, Maria J

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is defined as the discipline in which operative procedures are performed in novel ways to diminish the sequelae of standard surgical dissections. The goals of minimally invasive surgery are to reduce tissue trauma and to minimize bleeding, edema, and injury, thereby improving the rate and quality of healing. In orthognathic surgery, there are two minimally invasive techniques that can be used separately or in combination: (1) endoscopic exposure and (2) distraction osteogenesis. This article describes the historical developments of the fields of orthognathic surgery and minimally invasive surgery, as well as the integration of the two disciplines. Indications, techniques, and the most current outcome data for specific minimally invasive orthognathic surgical procedures are presented.

  9. Correlates of minimal dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  10. Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Logistics 4 Initiative - DoD Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Non- Chrome Primer IIEXAVAJ ENT CHRO:M I~UMI CHROMIUM (VII Oil CrfVli.J CANCEfl HAnRD CD...Management Office of the Secretary of Defense Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  11. Minimal Super Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antola, M.; Di Chiara, S.; Sannino, F.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce novel extensions of the Standard Model featuring a supersymmetric technicolor sector (supertechnicolor). As the first minimal conformal supertechnicolor model we consider N=4 Super Yang-Mills which breaks to N=1 via the electroweak interactions. This is a well defined, economical......, between unparticle physics and Minimal Walking Technicolor. We consider also other N =1 extensions of the Minimal Walking Technicolor model. The new models allow all the standard model matter fields to acquire a mass....

  12. Minimizing Mutual Couping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna.......Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna....

  13. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail; Pottmann, Helmut; Grohs, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ

  14. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  15. Minimal length uncertainty and generalized non-commutative geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmany, A.; Abbasi, S.; Darvishi, M.T.; Khani, F.; Naghipour, A.

    2009-01-01

    A generalized formulation of non-commutative geometry for the Bargmann-Fock space of quantum field theory is presented. The analysis is related to the symmetry of the simplistic space and a minimal length uncertainty.

  16. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  17. Minimizing Exposure at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticide Health and Safety Information Safe Use Practices Minimizing Exposure at Work Pesticides - Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Personal Protective Equipment for Working

  18. Minimalism. Clip and Save.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides background information on the art movement called "Minimalism" discussing why it started and its characteristics. Includes learning activities and information on the artist, Donald Judd. Includes a reproduction of one of his art works and discusses its content. (CMK)

  19. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Minimal and careful processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    In several standards, guidelines and publications, organic food processing is strongly associated with "minimal processing" and "careful processing". The term "minimal processing" is nowadays often used in the general food processing industry and described in literature. The term "careful processing" is used more specifically within organic food processing but is not yet clearly defined. The concept of carefulness seems to fit very well with the processing of organic foods, especially if it i...

  1. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  2. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  3. APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-24

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  5. Waste minimization assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellythorne, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Perry Nuclear Power Plant began developing a waste minimization plan early in 1991. In March of 1991 the plan was documented following a similar format to that described in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. Initial implementation involved obtaining management's commitment to support a waste minimization effort. The primary assessment goal was to identify all hazardous waste streams and to evaluate those streams for minimization opportunities. As implementation of the plan proceeded, non-hazardous waste streams routinely generated in large volumes were also evaluated for minimization opportunities. The next step included collection of process and facility data which would be useful in helping the facility accomplish its assessment goals. This paper describes the resources that were used and which were most valuable in identifying both the hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams that existed on site. For each material identified as a waste stream, additional information regarding the materials use, manufacturer, EPA hazardous waste number and DOT hazard class was also gathered. Once waste streams were evaluated for potential source reduction, recycling, re-use, re-sale, or burning for heat recovery, with disposal as the last viable alternative

  6. Minimal quantization and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, N.P.; Kalinowskij, Yu.L.; Nguyen Suan Han; Pervushin, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    A ''minimal'' version of the Hamiltonian quantization based on the explicit solution of the Gauss equation and on the gauge-invariance principle is considered. By the example of the one-particle Green function we show that the requirement for gauge invariance leads to relativistic covariance of the theory and to more proper definition of the Faddeev - Popov integral that does not depend on the gauge choice. The ''minimal'' quantization is applied to consider the gauge-ambiguity problem and a new topological mechanism of confinement

  7. Minimal Composite Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channuie, Phongpichit; Jark Joergensen, Jakob; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate models in which the inflaton emerges as a composite field of a four dimensional, strongly interacting and nonsupersymmetric gauge theory featuring purely fermionic matter. We show that it is possible to obtain successful inflation via non-minimal coupling to gravity, and that the u......We investigate models in which the inflaton emerges as a composite field of a four dimensional, strongly interacting and nonsupersymmetric gauge theory featuring purely fermionic matter. We show that it is possible to obtain successful inflation via non-minimal coupling to gravity...

  8. Minimalism and Speakers’ Intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Gariazzo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minimalism proposes a semantics that does not account for speakers’ intuitions about the truth conditions of a range of sentences or utterances. Thus, a challenge for this view is to offer an explanation of how its assignment of semantic contents to these sentences is grounded in their use. Such an account was mainly offered by Soames, but also suggested by Cappelen and Lepore. The article criticizes this explanation by presenting four kinds of counterexamples to it, and arrives at the conclusion that minimalism has not successfully answered the above-mentioned challenge.

  9. Minimal open strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosomichi, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    We study FZZT-branes and open string amplitudes in (p, q) minimal string theory. We focus on the simplest boundary changing operators in two-matrix models, and identify the corresponding operators in worldsheet theory through the comparison of amplitudes. Along the way, we find a novel linear relation among FZZT boundary states in minimal string theory. We also show that the boundary ground ring is realized on physical open string operators in a very simple manner, and discuss its use for perturbative computation of higher open string amplitudes.

  10. On minimizers of causal variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiefeneder, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Causal variational principles are a class of nonlinear minimization problems which arise in a formulation of relativistic quantum theory referred to as the fermionic projector approach. This thesis is devoted to a numerical and analytic study of the minimizers of a general class of causal variational principles. We begin with a numerical investigation of variational principles for the fermionic projector in discrete space-time. It is shown that for sufficiently many space-time points, the minimizing fermionic projector induces non-trivial causal relations on the space-time points. We then generalize the setting by introducing a class of causal variational principles for measures on a compact manifold. In our main result we prove under general assumptions that the support of a minimizing measure is either completely timelike, or it is singular in the sense that its interior is empty. In the examples of the circle, the sphere and certain flag manifolds, the general results are supplemented by a more detailed analysis of the minimizers. (orig.)

  11. A survey on classical minimal surface theory

    CERN Document Server

    Meeks, William H

    2012-01-01

    Meeks and Pérez present a survey of recent spectacular successes in classical minimal surface theory. The classification of minimal planar domains in three-dimensional Euclidean space provides the focus of the account. The proof of the classification depends on the work of many currently active leading mathematicians, thus making contact with much of the most important results in the field. Through the telling of the story of the classification of minimal planar domains, the general mathematician may catch a glimpse of the intrinsic beauty of this theory and the authors' perspective of what is happening at this historical moment in a very classical subject. This book includes an updated tour through some of the recent advances in the theory, such as Colding-Minicozzi theory, minimal laminations, the ordering theorem for the space of ends, conformal structure of minimal surfaces, minimal annular ends with infinite total curvature, the embedded Calabi-Yau problem, local pictures on the scale of curvature and t...

  12. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  13. Minimal model holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    We review the duality relating 2D W N minimal model conformal field theories, in a large-N ’t Hooft like limit, to higher spin gravitational theories on AdS 3 . This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’. (review)

  14. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribiori, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dall' Agata, G., E-mail: dallagat@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Porrati, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  15. Hazardous waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book presents an overview of waste minimization. Covers applications of technology to waste reduction, techniques for implementing programs, incorporation of programs into R and D, strategies for private industry and the public sector, and case studies of programs already in effect

  16. Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Røsok, Bård I.; de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Diener, Markus K.; Allen, Peter J.; Vollmer, Charles M.; Kooby, David A.; Shrikhande, Shailesh V.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Barkun, Jeffrey; Besselink, Marc G.; Boggi, Ugo; Conlon, Kevin; Han, Ho Seong; Hansen, Paul; Kendrick, Michael L.; Kooby, David; Montagnini, Andre L.; Palanivelu, Chinnasamy; Wakabayashi, Go; Zeh, Herbert J.

    2017-01-01

    The first International conference on Minimally Invasive Pancreas Resection was arranged in conjunction with the annual meeting of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA), in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 19th 2016. The presented evidence and outcomes resulting from the session

  17. Minimal DBM Substraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Håkansson, John; G. Larsen, Kim

    In this paper we present an algorithm to compute DBM substractions with a guaranteed minimal number of splits and disjoint DBMs to avoid any redundance. The substraction is one of the few operations that result in a non-convex zone, and thus, requires splitting. It is of prime importance to reduce...

  18. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cribiori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  19. Minimal constrained supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribiori, N.; Dall'Agata, G.; Farakos, F.; Porrati, M.

    2017-01-01

    We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  20. Thick melanoma in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Brandani, Paola; Gerlini, Gianni; Rubegni, Pietro; Lamberti, Arianna; Salvini, Camilla; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Cecchi, Roberto; Sirna, Riccardo; Lorenzi, Stefano; Gattai, Riccardo; Battistini, Silvio; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2017-03-14

    The epidemiologic trends of cutaneous melanoma are similar in several countries with a Western-type life style, where there is a progressive increasing incidence and a low but not decreasing mor- tality, or somewhere an increase too, especially in the older age groups. Also in Tuscany there is a steady rise in incidence with prevalence of in situ and invasive thin melanomas, with also an increase of thick melanomas. It is necessary to reduce the frequency of thick melanomas to reduce specific mortality. The objective of the current survey has been to compare, in the Tuscany population, by a case- case study, thin and thick melanoma cases, trying to find out those personal and tumour characteristics which may help to customize preventive interventions. RESULTS The results confirmed the age and the lower edu- cation level are associated with a later detection. The habit to perform skin self-examination is resulted protec- tive forward thick melanoma and also the diagnosis by a doctor. The elements emerging from the survey allow to hypothesize a group of subjects resulting at higher risk for a late diagnosis, aged over 50 and carrier of a fewer constitutional and environmental risk factors: few total and few atypical nevi, and lower sun exposure and burning. It is assumable that a part of people did not be reached from messages of prevention because does not recognize oneself in the categories of people at risk for skin cancers described in educational cam- paigns. If we want to obtain better results on diagnosis of skin melanoma we have to think a new strategy. At least to think over the educational messages discriminating people more at risk of incidence of melanoma from people more at risk to die from melanoma, and to renewed active involvement of the Gen- eral Practitioners .

  1. Roughly isometric minimal immersions into Riemannian manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian, and we will show that they share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in $N$. The intrinsic properties thus obtained may hence serve as roughly invariant descriptors for the original metric space $X$....

  2. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  3. On the isoperimetric rigidity of extrinsic minimal balls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2003-01-01

    We consider an m-dimensional minimal submanifold P and a metric R-sphere in the Euclidean space R-n. If the sphere has its center p on P, then it will cut out a well defined connected component of P which contains this center point. We call this connected component an extrinsic minimal R-ball of P....... The quotient of the volume of the extrinsic ball and the volume of its boundary is not larger than the corresponding quotient obtained in the space form standard situation, where the minimal submanifold is the totally geodesic linear subspace R-m. Here we show that if the minimal submanifold has dimension...... larger than 3, if P is not too curved along the boundary of an extrinsic minimal R-ball, and if the inequality alluded to above is an equality for the extrinsic minimal ball, then the minimal submanifold is totally geodesic....

  4. Minimal abdominal incisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Magi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive procedures aim to resolve the disease with minimal trauma to the body, resulting in a rapid return to activities and in reductions of infection, complications, costs and pain. Minimally incised laparotomy, sometimes referred to as minilaparotomy, is an example of such minimally invasive procedures. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of laparotomy with minimal incision based on the literature and exemplifying with a case. The case in question describes reconstruction of the intestinal transit with the use of this incision. Male, young, HIV-positive patient in a late postoperative of ileotiflectomy, terminal ileostomy and closing of the ascending colon by an acute perforating abdomen, due to ileocolonic tuberculosis. The barium enema showed a proximal stump of the right colon near the ileostomy. The access to the cavity was made through the orifice resulting from the release of the stoma, with a lateral-lateral ileo-colonic anastomosis with a 25 mm circular stapler and manual closure of the ileal stump. These surgeries require their own tactics, such as rigor in the lysis of adhesions, tissue traction, and hemostasis, in addition to requiring surgeon dexterity – but without the need for investments in technology; moreover, the learning curve is reported as being lower than that for videolaparoscopy. Laparotomy with minimal incision should be considered as a valid and viable option in the treatment of surgical conditions. Resumo: Procedimentos minimamente invasivos visam resolver a doença com o mínimo de trauma ao organismo, resultando em retorno rápido às atividades, reduções nas infecções, complicações, custos e na dor. A laparotomia com incisão mínima, algumas vezes referida como minilaparotomia, é um exemplo desses procedimentos minimamente invasivos. O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar a viabilidade e utilidade das laparotomias com incisão mínima com base na literatura e

  5. Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; A. Ryttov, T.

    2007-01-01

    Different theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the Minimal and Nonminimal Walking Technicolor theories have recently been studied. The goal here is to make the models ready for collider phenomenology. We do this by constructing the low energy effective theory containing scalars......, pseudoscalars, vector mesons and other fields predicted by the minimal walking theory. We construct their self-interactions and interactions with standard model fields. Using the Weinberg sum rules, opportunely modified to take into account the walking behavior of the underlying gauge theory, we find...... interesting relations for the spin-one spectrum. We derive the electroweak parameters using the newly constructed effective theory and compare the results with the underlying gauge theory. Our analysis is sufficiently general such that the resulting model can be used to represent a generic walking technicolor...

  6. Stabilization of a locally minimal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. O.; Mel'nikova, A. E.; Tuzhilin, A. A.

    2014-03-01

    The method of partial stabilization of locally minimal networks, which was invented by Ivanov and Tuzhilin to construct examples of shortest trees with given topology, is developed. According to this method, boundary vertices of degree 2 are not added to all edges of the original locally minimal tree, but only to some of them. The problem of partial stabilization of locally minimal trees in a finite-dimensional Euclidean space is solved completely in the paper, that is, without any restrictions imposed on the number of edges remaining free of subdivision. A criterion for the realizability of such stabilization is established. In addition, the general problem of searching for the shortest forest connecting a finite family of boundary compact sets in an arbitrary metric space is formalized; it is shown that such forests exist for any family of compact sets if and only if for any finite subset of the ambient space there exists a shortest tree connecting it. The theory developed here allows us to establish further generalizations of the stabilization theorem both for arbitrary metric spaces and for metric spaces with some special properties. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  7. Greenland 5 km DEM, Ice Thickness, and Bedrock Elevation Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Digital Elevation Model (DEM), ice thickness grid, and bedrock elevation grid of Greenland acquired as part of the PARCA program are available in ASCII text format...

  8. Thick film heater for sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, J; Borecki, M; Kalenik, J; Król, K

    2014-01-01

    A thick film microheater was elaborated. The microheater is intended for fast heating of small volume samples under measurement in optical based system. Thermal analysis of microheater was carried out using finite element method (FEM) for heat transfer calculation as a function of time and space. A nodal heat transfer function was calculated in classical form including all basics mechanisms of heat exchange – heat conduction, convection and radiation were considered. Work focuses on the influence of some construction parameters (ex. length, thermal conductivity of substrate, substrate thickness) on microheater performance. The results show that application of thin substrate of low thermal conductivity and low thickness for miroheater construction and resistor of optimum dimensions leads to significant power consumption decrease and increase of overall optical measurement system performance.

  9. Full reflector thickness and isolation thickness on neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tomohiro; Naito, Yoshitaka; Komuro, Yuichi.

    1988-08-01

    A method to determine ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'', which is utilized for criticality safety evaluation on nuclear fuel facilities, was proposed in this paper. Firstly, a calculation was tryed to obtain the two kinds of thicknesses from the result of criticality calculations for a specific case. Then, two simple equations which calculates the two kinds of thicknesses were made from the relation between reflector (or isolator) thickness and k eff , and one-group diffusion theory. Finally, we proposed a new method to determine the thicknesses. From the method we proposed, ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'' can be obtain using the equations and migration length of the reflector (or isolator) and infinite and effective multiplication factor of the fuel. (author)

  10. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  11. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  12. The ZOOM minimization package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.

    2004-01-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete

  13. Minimizing the Pacman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.; Chou, W.

    1997-10-01

    The Pacman bunches will experience two deleterious effects: tune shift and orbit displacement. It is known that the tune shift can be compensated by arranging crossing planes 900 relative to each other at successive interaction points (lPs). This paper gives an analytical estimate of the Pacman orbit displacement for a single as well as for two crossings. For the latter, it can be minimized by using equal phase advances from one IP to another. In the LHC, this displacement is in any event small and can be neglected

  14. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee F. Starker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT.

  15. The Quest for Minimal Quotients for Probabilistic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisentraut, Christian; Hermanns, Holger; Schuster, Johann

    2013-01-01

    One of the prevailing ideas in applied concurrency theory and verification is the concept of automata minimization with respect to strong or weak bisimilarity. The minimal automata can be seen as canonical representations of the behaviour modulo the bisimilarity considered. Together with congruence...... results wrt. process algebraic operators, this can be exploited to alleviate the notorious state space explosion problem. In this paper, we aim at identifying minimal automata and canonical representations for concurrent probabilistic models. We present minimality and canonicity results for probabilistic...... automata wrt. strong and weak bisimilarity, together with polynomial time minimization algorithms....

  16. On thick domain walls in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1989-01-01

    Planar scalar field configurations in general relativity differ considerably from those in flat space. It is shown that static domain walls of finite thickness in curved space-time do not possess a reflection symmetry. At infinity, the space-time tends to the Taub vacuum on one side of the wall and to the Minkowski vacuum (Rindler space-time) on the other. Massive test particles are always accelerated towards the Minkowski side, i.e., domain walls are attractive on the Taub side, but repulsive on the Minkowski side (Taub-vacuum cleaner). It is also proved that the pressure in all directions is always negative. Finally, a brief comment is made concerning the possibility of infinite, i.e., bigger than horizon size, domain walls in our universe. All of the results are independent of the form of the potential V(phi) greater than or equal to 0 of the scalar field phi.

  17. Hadamard and minimal renormalizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnino, M.A.; Gunzig, E.; Nardone, P.; Paz, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    A common language is introduced to study two, well-known, different methods for the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor of a scalar neutral quantum field in curved space-time. Different features of the two renormalizations are established and compared

  18. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  19. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  20. Intelligent processing for thick composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daniel Dong-Ok

    2000-10-01

    Manufacturing thick composite parts are associated with adverse curing conditions such as large in-plane temperature gradient and exotherms. The condition is further aggravated because the manufacturer's cycle and the existing cure control systems do not adequately counter such affects. In response, the forecast-based thermal control system is developed to have better cure control for thick composites. Accurate cure kinetic model is crucial for correctly identifying the amount of heat generated for composite process simulation. A new technique for identifying cure parameters for Hercules AS4/3502 prepreg is presented by normalizing the DSC data. The cure kinetics is based on an autocatalytic model for the proposed method, which uses dynamic and isothermal DSC data to determine its parameters. Existing models are also used to determine kinetic parameters but rendered inadequate because of the material's temperature dependent final degree of cure. The model predictions determined from the new technique showed good agreement to both isothermal and dynamic DSC data. The final degree of cure was also in good agreement with experimental data. A realistic cure simulation model including bleeder ply analysis and compaction is validated with Hercules AS4/3501-6 based laminates. The nonsymmetrical temperature distribution resulting from the presence of bleeder plies agreed well to the model prediction. Some of the discrepancies in the predicted compaction behavior were attributed to inaccurate viscosity and permeability models. The temperature prediction was quite good for the 3cm laminate. The validated process simulation model along with cure kinetics model for AS4/3502 prepreg were integrated into the thermal control system. The 3cm Hercules AS4/3501-6 and AS4/3502 laminate were fabricated. The resulting cure cycles satisfied all imposed requirements by minimizing exotherms and temperature gradient. Although the duration of the cure cycles increased, such phenomena was

  1. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  2. Minimization of PWR reactor control rods wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzoni Filho, Pedro; Moura Angelkorte, Gunther de

    1995-01-01

    The Rod Cluster Control Assemblies (RCCA's) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR's) have experienced a continuously wall cladding wear when Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP's) are running. Fretting wear is a result of vibrational contact between RCCA rodlets and the guide cards which provide lateral support for the rodlets when RCCA's are withdrawn from the core. A procedure is developed to minimize the rodlets wear, by the shuffling and axial reposition of RCCA's every operating cycle. These shuffling and repositions are based on measurement of the rodlet cladding thickness of all RCCA's. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Minimal conformal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmboldt, Alexander; Humbert, Pascal; Lindner, Manfred; Smirnov, Juri [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem is one of the crucial drawbacks of the standard model of particle physics (SM) and thus has triggered model building over the last decades. Its most famous solution is the introduction of low-scale supersymmetry. However, without any significant signs of supersymmetric particles at the LHC to date, it makes sense to devise alternative mechanisms to remedy the hierarchy problem. One such mechanism is based on classically scale-invariant extensions of the SM, in which both the electroweak symmetry and the (anomalous) scale symmetry are broken radiatively via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Apart from giving an introduction to classically scale-invariant models, the talk presents our results on obtaining a theoretically consistent minimal extension of the SM, which reproduces the correct low-scale phenomenology.

  4. Minimal Reducts with Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Iddaly Mendez Gurrola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper detection of patient level of dementia is important to offer the suitable treatment. The diagnosis is based on certain criteria, reflected in the clinical examinations. From these examinations emerge the limitations and the degree in which each patient is in. In order to reduce the total of limitations to be evaluated, we used the rough set theory, this theory has been applied in areas of the artificial intelligence such as decision analysis, expert systems, knowledge discovery, classification with multiple attributes. In our case this theory is applied to find the minimal limitations set or reduct that generate the same classification that considering all the limitations, to fulfill this purpose we development an algorithm GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure.

  5. Minimally extended SILH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chala, Mikael; Grojean, Christophe; Humboldt-Univ. Berlin; Lima, Leonardo de; Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Higgs boson compositeness is a phenomenologically viable scenario addressing the hierarchy problem. In minimal models, the Higgs boson is the only degree of freedom of the strong sector below the strong interaction scale. We present here the simplest extension of such a framework with an additional composite spin-zero singlet. To this end, we adopt an effective field theory approach and develop a set of rules to estimate the size of the various operator coefficients, relating them to the parameters of the strong sector and its structural features. As a result, we obtain the patterns of new interactions affecting both the new singlet and the Higgs boson's physics. We identify the characteristics of the singlet field which cause its effects on Higgs physics to dominate over the ones inherited from the composite nature of the Higgs boson. Our effective field theory construction is supported by comparisons with explicit UV models.

  6. Minimally extended SILH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chala, Mikael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y IFIC; Durieux, Gauthier; Matsedonskyi, Oleksii [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Grojean, Christophe [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Lima, Leonardo de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Teorica

    2017-03-15

    Higgs boson compositeness is a phenomenologically viable scenario addressing the hierarchy problem. In minimal models, the Higgs boson is the only degree of freedom of the strong sector below the strong interaction scale. We present here the simplest extension of such a framework with an additional composite spin-zero singlet. To this end, we adopt an effective field theory approach and develop a set of rules to estimate the size of the various operator coefficients, relating them to the parameters of the strong sector and its structural features. As a result, we obtain the patterns of new interactions affecting both the new singlet and the Higgs boson's physics. We identify the characteristics of the singlet field which cause its effects on Higgs physics to dominate over the ones inherited from the composite nature of the Higgs boson. Our effective field theory construction is supported by comparisons with explicit UV models.

  7. Minimal nuclear energy density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Forbes, Michael McNeil; Jin, Shi; Perez, Rodrigo Navarro; Schunck, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    We present a minimal nuclear energy density functional (NEDF) called "SeaLL1" that has the smallest number of possible phenomenological parameters to date. SeaLL1 is defined by seven significant phenomenological parameters, each related to a specific nuclear property. It describes the nuclear masses of even-even nuclei with a mean energy error of 0.97 MeV and a standard deviation of 1.46 MeV , two-neutron and two-proton separation energies with rms errors of 0.69 MeV and 0.59 MeV respectively, and the charge radii of 345 even-even nuclei with a mean error ɛr=0.022 fm and a standard deviation σr=0.025 fm . SeaLL1 incorporates constraints on the equation of state (EoS) of pure neutron matter from quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory two-body (NN ) interactions at the next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N3LO) level and three-body (NNN ) interactions at the next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) level. Two of the seven parameters are related to the saturation density and the energy per particle of the homogeneous symmetric nuclear matter, one is related to the nuclear surface tension, two are related to the symmetry energy and its density dependence, one is related to the strength of the spin-orbit interaction, and one is the coupling constant of the pairing interaction. We identify additional phenomenological parameters that have little effect on ground-state properties but can be used to fine-tune features such as the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, the excitation energy of the giant dipole and Gamow-Teller resonances, the static dipole electric polarizability, and the neutron skin thickness.

  8. Benefit from the minimally invasive sinus technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, N; Oakley, R J; Skilbeck, C J; Choudhury, N; Jacob, A

    2009-02-01

    Sinus drainage is impeded by the transition spaces that the anterior paranasal sinuses drain into, not the ostia themselves. Addressing the transition spaces and leaving the ostia intact, using the minimally invasive sinus technique, should reverse chronic rhinosinusitis. To assess patient benefit following use of the minimally invasive sinus technique for chronic rhinosinusitis. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients underwent the minimally invasive sinus technique for chronic rhinosinusitis. Symptoms (i.e. blocked nose, poor sense of smell, rhinorrhoea, post-nasal drip, facial pain and sneezing) were recorded using a visual analogue scale, pre-operatively and at six and 12 weeks post-operatively. Patients were also surveyed using the Glasgow benefit inventory, one and three years post-operatively. We found a significant reduction in all nasal symptom scores at six and 12 weeks post-operatively, and increased total quality of life scores at one and three years post-operatively (25.2 and 14.8, respectively). The patient benefits of treatment with the minimally invasive sinus technique compare with the published patient benefits for functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  9. What is Quantum Mechanics? A Minimal Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, R.; Hohenberg, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a minimal formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, by which is meant a formulation which describes the theory in a succinct, self-contained, clear, unambiguous and of course correct manner. The bulk of the presentation is the so-called "microscopic theory", applicable to any closed system S of arbitrary size N, using concepts referring to S alone, without resort to external apparatus or external agents. An example of a similar minimal microscopic theory is the standard formulation of classical mechanics, which serves as the template for a minimal quantum theory. The only substantive assumption required is the replacement of the classical Euclidean phase space by Hilbert space in the quantum case, with the attendant all-important phenomenon of quantum incompatibility. Two fundamental theorems of Hilbert space, the Kochen-Specker-Bell theorem and Gleason's theorem, then lead inevitably to the well-known Born probability rule. For both classical and quantum mechanics, questions of physical implementation and experimental verification of the predictions of the theories are the domain of the macroscopic theory, which is argued to be a special case or application of the more general microscopic theory.

  10. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  11. Swarm robotics and minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Amanda J. C.

    2007-09-01

    Swarm Robotics (SR) is closely related to Swarm Intelligence, and both were initially inspired by studies of social insects. Their guiding principles are based on their biological inspiration and take the form of an emphasis on decentralized local control and communication. Earlier studies went a step further in emphasizing the use of simple reactive robots that only communicate indirectly through the environment. More recently SR studies have moved beyond these constraints to explore the use of non-reactive robots that communicate directly, and that can learn and represent their environment. There is no clear agreement in the literature about how far such extensions of the original principles could go. Should there be any limitations on the individual abilities of the robots used in SR studies? Should knowledge of the capabilities of social insects lead to constraints on the capabilities of individual robots in SR studies? There is a lack of explicit discussion of such questions, and researchers have adopted a variety of constraints for a variety of reasons. A simple taxonomy of swarm robotics is presented here with the aim of addressing and clarifying these questions. The taxonomy distinguishes subareas of SR based on the emphases and justifications for minimalism and individual simplicity.

  12. Minimal dilaton model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oda Kin-ya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC have reported the observation of the particle of mass around 125 GeV which is consistent to the Standard Model (SM Higgs boson, but with an excess of events beyond the SM expectation in the diphoton decay channel at each of them. There still remains room for a logical possibility that we are not seeing the SM Higgs but something else. Here we introduce the minimal dilaton model in which the LHC signals are explained by an extra singlet scalar of the mass around 125 GeV that slightly mixes with the SM Higgs heavier than 600 GeV. When this scalar has a vacuum expectation value well beyond the electroweak scale, it can be identified as a linearly realized version of a dilaton field. Though the current experimental constraints from the Higgs search disfavors such a region, the singlet scalar model itself still provides a viable alternative to the SM Higgs in interpreting its search results.

  13. Static and dynamic through thickness lamina properties of thick laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thick laminates are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of self-heating, the scaling effect, and the manufacturing

  14. Optimum target thickness for polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters with thick targets are a tool to measure the proton polarization. But the question about the optimum target thickness is still the subject of discussion. An attempt to calculate the most common parameters concerning this problem, in a few GeV region, is made

  15. Minimal models of multidimensional computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D Fitzgerald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The multidimensional computations performed by many biological systems are often characterized with limited information about the correlations between inputs and outputs. Given this limitation, our approach is to construct the maximum noise entropy response function of the system, leading to a closed-form and minimally biased model consistent with a given set of constraints on the input/output moments; the result is equivalent to conditional random field models from machine learning. For systems with binary outputs, such as neurons encoding sensory stimuli, the maximum noise entropy models are logistic functions whose arguments depend on the constraints. A constraint on the average output turns the binary maximum noise entropy models into minimum mutual information models, allowing for the calculation of the information content of the constraints and an information theoretic characterization of the system's computations. We use this approach to analyze the nonlinear input/output functions in macaque retina and thalamus; although these systems have been previously shown to be responsive to two input dimensions, the functional form of the response function in this reduced space had not been unambiguously identified. A second order model based on the logistic function is found to be both necessary and sufficient to accurately describe the neural responses to naturalistic stimuli, accounting for an average of 93% of the mutual information with a small number of parameters. Thus, despite the fact that the stimulus is highly non-Gaussian, the vast majority of the information in the neural responses is related to first and second order correlations. Our results suggest a principled and unbiased way to model multidimensional computations and determine the statistics of the inputs that are being encoded in the outputs.

  16. Global Analysis of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Many properties of minimal surfaces are of a global nature, and this is already true for the results treated in the first two volumes of the treatise. Part I of the present book can be viewed as an extension of these results. For instance, the first two chapters deal with existence, regularity and uniqueness theorems for minimal surfaces with partially free boundaries. Here one of the main features is the possibility of 'edge-crawling' along free parts of the boundary. The third chapter deals with a priori estimates for minimal surfaces in higher dimensions and for minimizers of singular integ

  17. Bladder wall thickness mapping for magnetic resonance cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yang; Liang Zhengrong; Zhu Hongbin; Han Hao; Yan Zengmin; Duan Chaijie; Lu Hongbing; Gu Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. Clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a potential alternative to map the wall thickness for the entire bladder. From a high-resolution structural MR volumetric image of the abdomen, a reasonable segmentation of the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall can be achievable. Starting from here, this paper reviews the limitation of a previous distance field-based approach of measuring the thickness between the two borders and then provides a solution to overcome the limitation by an electric field-based strategy. In addition, this paper further investigates a surface-fitting strategy to minimize the discretization errors on the voxel-like borders and facilitate the thickness mapping on the three-dimensional patient-specific bladder model. The presented thickness calculation and mapping were tested on both phantom and human subject datasets. The results are preliminary but very promising with a noticeable improvement over the previous distance field-based approach. (paper)

  18. Investigations on quantum mechanics with minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargui, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    We consider a modified quantum mechanics where the coordinates and momenta are assumed to satisfy a non-standard commutation relation of the form( X i , P j ) = iℎ(δ ij (1+βP 2 )+β'P i P j ). Such an algebra results in a generalized uncertainty relation which leads to the existence of a minimal observable length. Moreover, it incorporates an UV/IR mixing and non commutative position space. We analyse the possible representations in terms of differential operators. The latter are used to study the low energy effects of the minimal length by considering different quantum systems : the harmonic oscillator, the Klein-Gordon oscillator, the spinless Salpeter Coulomb problem, and the Dirac equation with a linear confining potential. We also discuss whether such effects are observable in precision measurements on a relativistic electron trapped in strong magnetic field.

  19. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization

  20. Minimal changes in health status questionnaires: distinction between minimally detectable change and minimally important change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knol Dirk L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in scores on health status questionnaires are difficult to interpret. Several methods to determine minimally important changes (MICs have been proposed which can broadly be divided in distribution-based and anchor-based methods. Comparisons of these methods have led to insight into essential differences between these approaches. Some authors have tried to come to a uniform measure for the MIC, such as 0.5 standard deviation and the value of one standard error of measurement (SEM. Others have emphasized the diversity of MIC values, depending on the type of anchor, the definition of minimal importance on the anchor, and characteristics of the disease under study. A closer look makes clear that some distribution-based methods have been merely focused on minimally detectable changes. For assessing minimally important changes, anchor-based methods are preferred, as they include a definition of what is minimally important. Acknowledging the distinction between minimally detectable and minimally important changes is useful, not only to avoid confusion among MIC methods, but also to gain information on two important benchmarks on the scale of a health status measurement instrument. Appreciating the distinction, it becomes possible to judge whether the minimally detectable change of a measurement instrument is sufficiently small to detect minimally important changes.

  1. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility's life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996

  2. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  3. Corneal thickness: measurement and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Niels; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2004-03-01

    The thickness of the cornea was reported in more than 100-year-old textbooks on physiological optics (Helmholtz, Gullstrand). Physiological interest was revived in the 1950s by David Maurice, and over the next 50 years, this 'simple' biological parameter has been studied extensively. Several techniques for its measurement have been described and physiological and clinical significance have been studied. In this review, the different methods and techniques of measurement are briefly presented (optical, ultrasound). While the corneal thickness of many animals are the same over a considerable part of the surface, in the human cornea anterior and posterior curvature are not concentric giving rise to a problem of definition. Based on this the precision and accuracy of determining the central corneal thickness are discussed. Changes in corneal thickness reflects changes in function of the boundary layers, in particular the endothelial barrier. The absolute value of thickness is of importance for the estimation of IOP but also in diagnosis of corneal and systemic disorders. Finally it is discussed to what extent the thickness is a biometric parameter of significance, e.g. in the progression of myopia or in the development of retinal detachment.

  4. Minimal Poems Written in 1979 Minimal Poems Written in 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism. The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism.

  5. Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C{sub 60}. While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

  6. Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C 60 . While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

  7. Minimal Flavour Violation and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Isidori, Gino

    2012-01-01

    We review the formulation of the Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) hypothesis in the quark sector, as well as some "variations on a theme" based on smaller flavour symmetry groups and/or less minimal breaking terms. We also review how these hypotheses can be tested in B decays and by means of other flavour-physics observables. The phenomenological consequences of MFV are discussed both in general terms, employing a general effective theory approach, and in the specific context of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the SM.

  8. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, J.R.; Moos, L.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and facility dismantlement projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized; however, there are significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced by careful planning and execution. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling, segregation of waste types, and reducing generation of secondary waste

  9. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs

  10. Discontinuity minimization for omnidirectional video projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshina, Elena; Zakharchenko, Vladyslav

    2017-09-01

    Advances in display technologies both for head mounted devices and television panels demand resolution increase beyond 4K for source signal in virtual reality video streaming applications. This poses a problem of content delivery trough a bandwidth limited distribution networks. Considering a fact that source signal covers entire surrounding space investigation reviled that compression efficiency may fluctuate 40% in average depending on origin selection at the conversion stage from 3D space to 2D projection. Based on these knowledge the origin selection algorithm for video compression applications has been proposed. Using discontinuity entropy minimization function projection origin rotation may be defined to provide optimal compression results. Outcome of this research may be applied across various video compression solutions for omnidirectional content.

  11. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  12. Wilson loops in minimal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukker, Nadav; Gross, David J.; Ooguri, Hirosi

    1999-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence suggests that the Wilson loop of the large N gauge theory with N = 4 supersymmetry in 4 dimensions is described by a minimal surface in AdS 5 x S 5 . The authors examine various aspects of this proposal, comparing gauge theory expectations with computations of minimal surfaces. There is a distinguished class of loops, which the authors call BPS loops, whose expectation values are free from ultra-violet divergence. They formulate the loop equation for such loops. To the extent that they have checked, the minimal surface in AdS 5 x S 5 gives a solution of the equation. The authors also discuss the zig-zag symmetry of the loop operator. In the N = 4 gauge theory, they expect the zig-zag symmetry to hold when the loop does not couple the scalar fields in the supermultiplet. They will show how this is realized for the minimal surface

  13. Classical strings and minimal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbantke, H.

    1986-01-01

    Real Lorentzian forms of some complex or complexified Euclidean minimal surfaces are obtained as an application of H.A. Schwarz' solution to the initial value problem or a search for surfaces admitting a group of Poincare transformations. (Author)

  14. Minimal Gromov-Witten rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyjalkowski, V V

    2008-01-01

    We construct an abstract theory of Gromov-Witten invariants of genus 0 for quantum minimal Fano varieties (a minimal class of varieties which is natural from the quantum cohomological viewpoint). Namely, we consider the minimal Gromov-Witten ring: a commutative algebra whose generators and relations are of the form used in the Gromov-Witten theory of Fano varieties (of unspecified dimension). The Gromov-Witten theory of any quantum minimal variety is a homomorphism from this ring to C. We prove an abstract reconstruction theorem which says that this ring is isomorphic to the free commutative ring generated by 'prime two-pointed invariants'. We also find solutions of the differential equation of type DN for a Fano variety of dimension N in terms of the generating series of one-pointed Gromov-Witten invariants

  15. Wilson loops and minimal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukker, Nadav; Gross, David J.; Ooguri, Hirosi

    1999-01-01

    The AdS-CFT correspondence suggests that the Wilson loop of the large N gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry in four dimensions is described by a minimal surface in AdS 5 xS 5 . We examine various aspects of this proposal, comparing gauge theory expectations with computations of minimal surfaces. There is a distinguished class of loops, which we call BPS loops, whose expectation values are free from ultraviolet divergence. We formulate the loop equation for such loops. To the extent that we have checked, the minimal surface in AdS 5 xS 5 gives a solution of the equation. We also discuss the zigzag symmetry of the loop operator. In the N=4 gauge theory, we expect the zigzag symmetry to hold when the loop does not couple the scalar fields in the supermultiplet. We will show how this is realized for the minimal surface. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. Diagnostic capability of retinal thickness measures in diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Srinivasan

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The GCC FLV can differentiate individuals with diabetic neuropathy from healthy controls, while the inferior RNFL thickness is able to differentiate those with greater degrees of neuropathy from those with mild or no neuropathy, both with an acceptable level of accuracy. Optical coherence tomography represents a non-invasive technology that aids in detection of retinal structural changes in patients with established diabetic neuropathy. Further refinement of the technique and the analytical approaches may be required to identify patients with minimal neuropathy.

  17. Effects of cutting shapes and thicknesses on the quality of minimally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 7 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Minimal string theory is logarithmic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Yamaguchi, Shun-ichi

    2005-01-01

    We study the simplest examples of minimal string theory whose worldsheet description is the unitary (p,q) minimal model coupled to two-dimensional gravity ( Liouville field theory). In the Liouville sector, we show that four-point correlation functions of 'tachyons' exhibit logarithmic singularities, and that the theory turns out to be logarithmic. The relation with Zamolodchikov's logarithmic degenerate fields is also discussed. Our result holds for generic values of (p,q)

  19. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security TechnoIogies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2010. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment.

  20. Subspace Correction Methods for Total Variation and $\\ell_1$-Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Fornasier, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical minimization of energy functionals in Hilbert spaces involving convex constraints coinciding with a seminorm for a subspace. The optimization is realized by alternating minimizations of the functional on a sequence of orthogonal subspaces. On each subspace an iterative proximity-map algorithm is implemented via oblique thresholding, which is the main new tool introduced in this work. We provide convergence conditions for the algorithm in order to compute minimizers of the target energy. Analogous results are derived for a parallel variant of the algorithm. Applications are presented in domain decomposition methods for degenerate elliptic PDEs arising in total variation minimization and in accelerated sparse recovery algorithms based on 1-minimization. We include numerical examples which show e.cient solutions to classical problems in signal and image processing. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Physics.

  1. Development of thick wall welding and cutting tools for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Akou, Kentaro; Koizumi, Koichi

    1998-01-01

    The Vacuum Vessel, which is a core component of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is required to be exchanged remotely in a case of accident such as superconducting coil failure. The in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor are planned to be exchanged or fixed. In these exchange or maintenance operations, the thick wall welding and cutting are inevitable and remote handling tools are necessary. The thick wall welding and cutting tools for blanket are under developing in the ITER R and D program. The design requirement is to weld or cut the stainless steel of 70 mm thickness in the narrow space. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding, plasma cutting and iodine laser welding/cutting are selected as primary option. Element welding and cutting tests, design of small tools to satisfy space requirement, test fabrication and performance tests were performed. This paper reports the tool design and overview of welding and cutting tests. (author)

  2. Development of thick wall welding and cutting tools for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Akou, Kentaro; Koizumi, Koichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The Vacuum Vessel, which is a core component of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is required to be exchanged remotely in a case of accident such as superconducting coil failure. The in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor are planned to be exchanged or fixed. In these exchange or maintenance operations, the thick wall welding and cutting are inevitable and remote handling tools are necessary. The thick wall welding and cutting tools for blanket are under developing in the ITER R and D program. The design requirement is to weld or cut the stainless steel of 70 mm thickness in the narrow space. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding, plasma cutting and iodine laser welding/cutting are selected as primary option. Element welding and cutting tests, design of small tools to satisfy space requirement, test fabrication and performance tests were performed. This paper reports the tool design and overview of welding and cutting tests. (author)

  3. Charge Distribution Dependency on Gap Thickness of CMS Endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung K.; Lee, Kyongsei

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness. Prototypes of double-gap RPCs with six different gap thickness ranging from from 1.0 to 2.0 mm in 0.2-mm steps have been built with 2-mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated plates. The efficiencies of the six gaps are measured as a function of the effective high voltages. We report that the strength of the electric fields of the gap is decreased as the gap thickness is increased. The distributions of charges in six gaps are measured. The space charge effect is seen in the charge distribution at the higher voltages. The logistic function is used to fit the charge distribution data. Smaller charges can be produced within smaller gas gap. But the digitization threshold should be also lowered to utilize these smaller charges.

  4. Are galaxy discs optically thick?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, Michael; Davies, Jonathan; Phillipps, Steven

    1989-01-01

    We re-examine the classical optical evidence for the low optical depths traditionally assigned to spiral discs and argue that it is highly model-dependent and unconvincing. In particular, layered models with a physically thin but optically thick dust layer behave like optically thin discs. The opposite hypotheses, that such discs are optically thick is then examined in the light of modern evidence. We find it to be consistent with the near-infrared and IRAS observations, with the surface brightnesses, with the HI and CO column densities and with the Hα measurements. (author)

  5. Distributed Submodular Minimization And Motion Coordination Over Discrete State Space

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    Submodular set-functions are extensively used in large-scale combinatorial optimization problems arising in complex networks and machine learning. While there has been significant interest in distributed formulations of convex optimization

  6. Minimizing Warehouse Space with a Dedicated Storage Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fumi

    2013-07-01

    inevitably be supported by warehouse management system software. On the contrary, the proposed methodology relies upon a dedicated storage policy, which is easily implementable by companies of all sizes without the need for investing in expensive IT tools.

  7. Surgical Management of the Thick-Skinned Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard E; Hrisomalos, Emily N

    2018-02-01

    When executed properly, open structure rhinoplasty can dramatically improve the consistency, durability, and quality of the cosmetic surgical outcome. Moreover, in expert hands, dramatic transformations in skeletal architecture can be accomplished with minimal risk and unparalleled control, all while preserving nasal airway function. While skeletal enhancements have become increasingly more controlled and precise, the outer skin-soft tissue envelope (SSTE) often presents a formidable obstacle to a satisfactory cosmetic result. In noses with unusually thick skin, excessive skin volume and characteristically hostile healing responses frequently combine to obscure or sometimes even negate cosmetic skeletal modifications and taint the surgical outcome. For this challenging patient subgroup, care must be taken to optimize the SSTE using a graduated treatment strategy directed at minimizing skin thickness and controlling unfavorable healing responses. When appropriate efforts are implemented to manage thick nasal skin, cosmetic outcomes are often substantially improved, sometimes even negating the ill-effects of thick skin altogether. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzola, Luca [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Racioppi, Antonio [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2016-10-07

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r≈10{sup −3}, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index n{sub s}≃0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  9. [Endoscopic full-thickness resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K

    2016-08-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.

  10. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  11. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  12. Minimal modification to tribimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaogang; Zee, A.

    2011-01-01

    We explore some ways of minimally modifying the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal, characterized by introducing at most one mixing angle and a CP violating phase thus extending our earlier work. One minimal modification, motivated to some extent by group theoretic considerations, is a simple case with the elements V α2 of the second column in the mixing matrix equal to 1/√(3). Modifications by keeping one of the columns or one of the rows unchanged from tribimaximal mixing all belong to the class of minimal modification. Some of the cases have interesting experimentally testable consequences. In particular, the T2K and MINOS collaborations have recently reported indications of a nonzero θ 13 . For the cases we consider, the new data sharply constrain the CP violating phase angle δ, with δ close to 0 (in some cases) and π disfavored.

  13. Topological gravity with minimal matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Keke

    1991-01-01

    Topological minimal matter, obtained by twisting the minimal N = 2 supeconformal field theory, is coupled to two-dimensional topological gravity. The free field formulation of the coupled system allows explicit representations of BRST charge, physical operators and their correlation functions. The contact terms of the physical operators may be evaluated by extending the argument used in a recent solution of topological gravity without matter. The consistency of the contact terms in correlation functions implies recursion relations which coincide with the Virasoro constraints derived from the multi-matrix models. Topological gravity with minimal matter thus provides the field theoretic description for the multi-matrix models of two-dimensional quantum gravity. (orig.)

  14. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  15. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  16. Harm minimization among teenage drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Hulvej; Curtis, Tine; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine strategies of harm minimization employed by teenage drinkers. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two periods of ethnographic fieldwork were conducted in a rural Danish community of approximately 2000 inhabitants. The fieldwork included 50 days of participant observation among 13....... In regulating the social context of drinking they relied on their personal experiences more than on formalized knowledge about alcohol and harm, which they had learned from prevention campaigns and educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that teenagers may help each other to minimize alcohol...

  17. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  18. Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...

  19. The debate on minimal deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbatov, A.; Karp, R.C.; Toth, T.

    1993-01-01

    Revitalization of debates on minimal nuclear deterrence at the present time is induced by the end of the Cold War and a number of unilateral and bilateral actions by the great powers to curtail nuclear arms race and reduce nuclear weapons arsenals

  20. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Minimizing TLD-DRD differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.L.; McCoy, R.A.; Connell, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    When substantial differences exist in exposures recorded by TLD's and DRD's, it is often necessary to perform an exposure investigation to reconcile the difference. In working with several operating plants, the authors have observed a number of causes for these differences. This paper outlines these observations and discusses procedures that can be used to minimize them

  2. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room.

  3. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)

  4. Probabilistic Properties of Rectilinear Steiner Minimal Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Salnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the properties of Steiner minimal trees for the manhattan plane in the context of introducing a probability measure. This problem is important because exact algorithms to solve the Steiner problem are computationally expensive (NP-hard and the solution (especially in the case of big number of points to be connected has a diversity of practical applications. That is why the work considers a possibility to rank the possible topologies of the minimal trees with respect to a probability of their usage. For this, the known facts about the structural properties of minimal trees for selected metrics have been analyzed to see their usefulness for the problem in question. For the small amount of boundary (fixed vertices, the paper offers a way to introduce a probability measure as a corollary of proved theorem about some structural properties of the minimal trees.This work is considered to further the previous similar activity concerning a problem of searching for minimal fillings, and it is a door opener to the more general (complicated task. The stated method demonstrates the possibility to reach the final result analytically, which gives a chance of its applicability to the case of the bigger number of boundary vertices (probably, with the use of computer engineering.The introducing definition of an essential Steiner point allowed a considerable restriction of the ambiguity of initial problem solution and, at the same time, comparison of such an approach with more classical works in the field concerned. The paper also lists main barriers of classical approaches, preventing their use for the task of introducing a probability measure.In prospect, application areas of the described method are expected to be wider both in terms of system enlargement (the number of boundary vertices and in terms of other metric spaces (the Euclidean case is of especial interest. The main interest is to find the classes of topologies with significantly

  5. Dosimetric variation due to CT inter-slice spacing in four-dimensional carbon beam lung therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Motoki; Mori, Shinichiro; Kandatsu, Susumu; Baba, Masayuki; Sharp, Gregory C; Asakura, Hiroshi; Endo, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    When CT data with thick slice thickness are used in treatment planning, geometrical uncertainty may induce dosimetric errors. We evaluated carbon ion dose variations due to different CT slice thicknesses using a four-dimensional (4D) carbon ion beam dose calculation, and compared results between ungated and gated respiratory strategies. Seven lung patients were scanned in 4D mode with a 0.5 mm slice thickness using a 256-multi-slice CT scanner. CT images were averaged with various numbers of images to simulate reconstructed images with various slice thicknesses (0.5-5.0 mm). Two scenarios were studied (respiratory-ungated and -gated strategies). Range compensators were designed for each of the CT volumes with coarse inter-slice spacing to cover the internal target volume (ITV), as defined from 4DCT. Carbon ion dose distribution was computed for each resulting ITV on the 0.5 mm slice 4DCT data. The accumulated dose distribution was then calculated using deformable registration for 4D dose assessment. The magnitude of over- and under-dosage was found to be larger with the use of range compensators designed with a coarser inter-slice spacing than those obtained with a 0.5 mm slice thickness. Although no under-dosage was observed within the clinical target volume (CTV) region, D95 remained at over 97% of the prescribed dose for the ungated strategy and 95% for the gated strategy for all slice thicknesses. An inter-slice spacing of less than 3 mm may be able to minimize dose variation between the ungated and gated strategies. Although volumes with increased inter-slice spacing may reduce geometrical accuracy at a certain respiratory phase, this does not significantly affect delivery of the accumulated dose to the target during the treatment course.

  6. An existence result of energy minimizer maps between Riemannian polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouziane, T.

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of energy minimizers in each free homotopy class of maps between polyhedra with target space without focal points. Our proof involves a careful study of some geometric properties of Riemannian polyhedra without focal points. Among other things, we show that on the relevant polyhedra, there exists a convex supporting function. (author)

  7. MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) Dark Matter Without Prejudice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainer, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently we examined a large number of points in a 19-dimensional parameter subspace of the CP-conserving MSSM with Minimal Flavor Violation. We determined whether each of these points satisfied existing theoretical, experimental, and observational constraints. Here we discuss the properties of the parameter space points allowed by existing data that are relevant for dark matter searches.

  8. Lorentz Invariant Spectrum of Minimal Chiral Schwinger Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Kim, Seung-Kook; Kim, Won-Tae; Park, Young-Jai; Kim, Kee Yong; Kim, Yongduk

    We study the Lorentz transformation of the minimal chiral Schwinger model in terms of the alternative action. We automatically obtain a chiral constraint, which is equivalent to the frame constraint introduced by McCabe, in order to solve the frame problem in phase space. As a result we obtain the Lorentz invariant spectrum in any moving frame by choosing a frame parameter.

  9. Hazardous waste minimization tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railan, R.

    1994-01-01

    Under RCRA section 3002 9(b) and 3005f(h), hazardous waste generators and owners/operators of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are required to certify that they have a program in place to reduce the volume or quantity and toxicity of hazardous waste to the degree determined to be economically practicable. In many cases, there are environmental, as well as, economic benefits, for agencies that pursue pollution prevention options. Several state governments have already enacted waste minimization legislation (e.g., Massachusetts Toxic Use Reduction Act of 1989, and Oregon Toxic Use Reduction Act and Hazardous Waste Reduction Act, July 2, 1989). About twenty six other states have established legislation that will mandate some type of waste minimization program and/or facility planning. The need to address the HAZMIN (Hazardous Waste Minimization) Program at government agencies and private industries has prompted us to identify the importance of managing The HAZMIN Program, and tracking various aspects of the program, as well as the progress made in this area. The open-quotes WASTEclose quotes is a tracking system, which can be used and modified in maintaining the information related to Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, in a manageable fashion. This program maintains, modifies, and retrieves information related to hazardous waste minimization and recycling, and provides automated report generating capabilities. It has a built-in menu, which can be printed either in part or in full. There are instructions on preparing The Annual Waste Report, and The Annual Recycling Report. The program is very user friendly. This program is available in 3.5 inch or 5 1/4 inch floppy disks. A computer with 640K memory is required

  10. Soliton models for thick branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z 2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w 2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ 4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ 6 branes. (orig.)

  11. Soliton models for thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyravi, Marzieh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Nematollah [Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ{sup 4} and φ{sup 6} scalar fields, which have broken Z{sub 2} symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w{sup 2} term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ{sup 4} brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ{sup 6} branes. (orig.)

  12. Sunglasses with thick temples and frame constrict temporal visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denion, Eric; Dugué, Audrey Emmanuelle; Augy, Sylvain; Coffin-Pichonnet, Sophie; Mouriaux, Frédéric

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to compare the impact of two types of sunglasses on visual field and glare: one ("thick sunglasses") with a thick plastic frame and wide temples and one ("thin sunglasses") with a thin metal frame and thin temples. Using the Goldmann perimeter, visual field surface areas (cm²) were calculated as projections on a 30-cm virtual cupola. A V4 test object was used, from seen to unseen, in 15 healthy volunteers in the primary position of gaze ("base visual field"), then allowing eye motion ("eye motion visual field") without glasses, then with "thin sunglasses," followed by "thick sunglasses." Visual field surface area differences greater than the 14% reproducibility error of the method and having a p thick sunglasses." This decrease was most severe in the temporal quadrant (-33%; p thick sunglasses" than with the "thin sunglasses" (p thick sunglasses" is offset by the much poorer ability to use lateral space exploration; this results in a loss of most, if not all, of the additional visual field gained through eye motion.

  13. Static elliptic minimal surfaces in AdS{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastras, Georgios [NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Attiki (Greece)

    2017-11-15

    The Ryu-Takayanagi conjecture connects the entanglement entropy in the boundary CFT to the area of open co-dimension two minimal surfaces in the bulk. Especially in AdS{sub 4}, the latter are two-dimensional surfaces, and, thus, solutions of a Euclidean non-linear sigma model on a symmetric target space that can be reduced to an integrable system via Pohlmeyer reduction. In this work, we construct static minimal surfaces in AdS{sub 4} that correspond to elliptic solutions of the reduced system, namely the cosh-Gordon equation, via the inversion of Pohlmeyer reduction. The constructed minimal surfaces comprise a two-parameter family of surfaces that include helicoids and catenoids in H{sup 3} as special limits. Minimal surfaces that correspond to identical boundary conditions are discovered within the constructed family of surfaces and the relevant geometric phase transitions are studied. (orig.)

  14. Minimalism as civilization paradigmat the beginning of the 21. century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilski Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The term minimalism is currently used descriptively to refer to a style marked by a certain asceticism in the art, architecture and design. It has begun from American Minimal Art of the 1960s in the fields of painting and sculpture and has filtered into other sectors of society. It is now found in fashion, music, literature and interior decoration, as well as architecture. Minimalisms has come to define the result of the use of simple geometric forms, pure and simple lines, the modular principle, surfaces with a smooth industrial appearance that negate any character of handmade individuality. As far as architecture is concerned, minimalism is characterized by the emphasis on essential elements - like light and the way it falls on the volumes and masses that make up buildings and shape space and structure. Linear structures and essential geometric forms define identity but despite the apparent simplicity of these works the effect they make is extremely complex.

  15. Photolithography of thick photoresist coating in anisotropically etched V-grooves for electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Khomtchenko, Elena; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2009-01-01

    Thick photoresist coating for electrode patterning in anisotropically etched v-grooves is investigated. The photoresist coverage is compared with and without soft baking. Two-step exposure is applied for a complete exposure and minimizing the resolution loss.......Thick photoresist coating for electrode patterning in anisotropically etched v-grooves is investigated. The photoresist coverage is compared with and without soft baking. Two-step exposure is applied for a complete exposure and minimizing the resolution loss....

  16. Asymptotically safe non-minimal inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tronconi, Alessandro, E-mail: Alessandro.Tronconi@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, Via Irnerio 46,40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2017-07-01

    We study the constraints imposed by the requirement of Asymptotic Safety on a class of inflationary models with an inflaton field non-minimally coupled to the Ricci scalar. The critical surface in the space of theories is determined by the improved renormalization group flow which takes into account quantum corrections beyond the one loop approximation. The combination of constraints deriving from Planck observations and those from theory puts severe bounds on the values of the parameters of the model and predicts a quite large tensor to scalar ratio. We finally comment on the dependence of the results on the definition of the infrared energy scale which parametrises the running on the critical surface.

  17. Higgs Phenomenology of Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakizaki Mitsuru

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimal model of Universal Extra Dimensions (MUED is briefly reviewed. We explain how the cross-sections for Higgs production via gluon fusion and decay into photons are modified, relative the the Standard Model (SM values, by KK particles running in loops, leading to an enhancement of the gg → h → γγ and gg → h → W+W− cross-sections. ATLAS and CMS searches for the SM Higgs in these channels are reinterpreted in the context of MUED and used to place new limits on the MUED parameter space. Only a small region of between 1 and 3 GeV around mh = 125 GeV for 500 GeV < R−1 < 1600 GeV remains open at the 95 % confidence level.

  18. Low energy implications of minimal superstring unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.; Vissani, F.; Masiero, A.

    1995-11-01

    We study the phenomenological implications of effective supergravities based on string vacua with spontaneously broken N =1 supersymmetry by dilation and moduli F-terms. We further require Minimal String Unification, namely that large string threshold corrections ensure the correct unification of the gauge couplings at the grand unification scale. The whole supersymmetric mass spectrum turns out to be determined in terms of only two independent parameters, the dilaton-moduli mixing angle and the gravitino mass. In particular we discuss the region of the parameter space where at least one superpartner is ''visible'' at LEPII. We find that the most likely candidates are the scalar partner of the right-handed electron and the lightest chargino, with interesting correlations between their masses and with the mass of the lightest higgs. We show how discovering SUSY particles at LEPII might rather sharply discriminate between scenarios with pure dilaton SUSY breaking and mixed dilaton-moduli breaking. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  19. Phase Transition in Protocols Minimizing Work Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P.; Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2018-05-01

    For two canonical examples of driven mesoscopic systems—a harmonically trapped Brownian particle and a quantum dot—we numerically determine the finite-time protocols that optimize the compromise between the standard deviation and the mean of the dissipated work. In the case of the oscillator, we observe a collection of protocols that smoothly trade off between average work and its fluctuations. However, for the quantum dot, we find that as we shift the weight of our optimization objective from average work to work standard deviation, there is an analog of a first-order phase transition in protocol space: two distinct protocols exchange global optimality with mixed protocols akin to phase coexistence. As a result, the two types of protocols possess qualitatively different properties and remain distinct even in the infinite duration limit: optimal-work-fluctuation protocols never coalesce with the minimal-work protocols, which therefore never become quasistatic.

  20. The minimal curvaton-Higgs model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enqvist, Kari [Helsinki Univ. and Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland). Physics Dept.; Lerner, Rose N. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Helsinki Univ. and Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland). Physics Dept.; Takahashi, Tomo [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-10-15

    We present the first full study of the minimal curvaton-Higgs (MCH) model, which is a minimal interpretation of the curvaton scenario with one real scalar coupled to the standard model Higgs boson. The standard model coupling allows the dynamics of the model to be determined in detail, including effects from the thermal background and from radiative corrections to the potential. The relevant mechanisms for curvaton decay are incomplete non-perturbative decay (delayed by thermal blocking), followed by decay via a dimension-5 non-renormalisable operator. To avoid spoiling the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis, we find the ''bare'' curvaton mass to be m{sub {sigma}}{>=}8 x 10{sup 4} GeV. To match observational data from Planck there is an upper limit on the curvaton-higgs coupling g, between 10{sup -3} and 10{sup -2}, depending on the mass. This is due to interactions with the thermal background. We find that typically non-Gaussianities are small but that if f{sub NL} is observed in the near future then m{sub {sigma}}space may also be affected once the baryogenesis mechanism is specified.

  1. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator with a coupling. We identify a number of ''flavor-safe'' scenarios for the structure of which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed

  2. The minimal curvaton-Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, Kari; Lerner, Rose N.; Helsinki Univ. and Helsinki Institute of Physics; Takahashi, Tomo

    2013-10-01

    We present the first full study of the minimal curvaton-Higgs (MCH) model, which is a minimal interpretation of the curvaton scenario with one real scalar coupled to the standard model Higgs boson. The standard model coupling allows the dynamics of the model to be determined in detail, including effects from the thermal background and from radiative corrections to the potential. The relevant mechanisms for curvaton decay are incomplete non-perturbative decay (delayed by thermal blocking), followed by decay via a dimension-5 non-renormalisable operator. To avoid spoiling the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis, we find the ''bare'' curvaton mass to be m σ ≥8 x 10 4 GeV. To match observational data from Planck there is an upper limit on the curvaton-higgs coupling g, between 10 -3 and 10 -2 , depending on the mass. This is due to interactions with the thermal background. We find that typically non-Gaussianities are small but that if f NL is observed in the near future then m σ 9 GeV, depending on Hubble scale during inflation. In a thermal dark matter model, the lower bound on m σ can increase substantially. The parameter space may also be affected once the baryogenesis mechanism is specified.

  3. Buckling Optimization of Thick Stiffened Cylindrical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Hassan Bader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the critical pressure due to buckling was calculated numerically by using ANSYS15 for both stiffened and un-stiffened cylinder for various locations and installing types , strengthening of the cylinder causes a more significant increase in buckling pressures than non reinforced cylinder . The optimum design of structure was done by using the ASYS15 program; in this step the number of design variables 21 DVs. These variables are Independent variables that directly affect. The design variables represented the thickness of the cylinder and( height and width of 10 stiffeners. State variables (SVs, these variables are dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs and are necessary to constrain the design. The objective function is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized. In this case the state variable is critical pressure (CP and the objective function is the total (volume of the structure. The optimum weight of the structure with reasonable required conditions for multi types of structure was found. The result shows the best location of stiffener at internal side with circumferential direction. In this case the critical pressure can be increased about 18.6% and the total weight of the structure decreases to 15.8%.

  4. Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Huangjun; Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2009-01-01

    We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic c...

  5. Minimalism and the Pragmatic Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Falcato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the debate between literalism and contextualism in semantics, Kent Bach’s project is often taken to stand on the latter side of the divide. In this paper I argue this is a misleading assumption and justify it by contrasting Bach’s assessment of the theoretical eliminability of minimal propositions arguably expressed by well-formed sentences with standard minimalist views, and by further contrasting his account of the division of interpretative processes ascribable to the semantics and pragmatics of a language with a parallel analysis carried out by the most radical opponent to semantic minimalism, i.e., by occasionalism. If my analysis proves right, the sum of its conclusions amounts to a refusal of Bach’s main dichotomies.

  6. Stabilization of a locally minimal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Mel'nikova, A E; Tuzhilin, A A

    2014-01-01

    The method of partial stabilization of locally minimal networks, which was invented by Ivanov and Tuzhilin to construct examples of shortest trees with given topology, is developed. According to this method, boundary vertices of degree 2 are not added to all edges of the original locally minimal tree, but only to some of them. The problem of partial stabilization of locally minimal trees in a finite-dimensional Euclidean space is solved completely in the paper, that is, without any restrictions imposed on the number of edges remaining free of subdivision. A criterion for the realizability of such stabilization is established. In addition, the general problem of searching for the shortest forest connecting a finite family of boundary compact sets in an arbitrary metric space is formalized; it is shown that such forests exist for any family of compact sets if and only if for any finite subset of the ambient space there exists a shortest tree connecting it. The theory developed here allows us to establish further generalizations of the stabilization theorem both for arbitrary metric spaces and for metric spaces with some special properties. Bibliography: 10 titles

  7. IceBridge Radar L3 Tomographic Ice Thickness V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 tomographic ice thickness measurements derived from data captured by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Multichannel...

  8. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].

  9. Optimizing Processes to Minimize Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, David

    2017-01-01

    NASA, like the other hazardous industries, has suffered very catastrophic losses. Human error will likely never be completely eliminated as a factor in our failures. When you can't eliminate risk, focus on mitigating the worst consequences and recovering operations. Bolstering processes to emphasize the role of integration and problem solving is key to success. Building an effective Safety Culture bolsters skill-based performance that minimizes risk and encourages successful engagement.

  10. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  11. [Minimally invasive coronary artery surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaquett, R; Howard, M; Irarrázaval, M J; Morán, S; Maturana, G; Becker, P; Medel, J; Sacco, C; Lema, G; Canessa, R; Cruz, F

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing interest to perform a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) on a beating heart through a minimally invasive access to the chest cavity. To report the experience with minimally invasive coronary artery surgery. Analysis of 11 patients aged 48 to 79 years old with single vessel disease that, between 1996 and 1997, had a LIMA graft to the LAD performed through a minimally invasive left anterior mediastinotomy, without cardiopulmonary bypass. A 6 to 10 cm left parasternal incision was done. The LIMA to the LAD anastomosis was done after pharmacological heart rate and blood pressure control and a period of ischemic pre conditioning. Graft patency was confirmed intraoperatively by standard Doppler techniques. Patients were followed for a mean of 11.6 months (7-15 months). All patients were extubated in the operating room and transferred out of the intensive care unit on the next morning. Seven patients were discharged on the third postoperative day. Duplex scanning confirmed graft patency in all patients before discharge; in two patients, it was confirmed additionally by arteriography. There was no hospital mortality, no perioperative myocardial infarction and no bleeding problems. After follow up, ten patients were free of angina, in functional class I and pleased with the surgical and cosmetic results. One patient developed atypical angina on the seventh postoperative month and a selective arteriography confirmed stenosis of the anastomosis. A successful angioplasty of the original LAD lesion was carried out. A minimally invasive left anterior mediastinotomy is a good surgical access to perform a successful LIMA to LAD graft without cardiopulmonary bypass, allowing a shorter hospital stay and earlier postoperative recovery. However, a larger experience and a longer follow up is required to define its role in the treatment of coronary artery disease.

  12. Minimal massive 3D gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Merbis, Wout; Hohm, Olaf; Routh, Alasdair J; Townsend, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same ‘minimal’ bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new ‘minimal massive gravity’ has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra. (paper)

  13. Construction schedules slack time minimizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The article presents two copyright models for minimizing downtime working brigades. Models have been developed for construction schedules performed using the method of work uniform. Application of flow shop models is possible and useful for the implementation of large objects, which can be divided into plots. The article also presents a condition describing gives which model should be used, as well as a brief example of optimization schedule. The optimization results confirm the legitimacy of the work on the newly-developed models.

  14. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room. This thesis has led to an enlarged insight in the organization of surgical skills training during residency training of surgical medical specialists.

  15. A dual response surface optimization methodology for achieving uniform coating thickness in powder coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The powder coating is an economic, technologically superior and environment friendly painting technique compared with other conventional painting methods. However large variation in coating thickness can reduce the attractiveness of powder coated products. The coating thickness variation can also adversely affect the surface appearance and corrosion resistivity of the product. This can eventually lead to customer dissatisfaction and loss of market share. In this paper, the author discusses a dual response surface optimization methodology to minimize the thickness variation around the target value of powder coated industrial enclosures. The industrial enclosures are cabinets used for mounting the electrical and electronic equipment. The proposed methodology consists of establishing the relationship between the coating thickness & the powder coating process parameters and developing models for the mean and variance of coating thickness. Then the powder coating process is optimized by minimizing the standard deviation of coating thickness subject to the constraint that the thickness mean would be very close to the target. The study resulted in achieving a coating thickness mean of 80.0199 microns for industrial enclosures, which is very close to the target value of 80 microns. A comparison of the results of the proposed approach with that of existing methodologies showed that the suggested method is equally good or even better than the existing methodologies. The result of the study is also validated with a new batch of industrial enclosures.

  16. The crustal thickness of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Influence of the gel thickness on in vivo hyaline cartilage regeneration induced by double-network gel implanted at the bottom of a large osteochondral defect: Short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A double-network (DN gel, which is composed of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly(N,N’-dimethyl acrylamide, can induce hyaline cartilage regeneration in vivo in a large osteochondral defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the thickness of the implanted DN gel on the induction ability of hyaline cartilage regeneration. Methods Thirty-eight mature rabbits were used in this study. We created an osteochondral defect having a diameter of 4.3-mm in the patellofemoral joint. The knees were randomly divided into 4 groups (Group I: 0.5-mm thick gel, Group II: 1.0-mm thick gel, Group III: 5.0-mm thick gel, and Group IV: untreated control. Animals in each group were further divided into 3 sub-groups depending on the gel implant position (2.0-, 3.0-, or 4.0-mm depth from the articular surface in the defect. The regenerated tissues were evaluated with the Wayne’s gross and histological grading scales and real time PCR analysis of the cartilage marker genes at 4 weeks. Results According to the total Wayne’s score, when the depth of the final vacant space was set at 2.0 mm, the scores in Groups I, II, and III were significantly greater than that Group IV (p  Conclusions The 1.0-mm thick DN gel sheet had the same ability to induce hyaline cartilage regeneration as the 5.0-mm thick DN gel plug. However, the induction ability of the 0.5-mm thick sheet was significantly lower when compared with the 1.0-mm thick gel sheet. The 1.0-mm DN gel sheet is a promising device to establish a cell-free cartilage regeneration strategy that minimizes bone loss from the gel implantation.

  18. Transtendon, Double-Row, Transosseous-Equivalent Arthroscopic Repair of Partial-Thickness, Articular-Surface Rotator Cuff Tears

    OpenAIRE

    Dilisio, Matthew F.; Miller, Lindsay R.; Higgins, Laurence D.

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic transtendinous techniques for the arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears offer the advantage of minimizing the disruption of the patient's remaining rotator cuff tendon fibers. In addition, double-row fixation of full-thickness rotator cuff tears has shown biomechanical advantages. We present a novel method combining these 2 techniques for transtendon, double-row, transosseous-equivalent arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-s...

  19. Minimal families of curves on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal

  20. Minimal families of curves on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-11-01

    A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal families of a given surface.The classification of minimal families of curves can be reduced to the classification of minimal families which cover weak Del Pezzo surfaces. We classify the minimal families of weak Del Pezzo surfaces and present a table with the number of minimal families of each weak Del Pezzo surface up to Weyl equivalence.As an application of this classification we generalize some results of Schicho. We classify algebraic surfaces that carry a family of conics. We determine the minimal lexicographic degree for the parametrization of a surface that carries at least 2 minimal families. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Hoelder continuity of energy minimizer maps between Riemannian polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouziane, Taoufik

    2004-10-01

    The goal of the present paper is to establish some kind of regularity of an energy minimizer map between Riemannian polyhedra. More precisely, we will show the Hoelder continuity of local energy minimizers between Riemannian polyhedra with the target spaces without focal points. With this new result, we also complete our existence theorem obtained elsewhere, and consequently we generalize completely, to the case of target polyhedra without focal points (which is a weaker geometric condition than the nonpositivity of the curvature), the Eells-Fuglede's existence and regularity theorem which is the new version of the famous Eells-Sampson's theorem. (author)

  2. An Effective Algorithm for Management of Noses with Thick Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyuron, Bahman; Lee, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    Thicker nasal skin blunts the definition of the underlying osseocartilaginous frame and the delicate topography of the nose posing additional challenges in producing desirable tip definition. Despite the recognized challenge in this patient population, there is a paucity of literature on how to overcome this problem. The goal of this article is to provide a systematic algorithm to manage patients with thick nasal skin. Approach to the thick nasal skin patient begins with an evaluation of the etiology of their skin thickness. Skin thickness secondary to sebaceous overactivity is diminished with the use of retinoic acid derivatives, lasers or isotretinoin (Accutane), commonly under the advice of the dermatologist. Rhinoplasty maneuvers include open technique, raising a healthy and reasonably thick skin flap overlying the tip, removing the remaining fat overlying and between the domes, creating a firm cartilaginous frame and eliminating dead space using the supratip suture reported by the senior author, and trimming redundant nasal skin envelope when indicated. This systematic approach has been greatly effective in achieving often predictable and aesthetically pleasing rhinoplasty results. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  3. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  4. Non-contact radiation thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, T.; Okino, T.

    1983-01-01

    A noncontact thickness gauge system for measuring the thickness of a material comprising a source of radiation, a detector for detecting the amount of radiation transmitted through the material which is a function of the absorptance and thickness of the material, a memory for storing the output signals of the detector and curve-defining parameters for a plurality of quadratic calibration curves which correspond to respective thickness ranges, and a processor for processing the signals and curve defining parameters to determine the thickness of the material. Measurements are made after precalibration to obtain calibration curves and these are stored in the memory, providing signals representative of a nominal thickness and an alloy compensation coefficient for the material. The calibration curve corresponding to a particular thickness range is selected and the curve compensated for drift; the material is inserted into the radiation path and the detector output signal processed with the compensated calibration curve to determine the thickness of the material. (author)

  5. Economical Fabrication of Thick-Section Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Jason; Ramachandran, Gautham; Williams, Brian; Benander, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed for producing thick-section [>2 in. (approx.5 cm)], continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Ultramet-modified fiber interface coating and melt infiltration processing, developed previously for thin-section components, were used for the fabrication of CMCs that were an order of magnitude greater in thickness [up to 2.5 in. (approx.6.4 cm)]. Melt processing first involves infiltration of a fiber preform with the desired interface coating, and then with carbon to partially densify the preform. A molten refractory metal is then infiltrated and reacts with the excess carbon to form the carbide matrix without damaging the fiber reinforcement. Infiltration occurs from the inside out as the molten metal fills virtually all the available void space. Densification to thick-section components required modification of the conventional process conditions, and the means by which the large amount of molten metal is introduced into the fiber preform. Modification of the low-temperature, ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process used to apply interface coatings to the fiber preform was also required to accommodate the high preform thickness. The thick-section CMC processing developed in this work proved to be invaluable for component development, fabrication, and testing in two complementary efforts. In a project for the Army, involving SiC/SiC blisk development, nominally 0.8 in. thick x 8 in. diameter (approx. 2 cm thick x 20 cm diameter) components were successfully infiltrated. Blisk hubs were machined using diamond-embedded cutting tools and successfully spin-tested. Good ply uniformity and extremely low residual porosity (41 ksi (approx. 283 MPa) flexural strength.

  6. Vertical ascending electrophoresis of cells with a minimal stabilizing medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenyi, S. N.; Snyder, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical fractionation of a mixture of fixed horse and human red blood cells layered over a stabilizing support medium was done to give a valid comparison with proposed space experiments. In particular, the effects of sample thickness and concentration on zone migration rate were investigated. Electrophoretic mobilities of horse and human cells calculated from zone migration rates were compatible with those obtained by microelectrophoresis. Complete cell separation was observed when low power and effective cooling were employed.

  7. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the conductivity of an infinitely thick slab of sea ice. Ice thickness, Hice, is then obtained by subtracting the height of the ...Thickness Survey of Sea Ice Runway” ERDC/CRREL SR-16-4 ii Abstract We conducted an autonomous survey of sea -ice thickness using the Polar rover Yeti...efficiency relative to manual surveys routinely con- ducted to assess the safety of roads and runways constructed on the sea ice. Yeti executed the

  8. Rigid Body Energy Minimization on Manifolds for Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Hanieh; Beglov, Dmitri; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Vajda, Sandor; Vakili, Pirooz; Kozakov, Dima

    2012-11-13

    Virtually all docking methods include some local continuous minimization of an energy/scoring function in order to remove steric clashes and obtain more reliable energy values. In this paper, we describe an efficient rigid-body optimization algorithm that, compared to the most widely used algorithms, converges approximately an order of magnitude faster to conformations with equal or slightly lower energy. The space of rigid body transformations is a nonlinear manifold, namely, a space which locally resembles a Euclidean space. We use a canonical parametrization of the manifold, called the exponential parametrization, to map the Euclidean tangent space of the manifold onto the manifold itself. Thus, we locally transform the rigid body optimization to an optimization over a Euclidean space where basic optimization algorithms are applicable. Compared to commonly used methods, this formulation substantially reduces the dimension of the search space. As a result, it requires far fewer costly function and gradient evaluations and leads to a more efficient algorithm. We have selected the LBFGS quasi-Newton method for local optimization since it uses only gradient information to obtain second order information about the energy function and avoids the far more costly direct Hessian evaluations. Two applications, one in protein-protein docking, and the other in protein-small molecular interactions, as part of macromolecular docking protocols are presented. The code is available to the community under open source license, and with minimal effort can be incorporated into any molecular modeling package.

  9. Minimal Liouville gravity correlation numbers from Douglas string equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belavin, Alexander; Dubrovin, Boris; Mukhametzhanov, Baur

    2014-01-01

    We continue the study of (q,p) Minimal Liouville Gravity with the help of Douglas string equation. We generalize the results of http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(91)90548-Chttp://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/42/30/304004, where Lee-Yang series (2,2s+1) was studied, to (3,3s+p 0 ) Minimal Liouville Gravity, where p 0 =1,2. We demonstrate that there exist such coordinates τ m,n on the space of the perturbed Minimal Liouville Gravity theories, in which the partition function of the theory is determined by the Douglas string equation. The coordinates τ m,n are related in a non-linear fashion to the natural coupling constants λ m,n of the perturbations of Minimal Lioville Gravity by the physical operators O m,n . We find this relation from the requirement that the correlation numbers in Minimal Liouville Gravity must satisfy the conformal and fusion selection rules. After fixing this relation we compute three- and four-point correlation numbers when they are not zero. The results are in agreement with the direct calculations in Minimal Liouville Gravity available in the literature http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.66.2051http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11232-005-0003-3http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11232-006-0075-8

  10. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). Now legislation at the federal level is being introduced. Passage will result in new EPA regulations and also DOE orders. At the state level the Hazardous Waste Reduction and Management Review Act of 1989 was signed by the Governor. DHS is currently promulgating regulations to implement the new law. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements

  11. Symmetry breaking for drag minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Marcus; Squires, Todd M.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2005-11-01

    For locomotion at high Reynolds numbers drag minimization favors fore-aft asymmetric slender shapes with blunt noses and sharp trailing edges. On the other hand, in an inertialess fluid the drag experienced by a body is independent of whether it travels forward or backward through the fluid, so there is no advantage to having a single preferred swimming direction. In fact numerically determined minimum drag shapes are known to exhibit almost no fore-aft asymmetry even at moderate Re. We show that asymmetry persists, albeit extremely weakly, down to vanishingly small Re, scaling asymptotically as Re^3. The need to minimize drag to maximize speed for a given propulsive capacity gives one possible mechanism for the increasing asymmetry in the body plans seen in nature, as organisms increase in size and swimming speed from bacteria like E-Coli up to pursuit predator fish such as tuna. If it is the dominant mechanism, then this signature scaling will be observed in the shapes of motile micro-organisms.

  12. Thickness effect on the microstructure, morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathap, P; Revathi, N; Subbaiah, Y P Venkata; Reddy, K T Ramakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of ZnS with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 600 nm have been deposited on glass substrates by close spaced thermal evaporation. All the films were grown at the same deposition conditions except the deposition time. The effect of thickness on the physical properties of ZnS films has been studied. The experimental results indicated that the thickness affects the structure, lattice strain, surface morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films significantly. The films deposited at a thickness of 100 nm showed hexagonal structure whereas films of thickness 300 nm or more showed cubic structure. However, coexistence of both cubic and hexagonal structures was observed in the films of 200 nm thickness. The surface roughness of the films showed an increasing trend at higher thicknesses of the films. A blue-shift in the energy band gap along with an intense UV emission band was observed with the decrease of film thickness, which are ascribed to the quantum confinement effect. The behaviour of optical constants such as refractive index and extinction coefficient were analysed. The variation of refractive index and extinction coefficient with thickness was explained on the basis of the contribution from the packing density of the layers. The electrical resistivity as well as the activation energy were evaluated and found to decrease with the increase of film thickness. The thickness had a significant influence on the optical band gap as well as the luminescence intensity

  13. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  14. Macular thickness and volume in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Forshaw, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    manifests in the macula of the elderly focusing on clinical relevant measures that are thicknesses and volumes of different macular areas. Ageing seems to increase center point foveal thickness. Ageing does not seem to change the center subfield thickness significantly. Ageing decreases the inner and outer...

  15. Multi-instantons in R4 and Minimal Surfaces in R2,1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, Bayram

    2000-01-01

    It is known that self-duality equations for multi-instantons on a line in four dimensions are equivalent to minimal surface equations in three dimensional Minkowski space. We extend this equivalence beyond the equations of motion and show that topological number, instanton moduli space and anti-self-dual solutions have representations in terms of minimal surfaces. The issue of topological charge is quite subtle because the surfaces that appear are non-compact. This minimal surface/instanton correspondence allows us to define a metric on the configuration space of the gauge fields. We obtain the minimal surface representation of an instanton with arbitrary charge. The trivial vacuum and the BPST instanton as minimal surfaces are worked out in detail. BPS monopoles and the geodesics are also discussed. (author)

  16. Laparoscopic colonic resection in inflammatory bowel disease: minimal surgery, minimal access and minimal hospital stay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2008-11-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is technically demanding but can offer improved short-term outcomes. The introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) as the default operative approach for IBD, however, may have inherent learning curve-associated disadvantages. We hypothesise that the establishment of MIS as the standard operative approach does not increase patient morbidity as assessed in the initial period of its introduction into a specialised unit, and that it confers earlier postoperative gastrointestinal recovery and reduced hospitalisation compared with conventional open resection.

  17. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  18. Minimization over randomly selected lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a population-based evolutionary optimization method for minimizing a given cost function. The mutation operator of this method selects randomly oriented lines in the cost function domain, constructs quadratic functions interpolating the cost function at three different points over each line, and uses extrema of the quadratics as mutated points. The crossover operator modifies each mutated point based on components of two points in population, instead of one point as is usually performed in other evolutionary algorithms. The stopping criterion of this method depends on the number of almost degenerate quadratics. We demonstrate that the proposed method with these mutation and crossover operations achieves faster and more robust convergence than the well-known Differential Evolution and Particle Swarm algorithms.

  19. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  20. A minimally invasive smile enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry refers to a wide variety of dental treatments. On the restorative aspect of dental procedures, direct resin bonding can be a very conservative treatment option for the patient. When tooth structure does not need to be removed, the patient benefits. Proper treatment planning is essential to determine how conservative the restorative treatment will be. This article describes the diagnosis, treatment options, and procedural techniques in the restoration of 4 maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin. The procedural steps are reviewed with regard to placing the composite and the variety of colors needed to ensure a natural result. Finishing and polishing of the composite are critical to ending with a natural looking dentition that the patient will be pleased with for many years.

  1. Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huangjun; Teo Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The witnesses can be measured successively; if all of them give an inconclusive result, one exploits their tomographic completeness for a reconstruction of the quantum state and can then determine its entanglement properties by data processing. There are witnesses that are optimal for this purpose. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic construction and illustrate the matter with the example of two qubits. For the case of two polarization qubits of photons, we show how existing technology can be used to implement the optimized witnesses in a very efficient way. Owing to the details of the implementation, which actually measures the eigenstate basis of the witness rather than solely determining the expectation value of the witness, one does not need to measure more than six witnesses in this example of a 16-dimensional state space.

  2. Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huangjun; Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-05-01

    We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The witnesses can be measured successively; if all of them give an inconclusive result, one exploits their tomographic completeness for a reconstruction of the quantum state and can then determine its entanglement properties by data processing. There are witnesses that are optimal for this purpose. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic construction and illustrate the matter with the example of two qubits. For the case of two polarization qubits of photons, we show how existing technology can be used to implement the optimized witnesses in a very efficient way. Owing to the details of the implementation, which actually measures the eigenstate basis of the witness rather than solely determining the expectation value of the witness, one does not need to measure more than six witnesses in this example of a 16-dimensional state space.

  3. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department's goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision

  4. Method of developing thick sloping coal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragintsev, V F; Mashkovtsev, I L; Semenov, V S; Zykov, V N

    1980-02-15

    A method of developing thick sloping coal formations in three inclined layers includes carrying out developmental operations for each of the layers until one begins development of the last one and extraction of layers. It is characterized in that in order to improve efficiency and safety of an operation of formation development there is first extraction of the upper layer and then slits in sequence from the roof of the formation to the floor of the upper layer and beneath protected objects. Then the lower layer is workedin thin strips in sequence from the floor of the formation to the roof of the lower layer. Next there is extraction of a slit at the roof of the middle layer and delivery of a plasticized hardening mixture into the worked out space of the indicated slot. The middle layer is worked in thin layers beneath the protection of the formed artificial roof in a sequence from the artificial roof to the floor of the middle layer. Workings of the middle layer are formed by joining of the combined workings of the upper and lower layers during extraction of pillars of coal between them. The layers are respectively worked following completion of roof advance in front of the working face of each subsequent extraction layer in alternating fashion.

  5. An information geometric approach to least squares minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transtrum, Mark; Machta, Benjamin; Sethna, James

    2009-03-01

    Parameter estimation by nonlinear least squares minimization is a ubiquitous problem that has an elegant geometric interpretation: all possible parameter values induce a manifold embedded within the space of data. The minimization problem is then to find the point on the manifold closest to the origin. The standard algorithm for minimizing sums of squares, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, also has geometric meaning. When the standard algorithm fails to efficiently find accurate fits to the data, geometric considerations suggest improvements. Problems involving large numbers of parameters, such as often arise in biological contexts, are notoriously difficult. We suggest an algorithm based on geodesic motion that may offer improvements over the standard algorithm for a certain class of problems.

  6. The electroweak phase transition in minimal supergravity models

    CERN Document Server

    Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1994-01-01

    We have explored the electroweak phase transition in minimal supergravity models by extending previous analysis of the one-loop Higgs potential to include finite temperature effects. Minimal supergravity is characterized by two higgs doublets at the electroweak scale, gauge coupling unification, and universal soft-SUSY breaking at the unification scale. We have searched for the allowed parameter space that avoids washout of baryon number via unsuppressed anomalous Electroweak sphaleron processes after the phase transition. This requirement imposes strong constraints on the Higgs sector. With respect to weak scale baryogenesis, we find that the generic MSSM is {\\it not} phenomenologically acceptable, and show that the additional experimental and consistency constraints of minimal supergravity restricts the mass of the lightest CP-even Higgs even further to $m_h\\lsim 32\\GeV$ (at one loop), also in conflict with experiment. Thus, if supergravity is to allow for baryogenesis via any other mechanism above the weak...

  7. Plateau inflation from random non-minimal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broy, Benedict J.; Roest, Diederik

    2016-06-01

    A generic non-minimal coupling can push any higher-order terms of the scalar potential sufficiently far out in field space to yield observationally viable plateau inflation. We provide analytic and numerical evidence that this generically happens for a non-minimal coupling strength ξ of the order N 2 e . In this regime, the non-minimally coupled field is sub-Planckian during inflation and is thus protected from most higher-order terms. For larger values of ξ, the inflationary predictions converge towards the sweet spot of PLANCK. The latter includes ξ≅10 4 obtained from CMB normalization arguments, thus providing a natural explanation for the inflationary observables measured.

  8. Comparison of Simulated PEC Probe Performance for Detecting Wall Thickness Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Kil; Choi, Dong Myung; Jung, Hee Sung

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, four different types of pulsed eddy current(PEC) probe are designed and their performance of detecting wall thickness reduction is compared. By using the backward difference method in time and the finite element method in space, PEC signals from various thickness and materials are numerically calculated and three features of the signal are selected. Since PEC signals and features are obtained by various types and sizes of probe, the comparison is made through the normalized features which reflect the sensitivity of the feature to thickness reduction. The normalized features indicate that the shielded reflection probe provides the best sensitivity to wall thickness reduction for all three signal features. Results show that the best sensitivity to thickness reduction can be achieved by the peak value, but also suggest that the time to peak can be a good candidate because of its linear relationship with the thickness variation.

  9. Minimal surfaces, stratified multivarifolds, and the plateau problem

    CERN Document Server

    Thi, Dao Trong; Primrose, E J F; Silver, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Plateau's problem is a scientific trend in modern mathematics that unites several different problems connected with the study of minimal surfaces. In its simplest version, Plateau's problem is concerned with finding a surface of least area that spans a given fixed one-dimensional contour in three-dimensional space--perhaps the best-known example of such surfaces is provided by soap films. From the mathematical point of view, such films are described as solutions of a second-order partial differential equation, so their behavior is quite complicated and has still not been thoroughly studied. Soap films, or, more generally, interfaces between physical media in equilibrium, arise in many applied problems in chemistry, physics, and also in nature. In applications, one finds not only two-dimensional but also multidimensional minimal surfaces that span fixed closed "contours" in some multidimensional Riemannian space. An exact mathematical statement of the problem of finding a surface of least area or volume requir...

  10. Influence of the gel thickness on in vivo hyaline cartilage regeneration induced by double-network gel implanted at the bottom of a large osteochondral defect: short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hidetoshi; Kitamura, Nobuto; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Arakaki, Kazunobu; Gong, Jian Ping; Kanaya, Fuminori; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2013-01-31

    A double-network (DN) gel, which is composed of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly(N,N'-dimethyl acrylamide), can induce hyaline cartilage regeneration in vivo in a large osteochondral defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the thickness of the implanted DN gel on the induction ability of hyaline cartilage regeneration. Thirty-eight mature rabbits were used in this study. We created an osteochondral defect having a diameter of 4.3-mm in the patellofemoral joint. The knees were randomly divided into 4 groups (Group I: 0.5-mm thick gel, Group II: 1.0-mm thick gel, Group III: 5.0-mm thick gel, and Group IV: untreated control). Animals in each group were further divided into 3 sub-groups depending on the gel implant position (2.0-, 3.0-, or 4.0-mm depth from the articular surface) in the defect. The regenerated tissues were evaluated with the Wayne's gross and histological grading scales and real time PCR analysis of the cartilage marker genes at 4 weeks. According to the total Wayne's score, when the depth of the final vacant space was set at 2.0 mm, the scores in Groups I, II, and III were significantly greater than that Group IV (phyaline cartilage regeneration as the 5.0-mm thick DN gel plug. However, the induction ability of the 0.5-mm thick sheet was significantly lower when compared with the 1.0-mm thick gel sheet. The 1.0-mm DN gel sheet is a promising device to establish a cell-free cartilage regeneration strategy that minimizes bone loss from the gel implantation.

  11. Uncertainties in cloud phase and optical thickness retrievals from the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry; Yang, Yuekui; Platnick, Steven

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the expected uncertainties of a single channel cloud optical thickness (COT) retrieval technique, as well as a simple cloud temperature threshold based thermodynamic phase approach, in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. DSCOVR cloud products will be derived from Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) observations in the ultraviolet and visible spectra. Since EPIC is not equipped with a spectral channel in the shortwave or mid-wave infrared that is sensitive to cloud effective radius (CER), COT will be inferred from a single visible channel with the assumption of appropriate CER values for liquid and ice phase clouds. One month of Aqua MODIS daytime granules from April 2005 is selected for investigating cloud phase sensitivity, and a subset of these granules that has similar EPIC sun-view geometry is selected for investigating COT uncertainties. EPIC COT retrievals are simulated with the same algorithm as the operational MODIS cloud products (MOD06), except using fixed phase-dependent CER values. Uncertainty estimates are derived by comparing the single channel COT retrievals with the baseline bi-spectral MODIS retrievals. Results show that a single channel COT retrieval is feasible for EPIC. For ice clouds, single channel retrieval errors are minimal (clouds the error is mostly limited to within 10%, although for thin clouds (COT cloud masking and cloud temperature retrievals are not considered in this study. PMID:29619116

  12. Three-dimensional primate molar enamel thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Anthony J; Tafforeau, Paul; Feeney, Robin N M; Martin, Lawrence B

    2008-02-01

    Molar enamel thickness has played an important role in the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and dietary assessments of fossil primate teeth for nearly 90 years. Despite the frequency with which enamel thickness is discussed in paleoanthropological discourse, methods used to attain information about enamel thickness are destructive and record information from only a single plane of section. Such semidestructive planar methods limit sample sizes and ignore dimensional data that may be culled from the entire length of a tooth. In light of recently developed techniques to investigate enamel thickness in 3D and the frequent use of enamel thickness in dietary and phylogenetic interpretations of living and fossil primates, the study presented here aims to produce and make available to other researchers a database of 3D enamel thickness measurements of primate molars (n=182 molars). The 3D enamel thickness measurements reported here generally agree with 2D studies. Hominoids show a broad range of relative enamel thicknesses, and cercopithecoids have relatively thicker enamel than ceboids, which in turn have relatively thicker enamel than strepsirrhine primates, on average. Past studies performed using 2D sections appear to have accurately diagnosed the 3D relative enamel thickness condition in great apes and humans: Gorilla has the relatively thinnest enamel, Pan has relatively thinner enamel than Pongo, and Homo has the relatively thickest enamel. Although the data set presented here has some taxonomic gaps, it may serve as a useful reference for researchers investigating enamel thickness in fossil taxa and studies of primate gnathic biology.

  13. Cyclone Simulation via Action Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, D. A.; Weare, J.; Abbot, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    A postulated impact of climate change is an increase in intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs). This hypothesized effect results from the fact that TCs are powered subsaturated boundary layer air picking up water vapor from the surface ocean as it flows inwards towards the eye. This water vapor serves as the energy input for TCs, which can be idealized as heat engines. The inflowing air has a nearly identical temperature as the surface ocean; therefore, warming of the surface leads to a warmer atmospheric boundary layer. By the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship, warmer boundary layer air can hold more water vapor and thus results in more energetic storms. Changes in TC intensity are difficult to predict due to the presence of fine structures (e.g. convective structures and rainbands) with length scales of less than 1 km, while general circulation models (GCMs) generally have horizontal resolutions of tens of kilometers. The models are therefore unable to capture these features, which are critical to accurately simulating cyclone structure and intensity. Further, strong TCs are rare events, meaning that long multi-decadal simulations are necessary to generate meaningful statistics about intense TC activity. This adds to the computational expense, making it yet more difficult to generate accurate statistics about long-term changes in TC intensity due to global warming via direct simulation. We take an alternative approach, applying action minimization techniques developed in molecular dynamics to the WRF weather/climate model. We construct artificial model trajectories that lead from quiescent (TC-free) states to TC states, then minimize the deviation of these trajectories from true model dynamics. We can thus create Monte Carlo model ensembles that are biased towards cyclogenesis, which reduces computational expense by limiting time spent in non-TC states. This allows for: 1) selective interrogation of model states with TCs; 2) finding the likeliest paths for

  14. Method of working thick beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giezynski, A; Bialasik, A; Krawiec, A; Wylenzek, A

    1981-12-30

    The patented method of working thick coal beds in layers consists of creating in the collapsed rocks or from the fill material a bearing rock plate by strengthening these rocks with a hardening composition made of wastes of raw material, resin and water injected into the rock through wells. The difference in the suggestion is that through boreholes drilled in the lower part of the rock roofing on a previously calculated network, a solution is regularly injected which consists of dust wastes obtained in electric filters during production of clinker from mineral raw material in a quantity of 60-70% by volume, wastes of open-hearth production in a quantity of 15-20% and natural sand in a quantity of 15-20%, and water in a quantity of 35-55% of the volume of mineral components. In the second variant, the injected compostion contains: wastes from production of clinker 55-57%, open-hearth wastes 20-23%, natural sand 12-14%, asbestos fine particles 7-8% and water 38-45% of the volume of mineral components. In addition, the difference is that in the boreholes drilled in the coal block directly under the roofing, a composition is injected which consists of natural sand and catalyst in the form of powder and individually supplied liquid synthetic resin in a quantity of 3-5% by weight in relation to the sand. The hardening time with normal temperature is 1-1.5 h, after which strength is reached of 80 kg-f/cm/sup 2/.

  15. Minimalism through intraoperative functional mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M S

    1996-01-01

    Intraoperative stimulation mapping may be used to avoid unnecessary risk to functional regions subserving language and sensori-motor pathways. Based on the data presented here, language localization is variable in the entire population, with only certainty existing for the inferior frontal region responsible for motor speech. Anatomical landmarks such as the anterior temporal tip for temporal lobe language sites and the posterior aspect of the lateral sphenoid wing for the frontal lobe language zones are unreliable in avoiding postoperative aphasias. Thus, individual mapping to identify essential language sites has the greatest likelihood of avoiding permanent deficits in naming, reading, and motor speech. In a similar approach, motor and sensory pathways from the cortex and underlying white matter may be reliably stimulated and mapped in both awake and asleep patients. Although these techniques require an additional operative time and equipment nominally priced, the result is often gratifying, as postoperative morbidity has been greatly reduced in the process of incorporating these surgical strategies. The patients quality of life is improved in terms of seizure control, with or without antiepileptic drugs. This avoids having to perform a second costly operative procedure, which is routinely done when extraoperative stimulation and recording is done via subdural grids. In addition, an aggressive tumor resection at the initial operation lengthens the time to tumor recurrence and often obviates the need for a subsequent reoperation. Thus, intraoperative functional mapping may be best alluded to as a surgical technique that results in "minimalism in the long term".

  16. Against explanatory minimalism in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eThornton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticised both as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation respectively and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of level of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  17. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  18. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palep Jaydeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom′s Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor.The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK, FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc. redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System ® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist ® . It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naοve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions.

  19. Physics on smallest scales. An introduction to minimal length phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprenger, Martin; Goethe Univ., Frankfurt am Main; Nicolini, Piero; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-02-01

    Many modern theories which try to unite gravity with the Standard Model of particle physics, as e.g. string theory, propose two key modifications to the commonly known physical theories: - the existence of additional space dimensions - the existence of a minimal length distance or maximal resolution. While extra dimensions have received a wide coverage in publications over the last ten years (especially due to the prediction of micro black hole production at the LHC), the phenomenology of models with a minimal length is still less investigated. In a summer study project for bachelor students in 2010 we have explored some phenomenological implications of the potential existence of a minimal length. In this paper we review the idea and formalism of a quantum gravity induced minimal length in the generalised uncertainty principle framework as well as in the coherent state approach to non- commutative geometry. These approaches are effective models which can make model-independent predictions for experiments and are ideally suited for phenomenological studies. Pedagogical examples are provided to grasp the effects of a quantum gravity induced minimal length. (orig.)

  20. On SUSY inspired minimal lepton number violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chkareuli, J.L.; Gogoladze, I.G.; Green, M.G.; Hutchroft, D.E.; Kobakhidze, A.B.

    2000-03-01

    A minimal lepton number violation (LNV) is proposed which could naturally appear in SUSY theories, if Yukawa and LNV couplings had a common origin. According to this idea properly implemented into MSSM with an additional abelian flavor symmetry the prototype LNV appears due to a mixing of leptons with superheavy Higgs doublet mediating Yukawa couplings. As a result, all significant physical manifestations of LNV reduce to those of the effective trilinear couplings LLE-bar and LQD-bar aligned, by magnitude and orientation in a flavor space, with the down fermion (charged lepton and down quark) effective Yukawa couplings, while the effective bilinear terms appear generically suppressed relative to an ordinary μ-term of MSSM. Detailed phenomenology of the model related to the flavor-changing processes both in quark and lepton sectors, radiatively induced neutrino masses and decays of the LSP is presented. Remarkably, the model can straightforwardly be extended to a Grand Unified framework and an explicit example with SU(7) GUT is thoroughly discussed. (author)

  1. Hollow cylindrical plasma filament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    We have explored here a hollow cylindrical laser plasma multifilament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding, in which the separation between individual filaments is in the range of several millimeters and the waveguide cladding thickness is in the order of the microwave penetration depth. Such parameters give a closer representation of a realistic laser filament waveguide sustained by a long stable propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. We report how the waveguide losses depend on structural parameters like normalized plasma filament spacing, filament to filament distance or pitch, normal spatial frequency, and radius of the plasma filament. We found that for typical plasma parameters, the proposed waveguide can support guided modes of microwaves in extremely high frequency even with a cladding consisting of only one ring of plasma filaments. The loss of the microwave radiation is mainly caused by tunneling through the discontinuous finite cladding, i.e., confinement loss, and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In addition, the analysis indicates that the propagation loss is fairly large compared with the loss of a plasma waveguide with a continuous infinite thickness cladding, while they are comparable when using a cladding contains more than one ring. Compared to free space propagation, this waveguide still presents a superior microwave transmission to some distance in the order of the filamentation length; thus, the laser plasma filaments waveguide may be a potential channel for transporting pulsed-modulated microwaves if ensuring a long and stable propagation of fs laser pulses.

  2. Accommodating Thickness in Origami-Based Deployable Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.; Lang, Robert J.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Trease, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to create deployment systems with a large ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter. Deployment from a compact form to a final flat state can be achieved through origami-inspired folding of panels. There are many models capable of this motion when folded in a material with negligible thickness; however, when the application requires the folding of thick, rigid panels, attention must be paid to the effect of material thickness not only on the final folded state, but also during the folding motion (i.e., the panels must not be required to flex to attain the final folded form). The objective is to develop new methods for deployment from a compact folded form to a large circular array (or other final form). This paper describes a mathematical model for modifying the pattern to accommodate material thickness in the context of the design, modeling, and testing of a deployable system inspired by an origami six-sided flasher model. The model is demonstrated in hardware as a 1/20th scale prototype of a deployable solar array for space applications. The resulting prototype has a ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter of 9.2 (or 1.25 m deployed outer diameter to 0.136 m stowed outer diameter).

  3. Thick Galactic Cosmic Radiation Shielding Using Atmospheric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Nurge, Mark A.; Starr, Stanley O.; Koontz, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    NASA is concerned with protecting astronauts from the effects of galactic cosmic radiation and has expended substantial effort in the development of computer models to predict the shielding obtained from various materials. However, these models were only developed for shields up to about 120 g!cm2 in thickness and have predicted that shields of this thickness are insufficient to provide adequate protection for extended deep space flights. Consequently, effort is underway to extend the range of these models to thicker shields and experimental data is required to help confirm the resulting code. In this paper empirically obtained effective dose measurements from aircraft flights in the atmosphere are used to obtain the radiation shielding function of the earth's atmosphere, a very thick shield. Obtaining this result required solving an inverse problem and the method for solving it is presented. The results are shown to be in agreement with current code in the ranges where they overlap. These results are then checked and used to predict the radiation dosage under thick shields such as planetary regolith and the atmosphere of Venus.

  4. Crystalline lens thickness determines the perceived chromatic difference in magnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Since the origin of the high interindividual variability of the chromatic difference in retinal image magnification (CDM) in the human eye is not well understood, optical parameters that might determine its magnitude were studied in 21 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 21 to 58 years. Two psychophysical procedures were used to quantify CDM. They produced highly correlated results. First, a red and a blue square, presented on a black screen, had to be matched in size by the subjects with their right eyes. Second, a filled red and blue square, flickering on top of each other at 2 Hz, had to be adjusted in perceived brightness and then in size to minimize the impression of flicker. CDM varied widely among subjects from 0.0% to 3.6%. Biometric ocular parameters were measured with low coherence interferometry and crystalline lens tilt and decentration with a custom-built Purkinjemeter. Correlations were studied between CDM and corneal power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens tilt and lens decentration, and vitreous chamber depths. Lens thickness was found significantly correlated with CDM and accounted for 64% of its variance. Vertical lens tilt and decentration were also significantly correlated. It was also found that CDM increased by 3.5% per year, and part of this change can be attributed to the age-related increase in lens thickness.

  5. Dose estimation for space radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Feng; Xu Zhenhua; Huang Zengxin; Jia Xianghong

    2007-01-01

    For evaluating the effect of space radiation on human health, the dose was estimated using the models of space radiation environment, models of distribution of the spacecraft's or space suit's mass thickness and models of human body. The article describes these models and calculation methods. (authors)

  6. Graph Treewidth and Geometric Thickness Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Wood, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Consider a drawing of a graph $G$ in the plane such that crossing edges are coloured differently. The minimum number of colours, taken over all drawings of $G$, is the classical graph parameter "thickness". By restricting the edges to be straight, we obtain the "geometric thickness". By further restricting the vertices to be in convex position, we obtain the "book thickness". This paper studies the relationship between these parameters and treewidth. Our first main result states that for grap...

  7. Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba

    2004-01-01

    We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z 2 symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS 5 spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes

  8. Does cement mantle thickness really matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, J.

    2008-01-01

    The thickness of the cement mantle around the femoral component of total hip replacements is a contributing factor to aseptic loosening and revision. Nevertheless, various designs of stems and surgical tooling lead to cement mantles of differing thicknesses. This thesis is concerned with variability in cement thickness around the Stanmore Hip, due to surgical approach, broach size and stem orientation, and its effects on stress and cracking in the cement. The extent to which cement mantle thi...

  9. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  10. National Space Agencies vs. Commercial Space: Towards Improved Space Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional space policies as developed at the national level includes many elements but they are most typically driven by economic and political objectives. Legislatively administered programs apportion limited public funds to achieve "gains" that can involve employment, stimulus to the economy, national defense or other advancements. Yet political advantage is seldom far from the picture.Within the context of traditional space policies, safety issues cannot truly be described as "afterthoughts", but they are usually, at best, a secondary or even tertiary consideration. "Space safety" is often simply assumed to be "in there" somewhere. The current key question is can "safety and risk minimization", within new commercial space programs actually be elevated in importance and effectively be "designed in" at the outset. This has long been the case with commercial aviation and there is at least reasonable hope that this could also be the case for the commercial space industry in coming years. The cooperative role that the insurance industry has now played for centuries in the shipping industry and for decades in aviation can perhaps now play a constructive role in risk minimization in the commercial space domain as well. This paper begins by examining two historical case studies in the context of traditional national space policy development to see how major space policy decisions involving "manned space programs" have given undue primacy to "political considerations" over "safety" and other factors. The specific case histories examined here include first the decision to undertake the Space Shuttle Program (i.e. 1970-1972) and the second is the International Space Station. In both cases the key and overarching decisions were driven by political, schedule and cost considerations, and safety seems absence as a prime consideration. In publicly funded space programs—whether in the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, China, India or elsewhere—it seems realistic to

  11. Dual beam x-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The apparatus and method for continuous measurement of thickness of a sheet at a rolling mill or the like without contacting the sheet are described. A system directing radiation through the sheet in two energy bands and providing a measure of change in composition of the material as it passes the thickness gauging station is included. A system providing for changing the absorption coefficient of the material in the thickness measurement as a function of the change in composition so that the measured thickness is substantially independent of variations in composition is described

  12. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  13. Uncertainties in thick-target PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.L.; Cookson, J.A.; Paul, H.

    1983-01-01

    Thick-target PIXE analysis insolves uncertainties arising from the calculation of thick-target X-ray production in addition to the usual PIXE uncertainties. The calculation demands knowledge of ionization cross-sections, stopping powers and photon attenuation coefficients. Information on these is reviewed critically and a computational method is used to estimate the uncertainties transmitted from this data base into results of thick-target PIXE analyses with reference to particular specimen types using beams of 2-3 MeV protons. A detailed assessment of the accuracy of thick-target PIXE is presented. (orig.)

  14. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1988-09-01

    Companies that generate hazardous waste materials are now required by national regulations to establish a waste minimization program. Accordingly, in FY88 the Westinghouse Hanford Company formed a waste minimization team organization. The purpose of the team is to assist the company in its efforts to minimize the generation of waste, train personnel on waste minimization techniques, document successful waste minimization effects, track dollar savings realized, and to publicize and administer an employee incentive program. A number of significant actions have been successful, resulting in the savings of materials and dollars. The team itself has been successful in establishing some worthwhile minimization projects. This document briefly describes the waste minimization actions that have been successful to date. 2 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Thick brane in f(R) gravity with Palatini dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Menezes, R.; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with modified gravity in five-dimensional space-time. We study a thick Palatini f(R) brane, that is, a braneworld scenario described by an anti-de Sitter warped geometry with a single extra dimension of infinite extent, sourced by a real scalar field under the Palatini approach, where the metric and the connection are regarded as independent degrees of freedom. We consider a first-order framework which we use to provide exact solutions for the scalar field and warp factor. We also investigate a perturbative scenario such that the Palatini approach is implemented through a Lagrangian f(R)=R+ϵR n , where the small parameter ϵ controls the deviation from the standard thick brane case. In both cases it is found that the warp factor tends to localize the extra dimension due to the nonlinear corrections

  16. Thick brane in f(R) gravity with Palatini dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br; Losano, L., E-mail: losano@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R., E-mail: rmenezes@dce.ufpb.br [Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58297-000, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Olmo, Gonzalo J., E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física Teórica, IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Universidad de Valencia, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Rubiera-Garcia, D., E-mail: drgarcia@fc.ul.pt [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Faculdade de Ciências, Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016, Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433, Shanghai (China)

    2015-11-30

    This work deals with modified gravity in five-dimensional space-time. We study a thick Palatini f(R) brane, that is, a braneworld scenario described by an anti-de Sitter warped geometry with a single extra dimension of infinite extent, sourced by a real scalar field under the Palatini approach, where the metric and the connection are regarded as independent degrees of freedom. We consider a first-order framework which we use to provide exact solutions for the scalar field and warp factor. We also investigate a perturbative scenario such that the Palatini approach is implemented through a Lagrangian f(R)=R+ϵR{sup n}, where the small parameter ϵ controls the deviation from the standard thick brane case. In both cases it is found that the warp factor tends to localize the extra dimension due to the nonlinear corrections.

  17. Thick brane in f(R) gravity with Palatini dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Rubiera-Garcia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2015-12-15

    This work deals with modified gravity in five-dimensional space-time. We study a thick Palatini f(R) brane, that is, a braneworld scenario described by an anti-de Sitter warped geometry with a single extra dimension of infinite extent, sourced by a real scalar field under the Palatini approach, where the metric and the connection are regarded as independent degrees of freedom. We consider a first-order framework which we use to provide exact solutions for the scalar field and warp factor. We also investigate a perturbative scenario such that the Palatini approach is implemented through a Lagrangian f(R) = R + εR{sup n}, where the small parameter ε controls the deviation from the standard thick brane case. In both cases it is found that the warp factor tends to localize the extra dimension due to the nonlinear corrections. (orig.)

  18. Waste Minimization via Radiological Hazard Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, K.A.; Coffield, T.; Hooker, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km 2 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility in south-western South Carolina, incorporates pollution prevention as a fundamental component of its Environmental Management System. A comprehensive pollution prevention program was implemented as part of an overall business strategy to reduce waste generation and pollution releases, minimize environmental impacts, and to reduce future waste management and pollution control costs. In fiscal years 1995 through 1997, the Site focused on implementing specific waste reduction initiatives identified while benchmarking industry best practices. These efforts resulted in greater than $25 million in documented cost avoidance. While these results have been dramatic to date, the Site is further challenged to maximize resource utilization and deploy new technologies and practices to achieve further waste reductions. The Site has elected to target a site-wide reduction of contaminated work spaces in fiscal year 1998 as the primary source reduction initiative. Over 120,900 m 2 of radiologically contaminated work areas (approximately 600 separate inside areas) exist at SRS. Reduction of these areas reduces future waste generation, minimizes worker exposure, and reduces surveillance and maintenance costs. This is a major focus of the Site's As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) program by reducing sources of worker exposure. The basis for this approach was demonstrated during 1997 as part of a successful Enhanced Work Planning pilot conducted at several specific contamination areas at SRS. An economic-based prioritization process was utilized to develop a model for prioritizing areas to reclaim. In the H-Canyon Separation facility, over 3,900 m 2 of potentially contaminated area was rolled back to a Radiation Buffer Area. The facility estimated nearly 420 m 3 of low level radioactive waste will be avoided each year, and overall cost savings and productivity gains will reach approximately $1

  19. Contribution to the study of slab thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraitis, G.A.; Rorris, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the time-independent values of the equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere, defined as the ratio of the total electron content to the corresponding maximum electron density of the F region. Periodic variations of slab thickness are studied and are correlated to relative changes in exospheric temperature, deduced from the OGO-6 model

  20. Eggshell thickness in mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Eggs (n = 452) of the mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) were collected from 9 states in 1969 and 11 states in 1970, and shell thickness was compared with that of eggs (n = 97) collected from 24 states during the years 1861 to 1935. Mean shell thickness did not differ significantly in the test groups.

  1. Applications of precision ultrasonic thickness gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.A.; Elfbaum, G.M.; Husarek, V.; Castel, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse-echo ultrasonic thickness gauging is now recognized as an accurate method of measuring thickness of a product from one side when the velocity of ultrasound in the material is known. The advantages and present limitation of this gauging technique are presented, together with several applications of industrial interest [fr

  2. Skull thickness in patients with clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, T; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP).......The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP)....

  3. High Power Laser Beam Welding of Thick-walled Ferromagnetic Steels with Electromagnetic Weld Pool Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, André; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Hilgenberg, Kai; Rethmeier, Michael

    The development of modern high power laser systems allows single pass welding of thick-walled components with minimal distortion. Besides the high demands on the joint preparation, the hydrostatic pressure in the melt pool increases with higher plate thicknesses. Reaching or exceeding the Laplace pressure, drop-out or melt sagging are caused. A contactless electromagnetic weld support system was used for laser beam welding of thick ferromagnetic steel plates compensating these effects. An oscillating magnetic field induces eddy currents in the weld pool which generate Lorentz forces counteracting the gravity forces. Hysteresis effects of ferromagnetic steels are considered as well as the loss of magnetization in zones exceeding the Curie temperature. These phenomena reduce the effective Lorentz forces within the weld pool. The successful compensation of the hydrostatic pressure was demonstrated on up to 20 mm thick plates of duplex and mild steel by a variation of the electromagnetic power level and the oscillation frequency.

  4. Ultrasonography of pleural effusion. The quantification of minimal detectable volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustic, A.; Medved, I.; Ekl, D.; Simic, O.; Kovac, D.; Ivanis, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to establish a minimal volume of free thoracic fluid in the pleural space of the supine cadaver detectable by ultrasonography. Material and methods. A prospective study with an experimental model on 20 cadavers (10 male, 10 female; age 66 ±11 yr.; height 172 ±9 cm; weight 75 ±12.6 kg; body surface area (BSA) 1.87 ±0.2 m 2 ) was used. Each cadaver was punctured bilaterally in 5 th or 6 th intercostal space at the medioclavicular line with venous cannula infusing in NaCl 0,9% solution at randomised speed in the chest. During the procedure the laterodorsal part of the thoracic wall next to the pulmonal base and phrenicocostal sinus was ultrasonographically scanned. At the moment of the visualisation of anechogenic line pertaining to the free fluid between dorsal thoracic wall and lungs, the installation was stopped and the amount of injected fluid verified. Results. Minimal, by ultrasonography detectable amount of free fluid in the right pleural space was 223±52 ml with the significant positive correlation to height (r = 0.69; p < 0.001), weight (r 0.68; p < 0.01) and the BSA (r = 0.71; p < 0.001) of cadaver. Detectable volume in the left pleural space was notably smaller than contra lateral, namely 172±53 ml also with a significant correlation to the cadaver's height (r = 0.55; p < 0.05), weight (r = 0.59; p < 0.01) and BSA (r = 0.60; p < 0.01). Conclusions. The authors affirm that ultrasonographically detectable quantity of free fluid in the chest positively correlates with height, weight and BSA of cadavers, and that the measured amount in the supine position is approximately 223 ml for the right space versus 172 ml for the left pleural space. (author)

  5. emMAW: computing minimal absent words in external memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héliou, Alice; Pissis, Solon P; Puglisi, Simon J

    2017-09-01

    The biological significance of minimal absent words has been investigated in genomes of organisms from all domains of life. For instance, three minimal absent words of the human genome were found in Ebola virus genomes. There exists an O(n) -time and O(n) -space algorithm for computing all minimal absent words of a sequence of length n on a fixed-sized alphabet based on suffix arrays. A standard implementation of this algorithm, when applied to a large sequence of length n , requires more than 20 n  bytes of RAM. Such memory requirements are a significant hurdle to the computation of minimal absent words in large datasets. We present emMAW, the first external-memory algorithm for computing minimal absent words. A free open-source implementation of our algorithm is made available. This allows for computation of minimal absent words on far bigger data sets than was previously possible. Our implementation requires less than 3 h on a standard workstation to process the full human genome when as little as 1 GB of RAM is made available. We stress that our implementation, despite making use of external memory, is fast; indeed, even on relatively smaller datasets when enough RAM is available to hold all necessary data structures, it is less than two times slower than state-of-the-art internal-memory implementations. https://github.com/solonas13/maw (free software under the terms of the GNU GPL). alice.heliou@lix.polytechnique.fr or solon.pissis@kcl.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. [Minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Sun, Taicun; Huang, Yonghui

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the recent minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). The recent literature at home and abroad concerning minimally invasive approach for CSR was reviewed and summarized. There were two techniques of minimally invasive approach for CSR at present: percutaneous puncture techniques and endoscopic techniques. The degenerate intervertebral disc was resected or nucleolysis by percutaneous puncture technique if CSR was caused by mild or moderate intervertebral disc herniations. The cervical microendoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy was an effective minimally invasive approach which could provide a clear view. The endoscopy techniques were suitable to treat CSR caused by foraminal osteophytes, lateral disc herniations, local ligamentum flavum thickening and spondylotic foraminal stenosis. The minimally invasive procedure has the advantages of simple handling, minimally invasive and low incidence of complications. But the scope of indications is relatively narrow at present.

  7. Chiral lattice fermions, minimal doubling, and the axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiburzi, B. C.

    2010-01-01

    Exact chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing would preclude the axial anomaly. In order to describe a continuum quantum field theory of Dirac fermions, lattice actions with purported exact chiral symmetry must break the flavor-singlet axial symmetry. We demonstrate that this is indeed the case by using a minimally doubled fermion action. For simplicity, we consider the Abelian axial anomaly in two dimensions. At finite lattice spacing and with gauge interactions, the axial anomaly arises from nonconservation of the flavor-singlet current. Similar nonconservation also leads to the axial anomaly in the case of the naieve lattice action. For minimally doubled actions, however, fine-tuning of the action and axial current is necessary to arrive at the anomaly. Conservation of the flavor nonsinglet vector current additionally requires the current to be fine-tuned. Finally, we determine that the chiral projection of a minimally doubled fermion action can be used to arrive at a lattice theory with an undoubled Dirac fermion possessing the correct anomaly in the continuum limit.

  8. Corporate tax minimization and stock price reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Blaufus, Kay; Möhlmann, Axel; Schwäbe, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Tax minimization strategies may lead to significant tax savings, which could, in turn, increase firm value. However, such strategies are also associated with significant costs, such as expected penalties and planning, agency, and reputation costs. The overall impact of firms' tax minimization strategies on firm value is, therefore, unclear. To investigate whether corporate tax minimization increases firm value, we analyze the stock price reaction to news concerning corporate tax avoidance or ...

  9. Safety control and minimization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinming; Rong Feng; Li Jinyan; Wang Xin

    2010-01-01

    Compared with the developed countries, the safety control and minimization of the radwastes in China are under-developed. The research of measures for the safety control and minimization of the radwastes is very important for the safety control of the radwastes, and the reduction of the treatment and disposal cost and environment radiation hazards. This paper has systematically discussed the safety control and the minimization of the radwastes produced in the nuclear fuel circulation, nuclear technology applications and the process of decommission of nuclear facilities, and has provided some measures and methods for the safety control and minimization of the radwastes. (authors)

  10. Noncommutative phase spaces on Aristotle group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancille Ngendakumana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We realize noncommutative phase spaces as coadjoint orbits of extensions of the Aristotle group in a two dimensional space. Through these constructions the momenta of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of a naturally introduced magnetic eld. These cases correspond to the minimal coupling of the momentum with a magnetic potential.

  11. Study on the ionization chamber for thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shili; Miao Qiangwen

    1988-01-01

    The principle, construction and performances of ionization chambers for measuring the thickness of metal and nonmetal materials are introduced. With them the thickness of thin materials (thickness ranging from 10 to 6000 g/m 2 ), the surface layer thickness of composed materials and the thickness of steel plate (thickness ranging from 0 to 32 kg/m 2 ) are measured effectively

  12. Effect of mechanical ventilation on regional variation of pleural liquid thickness in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P M; Lai-Fook, S J

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effect of ventilation on the regional distribution of pleural liquid thickness in anesthetized rabbits. Three transparent pleural windows were made between the second and eight intercostal space along the midaxillary line of the right chest. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (1 ml) was injected into the pleural space through a rib capsule and allowed to mix with the pleural liquid. The light emitted from the pleural space beneath the windows was measured by fluorescence videomicroscopy at a constant tidal volume (20 ml) and two ventilation frequencies (20 and 40 breaths/min). Pleural liquid thickness was determined from the light measurements after in vitro calibration of pleural liquid collected postmortem. At 20 breaths/min, pleural liquid thickness increased with a cranial-caudal distance from 5 microns at the second to third intercostal space to 30 microns at the sixth through eighth intercostal space. At 40 breaths/min, pleural space thickness was unchanged at the second to third intercostal space but increased to 46 microns at the sixth through eighth intercostal space. To determine this effect on pleural liquid shear stress, we measured relative lung velocity from videomicroscopic images of the lung surface through the windows. Lung velocity amplitude increased with cranial-caudal distance and with ventilation frequency. Calculated shear stress amplitude was constant with cranial-caudal distance but increased with ventilation frequency. Thus, pleural liquid thickness is matched to the relative lung motion so as to maintain a spatially uniform shear stress amplitude in pleural liquid during mechanical ventilation.

  13. Translucency of dental ceramics with different thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2013-07-01

    The increased use of esthetic restorations requires an improved understanding of the translucent characteristics of ceramic materials. Ceramic translucency has been considered to be dependent on composition and thickness, but less information is available about the translucent characteristics of these materials, especially at different thicknesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between translucency and the thickness of different dental ceramics. Six disk-shaped specimens of 8 glass ceramics (IPS e.max Press HO, MO, LT, HT, IPS e.max CAD LT, MO, AvanteZ Dentin, and Trans) and 5 specimens of 5 zirconia ceramics (Cercon Base, Zenotec Zr Bridge, Lava Standard, Lava Standard FS3, and Lava Plus High Translucency) were prepared following the manufacturers' instructions and ground to a predetermined thickness with a grinding machine. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the translucency parameters (TP) of the glass ceramics, which ranged from 2.0 to 0.6 mm, and of the zirconia ceramics, which ranged from 1.0 to 0.4 mm. The relationship between the thickness and TP of each material was evaluated using a regression analysis (α=.05). The TP values of the glass ceramics ranged from 2.2 to 25.3 and the zirconia ceramics from 5.5 to 15.1. There was an increase in the TP with a decrease in thickness, but the amount of change was material dependent. An exponential relationship with statistical significance (Pceramics and zirconia ceramics. The translucency of dental ceramics was significantly influenced by both material and thickness. The translucency of all materials increased exponentially as the thickness decreased. All of the zirconia ceramics evaluated in the present study showed some degree of translucency, which was less sensitive to thickness compared to that of the glass ceramics. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions.

  15. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, G A; Gerbasi, R [CNR, Padua (Italy). Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati

    1996-09-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive.

  16. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  17. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G. A.; Gerbasi, R.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive

  18. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  19. Through thickness property variations in a thick plate AA7050 friction stir welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaday, Clinton T.; Moore, Matthew A.; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, moderately thick (32 mm) AA7050 plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW). Various methods were used to characterize the welded joints, including nugget grain size measurements at different locations through the thickness, micro-hardness indentation through nugget, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and heat affected zone (HAZ) at different cross section heights, and residual stress measurement using the cut compliance method with full thickness and partial thickness specimens. All testing results are consistent with the presence of a strong gradient in peak temperature through the plate thickness during FSW.

  20. Appearance of a Minimal Length in $e^+ e^-$ Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Dymnikova, Irina; Ulbricht, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data reveal with a 5$\\sigma$ significance the existence of a characteristic minimal length $l_e$= 1.57 × 10$^{−17}$ cm at the scale E = 1.253 TeV in the annihilation reaction $e^+e^- \\to \\gamma\\gamma(\\gamma)$ . Nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to gravity and satisfying the weak energy condition predicts, for an arbitrary gauge invariant Lagrangian, the existence of spinning charged electromagnetic soliton asymptotically Kerr-Newman for a distant observer with the gyromagnetic ratio g=2 . Its internal structure includes a rotating equatorial disk of de Sitter vacuum which has properties of a perfect conductor and ideal diamagnetic, displays superconducting behavior, supplies a particle with the finite positive electromagnetic mass related to breaking of space-time symmetry, and gives some idea about the physical origin of a minimal length in annihilation.

  1. Mechanical and thermal stresses in a functionally graded rotating disk with variable thickness due to radially symmetry loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Saleem, M.; Sahari, B.B.; Hamouda, A.M.S.; Mahdi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Rotating disks have many applications in the aerospace industry such as gas turbines and gears. These disks normally work under thermo mechanical loads. Minimizing the weight of such components can help reduce the overall payload in aerospace industry. For this purpose, a rotating functionally graded (FG) disk with variable thickness under a steady temperature field is considered in this paper. Thermo elastic solutions and the weight of the disk are related to the material grading index and the geometry of the disk. It is found that a disk with parabolic or hyperbolic convergent thickness profile has smaller stresses and displacements compared to a uniform thickness disk. Maximum radial stress due to centrifugal load in the solid disk with parabolic thickness profile may not be at the center unlike uniform thickness disk. Functionally graded disk with variable thickness has smaller stresses due to thermal load compared to those with uniform thickness. It is seen that for a given value of grading index, the FG disk having concave thickness profile is the lightest in weight whereas the FG disk with uniform thickness profile is the heaviest. Also for any given thickness profile, the weight of the FG disk lies in between the weights of the all-metal and the all-ceramic disks.

  2. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  3. Matthew Arnold and Minimal Competency Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuman, Myron C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents arguments by Robert Lowe and Matthew Arnold on the 19th century British "Payment by Results" Plan, whereby schools received funds for students who passed minimal competency tests. Emphasizes that the Victorian experience produced acrimonious teachers with low morale and encourages contemporary minimal testing advocates not to…

  4. Minimally processed fruit salad enriched with Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paula

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... Minimal processing promotes browning of some vegetal tissues due to cell membrane disruption, which results in the release of oxidative enzymes. This study evaluated the efficiency of citric acid, ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite and L-cysteine hydrochloride to retard enzymatic browning of minimally.

  5. The minimal manual: is less really more?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, Adrianus W.; van der Meij, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Carroll, Smith-Kerker, Ford and Mazur-Rimetz (The minimal manual, Human-Computer Interaction , 3, 123-153, 1987) have introduced the minimal manual as an alternative to standard self-instruction manuals. While their research indicates strong gains, only a few attempts have been made to validate

  6. Y-12 Plant waste minimization strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 1984 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) mandate that waste minimization be a major element of hazardous waste management. In response to this mandate and the increasing costs for waste treatment, storage, and disposal, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant developed a waste minimization program to encompass all types of wastes. Thus, waste minimization has become an integral part of the overall waste management program. Unlike traditional approaches, waste minimization focuses on controlling waste at the beginning of production instead of the end. This approach includes: (1) substituting nonhazardous process materials for hazardous ones, (2) recycling or reusing waste effluents, (3) segregating nonhazardous waste from hazardous and radioactive waste, and (4) modifying processes to generate less waste or less toxic waste. An effective waste minimization program must provide the appropriate incentives for generators to reduce their waste and provide the necessary support mechanisms to identify opportunities for waste minimization. This presentation focuses on the Y-12 Plant's strategy to implement a comprehensive waste minimization program. This approach consists of four major program elements: (1) promotional campaign, (2) process evaluation for waste minimization opportunities, (3) waste generation tracking system, and (4) information exchange network. The presentation also examines some of the accomplishments of the program and issues which need to be resolved

  7. Making the Most of Minimalism in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiersbach, Frederick J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the minimalist movement in music. Discusses generations of minimalist musicians and, in general, the minimalist approach. Considers various ways that minimalist strategies can be integrated into the music classroom focusing on (1) minimalism and (2) student-centered composition and principles of minimalism for use with elementary band…

  8. Specialized minimal PDFs for optimized LHC calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrazza, Stefano; Forte, Stefano; Kassabov, Zahari; Rojo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We present a methodology for the construction of parton distribution functions (PDFs) designed to provide an accurate representation of PDF uncertainties for specific processes or classes of processes with a minimal number of PDF error sets: specialized minimal PDF sets, or SM-PDFs. We construct

  9. Minimally processed fruit salad enriched with Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimal processing promotes browning of some vegetal tissues due to cell membrane disruption, which results in the release of oxidative enzymes. This study evaluated the efficiency of citric acid, ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite and L-cysteine hydrochloride to retard enzymatic browning of minimally processed fruit ...

  10. Crustal thickness of Antarctica estimated using data from gravimetric satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llubes, Muriel; Seoane, Lucia; Bruinsma, Sean; Rémy, Frédérique

    2018-04-01

    Computing a better crustal thickness model is still a necessary improvement in Antarctica. In this remote continent where almost all the bedrock is covered by the ice sheet, seismic investigations do not reach a sufficient spatial resolution for geological and geophysical purposes. Here, we present a global map of Antarctic crustal thickness computed from space gravity observations. The DIR5 gravity field model, built from GOCE and GRACE gravimetric data, is inverted with the Parker-Oldenburg iterative algorithm. The BEDMAP products are used to estimate the gravity effect of the ice and the rocky surface. Our result is compared to crustal thickness calculated from seismological studies and the CRUST1.0 and AN1 models. Although the CRUST1.0 model shows a very good agreement with ours, its spatial resolution is larger than the one we obtain with gravimetric data. Finally, we compute a model in which the crust-mantle density contrast is adjusted to fit the Moho depth from the CRUST1.0 model. In East Antarctica, the resulting density contrast clearly shows higher values than in West Antarctica.

  11. Crustal thickness of Antarctica estimated using data from gravimetric satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Llubes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Computing a better crustal thickness model is still a necessary improvement in Antarctica. In this remote continent where almost all the bedrock is covered by the ice sheet, seismic investigations do not reach a sufficient spatial resolution for geological and geophysical purposes. Here, we present a global map of Antarctic crustal thickness computed from space gravity observations. The DIR5 gravity field model, built from GOCE and GRACE gravimetric data, is inverted with the Parker–Oldenburg iterative algorithm. The BEDMAP products are used to estimate the gravity effect of the ice and the rocky surface. Our result is compared to crustal thickness calculated from seismological studies and the CRUST1.0 and AN1 models. Although the CRUST1.0 model shows a very good agreement with ours, its spatial resolution is larger than the one we obtain with gravimetric data. Finally, we compute a model in which the crust–mantle density contrast is adjusted to fit the Moho depth from the CRUST1.0 model. In East Antarctica, the resulting density contrast clearly shows higher values than in West Antarctica.

  12. Development of a noise filter for radiation thickness gagemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, C. W.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a filter which attenuates sensor noises of radiation thickness gagemeters of the fifth stand of TCM No. 1 in Pohang steel works. The thickness control loop for the fifth stand is modelled as a system for filter design, where the system input is the speed control input and the system output is the gagemeter output. In the design of a filter, the system is described by an ARMAX(AutoRegressive Moving-Average with auXiliary input) model. The parameters of this model are then estimated by using a recursive least square method. Secondly, the ARMAX model, the estimated system, is transformed into an observer canonical state space form. Thirdly, Kalman filtering is applied to obtain optimal estimates of the state and hence those of thickness measurements of steel strips. In addition, a separate low pass filter is designed, which is directly applicable to the gagemeter outputs. Finally, the designed filter algorithms are implemented and tested on a VMEbus board computer under VxWorks real-time operating system. (author)

  13. Optimal thickness of hole transport layer in doped OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.C.; Zhou, J.; Zhao, J.M.; Zhang, S.T.; Zhan, Y.Q.; Wang, X.Z.; Wu, Y.; Ding, X.M.; Hou, X.Y. [Fudan University, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory), Shanghai (China)

    2006-06-15

    Current-voltage (I-V) and electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of organic light-emitting devices with N,N'-Di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl]-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) of various thicknesses as the hole transport layer, and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) selectively doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) as the electron transport layer, have been investigated. A trapped charge induced band bend model is proposed to explain the I-V characteristics. It is suggested that space charge changes the injection barrier and therefore influences the electron injection process in addition to the carrier transport process. Enhanced external quantum efficiency of the devices due to the electron blocking effect of an inserted NPB layer is observed. The optimal thickness of the NPB layer is experimentally determined to be 12{+-}3 nm in doped devices, a value different from that for undoped devices, which is attributed to the electron trap effect of DCM molecules. This is consistent with the result that the proportion of Alq{sub 3} luminescence in the total electroluminescence (EL) spectra increases with NPB thickness up to 12 nm under a fixed bias. (orig.)

  14. Model SH intelligent instrument for thickness measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juntao; Jia Weizhuang; Zhao Yunlong

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduce Model SH Intelligent Instrument for thickness measuring by using principle of beta back-scattering and its application range, features, principle of operation, system design, calibration and specifications

  15. Fabrication of thick superconducting films by decantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Betancourt M.

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available We have found superconducting behavior in thick films fabricated by decantation. In this paper we present the experimental method and results obtained using commercial copper substrates.

  16. Russian River Ice Thickness and Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of river ice thickness measurements, and beginning and ending dates for river freeze-up events from fifty stations in northern Russia. The...

  17. Central corneal thickness among glaucoma patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AAU_CHS

    ocular pressure measurement and is different among different ethnic population and subtypes of glaucoma. The central corneal thickness of different subtypes of glaucoma at Menelik II Hospital ... Intraocular pressure is a key element in the.

  18. Eddy current technologies for thick metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Toshiyuki; Endo, Hisashi

    2004-01-01

    One of approach of an eddy current testing (ECT) for thick metal structures is introduced. The detection limit of ECT is capable of enlarging thick more than 10 mm, which is ordinarily about 5 mm, by the design of probe. On the basis of results of numerical analysis, the defect detection in thick and shape is evaluated by the distribution of experimental ECT signals. The problems of ECT for thick metal structures and measures, approach to probe design, the specifications of probe, evaluation of experimental results and defect detection are described. By ECT fast simulator, good slit sharp is simulated in the case of 10 and 20 mm of EDM slit length and 5, 10 and 15 mm of slit height. (S.Y.)

  19. investigating water absorption and thickness swelling tendencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    In addition, G30E (30% reinforced glass fibre in the epoxy composite) was more resilient to moisture ... determine its suitability as per its water absorption and thickness ... lower thermal conductivity and low density as outlined in the Tables.

  20. Minimal surfaces and strings from spinors a realization of the Cartan programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinich, P.; Dabrowski, L.; Furlan, P.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown how the old Enneper-Weierstrass integral parametrization of minimal surfaces in R 3 and the Eisenhart ones in Rsup(3,1), when expressed through bilinear spinor polynomia, may be considered as deriving from a particular local realization of the possibility envisaged by Cartan: to consider ordinary vectors as generated from isotropic planes in complex spaces, in the frame of the bijective Cartan map connecting pure spinor directions to totally null planes in complex spaces. In the case of R 3 the corresponding global realization of the Cartan map extends the Enneper-Weierstrass parametrization to the Gauss-conformal map of the minimal surface to S 2 , which may be identified with the Riemann celestial sphere. For real spinors minimal surfaces are substituted by strings both in Rsup(2,1) and Rsup(3,1); in Rsup(2,1) strings are globally mapped to a torus(in R 4 ). In Rsup(3,1) (and its conformal extensions) a prescription is given to obtain strings as integrals of real, bilinear spinor null vectors, from the Enneper-Weierstrass spinor representation of minimal surfaces, through the use of unitary transformations in spinor space which allows its restriction to the real (Majorana spinor-space). It is shown that the Nambu action, or the area of the world surface described by the space-time string, is minimized by the Lagrangian density expressed as a quadrilinear spinor product formally reminding Fermi and Thirring interaction Lagrangians

  1. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture. The discrepancy between estimates of lithospheric thickness derived from subsidence data for the western Canning Basin and those derived from shear wave tomography suggests that the latter technique currently is limited in its ability to resolve lithospheric thickness variations at horizontal half-wavelength scales of <300 km.

  2. Geologic thickness data: Candidate repository horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Fairchild, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    This data package contains information on the thickness of the Umtanum, McCoy Canyon, Cohassett, and Rocky Coulee flows and their intraflow structures in 20 boreholes and 2 surface sections in the Pasco Basin. Thickness data are for total flow, flow top, entablature, and colonnade (or just flow top and dense interior in some cases). Summary figures which contain descriptions and footages are included

  3. Preparation of tantalum targets of known thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.R.; Wirth, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A series of carbon-backed tantalum targets were produced in a heavy ion sputtering system with a Penning ion source. The target thicknesses were then measured using the alpha-ray energy loss method. The resulting tabulated measurements were reproducible and make possible the production of carbon-backed tantalum targets with pre-determined thicknesses ranging from 20 μg/cm 2 to 1 mg/cm 2 . (orig.)

  4. Retrieval of sea ice thickness during Arctic summer using melt pond color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, L.; Nicolaus, M.; Heygster, G.

    2016-12-01

    The thickness of sea ice is an important climatic variable. Together with the ice concentration, it defines the total sea ice volume, is linked within the climatic feedback mechanisms and affects the Arctic energy balance greatly. During Arctic summer, the sea ice cover changes rapidly, which includes the presence of melt ponds, as well as reduction of ice albedo and ice thickness. Currently available remote sensing retrievals of sea ice thickness utilize data from altimeter, microwave, thermal infrared sensors and their combinations. All of these methods are compromised in summer in the presence of melt. This only leaves in situ and airborne sea ice thickness data available in summer. At the same time, data of greater coverage is needed for assimilation in global circulation models and correct estimation of ice mass balance.This study presents a new approach to estimate sea ice thickness in summer in the presence of melt ponds. Analysis of field data obtained during the RV "Polarstern" cruise ARK27/3 (August - October 2012) has shown a clear connection of ice thickness under melt ponds to their measured spectral albedo and to melt pond color in the hue-saturation-luminance color space from field photographs. An empirical function is derived from the HSL values and applied to aerial imagery obtained during various airborne campaigns. Comparison to in situ ice thickness shows a good correspondence to the ice thickness value retrieved in the melt ponds. A similar retrieval is developed for satellite spectral bands using the connection of the measured pond spectral albedo to the ice thickness within the melt ponds. Correction of the retrieved ice thickness in ponds to derive total thickness of sea ice is discussed. Case studies and application to very high resolution optical data are presented, as well as a concept to transfer the method to satellite data of lower spatial resolution where melt ponds become subpixel features.

  5. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  6. Effectiveness of dispersants on thick oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.; Belore, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between dispersant effectiveness and oil slick thickness, and thereby determine the optimum time for applying dispersant onto spilled oil at sea. Tests were completed at a lab-scale level by varying the three parameters of oil type, dispersant application, and oil thickness. The tests were intended to be comparative only. The primary oils used were Alberta sweet mix blend and Hibernia B-27 crude. The dispersant, Corexit 9527, was applied either premixed with the oil, dropwise in one application, or dropwise in multiple applications to simulate a multi-hit aircraft operation. The apparatus used in the experiment was an oscillating hoop tank, with oil-containing rings used to obtain and maintain uniform slick thickness. The results indicate that the effectiveness potential of a chemical dispersant does not decrease as slick thickness increases. In fact, results of the tests involving Hibernia oil suggest that oils that tend to herd easily would be treated more effectively if dispersant were applied when the oil was relatively thick (1 mm or greater) to avoid herding problems. The oil slicks premixed with dispersant did not disperse well in the thick oil tests, not because of dispersant-oil interaction problems but because of reduced mixing energy. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Rapid Measurement of Nanoparticle Thickness Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz-Boon, Hadas; Rossouw, Chris J.; Dwyer, Christian; Etheridge, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    A method to measure the thickness of a single-crystal nanoparticle in the direction parallel to the incident beam from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF-STEM) images is reported, providing a map of thickness versus position across the nanoparticle—a ‘thickness profile’ image. The method is rapid and hence suitable for surveying large numbers of nanoparticles. The method measures the intensity scattered to a characterised ADF detector and compares this to the incident beam intensity, to obtain a normalized ADF image. The normalised intensity is then converted to thickness via dynamical ADF image simulations. The method is accurate within 10% and the precision is dominated primarily by ‘shot noise’. Merits and limitations of this method are discussed. A method to calibrate the response function of the ADF detector without external equipment is also described, which is applicable to the entire range of gain and background settings. -- Highlights: ► A method is developed to convert ADF-STEM images to ‘thickness profile’ images. ► It is applicable in particles survey, facets determination and discrete tomography. ► A method to calibrate the response of the ADF detector is described. ► The response in analysed across a range of conditions. ► Dynamical ADF image simulations are presented, demonstrating intensity vs. thickness dependence.

  8. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  9. Measurement of the through thickness compression of a battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shutian; Huang, Xiaosong; Xiao, Xinran

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical integrity of the separator is critical to the reliable operation of a battery. Due to its minimal thickness, compression experiments with a single/a few layers of separator are difficult to perform. In this work, a capacitance based displacement set-up has been developed for the measurement of the through thickness direction (TTD) compression stress-strain behavior of the separator and the investigation of its interaction with the electrode. The experiments were performed for a stack of two layers of Celgard 2400 separator, NMC cathode, and separator/NMC cathode/separator stack in both dry and wet (i.e. submersed in dimethyl carbonate DMC) conditions. The experimental results reveal that the separator compression modulus can be significantly affected by the presence of DMC. The iso-stress based rule of mixtures was used to compute the compressive stress-strain curve for the stack from that of the separator and NMC layer. The computed curve agreed with the experimental curve reasonably well up to about 0.16 strain but deviated significantly to a softer response at higher strains. The results suggest that, in the stack, the TTD compressive deformation of the separator is influenced by the NMC cathode.

  10. Iterative Schemes for Convex Minimization Problems with Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Chuan Ceng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We first introduce and analyze one implicit iterative algorithm for finding a solution of the minimization problem for a convex and continuously Fréchet differentiable functional, with constraints of several problems: the generalized mixed equilibrium problem, the system of generalized equilibrium problems, and finitely many variational inclusions in a real Hilbert space. We prove strong convergence theorem for the iterative algorithm under suitable conditions. On the other hand, we also propose another implicit iterative algorithm for finding a fixed point of infinitely many nonexpansive mappings with the same constraints, and derive its strong convergence under mild assumptions.

  11. Deforestation of Peano continua and minimal deformation retracts☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, G.; Meilstrup, M.

    2012-01-01

    Every Peano continuum has a strong deformation retract to a deforested continuum, that is, one with no strongly contractible subsets attached at a single point. In a deforested continuum, each point with a one-dimensional neighborhood is either fixed by every self-homotopy of the space, or has a neighborhood which is a locally finite graph. A minimal deformation retract of a continuum (if it exists) is called its core. Every one-dimensional Peano continuum has a unique core, which can be obtained by deforestation. We give examples of planar Peano continua that contain no core but are deforested. PMID:23471120

  12. Adolescent cortical thickness pre- and post marijuana and alcohol initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Castro, Norma; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meloy, M J; Brumback, Ty; Huestis, Marilyn A; Tapert, Susan F

    Cortical thickness abnormalities have been identified in youth using both alcohol and marijuana. However, limited studies have followed individuals pre- and post initiation of alcohol and marijuana use to help identify to what extent discrepancies in structural brain integrity are pre-existing or substance-related. Adolescents (N=69) were followed from ages 13 (pre-initiation of substance use, baseline) to ages 19 (post-initiation, follow-up). Three subgroups were identified, participants that initiated alcohol use (ALC, n=23, >20 alcohol use episodes), those that initiated both alcohol and marijuana use (ALC+MJ, n=23, >50 marijuana use episodes) and individuals that did not initiate either substance regularly by follow-up (CON, n=23, marijuana use episodes). All adolescents underwent neurocognitive testing, neuroimaging, and substance use and mental health interviews. Significant group by time interactions and main effects on cortical thickness estimates were identified for 18 cortical regions spanning the left and right hemisphere (pseffect, in cortical thickness by follow-up for individuals who have not initiated regular substance use or alcohol use only by age 19; modest between-group differences were identified at baseline in several cortical regions (ALC and CON>ALC+MJ). Minimal neurocognitive differences were observed in this sample. Findings suggest pre-existing neural differences prior to marijuana use may contribute to initiation of use and observed neural outcomes. Marijuana use may also interfere with thinning trajectories that contribute to morphological differences in young adulthood that are often observed in cross-sectional studies of heavy marijuana users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  14. Theories of minimalism in architecture: Post scriptum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the period of intensive development in the last decade of XX century, architectural phenomenon called Minimalism in Architecture was remembered as the Style of the Nineties, which is characterized, morphologically speaking, by simplicity and formal reduction. Simultaneously with its development in practice, on a theoretical level several dominant interpretative models were able to establish themselves. The new millennium and time distance bring new problems; therefore this paper represents a discussion on specific theorization related to Minimalism in Architecture that can bear the designation of post scriptum, because their development starts after the constitutional period of architectural minimalist discourse. In XXI century theories, the problem of definition of minimalism remains important topic, approached by theorists through resolving on the axis: Modernism - Minimal Art - Postmodernism - Minimalism in Architecture. With regard to this, analyzed texts can be categorized in two groups: 1 texts of affirmative nature and historical-associative approach in which minimalism is identified with anything that is simple and reduced, in an idealizing manner, relied mostly on the existing hypotheses; 2 critically oriented texts, in which authors reconsider adequacy of the very term 'minimalism' in the context of architecture and take a metacritical attitude towards previous texts.

  15. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's Space Weather Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Presentation involves educating Goddard Space Weather staff about what our needs are, what type of aircraft we have and to learn what we have done in the past to minimize our exposure to Space Weather Hazards.

  16. Novel Composite Membrane for Space Life Supporting System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either...

  17. Microwave Materials Processing for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For a space-based fabrication effort to be effective, the weight, power requirements and footprint must be minimized. Because of the unique beam forming properties...

  18. Perancangan Small Private Space Pada Interior Public Space Di Perpustakaan Universitas Kristen Petra Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Lucky Basuki, Holiman Chandra Yusita Kusumarini

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle of modern people use some time to move out of residence (public space) makes the most of the private activities can not be fulfilled. It is an idea and the idea of creating a space that can meet the needs of the private in public spaces with small dimensions. Private space in the design of the library is housed in Petra Christian University Surabaya as space scope of small private space (minimal private space dimension). The creation of small private space in the interior of the lib...

  19. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry

  20. Graphical approach for multiple values logic minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwal, Abdul Ahad S.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    1999-03-01

    Multiple valued logic (MVL) is sought for designing high complexity, highly compact, parallel digital circuits. However, the practical realization of an MVL-based system is dependent on optimization of cost, which directly affects the optical setup. We propose a minimization technique for MVL logic optimization based on graphical visualization, such as a Karnaugh map. The proposed method is utilized to solve signed-digit binary and trinary logic minimization problems. The usefulness of the minimization technique is demonstrated for the optical implementation of MVL circuits.

  1. Minimal free resolutions over complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbud, David

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a theory of higher matrix factorizations for regular sequences and uses it to describe the minimal free resolutions of high syzygy modules over complete intersections. Such resolutions have attracted attention ever since the elegant construction of the minimal free resolution of the residue field by Tate in 1957. The theory extends the theory of matrix factorizations of a non-zero divisor, initiated by Eisenbud in 1980, which yields a description of the eventual structure of minimal free resolutions over a hypersurface ring. Matrix factorizations have had many other uses in a wide range of mathematical fields, from singularity theory to mathematical physics.

  2. Non-minimal Wu-Yang monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A.B.; Zayats, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss new exact spherically symmetric static solutions to non-minimally extended Einstein-Yang-Mills equations. The obtained solution to the Yang-Mills subsystem is interpreted as a non-minimal Wu-Yang monopole solution. We focus on the analysis of two classes of the exact solutions to the gravitational field equations. Solutions of the first class belong to the Reissner-Nordstroem type, i.e., they are characterized by horizons and by the singularity at the point of origin. The solutions of the second class are regular ones. The horizons and singularities of a new type, the non-minimal ones, are indicated

  3. Assessment of LANL waste minimization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; McNair, D.A.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Minimization Plan to determine if it meets applicable internal (DOE) and regulatory requirements. The intent of the effort is to assess the higher level elements of the documentation to determine if they have been addressed rather than the detailed mechanics of the program's implementation. The requirement for a Waste Minimization Plan is based in several DOE Orders as well as environmental laws and regulations. Table 2-1 provides a list of the major documents or regulations that require waste minimization efforts. The table also summarizes the applicable requirements

  4. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with <10cm resolution. A Trimble Geo7X differential GPS with Zephyr antenna, along with a local base station, was used to precisely measure marked ground control points to scale the photogrammetric surface model. Measurements of debris thickness along the exposed cliffline were made from this scaled model, assuming that the ice surface at the debris-ice boundary is horizontal, and these data are compared to 50 manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  5. Choroidal thickness in traumatic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Eo, Doo-Ri; Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2017-12-01

    To examine the choroidal thickness in patients with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) Methods: Patients with unilateral traumatic optic neuropathy over a period of 4 years were included in this study. Horizontal and vertical enhanced-depth imaging (EDI) from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans of the fovea were obtained in patients with unilateral TON within 2 weeks of injury. The main outcome measure was the choroidal thickness at nine locations. The choroidal thickness was compared between affected and unaffected eyes in the TON group, and the mean difference in the choroidal thickness in both eyes was compared between TON and control groups. A total of 16 patients and 20 control subjects were included. The choroidal thickness at horizontal, vertical and average subfoveal, inner temporal, and outer inferior locations was significantly thicker (13-23%) in affected eyes than in unaffected fellow eyes (p = 0.042, 0.046, 0.024, 0.013, 0.018, and 0.027, respectively). The mean difference value between choroidal thickness measurements in both eyes was significantly larger in the TON group than in the control group at the horizontal, vertical and average subfoveal, inner temporal, inner nasal, inner superior, inner inferior, and outer superior locations (p = 0.001, 0.011,  0.05). Eyes affected by TON showed a regionally thicker choroid than unaffected fellow eye. This thick choroid might be due to impaired blood circulation and vascular remodeling of the optic nerve head and choroid. These results help to better understand the pathophysiology of TON.

  6. Minimal extension of the standard model scalar sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, Donal; Wise, Mark B.; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The minimal extension of the scalar sector of the standard model contains an additional real scalar field with no gauge quantum numbers. Such a field does not couple to the quarks and leptons directly but rather through its mixing with the standard model Higgs field. We examine the phenomenology of this model focusing on the region of parameter space where the new scalar particle is significantly lighter than the usual Higgs scalar and has small mixing with it. In this region of parameter space most of the properties of the additional scalar particle are independent of the details of the scalar potential. Furthermore the properties of the scalar that is mostly the standard model Higgs can be drastically modified since its dominant branching ratio may be to a pair of the new lighter scalars

  7. Landfill life expectancy with waste reduction/minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klan, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Although some minimally acceptable practices are presently undertaken at most landfills to protect human health and safety and the environment, a key question remains. How much effort and resources should be expended to slow the fill-rate of a landfill? The answer depends on the performance and costs of the technical options available, the difficulty and cost of acquiring additional landfill space, and the consequences for remaining landfill lifetime of current and future actions. Toward this end, the paper (1) presents a method for projecting the remaining life of a landfill, including the alternative lifetimes associated with life extension measures; (2) presents a case study of the low-level waste landfill at Los Alamos National Lab.; and (3) illustrates a procedure for determining which measures become cost-effective to adopt as a landfill's space declines

  8. AGT, Burge pairs and minimal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershtein, M.; Foda, O.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the AGT correspondence in the context of the conformal field theory M p,p ′ ⊗M H , where M p,p ′ is the minimal model based on the Virasoro algebra V p,p ′ labeled by two co-prime integers {p,p ′ }, 1space of H. We show that restricting the states that flow in χ ι , ι=1,⋯,n, to states labeled by partition pairs {Y 1 ι ,Y 2 ι } that satisfy Y 2,σ ι,⊺ −Y 1,σ+r ι −1 ι,⊺ ≥1−s ι , and Y 1,σ ι,⊺ −Y 2,σ+p−r ι −1 ι,⊺ ≥1−p ′ +s ι , where Y i,σ ι,⊺ is the σ-column of Y i ι , i∈{1,2}, we obtain a well-defined expression that we identify with B n p,p ′ ,H . We check the correctness of this expression for 1. Any 1-point B 1 p,p ′ ,H on the torus, when the operator insertion is the identity, and 2. The 6-point B 3 3,4,H on the sphere that involves six Ising magnetic operators.

  9. Thickness filters for gradient based multi-material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new gradient based method for performing discrete material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures. The novelty in the new method lies in the application of so-called casting constraints, or thickness filters in this context, to control the thickness...... variation throughout the laminate. The filters replace the layerwise density variables with a single continuous through-the-thickness design variable. Consequently, the filters eliminate the need for having explicit constraints for preventing intermediate void through the thickness of the laminate....... Therefore, the filters reduce both the number of constraints and design variables in the optimization problem. Based upon a continuous approximation of a unit step function, the thickness filters are capable of projecting discrete 0/1 values to the underlying layerwise or ”physical” density variables which...

  10. Uncertainties in cloud phase and optical thickness retrievals from the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry; Yang, Yuekui; Platnick, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the expected uncertainties of a single channel cloud optical thickness (COT) retrieval technique, as well as a simple cloud temperature threshold based thermodynamic phase approach, in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. DSCOVR cloud products will be derived from Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) observations in the ultraviolet and visible spectra. Since EPIC is not equipped with a spectral channel in the shortwave or mid-wave infrared that is sensitive to cloud effective radius (CER), COT will be inferred from a single visible channel with the assumption of appropriate CER values for liquid and ice phase clouds. One month of Aqua MODIS daytime granules from April 2005 is selected for investigating cloud phase sensitivity, and a subset of these granules that has similar EPIC sun-view geometry is selected for investigating COT uncertainties. EPIC COT retrievals are simulated with the same algorithm as the operational MODIS cloud products (MOD06), except using fixed phase-dependent CER values. Uncertainty estimates are derived by comparing the single channel COT retrievals with the baseline bi-spectral MODIS retrievals. Results show that a single channel COT retrieval is feasible for EPIC. For ice clouds, single channel retrieval errors are minimal (< 2%) due to the particle size insensitivity of the assumed ice crystal (i.e., severely roughened aggregate of hexagonal columns) scattering properties at visible wavelengths, while for liquid clouds the error is mostly limited to within 10%, although for thin clouds (COT < 2) the error can be higher. Potential uncertainties in EPIC cloud masking and cloud temperature retrievals are not considered in this study.

  11. Renal parenchyma thickness: a rapid estimation of renal function on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplon, Daniel M.; Lasser, Michael S.; Sigman, Mark; Haleblian, George E.; Pareek, Gyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To define the relationship between renal parenchyma thickness (RPT) on computed tomography and renal function on nuclear renography in chronically obstructed renal units (ORUs) and to define a minimal thickness ratio associated with adequate function. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients undergoing both nuclear renography and CT during a six-month period between 2004 and 2006 were included. All patients that had a diagnosis of unilateral obstruction were included for analysis. RPT was measured in the following manner: The parenchyma thickness at three discrete levels of each kidney was measured using calipers on a CT workstation. The mean of these three measurements was defined as RPT. The renal parenchyma thickness ratio of the ORUs and non-obstructed renal unit (NORUs) was calculated and this was compared to the observed function on Mag-3 lasix Renogram. Results: A total of 28 patients were evaluated. Mean parenchyma thickness was 1.82 cm and 2.25 cm in the ORUs and NORUs, respectively. The mean relative renal function of ORUs was 39%. Linear regression analysis comparing renogram function to RPT ratio revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.48 (p * RPT ratio. A thickness ratio of 0.68 correlated with 20% renal function. Conclusion: RPT on computed tomography appears to be a powerful predictor of relative renal function in ORUs. Assessment of RPT is a useful and readily available clinical tool for surgical decision making (renal salvage therapy versus nephrectomy) in patients with ORUs. (author)

  12. Section thickness-dependent tensile properties of squeeze cast magnesium alloy AM60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhi Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative casting processes is essential for the high demand of light weight magnesium components to be used in the automotive industry, which often contain different section thicknesses. Squeeze casting with its inherent advantages has been approved for the capability of minimizing the gas porosity in magnesium alloys. For advanced engineering design of light magnesium automotive applications, it is critical to understand the effect of section thickness on mechanical properties of squeeze cast magnesium alloys. In this study, magnesium alloy AM60 with different section thicknesses of 6, 10 and 20 mm squeeze cast under an applied pressure of 30 MPa was investigated. The prepared squeeze cast AM60 specimens were tensile tested at room termperature. The results indicate that the mechanical properties including yield strength (YS, ultimate tensile strength (UTS and elongation (A decrease with an increase in section thickness of squeeze cast AM60. The microstructure analysis shows that the improvement in the tensile behavior of squeeze cast AM60 is primarily attributed to the low-gas porosity level and fine grain strucuture which result from the variation of cooling rate of different section thickness. The numerical simulation (Magmasoft? was employed to determine the solidification rates of each step, and the simulated results show that the solidification rate of the alloy decreases with an increase in the section thickness. The computed solidification rates support the experimental observation on grain structural development.

  13. Thick filament length and isoform composition determine self-organized contractile units in actomyosin bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Todd; Lenz, Martin; Gardel, Margaret L

    2013-02-05

    Diverse myosin II isoforms regulate contractility of actomyosin bundles in disparate physiological processes by variations in both motor mechanochemistry and the extent to which motors are clustered into thick filaments. Although the role of mechanochemistry is well appreciated, the extent to which thick filament length regulates actomyosin contractility is unknown. Here, we study the contractility of minimal actomyosin bundles formed in vitro by mixtures of F-actin and thick filaments of nonmuscle, smooth, and skeletal muscle myosin isoforms with varied length. Diverse myosin II isoforms guide the self-organization of distinct contractile units within in vitro bundles with shortening rates similar to those of in vivo myofibrils and stress fibers. The tendency to form contractile units increases with the thick filament length, resulting in a bundle shortening rate proportional to the length of constituent myosin thick filament. We develop a model that describes our data, providing a framework in which to understand how diverse myosin II isoforms regulate the contractile behaviors of disordered actomyosin bundles found in muscle and nonmuscle cells. These experiments provide insight into physiological processes that use dynamic regulation of thick filament length, such as smooth muscle contraction. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A database of worldwide glacier thickness observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner-Roer, I.; Naegeli, K.; Huss, M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in glacier research is to assess the total ice volume and its global distribution. Over the past few decades the compilation of a world glacier inventory has been well-advanced both in institutional set-up and in spatial coverage. The inventory is restricted to glacier...... the different estimation approaches. This initial database of glacier and ice caps thickness will hopefully be further enlarged and intensively used for a better understanding of the global glacier ice volume and its distribution....... surface observations. However, although thickness has been observed on many glaciers and ice caps around the globe, it has not yet been published in the shape of a readily available database. Here, we present a standardized database of glacier thickness observations compiled by an extensive literature...... review and from airborne data extracted from NASA's Operation IceBridge. This database contains ice thickness observations from roughly 1100 glaciers and ice caps including 550 glacier-wide estimates and 750,000 point observations. A comparison of these observational ice thicknesses with results from...

  15. Uncertainty estimation of ultrasonic thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassir Yassen, Abdul Razak Daud; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail; Abdul Aziz Jemain

    2009-01-01

    The most important factor that should be taken into consideration when selecting ultrasonic thickness measurement technique is its reliability. Only when the uncertainty of a measurement results is known, it may be judged if the result is adequate for intended purpose. The objective of this study is to model the ultrasonic thickness measurement function, to identify the most contributing input uncertainty components, and to estimate the uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement results. We assumed that there are five error sources significantly contribute to the final error, these sources are calibration velocity, transit time, zero offset, measurement repeatability and resolution, by applying the propagation of uncertainty law to the model function, a combined uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement was obtained. In this study the modeling function of ultrasonic thickness measurement was derived. By using this model the estimation of the uncertainty of the final output result was found to be reliable. It was also found that the most contributing input uncertainty components are calibration velocity, transit time linearity and zero offset. (author)

  16. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  17. On ``minimally curved spacetimes'' in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Dadhich, Naresh

    1997-01-01

    We consider a spacetime corresponding to uniform relativistic potential analogus to Newtonian potential as an example of ``minimally curved spacetime''. We also consider a radially symmetric analogue of the Rindler spacetime of uniform proper acceleration relative to infinity.

  18. Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads

  19. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs

  20. Minimal classical communication and measurement complexity for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minimal classical communication and measurement complexity for quantum ... Entanglement; teleportation; secret sharing; information splitting. ... Ahmedabad 380 009, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani 333 031, India ...

  1. A minimal architecture for joint action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Butterfill, Stephen; Knoblich, Günther

    2010-01-01

    What kinds of processes and representations make joint action possible? In this paper we suggest a minimal architecture for joint action that focuses on representations, action monitoring and action prediction processes, as well as ways of simplifying coordination. The architecture spells out...... minimal requirements for an individual agent to engage in a joint action. We discuss existing evidence in support of the architecture as well as open questions that remain to be empirically addressed. In addition, we suggest possible interfaces between the minimal architecture and other approaches...... to joint action. The minimal architecture has implications for theorizing about the emergence of joint action, for human-machine interaction, and for understanding how coordination can be facilitated by exploiting relations between multiple agents’ actions and between actions and the environment....

  2. Providing intraosseous anesthesia with minimal invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, K M

    1994-08-01

    A new variation of intraosseous anesthesia--crestal anesthesia--that is rapid, site-specific and minimally invasive is presented. The technique uses alveolar crest nutrient canals for anesthetic delivery without penetrating either bone or periodontal ligament.

  3. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  4. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  5. Minimal genera of open 4-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Gompf, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    We study exotic smoothings of open 4-manifolds using the minimal genus function and its analog for end homology. While traditional techniques in open 4-manifold smoothing theory give no control of minimal genera, we make progress by using the adjunction inequality for Stein surfaces. Smoothings can be constructed with much more control of these genus functions than the compact setting seems to allow. As an application, we expand the range of 4-manifolds known to have exotic smoothings (up to ...

  6. Gravitino problem in minimal supergravity inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Hasegawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We study non-thermal gravitino production in the minimal supergravity inflation. In this minimal model utilizing orthogonal nilpotent superfields, the particle spectrum includes only graviton, gravitino, inflaton, and goldstino. We find that a substantial fraction of the cosmic energy density can be transferred to the longitudinal gravitino due to non-trivial change of its sound speed. This implies either a breakdown of the effective theory after inflation or a serious gravitino problem.

  7. Gravitino problem in minimal supergravity inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Fuminori [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Mukaida, Kyohei [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Nakayama, Kazunori [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Terada, Takahiro, E-mail: terada@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Yamada, Yusuke [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We study non-thermal gravitino production in the minimal supergravity inflation. In this minimal model utilizing orthogonal nilpotent superfields, the particle spectrum includes only graviton, gravitino, inflaton, and goldstino. We find that a substantial fraction of the cosmic energy density can be transferred to the longitudinal gravitino due to non-trivial change of its sound speed. This implies either a breakdown of the effective theory after inflation or a serious gravitino problem.

  8. Flattening the inflaton potential beyond minimal gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hyun Min

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status of the Starobinsky-like models for inflation beyond minimal gravity and discuss the unitarity problem due to the presence of a large non-minimal gravity coupling. We show that the induced gravity models allow for a self-consistent description of inflation and discuss the implications of the inflaton couplings to the Higgs field in the Standard Model.

  9. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Thymic Malignances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao FANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the most important therapy for thymic malignances. The last decade has seen increasing adoption of minimally invasive surgery (MIS for thymectomy. MIS for early stage thymoma patients has been shown to yield similar oncological results while being helpful in minimize surgical trauma, improving postoperative recovery, and reduce incisional pain. Meanwhile, With the advance in surgical techniques, the patients with locally advanced thymic tumors, preoperative induction therapies or recurrent diseases, may also benefit from MIS in selected cases.

  10. Minimal Function Graphs are not Instrumented

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mycroft, Alan; Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    The minimal function graph semantics of Jones and Mycroft is a standard denotational semantics modified to include only `reachable' parts of a program. We show that it may be expressed directly in terms of the standard semantics without the need for instrumentation at the expression level and......, in doing so, bring out a connection with strictness. This also makes it possible to prove a stronger theorem of correctness for the minimal function graph semantics....

  11. Minimal Dark Matter in the sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panci, P.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the Minimal Dark Matter (MDM) model proposed in 2006, which is a theoretical framework highly appreciated for its minimality and yet its predictivity. We first critically review the theoretical requirements of MDM pointing out generalizations of this framework. Then we review the phenomenology of the originally proposed fermionic hyperchargeless electroweak quintuplet showing its main γ-ray tests.

  12. Laser corrective surgery with fractional carbon dioxide laser following full-thickness skin grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Forbat; Faisal R Ali; Raj Mallipeddi; Firas Al-Niaimi

    2017-01-01

    Full-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs) are frequently used to treat patients with burn injuries and to repair defects rendered by excisional (including Mohs) surgery. The evidence for corrective laser surgery after scar formation is well established. With regard to laser treatment of FTSG, the evidence is sparse. Laser treatment after FTSG is a novel concept, with minimal literature. We present a case series, one of the first to our knowledge, of the treatment of FTSG with fractional CO2 laser in...

  13. On the complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal superconformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Oliver

    2009-08-03

    Aiming at a complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal models (where the assumption of space-time supersymmetry has been dropped), it is shown that each candidate for a modular invariant partition function of such a theory is indeed the partition function of a minimal model. A family of models constructed via orbifoldings of either the diagonal model or of the space-time supersymmetric exceptional models demonstrates that there exists a unitary N=2 minimal model for every one of the allowed partition functions in the list obtained from Gannon's work. Kreuzer and Schellekens' conjecture that all simple current invariants can be obtained as orbifolds of the diagonal model, even when the extra assumption of higher-genus modular invariance is dropped, is confirmed in the case of the unitary N=2 minimal models by simple counting arguments. We nd a nice characterisation of the projection from the Hilbert space of a minimal model with k odd to its modular invariant subspace, and we present a new simple proof of the superconformal version of the Verlinde formula for the minimal models using simple currents. Finally we demonstrate a curious relation between the generating function of simple current invariants and the Riemann zeta function. (orig.)

  14. On the complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal superconformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Oliver

    2009-08-03

    Aiming at a complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal models (where the assumption of space-time supersymmetry has been dropped), it is shown that each candidate for a modular invariant partition function of such a theory is indeed the partition function of a minimal model. A family of models constructed via orbifoldings of either the diagonal model or of the space-time supersymmetric exceptional models demonstrates that there exists a unitary N=2 minimal model for every one of the allowed partition functions in the list obtained from Gannon's work. Kreuzer and Schellekens' conjecture that all simple current invariants can be obtained as orbifolds of the diagonal model, even when the extra assumption of higher-genus modular invariance is dropped, is confirmed in the case of the unitary N=2 minimal models by simple counting arguments. We nd a nice characterisation of the projection from the Hilbert space of a minimal model with k odd to its modular invariant subspace, and we present a new simple proof of the superconformal version of the Verlinde formula for the minimal models using simple currents. Finally we demonstrate a curious relation between the generating function of simple current invariants and the Riemann zeta function. (orig.)

  15. On the complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal superconformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at a complete classi cation of unitary N=2 minimal models (where the assumption of space-time supersymmetry has been dropped), it is shown that each candidate for a modular invariant partition function of such a theory is indeed the partition function of a minimal model. A family of models constructed via orbifoldings of either the diagonal model or of the space-time supersymmetric exceptional models demonstrates that there exists a unitary N=2 minimal model for every one of the allowed partition functions in the list obtained from Gannon's work. Kreuzer and Schellekens' conjecture that all simple current invariants can be obtained as orbifolds of the diagonal model, even when the extra assumption of higher-genus modular invariance is dropped, is confirmed in the case of the unitary N=2 minimal models by simple counting arguments. We nd a nice characterisation of the projection from the Hilbert space of a minimal model with k odd to its modular invariant subspace, and we present a new simple proof of the superconformal version of the Verlinde formula for the minimal models using simple currents. Finally we demonstrate a curious relation between the generating function of simple current invariants and the Riemann zeta function. (orig.)

  16. Texture change through film thickness and off-axis accommodation of (0 0 2) planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, A.R.; Karimi, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present our recent experimental results on the formation of off-axis texture and crystallographic tilting of crystallites that take place in thin film of transition metal nitrides. For this purpose, the microstructural development of TiAlN film was studied, specially the change in texture with film thickness. Fiber texture was measured using θ-2θ and pole figure X-ray diffraction (XRD), while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe the microstructure and changes in texture with thickness. The sin 2 ψ method was applied to determine the stresses on (1 1 1) and (0 0 2) plane. With deposition parameters chosen, the growth texture mechanism is discussed in three different stages of film growth. Surface energy minimization at low thickness leads to the development of (0 0 2) orientation. On the other hand, the competitive growth promotes the growth of (1 1 1) planes parallel to film surface at higher thickness. However, contrary to the prediction of growth models, the (0 0 2) grains are not completely overlapped by (1 1 1) grains at higher thickness. Rather the (0 0 2) grains still constitute the surface, but are tilted away from the substrate normal showing substantial in-plane alignment to allow the (1 1 1) planes remain parallel to film surface. Intrinsic stress along (1 1 1) and (0 0 2) shows a strong dependence with preferred orientation. The stress level in (0 0 2) grains which was compressive at low thickness changes to tensile at higher thickness. This change in the nature of stress allows the (0 0 2) planes to tilt away in order to promote the growth of 〈1 1 1〉 parallel to film normal and to minimize the overall energy of system due to high compressive stress stored in the (1 1 1) grains. The change in surface morphology with thickness was observed using SEM. An increase in surface roughness with film thickness was observed which indicates the development of (1 1 1) texture parallel to film

  17. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdelen, Turker; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-04-17

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  18. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker Dagdelen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  19. Tungsten thick coatings for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, B.; Pizzuto, A.; Orsini, A.; Libera, S.; Visca, E.; Bertamini, L.; Casadei, F.; Severini, E.; Montanari, R.; Litunovsky, N.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the R and D activity was to realize thick W coatings on CuCrZr hollow bars and to test the mock ups with respect to thermal fatigue. Eight mock ups provided of 4 mm thick W coating were finally manufactured. The bonding integrity between coating and substrate was checked by means of an Ultrasonic apparatus. Characterisation of coatings was performed in order to assess microstructure, impurity content, density, tensile strength, adhesion strength, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient. Macroscopic residual strain measurements were performed by means of 'hole drilling' technique. The activities performed demonstrated the feasibility of thick Tungsten coatings on geometries with more complex residual strain distribution. These coatings are reliable armour of medium heat flux plasma facing component. (author)

  20. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  1. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Matthewson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized.

  2. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire. PMID:29673194

  3. Increased endometrial thickness in women with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, J; Auslender, R; Goldstein, S; Kohan, R; Stolar, Z; Abramovici, H

    2000-09-01

    We noticed an increase in endometrial thickness in women with hypertension who were treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the endometrium of hypertensive women is thicker than that of healthy women and to determine whether endometrial thickening in hypertensive women is directly related to the antihypertensive beta-blocker treatment. We compared 3 groups of postmenopausal patients as follows: (1) women with a history of essential hypertension treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers; (2) women with a history of hypertension treated with a combination of medications that did not include beta-blockers; and (3) healthy women without hypertension. All patients were interviewed and examined, blood tests were performed, and endometrial thickness in the anterior-posterior diameter was measured by vaginal ultrasonography. Among the exclusion criteria were diabetes or an abnormal fasting blood glucose level, obesity, hormonal medication or replacement hormonal therapy during the previous 6 months, and a history of hormonal disturbances, infertility, or polycystic ovary syndrome. Of 45 hypertensive women enrolled in the study, 22 were treated with a beta-blocker combination medication and 23 were treated with other antihypertensive medications. They were compared with 25 healthy women. There was no statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness between women treated with medications, including beta-blockers, and those who were treated with other hypotensive agents. Twenty percent of women with hypertension and none of the healthy women had endometrium >5 mm thick (P infinity). Twenty percent of hypertensive postmenopausal women were found to have increased endometrial thickness. However, we were unable to substantiate an association between the type of treatment administered, whether beta-blockers were included, and the increase in endometrial thickness.

  4. Minimalism in architecture: Materials as an instrument of perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilski Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials, as an instrument for author's report of his ideas and puts them into the space and time, is a recurring theme of architecture, from the time of Vitruvius triad (firmitas. In minimalism, materials shape space and express its essence, which is the irreducible minimum. The approach in this paper is methodologically defined by architecture domain that is art within it, therefore what the visual means are materials, with the aspiration to discover meaning in what we see. The principles of visual perception are primarily active in the field of law perceptions reached by the psychology of perception, specifically the theory called Gestalt. As the material contained in the tangible components, and sentient, such a relationship is required for duality of materialization, which is achieved by the use of their material expression of immateriality. This expression gives the truth of immateriality (natural materials, tactile value (structure and texture and the 'movement' of the material (the ability to transform. Author's access to the material as an instrument of expression immaterial, provided the concept of minimalist architecture at a higher artistic level (Peter Cumtor and causing severe emotional reaction when meeting also created architectural works (Tadao Ando. Transformations of materials are achieved through the exploration of new treatments and techniques (Kengo Kuma, and the development of technology to unimaginable limits changes the way of understanding reality (Herzog & de Meron. Researching of materials, in the way of its application, can be achieved understanding of minimalism in the architecture as an idea.

  5. Tumescent Anethesia : A Useful Technique For Harvesting Split- Thickness Skin Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraf Sanjay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumescent anesthesia is a now an established technique for regional anesthesia of the skin and the subcutaneous fatty tissue. The unsurpassed simplicity and safely of this procedure have opened up the gates for newer indications. We have employed this technique for harvesting split-thickness grafts in various conditions. We have found that this technique is extremely simple in which large areas can be anesthetized for harvesting split-thickness skin grafts safely. The good passive resistance achieved facilitates easy harvesting of split-thickness grafts along with minimal bleeding and long lasting pain relief. We found this to be an inexpensive, safe and simple technique with elimination of risks and expenses of general anesthesia.

  6. Thin Cu film resistivity using four probe techniques: Effect of film thickness and geometrical shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sumita; Narula, Rahul; Gangopadhyay, Subhashis

    2018-05-01

    Precise measurement of electrical sheet resistance and resistivity of metallic thin Cu films may play a significant role in temperature sensing by means of resistivity changes which can further act as a safety measure of various electronic devices during their operation. Four point probes resistivity measurement is a useful approach as it successfully excludes the contact resistance between the probes and film surface of the sample. Although, the resistivity of bulk samples at a particular temperature mostly depends on its materialistic property, however, it may significantly differ in the case of thin films, where the shape and thickness of the sample can significantly influence on it. Depending on the ratio of the film thickness to probe spacing, samples are usually classified in two segments such as (i) thick films or (ii) thin films. Accordingly, the geometric correction factors G can be related to the sample resistivity r, which has been calculated here for thin Cu films of thickness up to few 100 nm. In this study, various rectangular shapes of thin Cu films have been used to determine the shape induced geometric correction factors G. An expressions for G have been obtained as a function of film thickness t versus the probe spacing s. Using these expressions, the correction factors have been plotted separately for each cases as a function of (a) film thickness for fixed linear probe spacing and (b) probe distance from the edge of the film surface for particular thickness. Finally, we compare the experimental results of thin Cu films of various rectangular geometries with the theoretical reported results.

  7. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 (micro)m, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  8. Terahertz Mapping of Microstructure and Thickness Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Donald J.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Winfree, William P.

    2010-01-01

    A noncontact method has been devised for mapping or imaging spatial variations in the thickness and microstructure of a layer of a dielectric material. The method involves (1) placement of the dielectric material on a metal substrate, (2) through-the-thickness pulse-echo measurements by use of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range with a raster scan in a plane parallel to the substrate surface that do not require coupling of any kind, and (3) appropriate processing of the digitized measurement data.

  9. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Marshall

    2010-09-20

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  10. Geologic thickness data: Candidate repository horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Fairchild, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    This data package contains information on the thickness of the Umtanum, McCoy Canyon, Cohassett, and Rocky Coulee flows and their intraflow structures in 20 boreholes and 2 surface sections in the Pasco Basin. Thickness data are for total flow, flow top, entablature, and colonnade (or just flow top and dense interior in some cases). Summary figures which contain descriptions and footages are included. SD-BWI-DP-011, Rev. 2 replaces SD-BWI-DP-011, Rev. A-0 in its entirety. (Rev. A-0 replaced Rev. 0-0.) 5 refs

  11. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  12. Compressive strength of thick composite panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how much the compressive strength of thick composite panels is reduced due to delaminations and to investigate under which conditions a delamination will grow. Understanding of this is essential in order to move forward the design limits used in the structu......The aim of this study is to investigate how much the compressive strength of thick composite panels is reduced due to delaminations and to investigate under which conditions a delamination will grow. Understanding of this is essential in order to move forward the design limits used...

  13. Process simulations for manufacturing of thick composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, Evan A.

    The availability of manufacturing simulations for composites can significantly reduce the costs associated with process development. Simulations provide a tool for evaluating the effect of processing conditions on the quality of parts produced without requiring numerous experiments. This is especially significant in parts that have troublesome features such as large thickness. The development of simulations for thick walled composites has been approached by examining the mechanics of resin flow and fiber deformation during processing, applying these evaluations to develop simulations, and evaluating the simulation with experimental results. A unified analysis is developed to describe the three-dimensional resin flow and fiber preform deformation during processing regardless of the manufacturing process used. It is shown how the generic governing evaluations in the unified analysis can be applied to autoclave molding, compression molding, pultrusion, filament winding, and resin transfer molding. A comparison is provided with earlier models derived individually for these processes. The evaluations described for autoclave curing were used to produce a one-dimensional cure simulation for autoclave curing of thick composites. The simulation consists of an analysis for heat transfer and resin flow in the composite as well as bleeder plies used to absorb resin removed from the part. Experiments were performed in a hot press to approximate curing in an autoclave. Graphite/epoxy laminates of 3 cm and 5 cm thickness were cured while monitoring temperatures at several points inside the laminate and thickness. The simulation predicted temperatures fairly closely, but difficulties were encountered in correlation of thickness results. This simulation was also used to study the effects of prepreg aging on processing of thick composites. An investigation was also performed on filament winding with prepreg tow. Cylinders were wound of approximately 12 mm thickness with pressure

  14. The minimally invasive endoscopic management of septated chronic subdural hematomas: surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhouma, M; Jacquesson, T; Jouanneau, E

    2014-12-01

    Fibrin membranes and compartmentalization within the subdural space are a frequent cause of failure in the treatment of chronic subdural hematomas (CSH). This specific subtype of CSH classically requires craniotomy, which carries significant morbidity and mortality rates, particularly in elderly patients. In this work, we describe a minimally invasive endoscopic alternative. Under local scalp anesthesia, a rigid endoscope is inserted through a parietal burr hole in the subdural space to collapse fibrin septa and cut the internal membrane. It also allows cauterization of active bleedings and the placement of a drain under direct visualization. The endoscopic treatment of septated CSH represents a minimally invasive alternative to craniotomy especially for the internal membranectomy.

  15. Minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan

    Well-defined, non-perturbative formulations of the physics of string theories in specific minimal or superminimal model backgrounds can be obtained by solving matrix models in the double scaling limit. They provide us with the first examples of completely solvable string theories. Despite being relatively simple compared to higher dimensional critical string theories, they furnish non-perturbative descriptions of interesting physical phenomena such as geometrical transitions between D-branes and fluxes, tachyon condensation and holography. The physics of these theories in the minimal model backgrounds is succinctly encoded in a non-linear differential equation known as the string equation, along with an associated hierarchy of integrable partial differential equations (PDEs). The bosonic string in (2,2m-1) conformal minimal model backgrounds and the type 0A string in (2,4 m) superconformal minimal model backgrounds have the Korteweg-de Vries system, while type 0B in (2,4m) backgrounds has the Zakharov-Shabat system. The integrable PDE hierarchy governs flows between backgrounds with different m. In this thesis, we explore this interesting connection between minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies further. We uncover the remarkable role that an infinite hierarchy of non-linear differential equations plays in organizing and connecting certain minimal string theories non-perturbatively. We are able to embed the type 0A and 0B (A,A) minimal string theories into this single framework. The string theories arise as special limits of a rich system of equations underpinned by an integrable system known as the dispersive water wave hierarchy. We find that there are several other string-like limits of the system, and conjecture that some of them are type IIA and IIB (A,D) minimal string backgrounds. We explain how these and several other string-like special points arise and are connected. In some cases, the framework endows the theories with a non

  16. Waste minimization at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, P.; Wong, P.C.F.

    2011-01-01

    Waste minimization supports Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Environment Policy with regard to pollution prevention and has positive impacts on the environment, human health and safety, and economy. In accordance with the principle of pollution prevention, the quantities and degree of hazard of wastes requiring storage or disposition at facilities within or external to AECL sites shall be minimized, following the principles of Prevent, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle, to the extent practical. Waste minimization is an important element in the Waste Management Program. The Waste Management Program has implemented various initiatives for waste minimization since 2007. The key initiatives have focused on waste reduction, segregation and recycling, and included: 1) developed waste minimization requirements and recycling procedure to establish the framework for applying the Waste Minimization Hierarchy; 2) performed waste minimization assessments for the facilities, which generate significant amounts of waste, to identify the opportunities for waste reduction and assist the waste generators to develop waste reduction targets and action plans to achieve the targets; 3) implemented the colour-coded, standardized waste and recycling containers to enhance waste segregation; 4) established partnership with external agents for recycling; 5) extended the likely clean waste and recyclables collection to selected active areas; 6) provided on-going communications to promote waste reduction and increase awareness for recycling; and 7) continually monitored performance, with respect to waste minimization, to identify opportunities for improvement and to communicate these improvements. After implementation of waste minimization initiatives at CRL, the solid waste volume generated from routine operations at CRL has significantly decreased, while the amount of recyclables diverted from the onsite landfill has significantly increased since 2007. The overall refuse volume generated at

  17. Sequential unconstrained minimization algorithms for constrained optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The problem of minimizing a function f(x):R J → R, subject to constraints on the vector variable x, occurs frequently in inverse problems. Even without constraints, finding a minimizer of f(x) may require iterative methods. We consider here a general class of iterative algorithms that find a solution to the constrained minimization problem as the limit of a sequence of vectors, each solving an unconstrained minimization problem. Our sequential unconstrained minimization algorithm (SUMMA) is an iterative procedure for constrained minimization. At the kth step we minimize the function G k (x)=f(x)+g k (x), to obtain x k . The auxiliary functions g k (x):D subset of R J → R + are nonnegative on the set D, each x k is assumed to lie within D, and the objective is to minimize the continuous function f:R J → R over x in the set C = D-bar, the closure of D. We assume that such minimizers exist, and denote one such by x-circumflex. We assume that the functions g k (x) satisfy the inequalities 0≤g k (x)≤G k-1 (x)-G k-1 (x k-1 ), for k = 2, 3, .... Using this assumption, we show that the sequence {(x k )} is decreasing and converges to f(x-circumflex). If the restriction of f(x) to D has bounded level sets, which happens if x-circumflex is unique and f(x) is closed, proper and convex, then the sequence {x k } is bounded, and f(x*)=f(x-circumflex), for any cluster point x*. Therefore, if x-circumflex is unique, x* = x-circumflex and {x k } → x-circumflex. When x-circumflex is not unique, convergence can still be obtained, in particular cases. The SUMMA includes, as particular cases, the well-known barrier- and penalty-function methods, the simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART), the proximal minimization algorithm of Censor and Zenios, the entropic proximal methods of Teboulle, as well as certain cases of gradient descent and the Newton–Raphson method. The proof techniques used for SUMMA can be extended to obtain related results

  18. Waste minimization at Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, P.; Wong, P.C.F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Waste minimization supports Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Environment Policy with regard to pollution prevention and has positive impacts on the environment, human health and safety, and economy. In accordance with the principle of pollution prevention, the quantities and degree of hazard of wastes requiring storage or disposition at facilities within or external to AECL sites shall be minimized, following the principles of Prevent, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle, to the extent practical. Waste minimization is an important element in the Waste Management Program. The Waste Management Program has implemented various initiatives for waste minimization since 2007. The key initiatives have focused on waste reduction, segregation and recycling, and included: 1) developed waste minimization requirements and recycling procedure to establish the framework for applying the Waste Minimization Hierarchy; 2) performed waste minimization assessments for the facilities, which generate significant amounts of waste, to identify the opportunities for waste reduction and assist the waste generators to develop waste reduction targets and action plans to achieve the targets; 3) implemented the colour-coded, standardized waste and recycling containers to enhance waste segregation; 4) established partnership with external agents for recycling; 5) extended the likely clean waste and recyclables collection to selected active areas; 6) provided on-going communications to promote waste reduction and increase awareness for recycling; and 7) continually monitored performance, with respect to waste minimization, to identify opportunities for improvement and to communicate these improvements. After implementation of waste minimization initiatives at CRL, the solid waste volume generated from routine operations at CRL has significantly decreased, while the amount of recyclables diverted from the onsite landfill has significantly increased since 2007. The overall refuse volume generated at

  19. Normalizations of Eisenstein integrals for reductive symmetric spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ban, E.P.; Kuit, Job

    2017-01-01

    We construct minimal Eisenstein integrals for a reductive symmetric space G/H as matrix coefficients of the minimal principal series of G. The Eisenstein integrals thus obtained include those from the \\sigma-minimal principal series. In addition, we obtain related Eisenstein integrals, but with

  20. Correction of thickness measurement errors for two adjacent sheet structures in MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yuanzhi; Wang Shuguo; Sato, Yoshinobu; Nishii, Takashi; Tamura, Shinichi

    2007-01-01

    We present a new method for measuring the thickness of two adjacent sheet structures in MR images. In the hip joint, in which the femoral and acetabular cartilages are adjacent to each other, a conventional measurement technique based on the second derivative zero crossings (called the zero-crossings method) can introduce large underestimation errors in measurements of cartilage thickness. In this study, we have developed a model-based approach for accurate thickness measurement. We model the imaging process for two adjacent sheet structures, which simulate the two articular cartilages in the hip joint. This model can be used to predict the shape of the intensity profile along the sheet normal orientation. Using an optimization technique, the model parameters are adjusted to minimize the differences between the predicted intensity profile and the actual intensity profiles observed in the MR data. The set of model parameters that minimize the difference between the model and the MR data yield the thickness estimation. Using three phantoms and one normal cadaveric specimen, the usefulness of the new model-based method is demonstrated by comparing the model-based results with the results generated using the zero-crossings method. (author)

  1. On the estimation of ice thickness from scattering observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. D.; Squire, V. A.

    2010-04-01

    This paper is inspired by the proposition that it may be possible to extract descriptive physical parameters - in particular the ice thickness, of a sea-ice field from ocean wave information. The motivation is that mathematical theory describing wave propagation in such media has reached a point where the inherent heterogeneity, expressed as pressure ridge keels and sails, leads, thickness variations and changes of material property and draught, can be fully assimilated exactly or through approximations whose limitations are understood. On the basis that leads have the major wave scattering effect for most sea-ice [Williams, T.D., Squire, V.A., 2004. Oblique scattering of plane flexural-gravity waves by heterogeneities in sea ice. Proc. R. Soc. Lon. Ser.-A 460 (2052), 3469-3497], a model two dimensional sea-ice sheet composed of a large number of such features, randomly dispersed, is constructed. The wide spacing approximation is used to predict how wave trains of different period will be affected, after first establishing that this produces results that are very close to the exact solution. Like Kohout and Meylan [Kohout, A.L., Meylan, M.H., 2008. An elastic plate model for wave attenuation and ice floe breaking in the marginal ice zone. J. Geophys. Res. 113, C09016, doi:10.1029/2007JC004434], we find that on average the magnitude of a wave transmitted by a field of leads decays exponentially with the number of leads. Then, by fitting a curve based on this assumption to the data, the thickness of the ice sheet is obtained. The attenuation coefficient can always be calculated numerically by ensemble averaging but in some cases more rapidly computed approximations work extremely well. Moreover, it is found that the underlying thickness can be determined to good accuracy by the method as long as Archimedean draught is correctly provided for, suggesting that waves can indeed be effective as a remote sensing agent to measure ice thickness in areas where pressure ridges

  2. Minimal Invasive Urologic Surgery and Postoperative Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative ileus (POI is the most common cause of prolonged length of hospital stays (LOS and associated healthcare costs. The advent of minimal invasive technique was a major breakthrough in the urologic landscape with great potential to progress in the future. In the field of gastrointestinal surgery, several studies had reported lower incidence rates for POI following minimal invasive surgery compared to conventional open procedures. In contrast, little is known about the effect of minimal invasive approach on the recovery of bowel motility after urologic surgery. We performed an overview of the potential benefit of minimal invasive approach on POI for urologic procedures. The mechanisms and risk factors responsible for the onset of POI are discussed with emphasis on the advantages of minimal invasive approach. In the urologic field, POI is the main complication following radical cystectomy but it is rarely of clinical significance for other minimal invasive interventions. Laparoscopy or robotic assisted laparoscopic techniques when studied individually may reduce to their own the duration and prevent the onset of POI in a subset of procedures. The potential influence of age and urinary diversion type on postoperative ileus is contradictory in the literature. There is some evidence suggesting that BMI, blood loss, urinary extravasation, existence of a major complication, bowel resection, operative time and transperitoneal approach are independent risk factors for POI. Treatment of POI remains elusive. One of the most important and effective management strategies for patients undergoing radical cystectomy has been the development and use of enhanced recovery programs. An optimal rational strategy to shorten the duration of POI should incorporate minimal invasive approach when appropriate into multimodal fast track programs designed to reduce POI and shorten LOS.

  3. Minimalism in Art, Medical Science and Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okten, Ali Ihsan

    2018-01-01

    The word "minimalism" is a word derived from French the word "minimum". Whereas the lexical meaning of minimum is "the least or the smallest quantity necessary for something", its expression in mathematics can be described as "the lowest step a variable number can descend, least, minimal". Minimalism, which advocates an extreme simplicity of the artistic form, is a current in modern art and music whose origins go to 1960s and which features simplicity and objectivity. Although art, science and philosophy are different disciplines, they support each other from time to time, sometimes they intertwine and sometimes they copy each other. A periodic schools or teaching in one of them can take the others into itself, so, they proceed on their ways empowering each other. It is also true for the minimalism in art and the minimal invasive surgical approaches in science. Concepts like doing with less, avoiding unnecessary materials and reducing the number of the elements in order to increase the effect in the expression which are the main elements of the minimalism in art found their equivalents in medicine and neurosurgery. Their equivalents in medicine or neurosurgery have been to protect the physical integrity of the patient with less iatrogenic injury, minimum damage and the same therapeutic effect in the most effective way and to enable the patient to regain his health in the shortest span of time. As an anticipation, we can consider that the minimal approaches started by Richard Wollheim and Barbara Rose in art and Lars Leksell, Gazi Yaşargil and other neurosurgeons in neurosurgery in the 1960s are the present day equivalents of the minimalist approaches perhaps unconsciously started by Kazimir Malevich in art and Victor Darwin L"Espinasse in neurosurgery in the early 1900s. We can also consider that they have developed interacting with each other, not by chance.

  4. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Melanie; Wirth, Wolfgang; Emmanuel, Katja; Culvenor, Adam G.; Eckstein, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. Methods: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0 ± 7.6; BMI 24.4 ± 3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. Results: The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.67) than for meniscal (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.50) or demographic measures (−0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r ≥ 0.68 medially; r ≥ 0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r ≤ |0.32| medially; r ≤ |0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r 2 = 58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r 2 = 60/51%, respectively). Conclusions: In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations between

  5. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.roth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Wirth, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.wirth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany); Emmanuel, Katja, E-mail: katja.emmanuel@icloud.com [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Paracelsus Medical University, Müllner Hauptstraße 48, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Culvenor, Adam G., E-mail: adam.culvenor@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, 3086, Victoria (Australia); Eckstein, Felix, E-mail: felix.eckstein@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Objective: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. Methods: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0 ± 7.6; BMI 24.4 ± 3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. Results: The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.67) than for meniscal (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.50) or demographic measures (−0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r ≥ 0.68 medially; r ≥ 0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r ≤ |0.32| medially; r ≤ |0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r{sup 2} = 58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r{sup 2} = 60/51%, respectively). Conclusions: In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations

  6. 46 CFR 92.10-35 - Public spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public spaces. 92.10-35 Section 92.10-35 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-35 Public spaces. (a) In all cases, public spaces having a deck area of... different corridors, rooms, or spaces to minimize the possibility of one incident blocking both exits. ...

  7. 46 CFR 190.10-35 - Public spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public spaces. 190.10-35 Section 190.10-35 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-35 Public spaces. (a) In all cases, public spaces having a deck area of... different corridors, rooms, or spaces to minimize the possibility of one incident blocking both exits. ...

  8. 46 CFR 72.10-35 - Public spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public spaces. 72.10-35 Section 72.10-35 Shipping COAST... of Escape § 72.10-35 Public spaces. (a) In all cases, public spaces having a deck area of over 300... corridors, rooms, or spaces to minimize the possibility of one incident blocking both exits. (b) [Reserved] ...

  9. Fatigue behavior of thick composite single lap joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.H.; Sridhar, I.; Srikanth, N. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-07-01

    In consideration of bondline thickness variability, in bonded joints where thick adherend is adopted, relative thick adhesive layer (2-5 mm) is preferable. This paper aims to give some insight in fatigue strength of adhesively bonded structures involving thick adherend coupled with thick adhesive layer. Single lap joints with nominal adherend thickness of 8 mm and two different nominal thicknesses (2.5 mm and 5.5 mm) were made and tested under fatigue loading. The failure mode exhibits always a tendency for interfacial initiation, followed by interlaminar separation. Fatigue strength for higher adhesive thickness is found to be lower. (Author)

  10. Vibration of Elastic Functionally Graded Thick Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration behaviors of functionally graded rings were investigated theoretically. The material graded in the thickness direction according to the power law rule and the rings were assumed to be in plane stress and plane strain states. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the kinetic relation of von Kárman type, the frequency equation for free vibration of functionally graded ring was derived. The derived results were verified by those in literatures which reveals that the present theory can be appropriate to predict the free vibration characteristics for quite thick rings with the radius-to-thickness ratio from 60 down to 2.09. Comparison between the plane stress case and the plane strain case indicates a slight difference. Meanwhile, the effects of the structural dimensional parameters and the material inhomogeneous parameter are examined. It is interesting that the value of the logarithmic form of vibration frequency is inversely proportional to the logarithmic form of the radius-to-thickness ratio or the mean radius.

  11. Percolation effect in thick film superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sali, R.; Harsanyi, G. [Technical Univ. of Budapest (Hungary)

    1994-12-31

    A thick film superconductor paste has been developed to study the properties of granulated superconductor materials, to observe the percolation effect and to confirm the theory of the conducting mechanism in the superconducting thick films. This paste was also applied to make a superconducting planar transformer. Due to high T{sub c} and advantageous current density properties the base of the paste was chosen to be of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO system. For contacts a conventional Ag/Pt paste was used. The critical temperature of the samples were between 110 K and 115 K depending on the printed layer thickness. The critical current density at the boiling temperature of the liquid He- was between 200-300 A/cm{sup 2}. The R(T) and V(I) functions were measured with different parameters. The results of the measurements have confirmed the theory of conducting mechanism in the material. The percolation structure model has been built and described. As an application, a superconducting planar thick film transformer was planned and produced. Ten windings of the transformer were printed on one side of the alumina substrate and one winding was printed on the other side. The coupling between the two sides was possible through the substrate. The samples did not need special drying and firing parameters. After the preparation, the properties of the transformer were measured. The efficiency and the losses were determined. Finally, some fundamental advantages and problems of the process were discussed.

  12. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55 degrees C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30 degrees C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 μm ± 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 μm ± 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96 degrees C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600 degrees C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values

  13. Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…

  14. Determination of the Optimum Thickness of Approximately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to conserve the world's scarce energy and material resources, a balance between the cost of heating a material and the optimum thickness of the material becomes vey essential. One of such materials is the local cast aluminium pot commonly used as cooking ware in Nigeria. This paper therefore sets up a ...

  15. Percolation effect in thick film superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sali, R.; Harsanyi, G.

    1994-01-01

    A thick film superconductor paste has been developed to study the properties of granulated superconductor materials, to observe the percolation effect and to confirm the theory of the conducting mechanism in the superconducting thick films. This paste was also applied to make a superconducting planar transformer. Due to high T c and advantageous current density properties the base of the paste was chosen to be of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO system. For contacts a conventional Ag/Pt paste was used. The critical temperature of the samples were between 110 K and 115 K depending on the printed layer thickness. The critical current density at the boiling temperature of the liquid He- was between 200-300 A/cm 2 . The R(T) and V(I) functions were measured with different parameters. The results of the measurements have confirmed the theory of conducting mechanism in the material. The percolation structure model has been built and described. As an application, a superconducting planar thick film transformer was planned and produced. Ten windings of the transformer were printed on one side of the alumina substrate and one winding was printed on the other side. The coupling between the two sides was possible through the substrate. The samples did not need special drying and firing parameters. After the preparation, the properties of the transformer were measured. The efficiency and the losses were determined. Finally, some fundamental advantages and problems of the process were discussed

  16. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  17. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...

  18. Quality assurance in thick-walled weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, H.

    1978-01-01

    Some guidelines are given here for judging the magnitude of flaws in welded thick-walled components (such as nuclear reactor vessels). The actually critical defect sizes are analysed, taking into account the residual stresses after welding and after annealing also. Various procedures for repairing such work are then indicated. (Auth.)

  19. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured thick honeycombs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedayati, R.; Sadighi, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding

  20. Thickness dependence of nanofilm elastic modulus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Wang, A. B.; Cheng, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 15 (2009), s. 152111-152113 ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nanofilm * elastic modulus * thickness dependence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/94/152111/1

  1. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Section C, below. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as suggested by DOE Order 5400.1. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with the Department's policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Directorate-, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Directorates, Programs and Departments. Several Directorates have been reorganized, necessitating changes in the Directorate plans that were published in 1991

  2. Image denoising by a direct variational minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipović Stevan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we introduce a novel method for the image de-noising which combines a mathematically well-posdenes of the variational modeling with the efficiency of a patch-based approach in the field of image processing. It based on a direct minimization of an energy functional containing a minimal surface regularizer that uses fractional gradient. The minimization is obtained on every predefined patch of the image, independently. By doing so, we avoid the use of an artificial time PDE model with its inherent problems of finding optimal stopping time, as well as the optimal time step. Moreover, we control the level of image smoothing on each patch (and thus on the whole image by adapting the Lagrange multiplier using the information on the level of discontinuities on a particular patch, which we obtain by pre-processing. In order to reduce the average number of vectors in the approximation generator and still to obtain the minimal degradation, we combine a Ritz variational method for the actual minimization on a patch, and a complementary fractional variational principle. Thus, the proposed method becomes computationally feasible and applicable for practical purposes. We confirm our claims with experimental results, by comparing the proposed method with a couple of PDE-based methods, where we get significantly better denoising results specially on the oscillatory regions.

  3. Minimally conscious state or cortically mediated state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Lionel

    2018-04-01

    Durable impairments of consciousness are currently classified in three main neurological categories: comatose state, vegetative state (also recently coined unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) and minimally conscious state. While the introduction of minimally conscious state, in 2002, was a major progress to help clinicians recognize complex non-reflexive behaviours in the absence of functional communication, it raises several problems. The most important issue related to minimally conscious state lies in its criteria: while behavioural definition of minimally conscious state lacks any direct evidence of patient's conscious content or conscious state, it includes the adjective 'conscious'. I discuss this major problem in this review and propose a novel interpretation of minimally conscious state: its criteria do not inform us about the potential residual consciousness of patients, but they do inform us with certainty about the presence of a cortically mediated state. Based on this constructive criticism review, I suggest three proposals aiming at improving the way we describe the subjective and cognitive state of non-communicating patients. In particular, I present a tentative new classification of impairments of consciousness that combines behavioural evidence with functional brain imaging data, in order to probe directly and univocally residual conscious processes.

  4. Minimal knotted polygons in cubic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rensburg, E J Janse; Rechnitzer, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine numerically the properties of minimal length knotted lattice polygons in the simple cubic, face-centered cubic, and body-centered cubic lattices by sieving minimal length polygons from a data stream of a Monte Carlo algorithm, implemented as described in Aragão de Carvalho and Caracciolo (1983 Phys. Rev. B 27 1635), Aragão de Carvalho et al (1983 Nucl. Phys. B 215 209) and Berg and Foester (1981 Phys. Lett. B 106 323). The entropy, mean writhe, and mean curvature of minimal length polygons are computed (in some cases exactly). While the minimal length and mean curvature are found to be lattice dependent, the mean writhe is found to be only weakly dependent on the lattice type. Comparison of our results to numerical results for the writhe obtained elsewhere (see Janse van Rensburg et al 1999 Contributed to Ideal Knots (Series on Knots and Everything vol 19) ed Stasiak, Katritch and Kauffman (Singapore: World Scientific), Portillo et al 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 275004) shows that the mean writhe is also insensitive to the length of a knotted polygon. Thus, while these results for the mean writhe and mean absolute writhe at minimal length are not universal, our results demonstrate that these values are quite close the those of long polygons regardless of the underlying lattice and length

  5. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  6. METALLICITY GRADIENTS OF THICK DISK DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Zhao Gang, E-mail: carrell@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-12-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution of the Galactic thick disk using F, G, and K dwarf stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 8. Using the large sample of dwarf stars with proper motions and spectroscopically determined stellar parameters, metallicity gradients in the radial direction for various heights above the Galactic plane and in the vertical direction for various radial distances from the Galaxy center have been found. In particular, we find a vertical metallicity gradient of -0.113 {+-} 0.010 (-0.125 {+-} 0.008) dex kpc{sup -1} using an isochrone (photometric) distance determination in the range 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc, which is the vertical height range most consistent with the thick disk of our Galaxy. In the radial direction, we find metallicity gradients between +0.02 and +0.03 dex kpc{sup -1} for bins in the vertical direction between 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc. Both of these results agree with similar values determined from other populations of stars, but this is the first time a radial metallicity gradient for the thick disk has been found at these vertical heights. We are also able to separate thin and thick disk stars based on kinematic and spatial probabilities in the vertical height range where there is significant overlap of these two populations. This should aid further studies of the metallicity gradients of the disk for vertical heights lower than those studied here but above the solar neighborhood. Metallicity gradients in the thin and thick disks are important probes into possible formation scenarios for our Galaxy and a consistent picture is beginning to emerge from results using large spectroscopic surveys, such as the ones presented here.

  7. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-04-03

    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  8. Transtendon, double-row, transosseous-equivalent arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilisio, Matthew F; Miller, Lindsay R; Higgins, Laurence D

    2014-10-01

    Arthroscopic transtendinous techniques for the arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears offer the advantage of minimizing the disruption of the patient's remaining rotator cuff tendon fibers. In addition, double-row fixation of full-thickness rotator cuff tears has shown biomechanical advantages. We present a novel method combining these 2 techniques for transtendon, double-row, transosseous-equivalent arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears. Direct visualization of the reduction of the retracted articular tendon layer to its insertion on the greater tuberosity is the key to the procedure. Linking the medial-row anchors and using a double-row construct provide a stable repair that allows early shoulder motion to minimize the risk of postoperative stiffness.

  9. Mixed waste and waste minimization: The effect of regulations and waste minimization on the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagan, E.B.; Selby, K.B.

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Site is located in the State of Washington and is subject to state and federal environmental regulations that hamper waste minimization efforts. This paper addresses the negative effect of these regulations on waste minimization and mixed waste issues related to the Hanford Site. Also, issues are addressed concerning the regulations becoming more lenient. In addition to field operations, the Hanford Site is home to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory which has many ongoing waste minimization activities of particular interest to laboratories

  10. Preservation of bursal-sided tendon in partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears: a novel arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Jeon, Yoon Sang; Kim, Rag Gyu

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair technique that spares the intact bursal-sided tendon in articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCT) and to present shoulder functional outcomes in patients with symptomatic articular-sided PCRCT that involves more than 50 % of its thickness after arthroscopic repair using a novel technique. Eighteen patients with symptomatic articular-sided PCRCT involving more than 50 % of the tendon's thickness underwent arthroscopic repair using a devised technique. The devised technique restores only the torn articular portion of the rotator cuff at the anatomical footprint using a suture anchor, and preserves the integrity of the corresponding bursal-sided tendon by tying knots at the most lateral bursal side on the subacromial space. Clinical and functional outcome using ASES and Constant scores were evaluated. The structural integrity of the rotator cuff was evaluated by MRI at 6 months postoperatively. Pain relief and shoulder functional outcomes were encouraging during the recovery phase after operation. ASES (preoperative 54.0 ± 10.3 to postoperative 92.6 ± 8.0), Constant score (61.2 ± 8.5-88.0 ± 5.3), VAS for pain (4.9 ± 2.6-0.6 ± 0.7) improved significantly after arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair (p rotator cuff retears on 6-month MRI. No complications related to surgical procedures had occurred. The devised technique of arthroscopic transtendon repair provided satisfactory functional outcomes without postoperative discomforts. This technique minimizes over-tightening of the articular layer and reduces tension mismatches between the articular and bursal layers, which are considered as important factors for improvement of postoperative shoulder motion.

  11. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  12. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium, from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 liters of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper will present technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts

  13. Non-minimally coupled tachyon and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong; Huang Qingguo; Zhang Xinmin; Zhang Yuanzhong

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, we consider a model of tachyon with a non-minimal coupling to gravity and study its cosmological effects. Regarding inflation, we show that only for a specific coupling of tachyon to gravity this model satisfies observations and solves various problems which exist in the single and multi tachyon inflation models. But noting in the string theory the coupling coefficient of tachyon to gravity is of order g s , which in general is very small, we can hardly expect that the non-minimally coupling of tachyon to gravity could provide a reasonable tachyon inflation scenario. Our work may be a meaningful try for the cosmological effect of tachyon non-minimally coupled to gravity

  14. Minimal-change nephropathy and malignant thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, S; Bruderman, I; Bernheim, J L; Rathaus, M; Griffel, B

    1980-05-01

    A 56-year-old man had fever, precordial pain, and a mediastinal mass. The mass disappeared two months later and the patient remained asymptomatic for 2 1/2 years. At that time a full-blown nephrotic syndrome developed, with minimal-change glomerulopathy. The chest x-ray film showed the reappearance of a giant mediastinal mass. On biopsy of the mass, malignant thymoma was diagnosed. Association between minimal-change disease and Hodgkin's disease is well known, while the association with malignant thymoma has not been previously reported. The relationship between malignant thymoma and minimal-change disease is discussed, and a possible pathogenic mechanism involving cell-mediated immunity is proposed.

  15. Responsiveness and minimal clinically important change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, David Høyrup; Frost, Poul; Falla, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A prospective cohort study nested in a randomized controlled trial. Objectives To determine and compare responsiveness and minimal clinically important change of the modified Constant score (CS) and the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS). Background The OSS and the CS are commonly used...... to assess shoulder outcomes. However, few studies have evaluated the measurement properties of the OSS and CS in terms of responsiveness and minimal clinically important change. Methods The study included 126 patients who reported having difficulty returning to usual activities 8 to 12 weeks after...... were observed for the CS and the OSS. Minimal clinically important change ROC values were 6 points for the OSS and 11 points for the CS, with upper 95% cutoff limits of 12 and 22 points, respectively. Conclusion The CS and the OSS were both suitable for assessing improvement after decompression surgery....

  16. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  17. Minimal entropy approximation for cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukś, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for the construction of approximate orbits of measures under the action of cellular automata which is complementary to the local structure theory. The local structure theory is based on the idea of Bayesian extension, that is, construction of a probability measure consistent with given block probabilities and maximizing entropy. If instead of maximizing entropy one minimizes it, one can develop another method for the construction of approximate orbits, at the heart of which is the iteration of finite-dimensional maps, called minimal entropy maps. We present numerical evidence that the minimal entropy approximation sometimes outperforms the local structure theory in characterizing the properties of cellular automata. The density response curve for elementary CA rule 26 is used to illustrate this claim. (paper)

  18. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  19. Waste Minimization Measurement and Progress Reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company is implementing productivity improvement concepts into the Waste Minimization Program by focusing on the positive initiatives taken to reduce waste generation at the Savannah River Site. Previous performance measures, based only on waste generation rates, proved to be an ineffective metric for measuring performance and promoting continuous improvements within the Program. Impacts of mission changes and non-routine operations impeded development of baseline waste generation rates and often negated waste generation trending reports. A system was developed to quantify, document and track innovative activities that impact waste volume and radioactivity/toxicity reductions. This system coupled with Management-driven waste disposal avoidance goals is proving to be a powerful tool to promote waste minimization awareness and the implementation of waste reduction initiatives. Measurement of waste not generated, in addition to waste generated, increases the credibility of the Waste Minimization Program, improves sharing of success stories, and supports development of regulatory and management reports

  20. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  1. AGT, Burge pairs and minimal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bershtein, M. [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics,Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, International Laboratory of Representation Theory and Mathematical Physics, Independent University of Moscow, Moscow (Russian Federation); Foda, O. [Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne,Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2014-06-30

    We consider the AGT correspondence in the context of the conformal field theory M{sup p,p{sup ′}}⊗M{sup H}, where M{sup p,p{sup ′}} is the minimal model based on the Virasoro algebra V{sup p,p{sup ′}} labeled by two co-prime integers {p,p"′}, 1space of H. We show that restricting the states that flow in χ{sub ι}, ι=1,⋯,n, to states labeled by partition pairs {Y_1"ι,Y_2"ι} that satisfy Y{sub 2,σ}{sup ι,⊺}−Y{sub 1,σ+r{sub ι−1}{sup ι,⊺}}≥1−s{sub ι}, and Y{sub 1,σ}{sup ι,⊺}−Y{sub 2,σ+p−r{sub ι−1}{sup ι,⊺}}≥1−p{sup ′}+s{sub ι}, where Y{sub i,σ}{sup ι,⊺} is the σ-column of Y{sub i}{sup ι}, i∈{1,2}, we obtain a well-defined expression that we identify with B{sub n}{sup p,p{sup ′,H}}. We check the correctness of this expression for 1. Any 1-point B{sub 1}{sup p,p{sup ′,H}} on the torus, when the operator insertion is the identity, and 2. The 6-point B{sub 3}{sup 3,4,H} on the sphere that involves six Ising magnetic operators.

  2. Coherent spin transport through a 350 micron thick silicon wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biqin; Monsma, Douwe J; Appelbaum, Ian

    2007-10-26

    We use all-electrical methods to inject, transport, and detect spin-polarized electrons vertically through a 350-micron-thick undoped single-crystal silicon wafer. Spin precession measurements in a perpendicular magnetic field at different accelerating electric fields reveal high spin coherence with at least 13pi precession angles. The magnetic-field spacing of precession extrema are used to determine the injector-to-detector electron transit time. These transit time values are associated with output magnetocurrent changes (from in-plane spin-valve measurements), which are proportional to final spin polarization. Fitting the results to a simple exponential spin-decay model yields a conduction electron spin lifetime (T1) lower bound in silicon of over 500 ns at 60 K.

  3. Demonstration of Hybrid Multilayer Insulation for Fixed Thickness Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley; Fesmire, James; Heckle, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Once on orbit, high performing insulation systems for cryogenic systems need just as good radiation (optical) properties as conduction properties. This requires the use of radiation shields with low conductivity spacers in between. By varying the height and cross-sectional area of the spacers between the radiation shields, the relative radiation and conduction heat transfers can be manipulated. However, in most systems, there is a fixed thickness or volume allocated to the insulation. In order to understand how various combinations of different multilayer insulation (MLI) systems work together and further validate thermal models of such a hybrid MLI set up, test data is needed. The MLI systems include combinations of Load Bearing MLI (LB-MLI) and traditional MLI. To further simulate the space launch vehicle case wherein both ambient pressure and vacuum environments are addressed, different cold-side thermal insulation substrates were included for select tests.

  4. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  5. Evolved Minimal Frustration in Multifunctional Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Konstantin; Wales, David J

    2018-05-25

    Protein folding is often viewed in terms of a funnelled potential or free energy landscape. A variety of experiments now indicate the existence of multifunnel landscapes, associated with multifunctional biomolecules. Here, we present evidence that these systems have evolved to exhibit the minimal number of funnels required to fulfil their cellular functions, suggesting an extension to the principle of minimum frustration. We find that minimal disruptive mutations result in additional funnels, and the associated structural ensembles become more diverse. The same trends are observed in an atomic cluster. These observations suggest guidelines for rational design of engineered multifunctional biomolecules.

  6. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  7. Thickness evaluation using a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Sik; Kim, Young H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracies in the thickness evaluation using radiography, a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness has been proposed, and experimental verification of the proposed relationship was carried out by using the X- and γ-ray radiographs of two carbon steel step wedges. A new parameter, the logarithmic gradient of film density, was defined in order to express the characteristics of the radiographic film for wider range of film density. A new relationship between the film density and the penetrated thickness were formulated using the logarithmic gradient of the film density. In experiment, the logarithmic gradient of the film density was independent on both the exposure and the film density and measured for the radiographic film used in the present work from the slope of the fitting lines for the same penetrated thickness. Experimental results verifies the accuracy of the proposed relationship between film density and the penetrated thickness for the range of film density from 1.0 to 3.5. The thickness can be more accurately determined by using the proposed relationship and the parameters determined by experiment. It is also found that the γ-ray having simple energy spectrum is more appropriate radiation source for the evaluation of the thickness from the film density of the radiograph

  8. Choroidal thickness in Malaysian eyes with full-thickness macular holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Y Tan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare choroidal thickness at the macula in eyes with unilateral idiopathic full-thickness macular holes(FTMHwith that of unaffected fellow eyes, and eyes of normal control patients.METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Thirty patients with unilateral idiopathic FTMH and thirty age, sex, and race-matched controls were recruited. Axial lengths were measured using laser interferometry. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images were obtained using Heidelberg spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea, and at 1 mm and 2 mm nasally, temporally, superiorly and inferiorly from the center of the fovea. Statistical analysis was performed using independent and paired t-tests, chi-square tests, and Pearson correlation tests(PRESULTS: The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 201.0±44.0 μm in the FTMH group, 225.3±51.4 μm in the fellow eye group and 262.3±70.3 μm in the control group. The choroid was thinner in FTMH eyes at all locations when compared to control eyes(PPP>0.05. Choroidal thickness was generally highest subfoveally and lowest nasally. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age(r=-0.278, P=0.032, and axial length(r=-0.328, P=0.011.CONCLUSION: Choroidal thickness is lower in both eyes of patients with unilateral FTMH compared to healthy control eyes.

  9. Determination of a Critical Sea Ice Thickness Threshold for the Central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, V.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Nowotarski, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    While sea ice extent is readily measurable from satellite observations and can be used to assess the overall survivability of the Arctic sea ice pack, determining the spatial variability of sea ice thickness remains a challenge. Turbulent and conductive heat fluxes are extremely sensitive to ice thickness but are dominated by the sensible heat flux, with energy exchange expected to increase with thinner ice cover. Fluxes over open water are strongest and have the greatest influence on the atmosphere, while fluxes over thick sea ice are minimal as heat conduction from the ocean through thick ice cannot reach the atmosphere. We know that turbulent energy fluxes are strongest over open ocean, but is there a "critical thickness of ice" where fluxes are considered non-negligible? Through polar-optimized Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations, this study assesses how the wintertime Arctic surface boundary layer, via sensible heat flux exchange and surface air temperature, responds to sea ice thinning. The region immediately north of Franz Josef Land is characterized by a thickness gradient where sea ice transitions from the thickest multi-year ice to the very thin marginal ice seas. This provides an ideal location to simulate how the diminishing Arctic sea ice interacts with a warming atmosphere. Scenarios include both fixed sea surface temperature domains for idealized thickness variability, and fixed ice fields to detect changes in the ocean-ice-atmosphere energy exchange. Results indicate that a critical thickness threshold exists below 1 meter. The threshold is between 0.4-1 meters thinner than the critical thickness for melt season survival - the difference between first year and multi-year ice. Turbulent heat fluxes and surface air temperature increase as sea ice thickness transitions from perennial ice to seasonal ice. While models predict a sea ice free Arctic at the end of the warm season in future decades, sea ice will continue to transform

  10. Mandibular thickness measurements in young dentate adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Narlin B; Le, Thomas T

    2009-09-01

    To measure thicknesses in clinical landmark areas of the dentate mandibles of young men and women. Using standard radiologic software, we obtained mean (SD) thickness measurements at the inferior or posterior borders of the mandible at the following 7 surgically useful sites: (1) the symphysis, (2) a point halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, (3) the mental nerve, (4) a point halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, (5) the facial artery notch, (6) the angle vertex, and (7) the ramus-condylar neck border. University hospital. A total of 150 dentate men and 75 dentate women aged 18 to 30 years who had undergone computed tomography of the head and neck region during the period of December 20, 2006 to February 20, 2007. Thicknesses of 7 mandibular sites. Mean (SD) thicknesses at the 7 mandibular sites were as follows: symphysis, 14.03 (1.53) mm for men and 13.21 (1.46) mm for women; halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, 11.17 (1.37) mm for men and 10.00 (1.08) mm for women; mental nerve, 9.48 (1.28) mm for men and 8.72 (1.00) mm for women; halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, 10.33 (1.24) mm for men and 9.45 (0.92) mm for women; facial artery notch, 7.27 (0.82) mm for men and 7.10 (0.88) mm for women; angle vertex, 5.42 (0.90) mm for men and 5.39 (0.66) mm for women; and ramus-condylar neck border, 5.90 (0.86) mm for men and 5.85 (0.71) mm for women. Clinical landmark areas in young dentate mandibles have mean thicknesses with limited SDs. The thickness measurements obtained at the sites in this study provide practical reference information for mandibular reconstruction and bicortical screw length estimation.

  11. Association Between the Lateral Wall Thickness of the Maxillary Sinus and the Dental Status: Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Rahpeyma, Amin; Hoseini Zarch, Seyed Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the lateral wall thickness of the maxillary sinus is very important in decision making for many surgical interventions. The association between the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus and the dental status is not well identified. To compare the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus in individuals with and without teeth to determine if extraction of the teeth can lead to a significant reduction in the thickness of the maxillary sinus lateral wall or not. In a retrospective study on fifty patients with an edentulous space, the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus,one centimeter above the sinus floor in the second premolar (P2), first molar (M1) and second molar (M2) areas was determined by cone beam computed tomography scans(CBCTs) and a digital ruler in Romexis F software (Planmeca Romexis 2.4.2.R) and it was compared with values measured in fifty dentated individuals. Three way analysis of variance was applied for comparison after confirmation of the normal distribution of data. The mean of the wall thickness in each of these points was lower in patients with edentulous spaces; however it was not significant. There was no association between gender and the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus, but location was associated with different thicknesses. The differences in the thickness based on the location and dental status necessitates assessment of the wall thickness of the maxillary sinus in addition to the current evaluation of bone thickness between the sinus floor and the edentulous crest before maxillary sinus surgery

  12. Top-flavoured dark matter in Dark Minimal Flavour Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanke, Monika; Kast, Simon [Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Engesserstraße 7, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-05-31

    We study a simplified model of top-flavoured dark matter in the framework of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. In this setup the coupling of the dark matter flavour triplet to right-handed up-type quarks constitutes the only new source of flavour and CP violation. The parameter space of the model is restricted by LHC searches with missing energy final states, by neutral D meson mixing data, by the observed dark matter relic abundance, and by the absence of signal in direct detection experiments. We consider all of these constraints in turn, studying their implications for the allowed parameter space. Imposing the mass limits and coupling benchmarks from collider searches, we then conduct a combined analysis of all the other constraints, revealing their non-trivial interplay. Especially interesting is the combination of direct detection and relic abundance constraints, having a severe impact on the structure of the dark matter coupling matrix. We point out that future bounds from upcoming direct detection experiments, such as XENON1T, XENONnT, LUX-ZEPLIN, and DARWIN, will exclude a large part of the parameter space and push the DM mass to higher values.

  13. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  14. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning.

  15. Microbial safety of minimally processed foods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novak, John S; Sapers, Gerald M; Juneja, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    ...-course meals. All are expected to be portioned and minimally processed to balance the naturalness of unaltered foods with a concern for safety. Yet the responsibility for proper food preparation and handling remains with the naïve modern consumer, who may be less adept in food preparations than his or her less sophisticated ancestors. As a result,...

  16. Towards the assembly of a minimal oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourian, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Life must have started with lower degree of complexity and connectivity. This statement readily triggers the question how simple is the simplest representation of life? In different words and considering a constructive approach, what are the requirements for creating a minimal cell? This thesis sets

  17. Waste minimization in a petrochemical company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan, Marcelo [Oxiteno S.A., Industria e Comercio, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A way to manage industrial effluents consists in reducing their generation or treating them when elimination or minimization is economically unachievable. This work aims to present the modifications adopted in a petrochemical plant to adequate and, or, reduce the generation of industrial effluent. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  18. A Generalized Random Regret Minimization Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents, discusses and tests a generalized Random Regret Minimization (G-RRM) model. The G-RRM model is created by replacing a fixed constant in the attribute-specific regret functions of the RRM model, by a regret-weight variable. Depending on the value of the regret-weights, the G-RRM

  19. Prevention and minimization of waste production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the program Prevention and Minimization of Waste Production at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to contribute to reducing the volume and costs of nuclear waste. In addition, it aims to provide reliable data and models to the design engineers with a view to determining the final plant characteristics. Main activities in 1997 are described

  20. Kundt spacetimes minimally coupled to scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahamtan, T. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Svitek, O. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-15

    We derive an exact solution belonging to the Kundt class of spacetimes both with and without a cosmological constant that are minimally coupled to a free massless scalar field. We show the algebraic type of these solutions and give interpretation of the results. Subsequently, we look for solutions additionally containing an electromagnetic field satisfying nonlinear field equations. (orig.)