WorldWideScience

Sample records for thickness out-of-plane coercivity

  1. Out-of-plane coercive field of Ni80Fe20 antidot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunhong; Chen Ke; Lue Ling; Zhao Jianwei; Chen Peng

    2010-01-01

    The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetization reversal process of nanoscale Ni 80 Fe 20 antidot arrays deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane are investigated. The angular dependence of out-of-plane remanent magnetization of Ni 80 Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum remanence is in-plane and the squareness of the out-of-plane hysteresis loop follow a |cos θ| dependence. The angular dependence of out-of-plane coercivity of Ni 80 Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum coercivity lies on the surface of a cone with its symmetric axis normal to the sample plane, which indicates a transition of magnetic reversal from curling to coherent rotation when changing the angle between the applied magnetic field and the sample plane.

  2. Out-of-plane coercive field of Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunhong; Chen, Ke; Lü, Ling; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Peng

    2010-11-01

    The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetization reversal process of nanoscale Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane are investigated. The angular dependence of out-of-plane remanent magnetization of Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum remanence is in-plane and the squareness of the out-of-plane hysteresis loop follow a |cos θ| dependence. The angular dependence of out-of-plane coercivity of Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum coercivity lies on the surface of a cone with its symmetric axis normal to the sample plane, which indicates a transition of magnetic reversal from curling to coherent rotation when changing the angle between the applied magnetic field and the sample plane.

  3. Out-of-plane coercive field of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhong, Gao [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Ke, Chen [Chongqing Electric Power College, Chongqing (China); Ling, Lue; Jianwei, Zhao [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chen Peng, E-mail: pchen@swu.edu.c [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2010-11-15

    The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetization reversal process of nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane are investigated. The angular dependence of out-of-plane remanent magnetization of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays shows that the maximum remanence is in-plane and the squareness of the out-of-plane hysteresis loop follow a |cos {theta}| dependence. The angular dependence of out-of-plane coercivity of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays shows that the maximum coercivity lies on the surface of a cone with its symmetric axis normal to the sample plane, which indicates a transition of magnetic reversal from curling to coherent rotation when changing the angle between the applied magnetic field and the sample plane.

  4. Nonlinear geometric scaling of coercivity in a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, I. S.; Mistonov, A. A.; Dubitskiy, I. S.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Menzel, D.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetization hysteresis loops of a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice based on the nickel inverse opal-like structure (IOLS) have been studied at room temperature. The samples are produced by filling nickel into the voids of artificial opal-like films. The spin ice behavior is induced by tetrahedral elements within the IOLS, which have the same arrangement of magnetic moments as a spin ice. The thickness of the films vary from a two-dimensional, i.e., single-layered, antidot array to a three-dimensional, i.e., multilayered, structure. The coercive force, the saturation, and the irreversibility field have been measured in dependence of the thickness of the IOLS for in-plane and out-of-plane applied fields. The irreversibility and saturation fields change abruptly from the antidot array to the three-dimensional IOLS and remain constant upon further increase of the number of layers n . The coercive force Hc seems to increase logarithmically with increasing n as Hc=Hc 0+α ln(n +1 ) . The logarithmic law implies the avalanchelike remagnetization of anisotropic structural elements connecting tetrahedral and cubic nodes in the IOLS. We conclude that the "ice rule" is the base of mechanism regulating this process.

  5. Coercivity in SmCo hard magnetic films for MEMS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, E. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: epina@renfe.es; Palomares, F.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz s/n, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, M.A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Cebollada, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a las Telecomunicaciones, EUITT-UPM, Crtra. De Valencia km 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Hoyos, A. de [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Romero, J.J. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Hernando, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Unidad asociada ICMM-IMA. P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, J.M. [Unidad asociada ICMM-IMA. P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas Madrid (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    In this work we have investigated the thermal dependence of coercivity in 1.5 {mu}m thick SmCo{sub 5} films fabricated by sputtering technique. Samples were deposited onto Si substrates kept at different temperatures. Samples grown below 450 deg. C are amorphous, present low coercivity and require further crystallization processes in order to obtain the 1:5 SmCo hard phase. Samples grown at 450 deg. C are nanocrystalline in the as-deposited state and exhibit high room temperature in-plane coercivity. Correlation between the thermal dependence of coercivity and the nanostructure has been analyzed in the frame of the so-called micromagnetic model.

  6. Coercivity in SmCo hard magnetic films for MEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E.; Palomares, F.J.; Garcia, M.A.; Cebollada, F.; Hoyos, A. de; Romero, J.J.; Hernando, A.; Gonzalez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we have investigated the thermal dependence of coercivity in 1.5 μm thick SmCo 5 films fabricated by sputtering technique. Samples were deposited onto Si substrates kept at different temperatures. Samples grown below 450 deg. C are amorphous, present low coercivity and require further crystallization processes in order to obtain the 1:5 SmCo hard phase. Samples grown at 450 deg. C are nanocrystalline in the as-deposited state and exhibit high room temperature in-plane coercivity. Correlation between the thermal dependence of coercivity and the nanostructure has been analyzed in the frame of the so-called micromagnetic model

  7. Limit load solutions for piping branch junctions under out-of-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ying Hu; Lee, Kuk Hee; Jeon, Jun Young; Kim, Yun Jae

    2009-01-01

    Approximate plastic limit load solutions for piping branch junctions under out-of plane bending are obtained from detailed three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials with the small geometry change option. Two types of bending are considered; out-of-plane bending to the branch pipe and out-of-plane bending to the run pipe. Accordingly closed-form approximations are proposed for piping branch junctions under out-of-plane bending based on the FE results. The proposed solutions are valid for the branch-to-run pipe radius and thickness from 0.0 to 1.0, and the mean radius-to-thickness ratio of the run pipe from 2.0 to 20.0. And, this study provides effects of reinforcement area on plastic limit loads.

  8. Out-of-plane strain effect on silicon-based flexible FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Sevilla, Galo T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. We report out-of-plane strain effect on silicon based flexible FinFET, with sub 20 nm wide fins and hafnium silicate based high-κ gate dielectric. Since ultra-thin inorganic solid state substrates become flexible with reduced thickness, flexing induced strain does not enhance performance. However, detrimental effects arise as the devices are subject to various out-of-plane stresses (compressive and tensile) along the channel length.

  9. Out-of-plane strain effect on silicon-based flexible FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-06-21

    Summary form only given. We report out-of-plane strain effect on silicon based flexible FinFET, with sub 20 nm wide fins and hafnium silicate based high-κ gate dielectric. Since ultra-thin inorganic solid state substrates become flexible with reduced thickness, flexing induced strain does not enhance performance. However, detrimental effects arise as the devices are subject to various out-of-plane stresses (compressive and tensile) along the channel length.

  10. A comprehensive model for in-plane and out-of-plane vibration of CANDU fuel endplate rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.D., E-mail: syu@ryerson.ca; Fadaee, M.

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Proposed an effective method for modelling bending and torsional vibration of CANDU fuel endplate rings. • Applied successfully the thick plate theory to curved structural members by accounting for the transverse shear effect. • The proposed method is computationally more efficient compared to the 3D finite element. - Abstract: In this paper, a comprehensive vibration model is developed for analysing in-plane and out-of-plane vibration of CANDU fuel endplate rings by taking into consideration the effects of in-plane extension in the circumferential and radial directions, shear, and rotatory inertia. The model is based on Reddy’s thick plate theory and the nine-node isoparametric Lagrangian plate finite elements. Natural frequencies of various modes of vibration of circular rings obtained using the proposed method are compared with 3D finite element results, experimental data and results available in the literature. Excellent agreement was achieved.

  11. Investigation of coercivity for electroplated Fe-Ni thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T.; Eguchi, K.; Koda, K.; Kaji, J.; Aramaki, H.; Takashima, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-05-01

    We have already reported Fe-Ni firms with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In our previous studies, we prepared the Fe-Ni films from citric-acid-based baths (CA-baths) and ammonium-chloride-based ones (AC-baths), and confirmed that the coercivity for the AC-baths was lower than that for the CA-baths. In the present study, we investigated reasons for the lower coercivity for the AC-baths to further improve the soft magnetic properties. From an observation of magnetic domains of the Fe22Ni78 films, we found that Fe22Ni78 film for AC-bath had a magnetic anisotropy in the width direction, and also found that the coercivity in the width direction was lower than the longitudinal one for the AC-bath. As an annealing for a stress relaxation in the films reduced the difference in the coercivity, we considered that the anisotropy is attributed to the magneto-elastic effect.

  12. Thickness-dependent enhancement of damping in C o2FeAl /β -Ta thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akansel, Serkan; Kumar, Ankit; Behera, Nilamani; Husain, Sajid; Brucas, Rimantas; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Svedlindh, Peter

    2018-04-01

    In the present work C o2FeAl (CFA) thin films were deposited by ion beam sputtering on Si (100) substrates at the optimized deposition temperature of 300 °C. A series of CFA films with different thicknesses (tCFA), 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 nm, were prepared and all samples were capped with a 5-nm-thick β-Ta layer. The thickness-dependent static and dynamic properties of the films were studied by SQUID magnetometry, in-plane as well as out-of-plane broadband vector network analyzer-ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements, and angle-dependent cavity FMR measurements. The saturation magnetization and the coercive field were found to be weakly thickness dependent and lie in the range 900-950 kA/m and 0.53-0.87 kA/m, respectively. The effective damping parameter (αeff) extracted from in-plane and out-of-plane FMR results reveals a 1/tCFA dependence, the values for the in-plane αeff being larger due to two-magnon scattering (TMS). The origin of the αeff thickness dependence is spin pumping into the nonmagnetic β-Ta layer and in the case of the in-plane αeff, also a thickness-dependent TMS contribution. From the out-of-plane FMR results, it was possible to disentangle the different contributions to αeff and to the extract values for the intrinsic Gilbert damping (αG) and the effective spin-mixing conductance (geff↑↓) of the CFA/ β-Ta interface, yielding αG=(1.1 ±0.2 ) ×10-3 and geff↑↓=(2.90 ±0.10 ) ×1019m-2 .

  13. Magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy/molybdenum multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romera, M.; Ciudad, D.; Maicas, M.; Aroca, C.; Ranchal, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy (Py: Ni 80 Fe 20 )/molybdenum (Mo) multilayer thin films. We show that it is possible to maintain a low coercivity and a high permeability in thick sputtered Py films when reducing the out-of-plane component of the anisotropy by inserting thin film spacers of a non-magnetic material like Mo. For these kind of multilayers, we have found coercivities which are close to those for single layer films with no out-of-plane anisotropy. The coercivity is also dependent on the number of layers exhibiting a minimum value when each single Py layer has a thickness close to the transition thickness between Neel and Bloch domain walls.

  14. Magnetization reversal and coercivity of Fe3Se4 nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, S. J.; Zhou, Y. T.; Bai, Y.; Zhu, Y. L.; Ren, W. J.; Long, G.; Zeng, H.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2015-05-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe3Se4 nanowire (NW) arrays in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane are studied. Cross-sectional SEM and plane-view TEM images show that the mean wire diameter (dw) and the center-to-center spacing (D) of Fe3Se4 nanowires are about 220 nm and 330 nm, respectively. The field-cooled magnetization dependent on the temperature indicates a Curie temperature around 334 K for the Fe3Se4 nanowires. The coercivities of Fe3Se4 nanowires at 10 K, obtained from the in-plane and out-of-plane hysteresis loops, are as high as 22.4 kOe and 23.3 kOe, which can be understood from the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the magnetization reversal process.

  15. Enhancement of the coercivity in Co-Ni layered double hydroxides by increasing basal spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuijuan; Tsuboi, Tomoya; Namba, Hiroaki; Einaga, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-09-14

    The magnetic properties of layered double hydroxides (LDH) containing transition metal ions can still develop, compared with layered metal hydroxide salts which exhibit structure-dependent magnetism. In this article, we report the preparation of a hybrid magnet composed of Co-Ni LDH and n-alkylsulfonate anions (Co-Ni-CnSO3 LDH). As Co-Ni LDH is anion-exchangeable, we can systematically control the interlayer spacing by intercalating n-alkylsulfonates with different carbon numbers. The magnetic properties were examined with temperature- and field-dependent magnetization measurements. As a result, we have revealed that the coercive field depends on the basal spacing. It is suggested that increasing the basal spacing varies the competition between the in-plane superexchange interactions and long-range out-of-plane dipolar interactions. Moreover, a jump in the coercive field at around 20 Å of the basal spacing is assumed to be the modification of the magnetic ordering in Co-Ni-CnSO3 LDH.

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Out-of-Plane vs. In-Plane Interscalene Catheters: A Randomized, Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Eric S; Gandhi, Kishor; Baratta, Jaime L; Torjman, Marc; Epstein, Richard H; Chung, Jaeyoon; Vaghari, Benjamin A; Beausang, David; Bojaxhi, Elird; Grady, Bernadette

    2015-12-01

    Continuous interscalene blocks provide excellent analgesia after shoulder surgery. Although the safety of the ultrasound-guided in-plane approach has been touted, technical and patient factors can limit this approach. We developed a caudad-to-cephalad out-of-plane approach and hypothesized that it would decrease pain ratings due to better catheter alignment with the brachial plexus compared to the in-plane technique in a randomized, controlled study. To compare an out-of-plane interscalene catheter technique to the in-plane technique in a randomized clinical trial. Eighty-four patients undergoing open shoulder surgery were randomized to either the in-plane or out-of-plane ultrasound-guided continuous interscalene technique. The primary outcome was VAS pain rating at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included pain ratings in the recovery room and at 48 hours, morphine consumption, the incidence of catheter dislodgments, procedure time, and block difficulty. Procedural data and all pain ratings were collected by blinded observers. There were no differences in the primary outcome of median VAS pain rating at 24 hours between the out-of-plane and in-plane groups (1.50; IQR, [0 - 4.38] vs. 1.25; IQR, [0 - 3.75]; P = 0.57). There were also no differences, respectively, between out-of-plane and in-plane median PACU pain ratings (1.0; IQR, [0 - 3.5] vs. 0.25; IQR, [0 - 2.5]; P = 0.08) and median 48-hour pain ratings (1.25; IQR, [1.25 - 2.63] vs. 0.50; IQR, [0 - 1.88]; P = 0.30). There were no differences in any other secondary endpoint. Our out-of-plane technique did not provide superior analgesia to the in-plane technique. It did not increase the number of complications. Our technique is an acceptable alternative in situations where the in-plane technique is difficult to perform.

  17. Effect of thickness on structure, microstructure, residual stress and soft magnetic properties of DC sputtered Fe65Co35 soft magnetic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna Kumari, T.; Manivel Raja, M.; Kumar, Atul; Srinath, S.; Kamat, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on structure, microstructure, residual stress and soft magnetic properties of Fe 65 Co 35 thin films deposited on Si(001) and MgO(001) substrates was investigated by varying film thickness from 30 to 600 nm. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the FeCo films are polycrystalline in the as-deposited condition irrespective of deposition on Si or MgO substrate. The microstructure of films consisted of spherical grains for 30 nm film thickness and columnar grains for all other film thicknesses. The grain size for the films was found to increase from 15 to 50 nm with increasing film thickness. The sputtered films also exhibited tensile residual stresses with the magnitude of stress decreasing with increasing film thickness. The Fe 65 Co 35 films deposited on both substrates also exhibited very good in-plane soft magnetic properties with a saturation magnetization 4πM s of ∼23.6–23.8 kG and coercivity of ∼27–30 Oe without any under-layer only for films with thickness of 30 nm. For all other thicknesses, these films exhibited a significantly higher coercivity. The observed variations in soft magnetic properties with film thickness were explained in terms of residual stress and microstructure of the films. - Highlights: • Spherical grain morphology transformed to columnar above 30 nm film thickness. • Sputtered films exhibited tensile residual stresses decreasing with film thickness. • An in-plane coercivity of ∼27–30 Oe was achieved without any under-layer

  18. Exchange bias energy in Co/Pt/IrMn multilayers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapkiewicz, M. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: czapkiew@agh.edu.pl; Stobiecki, T. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Rak, R. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Zoladz, M. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Dijken, S. van [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2007-09-15

    The magnetization reversal process in perpendicularly biased [Pt/Co]{sub 3}/d{sub Pt} Pt/IrMn and in-plane biased Co/d{sub Pt} Pt/IrMn multilayers with 0nm=plane magnetic anisotropy, the exchange bias field decreases monotonically with Pt insertion layer thickness, while its coercivity remains constant. The samples with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, on the other hand, exhibit maximum exchange bias and minimum coercivity for d{sub Pt}=0.1nm. In both cases, the existence of large exchange bias fields correlates with a high domain density during magnetization reversal. The interface exchange coupling energy is larger for the in-plane biased films than for the perpendicularly biased multilayers.

  19. Depolarization corrections to the coercive field in thin-film ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawber, M; Chandra, P; Littlewood, P B; Scott, J F

    2003-01-01

    Empirically, the coercive field needed to reverse the polarization in a ferroelectric increases with decreasing film thickness. For ferroelectric films of 100 μm to 100 nm in thickness the coercive field has been successfully described by a semi-empirical scaling law. Accounting for depolarization corrections, we show that this scaling behaviour is consistent with field measurements of ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors down to one nanometre in film thickness. Our results also indicate that the minimum film thickness, determined by a polarization instability, can be tuned by the choice of electrodes, and recommendations for next-generation ferroelectric devices are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  20. Depolarization corrections to the coercive field in thin-film ferroelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Dawber, M; Littlewood, P B; Scott, J F

    2003-01-01

    Empirically, the coercive field needed to reverse the polarization in a ferroelectric increases with decreasing film thickness. For ferroelectric films of 100 mu m to 100 nm in thickness the coercive field has been successfully described by a semi-empirical scaling law. Accounting for depolarization corrections, we show that this scaling behaviour is consistent with field measurements of ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors down to one nanometre in film thickness. Our results also indicate that the minimum film thickness, determined by a polarization instability, can be tuned by the choice of electrodes, and recommendations for next-generation ferroelectric devices are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  1. Robust micromachining of compliant mechanisms for out-of-plane microsensors

    OpenAIRE

    Khosraviani, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) take advantage of a wide range of very reliable, and well established existing microelectronics fabrication techniques. Due to the planar nature of these techniques, out-of-plane MEMS devices must be fabricated in-plane and assembled afterwards in order to create out-of-plane three-dimensional structures. Out-of-plane microstructures extend the design space of the MEMS based devices and overcome many limitations of the in-plane processing. Nevertheless,...

  2. The Curious Out-of-Plane Conductivity of PEDOT : PSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ruit, Kevin; Katsouras, Ilias; Bollen, Dirk; van Mol, Ton; Janssen, Rene A. J.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Kemerink, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    For its application as transparent conductor in light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, both the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivity of PEDOT:PSS are important. However, studies into the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS rarely address the out-of-plane conductivity and those that do, report widely

  3. Topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shao-Yong; Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Huang, Hong-Bo

    2018-04-01

    Topological phononic insulators (TPnIs) show promise for application in the manipulation of acoustic waves for the design of low-loss transmission and perfectly integrated communication devices. Since solid phononic crystals exist as a transverse polarization mode and a mixed longitudinal-transverse polarization mode, the realization of topological edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is desirable to enhance the controllability of the edge waves in solid systems. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) solid/solid hexagonal-latticed phononic system that simultaneously supports the topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is investigated. Firstly, two pairs of two-fold Dirac cones, respectively corresponding to the out-of-plane and in-plane waves, are obtained at the same frequency by tuning the crystal parameters. Then, a strategy of zone folding is invoked to form double Dirac cones. By shrinking and expanding the steel scatterer, the lattice symmetry is broken, and band inversions induced, giving rise to an intriguing topological phase transition. Finally, the topologically protected edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves, which can be simultaneously located at the frequency range from 1.223 to 1.251 MHz, are numerically observed. Robust pseudospin-dependent elastic edge wave propagation along arbitrary paths is further demonstrated. Our results will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  4. Characterization of the magnetic properties of NdFeB thick films exposed to elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ryogen; Devillers, Thibaut; Givord, Dominique; Dempsey, Nora M.

    2018-05-01

    Hard magnetic films used in magnetic micro-systems may be exposed to elevated temperatures during film and system fabrication and also during use of the micro-system. In this work, we studied the influence of temperature on the magnetic properties of 10 μm thick out-of-plane textured NdFeB films fabricated by high rate triode sputtering. Out-of-plane hysteresis loops were measured in the range 300K - 650K to establish the temperature dependence of coercivity, magnetization at 7 T and remanent magnetization. Thermal demagnetization was measured and magnetization losses were recorded from 350K in films heated under zero or low (-0.1 T) external field and from 325 K for films heated under an external field of -0.5 T. The effect of thermal cycling under zero field on the remanent magnetization was also studied and it was found that cycling between room temperature and 323 K did not lead to any significant loss in remanence at room temperature, while a 4% drop is recorded when the sample is cycled between RT and 343K. Measurement of hysteresis loops at room temperature following exposure to elevated temperatures reveals that while remanent magnetisation is practically recovered in all cases, irreversible losses in coercivity occur (6.7 % following heating to 650K, and 1.3 % following heating to 343K). The relevance of these results is discussed in terms of system fabrication and use.

  5. Variable substrate temperature deposition of CoFeB film on Ta for manipulating the perpendicular coercive forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Saravanan; Rao, Subha Krishna; Muthuvel, Manivel Raja; Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan; Therese, Helen Annal

    2017-08-01

    Magnetization of Ta/CoFeB/Ta trilayer films with thick layer of CoFeB deposited under different substrate temperatures (Ts) via ultra-high vacuum DC sputtering technique has been measured with the applied magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film respectively to study the perpendicular coercive forces of the film. The samples were further analyzed for its structural, topological, morphological, and electrical transport properties. The core chemical states for the elements present in the CoFeB thin film were analyzed by XPS studies. Magnetization studies reveal the existence of perpendicular coercive forces in CoFeB films deposited only at certain temperatures such as RT, 450 °C, 475 °C and 500 °C. CoFeB film deposited at 475 °C exhibited a maximum coercivity of 315 Oe and a very low saturation magnetization (Ms) of 169 emu/cc in perpendicular direction. This pronounced effect in perpendicular coercive forces observed for CoFeB475 could be attributed to the effect of temperature in enhancing the crystallization of the film at the Ta/CoFeB interfaces. However at temperatures higher than 475 °C the destruction of the Ta/CoFeB interface due to intermixing of Ta and CoFeB results in the disappearance of magnetic anisotropy.

  6. Ultrasound-Guided Out-of-Plane vs. In-Plane Interscalene Catheters: A Randomized, Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenk, Eric S.; Gandhi, Kishor; Baratta, Jaime L.; Torjman, Marc; Epstein, Richard H.; Chung, Jaeyoon; Vaghari, Benjamin A.; Beausang, David; Bojaxhi, Elird; Grady, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous interscalene blocks provide excellent analgesia after shoulder surgery. Although the safety of the ultrasound-guided in-plane approach has been touted, technical and patient factors can limit this approach. We developed a caudad-to-cephalad out-of-plane approach and hypothesized that it would decrease pain ratings due to better catheter alignment with the brachial plexus compared to the in-plane technique in a randomized, controlled study. Objectives: To compare an out-...

  7. Magnetic reversal processes and critical thickness in FePt/α-Fe/FePt trilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, N.L.; Zhao, G.P.; Zhang, H.W.; Zhou, X.L.; Deng, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic reversal processes of a FePt/α-Fe/FePt trilayer system with in-plane easy axes have been investigated within a micromagnetic approach. It is found that the magnetic reversal process consists of three steps: nucleation of a prototype of domain wall in the soft phase, the evolution as well as the motion of the domain wall from the soft to the hard phase and finally, the magnetic reversal of the hard phase. For small soft layer thickness L s , the three steps are reduced to one single step, where the magnetizations in the two phases reverses simultaneously and the hysteresis loops are square with nucleation as the coercivity mechanism. As L s increases, both nucleation and pinning fields decrease. In the meantime, the single-step reversal expands to a standard three-step one and the coercivity mechanism changes from nucleation to pinning. The critical thickness where the coercivity mechanism alters, could be derived analytically, which is found to be inversely proportional to the square root of the crystalline anisotropy of the hard phase. Such a scaling law might provide an easy way to test the present theory. Further increase of L s leads to the change of the coercivity mechanism from pinning to nucleation. - Highlights: → Analytical critical thickness scales with square root of anisotropy of hard phase. → Reversal process determined nucleation, motion and depinning of domain walls. → Coercivity mechanism is nucleation and pinning for thin and thick soft layers. → Microscopic and macroscopic hysteresis loops calculated.

  8. The effect of a negative capacitance circuit on the out-of-plane dissipation and stiffness of a piezoelectric membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korde, Umesh A; Wickersham, Miles A; Carr, Stephen G

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the out-of-plane dynamics of a piezoelectric membrane with a negative capacitance circuit connected in parallel. The theoretically possible large changes in stiffness and dissipation could, at full implementation, enable the design of selectively electroded piezoelectric skins that are spatially and temporally highly adaptive. A tunable negative capacitance circuit is here connected in parallel with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (Date et al 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 863–8). The goal of this paper is to investigate the extent to which such a circuit may influence the out-of-plane stiffness and dissipation characteristics and the associated vibration response of a PVDF membrane strip. We consider strips with a non-vanishing thickness and under a constant boundary-applied tension. As our analytical and experimental results for harmonic loading show, successful application of the method on out-of-plane dynamics is possible with a correct choice of the circuit parameters, and the out-of-plane stiffness and dissipation and the associated vibration response near the first resonance can be altered noticeably by adjusting the circuit settings

  9. NUMERICAL DERIVATIONS OF A MACROSCOPIC MODEL FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS CONSIDERING IN-PLANE AND OUT-OF-PLANE BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    LATCHAROTE; Panon KAI, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    A macroscopic model, macro plate model, was proposed to represent a wall member of RC walls. Both in-plane and out-of-plane behavior were considered for numerical derivations of macro plate model. For out-of-plane behavior, bending deformation was incorporated with shear deformation to consider out-of-plane deformation as same as in-plane behavior. The hysteretic behavior of macro plate model can be directly expressed by stress-strain relationships in any conventional hysteretic rules, which ...

  10. Estimates of plastic loads for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a method to estimate plastic loads (defined by twice-elastic-slope) for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment, based on detailed 3-D FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Because closing bending moment is always lower than opening bending moment, the combination of in-plane closing bending and out-of-plane bending moment becomes the most significant case. Due to conservatism of each bending moments, the resultant moment provided by ASME B and PV code is unduly conservative. However, the concept of the resultant moment is still valid. In this paper, FE results show that the accurate solutions of bending moments provide better estimates of plastic loads of pipe bend under combined in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending moment

  11. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaohu; Li, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  12. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaohu [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Li, Xiaojun, E-mail: beerli@vip.sina.com [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  13. Synergy of exchange bias with superconductivity in ferromagnetic-superconducting layered hybrids: the influence of in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic order on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamopoulos, D; Manios, E; Pissas, M

    2007-01-01

    It is generally believed that superconductivity and magnetism are two antagonistic long-range phenomena. However, as was preliminarily highlighted in Stamopoulos et al (2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 014501), and extensively studied in this work, under specific circumstances these phenomena instead of being detrimental to each other may even become cooperative so that their synergy may promote the superconducting properties of a hybrid structure. Here, we have studied systematically the magnetic and transport behavior of such exchange biased hybrids that are comprised of ferromagnetic (FM) Ni 80 Fe 20 and low-T c superconducting (SC) Nb for the case where the magnetic field is applied parallel to the specimens. Two structures have been studied: FM-SC-FM trilayers (TLs) and FM-SC bilayers (BLs). Detailed magnetization data on the longitudinal and transverse magnetic components are presented for both the normal and superconducting states. These data are compared to systematic transport measurements including I-V characteristics. The comparison of the exchange biased BLs and TLs that are studied here with the plain ones studied in Stamopoulos et al (2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 184504) enable us to reveal an underlying parameter that may falsify the interpretation of the transport properties of relevant FM-SC-FM TLs and FM-SC BLs investigated in the recent literature: the underlying mechanism motivating the extreme magnetoresistance peaks in the TLs relates to the suppression of superconductivity mainly due to the magnetic coupling of the two FM layers as the out-of-plane rotation of their magnetizations takes place across the coercive field where stray fields emerge in their whole surface owing to the multidomain magnetic state that they acquire. The relative in-plane magnetization configuration of the outer FM layers exerts a secondary contribution on the SC interlayer. Since the exchange bias directly controls the in-plane magnetic order it also controls the out-of-plane rotation of

  14. Tuning microstructure and magnetic properties of electrodeposited CoNiP films by high magnetic field annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chun; Wang, Kai [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Donggang, E-mail: lidonggang@smm.neu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lou, Changsheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110159 (China); Zhao, Yue; Gao, Yang [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangq@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-10-15

    A high magnetic field (up to 12 T) has been used to anneal 2.6-µm-thick Co{sub 50}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 10} films formed by pulse electrodeposition. The effects of high magnetic field annealing on the microstructure and magnetic properties of CoNiP thin films have been investigated. It was found that a high magnetic field accelerated a phase transformation from fcc to hcp and enhanced the preferred hcp-(002) orientation during annealing. Compared with the films annealed without a magnetic field, annealing at 12 T decreased the surface particle size, roughness, and coercivity, but increased the saturation magnetization and remanent magnetization of CoNiP films. The out-of-plane coercivity was higher than that the in-plane for the as-deposited films. After annealing without a magnetic field, the out-of-plane coercivity was equal to that of the in-plane. However, the out-of-plane coercivity was higher than that of the in-plane when annealing at 12 T. These results indicate that high magnetic field annealing is an effective method for tuning the microstructure and magnetic properties of thin films. - Highlights: • High magnetic field annealing accelerated phase transformation from γ to ε. • High magnetic field annealing enhanced preferred hcp-(002) orientation. • High magnetic field annealing decreased particle size, roughness and coercivity. • High magnetic field annealing increased the saturation and remanent magnetization.

  15. Out-of-Plane Bending Properties of Out-of-Autoclave Thermosetting Prepregs during Forming Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan A. Alshahrani; Mehdi H. Hojjati

    2016-01-01

    In order to predict and model wrinkling which is caused by out of plane deformation due to compressive loading in the plane of the material during composite prepregs forming, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the relative magnitude of the bending stiffness. This study aims to examine the bending properties of out-of-autoclave (OOA) thermosetting prepreg under vertical cantilever test condition. A direct method for characterizing the bending behavior of composite prepregs was develo...

  16. Local coercive force of domain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandaurova, G.S.; Vas'kovskij, V.O.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show the variety of effects resulting from local coercivity using RFeO 3 orthoferrites crystals-plates, to separate factors which are not directly connected with the nature of every single defect but influence significantly Hsub(cw) local coercivity and, at last, to attract attention of physisists-theorists to new tasks of the magnetic hysteresis theory. Measurements have been carried out on a great number of defect of YFeO 3 and PyFeO 3 crystals. Such peculiarities of local coercivity as Hsub(cw) anisotropy and asymmetry, Hsub(cw) nonstability and its dependence on the sample magnetic prehistory. Qualitative explanation of these effects in based on the presumable interaction of the domain wall with magnetic heterogeneities existing in a region of structural defects

  17. High electrical conductivity in out of plane direction of electrodeposited Bi2Te3 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Muñoz Rojo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The out of plane electrical conductivity of highly anisotropic Bi2Te3 films grown via electro-deposition process was determined using four probe current-voltage measurements performed on 4.6 - 7.2 μm thickness Bi2Te3 mesa structures with 80 - 120 μm diameters sandwiched between metallic film electrodes. A three-dimensional finite element model was used to predict the electric field distribution in the measured structures and take into account the non-uniform distribution of the current in the electrodes in the vicinity of the probes. The finite-element modeling shows that significant errors could arise in the measured film electrical conductivity if simpler one-dimensional models are employed. A high electrical conductivity of (3.2 ± 0.4 ⋅ 105 S/m is reported along the out of plane direction for Bi2Te3 films highly oriented in the [1 1 0] direction.

  18. Local coercive force of domain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandaurova, G S; Vas' kovskii, V O [Ural' skij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Sverdlovsk (USSR)

    1980-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show the variety of effects resulting from local coercivity using RFeO/sub 3/ orthoferrites crystals-plates, to separate factors which are not directly connected with the nature of every single defect but influence significantly H/sub cw/ local coercivity and, at last, to attract attention of physisists-theorists to new tasks of the magnetic hysteresis theory. Measurements have been carried out on a great number of defect of YFeO/sub 3/ and PyFeO/sub 3/ crystals. Such peculiarities of local coercivity as H/sub cw/ anisotropy and asymmetry, H/sub cw/ nonstability and its dependence on the sample magnetic prehistory. Qualitative explanation of these effects in based on the presumable interaction of the domain wall with magnetic heterogeneities existing in a region of structural defects.

  19. Texture change through film thickness and off-axis accommodation of (0 0 2) planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, A.R.; Karimi, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present our recent experimental results on the formation of off-axis texture and crystallographic tilting of crystallites that take place in thin film of transition metal nitrides. For this purpose, the microstructural development of TiAlN film was studied, specially the change in texture with film thickness. Fiber texture was measured using θ-2θ and pole figure X-ray diffraction (XRD), while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe the microstructure and changes in texture with thickness. The sin 2 ψ method was applied to determine the stresses on (1 1 1) and (0 0 2) plane. With deposition parameters chosen, the growth texture mechanism is discussed in three different stages of film growth. Surface energy minimization at low thickness leads to the development of (0 0 2) orientation. On the other hand, the competitive growth promotes the growth of (1 1 1) planes parallel to film surface at higher thickness. However, contrary to the prediction of growth models, the (0 0 2) grains are not completely overlapped by (1 1 1) grains at higher thickness. Rather the (0 0 2) grains still constitute the surface, but are tilted away from the substrate normal showing substantial in-plane alignment to allow the (1 1 1) planes remain parallel to film surface. Intrinsic stress along (1 1 1) and (0 0 2) shows a strong dependence with preferred orientation. The stress level in (0 0 2) grains which was compressive at low thickness changes to tensile at higher thickness. This change in the nature of stress allows the (0 0 2) planes to tilt away in order to promote the growth of 〈1 1 1〉 parallel to film normal and to minimize the overall energy of system due to high compressive stress stored in the (1 1 1) grains. The change in surface morphology with thickness was observed using SEM. An increase in surface roughness with film thickness was observed which indicates the development of (1 1 1) texture parallel to film

  20. Magnetic and structural properties of Co2FeAl thin films grown on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmeguenai, Mohamed; Tuzcuoglu, Hanife; Gabor, Mihai; Petrisor, Traian; Tiusan, Coriolan; Berling, Dominique; Zighem, Fatih; Mourad Chérif, Salim

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between magnetic and structural properties of Co 2 FeAl (CFA) thin films of different thicknesses (10 nmout-of-plane textured growth of the films. The deduced lattice parameter increases with the film thickness. Moreover, pole figures showed no in-plane preferential growth orientation. The magneto-optical Kerr effect hysteresis loops showed the presence of a weak in-plane uniaxial anisotropy with a random easy axis direction. The coercive field, measured with the applied field along the easy axis direction, and the uniaxial anisotropy field increase linearly with the inverse of the CFA thickness. The microstrip line ferromagnetic resonance measurements for in-plane and perpendicular applied magnetic fields revealed that the effective magnetization and the uniaxial in-plane anisotropy field follow a linear variation versus the inverse CFA thickness. This allows deriving a perpendicular surface anisotropy coefficient of −1.86 erg/cm 2 . - Highlights: • Various Co 2 FeAl thin films were grown on a Si(001) substrates and annealed at 600 °C. • The thickness dependence of magnetic and structural properties has been studied. • X-ray measurements revealed an (011) out-of-plane textured growth of the films. • The easy axis coercive field varies linearly with the inverse CFA thickness. • The effective magnetization increases linearly with the inverse film thickness

  1. Magnetic and structural properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl thin films grown on Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmeguenai, Mohamed, E-mail: belmeguenai.mohamed@univ-paris13.fr [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407) 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément Université Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Tuzcuoglu, Hanife [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407) 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément Université Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Gabor, Mihai; Petrisor, Traian [Center for Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Street Memorandumului No. 28, RO-400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tiusan, Coriolan [Center for Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Street Memorandumului No. 28, RO-400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS, Université de Nancy, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Berling, Dominique [IS2M (CNRS-LRC 7228), 15 rue Jean Starcky, Université de Haute-Alsace, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse-Cedex (France); Zighem, Fatih; Mourad Chérif, Salim [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407) 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément Université Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between magnetic and structural properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl (CFA) thin films of different thicknesses (10 nmout-of-plane textured growth of the films. The deduced lattice parameter increases with the film thickness. Moreover, pole figures showed no in-plane preferential growth orientation. The magneto-optical Kerr effect hysteresis loops showed the presence of a weak in-plane uniaxial anisotropy with a random easy axis direction. The coercive field, measured with the applied field along the easy axis direction, and the uniaxial anisotropy field increase linearly with the inverse of the CFA thickness. The microstrip line ferromagnetic resonance measurements for in-plane and perpendicular applied magnetic fields revealed that the effective magnetization and the uniaxial in-plane anisotropy field follow a linear variation versus the inverse CFA thickness. This allows deriving a perpendicular surface anisotropy coefficient of −1.86 erg/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Various Co{sub 2}FeAl thin films were grown on a Si(001) substrates and annealed at 600 °C. • The thickness dependence of magnetic and structural properties has been studied. • X-ray measurements revealed an (011) out-of-plane textured growth of the films. • The easy axis coercive field varies linearly with the inverse CFA thickness. • The effective magnetization increases linearly with the inverse film thickness.

  2. Variable substrate temperature deposition of CoFeB film on Ta for manipulating the perpendicular coercive forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, Saravanan; Rao, Subha Krishna [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Muthuvel, Manivel Raja [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Hyderabad 500058 (India); Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Therese, Helen Annal, E-mail: helen.a@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Ta/CoFeB(50 nm)/Ta thin films were deposited at various substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). • CoFeB films deposited at T{sub s} such as RT, 450 °C, 475 °C and 500 °C exhibited perpendicular coercivity. • CoFeB deposited at 475 °C displayed a higher coercivity of 315 Oe and a low M{sub s} of 169 emu/cc. • The enhanced crystallization of CoFeB at the Ta/CoFeB interface results in higher H{sub c} (⟂). - Abstract: Magnetization of Ta/CoFeB/Ta trilayer films with thick layer of CoFeB deposited under different substrate temperatures (T{sub s}) via ultra-high vacuum DC sputtering technique has been measured with the applied magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film respectively to study the perpendicular coercive forces of the film. The samples were further analyzed for its structural, topological, morphological, and electrical transport properties. The core chemical states for the elements present in the CoFeB thin film were analyzed by XPS studies. Magnetization studies reveal the existence of perpendicular coercive forces in CoFeB films deposited only at certain temperatures such as RT, 450 °C, 475 °C and 500 °C. CoFeB film deposited at 475 °C exhibited a maximum coercivity of 315 Oe and a very low saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 169 emu/cc in perpendicular direction. This pronounced effect in perpendicular coercive forces observed for CoFeB475 could be attributed to the effect of temperature in enhancing the crystallization of the film at the Ta/CoFeB interfaces. However at temperatures higher than 475 °C the destruction of the Ta/CoFeB interface due to intermixing of Ta and CoFeB results in the disappearance of magnetic anisotropy.

  3. Effect of shell thickness on the exchange bias blocking temperature and coercivity in Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Reethu, K.; Thanveer, T.; Myint, M. T. Z.; Al-Harthi, S. H.

    2017-08-01

    The exchange bias blocking temperature distribution of naturally oxidized Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles exhibits two distinct signatures. These are associated with the existence of two magnetic entities which are responsible for the temperature dependence of an exchange bias field. One is from the CoO grains which undergo thermally activated magnetization reversal. The other is from the disordered spins at the Co-CoO interface which exhibits spin-glass-like behavior. We investigated the oxide shell thickness dependence of the exchange bias effect. For particles with a 3 nm thick CoO shell, the predominant contribution to the temperature dependence of exchange bias is the interfacial spin-glass layer. On increasing the shell thickness to 4 nm, the contribution from the spin-glass layer decreases, while upholding the antiferromagnetic grain contribution. For samples with a 4 nm CoO shell, the exchange bias training was minimal. On the other hand, 3 nm samples exhibited both the training effect and a peak in coercivity at an intermediate set temperature Ta. This is explained using a magnetic core-shell model including disordered spins at the interface.

  4. A novel fabrication process for out-of-plane microneedle sheets of biocompatible polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Manhee; Hyun, Dong-Hun; Park, Hyoun-Hyang; Lee, Seung S.; Kim, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Changgyou

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents a novel process for fabricating out-of-plane microneedle sheets of biocompatible polymer using in-plane microneedles. This process comprises four steps: (1) fabrication of in-plane microneedles using inclined UV lithography and electroforming, (2) conversion of the in-plane microneedles to an out-of-plane microneedle array, (3) fabrication of a negative PDMS mold and (4) fabrication of out-of-plane microneedle sheets of biocompatible polymer by hot embossing. The in-plane microneedles are fabricated with a sharp tip for low insertion forces and are made long to ensure sufficient penetration depth. The in-plane microneedles are converted into an out-of-plane microneedle array to increase the needle density. The negative mold is fabricated for mass-production using a polymer molding technique. The final out-of-plane microneedle sheets are produced using polycarbonate for biocompatibility by employing the hot embossing process. The height of the fabricated needles ranges from 500 to 1500 µm, and the distance between the needles is 500 to 2000 µm. The radii of curvature are approximately 2 µm, while the tip angles are in the range of 39-56°. Most of the geometrical characteristics of the out-of-plane microneedles can be freely controlled for real life applications such as drug delivery, cosmetic delivery and mesotherapy. Since it is also possible to mass-produce the microneedles, this novel process holds sufficient potential for applications in industrial fields.

  5. In-plane and out-of-plane emission of nuclear matter in Au+Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastid, N.; Dupieux, P.; Ramillien, V.; Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V.; Berger, L.; Boussange, S.; Fraysse, L.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Montarou, G.

    1995-01-01

    Collective flow effects in Au (E/A = 150 to 800 MeV) on Au collisions measured with the phase I setup of the FOPI detector at GSI - Darmstadt are presented. Directed side ward flow is studied, by the mean transverse momentum in the reaction plane x (y)>, without reaction plane reconstruction. A more quantitative measurement of the global amount of directed side ward flow is also made and some comparisons with the predictions of different QMD versions are given. Experimental results concerning the preferential emission of particles in a direction perpendicular to the reaction plane are also presented. Azimuthal distributions of fragments around the beam axis, with respect to the reaction plane are studied in the mid-rapidity region and the associated R N (out-of-plane/in-plane ratios) are extracted. The dependence of R N upon transverse momentum, centrality, fragment charge and bombarding energy is studied. (authors). 24 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  6. On Out of Plane Equilibrium Points in Photo-Gravitational Restricted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have investigated the out of plane equilibrium points of a passive micron size particle and their stability in the field of radiating binary stellar systems Krüger-60, RW-Monocerotis within the framework of photo-gravitational circular restricted three-body problem. We find that the out of plane equilibrium points (Li,i ...

  7. Surface polarization, rumpling, and domain ordering of strained ultrathin BaTiO_3(001) films with in-plane and out-of-plane polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionot, Jelle; Mathieu, Claire; Barrett, Nick; Geneste, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    BaTiO_3 ultrathin films (thickness ≅1.6 nm) with in- and out-of-plane polarization are studied by first-principles calculations. Out-of-plane polarization is simulated using the method proposed by Shimada et al. [Phys. Rev. B 81, 144116 (2010)], which consists in building a supercell containing small domains with alternating up and down polarization. This allows one to investigate the properties of defect free BaTiO_3 ultrathin films with polarization perpendicular to the surface, as a function of in-plane lattice constant, i.e., epitaxial strain. The configurations with polarization perpendicular to the surface (c phase) are found stable under compressive strain, while under tensile strain, the polarization tends to lie in-plane (aa phase), along [110]. In the c phase, the most stable domain width is predicted to be 1 to 2 lattice constants, and the magnitude of the surface rumpling varies according to the direction of the polarization (upwards versus downwards), though its sign is unchanged, the oxygen anions pointing in all cases outwards. Finally, all the surfaces studied are found to be insulating. Analysis of the atom-projected electronic density of states gives insight into the surface contributions to the electronic structure. An important reduction of the Kohn-Sham band gap is predicted at TiO_2 terminations in the c phase (≅1 eV with respect to the aa phase). The Madelung potential at the surface plays the dominant role in modifications of the surface electronic structure. (authors)

  8. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said; Sharaf, Abdel Hameed; Serry, Mohamed Yousef; Sedky, Sherif Salah

    2014-01-01

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  9. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said

    2014-02-04

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  10. 3D-Structured Stretchable Strain Sensors for Out-of-Plane Force Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Qi, Dianpeng; Leow, Wan Ru; Yu, Jiancan; Xiloyannnis, Michele; Cappello, Leonardo; Liu, Yaqing; Zhu, Bowen; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Geng; Masia, Lorenzo; Liedberg, Bo; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-05-17

    Stretchable strain sensors, as the soft mechanical interface, provide the key mechanical information of the systems for healthcare monitoring, rehabilitation assistance, soft exoskeletal devices, and soft robotics. Stretchable strain sensors based on 2D flat film have been widely developed to monitor the in-plane force applied within the plane where the sensor is placed. However, to comprehensively obtain the mechanical feedback, the capability to detect the out-of-plane force, caused by the interaction outside of the plane where the senor is located, is needed. Herein, a 3D-structured stretchable strain sensor is reported to monitor the out-of-plane force by employing 3D printing in conjunction with out-of-plane capillary force-assisted self-pinning of carbon nanotubes. The 3D-structured sensor possesses large stretchability, multistrain detection, and strain-direction recognition by one single sensor. It is demonstrated that out-of-plane forces induced by the air/fluid flow are reliably monitored and intricate flow details are clearly recorded. The development opens up for the exploration of next-generation 3D stretchable sensors for electronic skin and soft robotics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. High performance hard magnetic NdFeB thick films for integration into micro-electro-mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, N. M.; Walther, A.; May, F.; Givord, D.; Khlopkov, K.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2007-01-01

    5 μm thick NdFeB films have been sputtered onto 100 mm Si substrates using high rate sputtering (18 μm/h). Films were deposited at ≤500 deg. C and then annealed at 750 deg. C for 10 min. While films deposited at temperatures up to 450 deg. C have equiaxed grains, the size of which decreases with increasing deposition temperature, the films deposited at 500 deg. C have columnar grains. The out-of-plane remanent magnetization increases with deposition temperature, reaching a maximum value of 1.4 T, while the coercivity remains constant at about 1.6 T. The maximum energy product achieved (400 kJ/m 3 ) is comparable to that of high-quality NdFeB sintered magnets

  12. Pull-out test of stud bolts embedded in concrete under an in-plane force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Y.; Saito, H.; Torita, H.; Takiguchi, K.; Ibe, Y.; Taira, T.

    1995-01-01

    There are many steel plates with stud bolts embedded in the R C walls of a nuclear reactor building to support equipment and piping. Under a earthquake, the steel plates are submitted to an out-of-plane force due to the inertia force acting upon equipment and piping. Furthermore, the walls are submitted to an in-plane force, and cracks may occur. A large number of experimental studies have been carried out on the pull-out strength of stud bolts embedded in concrete. Few studies have been performed to understand the strength of stud bolts embedded in concrete under an in-plane force and, further, not any one on the strength for concrete under in-plane force simultaneously to stud bolts under out-of-plane force. This paper describes a test performed to understand the pull-out strength determined by this interaction of in-plane and out-of-plane forces. (author). 5 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Spatial filtering velocimetry for real-time out-of-plane displacement measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Sig; Yura, H.T.; Jakobsen, Michael Linde

    2016-01-01

    power spectrum of the photocurrent produced by this filter. This main contribution of this paper is a model, which describe the selectivity of the sensor, applied to speckle dynamics generated by an object moving out-of-plane. To motivate our interest in these filters we also present an all optical......We probe the dynamics of objective laser speckles as the axial distance between the object and the observation plane changes. With the purpose of measuring out-of-plane motion in real time, we apply optical spatial filtering velocimetry to the speckle dynamics. To achieve this, a rotationally...... symmetric spatial filter is designed. The spatial filter converts the speckle dynamics into a photocurrent with a quasi-sinusoidal response to the out-of-plane motion. The selectivity of the sensor relates directly to the uncertainty on sensor measurements. The selectivity most be derived from a temporal...

  14. Fabrication and analysis of awl-shaped serpentine microsprings for large out-of-plane displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Hui-Min; Chen, Rongshun; Lin, Meng-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates a novel awl-shaped serpentine microspring for a suspension structure, with a lower spring constant under the same unit layout area in out-of-plane motion. Using Castigliano’s theorem, the spring constant of the microspring was theoretically derived and simulations were performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to verify the theoretical results. The proposed awl-shaped serpentine microspring was successfully fabricated using silicon-based micromachining. Experiments were conducted to compare the theoretical and numerical results, which were in close agreement. In addition, a parameter of spring constant to layout area ratio (K/A) is defined to be used as the index for comparing spring constants under the same unit area. Accordingly, the awl-shaped serpentine microspring has a lower K/A value than the traditional serpentine microspring with the same total effective length and folds. With a greater taper angle, more folds, a smaller beam width, and lower beam thickness, the awl-shaped serpentine microspring has a smaller K/A value. Using the proposed mathematical model, the spring constants of microsprings of various sizes and geometric structures can be calculated in out-of-plane motion before the microstructure is fabricated. Thus, it saves time when designing a microspring with a proper spring constant. (paper)

  15. The effect of sputter-deposition conditions on the coercive force in amorphous rare-earth - transition-metal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, C.F.; Somekh, R.E.; Evetts, J.E.; Storey, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The origins of the coercive force in amorphous rare earth - transition metal films have been investigated, the results being discussed in terms of how the growth conditions of the sputter-deposited films determine the pinning features which cause the coercive force. The authors have studied the variation of coercive force with film thickness and developed a model which enables a local pinning force per unit area to be deduced. This suggests that it should be possible to increase the coercive force by breaking up the microstructure with a multi-layered structure. An increase in coercive force obtained by making such structures with tungsten is described. They also report on the reduction in coercive force obtained when the films are deposited in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field

  16. In-plane and out-of-plane nonlinear dynamics of an axially moving beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Amabili, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the nonlinear forced dynamics of an axially moving beam is investigated numerically taking into account the in-plane and out-of-plane motions. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the motion of the system are derived via Hamilton’s principle. The Galerkin scheme is then introduced to these partial differential equations yielding a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations with coupled terms. This set is transformed into a new set of first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations by means of a change of variables. A direct time integration technique is conducted upon the new set of equations resulting in the bifurcation diagrams of Poincaré maps of the system. The dynamical characteristics of the system are investigated for different system parameters and presented through use of time histories, phase-plane portraits, Poincaré sections, and fast Fourier transforms

  17. In-plane and out-of-plane bending tests on carbon steel pipe bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouard, D.; Tremblais, A.; Vrillon, B.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of these tests were to obtain experimental results on bends behaviour in elastic and plastic regime by in plane and out of plane bending. Results were used to improve the computer model, for large distorsion of bends, to be used in a simplified beam type computer code for piping calculations. Tests were made on type ANSI B 169 DN 5 bends in ASTM A 106 Grade B carbon steel. These tests made it possible to measure, for identical bends, in elastic regime, the flexibility factors and, in plastic regime, the total evolution in opening, in closing and out of plane. Flexibility factors of 180 0 bend without flanges are approximately the same in opening and in closing. The end effect due to flanges is not very significant, but it is important for 90 0 bends. In plastic regime, collapse loads or collapse moments of bends depends also of both the end effects and the angle bend. The end effects and the angle bend are more sensitive in opening than in closing. The interest of these tests is to procure some precise evolution curves of identical bends well characterized in geometry and metal strength, deflected in large distorsions. (orig./HP)

  18. Intercorrelated in-plane and out-of-plane ferroelectricity in ultrathin two-dimensional layered semiconductor In2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Chaojie; Hu, Weijin; Yan, Xingxu; Addiego, Christopher; Gao, Wenpei; Wang, Yao; Wang, Zhe; Li, Linze; Cheng, Yingchun; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N.; Wu, Tao; Zhu, Wenguang; Pan, Xiaoqing; Li, Lain-Jong

    2018-01-01

    Enriching the functionality of ferroelectric materials with visible-light sensitivity and multiaxial switching capability would open up new opportunities for their applications in advanced information storage with diverse signal manipulation functions. We report experimental observations of robust intra-layer ferroelectricity in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals layered -In2Se3 ultrathin flakes at room temperature. Distinct from other 2D and conventional ferroelectrics, In2Se3 exhibits intrinsically intercorrelated out-of-plane and in-plane polarization, where the reversal of the out-of-plane polarization by a vertical electric field also induces the rotation of the in-plane polarization. Based on the in-plane switchable diode effect and the narrow bandgap (~1.3 eV) of ferroelectric In2Se3, a prototypical non-volatile memory device, which can be manipulated both by electric field and visible light illumination, is demonstrated for advancing data storage technologies.

  19. Intercorrelated in-plane and out-of-plane ferroelectricity in ultrathin two-dimensional layered semiconductor In2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Chaojie

    2018-01-30

    Enriching the functionality of ferroelectric materials with visible-light sensitivity and multiaxial switching capability would open up new opportunities for their applications in advanced information storage with diverse signal manipulation functions. We report experimental observations of robust intra-layer ferroelectricity in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals layered -In2Se3 ultrathin flakes at room temperature. Distinct from other 2D and conventional ferroelectrics, In2Se3 exhibits intrinsically intercorrelated out-of-plane and in-plane polarization, where the reversal of the out-of-plane polarization by a vertical electric field also induces the rotation of the in-plane polarization. Based on the in-plane switchable diode effect and the narrow bandgap (~1.3 eV) of ferroelectric In2Se3, a prototypical non-volatile memory device, which can be manipulated both by electric field and visible light illumination, is demonstrated for advancing data storage technologies.

  20. Spatial filtering velocimetry of objective speckles for measuring out-of-plane motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Yura, H. T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of objective laser speckles as the distance between the object and the observation plane continuously changes. With the purpose of applying optical spatial filtering velocimetry to the speckle dynamics, in order to measure out-of-plane motion in real time......, a rotational symmetric spatial filter is designed. The spatial filter converts the speckle dynamics into a photocurrent with a quasi-sinusoidal response to the out-of-plane motion. The spatial filter is here emulated with a CCD camera, and is tested on speckles arising from a real application. The analysis...

  1. Plane symmetric cosmological model with thick domain walls in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, D.; Bayaskar, S.; Patil, V.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated plane symmetric cosmological model in presence of thick domain walls in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation, some geometrical and physical behavior of the model are discussed. (authors)

  2. Generation of tunable terahertz out-of-plane radiation using Josephson vortices in modulated layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, Valery; Rakhmanov, Alexander; Nori, Franco

    2005-01-01

    We show that a moving Josephson vortex in spatially modulated layered superconductors generates out-of-plane THz radiation. Remarkably, the magnetic and in-plane electric fields radiated are of the same order, which is very unusual for any good-conducting medium. Therefore, the out-of-plane radiation can be emitted to the vacuum without the standard impedance mismatch problem. Thus, the proposed tunable THz emitter for out-of-plane radiation can be more efficient than the standard one which radiates only along the ab-plane

  3. Intercorrelated In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Ferroelectricity in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Layered Semiconductor In2Se3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chaojie; Hu, Wei-Jin; Yan, Xingxu; Addiego, Christopher; Gao, Wenpei; Wang, Yao; Wang, Zhe; Li, Linze; Cheng, Yingchun; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N; Wu, Tom; Zhu, Wenguang; Pan, Xiaoqing; Li, Lain-Jong

    2018-02-14

    Enriching the functionality of ferroelectric materials with visible-light sensitivity and multiaxial switching capability would open up new opportunities for their applications in advanced information storage with diverse signal manipulation functions. We report experimental observations of robust intralayer ferroelectricity in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals layered α-In 2 Se 3 ultrathin flakes at room temperature. Distinct from other 2D and conventional ferroelectrics, In 2 Se 3 exhibits intrinsically intercorrelated out-of-plane and in-plane polarization, where the reversal of the out-of-plane polarization by a vertical electric field also induces the rotation of the in-plane polarization. On the basis of the in-plane switchable diode effect and the narrow bandgap (∼1.3 eV) of ferroelectric In 2 Se 3 , a prototypical nonvolatile memory device, which can be manipulated both by electric field and visible light illumination, is demonstrated for advancing data storage technologies.

  4. Tuning coercive force by adjusting electric potential in solution processed Co/Pt(111) and the mechanism involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Kuo, Wei-Hsu; Chang, Yu-Chieh; Tsay, Jyh-Shen; Yau, Shueh-Lin

    2017-03-01

    A combination of a solution process and the control of the electric potential for magnetism represents a new approach to operating spintronic devices with a highly controlled efficiency and lower power consumption with reduced production cost. As a paradigmatic example, we investigated Co/Pt(111) in the Bloch-wall regime. The depression in coercive force was detected by applying a negative electric potential in an electrolytic solution. The reversible control of coercive force by varying the electric potential within few hundred millivolts is demonstrated. By changing the electric potential in ferromagnetic layers with smaller thicknesses, the efficiency for controlling the tunable coercive force becomes higher. Assuming that the pinning domains are independent of the applied electric potential, an electric potential tuning-magnetic anisotropy energy model was derived and provided insights into our knowledge of the relation between the electric potential tuning coercive force and the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer. Based on the fact that the coercive force can be tuned by changing the electric potential using a solution process, we developed a novel concept of electric-potential-tuned magnetic recording, resulting in a stable recording media with a high degree of writing ability.

  5. Metallization of high aspect ratio, out of plane structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    This work is dedicated to developing a novel three dimensional structure for electrochemical measurements in neuronal studies. The final prototype will allow not only for the study and culture on chip of neuronal cells, but also of brain tissue. The use of out-of-plane electrodes instead of planar...... ones increases the sensitivity of the system and increases the signal-to-noise ratio in the recorded signals, due to the higher availability of surface area. The main bottleneck of the out-of-plane electrode fabrication lies in the metallization process for transforming them into active electrodes......, since the coverage of the side walls of almost vertical pillars is not trivial by standard processes in a clean room facility. This paper will discuss the different steps taken towards this goal and present the results that we have obtained so far....

  6. Micromagnetic simulation of the orientation dependence of grain boundary properties on the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujisaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the micromagnetic simulation study about the orientation dependence of grain boundary properties on the coercivity of polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets. A multigrain object with a large number of meshes is introduced to analyze such anisotropic grain boundaries and the simulation is performed by combining the finite element method and the parallel computing. When the grain boundary phase parallel to the c-plane is less ferromagnetic the process of the magnetization reversal changes and the coercivity of the multigrain object increases. The simulations with various magnetic properties of the grain boundary phases are executed to search for the way to enhance the coercivity of polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets.

  7. Stresses and strains in thick perforated orthotropic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Alshaya; John Hunt; R. Rowlands

    2016-01-01

    Stress and strain concentrations and in-plane and out-of-plane stress constraint factors associated with a circular hole in thick, loaded orthotropic composite plates are determined by three-dimensional finite element method. The plate has essentially infinite in-plane geometry but finite thickness. Results for Sitka Spruce wood are emphasized, although some for carbon...

  8. Out-of-Plane Electromechanical Response of Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Measured by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Christopher J; Ghosh, Rudresh; Koul, Kalhan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Lu, Nanshu; Yu, Edward T

    2017-09-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently been theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed to exhibit electromechanical coupling. Specifically, monolayer and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) have been measured to be piezoelectric within the plane of their atoms. This work demonstrates and quantifies a nonzero out-of-plane electromechanical response of monolayer MoS 2 and discusses its possible origins. A piezoresponse force microscope was used to measure the out-of-plane deformation of monolayer MoS 2 on Au/Si and Al 2 O 3 /Si substrates. Using a vectorial background subtraction technique, we estimate the effective out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficient, d 33 eff , for monolayer MoS 2 to be 1.03 ± 0.22 pm/V when measured on the Au/Si substrate and 1.35 ± 0.24 pm/V when measured on Al 2 O 3 /Si. This is on the same order as the in-plane coefficient d 11 reported for monolayer MoS 2 . Interpreting the out-of-plane response as a flexoelectric response, the effective flexoelectric coefficient, μ eff * , is estimated to be 0.10 nC/m. Analysis has ruled out the possibility of elastic and electrostatic forces contributing to the measured electromechanical response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy detected some contaminants on both MoS 2 and its substrate, but the background subtraction technique is expected to remove major contributions from the unwanted contaminants. These measurements provide evidence that monolayer MoS 2 exhibits an out-of-plane electromechanical response and our analysis offers estimates of the effective piezoelectric and flexoelectric coefficients.

  9. Out-of-plane displacement measurement by means of endoscopic moire interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Celorio, R.A.; Dirckx, Joris J.J.; Marti-Lopez, Luis; Pena-Lecona, Francisco G.

    2004-01-01

    An endoscopic moire technique is proposed for measuring out-of-plane displacements in difficult to reach places. The Ronchi grid is projected onto the tilted object with one endoscope with a 0 deg. viewing angle. The object with the projected grid is imaged by a second endoscope with a 30 deg. viewing angle onto a charge-coupled device. The captured images are stored in a PC, and are used to calculate the out-of-plane displacement of the object with a phase stepping technique. A computer generated grating method is used instead of a physical phase-shift device in the optical setup. This allows designing a set of three reference grids with profiles closely similar to the projected grating. The technique is robust against problems associated with the temporal shifting method, such as nonlinear phase shift and noise. To test the feasibility of the technique the measurement of out-of-plane displacements of about 35 μm of a latex membrane under deformation is demonstrated. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  10. Creating large out-of-plane displacement electrothermal motion stage by incorporating beams with step features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Sik; Dagalakis, Nicholas G; Gupta, Satyandra K

    2013-01-01

    Realizing out-of-plane actuation in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is still a challenging task. In this paper, the design, fabrication methods and experimental results for a MEMS-based out-of-plane motion stage are presented based on bulk micromachining technologies. This stage is electrothermally actuated for out-of-plane motion by incorporating beams with step features. The fabricated motion stage has demonstrated displacements of 85 µm with 0.4 µm (mA) −1 rates and generated up to 11.8 mN forces with stiffness of 138.8 N m −1 . These properties obtained from the presented stage are comparable to those for in-plane motion stages, therefore making this out-of-plane stage useful when used in combination with in-plane motion stages. (paper)

  11. Out-of-plane microvalves for whole blood separation on lab-on-a-CD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingjie; Zhang, Limin; Leung, Kar Man; Yang, Jun

    2010-10-01

    The emergence of lab-on-a-CD technology provides a centrifugal and compact platform for high throughput blood analysis in point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Blood separation of the whole blood is the first step for clinical blood diagnosis. This paper describes a novel design of an out-of-plane microvalve that enables high performance of whole blood separation on lab-on-a-CD centrifugal devices. In our lab-on-a-CD design, blood cells and plasma are redistributed into a downstream sedimentation reservoir and an upstream supernatant reservoir, respectively, when the device spins. By tuning the rotational speed, the 'close' or 'open' status of an out-of-plane microvalve embedded in the lab-on-a-CD device is controlled to isolate these two reservoirs. Compared with a similar design but without the out-of-plane microvalve, this novel microvalve structure can effectively prevent blood cells from diffusing back to the supernatant reservoir containing pure plasma, and thus improve the performance of blood separation as well as subsequent blood analysis. We demonstrate that the lab-on-a-CD device with out-of-plane microvalves can achieve 99.9% plasma purity and 96 ± 0.5% plasma yield for the whole blood. Because of its simple structure and easily controlled working mechanism, the out-of-plane microvalve not only leads to high performance of whole blood separation, but also makes the manufacturing of this type of lab-on-a-CD device easy and inexpensive. If integrated into some existing lab-on-a-CD devices, the out-of-plane microvalve may also help improve their performance.

  12. Out-of-plane microvalves for whole blood separation on lab-on-a-CD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingjie; Zhang, Limin; Leung, Kar Man; Yang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of lab-on-a-CD technology provides a centrifugal and compact platform for high throughput blood analysis in point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Blood separation of the whole blood is the first step for clinical blood diagnosis. This paper describes a novel design of an out-of-plane microvalve that enables high performance of whole blood separation on lab-on-a-CD centrifugal devices. In our lab-on-a-CD design, blood cells and plasma are redistributed into a downstream sedimentation reservoir and an upstream supernatant reservoir, respectively, when the device spins. By tuning the rotational speed, the 'close' or 'open' status of an out-of-plane microvalve embedded in the lab-on-a-CD device is controlled to isolate these two reservoirs. Compared with a similar design but without the out-of-plane microvalve, this novel microvalve structure can effectively prevent blood cells from diffusing back to the supernatant reservoir containing pure plasma, and thus improve the performance of blood separation as well as subsequent blood analysis. We demonstrate that the lab-on-a-CD device with out-of-plane microvalves can achieve 99.9% plasma purity and 96 ± 0.5% plasma yield for the whole blood. Because of its simple structure and easily controlled working mechanism, the out-of-plane microvalve not only leads to high performance of whole blood separation, but also makes the manufacturing of this type of lab-on-a-CD device easy and inexpensive. If integrated into some existing lab-on-a-CD devices, the out-of-plane microvalve may also help improve their performance

  13. Shear flow over a plane wall with an axisymmetric cavity or a circular orifice of finite thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    1994-01-01

    Shear flow over a plane wall that contains an axisymmetric depression or pore is studied using a new boundary integral method which is suitable for computing three-dimensional Stokes flow within axisymmetric domains. Numerical results are presented for cavities in the shape of a section of a sphere or a circular cylinder of finite length, and for a family of pores or orifices with finite thickness. The results illustrate the distribution of shear stresses over the plane wall and inside the cavities or pores. It is found that in most cases, the distribution of shear stresses over the plane wall, around the depressions, is well approximated with that for flow over an orifice of infinitesimal thickness for which an exact solution is available. The kinematic structure of the flow is discussed with reference to eddy formation and three-dimensional flow reversal. It is shown that the thickness of a circular orifice or depth of a pore play an important role in determining the kinematical structure of the flow underneath the orifice in the lower half-space

  14. The coercivity mechanism of Pr–Fe–B nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Wen-Liang, E-mail: wlzuo@iphy.ac.cn; Zhang, Ming; Niu, E.; Shao, Xiao-Ping; Hu, Feng-Xia; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen, E-mail: shenbg@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2015-09-15

    The strong (00l) textured Pr{sub 12+x}Fe{sub 82−x}B{sub 6} (x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4) nanoflakes with high coercivity were prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM). The thickness and length of the flakes are mainly in the range of 50−200 nm and 0.5−2 μm, respectively. A coercivity of 4.16 kOe for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes was obtained, which is the maximum coercivity of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (R=Pr, Nd) nanoflakes or nanoparticles reported up to now. The results of XRD and SEM for the aligned Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes indicate that a strong (00l) texture is obtained and the easy magnetization direction is parallel to the surface of the flakes. The angular dependence of coercivity for aligned sample indicates that the coercivity mechanism of the as-milled nanoflakes is mainly dominated by domain wall pinning. Meanwhile, the field dependence of coercivity, isothermal (IRM) and dc demagnetizing (DCD) remanence curves also indicate that the coercivity is mainly determined by domain wall pinning, and nucleation also has an important effect. In addition, the mainly interaction of flakes is dipolar coupling. The research of coercivity mechanism for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes is important for guidance the further increase its value, and is useful for the future development of the high performance nanocomposite magnets and soft/hard exchange spring magnets. - Highlights: • A coercivity of 4.16 kOe for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes was obtained. • The strong (00l) textured is obtained for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes. • The interaction of nanoflakes is mainly dipolar coupling. • Domain wall pinning is the mainly coercivity mechanism.

  15. Out-of-plane ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nukui, Yasushi; Imamura, Akira; Terayama, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Kojima, Isao

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the out-of-plane shear in RC mat-slab foundations, and the reasonable method has been demanded to estimate ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations in the nuclear facilities. In the previous study, the out-of-plane loading tests on the 20 square slab specimens had been performed to collect the fundamental data. In this study, the test results were successfully predicted by 3D non-linear Finite Element Analysis. It has been confirmed that the ultimate shear stress in the slab specimen can be estimated by the Arakawa's formula, which is commonly used to estimate the shear strength of RC beams. (author)

  16. Highly coercive thin-film nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.; Skomski, R.; Kashyap, A.; Sorge, K.D.; Sui, Y.; Daniil, M.; Gao, L.; Yan, M.L.; Liou, S.-H.; Kirby, R.D.; Sellmyer, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The processing, structure, and magnetism of highly coercive Sm-Co and FePt thin-film nanostructures are investigated. The structures include 1:5 based Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets, particulate FePt:C thin films, and FePt nanotubes. As in other systems, the coercivity depends on texture and imperfections, but there are some additional features. A specific coercivity mechanism in particulate media is a discrete pinning mode intermediate between Stoner-Wohlfarth rotation and ordinary domain-wall pinning. This mechanism yields a coercivity maximum for intermediate intergranular exchange and explains the occurrence of coercivities of 5 T in particulate Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets

  17. Giant coercivity in ferromagnetic Co doped ZnO single crystal thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukya, B.; Negi, D.S.; Dileep, K.; Kumar, N.; Ghatak, Jay; Datta, R.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of ferromagnetism in ZnO doped with transition metal impurities has been discussed extensively and appeared to be a highly controversial and challenging topic in today's solid state physics. Magnetism observed in this system is generally weak and soft. We have grown Co:ZnO up to 30 at% Co in single crystal thin film form on c-plane sapphire. A composition dependent coercivity is observed in this system which reaches peak value at 25 at% Co, the values are 860 Oe and 1149 Oe with applied field along parallel and perpendicular to the film substrate interface respectively. This giant coercivity might pave the way to exploit this material as a magnetic semiconductor with novel logic functionalities. The findings are explained based on defect band itinerant ferromagnetism and its partial interaction with localized d electrons of Co through charge transfer. Besides large coercivity, an increase in the band gap with Co concentration has also been observed along with blue emission peak with long tail confirming the formation of extended point defect levels in the host lattice band gap. - Highlights: • Co doped ZnO ferromagnetic single crystal thin film. • Giant coercivity in Co:ZnO thin film which may help to turn this material into application. • Cathodoluminescence (CL) data showing increase in band gap with Co concentrations. • A theoretical proposal is made to explain the observed giant coercivity

  18. Study on the unified constraint parameter for characterizing in-plane and out-of-plane constraint based on the equivalent plastic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Wang Guozhen; Xuan Fuzhen; Tu Shandong

    2013-01-01

    Background: Constraint can significantly alter the material's fracture toughness. Purpose: In order to increase accuracy of the structural integrity assessment. It needs to consider the effect of constraint on the fracture toughness of nuclear power materials and structures. A unified measure which can reflect both in-plane and out-of-plane constraint is needed. Methods: In this paper, the finite element numerical simulation method was used, a unified measure and characterization parameter of in-plane and out-of-plane constraint based on crack-tip equivalent plastic strain have been investigated. Results: The results show that the area surrounded by ε p isoline has a good relevance with the material's fracture toughness on different constraint conditions, so it may be a suitable parameter. Based on the area A PEEQ , a unified constraint characterization parameter √A p is defined. It was found that there exists a sole linear relation between the normalized fracture toughness J IC /J re f and √A p regardless of the in-plane, out-of-plane constraint and the selection of the p isolines. The sole J IC /J re f-√A p line exists for a certain material. For different materials, the slope of J IC /J re f-√A p reference line is different. The material whose slope is larger has a higher J IC /J re f and is more sensitive to constraint at the same magnitude of normalized unified parameter. Conclusions: The unified J IC /J re f -√A p reference line may be used to assess the safety of a cracked component with any constraint levels regardless of in-plane or out-of-plane constraint or both. (authors)

  19. Performance of a compact detector package for the out-of-plane spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.-L.; Sirca, S.; Boeglin, W.; Sarty, A.J.; Alarcon, R.; Beck, R.; Bernstein, A.; Bertozzi, W.; Botto, T.; Bourgeois, P.; Calarco, J.; Casagrande, F.; Chen, J.; Comfort, J.R.; Dale, D.; Distler, M.O.; Dodson, G.; Dolfini, S.; Dooley, A.; Dow, K.; Epstein, M.; Farkhondeh, M.; Georgakopoulos, S.; Gilad, S.; Hicks, R.; Holtrop, M.; Hotta, A.; Jiang, X.; Joo, K.; Jordan, D.; Kaloskamis, N.; Karabarbounis, A.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Kowalski, S.; Kunz, C.; Liyanage, N.; Mandeville, J.; Margaziotis, D.J.; McIlvain, T.; Mertz, C.; Milner, R.; Miskimen, R.; Nakagawa, I.; Papanicolas, C.N.; Pavan, M.; Peterson, G.; Ramirez, A.; Rowntree, D.; Sato, Y.; Shaw, J.; Six, E.; Sobczynski, S.; Soong, S.-B.; Sparveris, N.; Stave, S.; Stiliaris, S.; Tamae, T.; Tieger, D.; Tschalaer, C.; Tsentalovich, G.; Turchinetz, W.; Vellidis, C.; Warren, G.A.; Weinstein, L.B.; Williamson, S.E.; Young, A.; Zhao, J.; Zwart, T.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the design and performance of compact detector packages currently installed in the four magnetic out-of-plane spectrometers for electron scattering experiments at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. The detector packages have been designed to meet the mechanical requirements arising from out-of-plane particle detection. They offer good trajectory and momentum reconstruction, particle identification and time-of-flight measurements for electrons, pions, protons, and deuterons with large momentum bites and in broad kinematical ranges and high luminosities. The detectors have so far been used with great success in out-of-plane measurements of 12 C(e→,e'p), 2 H(e→,e'p), virtual Compton scattering below pion threshold and in studies of the N→Δ transition in both exclusive reaction channels 1 H(e→,e'p)π 0 and 1 H(e→,e'π + )n

  20. Active point out-of-plane ultrasound calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alexis; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Haichong K.; Kang, Hyunjae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    Image-guided surgery systems are often used to provide surgeons with informational support. Due to several unique advantages such as ease of use, real-time image acquisition, and no ionizing radiation, ultrasound is a common intraoperative medical imaging modality used in image-guided surgery systems. To perform advanced forms of guidance with ultrasound, such as virtual image overlays or automated robotic actuation, an ultrasound calibration process must be performed. This process recovers the rigid body transformation between a tracked marker attached to the transducer and the ultrasound image. Point-based phantoms are considered to be accurate, but their calibration framework assumes that the point is in the image plane. In this work, we present the use of an active point phantom and a calibration framework that accounts for the elevational uncertainty of the point. Given the lateral and axial position of the point in the ultrasound image, we approximate a circle in the axial-elevational plane with a radius equal to the axial position. The standard approach transforms all of the imaged points to be a single physical point. In our approach, we minimize the distances between the circular subsets of each image, with them ideally intersecting at a single point. We simulated in noiseless and noisy cases, presenting results on out-of-plane estimation errors, calibration estimation errors, and point reconstruction precision. We also performed an experiment using a robot arm as the tracker, resulting in a point reconstruction precision of 0.64mm.

  1. Heterogeneous upper-bound finite element limit analysis of masonry walls out-of-plane loaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, G.; Zuccarello, F. A.; Olivito, R. S.; Tralli, A.

    2007-11-01

    A heterogeneous approach for FE upper bound limit analyses of out-of-plane loaded masonry panels is presented. Under the assumption of associated plasticity for the constituent materials, mortar joints are reduced to interfaces with a Mohr Coulomb failure criterion with tension cut-off and cap in compression, whereas for bricks both limited and unlimited strength are taken into account. At each interface, plastic dissipation can occur as a combination of out-of-plane shear, bending and torsion. In order to test the reliability of the model proposed, several examples of dry-joint panels out-of-plane loaded tested at the University of Calabria (Italy) are discussed. Numerical results are compared with experimental data for three different series of walls at different values of the in-plane compressive vertical loads applied. The comparisons show that reliable predictions of both collapse loads and failure mechanisms can be obtained by means of the numerical procedure employed.

  2. Forced in-plane vibration of a thick ring on a unilateral elastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjian; Ayalew, Beshah; Rhyne, Timothy; Cron, Steve; Dailliez, Benoit

    2016-10-01

    Most existing studies of a deformable ring on elastic foundation rely on the assumption of a linear foundation. These assumptions are insufficient in cases where the foundation may have a unilateral stiffness that vanishes in compression or tension such as in non-pneumatic tires and bushing bearings. This paper analyzes the in-plane dynamics of such a thick ring on a unilateral elastic foundation, specifically, on a two-parameter unilateral elastic foundation, where the stiffness of the foundation is treated as linear in the circumferential direction but unilateral (i.e. collapsible or tensionless) in the radial direction. The thick ring is modeled as an orthotropic and extensible circular Timoshenko beam. An arbitrarily distributed time-varying in-plane force is considered as the excitation. The Equations of Motion are explicitly derived and a solution method is proposed that uses an implicit Newmark scheme for the time domain solution and an iterative compensation approach to determine the unilateral zone of the foundation at each time step. The dynamic axle force transmission is also analyzed. Illustrative forced vibration responses obtained from the proposed model and solution method are compared with those obtained from a finite element model.

  3. Long-range current flow and percolation in Rabbits-type conductors and the relative importance of out-of-plane and in-plane mis orientations in determining J {sub c}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6116 (United States)]. E-mail: goyala@ornl.gov; Rutter, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6116 (United States); University of Cambridge, Pembroke St., Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Cantoni, C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6116 (United States); Lee, D.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6116 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Calculations of long-range current flow using an advanced percolation model show that with the presently observed texture in RABiTS substrates, the dependence of J {sub c} on length as a function of width is greatly reduced. Furthermore, this dependence becomes almost negligible in applied fields. These results suggest that sub-division of a wide conductor into narrow filaments should be possible without loss in J {sub c}. The relative importance of the out-of-plane texture in affecting intergranular J {sub c} was also explored by fabricating RABiTS substrates with different out-of-plane textures but approximately the same in-plane texture. This was accomplished by using TiN as a seed layer for which significant sharpening of the out-of-plane texture is observed. Similar J {sub c} was found for samples with differing out-of-plane texture but almost the same in-plane texture. Finally, separation of the total misorientation in GB networks into in-plane and out-of-plane misorientations using manipulations in Rodrigues space shows that J {sub c} correlates best with in-plane texture.

  4. Phase formation and strain relaxation of Ga2O3 on c-plane and a-plane sapphire substrates as studied by synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zongzhe; Hanke, Michael; Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver; Trampert, Achim

    2017-10-01

    Heteroepitaxial Ga2O3 was deposited on c-plane and a-plane oriented sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and probed by ex-situ and in-situ synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction. The investigation on c-plane sapphire determined a critical thickness of around 33 Å, at which the monoclinic β-phase forms on top of the hexagonal α-phase. A 143 Å thick single phase α-Ga2O3 was observed on a-plane sapphire, much thicker than the α-Ga2O3 on c-plane sapphire. The α-Ga2O3 relaxed very fast in the first 30 Å in both out-of-plane and in-plane directions as measured by the in-situ study.

  5. Unintended out-of-plane actions in size effect tests of structural concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramallo, J.C.; Danesi, R.F.; Kotsovos, M.D.; Pavlovic, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger research program on the causes of size-effect in structural concrete. The obtained results through the application of a nonlinear finite element analysis using material models extensive tested reliability, pointed out a possible connection between unintended out-of-plane actions and the ultimate strength of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, The computational analysis brought up unacceptable discrepancies only in those cases where possible unintended out-of-plane actions could not be negligible nor neutralized. Herein, it arises the need of experimental on such situations to inquire into the role played for those actions and. if they really were detected, to try to link them to some suitable parameters that would allow to take into account their presence in numerical analysis. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Cathode fall thickness of abnormal glow discharges between parallel-plane electrodes in different radii at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yangyang; Luo, Haiyun; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin, E-mail: wangxx@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-15

    In order to investigate the influence of electrode radius on the characteristics of cathode fall thickness, experiments of low-pressure (20 Pa ≤ p ≤ 30 Pa) abnormal glow discharge were carried out between parallel-plane electrodes in different radii keeping gap distance unchanged. Axial distributions of light intensity were obtained from the discharge images captured using a Charge Coupled Device camera. The assumption that the position of the negative glow peak coincides with the edge of cathode fall layer was verified based on a two-dimensional model, and the cathode fall thicknesses, d{sub c}, were calculated from the axial distributions of light intensity. It was observed that the position of peak emission shifts closer to the cathode as current or pressure grows. The dependence of cathode fall thickness on the gas pressure and normalized current J/p{sup 2} was presented, and it was found that for discharges between electrodes in large radius the curves of pd{sub c} against J/p{sup 2} were superimposed on each other, however, this phenomenon will not hold for discharges between the smaller electrodes. The reason for this phenomenon is that the transverse diffusions of charged particles are not the same in two gaps between electrodes with different radii.

  7. The coupled effects of thickness and delamination on cracking resistance of X70 pipeline steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W.; Dong, H.; Lu, M.; Zhao, X.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of thickness and delamination on the fracture toughness and stable crack growth behaviour of high-toughness pipeline steels were investigated experimentally by use of compact tension specimens with thicknesses of 3-15 mm cut from a 17 mm-thick wall pipe. Material resistance curves were generated based on the stress intensity factor (SIF) K and the J-integral. The critical SIF K c and the J-resistance curves are found to be independent of thickness as the delaminations near the crack tip within the material reduce the out-of-plane constraint in thicker specimens. Both fracture mechanism and mechanics analyses shown that the fracture behaviour of the steel is controlled by the strong-coupled effects of thickness and delaminations. With increasing thickness, the out-of-plane stress constraint increases and causes the inclusion separation, growth and coalescence to form delaminations of different sizes before the main crack initiates. The delaminations in turn, reduce the out-of-plane constraint and thus, the thickness effect upon fracture. The advantages and disadvantages of delaminations in a safety assessment of pipelines are also discussed based on three-dimensional fracture theory

  8. High-coercivity FePt sputtered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, N.H.; Hiep, V.V.; Hong, D.M.; Chau, N.; Linh, N.D.; Kurisu, M.; Anh, D.T.K.; Nakamoto, G.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 56 Pt 44 thin films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on Si substrates. The substrate temperature was kept at 350 deg C. The X-ray diffraction patterns of as-deposited FePt films exhibited a disordered structure. Annealing of the films at 650-685 deg C for 1 h yielded an ordered L1 0 phase with FCT structure. The high value for coercivity H C of 17 kOe was obtained at room temperature for the 68 nm thick film annealed at 685 deg C. The hard magnetic properties as well as grain structure of the films strongly depend on the annealing conditions

  9. Changes in Listing plane thickness caused by vestibular schwannoma: a parameter for evaluating the accuracy of the gravity-oriented internal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takuo; Watanabe, Kensuke; Kikuchi, Shigeru

    2011-12-01

    Three-dimensional analysis of video-oculograms can be used to calculate Listing plane for patients and experimental subjects. Listing plane reflects the head's orientation with respect to gravity, which suggests that the plane is derived from otolithic vestibular input, itself, or from a gravity-oriented internal model constructed through integration of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory inputs. The goal of this study was to determine whether the Listing plane can serve as a parameter for evaluating static (peripheral or central) vestibular function. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Healthy subjects and patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma without any previous treatment. Diagnostic. Video-oculograms were recorded from healthy subjects (aged 36.8 ± 6.3 yr) and from patients (aged 60.3 ± 7.5 yr) during voluntary gaze with the head in an upright or each-side-down orientation, and the thicknesses of the calculated Listing planes were then compared. Results revealed thickening of the Listing plane in patients only when the head was in an impaired-side-down orientation (1.250 ± 0.795 and 1.074 ± 0.759 degrees in the right- and left-side-down head orientations in healthy subjects versus 2.222 ± 1.237 degrees in the impaired-side-down orientation in patients), and this thickening correlated with caloric weakness. By contrast, neither the sensation of postural instability nor postural disturbance in force platform recordings contributed to the thickness of Listing plane. The thickness of the Listing plane could be a novel parameter for quantitatively evaluating static vestibular (otolithic) function, although central compensation might exist.

  10. In-plane and perpendicular exchange bias in [Pt/Co]/NiO multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, K.W.; Guo, J.Y.; Chang, S.C.; Ouyang, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402 (China); Kahwaji, S.; Van Lierop, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Phuoc, N.N.; Suzuki, T. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2007-12-15

    Exchange bias in [Pt/Co]/NiO multilayers were studied as a function of film thickness and [Pt/Co] layer repetition. A strong temperature dependence of the coercivity, H{sub c}, and exchange bias field, H{sub ex}, was observed for the thick and thinnest [Pt/Co]/NiO multilayers. While the thinnest [Pt(3 nm)/Co(1.25 nm)]{sub 4}/NiO multilayers exhibits no in-plane exchange bias field, a perpendicular H{sub ex} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} {proportional_to} -150 Oe at 80 K was measured. By contrast, the thickest [Pt(12 nm)/Co(10 nm)]{sub 1}/NiO multilayers exhibited an in-plane H{sub ex//}{proportional_to}-600 Oe (with H{sub ex//}{proportional_to}-1300 Oe at 5 K) with no measurable perpendicular exchange bias field. The estimated interfacial exchange coupling energy implies the effective Co layer thickness contributing to the exchange bias is effective only in Co layer in contact with NiO bottom layer. AC susceptibility and the temperature dependence of H{sub ex} show that the a 1.25 nm thick Co component enables perpendicular exchange bias with a reduced blocking temperature T{sub B}{proportional_to}200 K, compared to that (T{sub B}{proportional_to}250 K) for the thick [Pt/Co]/NiO multilayers. This is attributed to disordered CoPt phases that formed due to intermixing between Co and Pt during deposition. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Intervertebral anticollision constraints improve out-of-plane translation accuracy of a single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method for measuring spinal motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Cheng-Chung; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Hsu, Shih-Jung; Lu, Tung-Wu; Shih, Ting-Fang; Wang, Ting-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The study aimed to propose a new single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method integrated with intervertebral anticollision constraints for measuring three-dimensional (3D) intervertebral kinematics of the spine; and to evaluate the performance of the method without anticollision and with three variations of the anticollision constraints via an in vitro experiment. Methods: The proposed fluoroscopy-to-CT registration approach, called the weighted edge-matching with anticollision (WEMAC) method, was based on the integration of geometrical anticollision constraints for adjacent vertebrae and the weighted edge-matching score (WEMS) method that matched the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the CT models of the vertebrae and the measured single-plane fluoroscopy images. Three variations of the anticollision constraints, namely, T-DOF, R-DOF, and A-DOF methods, were proposed. An in vitro experiment using four porcine cervical spines in different postures was performed to evaluate the performance of the WEMS and the WEMAC methods. Results: The WEMS method gave high precision and small bias in all components for both vertebral pose and intervertebral pose measurements, except for relatively large errors for the out-of-plane translation component. The WEMAC method successfully reduced the out-of-plane translation errors for intervertebral kinematic measurements while keeping the measurement accuracies for the other five degrees of freedom (DOF) more or less unaltered. The means (standard deviations) of the out-of-plane translational errors were less than −0.5 (0.6) and −0.3 (0.8) mm for the T-DOF method and the R-DOF method, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method reduced the out-of-plane translation errors for intervertebral kinematic measurements while keeping the measurement accuracies for the other five DOF more or less unaltered. With the submillimeter and subdegree accuracy, the WEMAC method was

  12. Experimental investigation on in-plane/out-of-plane vortex-induced vibrations of curved cylinder in parallel and perpendicular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinil, Narakorn; Ma, Bowen; Zhang, Licong

    2018-05-01

    This study is motivated by an industrial need to better understand the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a curved structure subject to current flows with varying directions whose data for model calibration and validation are lacking. In this paper, new experimental investigations on the two-degree-of-freedom in-plane/out-of-plane VIV of a rigid curved circular cylinder immersed in steady and uniform free-stream flows are presented. The principal objective is to examine how the approaching flow direction versus the cylinder curvature plane affects cross-flow and in-line VIV and the associated hydrodynamic properties. This is achieved by testing the curved cylinder in 3 different flow orientations comprising the parallel flows aligned with the curvature vertical plane in convex and concave configurations, and the flows perpendicular to the curvature plane. The case of varying flow velocities in a subcritical flow range with a maximum Reynolds number of about 50,000 is considered for the curved cylinder with a low mass ratio and damping ratio. Experimental results are presented and discussed in terms of the cylinder response amplitudes, inclination angles, mean displacements, motion trajectories, oscillation frequencies, hydrodynamic forces, relative phases, fluid excitation and added inertia coefficients. Comparisons with other experimental results of curved and straight cylinder VIV are also presented. The experiments highlight the important effects of cylinder curvature versus flow orientation on the combined cross-flow/in-line VIV. The maximum (minimum) responses occur in the perpendicular (convex) flow case whereas the extended lower-branch responses occur in the concave flow case. For perpendicular flows, some meaningful features are observed, including the appearances of cross-flow mean displacements and asymmetric eight-shaped motion trajectories due to multiple 2:1:1 resonances where two out-of-plane and one in-plane dominant frequencies are simultaneously

  13. FEM Modeling of In-Plane Stress Distribution in Thick Brittle Coatings/Films on Ductile Substrates Subjected to Tensile Stress to Determine Interfacial Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaishi Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic-metal interface is present in various material structures and devices that are vulnerable to failures, like cracking, which are typically due to their incompatible properties, e.g., thermal expansion mismatch. In failure of these multilayer systems, interfacial shear strength is a good measure of the robustness of interfaces, especially for planar films. There is a widely-used shear lag model and method by Agrawal and Raj to analyse and measure the interfacial shear strength of thin brittle film on ductile substrates. The use of this classical model for a type of polymer derived ceramic coatings (thickness ~18 μm on steel substrate leads to high values of interfacial shear strength. Here, we present finite element simulations for such a coating system when it is subjected to in-plane tension. Results show that the in-plane stresses in the coating are non-uniform, i.e., varying across the thickness of the film. Therefore, they do not meet one of the basic assumptions of the classical model: uniform in-plane stress. Furthermore, effects of three significant parameters, film thickness, crack spacing, and Young’s modulus, on the in-plane stress distribution have also been investigated. ‘Thickness-averaged In-plane Stress’ (TIS, a new failure criterion, is proposed for estimating the interfacial shear strength, which leads to a more realistic estimation of the tensile strength and interfacial shear strength of thick brittle films/coatings on ductile substrates.

  14. FEM Modeling of In-Plane Stress Distribution in Thick Brittle Coatings/Films on Ductile Substrates Subjected to Tensile Stress to Determine Interfacial Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaishi; Zhang, Fangzhou; Bordia, Rajendra K

    2018-03-27

    The ceramic-metal interface is present in various material structures and devices that are vulnerable to failures, like cracking, which are typically due to their incompatible properties, e.g., thermal expansion mismatch. In failure of these multilayer systems, interfacial shear strength is a good measure of the robustness of interfaces, especially for planar films. There is a widely-used shear lag model and method by Agrawal and Raj to analyse and measure the interfacial shear strength of thin brittle film on ductile substrates. The use of this classical model for a type of polymer derived ceramic coatings (thickness ~18 μm) on steel substrate leads to high values of interfacial shear strength. Here, we present finite element simulations for such a coating system when it is subjected to in-plane tension. Results show that the in-plane stresses in the coating are non-uniform, i.e., varying across the thickness of the film. Therefore, they do not meet one of the basic assumptions of the classical model: uniform in-plane stress. Furthermore, effects of three significant parameters, film thickness, crack spacing, and Young's modulus, on the in-plane stress distribution have also been investigated. 'Thickness-averaged In-plane Stress' (TIS), a new failure criterion, is proposed for estimating the interfacial shear strength, which leads to a more realistic estimation of the tensile strength and interfacial shear strength of thick brittle films/coatings on ductile substrates.

  15. Fabricating process of hollow out-of-plane Ni microneedle arrays and properties of the integrated microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Cao, Ying; Wang, Hong; Li, Yigui; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Di

    2013-07-01

    Although microfluidic devices that integrate microfluidic chips with hollow out-of-plane microneedle arrays have many advantages in transdermal drug delivery applications, difficulties exist in their fabrication due to the special three-dimensional structures of hollow out-of-plane microneedles. A new, cost-effective process for the fabrication of a hollow out-of-plane Ni microneedle array is presented. The integration of PDMS microchips with the Ni hollow microneedle array and the properties of microfluidic devices are also presented. The integrated microfluidic devices provide a new approach for transdermal drug delivery.

  16. Out-of-Plane Piezoelectricity and Ferroelectricity in Layered α-In2Se3 Nanoflakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Di; Zhu, Yihan; Cho, Yujin; He, Qing; Yang, Xiao; Herrera, Kevin; Chu, Zhaodong; Han, Yu; Downer, Michael C; Peng, Hailin; Lai, Keji

    2017-09-13

    Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in the two-dimensional (2D) limit are highly desired for nanoelectronic, electromechanical, and optoelectronic applications. Here we report the first experimental evidence of out-of-plane piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in van der Waals layered α-In 2 Se 3 nanoflakes. The noncentrosymmetric R3m symmetry of the α-In 2 Se 3 samples is confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy, second-harmonic generation, and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Domains with opposite polarizations are visualized by piezo-response force microscopy. Single-point poling experiments suggest that the polarization is potentially switchable for α-In 2 Se 3 nanoflakes with thicknesses down to ∼10 nm. The piezotronic effect is demonstrated in two-terminal devices, where the Schottky barrier can be modulated by the strain-induced piezopotential. Our work on polar α-In 2 Se 3 , one of the model 2D piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics with simple crystal structures, shows its great potential in electronic and photonic applications.

  17. Magnetization reversal and domain correlation for a non-collinear and out-of-plane exchange-coupled system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Amitesh; Paul, N; Mattauch, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the impact of out-of-plane ferromagnetic (FM) anisotropy (which can be coincident with the direction of unidirectional anisotropy), where antiferromagnetic (AF) anisotropy is along the film plane. This provides a platform for non-collinear exchange coupling in an archetypal exchange coupled system in an unconventional way. We probe the in-plane magnetization by the depth-sensitive vector magnetometry technique. The experimental findings reveal a magnetization reversal (i) that is symmetric for both the branches of the hysteresis loop, (ii) that is characterized by vertically correlated domains associated with a strong transverse component of magnetization and (iii) that remains untrained (suppression of trained state) with field cycling. This scenario has been compared with in-plane magnetization reversal for a conventional in-plane unidirectional anisotropic case in the same system that shows usual asymmetric reversal and training for vertically uncorrelated domains. We explain the above observations for the out-of-plane case in terms of inhomogeneous magnetic states due to competing perpendicular anisotropies that result in non-collinear FM-AF coupling. This study provides direct evidence for the vertical correlation of domains mediated by out-of-plane exchange coupling.

  18. High coercivity in rare-earth lean nanocomposite magnets by grain boundary infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madugundo, Rajasekhar, E-mail: mraja@udel.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Salazar-Jaramillo, Daniel [BCMaterials, Bizkaia Science and Technology Park, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Manuel Barandiaran, Jose [BCMaterials, Bizkaia Science and Technology Park, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Department of Electricity & Electronics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Hadjipanayis, George C., E-mail: hadji@udel.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A significant enhancement in coercivity was achieved by grain boundary modification through low temperature infiltration of Pr{sub 75}(Cu{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.75}){sub 25} eutectic alloy in rare-earth lean (Pr/Nd)–Fe–B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets. The infiltration procedure was carried out on ribbons and hot-deformed magnets at 600–650 °C for different time durations. In Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe ribbons, the coercivity increased from 5.3 to 23.8 kOe on infiltration for 4 h. The Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe hot-deformed magnet shows an increase in coercivity from 5.4 to 22 kOe on infiltration for 6 h. The increase in the coercivity comes at the expense of remnant magnetization. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the presence of both the hard Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and soft α-Fe phases. A decrease in the soft α-Fe phase content was observed after infiltration. - Highlights: • Enhancement in coercivity was achieved by grain boundary modification. • Coercivity increased from 5.3 to 23.8 kOe in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe on infiltration. • Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe deformed magnet shows an increase in coercivity from 5.4 to 22 kOe. • The increase in the coercivity comes at the expense of remnant magnetization. • A decrease in the soft α-Fe phase content was observed after infiltration.

  19. Modelling out-of-plane and in-plane resonant modes of microplates in liquid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Díez, V; Hernando-García, J; Manzaneque, T; Sánchez-Rojas, J L; Kucera, M; Schmid, U

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the quality factor and the resonant frequency of different vibrating modes of microplates immersed in liquid are simulated by means of a finite element method (FEM) and compared with experimental data. For the in-plane modes, we studied the first extensional mode of mid-point supported microplates, which may be efficiently actuated by a thin piezoelectric film on top of the structure. A comparison of different approaches to account for the viscous loading in computationally efficient 2D finite element models is presented. As an alternative to the harmonic response, a novel multitone excitation in the fluid–structure interaction model allows for the calculation of the frequency response of the structure. For the out-of-plane modes, different modes were simulated and compared to analytical models to validate our approach. Our 2D FEM model yields more accurate estimations of the experimental resonance frequency and quality factors than the available analytical models. With the help of these tools, the applicability of the micro-resonators as viscosity and density sensors is discussed. (paper)

  20. Out-of-Plane Strain Effects on Physically Flexible FinFET CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Torres-Sevilla, Galo A.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    . The devices were fabricated using the state-of-the-art CMOS technology and then transformed into flexible form by using a CMOS-compatible maskless deep reactive-ion etching technique. Mechanical out-of-plane stresses (compressive and tensile) were applied

  1. Plastic loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kuk Hee; Kim, Yun Jae; Park, Chi Yong; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2007-01-01

    Based on three-Dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit and TES(Twice- Elastic-Slope) loads for pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic.perfectly-plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide TES plastic loads. A wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and TES plastic load solutions for pipe bends under out-of-plane bending are proposed

  2. Coercivity enhancement of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets by chemical bath deposition of TbCl{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shuai, E-mail: gshuai@nimte.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ding, Guangfei; Chen, Renjie; Yan, Aru [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Lee, Don [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) and the grain boundary diffusion method were combined to diffuse the heavy rare earth for obtain the thick magnets with high coercivity and low heavy rare earth. The jet mill powders were soaked into the alcohol solution of 0.2 wt. % TbCl{sub 3}. A thin layer of TbCl{sub 3} was wrapped to the surface of (PrNd){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B powder particles. The coercivity of magnet is increased from 11.89 kOe to 14.72 kOe without significant reduction of remanence after grain boundary diffusion in the sintering and the annealing processes. The temperature coefficients of the remanence and the coercivity are improved by the substitution of PrNd by Tb in the surface of grains. The highly accelerated temperature/humidity stress test (HAST) results indicate that the CBD magnet has poor corrosion resistance, attributing to the present of Cl atoms in the grain boundaries.

  3. Platform Isolation Using Out-of-Plane Complaint Mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Arevalo, A.

    2014-10-08

    This paper reports the structural solid mechanic simulation of a MEMS out-of-plane platform that provides thermal and electrical isolation for a device built on it. When assemble, the platform lifted for approximately 400 μm above the substrate level. A mechanical stress analysis is then presented in order to evaluate the feasibility of building it using commonly used materials in MEMS. Our analysis showed that polymeric materials such as polyimide and SU8 may undergo a localized plastic deformation but are not likely to fail upon assembly. Polysilicon on the contrary, showed high failure probability.

  4. Platform Isolation Using Out-of-Plane Complaint Mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Arevalo, A.; Rawashdeh, E.; Foulds, I. G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the structural solid mechanic simulation of a MEMS out-of-plane platform that provides thermal and electrical isolation for a device built on it. When assemble, the platform lifted for approximately 400 μm above the substrate level. A mechanical stress analysis is then presented in order to evaluate the feasibility of building it using commonly used materials in MEMS. Our analysis showed that polymeric materials such as polyimide and SU8 may undergo a localized plastic deformation but are not likely to fail upon assembly. Polysilicon on the contrary, showed high failure probability.

  5. Perspectives for high-performance permanent magnets: applications, coercivity, and new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Satoshi; Nishino, Masamichi; Miyashita, Seiji

    2017-03-01

    High-performance permanent magnets are indispensable in the production of high-efficiency motors and generators and ultimately for sustaining the green earth. The central issue of modern permanent magnetism is to realize high coercivity near and above room temperature on marginally hard magnetic materials without relying upon the critical elements such as heavy rare earths by means of nanostructure engineering. Recent investigations based on advanced nanostructure analysis and large-scale first principles calculations have led to significant paradigm shifts in the understandings of coercivity mechanism in Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, which includes the discovery of the ferromagnetism of the thin (2 nm) intergranular phase surrounding the Nd2Fe14B grains, the occurrence of negative (in-plane) magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Nd ions and some Fe atoms at the interface which degrades coercivity, and visualization of the stochastic behaviors of magnetization in the magnetization reversal process at high temperatures. A major change may occur also in the motor topologies, which is currently overwhelmed by the magnetic flux weakening interior permanent magnet motor type, to other types with variable flux permanent magnet type in some applications to open up a niche for new permanent magnet materials. Keynote talk at 8th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (IWAMSN2016), 8-12 November 2016, Ha Long City, Vietnam.

  6. Simplified description of out-of-plane waves in thin annular elastic plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Maziyar Nesari; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion relations are derived for the out-of-plane wave propagation in planar elastic plates with constant curvature using the classical Kirchhoff thin plate theory. The dispersion diagrams and the mode shapes are compared with their counterparts for a straight plate strip and the role...... of curvature is assessed for plates with unconstrained edges. Elementary Bernoulli–Euler theory for a beam of rectangular cross-section with the circular shape of its axis is also employed to analyze the wave guide properties of this structure in its out-of-plane deformation. The applicability range...... of the elementary beam theory is validated. The wave finite element method in the formulation of the three-dimensional elasticity theory is used to ensure that the comparison of dispersion diagrams is performed in the frequency range, where the classical thin plate theory is valid. Thus, the paper summarizes...

  7. The effect of the MgO buffer layer thickness on magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/Cr/MgO buffer/MgO(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozioł-Rachwał, Anna, E-mail: a.koziolrachwal@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Nozaki, Takayuki; Zayets, Vadym; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshishige [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    The relationship between the magnetic properties and MgO buffer layer thickness d was studied in epitaxial MgO/Fe(t)/Cr/MgO(d) layers grown on MgO(001) substrate in which the Fe thickness t ranged from 0.4 nm to 1.1 nm. For 0.4 nm ≤ t ≤ 0.7 nm, a non-monotonic coercivity dependence on the MgO buffer thickness was shown by perpendicular magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometry. For thicker Fe films, an increase in the buffer layer thickness resulted in a spin reorientation transition from perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization direction. Possible origins of these unusual behaviors were discussed in terms of the suppression of carbon contamination at the Fe surface and changes in the magnetoelastic anisotropy in the system. These results illustrate a method to control magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/Cr/MgO(d) via an appropriate choice of MgO buffer layer thickness d.

  8. Nonlinear digital out-of-plane waveguide coupler based on nonlinear scattering of a single graphene layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Reza; Ouyang, Zhengbiao

    2018-03-01

    A new mechanism for out-of-plane coupling into a waveguide is presented and numerically studied based on nonlinear scattering of a single nano-scale Graphene layer inside the waveguide. In this mechanism, the refractive index nonlinearity of Graphene and nonhomogeneous light intensity distribution occurred due to the interference between the out-of-plane incident pump light and the waveguide mode provide a virtual grating inside the waveguide, coupling the out-of-plane pump light into the waveguide. It has been shown that the coupling efficiency has two distinct values with high contrast around a threshold pump intensity, providing suitable condition for digital optical applications. The structure operates at a resonance mode due to band edge effect, which enhances the nonlinearity and decreases the required threshold intensity.

  9. A simple model for normal state in- and out-of-plane resistivities of hole doped cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqib, S.H., E-mail: shnaqib.physicsru@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Azam, M. Afsana [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, DUET, Gazipur, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Uddin, M. Borhan [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of CSE, International Islamic University Chittagong, Sitakunda, IIUC Rd, Kumira 4314 Bangladesh (Bangladesh); Cole, J.R. [Cambridge Flow Solutions Ltd., Histon, Cambridge CB24 9AD (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • In- and out-of-plane charge transport have been investigated for hole doped cuprates. • Effect of quantum critical point (QCP) on non-Fermi liquid behavior has been explored. • The impact of pseudogap (PG) on carrier scattering rate has been studied. • In- and out-of plane resistivities have been modeled by considering the QCP and the PG. • The model explains the non-Fermi liquid charge transport in hole doped cuprates. - Abstract: The highly anisotropic and qualitatively different nature of the normal state in- and out-of-plane charge dynamics in high-T{sub c} cuprates cannot be accommodated within the conventional Boltzmann transport theory. The variation of in-plane and out-of-plane resistivities with temperature and hole content are anomalous and cannot be explained by Fermi-liquid theory. In this study, we have proposed a simple phenomenological model for the dc resistivity of cuprates by incorporating two firmly established generic features of all hole doped cuprate superconductors—(i) the pseudogap in the quasiparticle energy spectrum and (ii) the T-linear resistivity at high temperatures. This T-linear behavior over an extended temperature range can be attributed to a quantum criticality, affecting the electronic phase diagram of cuprates. Experimental in-plane and out-of-plane resistivities (ρ{sub p}(T) and ρ{sub c}(T), respectively) of double-layer Y(Ca)123 have been analyzed using the proposed model. This phenomenological model describes the temperature and the hole content dependent resistivity over a wide range of temperature and hole content, p. The characteristic PG energy scale, ε{sub g}(p), extracted from the analysis of the resistivity data, agrees quite well with those found in variety of other experiments. Various other extracted parameters from the analysis of ρ{sub p}(T) and ρ{sub c}(T) data showed systematic trends with changing hole concentration. We have discussed important features found from the analysis in

  10. Structural, magnetic, and mechanical properties of 5 μm thick SmCo films suitable for use in microelectromechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, A.; Givord, D.; Dempsey, N. M.; Khlopkov, K.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2008-01-01

    5 μm thick SmCo films were deposited onto Si substrates using triode sputtering. A study of the influence of deposition temperature (T dep ≤600 deg. C) on the structural, magnetic, and mechanical properties has shown that optimum properties [highest degree of in-plane texture, maximum in-plane coercivity and remanence (1.3 and 0.8 T, respectively), and no film peel-off] are achieved for films deposited at the relatively low temperature of 350 deg. C. This temperature is compatible with film integration into microelectromechanical systems. The deposition rate was increased from 3.6 to 18 μm/h by increasing the surface area of the target from 7 to 81 cm 2 while keeping the target potential fixed. Mechanically intact films could be prepared by deposition onto prepatterned films or deposition through a mask

  11. Investigation of the in-plane and out-of-plane electrical properties of metallic nanoparticles in dielectric matrix thin films elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Puyoo, E.; Le Berre, M.; Militaru, L.; Koneti, S.; Malchère, A.; Epicier, T.; Roiban, L.; Albertini, D.; Sabac, A.; Calmon, F.

    2017-11-01

    Pt nanoparticles in a Al2O3 dielectric matrix thin films are elaborated by means of atomic layer deposition. These nanostructured thin films are integrated in vertical and planar test structures in order to assess both their in-plane and out-of-plane electrical properties. A shadow edge evaporation process is used to develop planar devices with electrode separation distances in the range of 30 nm. Both vertical and planar test structures show a Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. Low trap energy levels (<0.1 eV) are identified for the two test structures which indicates that the Pt islands themselves are not acting as traps in the PF mechanism. Furthermore, a more than three order of magnitude current density difference is observed between the two geometries. This electrical anisotropy is attributed to a large electron mobility difference in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions which can be related to different trap distributions in both directions.

  12. Structural properties and out-of-plane stability of roller bent steel arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary architecture the use of steel arches has seen a significant increase. They are applied in buildings and large span bridges, combining structural design with architectural merits. For arches lacking lateral support (or freestanding arches) the out-of-plane structural stability

  13. Out-of-plane reflections - are they evidence for deep subducted lithosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Lina; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Subduction zones form dominant tectonic features on the Earth and have complex three-dimensional structures. Tomographic inversions for P- and S-wave seismic velocities in the Earth's mantle give impressive images of slabs descending into the deep Earth. However, direct observations of deep slabs are scarce but necessary to make statements concerning physical parameters, structural differences within the slab and its behavior with depth. The main objective of this study is to investigate the geometry, physical parameters and structural differences of subducted lithosphere by investigating seismic P-wave arrivals that reflect off the base of the slab using seismic array techniques. The great circle paths of the source-receiver combinations used do not intersect the slab and serve as reference. We focus on the North pacific region by using earthquakes from Japan, the Philippines and the Hindukush recorded at North American networks (e.g. USArray, Alaska and Canada). The data cover a period from 2000-2012 with a minimum magnitude of 5.6 Mw and depths below 100 km. We are looking for reflections from the slab region that would arrive at the stations with deviating backazimuths. Information on slowness, backazimuth and travel time of the observed out-of-plane arrivals is used to backtrace the wave to its scattering location and to map seismic heterogeneities associated with subduction zones. The reflection points give an idea for the 3D structures within the mantle. Assuming only single scattering in the backtracing algorithm, most out-of-plane signals have to travel as P*P and only a few as S*P phases, due to their timing. Taking into account the radiation pattern of each event in direction of the great circle path and towards the calculated reflection point, it is possible to compare the polarities of the out-of-plane signals with P and/or PP. Furthermore, we analyze the out-of-plane waveforms in the beam trace of the observed slowness and backazimuth by cross

  14. Out-of-plane Piezoelectricity and Ferroelectricity in Layered α-In2Se3 Nano-flakes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yu

    2017-08-25

    Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in the two dimensional (2D) limit are highly desired for nanoelectronic, electromechanical, and optoelectronic applications. Here we report the first experimental evidence of out-of-plane piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in van der Waals layered α-In2Se3 nano-flakes. The non-centrosymmetric R3m symmetry of the α-In2Se3 samples is confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy, second-harmonic generation, and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Domains with opposite polarizations are visualized by piezo-response force microscopy. Single-point poling experiments suggest that the polarization is potentially switchable for α-In2Se3 nano-flakes with thicknesses down to ~ 10 nm. The piezotronic effect is demonstrated in two-terminal devices, where the Schottky barrier can be modulated by the strain-induced piezopotential. Our work on polar α-In2Se3, one of the model 2D piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics with simple crystal structures, shows its great potential in electronic and photonic applications.

  15. Out-of-plane Piezoelectricity and Ferroelectricity in Layered α-In2Se3 Nano-flakes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Di; Zhu, Yihan; Cho, Yujin; He, Qing; Yang, Xiao; Herrera, Kevin; Chu, Zhaodong; Han, Yu; Downer, Mike; Peng, Hailin; Lai, Keji

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in the two dimensional (2D) limit are highly desired for nanoelectronic, electromechanical, and optoelectronic applications. Here we report the first experimental evidence of out-of-plane piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in van der Waals layered α-In2Se3 nano-flakes. The non-centrosymmetric R3m symmetry of the α-In2Se3 samples is confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy, second-harmonic generation, and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Domains with opposite polarizations are visualized by piezo-response force microscopy. Single-point poling experiments suggest that the polarization is potentially switchable for α-In2Se3 nano-flakes with thicknesses down to ~ 10 nm. The piezotronic effect is demonstrated in two-terminal devices, where the Schottky barrier can be modulated by the strain-induced piezopotential. Our work on polar α-In2Se3, one of the model 2D piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics with simple crystal structures, shows its great potential in electronic and photonic applications.

  16. Coercivity of magneto-optical media by spin dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suits, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Spin dynamics computer simulations have been carried out to study the effect of pinning on domain-wall motion in TbFeCo-like media. These calculations were done on a 30x30x1 mesh, where the spin direction at each lattice site was calculated with the Landau--Lifshitz--Gilbert equation. The simulations were made in an IBM 3090 mainframe--personal computer environment where the result of the calculation is a movie that runs at three frames/second on an AT and shows graphically the domain-wall--defect interaction. The domain wall is caused to move in an external field toward a defect, and the maximum field that pins the domain wall was observed. The defects have finite length and zero magnetization, which correspond to voids or nonmagnetic second phase in the media. The simulation shows that small defects on the order of 100 A in size can pin walls with pinning strength appropriate to the coercivity of magneto-optical media, i.e., local coercivities in the range 1--10 kOe. For sufficiently high fields a single wall may break up into two separate sections at the defect, and then join together beyond the defect to become a single wall again. For rectangular defects, the coercivity depends strongly and nearly linearly on defect length (parallel to the domain-wall surface) and only weakly on defect width for widths greater than about 50 A (perpendicular to the wall surface)

  17. Solar wind structure out of the ecliptic plane over solar cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, J. M.; Bzowski, M.; Tokumaru, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sun constantly emits a stream of plasma known as solar wind. Ground-based observations of the solar wind speed through the interplanetary scintillations (IPS) of radio flux from distant point sources and in-situ measurements by Ulysses mission revealed that the solar wind flow has different characteristics depending on the latitude. This latitudinal structure evolves with the cycle of solar activity. The knowledge on the evolution of solar wind structure is important for understanding the interaction between the interstellar medium surrounding the Sun and the solar wind, which is responsible for creation of the heliosphere. The solar wind structure must be taken into account in interpretation of most of the observations of heliospheric energetic neutral atoms, interstellar neutral atoms, pickup ions, and heliospheric backscatter glow. The information on the solar wind structure is not any longer available from direct measurements after the termination of Ulysses mission and the only source of the solar wind out of the ecliptic plane is the IPS observations. However, the solar wind structure obtained from this method contains inevitable gaps in the time- and heliolatitude coverage. Sokół et al 2015 used the solar wind speed data out of the ecliptic plane retrieved from the IPS observations performed by Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (Nagoya University, Japan) and developed a methodology to construct a model of evolution of solar wind speed and density from 1985 to 2013 that fills the data gaps. In this paper we will present a refined model of the solar wind speed and density structure as a function of heliographic latitude updated by the most recent data from IPS observations. And we will discuss methods of extrapolation of the solar wind structure out of the ecliptic plane for the past solar cycles, when the data were not available, as well as forecasting for few years upward.

  18. Study of high coercive force films made by vacuum deposition of cobalt onto chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randet, Denis

    1969-01-01

    A new method to make high coercive force films, by successive evaporations of chromium and cobalt, was demonstrated in 1966 at the 'Laboratoire d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Informatique'. This work first contains a description of the magnetic properties of these films according to the conditions of preparation. These properties, which are isotropic in the plane of the film, are then related to the crystallographic structure of chromium and cobalt, in particular through electron microscopy. It is concluded that the coercive force is essentially due to the high magneto-crystalline anisotropy of cobalt in its hexagonal phase and depends, altogether with the shape of the hysteresis loop, on the magnetostatic coupling between the grains, which varies according to their dimensions. The chromium underlayer, if its surface is free enough of oxygen contamination, induces the growth of the hexagonal phase and influences the grain size of cobalt by a sort of epitaxy. At last, the behaviour of the Co/Cr films as a magnetic recording material is briefly examined and discussed. (author) [fr

  19. Out- versus in-plane magnetic anisotropy of free Fe and Co nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongzhe; Barreteau, Cyrille; Castell, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    We report tight-binding and density functional theory calculations of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) of free Fe (body-centered-cubic) and Co (face-centered-cubic) slabs and nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are truncated square pyramids which can be grown experimentally by deposition...... of metal on a SrTiO3(001) substrate. For both elements our local analysis shows that the totalMAE of the nanocrystals is largely dominated by the contribution of (001) facets. However, while the easy axis of Fe(001) is out-of-plane, it is in-plane for Co(001). This has direct consequences on the magnetic...

  20. Magnetic properties and microstructure study of high coercivity Au/FePt/Au trilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.K.; Yuan, F.T.; Liao, W.M.; Hsu, C.W.; Horng, Lance

    2006-01-01

    High-coercivity Au(60 nm)/FePt(δ nm)/Au(60 nm) trilayer samples were prepared by sputtering at room temperature, followed by post annealing at different temperatures. For the sample with δ=60 nm, L1 ordering transformation occurs at 500 deg. C. Coercivity (H c ) is increased with the annealing temperature in the studied range 400-800 deg. C. The H c value of the trilayer films is also varied with thickness of FePt intermediate layer (δ), from 27 kOe for δ=60 nm to a maximum value of 33.5 kOe for δ=20 nm. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the diffusion of Au atoms into the FePt L1 lattice is negligible even after a high-temperature (800 deg. C) annealing process. Furthermore, ordering parameter is almost unchanged as δ is reduced from 60 to 15 nm. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) photos indicate that small FePt Ll particles are dispersed amid the large-grained Au. We believe that the high coercivity of the trilayer sample is attributed to the small and uniform grain sizes of the highly ordered FePt particles which have perfect phase separation with Au matrix

  1. Double-sided coaxial circuit QED with out-of-plane wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamim, J.; Behrle, T.; Peterer, M. J.; Patterson, A.; Spring, P. A.; Tsunoda, T.; Manenti, R.; Tancredi, G.; Leek, P. J.

    2017-05-01

    Superconducting circuits are well established as a strong candidate platform for the development of quantum computing. In order to advance to a practically useful level, architectures are needed which combine arrays of many qubits with selective qubit control and readout, without compromising on coherence. Here, we present a coaxial circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture in which qubit and resonator are fabricated on opposing sides of a single chip, and control and readout wiring are provided by coaxial wiring running perpendicular to the chip plane. We present characterization measurements of a fabricated device in good agreement with simulated parameters and demonstrating energy relaxation and dephasing times of T1 = 4.1 μs and T2 = 5.7 μs, respectively. The architecture allows for scaling to large arrays of selectively controlled and measured qubits with the advantage of all wiring being out of the plane.

  2. Selectivity and balance of spatial filtering velocimetry of objective speckles for measuring out-of-plane motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Yura, Hal T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    We probe the dynamics of objective laser speckles as the axial distance between the object and the observation plane changes. With the purpose of measuring out-of-plane motion in real time, we apply optical spatial filtering velocimetry to the speckle dynamics. To achieve this, a rotationally sym...

  3. Critical thickness and strain relaxation in molecular beam epitaxy-grown SrTiO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianqi; Ganguly, Koustav; Marshall, Patrick; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat

    2013-01-01

    We report on the study of the critical thickness and the strain relaxation in epitaxial SrTiO 3 film grown on (La 0.3 Sr 0.7 )(Al 0.65 Ta 0.35 )O 3 (001) (LSAT) substrate using the hybrid molecular beam epitaxy approach. No change in the film's lattice parameter (both the in-plane and the out-of-plane) was observed up to a film thickness of 180 nm, which is in sharp contrast to the theoretical critical thickness of ∼12 nm calculated using the equilibrium theory of strain relaxation. For film thicknesses greater than 180 nm, the out-of-plane lattice parameter was found to decrease hyperbolically in an excellent agreement with the relaxation via forming misfit dislocations. Possible mechanisms are discussed by which the elastic strain energy can be accommodated prior to forming misfit dislocations leading to such anomalously large critical thickness

  4. Performance of Halbach magnet arrays with finite coercivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, C.R.H.; Bjørk, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    of the magnetic material and the fact that the coercivity is not infinite will limit the attainable field. The presented method is able to predict when and where demagnetization will occur, and these predictions are compared with the analytical solution for the case of infinite coercivity. However, the approach...... presented here also allows quantification of the decrease in flux density and homogeneity for a partially demagnetized magnet. Moreover, the problem of how to realize a Halbach cylinder geometry using a mix of materials with different coercivities without altering the overall performance is addressed. Being......A numerical method to study the effect of finite coercivity on the Halbach cylinder geometry is presented. Despite the fact that the analytical solution available for this geometry does not set any limit to the maximum air gap flux density achievable, in real life the non-linear response...

  5. Origin of the Local Group satellite planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Indranil; O'Ryan, David; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2018-04-01

    We attempt to understand the planes of satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way (MW) and M31 in the context of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), which implies a close MW-M31 flyby occurred ≈8 Gyr ago. Using the timing argument, we obtain MW-M31 trajectories consistent with cosmological initial conditions and present observations. We adjust the present M31 proper motion within its uncertainty in order to simulate a range of orbital geometries and closest approach distances. Treating the MW and M31 as point masses, we follow the trajectories of surrounding test particle disks, thereby mapping out the tidal debris distribution. Around each galaxy, the resulting tidal debris tends to cluster around a particular orbital pole. We find some models in which these preferred spin vectors align fairly well with those of the corresponding observed satellite planes. The radial distributions of material in the simulated satellite planes are similar to what we observe. Around the MW, our best-fitting model yields a significant fraction (0.22) of counter-rotating material, perhaps explaining why Sculptor counter-rotates within the MW satellite plane. In contrast, our model yields no counter-rotating material around M31. This is testable with proper motions of M31 satellites. In our best model, the MW disk is thickened by the flyby 7.65 Gyr ago to a root mean square height of 0.75 kpc. This is similar to the observed age and thickness of the Galactic thick disk. Thus, the MW thick disk may have formed together with the MW and M31 satellite planes during a past MW-M31 flyby.

  6. From in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement of the directed flow in 64Zn on 58Ni collisions between 35 and 79 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Brou, R.; Cussol, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Patry, J.P.; Peter, J.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Cabot, C.; Rosato, E.

    1994-05-01

    The azimuthal distributions of light particles relative to the reaction plane have been measured for several bins of experimentally estimated impact parameter in the reactions of 64 Zn + 58 Ni at energies between 35 and 79 MeV/u. An in-plane enhancement for mid-rapidity Z = 1, 2, 3 particles is observed at low incident energy but gradually evolves to out-of plane enhancement (squeeze-out effect) with increasing energy. This evolution depends on the impact parameter in a way similar to the flow parameter. The energies for this system at which the azimuthal distribution is uniform are lower than the corresponding balance energies. (authors)

  7. Thickness dependent structural, magnetic and magneto-transport properties of epitaxial Nd{sub 0.50}Sr{sub 0.50}MnO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pawan, E-mail: p.kumar@krmangalam.edu.in [School of Basic and Applied Sciences, K. R. Mangalam University, Sohna Road, Gurgaon, Haryana 122103 (India); Singh, Hari Krishna, E-mail: hks65@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-05-06

    We report the thickness-dependent structural, magnetic and magneto-transport properties in epitaxial Nd{sub 0.50}Sr{sub 0.50}MnO{sub 3} thin films (10 to 300nm) prepared by DC magnetron sputtering technique on single crystalline (001) oriented substrate LaAlO{sub 3}. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the epitaxial growth of all the films and the out-of-plane lattice parameter of films were found to increase with thickness. As thickness of the film increases the paramagnetic insulator (PMI) to ferromagnetic metal (FMM) transition temperature (T{sub C}), charge ordered transition temperature (T{sub CO}) and magnetic moment were found to increase with a strong bifurcation in ZFC-FC magnetization. The asymmetry in the coercivity seen in field dependent magnetization loops (M-H loops) suggests the presence of exchange bias (EB) effect. While temperature dependent resistivity of films show the semiconducting nature for thickness 10-200nm in temperature range from 5-300K, the film of thickness 300nm shows the insulator to metal transition with transition temperature (T{sub IM}) at 175K. Temperature dependent low field magnetoresistance (LFMR) measured at 4kOe found to decrease with thickness and for high field magnetoresistance (HFMR) at 40kOe and 60kOe also show similar dependence and a crossover at intermediate temperature range in the magnitude of MR between 10nm and 200nm films at constant field. Colossal increase in magnetoresistance observed for 10nm film at low temperature.

  8. Influence of the phenomena occurring at the interface between L1{sub 0}-ordered-FePt and Fe on the coercivity behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbucicchio, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.carbucicchio@ino.it [University of Parma, Physics Department (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    L1{sub 0}-ordered FePt/Fe thin bi-layers were grown using a molecular beam epitaxy onto (100)-MgO substrates changing the soft Fe layer thickness. The study of the intermixing phenomena occurring at the hard/soft interfaces was carried out using surface Mössbauer spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of the samples were analyzed with a magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometer. The surface morphology and the magnetic domains were analyzed with an UHV atomic and magnetic force microscopy in tapping and lift mode respectively.The present work clearly demonstrates that the degree of interface intermixing and reactions is the responsible for the coercivity behavior in exchange-spring magnets.

  9. Spectral manifestation of substitution of out-of-plane ligands in metallophtalocyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starukhin A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we demonstrate the splitting effect of long-wavelength bands in absorption spectra (excitation of fluorescence of the series of Zn(II, Ti(IV, Zr(IV and Hf(IV phthalocyanines at low temperatures. The effect has been explained by the shift of metal ion out of the plane of phthalocyanine macrocycle, the transformation of macrocycle to nonplanar “dome” conformation and additional loss the high symmetry of macrocycle.

  10. Enhancement of coercivity with reduced grain size in CoCrPt film grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Q.; Hu, X.F.; Li, H.Q.; He, X.X.; Wang, Xiaoru; Zhang, W.

    2006-01-01

    We report a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) growth of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer with a magnetic coercivity (H c ) of 2.2 kOe and a grain size of 12 nm. The effects of VMn underlayer on magnetic properties of CoCrPt layer were studied. The coercivity, H c , and squareness, S, of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer, is dependent on the thickness of VMn. The grain size of the CoCrPt film can also be modified by laser parameters. High laser fluence used for CoCrPt deposition produces a smaller grain size. Enhanced H c and reduced grain size in VMn/CoCrPt is explained by more pronounced surface phase segregation during deposition at high laser fluence

  11. Low-Thrust Out-of-Plane Orbital Station-Keeping Maneuvers for Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of out of plane orbital maneuvers for station keeping of satellites. The main idea is to consider that a satellite is in an orbit around the Earth and that it has its orbit is disturbed by one or more forces. Then, it is necessary to perform a small amplitude orbital correction to return the satellite to its original orbit, to keep it performing its mission. A low thrust propulsion is used to complete this task. It is important to search for solutions that minimize the fuel consumption to increase the lifetime of the satellite. To solve this problem a hybrid optimal control approach is used. The accuracy of the satisfaction of the constraints is considered, in order to try to decrease the fuel expenditure by taking advantage of this freedom. This type of problem presents numerical difficulties and it is necessary to adjust parameters, as well as details of the algorithm, to get convergence. In this versions of the algorithm that works well for planar maneuvers are usually not adequate for the out of plane orbital corrections. In order to illustrate the method, some numerical results are presented.

  12. Performance of Halbach magnet arrays with finite coercivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insinga, A.R.; Bahl, C.R.H.; Bjørk, R.; Smith, A.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical method to study the effect of finite coercivity on the Halbach cylinder geometry is presented. Despite the fact that the analytical solution available for this geometry does not set any limit to the maximum air gap flux density achievable, in real life the non-linear response of the magnetic material and the fact that the coercivity is not infinite will limit the attainable field. The presented method is able to predict when and where demagnetization will occur, and these predictions are compared with the analytical solution for the case of infinite coercivity. However, the approach presented here also allows quantification of the decrease in flux density and homogeneity for a partially demagnetized magnet. Moreover, the problem of how to realize a Halbach cylinder geometry using a mix of materials with different coercivities without altering the overall performance is addressed. Being based on a numerical approach, the presented method can be employed to analyze the demagnetization effects due to coercivity for any geometry, even when the analytical solution is not available. - Highlights: • The effect of the finite coercivity on the performance of the Halbach cylinder geometry is analyzed • FEM predictions of demagnetization are in agreement with the analytical calculations. • Performance in the non-linear regime is quantified by the average and uniformity of the field • We show which regions in the geometry are more likely to experience non-linear behavior. • We provide a recipe for the fabrication of a multi-material Halbach cylinder

  13. Coercive diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    separate strategic eras with distinct challenges and theoretical developments are identified since the field’s emergence in the 1960s: the Cold War, the humanitarian 1990s, the war on terror and the hybrid future. The record clearly shows that skilful use of coercive diplomacy can resolve crises...

  14. A new dimension for piezo actuators: free-form out-of-plane displacement of single piezo layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wapler, Matthias C; Brunne, Jens; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    We present a controlled mode of ‘topological’ displacement of homogeneous piezo films that arises solely from an inhomogeneous in-plane strain due to an inhomogeneous polarization. For the rotationally symmetric case, we develop a theoretical model that analytically relates the shape of the displacement to the polarization for the cases of in-plane and out-of-plane polarization. This is verified experimentally for several examples, and we further demonstrate controlled asymmetric deformations. (fast track communication)

  15. On the Issue of the Concept "Coercive Criminality"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestereva Y. S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the actual problems relating to the concept of coercive criminality. Here is determined the lexical scope of the concept "coercion"; the philosophical and criminal law contents of the researched term are compared; the types of the coercive criminality are determined.

  16. Dense ionic fluids confined in planar capacitors: in- and out-of-plane structure from classical density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Härtel, Andreas; Samin, Sela; Van Roij, René

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing scientific interest in the properties and structure of electric double layers (EDLs) stems from their pivotal role in (super)capacitive energy storage, energy harvesting, and water treatment technologies. Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a promising framework for the study of the in- and out-of-plane structural properties of double layers. Supported by molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate the adequate performance of DFT for analyzing charge layering in the EDL perpendicular to the electrodes. We discuss charge storage and capacitance of the EDL and the impact of screening due to dielectric solvents. We further calculate, for the first time, the in-plane structure of the EDL within the framework of DFT. While our out-of-plane results already hint at structural in-plane transitions inside the EDL, which have been observed recently in simulations and experiments, our DFT approach performs poorly in predicting in-plane structure in comparison to simulations. However, our findings isolate fundamental issues in the theoretical description of the EDL within the primitive model and point towards limitations in the performance of DFT in describing the out-of-plane structure of the EDL at high concentrations and potentials. (paper)

  17. Near-field imaging of out-of-plane light scattering in photonic crystal slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, Valentyn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; Taillaert, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    A collection scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to image the propagating of light at telecommunication wavelengths (1520-1570 nm) along photonic crystal (PC) slabs, which combine slab waveguides with in-plane PCs consisting of one- and two-dimensional gratings. The efficient out...

  18. Out-of-plane platforms with bi-directional thermal bimorph actuation for transducer applications

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, D.; Foulds, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the Buckled Cantilever Platform (BCP) that allows the manipulation of the out of plane structures through the adjustment of the pitch angle using thermal bimorph micro-Actuators. Due to the micro-fabrication process used

  19. Sagittal-Plane Knee Moment During Gait and Knee Cartilage Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Randy J; Harrison, David; Wang, Hsin-Min; Shultz, Sandra J

    2017-06-02

      Understanding the factors associated with thicker cartilage in a healthy population is important when developing strategies aimed at minimizing the cartilage thinning associated with knee osteoarthritis progression. Thicker articular cartilage is commonly thought to be healthier cartilage, but whether the sagittal-plane biomechanics important to gait are related to cartilage thickness is unknown.   To determine the relationship of a weight-bearing region of the medial femoral condyle's cartilage thickness to sagittal gait biomechanics in healthy individuals.   Descriptive laboratory study.   Laboratory.   Twenty-eight healthy participants (15 women: age = 21.1 ± 2.1 years, height = 1.63 ± 0.07 m, weight = 64.6 ± 9.9 kg; 13 men: age = 22.1 ± 2.9 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.05 m, weight = 75.2 ± 9.6 kg).   Tibiofemoral angle (°) was obtained via goniometric assessment, thickness of the medial femoral condyle cartilage (mm) was obtained via ultrasound imaging, and peak internal knee-extensor moment (% body weight · height) was measured during 10 trials of over-ground walking at a self-selected pace. We used linear regression to examine the extent to which peak internal knee-extensor moment predicted cartilage thickness after accounting for tibiofemoral angle and sex.   Sex and tibiofemoral angle (12.3° ± 3.2°) were entered in the initial step as control factors (R 2 = 0.01, P = .872). In the final step, internal knee-extensor moment (1.5% ± 1.3% body weight · height) was entered, which resulted in greater knee-extensor moment being related to greater cartilage thickness (2.0 ± 0.3 mm; R 2 Δ = 0.31, PΔ = .003).   Individuals who walked with a greater peak internal knee-extensor moment during gait had a cartilage structure that is generally considered beneficial in a healthy population. Our study offers promising findings that a potentially modifiable biomechanical factor is associated with cartilage status in a healthy population

  20. Simultaneous determination of the residual stress, elastic modulus, density and thickness of ultrathin film utilizing vibrating doubly clamped micro-/nanobeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachiv, Ivo; Kuo, Chih-Yun; Fang, Te-Hua; Mortet, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of ultrathin film thickness and its basic properties can be highly challenging and time consuming due to necessity of using several very sophisticated devices. Here, we report an easy accessible resonant based method capable to simultaneously determinate the residual stress, elastic modulus, density and thickness of ultrathin film coated on doubly clamped micro-/nanobeam. We show that a general dependency of the resonant frequencies on the axial load is also valid for in-plane vibrations, and the one depends only on the considered vibrational mode. As a result, we found that the film elastic modulus, density and thickness can be evaluated from two measured in-plane and out-plane fundamental resonant frequencies of micro-/nanobeam with and without film under different prestress forces. Whereas, the residual stress can be determined from two out-plane (in-plane) measured consecutive resonant frequencies of beam with film under different prestress forces without necessity of knowing film and substrate properties and dimensions. Moreover, we also reveal that the common uncertainties in force (and thickness) determination have a negligible (and minor) impact on the determined film properties. The application potential of the present method is illustrated on the beam made of silicon and SiO_2 with deposited 20 nm thick AlN and 40 nm thick Au thin films, respectively.

  1. Significance of out-of-plane electronic contributions in Bi-cuprates studied by resonant photoelectron spectroscopy at the Cu2p edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, Christoph; Schmeißer, Dieter

    2018-04-01

    In high-temperature superconductors with a layered crystal structure, the copper-oxygen planes are commonly considered to dominate the electronic properties around the Fermi energy. As a consequence, out-of-plane contributions are often neglected in the description of these materials. Here we report on a resonant photoemission study of Pb0,4Bi1,6Sr2,0CaCu2O8 ((Pb, Bi)-2212) and Pb0,6Bi1,4Sr1.5La0.5CuO6 ((Pb, Bi)-2201)) single crystals to unravel the resonant decay mechanisms at the Cu2p absorption edge. We find evidence for a pronounced polarization dependence caused by two different Auger processes for in-plane and out-of-plane orientations. We deduce that the lowest energy valence state—which is involved in the two Auger processes—consists of three-dimensional contributions by admixed out-of-plane Sr, Bi, and O2p states. It also suggests that the doping-induced charge density is dynamic, fluctuating within the Cu-O plane, and spills out perpendicular to it. This suggests that out-of-plane electronic degrees of freedom should be included in future consistent theoretical models of these materials.

  2. Energy flow analysis of out-of-plane vibration in coplanar coupled finite Mindlin plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available : In this paper, an Energy Flow Analysis (EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was performed to estimate their dynamic responses at high frequencies. Mindlin plate theory can consider the effects of shear distortion and rotatory inertia, which are very important at high frequencies. For EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates, the wave transmission and reflection relationship for progressing out-of-plane waves (out-of-plane shear wave, bending dominant flexural wave, and shear dominant flexural wave in coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was newly derived. To verify the validity of the EFA results, numerical analyses were performed for various cases where coplanar coupled Mindlin plates are excited by a harmonic point force, and the energy flow solutions for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates were compared with the classical solutions in the various conditions.

  3. Out-of-plane superfluid density of a layered organic superconductor: The coherent Josephson tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, S.; Prester, M.; Drobac, D.; Milat, O.; Maki, K.; Schweitzer, D.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of AC magnetic susceptibility in κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu[N(CN) 2 ]Br show that the b-axis penetration depth below T c exhibits behaviour different from that observed in the ac plane, which exhibits the T-linear dependence. In agreement with earlier measurements, a leading quadratic temperature dependence is found at low temperatures. The temperature dependence of the out-of-plane superfluid density is shown to best agree with a model of d-wave superconducting layers coupled by coherent Josephson tunneling. (orig.)

  4. A Combined TEM/STEM and Micromagnetic Study of the Anisotropic Nature of Grain Boundaries and Coercivity in Nd-Fe-B Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor A. Zickler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoanalytical high resolution TEM/STEM investigation of the intergranular grain boundary phase of anisotropic sintered and rapidly quenched heavy rare earth-free Nd-Fe-B magnet materials revealed a difference in composition for grain boundaries parallel (large Fe-content and perpendicular (low Fe content to the alignment direction. This behaviour vanishes in magnets with a high degree of misorientation. The numerical finite element micromagnetic simulations are based on the anisotropic compositional behaviour of GBs and show a decrease of the coercive field with an increasing thickness of the grain boundary layer. The magnetization reversal and expansion of reversed magnetic domains primarily start as Bloch domain wall at grain boundaries parallel to the c-axis and secondly as Néel domain wall perpendicular to the c-axis into the adjacent hard magnetic grains. The increasing misalignment of grains leads to the loss of the anisotropic compositional behaviour and therefore to an averaged value of the grain boundary composition. In this case the simulations show an increase of the coercive field compared to the anisotropic magnet. The calculated coercive field values of the investigated magnet samples are in the order of μ0HcJ=1.8 T–2.1 T for a mean grain boundary thickness of 4 nm, which agrees perfectly with the experimental data.

  5. Field dependence of magnetic viscosity of CoCrTa in-plane media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan le kim, P.L.K.; Lodder, J.C.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we will present a study of magnetic viscosity as a function of applied field of CoCrTa/Cr in-plane media. The viscosity versus applied field curves (viscosity curves) of the samples exhibit a sharp peak at remanence coercivity (Hcr). Their activation volume was found to be close to the

  6. Faculty Perceptions of and Experiences with Students' Use of Coercive Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Kristine L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to understand how faculty perceive and experience students' use of coercive power in faculty-student relationships. Interviews were used to gather data from faculty members who had experienced students' use of coercive power. Data reveal that students' use of coercive power can negatively impact…

  7. Out-of-plane stability of roller bent steel arches – an experimental investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Poutre, D.B.; Spoorenberg, R.C.; Snijder, H.H.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the elastic-plastic out-of-plane buckling response of roller bent circular steel arches subjected to a single force applied to the crown. The experiments are used to validate a finite element model described in a related paper. A series of 15

  8. Effect of the out-of-plane stress on the properties of epitaxial SrTiO3 films with nano-pillar array on Si-substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Gang; Xie, Qiyun; Liu, Zhiguo; Wu, Dongmei

    2015-08-01

    A nonlinear thermodynamic formalism has been proposed to calculate the physical properties of the epitaxial SrTiO3 films containing vertical nano-pillar array on Si-substrate. The out-of-plane stress induced by the mismatch between film and nano-pillars provides an effective way to tune the physical properties of ferroelectric SrTiO3 films. Tensile out-of-plane stress raises the phase transition temperature and increases the out-of-plane polarization, but decreases the out-of-plane dielectric constant below Curie temperature, pyroelectric coefficient, and piezoelectric coefficient. These results showed that by properly controlling the out-of-plane stress, the out-of-plane stress induced paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transformation will appear near room temperature. Excellent dielectric, pyroelectric, piezoelectric properties of these SrTiO3 films similar to PZT and other lead-based ferroelectrics can be expected.

  9. A simple and inclusive method to determine the habit plane in transmission electron microscope based on accurate measurement of foil thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Dong; Zhang, Mingxing

    2014-01-01

    A simple and inclusive method is proposed for accurate determination of the habit plane between bicrystals in transmission electron microscope. Whilst this method can be regarded as a variant of surface trace analysis, the major innovation lies in the improved accuracy and efficiency of foil thickness measurement, which involves a simple tilt of the thin foil about a permanent tilting axis of the specimen holder, rather than cumbersome tilt about the surface trace of the habit plane. Experimental study has been done to validate this proposed method in determining the habit plane between lamellar α 2 plates and γ matrix in a Ti–Al–Nb alloy. Both high accuracy (± 1°) and high precision (± 1°) have been achieved by using the new method. The source of the experimental errors as well as the applicability of this method is discussed. Some tips to minimise the experimental errors are also suggested. - Highlights: • An improved algorithm is formulated to measure the foil thickness. • Habit plane can be determined with a single tilt holder based on the new algorithm. • Better accuracy and precision within ± 1° are achievable using the proposed method. • The data for multi-facet determination can be collected simultaneously

  10. Out-of-plane vibrations of inhomogeneous curved bars having varying cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi

    1987-01-01

    An exact method using power series expansions is presented for solving out-of-plane free vibrations of inhomogeneous curved bars with varying curvatures and cross-sections. Equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian of curved bars. Natural frequencies and mode shapes are presented for elliptical and circular arc bars having both ends clamped and clamped-free ends. (author)

  11. Numerical Study on the In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Resistance of Brick Masonry Infill Panels in Steel Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Bahreini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Masonry infill walls are one of the main forms of interior partitions and exterior walls in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, serious damage and loss of stability of many masonry infill walls had been reported during recent earthquakes. To improve their performance, the interaction between these infill walls and the bounding frames needs to be properly investigated. Such interaction can dramatically increase the stiffness of the frame in the in-plane direction. To avoid the negative aspects of inappropriate interactions between the frame and infill wall, some kind of isolation needs to be introduced. In this paper, three different configurations have been evaluated by using the general finite element software, ABAQUS. Nonlinear pushover and time history analyses have been conducted for each of the three configurations. Results showed that isolation of the infill from the frame has a significant effect on the in-plane response of infilled frames. Furthermore, adequate out-of-plane stability of the infill wall has been achieved. The results show that masonry infill walls that have full contact at the top of the wall but isolated from columns have shown acceptable performance.

  12. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate and Stress-Intensity Factor Corrections for Out-of-Plane Crack Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forth, Scott C.; Herman, Dave J.; James, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth rate testing is performed by automated data collection systems that assume straight crack growth in the plane of symmetry and use standard polynomial solutions to compute crack length and stress-intensity factors from compliance or potential drop measurements. Visual measurements used to correct the collected data typically include only the horizontal crack length, which for cracks that propagate out-of-plane, under-estimates the crack growth rates and over-estimates the stress-intensity factors. The authors have devised an approach for correcting both the crack growth rates and stress-intensity factors based on two-dimensional mixed mode-I/II finite element analysis (FEA). The approach is used to correct out-of-plane data for 7050-T7451 and 2025-T6 aluminum alloys. Results indicate the correction process works well for high DeltaK levels but fails to capture the mixed-mode effects at DeltaK levels approaching threshold (da/dN approximately 10(exp -10) meter/cycle).

  13. From in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement of the directed flow in {sup 64}Zn on {sup 58}Ni collisions between 35 and 79 MeV/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Brou, R.; Cussol, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Patry, J.P.; Peter, J.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Popescu, R.; Buta, A. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire]|[Central Inst. of Physics, Bucharest (Romania). Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Engineering; He, Z.Y. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire]|[Lanzhou Univ., GS (China). Dept. of Modern Physics; Auger, G.; Peghaire, A.; Saint-Laurent, F. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Cabot, C. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Crema, E. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)]|[Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Hagel, K.; Wada, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Cyclotron Inst.; Gonin, M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Cyclotron Inst.]|[Brooklyn Coll., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Eudes, P.; Lebrun, C. [Nantes Univ., 44 (France). Lab. de Physique Nucleaire; El Masri, Y. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Rosato, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy)

    1994-05-01

    The azimuthal distributions of light particles relative to the reaction plane have been measured for several bins of experimentally estimated impact parameter in the reactions of {sup 64}Zn + {sup 58}Ni at energies between 35 and 79 MeV/u. An in-plane enhancement for mid-rapidity Z = 1, 2, 3 particles is observed at low incident energy but gradually evolves to out-of plane enhancement (squeeze-out effect) with increasing energy. This evolution depends on the impact parameter in a way similar to the flow parameter. The energies for this system at which the azimuthal distribution is uniform are lower than the corresponding balance energies. (authors). 22 refs.

  14. Angular dependence of coercivity derived from alignment dependence of coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Matsuura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of the alignment dependence of the coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets showed that the angle of magnetization reversal for anisotropically aligned magnets was bigger than that obtained from the theoretical results calculated using the postulation that every grain independently reverses its magnetization direction following the 1/cos θ law. The angles of reversed magnetization (θ1 for Nd13.48Co0.55B5.76Febal. with alignment α=0.95 and for Nd12.75Dy0.84B5.81Co0.55Febal. with α=0.96 were 30° and 36°, respectively, which were very similar to that of an ideal magnet with a Gaussian distribution (σ=31° and 44°, respectively of the grain alignment. In this model, we postulated that every grain independently reversed according to the 1/cos θ law. The calculation results for the angular dependence of the coercivity using the values θ1=ω1(0°=30°, σ=31° and θ1=ω1(0°=36°, σ=44° could qualitatively and convincingly explain the observed angular dependence of the coercivity of Nd14.2B6.2Co1.0Febal. and Nd14.2Dy0.3B6.2Co1.0Febal.. It is speculated that the magnetic domain wall is pinned at grains tilted away from the easy magnetization direction, and when the magnetic domain wall de-pins from the tilted grains, the magnetic domain wall jumps through several grains. We suggest that the coercive force of the aligned magnet behaves like a low-aligned magnet owing to the magnetization reversal of the crust of the grains induced by the pinning and subsequent jumping of the magnetic domain wall.

  15. Angular dependence of coercivity derived from alignment dependence of coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yutaka; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Sumitani, Kazushi; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Tamura, Ryuji; Osamura, Kozo

    2018-01-01

    Experimental results of the alignment dependence of the coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets showed that the angle of magnetization reversal for anisotropically aligned magnets was bigger than that obtained from the theoretical results calculated using the postulation that every grain independently reverses its magnetization direction following the 1/cos θ law. The angles of reversed magnetization (θ1) for Nd13.48Co0.55B5.76Febal. with alignment α=0.95 and for Nd12.75Dy0.84B5.81Co0.55Febal. with α=0.96 were 30° and 36°, respectively, which were very similar to that of an ideal magnet with a Gaussian distribution (σ=31° and 44°, respectively) of the grain alignment. In this model, we postulated that every grain independently reversed according to the 1/cos θ law. The calculation results for the angular dependence of the coercivity using the values θ1=ω1(0°)=30°, σ=31° and θ1=ω1(0°)=36°, σ=44° could qualitatively and convincingly explain the observed angular dependence of the coercivity of Nd14.2B6.2Co1.0Febal. and Nd14.2Dy0.3B6.2Co1.0Febal.. It is speculated that the magnetic domain wall is pinned at grains tilted away from the easy magnetization direction, and when the magnetic domain wall de-pins from the tilted grains, the magnetic domain wall jumps through several grains. We suggest that the coercive force of the aligned magnet behaves like a low-aligned magnet owing to the magnetization reversal of the crust of the grains induced by the pinning and subsequent jumping of the magnetic domain wall.

  16. Across plane ionic conductivity of highly oriented neodymium doped ceria thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baure, G; Kasse, R M; Rudawski, N G; Nino, J C

    2015-05-14

    A methodology to limit interfacial effects in thin films is proposed and explained. The strategy is to reduce the impact of the electrode interfaces and eliminate cross grain boundaries that impede ionic motion. To this end, highly oriented Nd0.1Ce0.9O2-δ (NDC) nanocrystalline thin films were grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on platinized single crystal a-plane sapphire substrates. High resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR-XTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) verified the films were textured with columnar grains. The average widths of the columns were approximately 40 nm and not significantly changed by film thickness between 100 and 300 nm. HR-XTEM and XRD determined the {111} planes of NDC were grown preferentially on top of the {111} planes of platinum despite the large lattice mismatch between the two planes. From the XRD patterns, the out of plane strains on the platinum and NDC layers were less than 1%. This can be explained by the coincident site lattice (CSL) theory. Rotating the {111} ceria planes 19.11° with respect to the {111} platinum planes forms a Σ7 boundary where 1 in 7 cerium lattice sites are coincident with the platinum lattice sites. This orientation lowers interfacial energy promoting the preferential alignment of those two planes. The across plane ionic conductivity was measured at low temperatures (<350 °C) for the various film thicknesses. It is here shown that columnar grain growth of ceria can be induced on platinized substrates allowing pathways that are clear of blocking grain boundaries that cause conductivities to diminish as film thickness decreases.

  17. Design rules for out-of-plane stability of roller bent steel arches with FEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, R.C.; Snijder, H.H.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.; Beg, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical investigation into the out-of-plane buckling behavior of freestanding roller bent steel arches. As roller bent arches have structural imperfections which differ considerably from those of hot-rolled or welded sections, specific attention is paid to their inclusion in

  18. Microstructure and magnetic properties of highly textured Nd-Fe-B films grown on Ta (1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, A.R. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr.20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: a.kwon@ifw-dresden.de; Hannemann, U. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr.20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Neu, V. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr.20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Faehler, S. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr.20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Schultz, L. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr.20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    Hard magnetic Nd-Fe-B films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on a combined Cr/Ta buffer layer on single crystalline MgO(1 0 0) substrates. At suitable temperatures this system of substrate and buffers allows epitaxial growth of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase with the c-axis pointing out-of-plane. The films exhibit coercivities up to 1.3 T. The in-plane to out-of-plane remanence ratio between 560 deg. C and 600 deg. C is as low as 0.1. Using this buffer system a moderate substrate temperature of 420 deg. C is sufficient to deposit films with an out-of-plane coercivity above 1 T.

  19. Microstructure and magnetic properties of highly textured Nd-Fe-B films grown on Ta (1 0 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, A.R.; Hannemann, U.; Neu, V.; Faehler, S.; Schultz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Hard magnetic Nd-Fe-B films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on a combined Cr/Ta buffer layer on single crystalline MgO(1 0 0) substrates. At suitable temperatures this system of substrate and buffers allows epitaxial growth of the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase with the c-axis pointing out-of-plane. The films exhibit coercivities up to 1.3 T. The in-plane to out-of-plane remanence ratio between 560 deg. C and 600 deg. C is as low as 0.1. Using this buffer system a moderate substrate temperature of 420 deg. C is sufficient to deposit films with an out-of-plane coercivity above 1 T

  20. Study of the out-of-plane emission of protons and light fragments in symmetric heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, D.; Beckerle, P.; Bormann, C.; Schwab, E.; Shin, Y.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Baltes, P.; Muentz, C.; Oeschler, H.; Sturm, C.; Wagner, A.; Barth, R.; Cieslak, M.; Debowski, M.; Grosse, E.; Koczon, P.; Mang, M.; Miskowiec, D.; Schicker, R.; Senger, P.; Kohlmeyer, B.; Puehlhofer, F.; Speer, J.; Voelkel, K.; Walus, W.

    1996-01-01

    Midrapidity protons from 209 Bi+ 209 Bi collisions were measured with the Kaon Spectrometer at SIS at incident energies of E Lab /A=400, 700 and 1000 MeV. Additionally, light fragments were analysed at 400 MeV. We have investigated the azimuthal emission pattern of the particles relative to the reaction plane as function of transverse momentum, bombarding energy and impact parameter. We observe an enhanced emission of particles perpendicular to the reaction plane at all bombarding energies. The ratio of the number of particles emitted out-of-plane/in-plane increases strongly with the particles transverse momentum. The anisotropy decreases with increasing beam energy. Composite particles show a much stronger effect than protons. (orig.)

  1. Deformation behaviors of three-dimensional graphene honeycombs under out-of-plane compression: Atomistic simulations and predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanchao; Chen, Cheng; Hu, Dianyin; Song, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Combining atomistic simulations and continuum modeling, a comprehensive study of the out-of-plane compressive deformation behaviors of equilateral three-dimensional (3D) graphene honeycombs was performed. It was demonstrated that under out-of-plane compression, the honeycomb exhibits two critical deformation events, i.e., elastic mechanical instability (including elastic buckling and structural transformation) and inelastic structural collapse. The above events were shown to be strongly dependent on the honeycomb cell size and affected by the local atomic bonding at the cell junction. By treating the 3D graphene honeycomb as a continuum cellular solid, and accounting for the structural heterogeneity and constraint at the junction, a set of analytical models were developed to accurately predict the threshold stresses corresponding to the onset of those deformation events. The present study elucidates key structure-property relationships of 3D graphene honeycombs under out-of-plane compression, and provides a comprehensive theoretical framework to predictively analyze their deformation responses, and more generally, offers critical new knowledge for the rational bottom-up design of 3D networks of two-dimensional nanomaterials.

  2. Exchange biased FeNi/FeMn bilayers with coercivity and switching field enhanced by FeMn surface oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Svalov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available FeNi/FeMn bilayers were grown in a magnetic field and subjected to heat treatments at temperatures of 50 to 350 °C in vacuum or in a gas mixture containing oxygen. In the as-deposited state, the hysteresis loop of 30 nm FeNi layer was shifted. Low temperature annealing leads to a decrease of the exchange bias field. Heat treatments at higher temperatures in gas mixture result in partial oxidation of 20 nm thick FeMn layer leading to a nonlinear dependence of coercivity and a switching field of FeNi layer on annealing temperature. The maximum of coercivity and switching field were observed after annealing at 300 °C.

  3. Coercive treatment and autonomy in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, Manne; Helgesson, Gert

    2008-02-01

    There are three lines of argument in defence of coercive treatment of patients with mental disorders: arguments regarding (1) societal interests to protect others, (2) the patients' own health interests, and (3) patient autonomy. In this paper, we analyse these arguments in relation to an idealized case, where a person with a mental disorder claims not to want medical treatment for religious reasons. We also discuss who should decide what in situations where patients with mental disorders deny treatment on seemingly rational grounds. We conclude that, in principle, coercive treatment cannot be defended for the sake of protecting others. While coercive actions can be acceptable in order to protect close family and others, medical treatment is not justified for such reasons but should be given only in the interest of patients. Coercive treatment may be required in order to promote the patient's health interests, but health interests have to waive if they go against the autonomous interests of the patient. We argue that non-autonomous patients can have reasons, rooted in their deeply-set values, to renounce compulsory institutional treatment, and that such reasons should be respected unless it can be assumed that their new predicaments have caused them to change their views.

  4. Effect of the out-of-plane stress on the properties of epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films with nano-pillar array on Si-substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Gang, E-mail: baigang@njupt.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for RF Integration and Micropackaging and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xie, Qiyun [Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for RF Integration and Micropackaging and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Liu, Zhiguo [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Dongmei [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-08-21

    A nonlinear thermodynamic formalism has been proposed to calculate the physical properties of the epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films containing vertical nano-pillar array on Si-substrate. The out-of-plane stress induced by the mismatch between film and nano-pillars provides an effective way to tune the physical properties of ferroelectric SrTiO{sub 3} films. Tensile out-of-plane stress raises the phase transition temperature and increases the out-of-plane polarization, but decreases the out-of-plane dielectric constant below Curie temperature, pyroelectric coefficient, and piezoelectric coefficient. These results showed that by properly controlling the out-of-plane stress, the out-of-plane stress induced paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transformation will appear near room temperature. Excellent dielectric, pyroelectric, piezoelectric properties of these SrTiO{sub 3} films similar to PZT and other lead-based ferroelectrics can be expected.

  5. Out-of-plane emission of nuclear matter in Au+Au collisions between 100 and 800 AMeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastid, N.; Buta, A.; Crochet, P.

    1996-01-01

    We present new experimental results concerning the azimuthal distributions of light and intermediate mass fragments at midrapidity for Au (100 - 800 AMeV) +Au collisions measured with the phase I setup of the FOPI detector at GSI in Darmstadt. The azimuthal distributions are investigated as a function of the collision centrality, the incident energy, the fragment charge and transverse momentum. The maximum of the azimuthal anisotropy is obtained for collisions associated with impact parameters around 7 fm. Intermediate mass fragments present a stronger out-of-plane emission signal that light fragments. We show in particular that the azimuthal anisotropy as a function of the scaled fragment transverse momentum follows an universal curve for incident energies ranging from 250 to 800 AMeV. A signature for a transition from in-plane to out-of-plane emission is evidenced at the lowest beam energies. (author)

  6. Out-of-plane emission of nuclear matter in Au+Au collisions between 100 and 800 AMeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastid, N.; Buta, A.; Crochet, P. [and others; FOPI Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    We present new experimental results concerning the azimuthal distributions of light and intermediate mass fragments at midrapidity for Au (100 - 800 AMeV) +Au collisions measured with the phase I setup of the FOPI detector at GSI in Darmstadt. The azimuthal distributions are investigated as a function of the collision centrality, the incident energy, the fragment charge and transverse momentum. The maximum of the azimuthal anisotropy is obtained for collisions associated with impact parameters around 7 fm. Intermediate mass fragments present a stronger out-of-plane emission signal that light fragments. We show in particular that the azimuthal anisotropy as a function of the scaled fragment transverse momentum follows an universal curve for incident energies ranging from 250 to 800 AMeV. A signature for a transition from in-plane to out-of-plane emission is evidenced at the lowest beam energies. (author).

  7. Fabrication of a Cryogenic Bias Filter for Ultrasensitive Focal Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A fabrication process has been developed for cryogenic in-line filtering for the bias and readout of ultrasensitive cryogenic bolometers for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The design is a microstripline filter that cuts out, or strongly attenuates, frequencies (10 50 GHz) that can be carried by wiring staged at cryogenic temperatures. The filter must have 100-percent transmission at DC and low frequencies where the bias and readout lines will carry signal. The fabrication requires the encapsulation of superconducting wiring in a dielectric-metal envelope with precise electrical characteristics. Sufficiently thick insulation layers with high-conductivity metal layers fully surrounding a patterned superconducting wire in arrayable formats have been demonstrated. A degenerately doped silicon wafer has been chosen to provide a metallic ground plane. A metallic seed layer is patterned to enable attachment to the ground plane. Thick silicon dioxide films are deposited at low temperatures to provide tunable dielectric isolation without degrading the metallic seed layer. Superconducting wiring is deposited and patterned using microstripline filtering techniques to cut out the relevant frequencies. A low Tc superconductor is used so that it will attenuate power strongly above the gap frequency. Thick dielectric is deposited on top of the circuit, and then vias are patterned through both dielectric layers. A thick conductive film is deposited conformally over the entire circuit, except for the contact pads for the signal and bias attachments to complete the encapsulating ground plane. Filters are high-aspect- ratio rectangles, allowing close packing in one direction, while enabling the chip to feed through the wall of a copper enclosure. The chip is secured in the copper wall using a soft metal seal to make good thermal and electrical contact to the outer shield.

  8. Out-of-plane behavior of hollow clay tile walls infilled between steel frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butala, M.B.; Jones, W.D.; Beavers, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Several Buildings at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-1 2 Plant rely on unreinforced hollow clay tile walls (HCTW) infilled between unbraced, non-moment resisting steel frames to resist natural phenomena forces, seismic and wind. One critical building relies on moment resisting steel frames in one direction while relying on unreinforced HCTWs infilled between the columns in the orthogonal direction to resist these forces. The HCTWs must act as shear walls while maintaining out-of-plane lateral stability. In assessing the safety of these buildings to seismic forces, several models to study the in- and out-of-plane effects were made and analyzed. The study of the moment resisting steel framed building indicated that bending stresses in the walls were induced by building drift and not by inertial forces per se. The discovery of this phenomenon was some what of a surprise in that the analysis performed is not typically used in design of these structures. The study indicated that the walls began to crack at their interface with the foundation at a low open-quotes gclose quotes level and that horizontal cracking at different elevations continued until the walls exhibited little bending resistance

  9. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of NdFeB Films through Nd Surface Diffusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si (100 substrates and subsequently annealed for 30 min at 923 K in vacuum. It was found that the microstructure and magnetic properties of Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films strongly depend on the NdFeB layer thickness. With NdFeB layer thickness increasing, both the grain size and the strain firstly reduce and then increase. When NdFeB layer thickness is 750 nm, the strain reaches the minimum value. Meanwhile, both the in-plane and perpendicular coercivities firstly drastically increase and then slowly decrease with NdFeB layer thickness increasing. The highest in-plane and perpendicular coercivities can be obtained at NdFeB layer thickness of 750 nm, which are 21.2 kOe and 19.5 kOe, respectively. In addition, the high remanence ratio (remanent magnetization/saturation magnetization of 0.87 can also be achieved in Ta/Nd/NdFeB (750 nm/Nd/Ta film.

  10. Flights of a spacecraft with a solar sail out of ecliptic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakhova, Elena; Starkov, Vladimir; Stepenko, Nikolai

    2018-05-01

    Solar sailing is an unique form of spacecraft (SC) propulsion that uses the free and limitless supply of photons from the Sun. The investigation of near-the-Sun space properties is of the great scientific interest. It can be realized by help of solar sailing. We present the numerical simulation of several closed modelled trajectories of a spacecraft with a controlled solar sail to reach out of ecliptic plane, to flight over the Sun north and south poles and return to the Earth.

  11. Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aieta, Francesco; Genevet, Patrice; Yu, Nanfang; Kats, Mikhail A; Gaburro, Zeno; Capasso, Federico

    2012-03-14

    Experiments on ultrathin anisotropic arrays of subwavelength optical antennas display out-of-plane refraction. A powerful three-dimensional (3D) extension of the recently demonstrated generalized laws of refraction and reflection shows that the interface imparts a tangential wavevector to the incident light leading to anomalous beams, which in general are noncoplanar with the incident beam. The refracted beam direction can be controlled by varying the angle between the plane of incidence and the antenna array. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. Assessment of the out-plane and in-plane ordering of high quality ZnO nanorods by X-ray multiple diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Tomás, M.C.; Montenegro, D.N.; Agouram, S.; Sallet, V.; Muñoz-Sanjosé, V.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanorods grown on buffered and non buffered sapphire substrates have been investigated by X-ray multiple diffraction using Renninger scans of the ZnO(0001) and ZnO(0003) forbidden reflections. In this technique the diffracted X-ray beam is simultaneously diffracted by several sets of planes, providing information on the broadening in different directions, as well as from nanorods, and from the layer on which they grow. The intensities and angular widths of peaks obtained by azimuthal and omega scans have been analyzed, making a direct comparison with conventional measurements of the full width at half-maximum of symmetric and asymmetric reflections. The analysis leads to establish that the peaks of the Renninger scan are highly sensitive to structural characteristics, providing information related with both the out-plane and in-plane ordering of nanostructured samples with a single scan. - Highlights: ► Structural characteristics of ZnO nanorods have been analyzed by X-ray multiple diffraction. ► X-ray multiple diffraction can provide mosaic structure characteristics from a single scan. ► Peaks of Renninger scan result to be very sensitive to structural characteristics. ► X-ray multiple diffraction can be an alternative analysis method to X-ray diffraction

  13. Assessment of the out-plane and in-plane ordering of high quality ZnO nanorods by X-ray multiple diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Tomás, M.C., E-mail: Carmen.Martinez-tomas@uv.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Montenegro, D.N.; Agouram, S. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Sallet, V. [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMAC), CNRS-Université de Versailles St-Quentin, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Muñoz-Sanjosé, V. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain)

    2013-08-31

    ZnO nanorods grown on buffered and non buffered sapphire substrates have been investigated by X-ray multiple diffraction using Renninger scans of the ZnO(0001) and ZnO(0003) forbidden reflections. In this technique the diffracted X-ray beam is simultaneously diffracted by several sets of planes, providing information on the broadening in different directions, as well as from nanorods, and from the layer on which they grow. The intensities and angular widths of peaks obtained by azimuthal and omega scans have been analyzed, making a direct comparison with conventional measurements of the full width at half-maximum of symmetric and asymmetric reflections. The analysis leads to establish that the peaks of the Renninger scan are highly sensitive to structural characteristics, providing information related with both the out-plane and in-plane ordering of nanostructured samples with a single scan. - Highlights: ► Structural characteristics of ZnO nanorods have been analyzed by X-ray multiple diffraction. ► X-ray multiple diffraction can provide mosaic structure characteristics from a single scan. ► Peaks of Renninger scan result to be very sensitive to structural characteristics. ► X-ray multiple diffraction can be an alternative analysis method to X-ray diffraction.

  14. Coercive properties of elliptic-parabolic operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Min Duc.

    1987-06-01

    Using a generalized Poincare inequality, we study the coercive properties of a class of elliptic-parabolic partial differential equations, which contains many degenerate elliptic equations considered by the other authors. (author). 16 refs

  15. Thickness dependence of magnetization reversal mechanism in perpendicularly magnetized L1{sub 0} FePt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Mei; Wang, Xin, E-mail: xinwang@uestc.edu.cn; Lu, Haipeng; Zhang, Li; Deng, Longjiang; Xie, Jianliang

    2017-04-15

    We have studied the magnetic switching behavior of L1{sub 0}-ordered FePt films with varying thickness. It was found that coercivity is strongly dependent on the film thickness. The obvious variations of the coercivity in the thin films are confirmed by the measurements of structural and magnetic properties. With increasing thickness, the degree of L1{sub 0} chemical ordering increased, while the magnetization reversal process transforms from a pinned two-steps magnetization reversal to a comparatively smooth domain wall motion behavior. Although considering anisotropy, exchange interaction and applied magnetic field, the switching behavior in films is quite complex, the main features of the magnetization reversal mechanism can be understood by performing detailed investigation on the effect of the deposition temperature and the angle of magnetic field. - Highlights: • Series of FePt films with L1{sub 0} phase have been prepared. • We focused on the magnetization reversal mechanism with varying thicknesses. • The angle-dependence of switching process is revealed in the FePt films. • Different switching mechanisms were found by increasing the film thickness.

  16. Synthesis and magnetic properties of the thin film exchange spring system of MnBi/FeCo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, S.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L.

    2017-10-01

    Manganese bismuth thin films with a nominal thickness of ∼40 nm were grown at room temperature onto quartz glass substrate in a DC magnetron sputtering unit. In contrast to the usual multilayer approach, the MnBi films were deposited using a single sputtering target with a stoichiometry of Mn55Bi45 (at. %). A subsequent in-situ annealing step was performed in vacuum in order to form the ferromagnetic LTP of MnBi. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of a textured LTP MnBi hard phase after annealing at 330 °C. This film shows a maximum saturation magnetization of 530 emu/cm3, high out-of-plane coercivity of 15 kOe induced by unreacted bismuth. The exchange coupling effect was investigated by deposition of a second layer of FeCo with 1 nm and 2 nm thickness onto the LTP MnBi films. The MnBi/FeCo double layer showed as expected higher saturation magnetization with increasing thickness of the FeCo layer while the coercive field remained constant. The fabrication of the MnBi/FeCo double layer for an exchange spring magnet was facilitated by deposition from a single stoichiometric target.

  17. Formation and characterization of Ni nanostructures in porous InP - from crystallites to wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerngross, M.-D.; Hrkac, V.; Kienle, L.; Carstensen, J.; Foell, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the galvanic formation of Ni crystallites and Ni nanowires with very high aspect ratios (>1000:1) in porous InP is presented. By depositing a dielectric interlayer on the InP pore walls it is possible to produce very high aspect ratio Ni nanowires. The coercivity of these nanowires is about 100 Oe (in-plane) and 240 Oe (out-of-plane), while the coercivity of the crystallites lies in between these values. The in-plane remanence squareness of the Ni nanowires is very low (S ∼ 0.08), out-of-plane it is 0.36. For the Ni crystallites the remanence squareness lies in between the range given for the Ni nanowires. (author)

  18. Out-of-plane buckling of roller bent wide flange arches - imperfections and finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, R.C.; Snijder, H.H.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.; Beg, D.; Chan, S.L.; Shu, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Steel arches are used more and more in contemporary architecture, combining structural efficiency with architectural merits. If lateral supports are absent, these arches are prone to out-of-plane buckling. Arches are often made by cold bending wide flange beams at ambient temperature. This

  19. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....

  20. 3D and 1D calculation of hysteresis loops and energy products for anisotropic nanocomposite films with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.H.; Zhao, G.P.; Yue, Ming; Ye, L.N.; Xia, J.; Zhang, X.C.; Chang, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the magnetic reversal process, hysteresis loops and energy products for exchange-coupled Nd 2 Fe 14 B/α-Fe bilayers are studied systematically by a three-dimensional (3D) model. The 3D calculations are numerically solved using the finite difference method, where the results are carefully compared with those calculated by one-dimensional (1D) model. It is found that the calculated hysteresis loops and energy products based on the two methods are consistent with each other. Both nucleation fields and coercivities decrease monotonically as the soft layer thickness L s increases. In addition, the calculated spatial distributions of magnetization orientations in the thickness direction at various applied fields based on both methods signify a three-step magnetic reversal process, which are nucleation, growth and displacement of the domain wall. The calculated magnetic orientations within the film plane, however, are totally different according to the two methods. The 3D calculation exhibits a process of vortex formation and annihilation. On the other hand, the 1D calculation gives a quasi-coherent one, where magnetization orientation is coherent in the film plane and varies in the thickness direction. This new reversal mechanism displayed in the film plane has a systematic influence on the nucleation fields, coercivity and energy products. - Highlights: • Consistent hysteresis loops and energy products for 3D and 1D calculation. • Domain wall formation, evolution and displacement perpendicular to the film plane. • Vortex formation, annihilation and better loop squareness in 3D calculation. • Larger nucleation fields, remanence and smaller coercivity in 3D calculation

  1. A two-dimensional, finite-element methods for calculating TF coil response to out-of-plane Lorentz forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Toroidal field (TF) coils in fusion systems are routinely operated at very high magnetic fields. While obtaining the response of the coil to in-plane loads is relatively straightforward, the same is not true for the out-of-plane loads. Previous treatments of the out-of-plane problem have involved large, three-dimensional finite element idealizations. A new treatment of the out-of-plane problem is presented here; the model is two-dimensional in nature, and consumes far less CPU-time than three-dimensional methods. The approach assumes there exists a region of torsional deformation in the inboard leg and a bending region in the outboard leg. It also assumes the outboard part of the coil is attached to a torque frame/cylinder, which experiences primarily torsional deformation. Three-dimensional transition regions exist between the inboard and outboard legs and between the outboard leg and the torque frame. By considering several idealized problems of cylindrical shells subjected to moment distributions, it is shown that the size of these three-dimensional regions is quite small, and that the interaction between the torsional and bending regions can be treated in an equivalent two-dimensional fashion. Equivalent stiffnesses are derived to model penetration into and twist along the cylinders. These stiffnesses are then used in a special substructuring analysis to couple the three regions together. Results from the new method are compared to results from a 3D continuum model. (orig.)

  2. Angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of ordered arrays of Co nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavín, R.; Gallardo, C.; Palma, J.L.; Escrig, J.; Denardin, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of ordered hexagonal arrays of Co nanowires prepared using anodic aluminum oxide templates was investigated. The experimental evolution of coercivity as a function of the angle, in which the external field is applied, is interpreted considering micromagnetic simulations. Depending on the angle between the axis of the wire and the applied magnetic field direction our results show that the magnetization reversal mode changes from vortex to a transverse domain wall. Besides, we observed that the dipolar interactions cause a reduction in coercive fields, mainly in the direction of easy magnetization of the nanowires. Good agreement between numerical and experimental data is obtained. - Highlights: ► Angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of Co nanowire arrays. ► Results show that the magnetization reversal mode changes from vortex to a transverse domain wall. ► Dipolar interactions cause a reduction in coercive fields, which is the strongest in the direction of easy magnetization of the nanowire.

  3. Polycrystalline Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on r-plane sapphire: Effect of film thickness on strain and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin, E. A.; Holland, A. S.; Ghorbani, K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Simon, W. K.; Safari, A.; Wang, J. Y.

    2006-10-01

    Polycrystalline Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) films grown on r-plane sapphire exhibit strong variation of in-plane strain over the thickness range of 25-400nm. At a critical thickness of ˜200nm, the films are strain relieved; in thinner films, the strain is tensile, while compressive strain was observed in the 400nm film. Microwave properties of the films were measured from 1to20GHz by the interdigital capacitor method. A capacitance tunability of 64% was observed in the 200nm film, while thinner films showed improved Q factor. These results demonstrate the possibility of incorporating frequency agile BST-based devices into the silicon on sapphire process.

  4. Numerical modelling of the impedance plane for simultaneous determining, by eddy currents, the oxide thickness and conductivity in Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lois, Alejandro E.

    2001-01-01

    During service at high temperature or in aggressive media, metallic structures and components may suffer different types of changes or degradation. As an example, phase transformations may occur, second phases may precipitate, and in consequence the mechanical and chemical properties of the material may change. Their behavior will therefore differ from that considered for the design of the component. The knowledge of the amount of a precipitated second phase in a component should be an important tool in the hands of the maintenance engineer. And it would be very important to obtain this knowledge nondestructively and reliably. The objective of this project is to evaluate by eddy currents the amount of the hydrogen incorporated during service in structural zirconium base materials. For this purpose, a series of Zircaloy-4 specimens with oxide layers of different thickness and different concentration of hydrogen obtained by controlled autoclave treatments were used. These specimens were tested with eddy current equipment. The information produced by an eddy current test is the superposition of many variables, e.g.: thickness of oxide layers, conductance, thickness of specimen, etc. In order to sort out this information, an analytical model of the impedance plane was programmed in a PC, with which this information was processed, permitting, in this way, to evaluate the conductivity of materials, taking into account the effect of oxide layers thickness. A linear relationship between the conductivity and the hydrogen content in the range of hydrogen concentrations of technological interest was observed. Therefore, the calculated electrical conductivity may be transformed to the amount of hydrogen content, using a suitable calibration curve. This process will allow for the nondestructive assessment of the amount of hydrogen in reactor components, such as pressure and calandria tubes, a knowledge which will enable the experts to predict the degree of fragility of those

  5. Instability of in-plane vortices in two-dimensional easy-plane ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysin, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of the core region of an in-plane vortex in the two-dimensional Heisenberg model with easy-plane anisotropy λ=J z /J xy leads to a clear understanding of the instability towards transformation into an out-of-plane vortex as a function of anisotropy. The anisotropy parameter λ c at which the in-plane vortex becomes unstable and develops into an out-of-plane vortex is determined with an accuracy comparable to computer simulations for square, hexagonal, and triangular lattices. For λ c , the in-plane vortex is stable but exhibits a normal mode whose frequency goes to zero as ω∝(λ c -λ) 1/2 as λ approaches λ c . For λ>λ c , the static nonzero out-of-plane spin components grow as (λ-λ c ) 1/2 . The lattice dependence of λ c is determined strongly by the number of spins in the core plaquette, is fundamentally a discreteness effect, and cannot be obtained in a continuum theory

  6. Multilayer out-of-plane overlap electrostatic energy harvesting structure actuated by blood pressure for powering intra-cardiac implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deterre, M.; Risquez, S.; Bouthaud, B.; Dal Molin, R.; Woytasik, M.; Lefeuvre, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present an innovative multilayer out-of-plane electrostatic energy harvesting device conceived in view of scavenging energy from regular blood pressure in the heart. This concept involves the use of a deformable packaging for the implant in order to transmit the blood pressure to the electrostatic transducer. As shown in previous work, this is possible by using thin metal micro-bellows structure, providing long term hermeticity and high flexibility. The design of the electrostatic device has overcome several challenges such as the very low frequency of the mechanical excitation (1 to 2 Hz) and the small available room in the medical implant. Analytical and numerical models have been used to maximize the capacitance variation, and hence to optimize the energy conversion. We have theoretically shown that a 25-layer transducer with 6-mm diameter and 1-mm thickness could harvest at least 20 mJ per heart beat in the left ventricle under a maximum voltage of 75 V. These results show that the proposed concept is promising and could power the next generation of leadless pacemakers.

  7. Coercivity enhancement of Dy-free Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets by intergranular adding Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Liping; Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@zju.edu.cn; Wu, Chen; Zhang, Pei; Liu, Xiaolian; Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    High coercivity Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets serving in high-temperature environments always consume expensive and scarce heavy rare-earth Dy, which has simulated considerable interest to reduce Dy usage. In this work, coercivity of Dy-free magnets was investigated through intergranular adding eutectic Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} powders. The coercivity increases gradually up to 4 wt% Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} addition, however the remanence starts to deteriorate drastically as the addition is over 2.5 wt%. Coercivity above 18.0 kOe is obtained at the expense of a slight reduction in remanence through optimizing the addition amount and sintering conditions. The coercivity enhancement is explained through microstructural observations and elemental distribution analysis. (i) (Nd, Ho){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B shell forms in the outer region of 2:14:1 phase grains, strengthening the local magnetic anisotropy filed, (ii) RE-rich grain boundary phase with low Fe content is thickened, weakening the magnetic coupling between adjacent 2:14:1 phase grains, and (iii) 2:14:1 phase grains are refined upon lowering sintering temperature, reducing the microstructural defects and the stray fields aroused from neighboring grains. - Highlights: • Eutectic Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} powders were intergranular added to NdFeB sintered magnets. • The doped Dy-free magnet possessed coercivity of 18.0 kOe, remanence of 13.15 kGs. • (Nd, Ho){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B shell formed in the surface of the matrix grains, increasing the H{sub A}. • Thick grain boundaries with low Fe content formed, decoupling the matrix grains. • By sintered at lower temperature, the matrix phase grains were refined.

  8. Phase-conjugate interferometer to estimate refractive index and thickness of transparent plane parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrana-Sanchez, R.; Rodriguez-Zurita, G.; Vazquez-Castillo, J. F. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    A technique to estimate the refractive index and thickness of homogeneous plane parallel dielectric plates is proposed using a phase-conjugate interferometer, in which counting of interference fringes is employed. The light beam impinges a tilted plate before it enters a phase-conjugate interferometer, and a count of the fringes passing through a given reference at the observing plane gives the phase changes as a function of tilting angle. The obtained data is fitted to a mathematical model, which leads to the determination of both refractive index and thickness simultaneously. In this letter, experimental data from two interferometers are also discussed for comparison. One with an externally-pumped phase-conjugate mirror achieved with a BSO photorefractive crystal and another one with conventional mirrors. Results show that the phase sensitivity of the phase-conjugate interferometer is not simply twice the corresponding sensitivity of the conventional version. [Spanish] Se propone una tecnica para medir indices de refraccion y espesores de placas dielectricas plano paralelas homogeneas empleando un interferometro con fase conjugada, en el cual se usa el conteo de franjas. El haz luminoso incide en una placa inclinada bajo inspeccion antes de entrar en un interferometro equipado con un espejo conjugador de fase, y se realiza un conteo de las franjas que pasan por determinada referencia en el plano de observacion, proporcionando los cambios de fase en funcion del angulo de inclinacion. Los datos obtenidos se ajustan a un modelo, el cual conduce a la determinacion, tanto del indice de refraccion como del espesor, simultaneamente. En este trabajo se discuten datos experimentales provenientes de dos interferometros para su comparacion. Uno de ellos tiene un espejo conjugador basado en un cristal BSO fotorrefractivo, mientras que el otro es una variante con espejos convencionales. Se muestra que la sensibilidad de fase del interferometro con conjugador de fase no

  9. Modified cantilevers to probe unambiguously out-of-plane piezoresponse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyabyeva, Natalia; Ouvrard, Aimeric; Lindfors-Vrejoiu, Ionela; Kolomiytsev, Alexey; Solodovnik, Maxim; Ageev, Oleg; McGrouther, Damien

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate and investigate the coupling of contributions from both in-plane (IP) polarization and out-of-plane (OP) components in BiFeO3 (BFO) thin-film polarization probed by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). Such coupling leads to image artifacts which prevent the correct determination of OP polarization vector directions and the corresponding piezoelectric coefficient d33. Using material strength theory with a one-dimensional modeling of the cantilever oscillation amplitude under electrostatic and elastic forces as a function of the tip length, we have evidenced the impact of IP piezoresponse to the OP signal for tip length longer than 4 μm. The IP polarization vector induces a significant longitudinal bending of the cantilever, due to the small spring constant of long tips, which provokes a normal deviation superimposed to the OP piezoresponse. These artifacts can be reduced by increasing the longitudinal spring constant of the cantilever by shortening the tip length. Standard cantilevers with 15-μm-long tips were modified to reach the desired tip length, using focused ion-beam techniques and tested using PFM on the same BFO thin film. Tip length shortening has strongly reduced IP artifacts as expected, while the impact of nonlocal electrostatic forces, becoming predominant for tips shorter than 1 μm, has led to a non-negligible deflection offset. For shorter tips, a strong electric field from a cantilever beam can induce polarization switching as observed for a 0.5-μm-long tip. Tip length ranging from 1 to 4 μm allowed minimizing both artifacts to probe unambiguously OP piezoresponse and quantify the d33 piezoelectric coefficient.

  10. Power Structure in Family and Coercive Trends Consequence of it Based on Women’s Emotional Energy and Economic Situation in Abdanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مریم مختاری

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research carried out with the purpose of determining role of women’s emotional energy and economic situation in power structure in family and coercive trends consequence of it in Abdanan. Subject of power in family is one of the considered  problems in Sociology. In this way role of two differential factors (emotional energy and economic situation is thinkful. Research method was survey and population were all of married women in Abdanan that were selected 400women as a sample size with performance of multy stage cluster sampling. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection. In this research power structure considered as a mediator variable. Research finging showed that there is significant and direct relation between emotional energy and power structure in family but there isn’t significant relation between economic situation and power structure in family. Relation between variables and coercive trends as a dependent variable is expressive of significant and direct relation between emotional energy and coercive trends. There is significant and reverse relation between economic situation and coercive trends and also significant and direct relation between power structure in family and coercive trends.

  11. Design of a cruciform bend specimen for determination of out-of- plane biaxial tensile stress effects on fracture toughness for shallow cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Mcafee, W.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Theiss, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Pressurized-thermal-shock loading in a reactor pressure vessel produces significant positive out-of-plane stresses along the crack front for both circumferential and axial cracks. Experimental evidence, while very limited, seems to indicate that a reduction in toughness is associated with out-of-plane biaxial loading when compared with toughness values obtained under uniaxial conditions. A testing program is described that seeks to determine the effects of out-of-plane biaxial tensile loading on fracture toughness of RPV steels. A cruciform bend specimen that meets specified criteria for the testing pregam is analyzed using three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite-element techniques. These analysis results provide the basis for proposed test conditions that are judged likely to produce a biaxial loading effect in the cruciform bend specimen

  12. Orientation and magnetic properties of the thick multilayered [NdFeBxTby]n films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weifang; Suzuki, Shunji; Machida, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    Multilayered [NdFeB x /Tb y ] n films were prepared by a three-demensional sputtering system. From the thickness of NdFeB layer dependence on the orientation and magnetic properties of multilayered [NdFeB (xμm)/Tb (50nm)] n films with 7.2μm as a total thickness of NdFeB layers, it was found that the orientation of NdFeB grains was maintained. However, the coercivity was enhanced with decreasing the thickness of each NdFeB thin layer. The (BH) max value of 240kJ/m 3 was obtained on the layered [NdFeB (1.2μm)/Tb (50 nm)] 6 film as an optimal value. For the multilayered [NdFeB (1.2μm)/Tb (50 nm)] n films with various multiple layer sets (n), the coercivity value increased with the film thickness without any deterioration of the c-axis texture and consequently, multilayered NdFeB/Tb film magnets with total thickness values around 70μm showed the superior magnetic properties (H cj approx. = 1360kA/m, I r approx.= 1.05T, and (BH) max approx.= 202kJ/m 3 ). (author)

  13. Angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of ordered arrays of Co nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, UDP, Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Gallardo, C.; Palma, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Escrig, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CEDENNA, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Denardin, J.C., E-mail: jcdenardin@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CEDENNA, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-08-15

    The angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of ordered hexagonal arrays of Co nanowires prepared using anodic aluminum oxide templates was investigated. The experimental evolution of coercivity as a function of the angle, in which the external field is applied, is interpreted considering micromagnetic simulations. Depending on the angle between the axis of the wire and the applied magnetic field direction our results show that the magnetization reversal mode changes from vortex to a transverse domain wall. Besides, we observed that the dipolar interactions cause a reduction in coercive fields, mainly in the direction of easy magnetization of the nanowires. Good agreement between numerical and experimental data is obtained. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of Co nanowire arrays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results show that the magnetization reversal mode changes from vortex to a transverse domain wall. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dipolar interactions cause a reduction in coercive fields, which is the strongest in the direction of easy magnetization of the nanowire.

  14. [Sciatic nerve block "out-of-plane" distal to the bifurcation: effective and safe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, T; Apel, J; Vicent, O; Büttner, J

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound guided distal sciatic nerve block (DSB) at bifurcation level shows fast onset and provides excellent success rates. However, its safe performance might be difficult for the unexperienced physician. Just slightly distal to the bifurcation, the tibial nerve (TN) and common fibular nerve (CFN) can be shown clearly separated from each other. Therefore, we investigated if a block done here would provide similar quality results compared to the DSB proximally to the division, with a potentially lower risk of nerve damage. In this randomized, prospective trial, 56 patients per group received either a DSB distal to the bifurcation "out-of-plane" (dist.) or proximally "in-plane" (prox.) with 30 ml of Mepivacaine 1% each. Success was tested by a blinded examiner after 15 and 30 min respectively (sensory and motor block of TN and CFN: 0 = none, 2 = complete, change of skin temperature). Videos of the blocks were inspected by an independent expert retrospectively with regard to the spread of the local anesthetic (LA) and accidental intraneural injection. Cumulative single nerve measurements and temperature changes revealed significant shorter onset and better efficacy (dist/prox: 15 min: 3.13 ± 1.86/1.82 ± 1.62; 30 min: 5.73 ± 1.92/3.21 ± 1.88; T 15 min : 30.3 ± 3.48/28.0 ± 3.67, T 30 min . 33.0 ± 2.46/30.6 ± 3.86; MV/SD; ANOVA; p safe application of the LA, so an effective block can be done with just one injection. DSB slightly distal to the bifurcation, in an out-of-plane technique between the TN and CFN, can be done fast, effectively and safe.

  15. Vibration of Elastic Functionally Graded Thick Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration behaviors of functionally graded rings were investigated theoretically. The material graded in the thickness direction according to the power law rule and the rings were assumed to be in plane stress and plane strain states. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the kinetic relation of von Kárman type, the frequency equation for free vibration of functionally graded ring was derived. The derived results were verified by those in literatures which reveals that the present theory can be appropriate to predict the free vibration characteristics for quite thick rings with the radius-to-thickness ratio from 60 down to 2.09. Comparison between the plane stress case and the plane strain case indicates a slight difference. Meanwhile, the effects of the structural dimensional parameters and the material inhomogeneous parameter are examined. It is interesting that the value of the logarithmic form of vibration frequency is inversely proportional to the logarithmic form of the radius-to-thickness ratio or the mean radius.

  16. Optimal thickness of a monocrystal line object in atomic plane visualization on its image in a high-resolution electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishina, T.A.; Sviridova, V.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigation of the influence of the FCC-lattice crystal (gold, nickel) thickness on conditions of visulization of atomic plane projections (APP) on the crystal image in a transmission high-resolution electron microscope (THREM) is reported. Results of electron diffraction theory are used for theoretical investigation. Calculation analysis of the influence of the monocrystal thickness and orientation on conitions of visualization of APP and atomic columns in monocrystal images formed in THREM in multibeam regimes with inclined and axial illumination is conducted. It is shown that, to visualize the atomic column projections in a crystal image formed in the multibeam regime with axial illumination, optimal are the thicknesses from 0.1 xisub(min) to 0.25 xisub(min) and at some object orientations also the thicknesses from 0.8 xisub(min) to 0.9 xisub(min), where xisub(min) is the extinction length minimum for the given orientation. It is shown that, to realize the ultimate resolutions in multibeam regimes both with inclined and axial illumination the optimal thickness of the object is 0.63 xisub(min). Satisfactory coincidence of theoretical and experimental data is obtained

  17. Coercive Sanctions and International Conflicts: A Sociological Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    international sanctions work, and more substantially, what are the social conditions within sanctions conflicts that are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation? Arguing that coercive sanctions and international conflicts are socially-constructed facts, the book explores the processes involved......Perhaps the most common question raised in the literature on coercive international sanctions is: "Do sanctions work?" Unsurprisingly, the answer to such a sweeping question remains inconclusive. Instead of asking whether sanctions work, this book addresses a more basic question: How do coercive......, and to its potential transformation. Thus it is premature to ‘predict’ the political effectiveness of sanctions simply on the basis of their economic impact. The book presents analyses of the sanctions conflicts between China and Taiwan and over Iran’s nuclear program, illustrating how negative sanctions...

  18. Nanocompositional Electron Microscopic Analysis and Role of Grain Boundary Phase of Isotropically Oriented Nd-Fe-B Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor A. Zickler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoanalytical TEM characterization in combination with finite element micromagnetic modelling clarifies the impact of the grain misalignment and grain boundary nanocomposition on the coercive field and gives guidelines how to improve coercivity in Nd-Fe-B based magnets. The nanoprobe electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements obtained an asymmetric composition profile of the Fe-content across the grain boundary phase in isotropically oriented melt-spun magnets and showed an enrichment of iron up to 60 at% in the Nd-containing grain boundaries close to Nd2Fe14B grain surfaces parallel to the c-axis and a reduced iron content up to 35% close to grain surfaces perpendicular to the c-axis. The numerical micromagnetic simulations on isotropically oriented magnets using realistic model structures from the TEM results reveal a complex magnetization reversal starting at the grain boundary phase and show that the coercive field increases compared to directly coupled grains with no grain boundary phase independently of the grain boundary thickness. This behaviour is contrary to the one in aligned anisotropic magnets, where the coercive field decreases compared to directly coupled grains with an increasing grain boundary thickness, if Js value is > 0.2 T, and the magnetization reversal and expansion of reversed magnetic domains primarily start as Bloch domain wall at grain boundaries at the prismatic planes parallel to the c-axis and secondly as Néel domain wall at the basal planes perpendicular to the c-axis. In summary our study shows an increase of coercive field in isotropically oriented Nd-Fe-B magnets for GB layer thickness > 5 nm and an average Js value of the GB layer < 0.8 T compared to the magnet with perfectly aligned grains.

  19. Octupolar out-of-plane magnetic field structure generation during collisionless magnetic reconnection in a stressed X-point collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf von der Pahlen, J.; Tsiklauri, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The out-of-plane magnetic field, generated by fast magnetic reconnection, during collisionless, stressed X-point collapse, was studied with a kinetic, 2.5D, fully electromagnetic, relativistic particle-in-cell numerical code, using both closed (flux conserving) and open boundary conditions on a square grid. It was discovered that the well known quadrupolar structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field gains four additional regions of opposite magnetic polarity, emerging near the corners of the simulation box, moving towards the X-point. The emerging, outer, magnetic field structure has opposite polarity to the inner quadrupolar structure, leading to an overall octupolar structure. Using Ampere's law and integrating electron and ion currents, defined at grid cells, over the simulation domain, contributions to the out-of-plane magnetic field from electron and ion currents were determined. The emerging regions of opposite magnetic polarity were shown to be the result of ion currents. Magnetic octupolar structure is found to be a signature of X-point collapse, rather than tearing mode, and factors relating to potential discoveries in experimental scenarios or space-craft observations are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of brake parameters in copper discs of various thicknesses and speeds using Neodymium – Iron – Boron Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Krishna G. L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neodymium – Iron – Boron (NdFeB permanent magnets of 12.5 mm thickness and 50 mm diameter are chosen for analyses because of their higher remanence and coercivity. Experimental analyses were carried out with Copper discs of thickness 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm at 2000 rpm, 3000 rpm, 4000 rpm and 5000 rpm. Experiments were conducted with three different positions of magnets such as 2 coaxial magnets, single magnet and single magnet with sudden application conditions. The brake parameters recorded are % speed reduction, deceleration and time taken. In 2 coaxial magnets condition, brake parameters are better in 6 mm thick disc. In single magnet condition, the brake parameters in 6 mm thick disc are found to be more consistent than 4 mm and 8 mm thick discs. In single magnet with sudden application condition, in 4 mm thick disc, the brake parameters are found better. During analysis, very high repulsion was experienced by magnet with 8 mm thick Copper disc at all the above mentioned speeds in single magnet with sudden application condition. For high speed train applications, single magnet condition with 6mm thick disc may be suitable. For high speed automotive applications, single magnet with sudden application condition with 4 mm thick disc may be suitable.

  1. Experimental Study on the Structural Behavior of HSC Slab under out of plane load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, K. W.; Lee, K. J.; Park, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    HSC(Half Steel plate Concrete) Slab is a kind of SC(Steel plate Concrete) structure, so it has a similar advantage of SC structures (short construction period, lower cost and good quality control compared to RC). To apply HSC to the slab of containment building of NPP, several test with different test condition (shear span ratio, shear bar, loading type) were conducted to verify structural behavior of HSC slab structure under out of plane loading

  2. Growth of thick La2Zr2O7 buffer layers for coated conductors by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Yong; Xia, Yudong; Guo, Chunsheng; Cheng, C.H.; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Han

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develops a low-cost and high-efficient technology of fabricating LZO buffer layers. • Sufficient thickness LZO buffer layers have been obtained on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate. • Highly biaxially textured YBCO thin film has been deposited on LZO/NiW. - Abstract: La 2 Zr 2 O 7 (LZO) epitaxial films have been deposited on LaAlO 3 (LAO) (1 0 0) single-crystal surface and bi-axially textured NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition, and afterwards studied with XRD, SEM and AFM approaches. Highly in-plane and out-of-plane oriented, dense, smooth, crack free and with a sufficient thickness (>240 nm) LZO buffer layers have been obtained on LAO (1 0 0) single-crystal surface; The films deposited on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate are also found with high degree in-plane and out-of-plane texturing, good density with pin-hole-free, micro-crack-free nature and a thickness of 300 nm. Highly epitaxial 500 nm thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−x (YBCO) thin film exhibits the self-field critical current density (Jc) reached 1.3 MA/cm 2 at 77 K .These results demonstrate the LZO epi-films obtained with current techniques have potential to be a buffer layer for REBCO coated conductors

  3. Features of propagation and recordingof the stress waves in plates of finite thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednichenko Rostislav Andreevich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to study at the same time the dynamics of wave propagation in plane and axisymmetric plates by finite-difference numerical calculation and by the method of dynamic photoelasticity.In many cases it is possible to carry out the investigation of the dynamic stressed state of solid structures under the impact of seismic waves in plane statement, observing the foundation and the building itself in the conditions of plane deformation. Such problems in structural mechanics are usually investigated on plates providing the conditions of generalized plane stressed condition and accounting for the necessity of the known substitution of elastic constants. In case of applying the model of generalized plane stressed state for investigating two-dimensional waves’ propagation in three-dimensional elastic medium it may be necessary to observe certain additional conditions, which for example limit the class of external impacts of high frequencies (short waves. The use of candling for wave recording in plane models explored with the method of dynamic photoelasticity in the observed cases of impulse loading of the plates with finite thickness gives satisfactory results.

  4. Single Layer Molybdenum Disulfide under Direct Out-of-Plane Compression: Low-Stress Band-Gap Engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Álvarez, M. P.; del Corro, Elena; Morales-García, A.; Kavan, Ladislav; Kalbáč, Martin; Frank, Otakar

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2015), s. 3139-3146 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15357S; GA MŠk LL1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Molybdenum disulfide * band gap engineering * out-of-plane compression Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 13.779, year: 2015

  5. Polycrystalline Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite flakes with a sub-micro/nanometre thickness prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Xi; Chen, Renjie; Yan, Aru

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nd 2 Fe 14 B/α-Fe flakes are formed by peeling along preferential planes. • (0 0 l) planes are found to be preferential cleavage planes. • Magnetic properties degrade with increasing ball milling time. • Anisotropic nanocomposite magnets are fabricated. - Abstract: A surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling technique was employed to synthesize Nd 2 Fe 14 B/α-Fe nanoparticles and nanoflakes from melt-spun nanocrystalline powders. The microstructure evolution in ball milling process was investigated. In the beginning stage (0–4 h) of ball milling, raw powders were crushed into micrometre-sized particles. While flakes were mainly formed by reducing thickness of particles via peeling layer by layer along preferential planes in the late stage (8–16 h). The selected area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that preferential cleavage planes are basal planes. With ball milling proceeding, more and more defects were induced by ball milling. As a result, the coercivity and remanence decreased to 1.6 kOe and 3.2 kGs, respectively. After 16 h ball milling, the exchange decoupling occurred due to severe amorphorization. A weakly-textured nanocomposite magnet was fabricated after 12 h ball milling and the anisotropy in magnetic properties can be further improved by employing settling down process to select particle size and aligning particles in external field

  6. In- and out-of-plane dynamic flexural behaviors of two-dimensional ensembles of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, Keivan, E-mail: k_kiani@kntu.ac.ir

    2014-09-15

    Useful nonlocal discrete and continuous models are developed to explain free vibration of two-dimensional (2D) ensembles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in bending. For this purpose, the models are constructed based on the nonlocal Rayleigh, Timoshenko, and higher-order beam theories. In contrast to an individual SWCNT exhibits identical bending behavior in different directions, for 2D ensemble networks of SWCNTs, it is shown that such a fact is completely dissimilar. Such an important issue leads to the definition of in-plane and out-of-plane flexural behaviors for such nanostructures. Subsequently, their corresponding fundamental frequencies are evaluated based on the proposed nonlocal models. The capabilities of the proposed nonlocal continuous models in predicting flexural frequencies of SWCNTs' ensembles with different numbers of SWCNTs as well as various levels of slenderness ratios are then explained. Such investigations confirm the high efficiency of the proposed continuous models. This matter would be of great importance in vibration analysis of highly populated ensembles of SWCNTs in which the discrete models may suffer from the size of the governing equations. The roles of the number of SWCNTs, slenderness ratio, intertube distance, small-scale parameter, and radius of the SWCNT on both in-plane and out-of-plane fundamental frequencies are addressed.

  7. Magnetic and structural investigation of growth induced magnetic anisotropies in Fe50Co50 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the magnetic properties of Fe50 Co50 polycrystalline thin films, grown by dc-magnetron sputtering, with thickness (t ranging from 2.5 nm up to 100 nm. We focused on the magnetic properties of the samples to highlight the effects of possible intrinsic stress that may develop during growth, and their dependence on film thickness. Indeed, during film deposition, due to the growth technique and growth conditions, a metallic film may display an intrinsic compressive or tensile stress. In our case, due to the Fe50Co50 magnetolastic properties, this stress may in its turn promote the development of magnetic anisotropies. Samples magnetic properties were monitored with a SQUID magnetometer and a magneto–optic Kerr effect apparatus, using both an in–plane and an out–of–plane magnetic field. Magnetoresistance measurements were collected, as well, to further investigate the magnetic behavior of the samples. Indications about the presence of intrinsic stress were obtained accessing samples curvature with an optical profilometer. For t ≤ 20 nm, the shape of the in-plane magnetization loops is squared and coercivity increases with t, possibly due to fact that, for small t values, the grain size grows with t. The magnetoresistive response is anisotropic in character. For t > 20 nm, coercivity smoothly decreases, the approach to saturation gets slower and the shape of the whole loop gets less and less squared. The magnetoresistive effect becomes almost isotropic and its intensity increases of about one order of magnitude. These results suggest that the magnetization reorientation process changes for t > 20 nm, and are in agreement with the progressive development of an out-of-plane easy axis. This hypothesis is substantiated by profilometric analysis that reveals the presence of an in-plane compressive stress.

  8. CoFe Layers Thickness and Annealing Effect on the Magnetic Behavior of the CoFe/Cu Multilayer Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires were electrodeposited into anodic aluminum oxide templates prepared by a two-step mild anodization method, using the single-bath technique. Nanowires with 30 nm diameter and the definite lengths were obtained. The effect of CoFe layers thickness and annealing on the magnetic behavior of the multilayer nanowires was investigated. The layers thickness was controlled through the pulses numbers: 200, 260, 310,360 and 410 pulses were used to deposit the CoFe layers, while 300 pulse for the Cu layers. A certain increase in coercivity and squareness of CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires observed with increasing the CoFe layer thickness and annealing improved the coercivity and decrease squareness of CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires. First order reversal curves after annealed showed amount domains with soft magnetic phase, it also shows decreasing spreading of distribution function along the Hu axis after annealed

  9. Transition from out-of-plane to in-plane contribution for the optical second harmonic generation response from a silver metallic nanoparticle film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Harfouch, Yara; Benichou, Emmanuel; Pu, Lin; Bachelier, Guillaume; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Jonin, Christian; Brevet, Pierre-Francois, E-mail: Emmanuel.Benichou@lasim.univ-lyon1.fr [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Ionique et Moleculaire, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1-CNRS (UMR 5579), Batiment Alfred Kastler, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2011-06-29

    The time evolution of the second harmonic generation (SHG) intensity during the formation of a silver spherical nanoparticle film at the water/1,2-dichloroethane interface is reported. The 5 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were initially dispersed in the water phase and their precipitation at the interface was triggered with the addition of sodium chloride. The time evolution of the SHG intensity exhibited two distinct regimes. First, an intensity increase was observed during the film formation with the deposition and the reorganization of the nanoparticles at the interface. Then, a slow decrease of the intensity due to rearrangements within the film was observed. Polarization-resolved experiments were also performed and showed that the initial dominant out-of-plane contribution of the quadratic nonlinearity underwent a reorientational change towards a dominant in-plane contribution associated with a smoother but still discontinuous metallic film.

  10. Misfit strain-film thickness phase diagrams and related electromechanical properties of epitaxial ultra-thin lead zirconate titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Q.Y.; Mahjoub, R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Alpay, S.P. [Materials Science and Engineering Program and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Nagarajan, V., E-mail: nagarajan@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The phase stability of ultra-thin (0 0 1) oriented ferroelectric PbZr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (PZT) epitaxial thin films as a function of the film composition, film thickness, and the misfit strain is analyzed using a non-linear Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire thermodynamic model taking into account the electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The theoretical formalism incorporates the role of the depolarization field as well as the possibility of the relaxation of in-plane strains via the formation of microstructural features such as misfit dislocations at the growth temperature and ferroelastic polydomain patterns below the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transformation temperature. Film thickness-misfit strain phase diagrams are developed for PZT films with four different compositions (x = 1, 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7) as a function of the film thickness. The results show that the so-called rotational r-phase appears in a very narrow range of misfit strain and thickness of the film. Furthermore, the in-plane and out-of-plane dielectric permittivities {epsilon}{sub 11} and {epsilon}{sub 33}, as well as the out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33} for the PZT thin films, are computed as a function of misfit strain, taking into account substrate-induced clamping. The model reveals that previously predicted ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients due to misfit-strain-induced phase transitions are practically achievable only in an extremely narrow range of film thickness, composition and misfit strain parameter space. We also show that the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial ferroelectric films can be tailored through strain engineering and microstructural optimization.

  11. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacereddine, C. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Layadi, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)]. E-mail: A_Layadi@yahoo.fr; Guittoum, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger 16000 (Algeria); Cherif, S.-M. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Chauveau, T. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Billet, D. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Youssef, J. Ben [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, U.B.O., Brest 29238 (France); Bourzami, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Bourahli, M.-H. [Departement d' O. M. P., Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2007-01-25

    The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Ni thin films evaporated onto glass and polycrystalline Cu substrates have been investigated. The Ni thickness ranges from 31 to 165 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study the structure and morphology of these systems. The Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films are found to be polycrystalline with a (1 1 1) texture. There is an overall increase of the grain size with increasing thickness. A negative strain was noted indicating that all the samples are under a compressive stress. Diffusion at the grain boundaries seems to be a major contribution to the electrical resistivity in this thickness range. Study of the hysteresis curves, obtained by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), indicates that all samples are characterized by an in-plane magnetization easy axis. Higher in-plane coercive fields seem to be associated with higher grain size, indicating that coercivity may be due to nucleation of reverse domains rather than pinning of domain walls. The saturation field and the squareness have been studied as a function of the Ni thickness.

  12. Real-time measurement system for tracking birefringence, weight, thickness, and surface temperature during drying of solution cast coatings and films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, E.; Drum, J.; Yucel, O.; Nugay, I. I.; Yalcin, B.; Cakmak, M.

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a new instrument to track temporal changes in physical parameters during the drying behavior of solutions, as well as curing of monomers. This real-time instrument follows in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence, weight, thickness, and surface temperature during the course of solidification of coatings and films through solvent evaporation and thermal or photocuring in a controlled atmosphere. It is specifically designed to simulate behavior of polymer solutions inside an industrial size, continuous roll-to-roll solution casting line and other coating operations where resins are subjected to ultraviolet (UV) curing from monomer precursors. Controlled processing parameters include air speed, temperature, initial cast thickness, and solute concentration, while measured parameters are thickness, weight, film temperature, in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence. In this paper, we illustrate the utility of this instrument with solution cast and dried poly (amide-imide)/DMAc (Dimethylacetamide) solution, water based black paint, and organo-modified clay/NMP (N-Methylpyrrolidone) solution. In addition, the physical changes that take place during UV photo polymerization of a monomer are tracked. This instrument is designed to be generic and it can be used for tracking any drying/swelling/solidification systems including paper, foodstuffs such as; grains, milk as well as pharmaceutical thin paste and slurries.

  13. The origin of the coercivity reduction of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnet annealed below an optimal temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiya, T.; Sasaki, T.T.; Ohkubo, T.; Une, Y.; Sagawa, M.; Kato, H.; Hono, K.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the origin of the coercivity reduction in a sintered Nd–Fe–B magnet that is annealed below an optimal annealing temperature, we performed focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy tomography of post-sinter annealed magnets. A number of grain boundary cracks were observed between Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains and Nd-rich phases in the sample annealed below the optimal temperature. We deduced micromagnetic parameters α and N eff by fitting the temperature dependence of the coercivity. While α was constant regardless of the annealing conditions, N eff increased in the sample annealed below the optimal temperature with the reduced coercivity. This indicates that the reduction of the coercivity is due to the local stray field at the cracks. - Highlights: • We performed FIB/SEM tomography of post-sinter annealed magnets. • A number of grain boundary cracks were observed in the low-coercivity sample. • Parameters α and N eff were deduced from the temperature dependence of coercivity. • While α was constant, N eff increased in the low-coercivity sample. • The reduction of the coercivity is due to the local stray field at the cracks

  14. Influence of measuring temperature in size dependence of coercivity in nanostructured alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.; Marin, P.; Kulik, T.; Hernando, A.

    2005-01-01

    An increase of coercive field with decreasing particle size has been observed in ball milled nanocomposite of Fe-rich nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. Previous works (J. Appl. Phys. 64 (1998) 6044) have concluded that for high lattice strain, , the increase of coercivity is due to the magnetoelastic anisotropy generated by . Even though other effects can also be involved, the experimental results seem to indicate that the influence of the particle size on the average structural anisotropy noticeably contributes to the hardening observed for low . The influence of measuring temperature in size dependence of coercivity in nanostructured alloys has been analyzed. Some analogies and differences in respect of that observed in partially nanocrystallized samples have been found

  15. Observations on out-of-plane behaviour of URM walls in buildings with RC slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Tondelli, Marco; Beyer, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In Switzerland many new residential buildings are constructed as unreinforced masonry (URM) structures or as mixed structures where URM walls are coupled with reinforced concrete (RC) walls by RC slabs. At present the boundary conditions of URM walls subjected to out-of-plane accelerations are still not well quantified. In the framework of a large research activity on RC-URM wall structures a shake-table test on a four-storey mixed structure was performed. The test specimen, which was built a...

  16. Co{sub 100−x}Fe{sub x} magnetic thick films prepared by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, M. del C., E-mail: carmenaguirre@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola-Conicet-Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Farías, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Abraham, J.; Urreta, S.E. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • Low iron containing films are compact, with rounded, relatively uniform surfaces. • Larger Fe contents exhibit nanowall networks covering the surface. • Coercivity in the out of plane configuration is larger than in the easy axis direction. • Co-rich films nucleate and grow by a 3DP diffusion controlled mechanism. • For equiatomic Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} films, nucleation tends to become instantaneous. - Abstract: Co–Fe films are grown onto plane pre-treated Cu foils; the effects of the alloy composition on the morphology and the crystal texture of the electrodeposited films and their anisotropic magnetic hysteresis properties are explored. Nucleation and crystallization mechanisms in these Co-rich layers are also investigated with pulse-reverse plating techniques, using the first cathodic pulse current–time transients. In the diffusion controlled regime the deposition mechanism is found to involve progressive nucleation with three-dimensional (3D) growth, except for the equiatomic Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} solution where nucleation tends to become instantaneous. The different morphologies and size scales observed are described and correlated with coercivity. The films are electrodeposited onto electrochemically pre-treated Cu substrates from feeds of nominal Fe/Co mol ratios between 0/100 and 50/50. The composition of the deposited layers, as determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, are quite close to the nominal values. Cyclic voltammetry determinations exhibit only a single reduction process on the cathode, indicating that a unique (Co{sub 100−x}Fe{sub x}) phase grows. Depending on composition and on the substrate pre-treatment, these layers exhibit textures with features of different sizes. X ray diffraction patterns indicate that the nanostructures with Fe contents above 20 at.% crystallize in a body-centered cubic cell, while samples with Fe contents below this value are fcc. Regarding the effect of composition on the

  17. Ultra-high density out-of-plane strain sensor 3D architecture based on sub-20 nm PMOS FinFET

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Sevilla, Galo T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Future wearable electronics require not only flexibility but also preservation of the perks associated with today's high-performance, traditional silicon electronics. In this work we demonstrate a state-of-the-art fin-shaped field-effect transistor (FinFET)-based, out-of-plane strain sensor on flexible silicon through transforming the bulk device in a transfer-less process. The device preserves the functionality and high performance associated with its bulk, inflexible state. Furthermore, gate leakage current shows sufficient dependence on the value of the applied out-of-plane strain that enables permits use of the flexible device as a switching device as well as a strain sensor.

  18. Ultra-high density out-of-plane strain sensor 3D architecture based on sub-20 nm PMOS FinFET

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2016-02-03

    Future wearable electronics require not only flexibility but also preservation of the perks associated with today\\'s high-performance, traditional silicon electronics. In this work we demonstrate a state-of-the-art fin-shaped field-effect transistor (FinFET)-based, out-of-plane strain sensor on flexible silicon through transforming the bulk device in a transfer-less process. The device preserves the functionality and high performance associated with its bulk, inflexible state. Furthermore, gate leakage current shows sufficient dependence on the value of the applied out-of-plane strain that enables permits use of the flexible device as a switching device as well as a strain sensor.

  19. Coercivity enhancement of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets by the eutectic grain boundary diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lihua; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Yano, M.; Kato, A.; Shoji, T.; Hono, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nd-M (M = Al, Cu, Ga, Zn, Mn) alloys with compositions close to eutectic points were investigated as diffusion sources for the grain boundary diffusion process to hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets. Coercivity enhancement was observed for most of the alloys. Among them, the sample processed with Nd 90 Al 10 exhibited the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. However, the sample processed with Nd 70 Cu 30 exhibited the highest coercivity of 0.7 T at 200 ° C. Microstructural observations using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) showed that nonferromagnetic Nd-rich intergranular phase envelops the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains after the diffusion process. Abnormal grain growth and the dissolution of Al into the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains were observed in the sample processed with Nd 90 Al 10 , which explains its inferior thermal stability of coercivity compared to the sample processed with Nd 70 Cu 30 . The coercivity enhancement and poor thermal stability of the coercivity of the Nd 90 Al 10 diffusion-processed sample are discussed based on microstructure studies by transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Coercivity of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets is enhanced by the infiltration of various R-TM eutectic alloys. • The sample infiltrated with Nd 90 Al 10 shows the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. • At 200 °C, Nd 70 Cu 30 diffusion-processed sample possesses the highest coercivity of 0.7 T.

  20. Evaluation of the resin cement thicknesses and push-out bond strengths of circular and oval fiber posts in oval-shapes canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Özgür; Kılıç, Kerem; Kılınç, Halil İbrahim; Sağsen, Burak

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the push-out bond strength varies between oval and circular fiber posts, and to examine the effect on the resin cement thicknesses around the posts. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighteen mandibular premolar roots were separated into two groups for oval and circular fiber posts systems. Post spaces were prepared and fiber posts were luted to the post spaces. Roots were cut horizontally to produce 1-mm-thick specimens. Resin cement thicknesses were determined with a metallographic optical microscope and push-out tests were done. RESULTS No significant differences were observed in terms of push-out bond strength between the oval and circular fiber posts (P>.05) The resin cement thicknesses of the oval posts were greater than those of the circular posts group in the coronal, middle and apical specimens (P<.05). CONCLUSION In the light of these results, it can be stated that resin cement thickness does not affect the push-out bond strength. PMID:25722832

  1. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the primary and secondary X-ray fluorescent emission from an homogeneous and infinite thickness sample, irradiated under different inclination of the propagation plane, is carried out. An agreement with the predictions based on Sherman equations depending on the inclination angle α was found. The invariance of the primary fluorescence with respect to α and the decrease until evanescence of the secondary fluorescence for a α → π/2 are confirmed. A discussion about the physical basis of this dependence is carried out. Similar results are expected for tertiary fluorescence. (Author) [es

  2. Magnetic and magnetoresistance studies of nanometric electrodeposited Co films and Co/Cu layered structures: Influence of magnetic layer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsurzsa, S., E-mail: zsurzsa.sandor@wigner.mta.hu; Péter, L.; Kiss, L.F.; Bakonyi, I.

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic properties and the magnetoresistance behavior were investigated for electrodeposited nanoscale Co films, Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers with individual Co layer thicknesses ranging from 1 nm to 20 nm. The measured saturation magnetization values confirmed that the nominal and actual layer thicknesses are in fairly good agreement. All three types of layered structure exhibited anisotropic magnetoresistance for thick magnetic layers whereas the Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers with thinner magnetic layers exhibited giant magnetoresistance (GMR), the GMR magnitude being the largest for the thinnest Co layers. The decreasing values of the relative remanence and the coercive field when reducing the Co layer thickness down to below about 3 nm indicated the presence of superparamagnetic (SPM) regions in the magnetic layers which could be more firmly evidenced for these samples by a decomposition of the magnetoresistance vs. field curves into a ferromagnetic and an SPM contribution. For thicker magnetic layers, the dependence of the coercivity (H{sub c}) on magnetic layer thickness (d) could be described for each of the layered structure types by the usual equation H{sub c}=H{sub co}+a/d{sup n} with an exponent around n=1. The common value of n suggests a similar mechanism for the magnetization reversal by domain wall motion in all three structure types and hints also at the absence of coupling between magnetic layers in the Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers. - Highlights: • Electrodeposited nanoscale Co films and Co/Cu layered structures. • Co layer thickness (d) dependence of coercivity (H{sub c}) and magnetoresistance. • H{sub c} depends on Co layer thickness according to H{sub c}=H{sub co}+a/d{sup n} with n around 1. • The common n value suggests a similar mechanism of magnetization reversal. • The common n value suggests the absence of coupling between magnetic layers.

  3. Out-of-Plane Strain Effects on Physically Flexible FinFET CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2016-05-18

    We present a comprehensive electrical performance assessment of hafnium silicate (HfSiOₓ) high-κ dielectric and titanium-nitride (TiN) metal-gate-integrated FinFET-based complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) on flexible silicon on insulator. The devices were fabricated using the state-of-the-art CMOS technology and then transformed into flexible form by using a CMOS-compatible maskless deep reactive-ion etching technique. Mechanical out-of-plane stresses (compressive and tensile) were applied along and across the transistor channel lengths through a bending range of 0.5-5 cm radii for n-type and p-type FinFETs. Electrical measurements were carried out before and after bending, and all the bending measurements were taken in the actual flexed (bent) state to avoid relaxation and stress recovery. Global stress from substrate bending affects the devices in different ways compared with the well-studied uniaxial/biaxial localized strain. The global stress is dependent on the type of channel charge carriers, the orientation of the bending axis, and the physical gate length of the device. We, therefore, outline useful insights on the design strategies of flexible FinFETs in future free-form electronic applications.

  4. Developing high coercivity in large diameter cobalt nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer, A. H.; Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Zavašnik, J.

    2016-11-01

    Regardless of the synthetic method, developing high magnetic coercivity in ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) with large diameters has been a challenge over the past two decades. Here, we report on the synthesis of highly coercive cobalt NW arrays with diameters of 65 and 80 nm, which are embedded in porous anodic alumina templates with high-aspect-ratio pores. Using a modified electrochemical deposition method enabled us to reach room temperature coercivity and remanent ratio up to 3000 Oe and 0.70, respectively, for highly crystalline as-synthesized hcp cobalt NW arrays with a length of 8 μm. The first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis showed the presence of both soft and hard magnetic phases along the length of the resulting NWs. To develop higher coercive fields, the length of the NWs was then gradually reduced in order from bottom to top, thereby reaching NW sections governed by the hard phase. Consequently, this resulted in record high coercivities of 4200 and 3850 Oe at NW diameters of 65 and 80 nm, respectively. In this case, the FORC diagrams confirmed a significant reduction in interactions between the magnetic phases of the remaining sections of NWs. At this stage, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and dark-field transmission electron microscopy analyses indicated the formation of highly crystalline bamboo-like sections along the [0 0 2] direction during a progressive pulse-controlled electrochemical growth of NW arrays under optimized parameters. Our results both provide new insights into the growth process, crystalline characteristics and magnetic phases along the length of large diameter NW arrays and, furthermore, develop the performance of pure 3d transition magnetic NWs.

  5. Coercive force features in stressed epitaxial ferrite-garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, S.V.; Nedviga, A.S.; Vishnevskij, V.G.; Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Yagupov, V.S.; Nesteruk, A.G.; Prokopov, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    One has investigated into effect of a relative mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate within 0.5-0.85% range on behavior of the coercive force of (Bi, Sm, Lu, Ca) 3 (Fe, Sc, Ga, Al) 5 O 12 composition ferrite garnet epitaxial films (FGEF) synthesized at (111) orientation gadolinium-gallium garnet substrates. One has revealed that the FGEF coercive force at increase of the relative mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate increases at first, while when reaching the maximum value it begins to decrease. The coercive force maximum value is shown to result from the periodical localized stresses. The period of the localized stresses is determined by the value of mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate [ru

  6. Parental Perceptions of the Use of Coercive Measures on Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, Timo; Pirttimaa, Raija; Kontu, Elina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with developmental disabilities who exhibit challenging behaviour are potentially subject to the use of coercive interventions. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of the use of coercive measures by authorities, according to parents' reports. Materials and Methods: A postal survey was distributed, as a total…

  7. Angular dependence of coercivity in isotropically aligned Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yutaka; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Sumitani, Kazushi; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Tamura, Ryuji; Osamura, Kozo

    2018-05-01

    In order to understand the coercivity mechanism in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets, the angular dependence of the coercivity of an isotropically aligned Nd15Co1.0B6Febal. sintered magnet was investigated through magnetization measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer. These results are compared with the angular dependence calculated under the assumption that the magnetization reversal of each grain follows the Kondorskii law or, in other words, the 1/cos θ law for isotropic alignment distributions. The calculated angular dependence of the coercivity agrees very well with the experiment for magnetic fields applied between angles of 0 and 60°, and it is expected that the magnetization reversal occurs in each grain individually followed the 1/cos θ law. In contrast, this agreement between calculation and experiment is not found for anisotropic Nd-Fe-B samples. This implies that the coercivity of the aligned magnets depends upon the de-pinning of the domain walls from pinning sites. When the de-pinning occurs, it is expected that the domain walls are displaced through several grains at once.

  8. Suicide plane crash against nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.

    2002-01-01

    Cea (French atomic energy commission) and EDF (Electricity of France) are reassessing their safety standards concerning suicide plane attacks against nuclear facilities. The general idea is to study the non-linear behaviour of reinforced concrete in case of mechanical impact. American studies carried out in 1988 show that a F-14 phantom crashing into a 3,6 meter thick wall at a speed of 774 km/h penetrates only the first 5 cm of the wall. More recent studies performed in Germany and based on computerized simulations show that the reactor containment can sustain impacts from a F15 plane or even from a 747-Boeing but contiguous buildings like the one which houses spent fuels might be more easily damaged because of their metal roofing. (A.C.)

  9. Excess use of coercive measures in psychiatry among migrants compared with native Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Garcia-Lopez, A; Keiding, N

    2010-01-01

    Norredam M, Garcia-Lopez A, Keiding N, Krasnik A. Excess use of coercive measures in psychiatry among migrants compared with native Danes.Objective: To investigate differences in risk of compulsory admission and other coercive measures in psychiatric emergencies among refugees and immigrants comp...

  10. Decagonal quasicrystal plate with elliptic holes subjected to out-of-plane bending moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lian He, E-mail: nmglilianhe@163.com [College of Mathematics Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Hohhot 010021 (China); Liu, Guan Ting [College of Mathematics Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China)

    2014-02-01

    In the present paper, we consider only the ideal elastic behavior, neglecting the dissipation associated with the atomic rearrangements. Under these conditions, the decagonal quasicrystal plate bending problems have been discussed. The Stroh-like formalism for the bending theory of decagonal quasicrystal plate is developed. The analytical solutions for problems of decagonal quasicrystal plate with elliptic hole subjected to out-of-plane bending moments are obtained directly by using the forms. The resultant bending moments around the hole boundaries are also given explicitly. When the phonon–phason coupling is absent, the results reduce to the corresponding solutions for the isotropic elastic plates.

  11. Observation of high coercive fields in chemically synthesized coated Fe-Pt nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Panda, Rabi N., E-mail: rnp@goa.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2017-04-15

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys have been synthesized via chemical reduction route using various capping agents; such as: oleic acid/oleylamine (route-1) and oleic acid/CTAB (route-2). We could able to synthesize Fe50Pt and Fe54Pt alloys via route 1 and 2, respectively. As-prepared Fe-Pt alloys crystallize in disordered fcc phase with crystallite sizes of 2.3 nm and 6 nm for route-1 and route-2, respectively. Disordered Fe-Pt alloys were transformed to ordered fct phase after annealing at 600 °C. SEM studies confirm the spherical shape morphologies of annealed Fe-Pt nanoparticles with SEM particle sizes of 24.4 nm and 21.2 nm for route-1 and route-2, respectively. TEM study confirms the presence of 4.6 nm particles for annealed Fe50Pt alloys with several agglomerating clusters of bigger size and appropriately agrees well with the XRD study. Room temperature magnetization studies of as-prepared Fe-Pt alloys (fcc) show ferromagnetism with negligible coercivities. Average magnetic moments per particle for as-prepared Fe-Pt alloys were estimated to be 753 μ{sub B} and 814 μ{sub B}, for route 1 and 2, respectively. Ordered fct Fe-Pt alloys show high values of coercivities of 10,000 Oe and 10,792 Oe for route-1 and route-2, respectively. Observed magnetic properties of the fct Fe-Pt alloys nps were interpreted with the basis of order parameters, size, surface, and composition effects. - Highlights: • Synthesis of capped nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys via chemical routes. • Ordered fct phase were obtained at 600 °C. • Microstructural studies were carried out using SEM and TEM. • Investigation on evolution of magnetic properties from fcc to fct state. • Maximum values of coercivities up to 10,792 Oe were observed.

  12. Coercivity enhancement of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets by the eutectic grain boundary diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lihua [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute of Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute of Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Yano, M.; Kato, A.; Shoji, T. [Toyota Motor Corporation, Advanced Material Engineering Div., Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute of Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan)

    2016-05-05

    Nd-M (M = Al, Cu, Ga, Zn, Mn) alloys with compositions close to eutectic points were investigated as diffusion sources for the grain boundary diffusion process to hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets. Coercivity enhancement was observed for most of the alloys. Among them, the sample processed with Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10} exhibited the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. However, the sample processed with Nd{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} exhibited the highest coercivity of 0.7 T at 200 {sup °}C. Microstructural observations using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) showed that nonferromagnetic Nd-rich intergranular phase envelops the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains after the diffusion process. Abnormal grain growth and the dissolution of Al into the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains were observed in the sample processed with Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10}, which explains its inferior thermal stability of coercivity compared to the sample processed with Nd{sub 70}Cu{sub 30}. The coercivity enhancement and poor thermal stability of the coercivity of the Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10} diffusion-processed sample are discussed based on microstructure studies by transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Coercivity of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets is enhanced by the infiltration of various R-TM eutectic alloys. • The sample infiltrated with Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10} shows the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. • At 200 °C, Nd{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} diffusion-processed sample possesses the highest coercivity of 0.7 T.

  13. Effect of TiON–MgO intermediate layer on microstructure and magnetic properties of L1{sub 0} FePt–C–SiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, J.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Dong, K.F. [School of Automation, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Peng, Y.G.; Ju, G.P. [Seagate Technology, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Hu, J.F. [Data Storage Institute (DSI), Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Chow, G.M.; Chen, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2016-11-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of L1{sub 0} FePt–C–SiO{sub 2} films grown on TiON–MgO intermediate layer were studied. TiON–MgO layer was deposited by co-sputtering TiN and MgO–TiO{sub 2} targets at 380 °C. With increasing MgO–TiO{sub 2} doping concentration, the contact angle between FePt grains with intermediate layer gradually increased, and it was close to 90° when the volume percentage of MgO–TiO{sub 2} reached 30%. At this condition, a high out-of-plane coercivity of 19.1 kOe was obtained, while the opening-up of in-plane M-H loop was very narrow. Moreover, it was found that the out-of-plane coercivity can be further improved to 21.6 kOe, by slightly increasing the percentage of MgO–TiO{sub 2} to 35 vol%. - Highlights: • The effect of TiON–MgO intermediate layer was studied. • With increasing the MgO composition, the surface energy of intermediate layer increased, and the FePt/TiON–MgO interfacial energy decreased. The contact angle of FePt grains with intermediate layer increased with the MgO composition, and 90° contact angle could be achieved by optimizing the MgO composition. • Good perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was retained with large out-of-plane coercivity and narrow in-plane opening-up.

  14. Magnetization reversal mechanism of Nd-Fe-B films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxi; Ishida, Go; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B films with thicknesses from 100 nm to 3 nm have been investigated. All the films show excellent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a squareness ratio of 1 in the perpendicular direction and almost zero coercivity in the in-plane direction. Of particular interest is that the initial magnetization curves sensitively depended on the film thickness. Films thicker than 15 nm show steep initial magnetization curve. Although the films have coercivities larger than 21 kOe, the films can be fully magnetized from the thermally demagnetized state with a field as small as 5 kOe. With the decrease of film thickness to 5 nm, the initial magnetization curve becomes flat. The evolution of initial magnetization curves with film thickness can be understood by the microstructure of the films. Films with thickness of 15 nm show close-packed grains without any intergranular phases. Such microstructures lead to steep initial magnetization curves. On the other hand, when the film thickness decreased to 3 nm, the film thickness became nonuniform. Such microstructure leads to flat initial magnetization curves.

  15. Coercivity enhancement in HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Fangming; Han, Jingzhi; Zhang, Yinfeng; Wang, Changsheng; Liu, Shunquan; Yang, Jinbo; Yang, Yingchang; Sun, Aizhi; Yang, Fuqiang; Song, Renbo

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders have been prepared. The coercivity of the powders was improved from 208.6 to 980.1 kA/m by the subsequent diffusion treatment using the Pr–Cu alloy. For comparison, Nd 11.5 Fe 80.7 B 6.1 Pr 1.2 Cu 0.5 alloy, in which Pr and Cu elements were directly added into the original Nd–Fe–B alloy, was also treated by the same HDDR process and the coercivity was only 557.3 kA/m. Microstructural investigations showed that a large area of (Nd, Pr)-rich phases concentrated at triangle regions in the HDDR Nd 11.5 Fe 80.7 B 6.1 Pr 1.2 Cu 0.5 powders, while the (Nd, Pr)-rich phases distributed uniformly in the diffusion treated powders. The uniform grain boundary layer can pin the motion of domain wall more effectively, resulting in a higher coercivity in diffusion treated HDDR Nd–Fe–B powders. - Highlights: • Anisotropic HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders have been prepared. • The coercivity of the powders was improved from 2.62 to 12.31 kOe by the diffusion of Pr–Cu alloy. • The uniform grain boundary layer leads to a higher coercivity in diffusion treated powders

  16. Thickness dependence of the magnetic anisotropy and dynamic magnetic response of ferromagnetic NiFe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E F; Corrêa, M A; Chesman, C; Bohn, F; Della Pace, R D; Plá Cid, C C; Kern, P R; Carara, M; Alves Santos, O; Rodríguez-Suárez, R L; Azevedo, A; Rezende, S M

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the thickness dependence of the magnetic anisotropy and dynamic magnetic response of ferromagnetic NiFe films. We go beyond quasi-static measurements and focus on the dynamic magnetic response by considering three complementary techniques: the ferromagnetic resonance, magnetoimpedance and magnetic permeability measurements. We verify remarkable modifications in the magnetic anisotropy, i.e. the well-known behavior of in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy systems gives place to a complex magnetic behavior as the thickness increases, and splits the films in two groups according to the magnetic properties. We identify magnetoimpedance and magnetic permeability curves with multiple resonance peaks, as well as the evolution of the ferromagnetic resonance absorption spectra, as fingerprints of strong changes of the magnetic properties associated to the vanishing of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy and to the emergence of non-homogeneous magnetization configuration, local anisotropies and out-of-plane anisotropy contribution arisen as a consequence of the non-uniformities of the stress stored in the film as the thickness is increased and/or to the columnar growth of the film. We interpret the experimental results in terms of the structural and morphological properties, quasi-static magnetic behavior, magnetic domain structure and different mechanisms governing the magnetization dynamics at distinct frequency ranges. (paper)

  17. Polycrystalline Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe nanocomposite flakes with a sub-micro/nanometre thickness prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xin, E-mail: tangshincn@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Chen, Xi [Mechanical and Electrical Engineering College, Xinxiang University, No. 192, Jinsui Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453003 (China); Chen, Renjie; Yan, Aru [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe flakes are formed by peeling along preferential planes. • (0 0 l) planes are found to be preferential cleavage planes. • Magnetic properties degrade with increasing ball milling time. • Anisotropic nanocomposite magnets are fabricated. - Abstract: A surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling technique was employed to synthesize Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe nanoparticles and nanoflakes from melt-spun nanocrystalline powders. The microstructure evolution in ball milling process was investigated. In the beginning stage (0–4 h) of ball milling, raw powders were crushed into micrometre-sized particles. While flakes were mainly formed by reducing thickness of particles via peeling layer by layer along preferential planes in the late stage (8–16 h). The selected area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that preferential cleavage planes are basal planes. With ball milling proceeding, more and more defects were induced by ball milling. As a result, the coercivity and remanence decreased to 1.6 kOe and 3.2 kGs, respectively. After 16 h ball milling, the exchange decoupling occurred due to severe amorphorization. A weakly-textured nanocomposite magnet was fabricated after 12 h ball milling and the anisotropy in magnetic properties can be further improved by employing settling down process to select particle size and aligning particles in external field.

  18. Modulation of magnetic coercivity in Ni thin films by reversible control of strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Chin, E-mail: wclin@ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chia-Wei; Ting, Yi-Chieh; Lo, Fang-Yuh [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Chern, Ming-Yau [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the magnetoelectric control of magnetic thin films. (111)-textured Pd/Ni/Pd thin films were prepared on mica/lead zirconium titanate (PZT) substrates for the investigation. The reversible modulation of magnetic coercivity in Ni films was observed through the electric-voltage-controlled strain variation from the PZT substrate. For 14 nm Ni film, the applied electric field of ±350 V/m led to ±0.5% strain variation of PZT, which was transferred to ±0.4% strain variation of Pd/Ni/Pd thin films on mica, and resulted in ∓17 Oe (∓5% of the preliminary magnetic coercivity). The reversible modulation of magnetic coercivity is supposed to be caused by the voltage-controlled strain through the magneto-elastic effect. - Highlights: • The magnetoelectric control of the magnetic coercivity of Pd/Ni/Pd thin films was demonstrated. • The ±0.4% strain variation of 14 nm Ni thin films resulted in ±17 Oe change of H{sub c}. • The reversible modulation of H{sub c} is supposed to be caused by the magneto-elastic effect.

  19. Growth of thick La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} buffer layers for coated conductors by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xzhang@my.swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong, E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Xia, Yudong [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Guo, Chunsheng [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhang, Yong [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, Han [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We develops a low-cost and high-efficient technology of fabricating LZO buffer layers. • Sufficient thickness LZO buffer layers have been obtained on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate. • Highly biaxially textured YBCO thin film has been deposited on LZO/NiW. - Abstract: La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZO) epitaxial films have been deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) (1 0 0) single-crystal surface and bi-axially textured NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition, and afterwards studied with XRD, SEM and AFM approaches. Highly in-plane and out-of-plane oriented, dense, smooth, crack free and with a sufficient thickness (>240 nm) LZO buffer layers have been obtained on LAO (1 0 0) single-crystal surface; The films deposited on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate are also found with high degree in-plane and out-of-plane texturing, good density with pin-hole-free, micro-crack-free nature and a thickness of 300 nm. Highly epitaxial 500 nm thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−x} (YBCO) thin film exhibits the self-field critical current density (Jc) reached 1.3 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K .These results demonstrate the LZO epi-films obtained with current techniques have potential to be a buffer layer for REBCO coated conductors.

  20. Study of high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, G.; Gao, R.W.; Sun, Y.; Han, G.B.; Wang, B.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic powders for sintered NdFeB magnets have been prepared by using an advanced processing method including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet milling and rubber isotropic press. The effects of Dy, Ga and Co addition on the microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered magnets have been investigated. By adopting a suitable component ratio and adjusting proper technological parameters, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with hard magnetic properties of j H c =25.6 kOe, B r =13.2 kG and (BH) max =39.9 MGOe. The temperature coefficient of coercivity of the magnets (between 20 and 150 deg. C) is -0.53% deg. C. The magnetic properties at high temperature satisfy the needs of permanent magnet motors

  1. Engineering of nearly strain-free ZnO films on Si(1 1 1) by tuning AlN buffer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan; Galeckas, Augustinas; Lee, In-Hwan; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.

    2012-01-01

    ZnO properties were investigated as a function of AlN buffer layer thickness (0–100 nm) in ZnO/AlN/Si(1 1 1) structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. A significant improvement of ZnO film crystallinity by tuning AlN buffer thickness was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, topography and photoluminescence measurements. An optimal AlN buffer layer thickness of 50 nm is defined, which allows for growth of nearly strain-free ZnO films. The presence of free excitons at 10 K suggests high crystal quality for all ZnO samples grown on AlN/Si(1 1 1) templates. The intensities of neutral and ionized donor bound exciton lines are found to correlate with the in-plane and out-of-plane strain in the films, respectively.

  2. Engineering of nearly strain-free ZnO films on Si(1 1 1) by tuning AlN buffer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan, E-mail: vishnukanthan.venkatachalapathy@smn.uio.no [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Galeckas, Augustinas [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Lee, In-Hwan [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Centre for Advanced Materials Development (RCAMD), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu. [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    ZnO properties were investigated as a function of AlN buffer layer thickness (0-100 nm) in ZnO/AlN/Si(1 1 1) structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. A significant improvement of ZnO film crystallinity by tuning AlN buffer thickness was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, topography and photoluminescence measurements. An optimal AlN buffer layer thickness of 50 nm is defined, which allows for growth of nearly strain-free ZnO films. The presence of free excitons at 10 K suggests high crystal quality for all ZnO samples grown on AlN/Si(1 1 1) templates. The intensities of neutral and ionized donor bound exciton lines are found to correlate with the in-plane and out-of-plane strain in the films, respectively.

  3. Epitaxial growth of Sb-doped nonpolar a-plane ZnO thin films on r-plane sapphire substrates by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-Guang, E-mail: houguang@isu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Hung, Sung-Po [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Sb-doped nonpolar a-plane ZnO layers were epitaxially grown on sapphire substrates. ► Crystallinity and electrical properties were studied upon growth condition and doping concentration. ► The out-of-plane lattice spacing of ZnO films reduces monotonically with increasing Sb doping level. ► The p-type conductivity of ZnO:Sb film is closely correlated with annealing condition and Sb doping level. -- Abstract: In this study, the epitaxial growth of Sb-doped nonpolar a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) ZnO thin films on r-plane (11{sup ¯}02) sapphire substrates was performed by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The influence of the sputter deposition conditions and Sb doping concentration on the microstructural and electrical properties of Sb-doped ZnO epitaxial films was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Hall-effect measurement. The measurement of the XRD phi-scan indicated that the epitaxial relationship between the ZnO:Sb layer and sapphire substrate was (112{sup ¯}0){sub ZnO}//(11{sup ¯}02){sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}} and [11{sup ¯}00]{sub ZnO}//[112{sup ¯}0]{sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}}. The out-of-plane a-axis lattice parameter of ZnO films was reduced monotonically with the increasing Sb doping level. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) observation confirmed the absence of any significant antimony oxide phase segregation across the thickness of the Sb-doped ZnO epitaxial film. However, the epitaxial quality of the films deteriorated as the level of Sb dopant increased. The electrical properties of ZnO:Sb film are closely correlated with post-annealing conditions and Sb doping concentrations.

  4. Pulmonary intersegmental planes: imaging appearance and possible reasons leading to their visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yi-Zhi; Liu, Chao; Liu, Shu-Wei

    2013-04-01

    To describe the normal imaging appearance of pulmonary intersegmental planes on thoracic computed tomographic (CT) scans and determine the possible reasons related to their visualization in terms of aging and anatomy. The study was approved by the internal ethics review board. Informed consent was obtained. A retrospective review was undertaken of 104 thoracic multidetector CT scans of an older group (>65 years) and younger group (planes were assessed. Group comparisons were made, and linear regression analysis was used to assess relationships between age and visualization of intersegmental planes. Thirty lung samples (10 × 10 × 10 mm(3)) from autopsy were scanned by using micro-CT. Thicknesses of intersegmental planes were measured. Significant differences of the thickness between visible and invisible intersegmental planes were assessed with the independent t test. In five fetal specimens (17-21 weeks in gestational age), 7.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed to determine the congenital difference of thickness of intersegmental planes. Within the right lung, appearance rates of visible intersegmental planes were 71.2% at S1-S3, 54.8% at S4-S5, and 70.2% at S7-S10. Within the left lung, appearance rates of visible intersegmental planes were 39.4% at S1+2 to S3, 64.4% at S4-S5, 18.3% at S7-S8, and 89.4% at S7-S10. Appearance rates of visible intersegmental planes on thoracic CT scans were not significantly different (P ≥ .38) between younger and older groups. Mean thicknesses of visible and invisible intersegmental planes were 681.3 μm ± 75.3 (standard deviation) and 221.7 μm ± 54.1, respectively. Visible intersegmental planes were significantly thicker than invisible intersegmental planes (P planes were also seen on fetal lung 7.0-T MR images. The thickness of pulmonary intersegmental planes and variation of intersegmental veins were closely related to visualization of intersegmental planes on thoracic CT scans. Aging was excluded as the

  5. High magnetic coercivity of FePt-Ag/MgO granular nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghani, R.; Sebt, S. A.; Khajehnezhad, A.

    2018-06-01

    L10-FePt ferromagnetic nanoparticles have a hight coercivity of Tesla order. Thus, these nanoparticles, with size of 10 to 15 nm and uniform surface distribution, are suitable in magnetic data storage technology with density of more than 1GB. In order to improve structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles, some elements and combinations have been added to compound. In this research, we show that due to the presence of the Ag, the phase transition temperature of FePt from fcc to L10-fct phase decreases. The presence of Ag as an additive in FePt-Ag nanocomposite, increases the magnetic coercivity. This nanocomposite, with 10% Ag, was deposited by magnetron sputtering on the MgO heat layer. VSM results of 10 nm nanoparticles show that coercivity has increased up to 1.4 T. XRD and FESEM results confirm that the size of the L10-FePt nanoparticles are 10 nm and their surface distribution are uniform. Ag gradually form nano scale clusters with separate lattice and FePt-Ag nanocomposite appears. The result of this process is emptiness of Ag position in FePt-fcc lattice. So, the mobility of Fe and Pt atoms in this lattice increases and it can be possible for them to move in lower temperature. This mechanism explain the effect of Ag on decreasing the transition temperature to fct-L10 phase, and hight coercivity of FePt nanoparticles.

  6. Successful interventions on an organisational level to reduce violence and coercive interventions in in-patients with adjustment disorders and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Tilman; Eisele, Frank; Goeser, Ulla; Tschoeke, Stefan; Uhlmann, Carmen; Schmid, Peter

    2008-11-17

    Self-directed and other violence as well as subsequent coercive interventions occur in a substantial proportion of patients with personality disorders during in-patient treatment. Different strategies may be required to reduce coercive interventions for patients of different diagnostic groups. We specialised one of our acute admission wards in the treatment of personality disorders and adjustment disorders (ICD-10 F4 and F6). Patients are not transferred to other acute wards in case of suicidal or violent behaviour. Violent behaviour and coercive interventions such as seclusion or restraint were recorded in the same way as in the rest of the hospital. We recorded the percentage of subjects affected by diagnostic group and average length of an intervention in the year before and after the change in organisational structure. The total number of coercive interventions decreased by 85% both among patients with an F4 and those with an F6 primary diagnosis. Violent behaviours decreased by about 50%, the proportion of involuntary committed patients decreased by 70%. The organisational change turned out to be highly effective without any additional cost of personnel or other resources.

  7. Determining the effect of grain size and maximum induction upon coercive field of electrical steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Fernando José Gomes; da Silveira, João Ricardo Filipini; Rodrigues-Jr., Daniel

    2011-10-01

    Although theoretical models have already been proposed, experimental data is still lacking to quantify the influence of grain size upon coercivity of electrical steels. Some authors consider a linear inverse proportionality, while others suggest a square root inverse proportionality. Results also differ with regard to the slope of the reciprocal of grain size-coercive field relation for a given material. This paper discusses two aspects of the problem: the maximum induction used for determining coercive force and the possible effect of lurking variables such as the grain size distribution breadth and crystallographic texture. Electrical steel sheets containing 0.7% Si, 0.3% Al and 24 ppm C were cold-rolled and annealed in order to produce different grain sizes (ranging from 20 to 150 μm). Coercive field was measured along the rolling direction and found to depend linearly on reciprocal of grain size with a slope of approximately 0.9 (A/m)mm at 1.0 T induction. A general relation for coercive field as a function of grain size and maximum induction was established, yielding an average absolute error below 4%. Through measurement of B50 and image analysis of micrographs, the effects of crystallographic texture and grain size distribution breadth were qualitatively discussed.

  8. Study of high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, G. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Xi' an Institute of Technology, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Gao, R.W. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)]. E-mail: gaorwbox@sdu.edu.cn; Sun, Y. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Han, G.B. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, B. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Baotou Rare Earth Research Institute, Batou 014030 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Magnetic powders for sintered NdFeB magnets have been prepared by using an advanced processing method including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet milling and rubber isotropic press. The effects of Dy, Ga and Co addition on the microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered magnets have been investigated. By adopting a suitable component ratio and adjusting proper technological parameters, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with hard magnetic properties of {sub j} H {sub c}=25.6 kOe, B {sub r}=13.2 kG and (BH){sub max}=39.9 MGOe. The temperature coefficient of coercivity of the magnets (between 20 and 150 deg. C) is -0.53% deg. C. The magnetic properties at high temperature satisfy the needs of permanent magnet motors.

  9. Coercivity of the Nd–Fe–B hot-deformed magnets diffusion-processed with low melting temperature glass forming alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, U.M.R. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Liu, Lihua [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Akiya, T.; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Sakuma, N.; Yano, M.; Kato, A. [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Nd- and Pr-based alloys with bulk glass forming ability and low melting temperatures, Nd{sub 60}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 20} and Pr{sub 60}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 20}, were used for grain boundary diffusion process to enhance the coercivity of hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity increment was proportional to the weight gain after the diffusion process. For the sample with 64% weight gain, the coercivity increased up to 2.8 T, which is the highest value for bulk Nd–Fe–B magnets that do not contain heavy rare-earth elements, Dy or Tb. Approximately half of the intergranular regions were amorphous and the remaining regions were crystalline. Magnetic isolation of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains by the Nd-rich amorphous/crystalline intergranular phases is attributed to the large coercivity enhancement. The coercivity does not change after the crystallization of the intergranular phase, indicating that the coercivity is not influenced by the strain at the interface with the crystalline intergranular phase. - Highlights: • Bulk-glass forming alloys were infiltrated into hot-deformed Nd–Fe–B magnets. • Very high coercivity of 2.8 T was attained without heavy rare-earth elements. • Approximately half of the inter-granular regions were amorphous. • Crystallization of amorphous intergranular phase does not change coercivity.

  10. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.

    2005-01-01

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate (φ coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m 2 ) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints

  11. Variation of structure and magnetic properties with thickness of thin Co59Fe26Ni15 films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chechenin, NG; van Voorthuysen, EHD; De Hosson, JTM; Boerma, DO

    Variations of phase composition and magnetic properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Co-Fe-Ni films with film thickness in the range of 50-500 nm were analyzed. The samples were magnetically soft with coercivity in the range H-c = 2-20 Oe and uni axial magnetic anisotropy up to H-k = 20 Oe.

  12. Investigation of energy losses in low-coercivity resin-bonded magnets in alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milov, E. V.; Sipin, I. A.; Milov, V. N.; Andreenko, A. S.; Balan, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    Energy losses during alternating remagnetization of low-coercitivity resin-bonded magnets and commercially produced electrical steels were studied experimentally. The studies were conducted on several samples of resin-bonded magnets with different manufacturing technologies and samples of electrical steel sheets of various thicknesses. The static and dynamic magnetic properties of the samples were measured on a vibration magnetometer and a specially designed apparatus, respectively. It was found that the studied samples of bonded magnets have a relatively high level of hysteresis losses associated with high coercivity, which reaches a value of 4-5 Oe. At the same time, the remagnetization losses due to the Foucault currents in the bonded magnets are considerably lower than in electrical steels. The measurement results show that bonded magnets at high frequencies of remagnetization, especially in high-rpm motors, can be competitive in comparison with electrical steels.

  13. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an electrostatic energy harvester with an out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme. Using advanced MEMS technology, energy harvesting devices formed by a four wafer stack are batch fabricated and fully packaged at wafer scale. A spin coated CYTOP polymer is used both...... as an electret material and an adhesive layer for low temperature wafer bonding. The overall size of the device is about 1.1 cm × 1.3 cm. At an external load resistance of 13.4 MΩ, a power output of 0.15 μW is achieved when vibration at an acceleration amplitude of 1 g (∼9.8 m/s2) is applied at a low frequency...... of 96 Hz. The frequency response of the device is also measured and a broader bandwidth is observed at higher acceleration amplitude....

  14. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an electrostatic energy harvester with an out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme. Using advanced MEMS technology, energy harvesting devices with a four wafer stack are batch fabricated and fully packaged at wafer scale. CYTOP polymer is used both as an electret material...... and an adhesive layer for low temperature wafer bonding. The overall size of the device is about 1.1×1.3 cm2. With an external load of 13.4 MΩ, a power output of 0.15 μW is achieved when vibration at an acceleration amplitude of 1 g (9.8 m/s2) is applied at a low frequency of 96 Hz. The frequency response...... of the device is also measured and a broader bandwidth is observed at higher acceleration amplitude. © 2013 IEEE....

  15. Formation and characterization of magnetic barium ferrite hollow fibers with low coercivity via co-electrospun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gui-fang, E-mail: guifang777@163.com; Zhang, Zi-dong, E-mail: 1986zzd@163.com; Dang, Feng, E-mail: dangfeng@sdu.edu.cn; Cheng, Chuan-bing, E-mail: 807033063@qq.com; Hou, Chuan-xin, E-mail: 710313782@qq.com; Liu, Si-da, E-mail: superliustar@hotmail.com

    2016-08-15

    BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} fibers and hollow fibers were successfully prepared by electrospun and co-electrospun. A very interesting result appeared in this study that hollow fibers made by co-electrospun showed low coercivity values of a few hundred oersteds, compared with the coercivity values of more than thousand oersteds for the fibers made by electrospun. So the hollow fibers with high saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and while comparatively low coercivity (H{sub c}) exhibited strong magnetism and basically showed soft character. And this character for hollow fibers will lead to increase of the permeability for the samples which is favorable for impedance matching in microwave absorption. So these hollow fibers are promised to have use in a number of applications, such as switching and sensing applications, electromagnetic materials, microwave absorber. - Highlights: • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} fibers were prepared via electrospinning successfully. • The coercivity has a value of a few hundred oersteds for the hollow fibers made by coaxial electrospun. • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with high saturation magnetization and low coercivity shows great potential in microwave absorbing application.

  16. Study of ion beam sputtered Fe/Si interfaces as a function of Si layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Brajpuriya, Ranjeet; Singh, Priti

    2018-01-01

    The exchange interaction in metal/semiconductor interfaces is far from being completely understood. Therefore, in this paper, we have investigated the nature of silicon on the Fe interface in the ion beam deposited Fe/Si/Fe trilayers keeping the thickness of the Fe layers fixed at 3 nm and varying the thickness of the silicon sandwich layer from 1.5 nm to 4 nm. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy techniques were used, respectively, to study the structural and morphological changes in the deposited films as a function of layer thickness. The structural studies show silicide formation at the interfaces during deposition and better crystalline structure of Fe layers at a lower spacer layer thickness. The magnetization behavior was investigated using magneto-optical Kerr effect, which clearly shows that coupling between the ferromagnetic layers is highly influenced by the semiconductor spacer layer thickness. A strong antiferromagnetic coupling was observed for a value of tSi = 2.5 nm but above this value an unexpected behavior of hysteresis loop (step like) with two coercivity values is recorded. For spacer layer thickness greater than 2.5 nm, an elemental amorphous Si layer starts to appear in the spacer layer in addition to the silicide layer at the interfaces. It is observed that in the trilayer structure, Fe layers consist of various stacks, viz., Si doped Fe layers, ferromagnetic silicide layer, and nonmagnetic silicide layer at the interfaces. The two phase hysteresis loop is explained on the basis of magnetization reversal of two ferromagnetic layers, independent of each other, with different coercivities. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy technique was also used to study interfaces characteristics as a function of tSi.

  17. Coercive Tactics and Web Advertising Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available By questioning contemporary coercive or intrusive web advertising activities, this study sheds light on the recent conditions of web advertising by focusing on a comprehensive process that leads to web ad performance. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed by the principal investigators of this study. 170 were returned from 200 distributed questionnaires given in South Korea and 100 were returned from 200 distributed questionnaires in China. The responses total 248 out of 400 distributed questionnaires. The relationships among the measured factors are analyzed by the structural equation modeling method. Results show that the use of web ad tactics often leads to negative consequences, creating a user present avoidance behavior condition towards both the ad and ad-hosting website. In terms of the performance of the ad-hosting website, website retention was strongly influenced by content blocking. In addition, the results of the comparative test suggest that the influence of avoidance on advertising performance is stronger among users of newspaper websites than e-commerce websites.

  18. Effect of Various Interface Thicknesses on the Behaviour of Infilled frame Subjected to Lateral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, K.; Muthukumar, S.; Rupali, S.; Satyanarayanan, K. S.

    2018-03-01

    Two dimensional numerical investigations were carried out to study the influence of interface thickness on the behaviour of reinforced concrete frames subjected to in-plane lateral loads using commercial finite element tool SAP 2000. The cement mortar, cork and foam was used as interface material and their effect was studied by varying thicknesses as 6, 8, 10, 14 and 20 mm. The effect of lateral loads on infill masonry wall was also studied by varying arbitrary loads as 10, 20, 40 and 60 kN. The resistance of the frame with cement mortar was found maximum with the interface thickness 10 mm therefore, it is concluded that the maximum influence of interface thickness of 10 mm was found effective. The resistance of integral infill frame with cork and foam interface was found maximum with the interface thickness 6 mm and it is concluded that 6 mm thick interface among the chosen thickness was found effective.

  19. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tunable Size Synthesis and Analysis in Terms of the Core-Shell Structure and Mixed Coercive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, P. T.; Oanh, V. T. K.; Lam, T. D.; Phuc, N. X.; Tung, L. D.; Thanh, Nguyen T. K.; Manh, D. H.

    2017-04-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are currently a very active research field. To date, a comprehensive study of iron oxide NPs is still lacking not only on the size dependence of structural phases but also in the use of an appropriate model. Herein, we report on a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of iron oxide NPs prepared by a co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the NPs have an inverse spinel structure of iron oxide phase (Fe3O4) with average crystallite sizes ( D XRD) of 6-19 nm, while grain sizes ( D TEM) are of 7-23 nm. In addition, the larger the particle size, the closer the experimental lattice constant value is to that of the magnetite structure. Magnetic field-dependent magnetization data and analysis show that the effective anisotropy constants of the Fe3O4 NPs are about five times larger than that of their bulk counterpart. Particle size ( D) dependence of the magnetization and the non-saturating behavior observed in applied fields up to 50 kOe are discussed using the core-shell structure model. We find that with decreasing D, while the calculated thickness of the shell of disordered spins ( t ˜ 0.3 nm) remains almost unchanged, the specific surface areas S a increases significantly, thus reducing the magnetization of the NPs. We also probe the coercivity of the NPs by using the mixed coercive Kneller and Luborsky model. The calculated results indicate that the coercivity rises monotonously with the particle size, and are well matched with the experimental ones.

  20. Temperature dependence of coercivity behavior in iron films on silicone oil surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaojun; Ye Quanlin; Ye Gaoxiang

    2007-01-01

    A new iron film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by vapor phase deposition method, has been fabricated and its microstructure as well as magnetic properties has been studied. It is found that the temperature dependence of the coercive field H c (T) of the films exhibits a peak around a critical temperature T crit =10-15 K: for the temperature T crit ,H c (T) increases with the temperature; if T>T crit , however, it decreases rapidly and then approaches a steady value as T further increases. Our study shows that, for T>T crit , the observed coercivity behavior is mainly dominated by the effect of the non-uniform single-domain particle size distribution, and for T crit , the anomalous coercivity behavior may be resulted from the surface anisotropy, the surface effect and the characteristic internal stress distribution in the films. The influence of the shape and size of the particles on the thermal dependence of the magnetization is also investigated

  1. Relation between Nd2Fe14B grain alignment and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yutaka; Hoshijima, Jun; Ishii, Rintaro

    2013-01-01

    It was found that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grain alignment improves. Because of this phenomenon, studies looked at the relation between this alignment and the coercive force decrease ratio. In experiments, it was expected that the coercive force of perfectly aligned magnet reached 0.7 of coercive force in istotropically aligned magnet. When it is postulated that the coercive force is determined by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model, coercive force increases as the alignment improves and it becomes difficult to explain our experimental data. On the other hand, when the coercive force is determined by magnetic domain wall motion, the coercive force decreases as the alignment improves and the coercive force of the perfectly aligned magnet reaches 1/√(2) of the isotropically aligned magnet. This tendency and value was very close to our data. It strongly suggests that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets is determined by the domain wall motion. - Highlights: ► Coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as grains alignment improves. ► Coercive force decrease ratio reaches −30% at the perfect aligned magnet. ►These experimental results are different from the Stoner–Wohlfarth model. ► The magnetic domain wall motion could explain this coercive force decrease ratio

  2. Variables Associated with the Use of Coercive Measures on Psychiatric Patients in Spanish Penitentiary Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Girela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the use of coercive medical measures (forced medication, isolation, and mechanical restraint in mentally ill inmates within two secure psychiatric hospitals (SPH and three regular prisons (RP in Spain. Variables related to adopted coercive measures were analyzed, such as type of measure, causes of indication, opinion of patient inmate, opinion of medical staff, and more frequent morbidity. A total of 209 patients (108 from SPH and 101 from RP were studied. Isolation (41.35% was the most frequent coercive measure, followed by mechanical restraint (33.17% and forced medication (25.48%. The type of center has some influence; specifically in RP there is less risk of isolation and restraint than in SPH. Not having had any previous imprisonment reduces isolation and restraint risk while increases the risk of forced medication, as well as previous admissions to psychiatric inpatient units does. Finally, the fact of having lived with a partner before imprisonment reduces the risk of forced medication and communication with the family decreases the risk of isolation. Patients subjected to a coercive measure exhibited a pronounced psychopathology and most of them had been subjected to such measures on previous occasions. The mere fact of external assessment of compliance with human rights slows down the incidence of coercive measures.

  3. Variables associated with the use of coercive measures on psychiatric patients in Spanish penitentiary centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girela, E; López, A; Ortega, L; De-Juan, J; Ruiz, F; Bosch, J I; Barrios, L F; Luna, J D; Torres-González, F

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the use of coercive medical measures (forced medication, isolation, and mechanical restraint) in mentally ill inmates within two secure psychiatric hospitals (SPH) and three regular prisons (RP) in Spain. Variables related to adopted coercive measures were analyzed, such as type of measure, causes of indication, opinion of patient inmate, opinion of medical staff, and more frequent morbidity. A total of 209 patients (108 from SPH and 101 from RP) were studied. Isolation (41.35%) was the most frequent coercive measure, followed by mechanical restraint (33.17%) and forced medication (25.48%). The type of center has some influence; specifically in RP there is less risk of isolation and restraint than in SPH. Not having had any previous imprisonment reduces isolation and restraint risk while increases the risk of forced medication, as well as previous admissions to psychiatric inpatient units does. Finally, the fact of having lived with a partner before imprisonment reduces the risk of forced medication and communication with the family decreases the risk of isolation. Patients subjected to a coercive measure exhibited a pronounced psychopathology and most of them had been subjected to such measures on previous occasions. The mere fact of external assessment of compliance with human rights slows down the incidence of coercive measures.

  4. Real-time out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis imaging using prior CT for scanning beam digital x-ray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng, E-mail: mengwu@stanford.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The scanning beam digital x-ray system (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopic system with high dose efficiency and the ability to perform continuous real-time tomosynthesis in multiple planes. This system could be used for image guidance during lung nodule biopsy. However, the reconstructed images suffer from strong out-of-plane artifact due to the small tomographic angle of the system. Methods: The authors propose an out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis (OPAST) algorithm that utilizes a prior CT volume to augment the run-time image processing. A blur-and-add (BAA) analytical model, derived from the project-to-backproject physical model, permits the generation of tomosynthesis images that are a good approximation to the shift-and-add (SAA) reconstructed image. A computationally practical algorithm is proposed to simulate images and out-of-plane artifacts from patient-specific prior CT volumes using the BAA model. A 3D image registration algorithm to align the simulated and reconstructed images is described. The accuracy of the BAA analytical model and the OPAST algorithm was evaluated using three lung cancer patients’ CT data. The OPAST and image registration algorithms were also tested with added nonrigid respiratory motions. Results: Image similarity measurements, including the correlation coefficient, mean squared error, and structural similarity index, indicated that the BAA model is very accurate in simulating the SAA images from the prior CT for the SBDX system. The shift-variant effect of the BAA model can be ignored when the shifts between SBDX images and CT volumes are within ±10 mm in the x and y directions. The nodule visibility and depth resolution are improved by subtracting simulated artifacts from the reconstructions. The image registration and OPAST are robust in the presence of added respiratory motions. The dominant artifacts in the subtraction images are caused by the mismatches between the real object and the prior CT

  5. Interactive contribution of grain size and grain orientation to coercivity of melt spun ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, N.; Li, G.; Yao, W.J.; Wen, X.X.

    2010-01-01

    During melt spinning process, the improvement of certain grain orientation and the refinement of grain size with surface velocity have interactive and contradictory effects on the magnetic properties. The contributions of these effects have seldom been taken into account and they were discussed in this paper via Fe-2, 4, 6.5 wt% Si alloys. Heat treatment at 1173 K for 1 h was performed to show the annealing impact. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the high surface velocity and heat treatment increase the intensity ratio of line (2 0 0) to (1 1 0) of A2 phase. The (2 0 0) line corresponds to (2 0 0) plane in direction, easy magnetization direction of α-Fe phase in Fe-Si alloy. The improvement of this grain orientation with the surface velocity decreases the coercivity, which should increase due to the grain refinement. It is revealed that the texture promoted by the anisotropic heat release during melt spinning process is one factor to improve the magnetic properties and should be considered when preparing soft magnetic materials.

  6. Recoil curve properties and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka_Matsuura@hitachi-metals.co.jp; Kitai, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Rintaro; Natsumeda, Toshimitsu; Hoshijima, Jun

    2013-11-15

    It is examined that whether a reverse domain and magnetic domain wall exist in a lower demagnetization area than the coercive force and whether the observed demagnetization ratio curve can be explained using the alignment distribution function or not. From measurements of the recoil curve in the low demagnetization field, it was confirmed that minor demagnetization occurred in every demagnetization field and magnets of every grade of coercive force. The alignment distribution of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains was also measured by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). The alignments and the coercive force decrease ratios were calculated using these alignment distributions. These data were compared against the results obtained from magnetization measurements. From EBSD data, it was found that the alignment distributions of magnets used in this experiment were close to a Gaussian distribution. It was also found that there was no difference in the alignment distribution between magnets with Dy and without Dy, even though the coercive force decrease ratios were Dy dependent. The calculated alignments using the alignment distribution functions were close to the values of magnetization measurements. However, it was found that the calculated coercive force decrease ratios were different from the results obtained from magnetization measurement. - Highlights: • Reverse magnetic domains already exist lower magnetic field than coercive force. • Demagnetization happens not only from surface but also from inside of magnets. • Calculated alignment agrees well with that of the magnetic properties measurement. • Coercive force decrease ratio could not explain from alignment distribution. • We could not find any difference with and without Dy magnets in alignment distribution.

  7. Temperature-Dependent Coercive Field Measured by a Quantum Dot Strain Gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Keil, Robert; Zopf, Michael; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-12-13

    Coercive fields of piezoelectric materials can be strongly influenced by environmental temperature. We investigate this influence using a heterostructure consisting of a single crystal piezoelectric film and a quantum dots containing membrane. Applying electric field leads to a physical deformation of the piezoelectric film, thereby inducing strain in the quantum dots and thus modifying their optical properties. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission shows butterfly-like loops, from which the coercive fields are directly derived. The results suggest that coercive fields at cryogenic temperatures are strongly increased, yielding values several tens of times larger than those at room temperature. We adapt a theoretical model to fit the measured data with very high agreement. Our work provides an efficient framework for predicting the properties of ferroelectric materials and advocating their practical applications, especially at low temperatures.

  8. Enhanced coercivity thermal stability realized in Nd–Fe–B thin films diffusion-processed by Nd–Co alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Hui; Fu, Yanqing [Key laboratory of electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Department of Physics and Chemistry of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Guojian; Liu, Tie [Key laboratory of electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Cui, Weibin, E-mail: cuiweibin@epm.neu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Department of Physics and Chemistry of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhidong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research (IMR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangq@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-03-15

    A proposed Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-core/Nd{sub 2}(Fe, Co){sub 14}B-shell microstructure was realized by diffusion-processing textured Nd{sub 14}Fe{sub 77}B{sub 9} single-layer film with Nd{sub 100−x}Co{sub x} (x=10, 20 and 40) alloys to improve the coercivity thermal stability. The ambient coercivity was increased from around 1 T in single-layer film to nearly 2 T in diffusion-processed films, which was due to the Nd-rich grain boundaries as seen from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The coercivity thermal stability was improved by the core/shell microstructure because Nd-rich grain boundaries provided the high ambient coercivity and Co-rich shell provided the improved coercivity stability. - Highlights: • Core–shell microstructure proposed for enhancing the coercivity thermal stability. • Coercivity enhanced to nearly 2 T by diffusion-processing with Nd–Co alloy. • Good squareness and highly textured microstructure obtained. • Nd-rich phases observed by TEM after diffusion process. • Coercivity thermal stability improved with minor Co addition in grain boundary regions.

  9. Magnetic and magneto-optical characteristics of spin coated Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 4} thin films on Pt (1 1 1) coated Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Arti, E-mail: artigupta80@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi110007 (India); Dutta, Shankar [Solid State Physics Laboratory, DRDO, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi110054 (India); Tandon, Ram Pal [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi110007 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Properties of Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 1.7}O{sub 4} thin films on Pt-Si substrate are reported. • Reduction in thickness ∼27% with increased annealing temperature was found. • Partial (3 3 3) plane textured orientation was noted for these films. - Abstract: This paper reports magnetic and magneto-optical properties of Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 4} nanocrystalline thin films (thickness ∼140–200 nm) deposited on Pt (1 1 1)/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by spin coating technique. Deposited films are then annealed at 600 °C and 700 °C for 60 min (significant reduction in film thickness from 200 nm to 140 nm was noted with the increase in post deposition annealing temperature). The X ray diffraction patterns confirmed the spinel cubic structure of Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 4} films with polycrystalline phase and also indicated a partial <3 3 3> texture orientation. Deposited films showed magnetic anisotropy as evidenced from magnetic and magneto-optical measurements. Higher in plane remnant magnetization and low coercivity values as compared to out of plane ones were observed for both samples, indicating in plane alignment of easy axis of magnetization.

  10. Effect of Complex Working Conditions on Nurses Who Exert Coercive Measures in Forensic Psychiatric Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Niclas; Salzmann-Erikson, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Nurses who exert coercive measures on patients within psychiatric care are emotionally affected. However, research on their working conditions and environment is limited. The purpose of the current study was to describe nurses' experiences and thoughts concerning the exertion of coercive measures in forensic psychiatric care. The investigation was a qualitative interview study using unstructured interviews; data were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Results described participants' thoughts and experiences of coercive measures from four main categories: (a) acting against the patients' will, (b) reasoning about ethical justifications, (c) feelings of compassion, and (d) the need for debriefing. The current study illuminates the working conditions of nurses who exert coercive measures in clinical practice with patients who have a long-term relationship with severe symptomatology. The findings are important to further discuss how nurses and leaders can promote a healthier working environment. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 37-43.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Existence of Projective Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrott, Xander

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.

  12. High-quality nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by the combination of pulsed laser deposition and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijia; Zhang, Zichen; Wang, Wenliang; Zheng, Yulin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Guoqiang

    2018-05-01

    High-quality a-plane GaN epitaxial films have been grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by the combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). PLD is employed to epitaxial growth of a-plane GaN templates on r-plane sapphire substrates, and then MOCVD is used. The nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films with relatively small thickness (2.9 µm) show high quality, with the full-width at half-maximum values of GaN(11\\bar{2}0) along [1\\bar{1}00] direction and GaN(10\\bar{1}1) of 0.11 and 0.30°, and a root-mean-square surface roughness of 1.7 nm. This result is equivalent to the quality of the films grown by MOCVD with a thickness of 10 µm. This work provides a new and effective approach for achieving high-quality nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films on r-plane sapphire substrates.

  13. Selection of planes in nuclear magnetic resonance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonagamba, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype aiming to obtain images in nuclear magnetic resonance tomography was developed, by adjusting NMR spectrometer in the IFQSC Laboratory. The techniques for selecting planes were analysed by a set of computer codes, which were elaborated from Bloch equation solutions to simulate the spin system behaviour. Images were obtained using planes with thickness inferior to 1 cm. (M.C.K.)

  14. In-plane electric field controlled ferromagnetism and anisotropic magnetoresistance in an LSMO/PMN-PT heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Fang; Lu, Yunhao; Chen, Jikun; Wu, Yanjun; Meng, Kangkang; Wu, Yong; Miao, Jun; Jiang, Yong

    2018-06-01

    We report the in-plane electric field controlled ferromagnetism of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) films epitaxially deposited on [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 (PMN-PT) (001), (011) and (111) single crystal substrates. The in-plane coercivities (H c∥) and remanences of the LSMO films greatly depend on the in-plane electric field applied on the PMN-PT (001) and (011) substrates. The experimental change of H c∥ is consistent with the Stoner–Wohlfarth model and first principle calculation with the electric field varying from ‑10 to 10 kV cm‑1. Moreover, the Curie temperature and anisotropic magnetoresistance of the LSMO films can also be manipulated by an in-plane electric field. Finally, the LSMO/PMN-PT (001) heterostructure is designed to be a new kind of magnetic signal generator with the source of electric field.

  15. Structure, coercive control, and autonomy promotion: A comparison of fathers' and mothers' food parenting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Mercedes; Hoffmann, Debra; Taylor, Maija; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2017-05-01

    This study explored differences in mothers' and fathers' food parenting strategies, specifically coercive control, structure, and autonomy promotion, and whether parenting style and parental responsibility for food parenting related to the use of these strategies. Parents of children aged 2.5-7.5 years ( N = 497) reported about their parenting practices and food parenting strategies. Parenting style accounted for the majority of the variance in food parenting. Fathers were more authoritarian than mothers. Authoritarian and permissive parenting practices were related to more coercive strategies. Mothers reported more food parenting responsibility. Responsibility was related to less coercive practices and more autonomy promotion and structure.

  16. High coercivity Sm-Co thin films from elemental Sm/Co multilayer deposition and their microstructural aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Predeep, P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Sridhara Rao, D.V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratories, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prajapat, C.L.; Singh, M.R. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Barshilia, Harish C. [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Chowdhury, P., E-mail: pchowdhury@nal.res.in [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Hard magnetic thin films with high coercivity were fabricated by magnetron sputtering on MgO(100) and quartz substrates. The films were grown by depositing sequentially Sm and Co layers at an elevated substrate temperature of 500 °C. Subsequent post-annealing was carried out at various temperatures in range of 500–700 °C to form Sm-Co hard magnetic thin films. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of randomly oriented SmCo{sub 5} crystallites on quartz substrate, whereas, a textured growth of Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 7} with strong (110) crystalline phases was observed on MgO substrate. Microstructural analyses were carried out using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for samples grown on MgO substrate at 650 °C and inferred the presence of high density planar defects along with large grain boundaries. Further microdiffraction studies confirmed the presence of SmCo{sub 3} as an impurity phase in the films. Magnetic hysteresis measurements indicate the square hysteresis behaviors with high coercivity value of 3.1 T and 2.7 T for 650 °C annealed samples on both MgO and quartz substrates, respectively. The origin of such high coercivity value was then correlated with pinning type of spin reversal mechanism as confirmed through the analyses of demagnetization curves. The magnetic force microscopy images for films on MgO substrate, annealed at 650 °C, revealed the presence of magnetic domains with size higher than 1 µm. The formed magnetic domains lacked well defined boundaries indicating an enhanced exchange coupling between the grain clusters. - Highlights: • Ewald technique in micromagnetic simulations with periodic boundary conditions. • Effect of micromagnetic parameters on hysteresis in exchange spring magnets. • Importance of the interface exchange coupling for hard-soft nanocomposites. • Geometry dependence of the optimal soft phase size in exchange spring magnets.

  17. Magnetic and microstructural properties of thin NdFeB based films and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommer, Lars; Goll, Dagmar [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The magnetic and microstructural properties of NdFeB and NdFeB/Fe thin films and nanostructures are presented. Samples with Cr buffer and protection layer (minimum thickness: d=50 nm) have been produced by ion beam sputtering at elevated temperatures (T{sub s}=700 C) using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO(001) single crystal substrates. Films deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates show c-axis growth in out-of-plane direction down to thicknesses of the NdFeB film of d=10 nm with coercivities up to {mu}{sub 0}H{sub c}=1 T. The texture of films deposited on MgO(001) substrates is less pronounced and films below d=20 nm show no hard magnetic behavior. For comparison, films were deposited at room temperature on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO(001) followed by post-annealing in Ar atmosphere (T{sub pa}=525-650 C) leading to coercivities as high as {mu}{sub 0}H{sub c}=1.2 T but with isotropic behavior. By TEM images the grain structure of the NdFeB samples is studied. Bilayers of NdFeB (d=50 nm) and Fe (d=0-20 nm) show fully exchange coupled behavior. From the temperature dependence of the coercivity the microstructural parameters of all samples have been determined. Furthermore NdFeB periodical patterns were produced by means of electron beam lithography with dot sizes of 1000 nm and 500 nm, respectively.

  18. Magnetization reversal of in-plane uniaxial Co films and its dependence on epitaxial alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idigoras, O., E-mail: o.idigoras@nanogune.eu; Suszka, A. K.; Berger, A. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Vavassori, P. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, The Basque Foundation for Science, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain); Obry, B.; Hillebrands, B. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungzentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße 56, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Landeros, P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, 2390123 Valparaíso (Chile)

    2014-02-28

    This work studies the influence of crystallographic alignment onto magnetization reversal in partially epitaxial Co films. A reproducible growth sequence was devised that allows for the continuous tuning of grain orientation disorder in Co films with uniaxial in-plane anisotropy by the controlled partial suppression of epitaxy. While all stable or meta-stable magnetization states occurring during a magnetic field cycle exhibit a uniform magnetization for fully epitaxial samples, non-uniform states appear for samples with sufficiently high grain orientation disorder. Simultaneously with the occurrence of stable domain states during the magnetization reversal, we observe a qualitative change of the applied field angle dependence of the coercive field. Upon increasing the grain orientation disorder, we observe a disappearance of transient domain wall propagation as the dominating reversal process, which is characterized by an increase of the coercive field for applied field angles away from the easy axis for well-ordered epitaxial samples. Upon reaching a certain disorder threshold level, we also find an anomalous magnetization reversal, which is characterized by a non-monotonic behavior of the remanent magnetization and coercive field as a function of the applied field angle in the vicinity of the nominal hard axis. This anomaly is a collective reversal mode that is caused by disorder-induced frustration and it can be qualitatively and even quantitatively explained by means of a two Stoner-Wohlfarth particle model. Its predictions are furthermore corroborated by Kerr microscopy and by Brillouin light scattering measurements.

  19. Cross-sectional study on nurses' attitudes regarding coercive measures: the importance of socio-demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, and strategies for coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregar, Branko; Skela-Savič, Brigita; Kores Plesničar, Blanka

    2018-06-04

    Coercive measures are containment methods used in psychiatry to curb patients' disruptive and aggressive behaviours towards themselves, others or objects. The prevalence of the practice of coercive measures in psychiatry is directly related to the attitudes of the staff. When discussing these attitudes, nurses are often particularly singled out. The purpose of the study is to research the impact of individual factors on nurses' attitudes in the decision-making process for the use of coercive measures. A cross-sectional study among all psychiatric nursing staff in Slovenia (n = 367, 79%) was conducted over the years 2013/2014. Standardized questionnaires were used, including a survey of nurses' attitudes to the use of seclusion, the Job Descriptive Index, and the Folkman-Lazarus test. Nurses' attitudes towards special coercive measures are predominantly negative ([Formula: see text] = 11.312, SD = 2.641). The factors that explain a positive attitude are as follows: female gender (β = - 0.236, p <  0.001), fewer years of service (β = - 0.149, p = 0.023), emotion-focused strategies of coping with stress (β = 0.139, p = 0.020), and less-threatening patient behaviour (β = 0.157, p = 0.012). The effects of some known factors did not prove important in the model. Newly recognized factors are "less-threatening patient behaviour" and "emotion-focused strategies of coping with stress". Therefore, attitudes towards special coercive measures in psychiatry must be regarded as contextualized, interactive, and multidimensional phenomena that cannot be explained merely through a defined set of factors.

  20. Hard magnetic properties and coercivity mechanism of melt-spun Misch Metal-Fe-B alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Ningtao; Luo, Yang, E-mail: eluoyang@foxmail.com; Yan, Wenlong; Yuan, Chao; Yu, Dunbo; Sun, Liang; Lu, Shuo; Li, Hongwei; Zhang, Hongbin

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Melt-spun MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} alloy shows that the distributions of the La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Fe and B elements is uniformly distributed, and the grain size is in the range of 30–40 nm, it can be seen that Pr-rich and La-rich phases concentrated on grain boundaries, which resulted in the coercivity augment with the increase of MMFe{sub 2} content, and the grain size is around 40–50 nm in MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6}. • There is a significant formation of MMFe{sub 2} with abundant Pr and La, and a small amount of Ce and Nd enriched at the interfacial region in MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6}, thus an inhomogeneous region was formed. It is considered that the inhomogeneous region is effective in increasing the coercivity. • The optimum-quenched MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} alloy have been shown to exhibit a coercive force of 6.9 kOe and an energy product of 8.5 MGOe, which is superior to anisotropic ferrite magnets of 4.5 MGOe. - Abstract: Magnetic and structural properties of Misch Metal (MM)-Fe-B alloys, were examined in the melt-spun ribbons. Melt-spun MM-Fe-B samples were prepared at the surface velocities of 18–30 m/s. Crystalline structure and their room-temperature magnetization characteristics were analyzed, and the optimum surface velocity of 20 m/s and nominal composition of MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} were obtained. Microstructural analyses indicate that the grain size is approximately 30–50 nm in the alloys with the optimum characteristics. In the MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6} alloys, Pr-rich and La-rich phases concentrated on grain boundaries, which resulted in the coercivity augment with the increase of MMFe{sub 2} content. Dependence of coercivity on applied magnetic field suggested that the mechanism of coercivity in moderate MM-content samples was inhomogeneous domain wall pinning type. The melt-spun ribbons in the optimum condition exhibit a coercive force of 6.9 kOe and an energy product of 8.5 MGOe, which can be used as

  1. Accelerating Thick Aluminum Liners Using Pulsed Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrala, G.A.; Hammerburg, J.E.; Bowers, D.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Cochrane, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have investigated the acceleration of very thick cylindrical aluminum liners using the Pegasus II capacitory bank. These accelerated solid liners will be used to impact other objects at velocities below 1.5 km/sec, allowing one to generate and sustain shocks of a few 100 kilobar for a few microseconds. A cylindrical shell of 1100 series aluminum with an initial inner radius of 23.61 mm, an initial thickness of 3.0 mm, and a height of 20 mm, was accelerated using a current pulse of 7.15 MA peak current and a 7.4 microsecond quarter cycle time. The aluminum shell was imploded within confining copper glide planes with decreasing separation with an inward slope of 8 degrees. At impact with a cylindrical target of diameter 3-cm, the liner was moving at 1.4 km/sec and its thickness increased to 4.5 mm. Radial X-ray radiograms of the liner showed both the liner and the glide plane interface. The curvature of the inner surface of the liner was measured before impact with the 15-mm radius target. The radiograms also showed that the copper glide planes distorted as the liner radius decreased and that some axial stress is induced in the liner. The axial stresses did not affect the inner curvature significantly. Post-shot calculations of the liner behavior indicated that the thickness of the glide plane played a significant role in the distortion of the interface between the liner and the glide plane

  2. Forward volume and surface magnetostatic modes in an yttrium iron garnet film for out-of-plane magnetic fields: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jinho; Bang, Wonbae; Trossman, Jonathan; Amanov, Dovran; Ketterson, John B.

    2018-05-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results on the propagation of magnetostatic spin waves in a film of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) for out-of-plane magnetic fields for which propagation in opposite directions is nonreciprocal in the presence of a metal layer. The plane studied is defined by the film normal n and n × k where k is the wave vector of the mode. Spin waves in this setting are classified as forward volume waves or surface waves and display non-reciprocity in the presence of an adjacent metal layer except for when H//n. The measurements are carried out in a transmission geometry, and a microwave mixer is used to measure the change of phase, and with it the evolution of wavevector, of the arriving spin wave with external magnetic field.

  3. Self-Poling of BiFeO3 Thick Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, Evgeniya; Sadl, Matej; Ursic, Hana; Daniels, John; Malic, Barbara; Bencan, Andreja; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rojac, Tadej

    2016-08-03

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is difficult to pole because of the combination of its high coercive field and high electrical conductivity. This problem is particularly pronounced in thick films. The poling, however, must be performed to achieve a large macroscopic piezoelectric response. This study presents evidence of a prominent and reproducible self-poling effect in few-tens-of-micrometer-thick BiFeO3 films. Direct and converse piezoelectric measurements confirmed that the as-sintered BiFeO3 thick films yield d33 values of up to ∼20 pC/N. It was observed that a significant self-poling effect only appears in cases when the films are heated and cooled through the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition (Curie temperature TC ∼ 820 °C). These self-poled films exhibit a microstructure with randomly oriented columnar grains. The presence of a compressive strain gradient across the film thickness cooled from above the TC was experimentally confirmed and is suggested to be responsible for the self-poling effect. Finally, the macroscopic d33 response of the self-poled BiFeO3 film was characterized as a function of the driving-field frequency and amplitude.

  4. Homogenized rigid body and spring-mass (HRBSM) model for the pushover analysis of out-of-plane loaded unreinforced and FRP reinforced walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Elisa; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    The present paper is devoted to the discussion of a series of unreinforced and FRP retrofitted panels analyzed adopting the Rigid Body and Spring-Mass (HRBSM) model developed by the authors. To this scope, a total of four out of plane loaded masonry walls tested up to failure are considered. At a structural level, the non-linear analyses are conducted replacing the homogenized orthotropic continuum with a rigid element and non-linear spring assemblage by means of which out of plane mechanisms are allowed. FRP retrofitting is modeled adopting two noded truss elements whose mechanical properties are selected in order to describe possible debonding phenomenon or tensile rupture of the strengthening. The outcome provided numerically are compared to the experimental results showing a satisfactory agreement in terms of global pressure-deflection curves and failure mechanisms.

  5. Control of coercive field in lithium niobate crystals with repeated polarization reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Doun; Park, Taeyong; Kim, Chulhan; Kwon, Soon-Bok; Cha, Myoungsik; Choi, Byeong Cheol; Yu, Nanei; Kurimura, Sunao; Jeon, Gyerok

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the amount of decrease in coercive field of congruent lithium niobate during repeated poling and back-poling was measured. The polarization is reversed in 300 ms and then back-poled during the rest period. The coercive field can be decreased around 1 kV/mm with a repeated poling interval of 5 s. As the interval prolonged, the poling field decrease became smaller, and a stretched exponential function is suggested for the experimental fitting resulting in a set of meaningful parameters. These values are essential for the design of high quality domain engineering

  6. Bistable out-of-plane stress-mismatched thermally actuated bilayer devices with large deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessling, B A; Lucas, T M; Moiseeva, E V; Aebersold, J W; Harnett, C K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore microfabricated bistable actuators released as thin films from a silicon wafer. The actuators are based on a serpentine design where two cantilevers are coupled at the tips by a thin-film bar. These devices are parameterized by two lengths: cantilever length and the length of the coupling bar. These two dimensions are systematically varied to study the effect of design parameters on bistability. The three-dimensional devices have extremely large deflection (hundreds of microns rather than tens of microns for most planar microactuators of similar size) and are thermally actuated out of the plane of the wafer by applying a bias across either the left or right side of the serpentine. The bistability of these devices is evaluated using electron and optical microscopy. Potential applications include non-volatile mechanical memory, optical shutters, and reconfigurable antenna elements

  7. Large displacement bi-directional out-of-plane Lorentz actuator array for surface manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoungyoul; Afsharipour, Elnaz; Chrusch, Dwayne; Shafai, Cyrus; Andersen, David; Burley, Greg

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a large displacement out-of-plane Lorentz actuator array for surface manipulation. Actuators are formed from single crystal silicon flexible serpentine springs on either side of a rigid crossbar containing a narrow contact pillar. A rigid mounting rail system was employed to enable a 5  ×  5 array, which offers scalability of the array size. Analytical and finite element models were used to optimize actuator design. Individual actuators were tested to show linear deflection response of  ±150 µ m motion, using a  ±14.7 mA current in the presence of a 0.48 T magnetic field. This actuator array is suitable for various 2D surface modification applications due to its large deformation with low current and temperature of operation, and narrow contact area to a target surface. (paper)

  8. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions.

  9. Thickness Dependent Interlayer Magnetoresistance in Multilayer Graphene Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Bodepudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Vapor Deposition grown multilayer graphene (MLG exhibits large out-of-plane magnetoresistance due to interlayer magnetoresistance (ILMR effect. It is essential to identify the factors that influence this effect in order to explore its potential in magnetic sensing and data storage applications. It has been demonstrated before that the ILMR effect is sensitive to the interlayer coupling and the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the out-of-plane (c-axis direction. In this work, we investigate the role of MLG thickness on ILMR effect. Our results show that the magnitude of ILMR effect increases with the number of graphene layers in the MLG stack. Surprisingly, thicker devices exhibit field induced resistance switching by a factor of at least ~107. This effect persists even at room temperature and to our knowledge such large magnetoresistance values have not been reported before in the literature at comparable fields and temperatures. In addition, an oscillatory MR effect is observed at higher field values. A physical explanation of this effect is presented, which is consistent with our experimental scenario.

  10. Practical stress evaluation method of RC slab for bending moment in consideration of additional in-plane stress caused by boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshio; Adachi, Naohito; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    In a design of a thick RC slab such as a basemat of a nuclear reactor building, the design method as same as for RC column is usually used. In this method, bending moment and axial force which are obtained by linear Finite Element Method (FEM) for external force are considered. But the assumption for linear FEM in which concrete participates for tensile stress is different from that for reinforcement design in which concrete does not participate for tensile stress. This difference of the assumption results that in-plane tensile strain at the center of the slab depth in the reinforcement design is larger than that in linear FEM. Some effects will appear in stress distribution if this tensile strain is constrained by boundary condition. In this paper, a practical method to evaluate the boundary constrain effects for this in-plane tensile strain is proposed and a simulation analysis of a thick reinforced concrete slab with a large opening for out-of-plane force is also reported. (author)

  11. Coercivity enhancements of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets by diffusing DyHx along different axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Xuejiao; Liu, Xiaolian; Wu, Chen; Yan, Mi

    2015-01-01

    Diffusing heavy rare earth elements along the grain boundaries (GBs) for Nd 2 Fe 14 B-type sintered magnets serves as an effective method to enhance coercivity and to minimize remanence loss simultaneously. Considering the texture anisotropy of Nd-rich GB phases, the coercivity incremental difference by diffusing DyH x fine powders along or perpendicular to the  <0 0 1 >  easy axis (c-axis) has been investigated. The coercivity increases more rapidly to 20.61 kOe (5.76 kOe higher than that of the as-sintered state) when diffusing along the c-axis than that diffusing perpendicular to c-axis (18.85 kOe, 4.00 kOe higher than the as-sintered state). Microstructural investigation reveals that Dy diffuses more easily towards the magnet inner part when treating along the c-axis than that for the perpendicular case due to the anisotropic distribution of the Nd-rich phase. This is verified by a higher Dy content at equivalent diffusing depth and a much deeper final diffusion distance. The local Dy-containing fractions with a stronger anisotropy field are richer for the magnet treated along the c-axis, leading to the much rapider coercivity enhancement. This work reveals that diffusion heavy rare earth along the c-axis is more effective to enhance coercivity for aligned Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets. (paper)

  12. Relation between Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grain alignment and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka_Matsuura@hitachi-metals.co.jp [Hitachi Metals Ltd., NEOMAX Division, 2-15-17 Egawa, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Hoshijima, Jun; Ishii, Rintaro [Hitachi Metals Ltd., NEOMAX Division, 2-15-17 Egawa, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-0013 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    It was found that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grain alignment improves. Because of this phenomenon, studies looked at the relation between this alignment and the coercive force decrease ratio. In experiments, it was expected that the coercive force of perfectly aligned magnet reached 0.7 of coercive force in istotropically aligned magnet. When it is postulated that the coercive force is determined by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model, coercive force increases as the alignment improves and it becomes difficult to explain our experimental data. On the other hand, when the coercive force is determined by magnetic domain wall motion, the coercive force decreases as the alignment improves and the coercive force of the perfectly aligned magnet reaches 1/√(2) of the isotropically aligned magnet. This tendency and value was very close to our data. It strongly suggests that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets is determined by the domain wall motion. - Highlights: ► Coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as grains alignment improves. ► Coercive force decrease ratio reaches −30% at the perfect aligned magnet. ►These experimental results are different from the Stoner–Wohlfarth model. ► The magnetic domain wall motion could explain this coercive force decrease ratio.

  13. Accuracy of the solution of the transfer equation for a plane layer of high optical thickness with strongly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, N.V.

    The accuracy of the calculation of the characteristics of a radiation field in a plane layer is investigated by solving the transfer equation in dependence on the error in the specification of the scattering indicatrix. It is shown that a small error in the specification of the indicatrix can lead to a large error in the solution at large optical depths. An estimate is given for the region of optical thicknesses for which the emission field can be determined with sufficient degree of accuracy from the transfer equation with a known error in the specification of the indicatrix. For an estimation of the error involved in various numerical methods, and also for a determination of the region of their applicability, the results of calculations of problems with strongly anisotropic indicatrix are given

  14. Super-resolution reconstruction in frequency, image, and wavelet domains to reduce through-plane partial voluming in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholipour, Ali; Afacan, Onur; Scherrer, Benoit; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Warfield, Simon K.; Aganj, Iman; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate the use of super-resolution reconstruction (SRR), in frequency, image, and wavelet domains, to reduce through-plane partial voluming effects in magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: The reconstruction of an isotropic high-resolution image from multiple thick-slice scans has been investigated through techniques in frequency, image, and wavelet domains. Experiments were carried out with thick-slice T2-weighted fast spin echo sequence on the Academic College of Radiology MRI phantom, where the reconstructed images were compared to a reference high-resolution scan using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity image metric (SSIM), mutual information (MI), and the mean absolute error (MAE) of image intensity profiles. The application of super-resolution reconstruction was then examined in retrospective processing of clinical neuroimages of ten pediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) to reduce through-plane partial voluming for improved 3D delineation and visualization of thin radial bands of white matter abnormalities. Results: Quantitative evaluation results show improvements in all evaluation metrics through super-resolution reconstruction in the frequency, image, and wavelet domains, with the highest values obtained from SRR in the image domain. The metric values for image-domain SRR versus the original axial, coronal, and sagittal images were PSNR = 32.26 vs 32.22, 32.16, 30.65; SSIM = 0.931 vs 0.922, 0.924, 0.918; MI = 0.871 vs 0.842, 0.844, 0.831; and MAE = 5.38 vs 7.34, 7.06, 6.19. All similarity metrics showed high correlations with expert ranking of image resolution with MI showing the highest correlation at 0.943. Qualitative assessment of the neuroimages of ten TSC patients through in-plane and out-of-plane visualization of structures showed the extent of partial voluming effect in a real clinical scenario and its reduction using SRR. Blinded expert evaluation of image resolution in

  15. Super-resolution reconstruction in frequency, image, and wavelet domains to reduce through-plane partial voluming in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour, Ali, E-mail: ali.gholipour@childrens.harvard.edu; Afacan, Onur; Scherrer, Benoit; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Warfield, Simon K. [Department of Radiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Aganj, Iman [Radiology Department, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02129 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Sahin, Mustafa [Department of Neurology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate the use of super-resolution reconstruction (SRR), in frequency, image, and wavelet domains, to reduce through-plane partial voluming effects in magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: The reconstruction of an isotropic high-resolution image from multiple thick-slice scans has been investigated through techniques in frequency, image, and wavelet domains. Experiments were carried out with thick-slice T2-weighted fast spin echo sequence on the Academic College of Radiology MRI phantom, where the reconstructed images were compared to a reference high-resolution scan using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity image metric (SSIM), mutual information (MI), and the mean absolute error (MAE) of image intensity profiles. The application of super-resolution reconstruction was then examined in retrospective processing of clinical neuroimages of ten pediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) to reduce through-plane partial voluming for improved 3D delineation and visualization of thin radial bands of white matter abnormalities. Results: Quantitative evaluation results show improvements in all evaluation metrics through super-resolution reconstruction in the frequency, image, and wavelet domains, with the highest values obtained from SRR in the image domain. The metric values for image-domain SRR versus the original axial, coronal, and sagittal images were PSNR = 32.26 vs 32.22, 32.16, 30.65; SSIM = 0.931 vs 0.922, 0.924, 0.918; MI = 0.871 vs 0.842, 0.844, 0.831; and MAE = 5.38 vs 7.34, 7.06, 6.19. All similarity metrics showed high correlations with expert ranking of image resolution with MI showing the highest correlation at 0.943. Qualitative assessment of the neuroimages of ten TSC patients through in-plane and out-of-plane visualization of structures showed the extent of partial voluming effect in a real clinical scenario and its reduction using SRR. Blinded expert evaluation of image resolution in

  16. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7 μm, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10 × 10{sup −7} A/cm{sup 2} at −5 mV and 150 K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320 × 256 IC focal plane array up to 180 K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120 K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications.

  17. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7 μm, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10 × 10 −7 A/cm 2 at −5 mV and 150 K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320 × 256 IC focal plane array up to 180 K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120 K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications

  18. Remanence coercivity of dot arrays of hcp-CoPt perpendicular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuzuka, K; Shimatsu, T; Aoi, H [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Kikuchi, N; Okamoto, S; Kitakami, O, E-mail: shimatsu@riec.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    The remanence coercivity, H{sub r}, of hcp-CoPt dot arrays with various dot thicknesses, {delta}, (3 and 10 nm) and Pt content (20-30at%) were experimentally investigated as a function of the dot diameter, D(30-400 nm). All dot arrays showed a single domain state, even after removal of an applied field equal to H{sub r}. The angular dependence of H{sub r} for the dot arrays indicated coherent rotation of the magnetization during nucleation. H{sub r} increased as Ddecreased in all series of dot arrays with various {delta} and Pt content. Assuming that the nucleation field of a dot is determined by the switching field of a grain having the smallest switching field, we calculated the value of nucleation field H{sub n}{sup cal} taking account of the c-axis distribution and the distribution of the demagnetizing field in the dot. The values of H{sub r} obtained experimentally are in good agreement with those of H{sub n}{sup cal}, taking account of thermal agitation of magnetization. This result suggested that the reversal process of hcp-CoPt dot arrays starts from a nucleation at the center of the dot followed by a propagation process.

  19. Effect of heat treatment on interface driven magnetic properties of CoFe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kr.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa

    2017-06-01

    We report systematic studies on non-magnetic Ta underlayer and cap layer driven microstructural and magnetic properties at a wide temperature range for CoFe films. All the films were grown at room temperature and post annealed at different annealing temperatures (TA = 200 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C, 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C). The in-plane magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loops of 10 nm thick CoFe single layer films, grown directly on thermally oxidized Si substrate, exhibit anisotropic nature for TA above 250 °C. However, the CoFe (10 nm) films grown on the 5 nm thick Ta underlayer show reduced anisotropy. Moreover, with underlayer and cap layers (2 nm) the anisotropy is disappeared. The in-plane coercivity (HC) shows a strong variation with TA, underlayer and cap layers. HC increases significantly with Ta underlayer and cap layers. The out of plane M-H loops exhibit increase in the remanence magnetization and squareness with both Ta underlayer and cap layers due to transition of in-plane magnetization component to the out of plane direction. The atomic force microscopic observations revealed that grain/particle size and shape depend strongly on TA and Ta layers. Moreover, a large reduction in the surface roughness is observed with the Ta cap layer. The magnetic domain patterns depend on the TA, and Ta layers. However, for Ta/CoFe/Ta films no clear domains were observed for all the TA. Hence, the Ta cap layers not only protect the CoFe magnetic layer against the heat treatment, but also show a smooth surface at a wide temperature range. These results could be discussed on the basis of random anisotropy model, TA, underlayer and cap layers driven microstructure and magnetization orientation of the CoFe films.

  20. Towards the anti-fibrillogenic activity of phthalocyanines with out-of-plane ligands: correlation with self-association proneness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalska V. B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The activity of five hafnium phthalocyanines containing out-of-plane ligands as inhibitors of reaction of insulin fibril formation is studied and correlation between their inhibitory properties and tendency to self-association is discussed. Methods. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. Results. For the complexes with weak proneness to self-association PcHfDbm2, PcHfPyr2, and PcHfBtfa2 the values of inhibitory activity were estimated as 60–73 %. For phthalocyanines with the pronounced tendency to self-association PcHfPiromelit and PcHfCl2 the noticeably higher inhibitory activity values (about 95 % were shown. In the presence of native or fibrilar insulin the destruction of self-associates of metal complex occurs in buffer pH 7.9, Besides upon the conditions of insulin fibrillization reaction (0.1 M HCl phthalocyanines exist predominantly as monomers. Conclusions. The phthalocyanines with out-of-plane ligands with higher tendency to self-association have shown higher inhibitory activity in the insulin fibril formation comparing with the poorly aggregated metal complexes. At the same time low-order self-associates are not involved directly in the mechanism of inhibition of insulin fibrillization and the phthalocyanines bind with protein in monomeric form. Tendency of phthalocyanines to self-association in aqueous media seems to be an «indicator» of their proneness to stack with protein aromatic amino-acids and thus of anti-fibrilogenic properties.

  1. A low-power-consumption out-of-Plane electrothermal actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Girbau Sala, David; Llamas Morote, Marco Antonio; Casals Terré, Jasmina; Simó Selvas, Francisco Javier; Pradell i Cara, Lluís; Lázaro Guillén, Antoni

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new vertical electrothermal actuator. It can be considered as a hybrid between the traditional in-plane buckle-beam actuator and the vertical hot-cold actuator. It is here referred to as vertical buckle beam. At identical dimensional and bias conditions, it features a displacement larger than that of other vertical electrothermal actuators proposed so far in the literature. The actuator performance is demonstrated by means of an analytical model along with finite-element...

  2. Thickness-modulated anisotropic ferromagnetism in Fe-doped epitaxial HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Ruyi; Ma, Rong; Wang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial tetragonal Fe-doped Hf0.95Fe0.05O2 (FHO) thin films with various thicknesses were deposited on (001)-oriented NdCaAlO4 (NCAO) substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system. The crystal structure and epitaxial nature of the FHO thin films were confirmed by typical x-ray diffraction (XRD) θ-2θ scan and reciprocal space mapping (RSM). The results indicate that two sets of lattice sites exist with two different crystal orientations [(001) and (100)] in the thicker FHO thin films. Further, the intensity of the (100) direction increases with the increase in thicknesses, which should have a significant effect on the anisotropic magnetization of the FHO thin films. Meanwhile, all the FHO thin films possess a tetragonal phase structure. An anisotropy behavior in magnetization has been observed in the FHO thin films. The anisotropic magnetization of the FHO thin films is slowly weakened as the thickness increases. Meanwhile, the saturation magnetization (Ms) of both in-plane and out-of-plane decreases with the increase in the thickness. The change in the anisotropic magnetization and Ms is attributed to the crystal lattice and the variation in the valence of Fe ions. These results indicate that the thickness-modulated anisotropic ferromagnetism of the tetragonal FHO epitaxial thin films is of potential use for the integration of metal-oxide semiconductors with spintronics.

  3. Comprehensive study of out-of-plane transport properties in BaFe2As2 : Three-dimensional electronic state and effect of chemical substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, M.; Nagafuchi, M.; Tajima, S.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the out-of-plane transport properties of parent and chemically substituted BaFe2As2 for various types of substitution. Based on the studies of the Hall coefficient and chemical-substitution effect, we have clarified the origin for the unusual temperature dependence of out-of-plane resistivity ρc(T ) in the high-temperature paramagnetic-tetragonal phase. Electron (hole) carriers have an incoherent (coherent) character, which is responsible for nonmetallic (metallic) ρc(T ) . Although the electron and hole contributions are almost comparable, a slightly larger contribution comes from electrons at high temperatures but from holes at low temperatures, resulting in a maximum in ρc(T ) . In the low-temperature antiferromagnetic-orthorhombic phase, the major effect of substitution is to increase the residual-resistivity component, as in the case for the in-plane transport. In particular, Co atoms substituted for Fe give rise to strong scattering with large ac anisotropy. We found that K substitution induces a nonmetallic behavior in ρc(T ) at low temperatures, which is likely due to a weakly localized nature along the c -axis direction.

  4. Out-of-plane platforms with bi-directional thermal bimorph actuation for transducer applications

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports on the Buckled Cantilever Platform (BCP) that allows the manipulation of the out of plane structures through the adjustment of the pitch angle using thermal bimorph micro-Actuators. Due to the micro-fabrication process used, the bimorph actuators can be designed to move in both: Counter Clockwise (CCW) and Clockwise (CW) directions with a resolution of up to 110 μm/V, with smallest step in the range of nanometers. Thermal and electrical characterization of the thermal bimorph actuators showed low influence in the platforms temperature and low power consumption (< 35μW) mainly due to the natural isolation of the structure. Tip displacements larger than 500μm were achieved. The precise angle adjustment achieved through these mechanisms makes them optimal for a range of different MEMS applications, like optical benches and low frequency sweeping sensors and antennas. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Coercivities of hot-deformed magnets processed from amorphous and nanocrystalline precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xin; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Hioki, K.; Hattori, A.; Hono, K.

    2017-01-01

    Hot-deformed magnets have been processed from amorphous and nanocrystalline precursors and their hard magnetic properties and microstructures have been investigated in order to explore the optimum process route. The hot-deformed magnets processed from an amorphous precursor exhibited the coercivity of 1.40 T that is higher than that processed from nanocrystalline powder, ∼1.28 T. The average grain size was larger in the magnets processed from amorphous precursor. Detailed microstructure analyses by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Nd + Pr concentrations in the intergranular phases were higher in the hot-deformed magnet processed from the amorphous precursor, which is considered to lead to the enhanced coercivity due to a stronger pinning force against magnetic domain wall motion.

  6. Study of coercive measures in prisons and secure psychiatric hospitals: the views of inmates and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Runte-Geidel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to ascertain the opinions of both inmates and staff of prison establishments about the use of coercive measures justified for clinical reasons for people with mental health problems and about the need to create protocols to regulate the application of these measures. Method: These opinions were gathered in a Qualitative Study with Focus Groups (prison inmates and prison staff from the Granada Penitentiary Centre and the Alicante Penitentiary Psychiatric Hospital, both in Spain. Results: The results showed that forced medication is the most commonly used coercive measure in these institutions. The inmates did not understand and rejected the use of this measure, above all because they were poorly informed about their illness and the medication required to treat it. The staff however defended the benefits of psychiatric medicine, even when administered without the patient's consent. Conclusions: Both inmates and staff agreed that it would be useful to have a protocol regulating the use of coercive measures. The study has also identified a number of important factors that could help to reduce the need for coercive measures or make their use unnecessary.

  7. The exponentiated Hencky-logarithmic strain energy. Part II: Coercivity, planar polyconvexity and existence of minimizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Patrizio; Lankeit, Johannes; Ghiba, Ionel-Dumitrel; Martin, Robert; Steigmann, David

    2015-08-01

    We consider a family of isotropic volumetric-isochoric decoupled strain energies based on the Hencky-logarithmic (true, natural) strain tensor log U, where μ > 0 is the infinitesimal shear modulus, is the infinitesimal bulk modulus with the first Lamé constant, are dimensionless parameters, is the gradient of deformation, is the right stretch tensor and is the deviatoric part (the projection onto the traceless tensors) of the strain tensor log U. For small elastic strains, the energies reduce to first order to the classical quadratic Hencky energy which is known to be not rank-one convex. The main result in this paper is that in plane elastostatics the energies of the family are polyconvex for , extending a previous finding on its rank-one convexity. Our method uses a judicious application of Steigmann's polyconvexity criteria based on the representation of the energy in terms of the principal invariants of the stretch tensor U. These energies also satisfy suitable growth and coercivity conditions. We formulate the equilibrium equations, and we prove the existence of minimizers by the direct methods of the calculus of variations.

  8. Investigation of cellular microstructure and enhanced coercivity in sputtered Sm2(CoCuFeZr)17 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Ranu; Schütz, G.; Bhatt, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm 2 (CoCuFeZr) 17 films prepared using ion beam sputtering at room temperature. The as-deposited film shows randomly oriented polycrystalline grains and exhibits small coercivity (H C ) of 0.04 T at room temperature. Post annealing of these films at 700 °C under Ar atmosphere shows significant changes in the microstructure transforming it to the development of cellular growth, concomitant with enhanced coercivity up to 1.3 T. The enhanced coercivity is explained using the domain wall pinning mechanism

  9. Eight plane IPND [Integration Prototype Near Detector] mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND

  10. An H1(Ph)-coercive discontinuous Galerkin formulation for the Poisson problem: 1D analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der K.G.; Brummelen, van E.H.; Borst, de R.

    2006-01-01

    Coercivity of the bilinear form in a continuum variational problem is a fundamental property for finite-element discretizations: By the classical Lax–Milgram theorem, any conforming discretization of a coercive variational problem is stable; i.e., discrete approximations are well-posed and possess

  11. An H1(Ph)-Coercive Discontinuous Galerkin Formulation for The Poisson Problem : 1-D Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.G.; Van Brummelen, E.H.; De Borst, R.

    2006-01-01

    Coercivity of the bilinear form in a continuum variational problem is a fundamental property for finite-element discretizations: By the classical Lax–Milgram theorem, any conforming discretization of a coercive variational problem is stable; i.e., discrete approximations are well-posed and possess

  12. L1{sub 0}-FePt films fabricated by wet-chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Wen; Bao, Nina; Li, Weimin; Chichvarina, Olga, E-mail: A0077107@nus.edu.sg; Ding, Jun, E-mail: msedingj@nus.edu.sg

    2015-08-31

    In this work, we have developed a method to fabricate FePt films by a combination of chemical deposition and post-annealing. Pt-doped Fe films were deposited on Pt(100 nm)/Ti(50 nm)/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate using thermal deposition and the as-deposited films were subsequently annealed from 300 °C to 800 °C under 5% H{sub 2}/95% N{sub 2}. FePt films were achieved through diffusion and rearrangement of Fe and Pt atoms in post-annealing process. From X-ray diffraction results, the face-centered cubic (fcc) FePt phase appeared at 300 °C and the transformation from fcc to L1{sub 0} phase started at 400 °C. The L1{sub 0}-FePt film possessed an out-of-plane anisotropy and a coercivity of 729 kA/m after annealing at 600 °C. A further increase in annealing temperature led to lower value of coercivity, probably because of grain growth. In addition, the thickness of Pt-doped Fe films could be controlled from 150 nm to 700 nm by adjusting the amount of surfactant used. Our superconducting quantum interference device analysis showed that Pt dopant could significantly improve the chemical stability of Fe films in air. - Highlights: • We fabricated FePt film by a combination of chemical deposition and post-annealing. • L1{sub 0} FePt film was formed by Fe/Pt diffusion in annealing of Pt-doped Fe film. • L1{sub 0}-phase FePt with high coercivity and small out-of-plane anisotropy • Relatively small amount of Pt dopant can enhance chemical stability greatly. • We studied structure and magnetic property of as-deposited and annealed FePt film.

  13. Highly textured Nd-Fe-B films grown on amorphous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannemann, Ullrich; Melcher, Steffen; Faehler, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    Thin films with an almost perfect alignment of Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains with the c-axis (easy magnetisation direction) perpendicular to the film plane were achieved on amorphous SiN substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The texture arises due to epitaxial growth on a Ta(1 1 0) buffer deposited prior to the Nd-Fe-B film. Out-of-plane coercivity of 1.3 T and remanence to saturation magnetisation ratio around 0.95 are obtained for Nd-rich films. An analysis of the coercivity mechanism shows that the switching mechanism is nucleation dominated, independent of the Nd content

  14. Highly textured Nd-Fe-B films grown on amorphous substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, Ullrich E-mail: u.hannemann@ifw-dresden.de; Melcher, Steffen; Faehler, Sebastian

    2004-05-01

    Thin films with an almost perfect alignment of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with the c-axis (easy magnetisation direction) perpendicular to the film plane were achieved on amorphous SiN substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The texture arises due to epitaxial growth on a Ta(1 1 0) buffer deposited prior to the Nd-Fe-B film. Out-of-plane coercivity of 1.3 T and remanence to saturation magnetisation ratio around 0.95 are obtained for Nd-rich films. An analysis of the coercivity mechanism shows that the switching mechanism is nucleation dominated, independent of the Nd content.

  15. Angular dependence of coercivity with temperature in Co-based nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bran, C., E-mail: cristina.bran@icmm.csic.es [Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Espejo, A.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH) and Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avenida Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Palmero, E.M. [Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Escrig, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH) and Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avenida Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Vázquez, M. [Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    The magnetic behavior of arrays of Co and CoFe nanowire arrays has been measured in the temperature range between 100 and 300 K. We have paid particular attention to the angular dependence of magnetic properties on the applied magnetic field orientation. The experimental angular dependence of coercivity has been modeled according to micromagnetic analytical calculations, and we found that the propagation of a transversal domain wall mode gives the best fitting with experimental observations. That reversal mode holds in the whole measuring temperature range, for nanowires with different diameters and crystalline structure. Moreover, the quantitative strength of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its magnetization easy axis are determined to depend on the crystalline structure and nanowires diameter. The evolution of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy with temperature for nanowires with different composition gives rise to an opposite evolution of coercivity with increasing temperature: it decreases for CoFe while it increases for Co nanowire arrays.

  16. Synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riglet, P.; Sauvage, M.; Petroff, J.F.; Epelboin, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program based on the Takagi-Taupin differential equations for X-ray propagation in distorted crystals has been developed in order to simulate dislocation images in the Bragg case. The program is valid both for thin and thick crystals. Simulated images of misfit dislocations formed either in a thin epilayer or in a thick substrate are compared with experimental images obtained by synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography. The influence of the various strain components on the image features is discussed. (author)

  17. Surface texture change on-demand and microfluidic devices based on thickness mode actuation of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankit, Ankit; Nguyen, Anh Chien; Mathews, Nripan

    2017-04-01

    Tactile feedback devices and microfluidic devices have huge significance in strengthening the area of robotics, human machine interaction and low cost healthcare. Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) are an attractive alternative for both the areas; offering the advantage of low cost and simplistic fabrication in addition to the high actuation strains. The inplane deformations produced by the DEAs can be used to produce out-of-plane deformations by what is known as the thickness mode actuation of DEAs. The thickness mode actuation is achieved by adhering a soft passive layer to the DEA. This enables a wide area of applications in tactile applications without the need of complex systems and multiple actuators. But the thickness mode actuation has not been explored enough to understand how the deformations can be improved without altering the material properties; which is often accompanied with increased cost and a trade off with other closely associated material properties. We have shown the effect of dimensions of active region and non-active region in manipulating the out-of-plane deformation. Making use of this, we have been able to demonstrate large area devices and complex patterns on the passive top layer for the surface texture change on-demand applications. We have also been able to demonstrate on-demand microfluidic channels and micro-chambers without the need of actually fabricating the channels; which is a cost incurring and cumbersome process.

  18. Direct Observation of the BCC (100) Plane in Thin Films of Sphere-forming Diblock Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shengxiang; Nagpal, Umang; Liao, Wen; de Pablo, Juan; Nealey, Paul

    2010-03-01

    In sphere-forming diblock copolymers, periodic arrays of spheres are arranged in a body-centred cubic (BCC) lattice structure in bulk. However, in thin films different surface morphologies were observed as a function of the film thickness, and the transition from the hexagonal array to the BCC (110) arrangement of spheres on film surfaces was located with respect to the increase of the film thickness. Here we report the first direct observation of the BCC (100) plane in thin films of poly (styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers on homogeneous substrates. By balancing the surface energies of both blocks, the lower energy BCC (100) plane corresponding to a square arrangement of half spheres, formed on film surfaces when the film thickness was commensurate with the spacing, L100, between (100) planes or greater than 2 L100. A hexagonal arrangement of spheres was only observed when the thickness was less than 2 L100 and incommensurate with 1 L100. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation confirmed our experimental observation and was used to investigate the transition of the arrangement of spheres as a function of the film thickness.

  19. Fourfold magnetic anisotropy, coercivity and magnetization reversal of Co/V bilayers grown on MgO(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, J F [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Muro, M GarcIa del [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia IN2UB de la Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Presa, B [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Matarranz, R [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Corrales, J A [Departmento de Informatica, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental 1, Campus de Viesques s/n, 33204 Gijon (Spain); Labarta, A [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia IN2UB de la Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Contreras, M C [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-11-21

    Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of Al/Co/V/MgO(0 0 1) thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The roles of both Co and V layers thicknesses have been studied. Magnetic characterization has been carried out by transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements and hysteresis loops. Cobalt is grown in the hcp structure on V with the c axis parallel to the film plane. Two types of hcp Co crystal are grown with the c axes perpendicular to each other. This structure gives rise to a fourfold magnetic anisotropy. When the V layer thickness is below 40 A a superimposed uniaxial anisotropy develops, the effect of which is a depression in the TS, in agreement with theoretical calculations. This uniaxial anisotropy is induced by the substrate and due to a discontinuous growth of the V layer. For hcp Co grown on V, the magnetic anisotropy rapidly increases with Co layer thickness. In this case, unexpected shifted hysteresis loops along the hard axes were observed when the films were not saturated. This has been explained by taking into account the magnetization reversal along the hard axis: it proceeds via magnetization rotation of some portions of the film at high fields, and by domain wall motion of the rest of the film at lower field values.

  20. Fourfold magnetic anisotropy, coercivity and magnetization reversal of Co/V bilayers grown on MgO(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, J F; Muro, M GarcIa del; Presa, B; Matarranz, R; Corrales, J A; Labarta, A; Contreras, M C

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of Al/Co/V/MgO(0 0 1) thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The roles of both Co and V layers thicknesses have been studied. Magnetic characterization has been carried out by transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements and hysteresis loops. Cobalt is grown in the hcp structure on V with the c axis parallel to the film plane. Two types of hcp Co crystal are grown with the c axes perpendicular to each other. This structure gives rise to a fourfold magnetic anisotropy. When the V layer thickness is below 40 A a superimposed uniaxial anisotropy develops, the effect of which is a depression in the TS, in agreement with theoretical calculations. This uniaxial anisotropy is induced by the substrate and due to a discontinuous growth of the V layer. For hcp Co grown on V, the magnetic anisotropy rapidly increases with Co layer thickness. In this case, unexpected shifted hysteresis loops along the hard axes were observed when the films were not saturated. This has been explained by taking into account the magnetization reversal along the hard axis: it proceeds via magnetization rotation of some portions of the film at high fields, and by domain wall motion of the rest of the film at lower field values

  1. A three-degree-of-freedom thin-film PZT-actuated microactuator with large out-of-plane displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongsoo; Qiu, Zhen; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Oldham, Kenn

    2014-07-01

    A novel three degree-of-freedom microactuator based on thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) is described with its detailed structural model. Its central rectangular-shaped mirror platform, also referred to as the stage, is actuated by four symmetric PZT bending legs such that each leg provides vertical translation for one corner of the stage. It has been developed to support real-time in vivo vertical cross-sectional imaging with a dual axes confocal endomicroscope for early cancer detection, having large displacements in three axes (z, θ x , θ y ) and a relatively high bandwidth in the z-axis direction. Prototype microactuators closely meet the performance requirements for this application; in the out-of-plane (z-axis) direction, it has shown more than 177 μ m of displacement and about 84 Hz of structural natural frequency, when two diagonal legs are actuated at 14V. With all four legs, another prototype of the same design with lighter stage mass has achieved more than 430 μ m of out-of-plane displacement at 15V and about 200 Hz of bandwidth. The former design has shown approximately 6.4° and 2.9° of stage tilting about the x-axis and y-axis, respectively, at 14V. This paper also presents a modeling technique that uses experimental data to account for the effects of fabrication uncertainties in residual stress and structural dimensions. The presented model predicts the static motion of the stage within an average absolute error of 14.6 μ m, which approaches the desired imaging resolution, 5 μ m, and also reasonably anticipates the structural dynamic behavior of the stage. The refined model will support development of a future trajectory tracking controller for the system.

  2. Coercive and legitimate authority impact tax honesty: evidence from behavioral and ERP experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Katharina; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Lamm, Claus; Kirchler, Erich; Hofmann, Eva

    2017-07-01

    Cooperation in social systems such as tax honesty is of central importance in our modern societies. However, we know little about cognitive and neural processes driving decisions to evade or pay taxes. This study focuses on the impact of perceived tax authority and examines the mental chronometry mirrored in ERP data allowing a deeper understanding about why humans cooperate in tax systems. We experimentally manipulated coercive and legitimate authority and studied its impact on cooperation and underlying cognitive (experiment 1, 2) and neuronal (experiment 2) processes. Experiment 1 showed that in a condition of coercive authority, tax payments are lower, decisions are faster and participants report more rational reasoning and enforced compliance, however, less voluntary cooperation than in a condition of legitimate authority. Experiment 2 confirmed most results, but did not find a difference in payments or self-reported rational reasoning. Moreover, legitimate authority led to heightened cognitive control (expressed by increased MFN amplitudes) and disrupted attention processing (expressed by decreased P300 amplitudes) compared to coercive authority. To conclude, the neuronal data surprisingly revealed that legitimate authority may led to higher decision conflict and thus to higher cognitive demands in tax decisions than coercive authority. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Effects of disorder on the out-of-plane magnetoresistance in the high-Tc BISCCO compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    An explanation is proposed to account for the observed anisotropic out-of-plane magnetoresistivity of the single crystal high temperature superconductor BISCCO compound. The explanation is based on a dynamic scaling model for conductivity fluctuations in the superconducting matrix. In this model, it is assumed that the c-axis conduction in an applied field parallel to the c-direction occurs through defect-mediated interplanar ''weak links'' which behave as an array of parallel, independently fluctuating, superconducting channels. The model also takes into account the possibility of thermally induced dimensional crossover above which the superconducting layers are effectively decoupled and behave as a quasi two-dimensional system. The predictions of the model are consistent with the magnetoresistance measurements reported for two separate experiments on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 single crystals. (orig.)

  4. Suicide plane crash against nuclear power plants; Avion suicide contre centrales nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, A

    2002-12-01

    Cea (French atomic energy commission) and EDF (Electricity of France) are reassessing their safety standards concerning suicide plane attacks against nuclear facilities. The general idea is to study the non-linear behaviour of reinforced concrete in case of mechanical impact. American studies carried out in 1988 show that a F-14 phantom crashing into a 3,6 meter thick wall at a speed of 774 km/h penetrates only the first 5 cm of the wall. More recent studies performed in Germany and based on computerized simulations show that the reactor containment can sustain impacts from a F15 plane or even from a 747-Boeing but contiguous buildings like the one which houses spent fuels might be more easily damaged because of their metal roofing. (A.C.)

  5. High-current-density electrodeposition using pulsed and constant currents to produce thick CoPt magnetic films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Jacob; Wang, Yuzheng; Arnold, David P.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates methods for electroplating thick (>20 μm), high-coercivity CoPt films using high current densities (up to 1 A/cm2) and elevated bath temperatures (70 °C). Correlations are made tying current-density and temperature process parameters with plating rate, elemental ratio and magnetic properties of the deposited CoPt films. It also investigates how pulsed currents can increase the plating rate and film to substrate adhesion. Using 500 mA/cm2 and constant current, high-quality, dense CoPt films were successfully electroplated up to 20 μm thick in 1 hr on silicon substrates (0.35 μm/min plating rate). After standard thermal treatment (675°C, 30 min) to achieve the ordered L10 crystalline phase, strong magnetic properties were measured: coercivities up 850 kA/m, remanences >0.5 T, and maximum energy products up to 46 kJ/m3.

  6. Solutions to quasilinear equations of $N$-biharmonic type with degenerate coercivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Aouaoui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we show the existence of multiple solutions for quasilinear equations in divergence form with degenerate coercivity. Our strategy is to combine a variational method and an iterative technique to obtain the solutions.

  7. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, Tristan A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  8. Extrinsic versus intrinsic ferroelectric switching: experimental investigations using ultra-thin PVDF Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliem, H; Tadros-Morgane, R

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms of extrinsic and intrinsic switching phenomena in ferroelectrics are explained and existing models are summarized. Then, criteria for an experimental distinction between both models are elaborated. Samples with thicknesses ranging from 2.7 to 63.8 nm prepared by a Langmuir-Blodgett technique were investigated with respect to these criteria. Measurements of their polarization switching behaviour, their polarization hysteresis loops, and their coercive fields were carried out. It is found that the coercive fields increase with decreasing sample thickness. Also, the switching time increases with decreasing sample thickness and it increases with decreasing field strength. The switching process turns out to be thermally activated. We find that neither intrinsic nor extrinsic models are sufficient to describe the experimental situation

  9. Large coercivity in nanocrystalline TbMn6Sn6 permanent magnets prepared by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongwei; Zhao Tongyun; Zhang Jian; Rong Chuanbing; Zhang Shaoying; Shen Baogen; Li Lu; Zhang Ligang

    2003-01-01

    Isotropic TbMn 6 Sn 6 was prepared by mechanical milling and subsequent annealing. Although the crystalline grain size was a little larger than 15 nm, no remanence enhancement resulting from intergrain exchange coupling was observed. The coercivity μ 0 H c = 0.96 T at 293 K was much larger than that expected from magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The smallest effective anisotropy constant is suggested to be 0.25 MJ m -3 when the coercivity mechanism is controlled by coherent rotation of magnetization in a single-domain grain. The contributions of shape anisotropy and magnetoelastic anisotropy are considered in order to explain the large coercivity in the magnets

  10. THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES OUT TO z ∼ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Sande, Jesse; Franx, Marijn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kriek, Mariska [Astronomy Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bezanson, Rachel [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Fundamental Plane (FP) of early-type galaxies, relating the effective radius, velocity dispersion, and surface brightness, has long been recognized as a unique tool for analyzing galaxy structure and evolution. With the discovery of distant quiescent galaxies and the introduction of high sensitivity near-infrared spectrographs, it is now possible to explore the FP out to z ∼ 2. In this Letter we study the evolution of the FP out to z ∼ 2 using kinematic measurements of massive quiescent galaxies (M {sub *} > 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}). We find preliminary evidence for the existence of an FP out to z ∼ 2. The scatter of the FP, however, increases from z ∼ 0 to z ∼ 2, even when taking into account the larger measurement uncertainties at higher redshifts. We find a strong evolution of the zero point from z ∼ 2 to z ∼ 0: Δlog{sub 10} M/L{sub g} ∝(– 0.49 ± 0.03)z. In order to assess whether our spectroscopic sample is representative of the early-type galaxy population at all redshifts, we compare their rest-frame g – z colors with those from a larger mass complete sample of quiescent galaxies. At z > 1 we find that the spectroscopic sample is bluer. We use the color offsets to estimate a mass-to-light ratio (M/L) correction. The implied FP zero point evolution after correction is significantly smaller: Δlog{sub 10} M/L{sub g} ∝(– 0.39 ± 0.02)z. This is consistent with an apparent formation redshift of z{sub form}=6.62{sub −1.44}{sup +3.19} for the underlying population, ignoring the effects of progenitor bias. A more complete spectroscopic sample is required at z ∼ 2 to properly measure the M/L evolution from the FP evolution.

  11. Low-energy mechanically milled τ-phase MnAl alloys with high coercivity and magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei; Niu, Junchao; Wang, Taolei; Xia, Kada; Xiang, Zhen; Song, Yiming; Zhang, Hong; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The high cost of rare earth elements makes the use of high-performance permanent magnets commercially very expensive. MnAl magnetic material is one of the most promising Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets due to its obvious characteristics. However, the coercivity of MnAl alloys produced by melt spinning followed by appropriate treatment is relatively low. In this investigation, a high coercivity up to 5.3 kOe and saturation magnetization of ∼62 emu/g (with an applied magnetic field of 19.5 kOe) were obtained in the mechanically milled τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy. As milling time goes on, the coercivity firstly increases and then decreases, leading to the formation of knee-point coercivity, while the saturation magnetization decreases simultaneously. The structural imperfections such as disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties of τ-phase MnAl alloys processed by low-energy mechanical milling. The present results will be helpful for the development of processing protocols for the optimization of τ-phase MnAl alloys as high performance Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets. - Highlights: • Successful fabrication of pure τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy by melt spinning and low-energy ball milling processes. • High coercivity (~5.3 kOe) and magnetization (~62 emu/g) were obtained in τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy. • Disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties.

  12. Low-energy mechanically milled τ-phase MnAl alloys with high coercivity and magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei, E-mail: weilu@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 Japan (Japan); Niu, Junchao; Wang, Taolei; Xia, Kada; Xiang, Zhen; Song, Yiming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hong; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi [Research Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 Japan (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    The high cost of rare earth elements makes the use of high-performance permanent magnets commercially very expensive. MnAl magnetic material is one of the most promising Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets due to its obvious characteristics. However, the coercivity of MnAl alloys produced by melt spinning followed by appropriate treatment is relatively low. In this investigation, a high coercivity up to 5.3 kOe and saturation magnetization of ∼62 emu/g (with an applied magnetic field of 19.5 kOe) were obtained in the mechanically milled τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy. As milling time goes on, the coercivity firstly increases and then decreases, leading to the formation of knee-point coercivity, while the saturation magnetization decreases simultaneously. The structural imperfections such as disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties of τ-phase MnAl alloys processed by low-energy mechanical milling. The present results will be helpful for the development of processing protocols for the optimization of τ-phase MnAl alloys as high performance Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets. - Highlights: • Successful fabrication of pure τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy by melt spinning and low-energy ball milling processes. • High coercivity (~5.3 kOe) and magnetization (~62 emu/g) were obtained in τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy. • Disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties.

  13. Graph Treewidth and Geometric Thickness Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Wood, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Consider a drawing of a graph $G$ in the plane such that crossing edges are coloured differently. The minimum number of colours, taken over all drawings of $G$, is the classical graph parameter "thickness". By restricting the edges to be straight, we obtain the "geometric thickness". By further restricting the vertices to be in convex position, we obtain the "book thickness". This paper studies the relationship between these parameters and treewidth. Our first main result states that for grap...

  14. Coercivity enhancement of HDDR-processed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet with the rapid hot-press consolidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, N. [Magnetic Materials Research Laboratory, NEOMAX Company, Hitachi Metals Ltd., Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Sepehri-Amin, H. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Magnetic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Ohkubo, T. [Magnetic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Hono, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Magnetic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Nishiuchi, T. [Magnetic Materials Research Laboratory, NEOMAX Company, Hitachi Metals Ltd., Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Hirosawa, S., E-mail: Satoshi_Hirosawa@hitachi-metals.co.j [Magnetic Materials Research Laboratory, NEOMAX Company, Hitachi Metals Ltd., Osaka 618-0013 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    High coercivity, fully dense anisotropic permanent magnets of submicron grain sizes were produced by rapid hot-press consolidation of hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) processed Nd-Fe-Co-B powders. In the hot-press process, the coercivity of the consolidated material showed a sharp minimum prior to full densification. Thereafter, it reached a value 25% higher than that of the initial powder. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that the variation in H{sub cJ} was caused by a redistribution of Nd along the grain boundaries during hot pressing and that the high coercivity was attributable to the formation of thin, continuous Nd-rich phase along the grain boundaries.

  15. Tuning coercivity in CoCrPt-SiO{sub 2} hard disk material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strache, Thomas; Lenz, Kilian; Fassbender, Juergen [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Tibus, Stefan [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Springer, Felix [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Rohrmann, Hartmut [OC Oerlikon Balzers, AG Data Storage, P.O. Box 1000, 9496 Balzers (Liechtenstein); Albrecht, Manfred [Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In order to increase the storage density of modern computer disk drives and to push the superparamagnetic limit to the smallest achievable bit sizes further, smaller grains with even larger magnetic anisotropies are required, which are accompanied by large coercive fields obstructing the writing process. One route to overcome this problem is to independently reduce the coercive field without altering anisotropy and remanence by tailoring the intergranular exchange in granular CoCrPt-SiO{sub 2} films. Here we demonstrate that by means of ion implantation of Co and Ne a continuous reduction of the coercive field can be achieved without significant modification of the remaining magnetic parameters. In addition to the magnetization reversal behavior of the entire film investigated by magneto-optic Kerr effect and SQUID magnetometry, also the magnetic domain configuration in the demagnetized state is imaged by magnetic force microscopy.

  16. Effects of out-of-plane disorder on the superconductivity of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 6+{delta}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehler, Juergen; Trabant, Christoph; Frielingsdorf, Johanna; Djemour, Rabia [Universitaet Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Martovitsky, Victor [Lebedev-Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dudy, Lenart; Dwelk, Helmut; Krapf, Alica [Humboldt Universitaet Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The effects of out-of-plane substitutional order/disorder on cuprate superconductivity remains to a large extent an unresolved issue. We have investigated the connection between superconductivity and the lattice effects arising from the heterovalent doping of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 6+{delta}}, x = 0.8-0.1. Decreasing lanthanum content tunes the compound through the entire underdoped and overdoped regimes. Cu-K and La- K EXAFS served as local structural probes, and single crystal X-ray diffraction for the determination of the basic unit cell, and the symmetry of the supercell. The oxygen atoms in the CuO{sub 2} planes were found significantly disordered, dependent on doping, and to exhibit minimum disorder around x{sub opt}=0.33. But the degree of substitutional disorder in the out-of-plane La environment turned out independent on the concentration of the La dopants, the superstructure symmetry, and the crystal growth parameters, whereas T{sub c} depends sensitively on them. No evidence was found for possible concentration dependent site changes of the La dopant from the nominal Sr to the Bi sites. We discuss the probably crucial role of the interstitial oxygen atoms for the superconducting properties of the Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 6+{delta}} system.

  17. Relationships Between Shame, Restrictiveness, Authoritativeness, and Coercive Control in Men Mandated to a Domestic Violence Offenders Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplenko, Hannah; Loveland, Jennifer E; Raghavan, Chitra

    2018-04-01

    Coercive control, a key element of intimate partner violence (IPV), is defined as an abuse dynamic that intends to strip the target of autonomy and liberty. While coercive control is gaining popularity in the research world, little is known about its correlates and causes. This study sought to examine how shame and men's need for dominance, measured by two trait indexes of dominance, restrictiveness and the need for authority, influence coercive control. The present study used a diverse sample of men (n = 134) who were mandated to attend a domestic violence offenders program. Findings suggest that shame plays a role in the commission of coercively controlling behavior both directly and partially through its influence on authority but not through restrictiveness. Implications for understanding IPV in a domestic violence offenders program are discussed.

  18. Effect of separated layer thickness on magnetoresistance and magnetic properties of Co/Dy/Co and Ni/Dy/Ni film systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelnyk, T. M.; Shutylieva, O. V.; Vorobiov, S. I.; Pazukha, I. M.; Chornous, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Co(5 nm)/Dy(tDy)/Co(20 nm)/S and Ni(5 nm)/Dy(tDy)/Ni(20 nm)/S trilayer films are prepared by electron-beam sputtering to investigate the influence of dysprosium layer thickness (tDy) and thermal annealing on the crystal structure, magnetoresistance (MR) and magnetic properties of thin films. The thickness of Dy layer changed in the range from 1 nm to 20 nm. The samples annealed for 20 min at 700 K. Electron diffraction patterns reveal that the as-deposited and annealed systems Co/Dy/Co and Ni/Dy/Ni had fcc-Co + hcp-Dy and fcc-Ni + hcp-Dy phase state, respectively. It is also shown that at the tDy = 15 nm the transition from amorphous to crystalline structures of Dy layer is observed. An increase in the Dy layer thickness results in changes in the MR and magnetic properties of the trilayer systems. It is shown that MR is most thermally stable against annealing to 700 K at tDy = 15 nm for Co/Dy/Co as well as for Ni/Dy/Ni. For tDy = 15 nm the, value of MR for both system increases by two times compared to those of pure ferromagnetic (FM) samples. The coercivity (Bc), remanent (Mr) and saturation (Ms) magnetization of the in-plain magnetization hysteresis loops are related to the Dy layer thickness too. The coercivity depends on the FM materials type and diffusion processes at the layer boundary. Accordingly, Mr and Ms are reduced with tDy increasing before and after annealing for both trilayer systems.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and Monte Carlo simulation of CoFe2O4/Polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocomposites: The coercivity investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaee, Sh; Farjami shayesteh, S.; Mahdavifar, S; Hekmatara, S Hoda.

    2015-01-01

    To study the influence of polymer matrix on the effective magnetic anisotropy constant and coercivity of magnetic nanoparticles, we have synthesized the Cobalt ferrite/Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanocomposites by co-precipitation method in four different processes. In addition the Monte Carlo simulation and law of approach to the saturation magnetization have been applied to achieve the anisotropy constants. The obtained experimental and theoretical results showed a decrease in anisotropy constant relative to the bulk cobalt ferrite. We have showed that the PVP matrix can interact with metal cations and made them approximately immobilized to participate in spinel structure. Hence different anisotropy constants or coercivity were obtained for synthesized nanocomposites. In addition, PVP matrix can attach to the surface of magnetic particles and make them approximately non-interacting. The synthesized samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic measurements were made at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). - Highlights: • We studied the effect of polymer matrix on the coercivity of the CoFe 2 O 4 /PVP nanocomposites. • The polymer matrix decreases the anisotropy of the nanocomposite system. • We have synthesized nanocomposites with approximately the same size, but significantly different coercivity. • We showed that the PVP/CoFe 2 O 4 nanocomposite has the considerable coercivity due to the spin hindrance. • Magnetic properties of nanocomposites simulated by Monte Carlo method

  20. High quality Y-type hexaferrite thick films for microwave applications by an economical and environmentally benign crystal growth technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bolin; Chen, Yajie, E-mail: y.chen@neu.edu; Gillette, Scott; Su, Zhijuan; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Wolf, Jason; McHenry, Michael E. [Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2014-02-17

    Thick barium hexaferrite Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (i.e., Zn{sub 2}Y) films having thicknesses of ∼100 μm were epitaxially grown on MgO (111) substrates using an environmentally benign ferrite-salt mixture by vaporizing the salt. X-ray diffraction pole figure analyses showed (00l) crystallographic alignment with little in plane dispersion confirming epitaxial growth. Saturation magnetization, 4πM{sub s}, was measured for as-grown films to be 2.51 ± 0.1 kG with an out of plane magnetic anisotropy field H{sub A} of 8.9 ± 0.1 kOe. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, as the peak-to-peak power absorption derivative at 9.6 GHz, was measured to be 62 Oe. These properties demonstrate a rapid, convenient, cost-effective, and nontoxic method of growing high quality thick crystalline ferrite films which could be used widely for microwave device applications.

  1. Simplified inelastic (plastic and creep) analysis of pipe elbows subjected to inplane and out-of-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, R.M.; Scheller, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The inelastic analysis of elbows typical of use in Liquid Metal Fast Reactor piping systems is described. Detailed information on stresses, plastic and creep strains, and deformations throughout the elbow bodies resulting from elastic/plastic, elastic/plastic/creep, and elastic/plastic-creep/relaxation material behavior was obtained for the cases of applied inplane and out-of-plane moment loading on the elbows. Some conclusions are made concerning the nature of the resulting stresses in the elbows. The simplified pipe-bend element in the MARC nonlinear finite element program is used as the analytical tool. This element permits nonlinear analysis of piping elbows and pipeline systems at realistic cost. 16 refs

  2. Substrate bias effects on composition and coercivity of CoCrTa/Cr thin films on canasite and glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lambeth, D. N.; Sui, X.; Lee, L.-L.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1993-05-01

    CoCrTa/Cr thin films were prepared by rf diode sputtering onto canasite and glass substrates at various bias voltages from two targets of different compositions (Co82.8Cr14.6Ta2.6 and Co86Cr12Ta2). While Auger depth profile analysis indicates that there is some broadening at the CoCrTa-Cr interface, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy reveals that changes in alloy composition due to the resputtering processes are even more prominent. For both targets, as the substrate bias increases the Co content in the films declines, and the magnetization decreases. The maximum film coercivity appears to correlate to the final film composition. By investigating the results from both targets, it is concluded that the coercivity reaches a maximum when the film composition is in the neighborhood of Co84Cr13Ta3. Thus, to optimize the coercivity different bias voltages are required for each target. Excessive substrate bias, however, leads to films with low magnetization and coercivity.

  3. The preparation of sintered NdFeB magnet with high-coercivity and high temperature-stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, G H; Chen, R J; Ding, Y; Guo, S; Lee, Don; Yan, A R, E-mail: yangh@nimte.ac.cn [Zhejiang province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The NdFeB magnets with high intrinsic coercivity have been produced by using the conventional powder metallurgy method (including SC, HD and JM) of sintered NdFeB magnets. The effects of grain boundary phases on the microstructure and magnetic properties of as-sintered and annealed magnets have been tried to investigate. Also the Curie temperature of the magnets was studied. By adopting suitable component ratio of some heavy rare-earth atoms and some micro-quantity additives, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with magnetic properties of {sub j}H{sub c}=36.3kOe, B{sub r}=11.7kGs and (BH){sub max}=34.0MGOe. The temperature coefficient of residual magnetic flux of the magnets (between 20 and 200 deg. C) is -0.113%/deg. C, while the temperature coefficient of intrinsic coercivity -0.355%/deg. C. The Curie temperature of the magnets is about 342 deg. C.

  4. The preparation of sintered NdFeB magnet with high-coercivity and high temperature-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, G H; Chen, R J; Ding, Y; Guo, S; Lee, Don; Yan, A R

    2011-01-01

    The NdFeB magnets with high intrinsic coercivity have been produced by using the conventional powder metallurgy method (including SC, HD and JM) of sintered NdFeB magnets. The effects of grain boundary phases on the microstructure and magnetic properties of as-sintered and annealed magnets have been tried to investigate. Also the Curie temperature of the magnets was studied. By adopting suitable component ratio of some heavy rare-earth atoms and some micro-quantity additives, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with magnetic properties of j H c =36.3kOe, B r =11.7kGs and (BH) max =34.0MGOe. The temperature coefficient of residual magnetic flux of the magnets (between 20 and 200 deg. C) is -0.113%/deg. C, while the temperature coefficient of intrinsic coercivity -0.355%/deg. C. The Curie temperature of the magnets is about 342 deg. C.

  5. Scaling of coercivity in a 3d random anisotropy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, T.C., E-mail: proctortc@gmail.com; Chudnovsky, E.M., E-mail: EUGENE.CHUDNOVSKY@lehman.cuny.edu; Garanin, D.A.

    2015-06-15

    The random-anisotropy Heisenberg model is numerically studied on lattices containing over ten million spins. The study is focused on hysteresis and metastability due to topological defects, and is relevant to magnetic properties of amorphous and sintered magnets. We are interested in the limit when ferromagnetic correlations extend beyond the size of the grain inside which the magnetic anisotropy axes are correlated. In that limit the coercive field computed numerically roughly scales as the fourth power of the random anisotropy strength and as the sixth power of the grain size. Theoretical arguments are presented that provide an explanation of numerical results. Our findings should be helpful for designing amorphous and nanosintered materials with desired magnetic properties. - Highlights: • We study the random-anisotropy model on lattices containing up to ten million spins. • Irreversible behavior due to topological defects (hedgehogs) is elucidated. • Hysteresis loop area scales as the fourth power of the random anisotropy strength. • In nanosintered magnets the coercivity scales as the six power of the grain size.

  6. Higher Education Policy in Australia: Corporate or Coercive Federalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Don

    1991-01-01

    Although the Hawke government's general strategy of corporate federalism may dominate educational policy in Australia, higher education (excluding teacher education) is an exception. Because the Commonwealth assumed full financial responsibility for higher education, it has increasingly employed coercive federalism or simply ignored the states.…

  7. Empowerment, Coercive Persuasion and Organizational Learning: Do They Connect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1999-01-01

    Individual learning in organizations can be de facto coercive persuasion when organizational learning and culture change require that learners develop appropriate attitudes and thinking. If the goal of organizational learning--innovative organizations--is accepted, moral choices that restrict individual freedom must be made. (SK)

  8. Burnout in a high heat flux boiling system with forced supply of liquid through a plane jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katto, Yoshiro; Ishii, Kazunori.

    1978-01-01

    As for pool boiling, the non-dimensional formula for the burnout heat flux of a simple, basic boiling system has been obtained. On the other hand, in forced convection boiling, the studies on the burnout in forced flow boiling in a channel have been continued, but the derivation of a non-dimensional formula applicable generally is far away from the realization because the phenomena are too complex. Accordingly, in this study, the result of the experiment on the burnout of a boiling system to which liquid is supplied by the plane jet flowing out of a thin rectangular nozzle installed near the front edge of a rectangular heating surface is reported. The experimental apparatus is described, and the experiment was carried out in the ranges of two jet thicknesses at the nozzle outlet, two incident angles of jet and from 1.5 to 15 m/s of jet velocity. Burnout occurs under the situation of sufficiently developed nuclear boiling. A part of the liquid supplied from a plane jet is blown apart by the vapor blowing out of the nuclear boiling liquid layer covering the heating surface in the nuclear boiling with sufficiently developed high heat flux. However, the nuclear boiling liquid layer itself continues to exist on the heating surface till burnout occurs. Only the entering velocity of the plane jet affects burnout heat flux. (Kako, I.)

  9. High-coercivity FePt nanoparticle assemblies embedded in silica thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Q; Purkayastha, A; Singh, A P; Li, H; Ramanath, G; Li, A; Ramanujan, R V

    2009-01-01

    The ability to process assemblies using thin film techniques in a scalable fashion would be a key to transmuting the assemblies into manufacturable devices. Here, we embed FePt nanoparticle assemblies into a silica thin film by sol-gel processing. Annealing the thin film composite at 650 deg. C transforms the chemically disordered fcc FePt phase into the fct phase, yielding magnetic coercivity values H c >630 mT. The positional order of the particles is retained due to the protection offered by the silica host. Such films with assemblies of high-coercivity magnetic particles are attractive for realizing new types of ultra-high-density data storage devices and magneto-composites.

  10. NdFeB thick films prepared by tape casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, B.; Schwarzer, S.; Rahmig, A.; Toepfer, J.

    2003-01-01

    NdFeB films of thickness between 100 and 800 μm were prepared by tape casting of a slurry containing 84-95 wt% of commercial NdFeB powder (MQP-B, -Q and -S). After curing the flexible green tapes at 120 deg. C non-porous magnetic films are obtained. The remanence of the films is in the range of 350-450 mT and the coercivity is between 300 and 800 kA/m depending on the type of MQP powder used. The magnetic properties of the films are discussed in relation to film composition and type of magnetic material. For MEMS applications the thick films are magnetized with a multi-pole stripe pattern with 1 mm pole pitch. The induction at the surface of the films was measured with a Hall probe and compared to theoretical calculations. The results indicate that the films are completely magnetized regardless of the film thickness. Tape-casted NdFeB thick films are promising candidates for applications in micro-systems or actuators. Miniaturization of the magnet components is one of the key issues in the development of electromagnetic micro-systems, thus creating a need for replacement of small sintered magnets by magnetic thick film components. Other applications include encoders

  11. In-plane Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors based on 1T/2H heterojunctions of transition-metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Xiang-Wei; Luo, Jun-Wei; Jiao, Li-Ying; Huang, Ru; Li, Shu-Shen; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2017-10-01

    As Moore's law approaches its end, two-dimensional (2D) materials are intensely studied for their potentials as one of the "More than Moore' (MM) devices. However, the ultimate performance limits and the optimal design parameters for such devices are still unknown. One common problem for the 2D-material-based device is the relative weak on-current. In this study, two-dimensional Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors (SBFETs) consisting of in-plane heterojunctions of 1T metallic-phase and 2H semiconducting-phase transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are studied following the recent experimental synthesis of such devices at a much larger scale. Our ab initio simulation reveals the ultimate performance limits of such devices and offers suggestions for better TMD materials. Our study shows that the Schottky-barrier heights (SBHs) of the in-plane 1T/2H contacts are smaller than the SBHs of out-of-plane contacts, and the contact coupling is also stronger in the in-plane contact. Due to the atomic thickness of the monolayer TMD, the average subthreshold swing of the in-plane TMD-SBFETs is found to be close to the limit of 60 mV/dec, and smaller than that of the out-of-plane TMD-SBFET device. Different TMDs are considered and it is found that the in-plane WT e2-SBFET provides the best performance and can satisfy the performance requirement of the sub-10-nm high-performance transistor outlined by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, and thus could be developed into a viable sub-10-nm MM device in the future.

  12. Coercivity Recovery Effect of Sm-Fe-Cu-Al Alloy on Sm2Fe17N3 Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otogawa, Kohei; Asahi, Toru; Jinno, Miho; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Takagi, Kenta; Kwon, Hansang

    2018-03-01

    The potential of a Sm-Fe-Cu-Al binder for improvement of the magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17N3 was examined. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of a Sm-Fe-Cu-Al alloy-bonded Sm2Fe17N3 magnet which showed high coercivity revealed that the Sm-Fe-Cu-Al alloy had an effect of removing the surface oxide layer of the Sm2 Fe17N3 grains. However, the Sm-Fe-Cu-Al binder was contaminated by carbon and nitrogen, which originated from the organic solvent used as the milling medium during pulverization. To prevent carbon and nitrogen contamination, the Sm-Fe- Cu-Al alloy was added directly on the surface of the Sm2Fe17N3 grains by sputtering. Comparing the recovered coercivity per unit amount of the added binder the uncontaminated binder-coated sample had a higher coercivity recovery effect than the milled binder-added sample. These results suggested that sufficient addition of the contamination-free Sm-Fe-Cu-Al binder has the possibility to reduce the amount of binder necessary to produce a high coercive Sm2Fe17N3 magnet.

  13. A finite element study on the effects of toughness and permanent out-of-plane deformation on post-impact compressive strength

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Daniel; Spearing, Simon; Sinclair, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study applies mechanisms observed from previous work (the undamaged cone, toughness and extent of permanent out-of-plane deformation) to parametrically study their effects on residual compression after impact (CAI) strength using finite element models. Based on previous experimental work, tougher material systems exhibited up to 30% greater CAI strength for a given damage area. Based on this, it is necessary to understand what other parameters, beyond damage area, contribute to a loss in...

  14. Investigation of cellular microstructure and enhanced coercivity in sputtered Sm{sub 2}(CoCuFeZr){sub 17} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Ranu, E-mail: rbhatt@barc.gov.in; Schütz, G. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly Max Planck Institute for Metals Research), Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bhatt, Pramod [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-03-14

    We have investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm{sub 2}(CoCuFeZr){sub 17} films prepared using ion beam sputtering at room temperature. The as-deposited film shows randomly oriented polycrystalline grains and exhibits small coercivity (H{sub C}) of 0.04 T at room temperature. Post annealing of these films at 700 °C under Ar atmosphere shows significant changes in the microstructure transforming it to the development of cellular growth, concomitant with enhanced coercivity up to 1.3 T. The enhanced coercivity is explained using the domain wall pinning mechanism.

  15. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured thick honeycombs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedayati, R.; Sadighi, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding

  16. Very high coercivities of top-layer diffusion Au/FePt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, F.T.; Chen, S.K.; Liao, W.M.; Hsu, C.W.; Hsiao, S.N.; Chang, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Au/FePt samples were prepared by depositing a gold cap layer at room temperature onto a fully ordered FePt layer, followed by an annealing at 800 deg. C for the purpose of interlayer diffusion. After the deposition of the gold layer and the high-temperature annealing, the gold atoms do not dissolve into the FePt Ll 0 lattice. Compared with the continuous FePt film, the TEM photos of the bilayer Au(60 nm)/FePt(60 nm) show a granular structure with FePt particles embedded in Au matrix. The coercivity of Au(60 nm)/FePt(60 nm) sample is 23.5 kOe, which is 85% larger than that of the FePt film without Au top layer. The enhancement in coercivity can be attributed to the formation of isolated structure of FePt ordered phase

  17. High coercivity rare earth-transition metal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croat, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Ferromagnetic compositions having intrinsic magnetic coercivities at room temperature of at least 1,000 Oersteds are formed by the controlled quenching of molten rare earth-transition metal alloys. Hard magnets may be inexpensively formed from the lower atomic weight lanthanide elements and iron. The preferable compositions lie within: at least one of Fe, Ni, Co; 20 - 70 atomic percent: at least one of Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Y; 80 - 30 atomic percent. (author)

  18. Terahertz Mapping of Microstructure and Thickness Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Donald J.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Winfree, William P.

    2010-01-01

    A noncontact method has been devised for mapping or imaging spatial variations in the thickness and microstructure of a layer of a dielectric material. The method involves (1) placement of the dielectric material on a metal substrate, (2) through-the-thickness pulse-echo measurements by use of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range with a raster scan in a plane parallel to the substrate surface that do not require coupling of any kind, and (3) appropriate processing of the digitized measurement data.

  19. Out of plane distortions of the heme b of Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang M Tran

    Full Text Available The role of the heme b in Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase is highly ambiguous and its role in catalysis is questionable. To examine whether heme reduction is an essential step of the catalytic mechanism, we generated a series of site-directed mutations around the heme binding pocket, creating a library of variants with a stepwise decrease in the midpoint potential of the heme from the wild-type value of +20 mV down to -80 mV. This difference in midpoint potential is enough to alter the reactivity of the heme towards succinate and thus its redox state under turnover conditions. Our results show both the steady state succinate oxidase and fumarate reductase catalytic activity of the enzyme are not a function of the redox potential of the heme. As well, lower heme potential did not cause an increase in the rate of superoxide production both in vitro and in vivo. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectrum of the heme in the wild-type enzyme is a combination of two distinct signals. We link EPR spectra to structure, showing that one of the signals likely arises from an out-of-plane distortion of the heme, a saddled conformation, while the second signal originates from a more planar orientation of the porphyrin ring.

  20. Ultrahigh coercivity and core-shell microstructure achieved in oriented Nd-Fe-B thin films diffusion-processed with Dy-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tongbo; Zhou, Xiaoqian; Yu, Dedong; Fu, Yanqing; Cui, Weibin [Northeastern University, Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Shenyang (China); Northeastern University, Department of Physics and Chemistry of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang (China); Li, Guojian; Wang, Qiang [Northeastern University, Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Shenyang (China)

    2017-01-15

    Ultrahigh ambient coercivities of ∝4 T were achieved in Nd-Fe-B benchmark thin film with coercivity of 1.06 T by diffusion-processing with Dy, Dy{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} and Dy{sub 80}Ag{sub 20} alloy layer. High texture and good squareness were obtained. In triple-junction regions, Dy element was found to be immiscible with Nd element. Microstructure observation indicated the typical gradient elementary distribution. Unambiguous core/shell microstructure was characterized by transition electron microscopy. Due to the enhanced ambient coercivity, the coercivity temperature stability was also substantially increased. (orig.)

  1. Effect of out-of-plane specimen movement on strain measurement using digital-image-correlation-based video measurement in 2D and 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poling, Joel; Desai, Niranjan; Fischer, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    This study determined the effect of specimen out-of-plane movement relative to the sensor, on the accuracy of strains measured made applying 2D and 3D measurement approaches employing the state-of-the-art digital-image-correlation (DIC)-based tool iMETRUM. DIC provides a convenient and inexpensive...

  2. A variable thickness window: Thermal and structural analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the finite difference formulations for variable thickness thermal analysis and variable thickness plane stress analysis are presented. In heat transfer analysis, radiation effects and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity are taken into account. While in thermal stress analysis, the thermal expansion coefficient is considered as temperature dependent. An application of the variable thickness window to an Advanced Photon Source beamline is presented

  3. Out-of-plane buckled cantilever microstructures with adjustable angular positions using thermal bimorph actuation for transducer applications

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2015-10-27

    The integration of thermal bimorph actuators and buckled cantilever structures to form an out-of-plane plate with adjustable angular positions is reported. This structure could be used as a platform to build other transducers such as optical micromirrors, scanning antennas, switches or low-frequency oscillators. The electromechanical characterisation has shown that these structures can adjust their angular position by 6° when they are operated using a DC source. The thermal characterisation performed by an infrared camera showed that the heat-affected zone reaches a maximum temperature of 125°C while the rest of the structure remains unaffected by the generated heat.

  4. Diffraction of love waves by two staggered perfectly weak half-planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, S.; Zaman, F.D.; Sajida Asghar

    1989-01-01

    Love wave travelling in a layer of uniform thickness overlying a half-space is assumed to be incident on two parallel but staggered perfectly weak half-planes lying in the upper layer. The diffracted fields is calculated using the modified Wiener-Hopf technique and contour integration method. The diffracted waves satisfy the dispersion relations appropriate to different regions formed by the perfectly weak half-planes

  5. Temperature dependence of the coercive field of gas atomized Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Escorial, A., E-mail: age@cenim.csic.es [CENIM-CSIC, Avda, Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lieblich, M. [CENIM-CSIC, Avda, Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hernando, A.; Aragon, A.; Marin, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, IMA, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An anomalous thermal dependence of the coercive field of gas atomized Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1} powder particles under 25 {mu}m powder particle, increasing Hc as temperature increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is proposed that Cu rich regions at inter-grain boundaries could act as exchange decoupling regions contributing to the thermal increase of coercivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This anomalous thermal dependence points out that tailoring microstructure and size, by controlling the cooling rate of more adequate multiphase systems, could be a promising procedure to develop soft or hard magnets, avoiding Rare Earths metals that is nowadays an important target for the engineering of magnetic materials. - Abstract: In this work, the dependence of the coercive field of Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1} gas atomized powder with the temperature for different particle sizes has been studied, observing an anomalous behavior in the under 25 powder particle size fraction. This unusual behavior is related with the microstructure of the powder, and is attributed to the presence of a multiphase magnetic system, with non-magnetic regions decoupling the ferromagnetic domains.

  6. Development of FeNiMoB thin film materials for microfabricated magnetoelastic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai; Gooneratne, Chinthaka; Cha, Dong Kyu; Chen, Long; Gianchandani, Yogesh; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    MetglasTM 2826MB foils of 25–30 μm thickness with the composition of Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 have been used for magnetoelastic sensors in various applications over many years. This work is directed at the investigation of ∼3 μm thick iron-nickel-molybdenum-boron (FeNiMoB) thin films that are intended for integrated microsystems. The films are deposited on Si substrate by co-sputtering of iron-nickel (FeNi), molybdenum(Mo), and boron (B) targets. The results show that dopants of Mo and B can significantly change the microstructure and magnetic properties of FeNi materials. When FeNi is doped with only Mo its crystal structure changes from polycrystalline to amorphous with the increase of dopant concentration; the transition point is found at about 10 at. % of Mo content. A significant change in anisotropic magneticproperties of FeNi is also observed as the Modopant level increases. The coercivity of FeNi filmsdoped with Mo decreases to a value less than one third of the value without dopant.Doping the FeNi with B together with Mo considerably decreases the value of coercivity and the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropyproperties, and it also greatly changes the microstructure of the material. In addition, doping B to FeNiMo remarkably reduces the remanence of the material. The filmmaterial that is fabricated using an optimized process is magnetically as soft as amorphous MetglasTM 2826MB with a coercivity of less than 40 Am−1. The findings of this study provide us a better understanding of the effects of the compositions and microstructure of FeNiMoB thin filmmaterials on their magnetic properties.

  7. Development of FeNiMoB thin film materials for microfabricated magnetoelastic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai

    2012-12-07

    MetglasTM 2826MB foils of 25–30 μm thickness with the composition of Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 have been used for magnetoelastic sensors in various applications over many years. This work is directed at the investigation of ∼3 μm thick iron-nickel-molybdenum-boron (FeNiMoB) thin films that are intended for integrated microsystems. The films are deposited on Si substrate by co-sputtering of iron-nickel (FeNi), molybdenum(Mo), and boron (B) targets. The results show that dopants of Mo and B can significantly change the microstructure and magnetic properties of FeNi materials. When FeNi is doped with only Mo its crystal structure changes from polycrystalline to amorphous with the increase of dopant concentration; the transition point is found at about 10 at. % of Mo content. A significant change in anisotropic magneticproperties of FeNi is also observed as the Modopant level increases. The coercivity of FeNi filmsdoped with Mo decreases to a value less than one third of the value without dopant.Doping the FeNi with B together with Mo considerably decreases the value of coercivity and the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropyproperties, and it also greatly changes the microstructure of the material. In addition, doping B to FeNiMo remarkably reduces the remanence of the material. The filmmaterial that is fabricated using an optimized process is magnetically as soft as amorphous MetglasTM 2826MB with a coercivity of less than 40 Am−1. The findings of this study provide us a better understanding of the effects of the compositions and microstructure of FeNiMoB thin filmmaterials on their magnetic properties.

  8. Characteristics of the thick, compound refractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, Richard H.; Feinstein, Joseph; Beguiristain, H. Raul; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Cremer, Jay T.

    2003-01-01

    A compound refractive lens (CRL), consisting of a series of N closely spaced lens elements each of which contributes a small fraction of the total focusing, can be used to focus x rays or neutrons. The thickness of a CRL can be comparable to its focal length, whereupon a thick-lens analysis must be performed. In contrast with the conventional optical lens, where the ray inside the lens follows a straight line, the ray inside the CRL is continually changing direction because of the multiple refracting surfaces. Thus the matrix representation for the thick CRL is quite different from that for the thick optical lens. Principal planes can be defined such that the thick-lens matrix can be converted to that of a thin lens. For a thick lens the focal length is greater than for a thin lens with the same lens curvature, but this lengthening effect is less for the CRL than for the conventional optical lens

  9. High coercivity rare earth-transition metal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croat, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Ferromagnetic compositions having intrinsic magnetic coercivities at room temperature of at least 1,000 Oersteds are formed by the controlled quenching of molten rare earth -transition metal alloys. Hard magnets may be inexpensively formed from the lower atomic weight lanthanide elements and iron. The preferable compositions lie within: at least one of Fe, Ni, Co (20 to 70 atomic percent); and at least one of Ce, Pr, Na, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Y (80 to 30 atomic percent). (author)

  10. A new loss mechanism in graphene nanoresonators due to the synthetic electric fields caused by inherent out-of-plane membrane corrugations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firsova, N E; Firsov, Yu A

    2012-01-01

    For the first time the influence of out-of-plane deformations, which always exist in graphene, on the non-stationary processes is considered for the case of a monolayer graphene nanoresonator. A new loss mechanism for this device caused by dissipative intra-valley currents stipulated by synthetic electric fields is studied. These fields are generated by time-dependent gauge fields arising in a graphene membrane due to its intrinsic out-of-plane distortions and the influence of the external periodic electromotive force. The corresponding formula for the quality factor has a quantum mechanical origin and includes quantum mechanical parameters. This loss mechanism accounts for an essential part (about 40%) of losses in a graphene nanoresonator and it is specific just for graphene. The ways of minimization of this kind of dissipation (an increase in the quality factor of the electromechanical system) are discussed. It is explained why one can enhance the quality factor by correctly choosing a combination of strains (by strain engineering). In addition, it is shown that the quality factor can be increased by switching on a magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene membrane.

  11. Microstructure evolution and coercivity enhancement in Nd-Fe-B thin films diffusion-processed by R-Al alloys (R=Nd, Pr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yigao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Tongbo; Fu, Yanqing; Jiang, Qingzheng; Ma, Shengcan; Zhong, Zhenchen; Cui, Weibin; Wang, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion process by Nd-Al and Pr-Al alloys was compared and investigated in Nd-Fe-B thin films. Enhanced coercivity 2.06T and good squareness was obtained by using Pr85Al15 and Nd85Al15 alloys as diffusion sources. But the coercivity of diffusion-processed thin films by Pr70Al30 and Pr55Al45 alloys decreased to 2.04T and 1.82T. High ambient coercivity of 2.26T was achieved in diffusion-processed thin film by Nd70Al30 leading to an improved coercivity thermal stability because Nd2Fe14B grains were enveloped by Nd-rich phase as seen by transmission electron microscopy Nd-loss image. Meanwhile, microstructure-dependent parameters α and Neff were improved. However, high content of Al in diffusion-processed thin film by Nd55Al45 lead to degraded texture and coercivity.

  12. Sex-Symmetric Effects of Coercive Behaviors on Mental Health? Not Exactly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Moises

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested a section of the model of coercion in intimate partner violence (IPV) by investigating the relationships among coercion, IPV and mental health symptoms. The study's sample consisted of 573 culturally diverse university students (age M = 21.4) who completed a survey that measured past IPV victimization, coercive behaviors,…

  13. Determination of the out-of-plane anisotropy contributions (first and second anisotropy terms) in amorphous Nd-Co thin films by micromagnetic numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Cid, R.; Morales, R.; Diaz, J.; Vélez, M.; Rubio, H.; Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Alameda, J. M.

    2018-06-01

    Amorphous Nd-Co thin films exhibit stripe shaped periodic magnetic domains with local out-of-plane magnetization components due to their perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. This anisotropy has been quantified in a fairly simple way by reproducing the experimental magnetization curves by means of micromagnetic numerical simulations. The simulations show that the first (K1) and second (K2) anisotropy constants must be used to properly describe the variation of the stripe domains with the in plane applied magnetic field. A strong temperature dependence of both K1 and K2 has been obtained between 10 K and room temperature. This anisotropy behavior is characteristic of two magnetically coupled 3d-4f sublattices with competing anisotropies.

  14. In-plane inertial coupling in tuned and severely mistuned bladed disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    A model has been developed and verified for blade-disk-shaft coupling in rotors due to the in-plane rigid body modes of the disk. An analytic model has been developed which couples the in-plane rigid body modes of the disk on an elastic shaft with the blade bending modes. Bench resonance test were carried out on the M.I.T. Compressor Rotor, typical of research rotors with flexible blades and a thick rigid disk. When the rotor was carefully tuned, the structural coupling of the blades by the disks was confined to zero and one nodal diameter modes, whose modal frequencies were greater than the blade cantilever frequency. In the case of the tuned rotor, and in two cases where severe mistuning was intentionally introduced, agreement between the predicted and observed natural frequencies is excellent. The analytic model was then extended to include the effects of constant angular rotation of the disk.

  15. In-plane microwave dielectric properties of paraelectric barium strontium titanate thin films with anisotropic epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Bellotti, J. A.

    2005-08-01

    In-plane dielectric properties of ⟨110⟩ oriented epitaxial (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 thin films in the thickness range from 25-1200nm have been investigated under the influence of anisotropic epitaxial strains from ⟨100⟩ NdGaO3 substrates. The measured dielectric properties show strong residual strain and in-plane directional dependence. Below 150nm film thickness, there appears to be a phase transition due to the anisotropic nature of the misfit strain relaxation. In-plane relative permittivity is found to vary from as much as 500-150 along [11¯0] and [001] respectively, in 600nm thick films, and from 75 to 500 overall. Tunability was found to vary from as much as 54% to 20% in all films and directions, and in a given film the best tunability is observed along the compressed axis in a mixed strain state, 54% along [11¯0] in the 600nm film for example.

  16. High coercivity Gd-substituted Ba hexaferrites, prepared by chemical coprecipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2008-04-01

    A series of Gd-substituted Ba hexaferrites with nominal formula (Ba1-xGdx)Oṡ5.25 Fe2O3 (x=0-0.30) were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation method from nitrate precursors and heating at T =800-1200°C for 2h. The samples have been examined by x-ray diffraction, vibrating-sample magnetometer, and scanning electron microscopy methods. Gd substituted samples form single phase materials with the M-type hexaferrite structure at all heating temperatures, in the range of x ⩽0.10-0.20. The saturation magnetization (at 1.8T) varies slightly with x in most cases and, for x =0.05-0.10, it increases up to 66.7Am2/kg, exceeding the value of the unsubstituted hexaferrite. A strong enhancement of the coercivity is observed for all substituted samples, with maximum values Hc=457kA/m for the single-phase x =0.10 sample annealed at 1000°C and Hc=477kA/m for the x =0.25 sample annealed at 1100°C which contains Fe2O3 and GdFeO3 impurities. As the variation of coercivity with either substitution rate (x ) or annealing temperature is not monotonic, three different factors may account for the high coercivities that are obtained: (a) an inhibition of grain growth due to the presence of Gd, (b) a possible inherent effect on magnetocrystalline anisotropy, especially for single phase samples, and (c) a microstructural effect of secondary phases.

  17. Analysis of differential method for compensating fluctuations in product thickness when radiometric testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovskij, A.V.; Kvasnitsa, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Given are the estimates of information capabilities of the differential method for measuring radiation flux in radiation defectoscopy as well as efficiency of application of automatic radiation facilities to control taking into account the statistical regularities of product thickness fluctuations. Dependences of signal to noise ratio on the regularities of product thickness fluctuations have been found and optimization, on this basis, of the design and parameters of processing instrumentation was carried out. It is shown, that with 60-80 mm interval of product thickness fluctuations correlation (welded joints) it is expedient to use two radiation beams with their crossing on a mean product plane. When the interval of correlation of thickness fluctuations is great it is effective to use the geometry of radioscopy with parallel radiation beams. This permits to use only one radiation source without significant reducing the compensation efficiency, that in most cases simplifies the development and application of radiometric systems. Thus the efficiency of applying the differential method for radiation beam detection to compensate product thickness fluctuations is primarily determined by statistical regularities of the given fluctuations. The account of the regularities in the development of the processing instrumentation results in the most complete extraction of useful information, containing in the radiation beams being detected

  18. Coercivity scaling in antidot lattices in Fe, Ni, and NiFe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräfe, Joachim, E-mail: graefe@is.mpg.de; Schütz, Gisela; Goering, Eberhard J., E-mail: goering@is.mpg.de

    2016-12-01

    Antidot lattices can be used to artificially engineer magnetic properties in thin films, however, a conclusive model that describes the coercivity enhancement in this class of magnetic nano-structures has so far not been found. We prepared Fe, Ni, and NiFe thin films and patterned each with 21 square antidot lattices with different geometric parameters and measured their hysteretic behavior. On the basis of this extensive dataset we are able to provide a model that can describe both the coercivity scaling over a wide range of geometric lattice parameters and the influence of different materials.

  19. Contact problems of a rectangular block on an elastic layer of finite thickness: Part II: The thick layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.B.; Kuipers, M.

    1970-01-01

    We consider a layer of finite thickness loaded in plane strain by a stamp with a straight horizontal base, which is smooth and rigid. The stamp is pressed vertically into the layer and is slightly rotated by an external moment load subsequently. Two cases are considered successively: the lower side

  20. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  1. Coercivity enhancement of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets with intergranular adding (Pr, Dy, Cu)−H{sub x} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yujing; Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@zju.edu.cn; Liu, Xiaolian; Liu, Pan; Jin, Jiaying; Zou, Junding; Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    Forming Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/(Nd, Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B core–shell structure by intergranular adding Dy-containing sources into Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets is effective to improve coercivity and to minimize remanence loss simultaneously. However, the excessive Dy located in the intergranular regions has nearly no hard magnetic contribution, causing its low utilization efficiency. In this work, diluted Dy powders (Pr{sub 37}Dy{sub 30}Cu{sub 33})–H{sub x} were prepared and incorporated into Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets via a dual-alloy approach. The coercivity increases rapidly from 15.0 to 18.2 kOe by 21.3% with 2.0 wt% (Pr, Dy, Cu)–H{sub x} addition (the equivalent Dy is only 0.32 at%). The deduced coercivity incremental ratio is 10.0 kOe per unit Dy at%. Dehydrogenation reaction of (Pr, Dy, Cu)–H{sub x} occurs during sintering, which favors Dy diffusion towards the 2:14:1 phase grains as well as smoothing the grain boundaries (GBs). The enhanced local anisotropic field and the well decoupled 2:14:1 phase grains contribute to such rapid coercivity enhancement. This work suggests that adding diluted Dy hydrides is promising for fabricating high coercivity Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets with less heavy rare-earth consumption. - Highlights: • (Pr, Dy, Cu)–H{sub x} hydride powders were introduced into Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets. • Rapid coercivity enhancement from 15.0 kOe to 18.2 kOe with only 0.32 at% Dy was realized. • High utilization efficiency of Dy was achieved due to its promoted diffusion process. • Wettability and mobility of grain boundary phase was improved.

  2. Magnetic vortex state and multi-domain pattern in electrodeposited hemispherical nanogranular nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardak, Alexander; Sukovatitsina, Ekaterina; Ognev, Alexey; Stebliy, Maksim; Davydenko, Alexander; Chebotkevich, Ludmila; Keun Kim, Young; Nasirpouri, Forough; Janjan, Seyed-Mehdi; Nasirpouri, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic states of nickel nanogranular films were studied in two distinct structures of individual and agglomerated granules electrodeposited on n-type Si(1 1 1) surface from a modified Watts bath at a low pH of 2. Magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations revealed three-dimensional out-of-plane magnetic vortex states in stand-alone hemispherical granules and their arrays, and multi-domain patterns in large agglomerates and integrated films. Once the granules coalesce into small chains or clusters, the coercivity values increased due to the reduction of inter-granular spacing and strengthening of the magnetostatic interaction. Further growth leads to the formation of a continuous granulated film which strongly affected the coercivity and remanence. This was characterized by the domain wall nucleation and propagation leading to a stripe domain pattern. Magnetoresistance measurements as a function of external magnetic field are indicative of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) for the continuous films electrodeposited on Si substrate. - Highlights: • Magnetic states of electrodeposited nickel in isolated spherical and agglomerated nanogranules, and a continuous film. • Preferential magnetization reversal mechanism in isolated granules is vortex state. • Micromagnetic simulations confirm the three-dimensional vortex. • Transition between the vortex state and multi-domain magnetic pattern causes a significant decrease in the coercive force. • Continuous nickel films electrodeposited on silicon substrate exhibit AMR whose magnitude increases with the film thickness

  3. Squeeze-out of nuclear matter as a function of projectile energy and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Kampert, K.H.; Kolb, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Squeeze-out, a component of the collective flow of nuclear matter, is the preferential emission of particles out of the reaction plane. Using the sphericity method the out-of-plane/in-plane ratio of the kinetic energy flow has been analyzed as a function of multiplicity and beam energy for Ca+Ca, Nb+Nb, and Au+Au collisions measured with the Plastic Ball detector at the Bevalac. Also, azimuthal distribution of the particles around the flow axis are presented together with the extracted out-of-plane/in-plane ratios. Finally, the rapidity dependence of the out-of-plane/in-plane ratio has been investigated with a new method using the transverse momentum components of the particles

  4. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  5. Giant exchange bias in MnPd/Co bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Nam; Nguyen Phu Thuy; Nguyen Anh Tuan; Nguyen Nguyen Phuoc; Suzuki, Takao

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study of exchange bias in MnPd/Co bilayers has been carried out, where the dependences of exchange bias, unidirectional anisotropy constant and coercivity on the thicknesses of MnPd and Co layers were investigated. A huge unidirectional anisotropy constant, J K =2.5erg/cm 2 was observed, which is in reasonable agreement with the theoretical prediction based on the model by Meiklejohn and Bean. The angular dependences of exchange bias field and coercivity have also been examined showing that both exchange bias and coercivity follow 1/cosα rule

  6. The edge- and basal-plane-specific electrochemistry of a single-layer graphene sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenjing; Zhou, Yu; Li, Yingru; Li, Chun; Peng, Hailin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Zhongfan; Dai, Liming; Shi, Gaoquan

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has a unique atom-thick two-dimensional structure and excellent properties, making it attractive for a variety of electrochemical applications, including electrosynthesis, electrochemical sensors or electrocatalysis, and energy conversion and storage. However, the electrochemistry of single-layer graphene has not yet been well understood, possibly due to the technical difficulties in handling individual graphene sheet. Here, we report the electrochemical behavior at single-layer graphene-based electrodes, comparing the basal plane of graphene to its edge. The graphene edge showed 4 orders of magnitude higher specific capacitance, much faster electron transfer rate and stronger electrocatalytic activity than those of graphene basal plane. A convergent diffusion effect was observed at the sub-nanometer thick graphene edge-electrode to accelerate the electrochemical reactions. Coupling with the high conductivity of a high-quality graphene basal plane, graphene edge is an ideal electrode for electrocatalysis and for the storage of capacitive charges. PMID:23896697

  7. High-coercive garnet films for thermo-magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzhansky, V N; Danishevskaya, Y V; Nedviga, A S; Milyukova, H T

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using high-coercive of garnet films for thermo-magnetic recording is related with the presence of the metastable domain structure, which arises due to a significant mismatch of the lattice parameters of the film and the substrate. In the work the connection between facet crystal structure of elastically strained ferrite garnets films and the domain structure in them is established by methods of phase contrast and polarization microscopy. (paper)

  8. Innovative soft magnetic multilayers with enhanced in-plane anisotropy and ferromagnetic resonance frequency for integrated RF passive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falub, Claudiu V.; Bless, Martin; Hida, Rachid; MeduÅa, Mojmír; Ammann, Arnold

    2018-04-01

    We present an innovative, economical method for manufacturing soft magnetic materials that may pave the way for integrated thin film magnetic cores with dramatically improved properties. Soft magnetic multilayered thin films based on the Fe-28%Co20%B (at.%) and Co-4.5%Ta4%Zr (at.%) amorphous alloys are deposited on 8" bare Si and Si/200nm-thermal-SiO2 wafers in an industrial, high-throughput Evatec LLS EVO II magnetron sputtering system. The multilayers consist of stacks of alternating 80-nm-thick ferromagnetic layers and 4-nm-thick Al2O3 dielectric interlayers. Since in our dynamic sputter system the substrate cage rotates continuously, such that the substrates face different targets alternatively, each ferromagnetic sublayer in the multilayer consists of a fine structure comprising alternating CoTaZr and FeCoB nanolayers with very sharp interfaces. We adjust the thickness of these individual nanolayers between 0.5 and 1.5 nm by changing the cage rotation speed and the power of each gun, which is an excellent mode to engineer new, composite ferromagnetic materials. Using X-ray reflectometry (XRR) we reveal that the interfaces between the FeCoB and CoTaZr nanolayers are perfectly smooth with roughness of 0.2-0.3 nm. Kerr magnetometry and B-H looper measurements for the as-deposited samples show that the coercivity of these thin films is very low, 0.2-0.3 Oe, and gradually scales up with the thickness of FeCoB nanolayers, i.e. with the increase of the overall Fe content from 0 % (e.g. CoTaZr-based multilayers) to 52 % (e.g. FeCoB-based multilayers). We explain this trend in the random anisotropy model, based on considerations of grain size growth, as revealed by glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), but also because of the increase of magnetostriction with the increase of Fe content as shown by B-H looper measurements performed on strained wafers. The unexpected enhancement of the in-plane anisotropy field from 18.3 Oe and 25.8 Oe for the conventional Co

  9. Innovative soft magnetic multilayers with enhanced in-plane anisotropy and ferromagnetic resonance frequency for integrated RF passive devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu V. Falub

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an innovative, economical method for manufacturing soft magnetic materials that may pave the way for integrated thin film magnetic cores with dramatically improved properties. Soft magnetic multilayered thin films based on the Fe-28%Co20%B (at.% and Co-4.5%Ta4%Zr (at.% amorphous alloys are deposited on 8” bare Si and Si/200nm-thermal-SiO2 wafers in an industrial, high-throughput Evatec LLS EVO II magnetron sputtering system. The multilayers consist of stacks of alternating 80-nm-thick ferromagnetic layers and 4-nm-thick Al2O3 dielectric interlayers. Since in our dynamic sputter system the substrate cage rotates continuously, such that the substrates face different targets alternatively, each ferromagnetic sublayer in the multilayer consists of a fine structure comprising alternating CoTaZr and FeCoB nanolayers with very sharp interfaces. We adjust the thickness of these individual nanolayers between 0.5 and 1.5 nm by changing the cage rotation speed and the power of each gun, which is an excellent mode to engineer new, composite ferromagnetic materials. Using X-ray reflectometry (XRR we reveal that the interfaces between the FeCoB and CoTaZr nanolayers are perfectly smooth with roughness of 0.2-0.3 nm. Kerr magnetometry and B-H looper measurements for the as-deposited samples show that the coercivity of these thin films is very low, 0.2-0.3 Oe, and gradually scales up with the thickness of FeCoB nanolayers, i.e. with the increase of the overall Fe content from 0 % (e.g. CoTaZr-based multilayers to 52 % (e.g. FeCoB-based multilayers. We explain this trend in the random anisotropy model, based on considerations of grain size growth, as revealed by glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD, but also because of the increase of magnetostriction with the increase of Fe content as shown by B-H looper measurements performed on strained wafers. The unexpected enhancement of the in-plane anisotropy field from 18.3 Oe and 25.8 Oe for the

  10. High-Q, in-plane modes of nanomechanical resonators operated in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Philip S.; Tan, Christine P.; Bellan, Leon; Craighead, Harold G.

    2009-05-01

    Nanomechanical resonators have traditionally been limited to use in vacuum due to low quality factors that come as a result of viscous damping effects in air or liquid. We have fabricated arrays of 90 nm thick trampoline-shaped resonators, studied their resonant frequency spectrum as a function of pressure, and found that some high frequency modes exhibit quality factors over 2000 at atmospheric pressure. We have excited the in-plane resonances of these devices, verified their identities both experimentally and with finite element modeling, and demonstrated their advantageous characteristics for ambient sensing. Even after deposition of a relatively thick polymer layer, the in-plane resonant modes still boast quality factors on the order of 2000. These results show promise for the use of nanomechanical resonant sensors in real-time atmospheric sensing applications.

  11. Fabrication of Ternary AgPdAu Alloy Nanoparticles on c-Plane Sapphire by the Systematical Control of Film Thickness and Deposition Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Sundar; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Bastola, Sushil; Lee, Jihoon

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a systematic study on the fabrication of ternary AgPdAu alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on c-plane sapphire (0001) is presented and the corresponding structural and optical characteristics are demonstrated. The metallic trilayers of various thicknesses and deposition orders are annealed in a controlled manner (400 °C to 900 °C) to induce the solid-state dewetting that yields the various structural configurations of AgPdAu alloy NPs. The dewetting of relatively thicker trilayers (15 nm) is gradually progressed with void nucleation, growth, and coalescence, isolated NP formation, and shape transformation, along with the temperature control. For 6 nm thickness, owing to the sufficient dewetting of trilayers along with enhanced diffusion, dense and small spherical alloy NPs are fabricated. Depending on the specific growth condition, the surface diffusion and interdiffusion of metal atoms, surface and interface energy minimization, Rayleigh instability, and equilibrium configuration are correlated to describe the fabrication of ternary alloy NPs. Ternary alloy NPs exhibit morphology-dependent ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) reflectance properties such as the inverse relationship of average reflectance with the surface coverage, absorption enhancement in specific regions, and reflectance maxima in UV and NIR regions. In addition, Raman spectra depict the six active phonon modes of sapphires and their intensity and position modulation by the alloy NPs.

  12. Effects of aging and sheet thickness on the room temperature deformation behavior and in-plane anisotropy of cold rolled and solution treated Nimonic C-263 alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankamma, Kandula; Chandra Mohan Reddy, Gangireddy [Mahatma Ghandi Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Prasad, Konduri Satya [Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Hyderabad (India). Defence Metallurgical Research Lab.; Komaraiah, Methuku [Malla Reddy College of Engineering and Technology, Secunderabad (India); Eswara Prasad, Namburi [Regional Centre for Military Airworthiness (Materials), Hyderabad (India)

    2011-10-15

    The deformation behavior under uni-axial tensile loading is investigated and reported in the case of cold rolled Nimonic C-263 alloy sheet products of different thicknesses (0.5 mm and 1 mm) in the solution treated and aged conditions. The studies conducted include (i) Microstructure, (ii) X-ray diffraction, (iii) Texture and (iv) Tensile properties and inplane anisotropy in the yield behavior (both tensile yield strength and ultimate tensile strength as well as ductility). The results of the present study showed that despite the presence of weak crystallographic texture in this crystal symmetric material, the degrees of in-plane anisotropy in strength as well as plastic deformation properties are found to be significant in both solution treated and aged conditions, thus having significant technological relevance for both further processing and design purposes. Further, the influence of aging and sheet thickness on the tensile deformation behaviour is also found to be considerable. A brief discussion on the technological implications of these results is also included. (orig.)

  13. Boundary-layer interactions in the plane-parallel incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Toan T; Sueur, Franck

    2012-01-01

    We study the inviscid limit problem of incompressible flows in the presence of both impermeable regular boundaries and a hypersurface transversal to the boundary across which the inviscid flow has a discontinuity jump. In the former case, boundary layers have been introduced by Prandtl as correctors near the boundary between the inviscid and viscous flows. In the latter case, the viscosity smoothes out the discontinuity jump by creating a transition layer which has the same amplitude and thickness as the Prandtl layer. In the neighbourhood of the intersection of the impermeable boundary and of the hypersurface, interactions between the boundary and the transition layers must then be considered. In this paper, we initiate a mathematical study of this interaction and carry out a strong convergence in the inviscid limit for the case of the plane-parallel flows introduced by Di Perna and Majda (1987 Commun. Math. Phys. 108 667–89). (paper)

  14. Bond behavior between CFRP sheet and concrete. Part 2. Improvement of bond strength by out-of plane confinement; CFRP sheet to concrete no fuchaku kyodo (2). Mengai kosoku ni yoru fuchaku tairyoku no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kobatake, Y. [Obayashigumi Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-30

    Behavior of phase at the bond interface between CFRP sheet and concrete is modeled basing on the result of anchoring experiment, and specimens are subjected to finite element analysis to investigate necessary confining stress and anchoring length. Improvement of bonding strength is confirmed by providing lateral sheet for anchoring on the sheet bonded on concrete. The out-of-plane stress acted on the sheet and the out-of-plane displacement during confinement in the experiment are estimated as average 0.5MPa and 0.16mm, respectively. Providing appropriate angle to a two-node joint and setting proper stress/deformation relation of springs crossing each other, the behavior of the phase at the bond interface subjected to out-of-plane confinement is modeled. The maximum bond stress is improved from 4.56MPa to 5.10MPa, and the area where the bond stress becomes larger than 4.56MPa increases from 25mm to 30mm. To anchor the sheet employed in this experiment, larger than 30mm out-of-plane confining stress of 0.5MPa must be provided in the direction of fiber. 16 refs., 17 figs., (plus 1 appended fig.), 3 tabs.

  15. Annealing induced low coercivity, nanocrystalline Co–Fe–Si thin films exhibiting inverse cosine angular variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hysen, T., E-mail: hysenthomas@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Al-Harthi, Salim; Al-Omari, I.A. [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Geetha, P.; Lisha, R. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sakthikumar, D. [Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama (Japan); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mra@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India)

    2013-09-15

    Co–Fe–Si based films exhibit high magnetic moments and are highly sought after for applications like soft under layers in perpendicular recording media to magneto-electro-mechanical sensor applications. In this work the effect of annealing on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of Co–Fe–Si thin films was investigated. Compositional analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a native oxide surface layer consisting of oxides of Co, Fe and Si on the surface. The morphology of the as deposited films shows mound like structures conforming to the Volmer–Weber growth model. Nanocrystallisation of amorphous films upon annealing was observed by glancing angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The evolution of magnetic properties with annealing is explained using the Herzer model. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements carried out at various angles from 0° to 90° to the applied magnetic field were employed to study the angular variation of coercivity. The angular variation fits the modified Kondorsky model. Interestingly, the coercivity evolution with annealing deduced from magneto-optical Kerr effect studies indicates a reverse trend compared to magetisation observed in the bulk. This can be attributed to a domain wall pinning at native oxide layer on the surface of thin films. The evolution of surface magnetic properties is correlated with morphology evolution probed using atomic force microscopy. The morphology as well as the presence of the native oxide layer dictates the surface magnetic properties and this is corroborated by the apparent difference in the bulk and surface magnetic properties. - Highlights: • The relation between grain size and magnetic properties in Co–Fe–Si thin films obeys the Herzer model. • Angular variation of coercivity is found to obey the Kondorsky model. • The MOKE measurements provide further evidence for domain wall pinning.

  16. Anisotropic ferromagnetic behaviors in highly orientated epitaxial NiO-based thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiferromagnetic materials attract a great amount of attention recently for promising antiferromagnet-based spintronics applications. NiO is a conventional antiferromagnetic semiconductor material and can show ferromagnetism by doping other magnetic elements. In this work, we synthesized epitaxial Fe-doped NiO thin films on SrTiO3 substrates with various crystal orientations by pulsed laser deposition. The room-temperature ferromagnetism of these films is anisotropic, including the saturated magnetization and the coercive field. The anisotropic magnetic behaviors of Fe-doped NiO diluted magnetic oxide system should be closely correlated to the magnetic structure of antiferromagnetic NiO base. Within the easy plane of NiO, the coercive field of the films becomes smaller, and larger coercive field while tested out of the easy plane of NiO. The saturated magnetization anisotropy is due to different strain applied by different substrates. These results lead us to more abundant knowledge of the exchange interactions in this conventional antiferromagnetic system.

  17. Temperature dependence of coercive field and fatigue in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer ultra-thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuli; Xu Haisheng; Zhang Yanni

    2011-01-01

    The experimental intrinsic coercive field of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoethylene) copolymer films, with both bottom and top gold electrodes is measured at a wide temperature range. In the lower temperature region from -20 to 25 deg. C, the temperature dependence of coercive field shows good agreement with the prediction by the Landau-Ginzburg (LG) mean-field theory. In the higher temperature region from 25 to 80 deg. C, the coercive field shows a slow decrease with the increased temperature, where the LG theory is not applicable any more. The temperature-dependent changes in the polymer chains have been analysed. A reversible 'inherent fatigue' is observed from the partially recovered remanent polarization after re-annealing a fatigued P(VDF-TrFE) film. FTIR spectra indicate that the interchain spacing does not change from 10 to 10 7 switching cycles while the degree of all-trans ferroelectric phase decreases gradually with applied switching cycles. After a re-annealing treatment, ferroelectric phase recovers and dipoles at the boundary of crystallites acquire much higher energy.

  18. A harsh parenting team? Maternal reports of coparenting and coercive parenting interact in association with children's disruptive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Rachel M; Mark, Katharine M; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2017-05-01

    Parenting and coparenting are both important for children's adjustment, but their interaction has been little explored. Using a longitudinal design and considering two children per family, we investigated mothers' and fathers' perceptions of coparenting as moderators of associations between their coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour. Mothers and fathers from 106 'intact' families were included from the Twins, Family and Behaviour study. At Time 1 (M child age  = 3 years 11 months, SD child age  = 4.44 months) parents reported on their coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour via questionnaire; at Time 2 (M child age  = 4 years 8 months, SD child age  = 4.44 months) perceptions of coparenting and the marital relationship were collected by telephone interview. Questionnaire-based reports of children's disruptive behaviour were collected at follow-up (M child age  = 5 years 11 months, SD child age  = 5.52 months). Multilevel modelling was used to examine child-specific and family-wide effects. Conservative multilevel models including both maternal and paternal perceptions demonstrated that maternal perceptions of coparenting and overall coercive parenting interacted in their prediction of parent-reported child disruptive behaviour. Specifically, accounting for perceived marital quality, behavioural stability, and fathers' perceptions, only in the context of perceived higher quality coparenting was there a positive association between mother-reported overall coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour at follow-up. When combined with highly coercive parenting, maternal perceptions of high quality coparenting may be detrimental for children's adjustment. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls for safety related nuclear facilities: Design for in-plane forces and out-of-plane moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Amit H.; Malushte, Sanjeev R.; Sener, Kadir C.; Lai, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Steel-concrete (SC) composite walls being considered and used as an alternative to conventional reinforced concrete (RC) walls in safety-related nuclear facilities due to their construction economy and structural efficiency. However, there is a lack of standardized codes for SC structures, and design guidelines and approaches are still being developed. This paper presents the development and verification of: (a) mechanics based model, and (b) detailed nonlinear finite element model for predicting the behavior and failure of SC wall panels subjected to combinations of in-plane forces. The models are verified using existing test results, and the verified models are used to explore the behavior of SC walls subjected to combinations of in-plane forces and moments. The results from these investigations are used to develop an interaction surface in principle force (S p1 –S p2 ) space that can be used to design or check the adequacy of SC wall panels. The interaction surface is easy to develop since it consists of straight line segments connecting anchor points defined by the SC wall section strengths in axial tension, in-plane shear, and compression. Both models and the interaction surface (for design) developed in this paper are recommended for future work. However, in order to use these approaches, the SC wall section should be detailed with adequate shear connector and tie bar strength and spacing to prevent non-ductile failure modes

  20. Propagation of magnetostatic spin waves in an yttrium iron garnet film for out-of-plane magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Wonbae; Lim, Jinho; Trossman, Jonathan; Tsai, C. C.; Ketterson, John B.

    2018-06-01

    We have observed the propagation of spin waves across a thin yttrium iron garnet film on (1 1 1) gadolinium gallium garnet for magnetic fields inclined with respect to the film plane. Two principle planes were studied: that for H in the plane defined by the wave vector k and the plane normal, n, with limiting forms corresponding to the Backward Volume and Forward Volume modes, and that for H in the plane perpendicular to k, with limiting forms corresponding to the Damon-Eshbach and Forward Volume modes. By exciting the wave at one edge of the film and observing the field dependence of the phase of the received signal at the opposing edge we determined the frequency vs. wavevector relation, ω = ω (k), of various propagating modes in the film. Avoided crossings are observed in the Damon-Eshbach and Forward Volume regimes when the propagating mode intersects the higher, exchange split, volume modes, leading to an extinction of the propagating mode; analysis of the resulting behavior allows a determination of the exchange parameter. The experimental results are compared with theoretical simulations.

  1. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in FePt Patterned Media Employing a CrV Seed Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A thin FePt film was deposited onto a CrV seed layer at 400°C and showed a high coercivity (~3,400 Oe and high magnetization (900–1,000 emu/cm3 characteristic of L10 phase. However, the magnetic properties of patterned media fabricated from the film stack were degraded due to the Ar-ion bombardment. We employed a deposition-last process, in which FePt film deposited at room temperature underwent lift-off and post-annealing processes, to avoid the exposure of FePt to Ar plasma. A patterned medium with 100-nm nano-columns showed an out-of-plane coercivity fivefold larger than its in-plane counterpart and a remanent magnetization comparable to saturation magnetization in the out-of-plane direction, indicating a high perpendicular anisotropy. These results demonstrate the high perpendicular anisotropy in FePt patterned media using a Cr-based compound seed layer for the first time and suggest that ultra-high-density magnetic recording media can be achieved using this optimized top-down approach.

  2. Flow of Dense Granular Suspensions on an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoit, C.; Lanuza, J.; Lindner, A.; Clément, E.

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the flow behavior of dense granular suspensions, by the use of an inclined plane. The suspensions are prepared at high packing fractions and consist of spherical non-Brownian particles density matched with the suspending fluid. On the inclined plane, we perform a systematic study of the surface velocity as a function of the layer thickness for various flow rates and tilt angles. We perform measurements on a classical rheometer (parallel-plate rheometer) that is shown to be in good agreement with existing models, up to a volume fraction of 50%. Comparing these results, we show that the flow on an inclined plane can, up to a volume fraction of 50%, indeed be described by a purely viscous model in agreement with the results from classical rheometry.

  3. Out-of-plane heat transfer in van der Waals stacks through electron-hyperbolic phonon coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielrooij, Klaas-Jan; Hesp, Niels C. H.; Principi, Alessandro; Lundeberg, Mark B.; Pogna, Eva A. A.; Banszerus, Luca; Mics, Zoltán; Massicotte, Mathieu; Schmidt, Peter; Davydovskaya, Diana; Purdie, David G.; Goykhman, Ilya; Soavi, Giancarlo; Lombardo, Antonio; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Bonn, Mischa; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Stampfer, Christoph; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Cerullo, Giulio; Polini, Marco; Koppens, Frank H. L.

    2018-01-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures have emerged as promising building blocks that offer access to new physics, novel device functionalities and superior electrical and optoelectronic properties1-7. Applications such as thermal management, photodetection, light emission, data communication, high-speed electronics and light harvesting8-16 require a thorough understanding of (nanoscale) heat flow. Here, using time-resolved photocurrent measurements, we identify an efficient out-of-plane energy transfer channel, where charge carriers in graphene couple to hyperbolic phonon polaritons17-19 in the encapsulating layered material. This hyperbolic cooling is particularly efficient, giving picosecond cooling times for hexagonal BN, where the high-momentum hyperbolic phonon polaritons enable efficient near-field energy transfer. We study this heat transfer mechanism using distinct control knobs to vary carrier density and lattice temperature, and find excellent agreement with theory without any adjustable parameters. These insights may lead to the ability to control heat flow in van der Waals heterostructures.

  4. Effect of Thickness Stress in Stretch-Bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Emmens, W.C.; Huetink, Han; Barlat, F; Moon, Y.H.; Lee, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    In any situation where a strip is pulled over a curved tool, locally a contact stress acts on the strip in thickness direction. This contact stress changes the stress state in the material, which will influence the deformation. One effect is that the yield stress in the plane of the strip is

  5. Epitaxial growth and characterization of approximately 300-nm-thick AlInN films nearly lattice-matched to c-plane GaN grown on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Makoto; Yamanaka, Mizuki; Egawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Tetsuya

    2018-05-01

    AlInN epitaxial films with film thicknesses up to approximately 300 nm were grown nearly lattice-matched to a c-plane GaN-on-sapphire template by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The AlInN films showed relative good crystal qualities and flat surfaces, despite the existence of surface pits connected to dislocations in the underlying GaN film. The refractive index derived in this study agreed well with a previously reported result obtained over the whole visible wavelength region. The extinction coefficient spectrum exhibited a clear absorption edge, and the bandgap energy for AlInN nearly lattice-matched to GaN was determined to be approximately 4.0 eV.

  6. Systems considerations in mosaic focal planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. P., III

    1983-08-01

    Two key reasons for pursuing the development of mosaic focal planes are reviewed and it is shown that rapid frame repetition rate is the only requirement that can be solved no other way than through mosaic focal planes. With the view that spaceborne mosaic focal plane sensors are necessarily 'smart sensors' requiring a lot of onboard processing just to function, it is pointed out that various artificial intelligence techniques may be the most appropriate to incorporate in the data processing. Finally, a novel mosaic focal plane design is proposed, termed a virtual mosaic focal plane, in response to other system constraints.

  7. Limit loads for piping branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane bending-Extended solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun-Jae; Lee, Kuk-Hee; Park, Chi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    The authors have previously proposed plastic limit load solutions for thin-walled branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane bending, based on finite element (FE) limit loads resulting from three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials [Kim YJ, Lee KH, Park CY. Limit loads for thin-walled piping branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane bending. Int J Press Vessels Piping 2006;83:645-53]. The solutions are valid for ratios of the branch-to-run pipe radius and thickness from 0.4 to 1.0, and for the mean radius-to-thickness ratio of the run pipe from 10.0 to 20.0. Moreover, the solutions considered the case of in-plane bending only on the branch pipe. This paper extends the previous solutions in two aspects. Firstly, plastic limit load solutions are given also for in-plane bending on the run pipe. Secondly, the validity of the proposed solutions is extended to ratios of the branch-to-run pipe radius and thickness from 0.0 to 1.0, and the mean radius-to-thickness ratio of the run pipe from 5.0 to 20.0. Comparisons with FE results show good agreement

  8. Determining the ice-binding planes of antifreeze proteins by fluorescence-based ice plane affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter

    2014-01-15

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms.

  9. Thickness dependence of magnetic properties and giant magneto-impedance effect in amorphous Co{sub 73}Si{sub 12}B{sub 15} thin films prepared by Dual-Ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); BISSE/BUAA-SPNEE joint Laboratory Magnetism and Sperconducting technology on Spacecraft, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, San-sheng, E-mail: wangssh@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); BISSE/BUAA-SPNEE joint Laboratory Magnetism and Sperconducting technology on Spacecraft, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Hu, Teng [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); He, Tong-fu [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Zi-yu [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yi, Zhong; Meng, Li-Fei [Science and Technology on Reliability and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering, Beijing 100094 (China); BISSE/BUAA-SPNEE joint Laboratory Magnetism and Sperconducting technology on Spacecraft, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Dual-Ion Beam Assisted Deposition is a suitable method for the preparation of giant magneto-impedance (GMI) materials. In this paper, Co{sub 73}Si{sub 12}B{sub 15} thin films with different thicknesses were prepared by Dual-Ion Beam Assisted Deposition, and the influences of film thickness on magnetic properties and GMI effect were investigated. It was found that the asymmetric magnetic hysteresis loop in the prepared Co{sub 73}Si{sub 12}B{sub 15} thin films occurs at ambient temperature, and the shift behavior of hysteresis loop associated with film thickness. With the film thickness increasing, the values of shift field and coercive field and other parameters such as remanence and shift ratio appeared complex variation. At a certain frequency, the large GMI effect is only observed in some films, which have good magnetic properties including low coercivity, low remanence ratio and high shift ratio. The results indicated that the thickness dependence of magnetic properties nonlinearly determined the GMI effect in Co{sub 73}Si{sub 12}B{sub 15} thin films. - Highlights: • The relationship between film thickness and ΔZ/Z, ΔR/R, ΔX/X ratio of CoSiB film exhibits a complex behavior as the film thickness increases from 1.33 to 7.34 µm. The maximum value of GMI ratio is observed when the film thickness was 1.56, 2.48, 3.81 or 7.34 µm. • With the increase of film thickness, the peak frequency shifts to lower frequency, but does not decrease following the t-power law. • The above thickness phenomenon is due to the different magnetic properties of thin films. • The Dual-Ion Beam Assisted Deposition is introduced to prepare the GMI materials.

  10. Attitude of young psychiatrists toward coercive measures in psychiatry: a case vignette study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wake Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every psychiatrist must pay careful attention to avoid violating human rights when initiating coercive treatments such as seclusion and restraint. However, these interventions are indispensable in clinical psychiatry, and they are often used as strategies to treat agitated patients. In this study, we investigated young psychiatrists' attitudes toward psychiatric coercive measures. Methods A total of 183 young psychiatrists participated as subjects in our study. A questionnaire with a case vignette describing a patient with acute psychosis was sent to the study subjects via the Internet or by mail. This questionnaire included scoring the necessity for hospitalization, and the likelihood of prescribing seclusion and/or restraint, on a 9-point Likert scale (with 9 indicating strong agreement. Results There was general agreement among the study subjects that the case should be admitted to a hospital (8.91 ± 0.3 and secluded (8.43 ± 1.0. The estimated length of hospitalization was 13.53 ± 6.4 weeks. Regarding the likelihood of prescribing restraint, results showed great diversity (5.14 ± 2.5 on 9-point scale; psychiatrists working at general hospitals scored significantly higher (6.25 ± 2.5 than those working at university hospitals (5.02 ± 2.3 or psychiatric hospitals (4.15 ± 2.6. A two-group comparison of the length of inpatient care revealed a significant difference between those psychiatrists who scored 1-3 (n = 55, 14.22 ± 7.4 wks and those who scored 7-9 (n = 62, 12.22 ± 4.0 regarding the need to use restraint. Conclusion Our results may reflect the current dilemma in Japanese psychiatry wherein psychiatrists must initiate coercive measures to shorten hospitalization stays. This study prompted its subject psychiatrists to consider coercive psychiatric treatments.

  11. Recent developments in out-of-plane metallocorrole chemistry across the periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Heather L; Arnold, John

    2015-01-07

    This article presents a brief review of recent developments in metallocorrole chemistry, with a focus on species with significant displacement of the metal from the N4 plane of the corrole ring. Comparisons based on X-ray crystallographic data are made between a range of early and/or heavy transition metal, lanthanide, actinide, and main group metallocorrole species.

  12. Null-plane quantization of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaki, D.

    1990-01-01

    Massive Dirac fermions are canonically quantized on the null plane using the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm. The procedure is carried out in the framework of quantum electrodynamics as an illustration of a rigorous treatment of interacting fermion fields

  13. A novel asymptotic expansion homogenization analysis for 3-D composite with relieved periodicity in the thickness direction

    KAUST Repository

    Nasution, Muhammad Ridlo Erdata

    2014-06-01

    A new asymptotic expansion homogenization analysis is proposed to analyze 3-D composite in which thermomechanical and finite thickness effects are considered. Finite thickness effect is captured by relieving periodic boundary condition at the top and bottom of unit-cell surfaces. The mathematical treatment yields that only 2-D periodicity (i.e. in in-plane directions) is taken into account. A unit-cell representing the whole thickness of 3-D composite is built to facilitate the present method. The equivalent in-plane thermomechanical properties of 3-D orthogonal interlock composites are calculated by present method, and the results are compared with those obtained by standard homogenization method (with 3-D periodicity). Young\\'s modulus and Poisson\\'s ratio obtained by present method are also compared with experiments whereby a good agreement is particularly found for the Young\\'s modulus. Localization analysis is carried out to evaluate the stress responses within the unit-cell of 3-D composites for two cases: thermal and biaxial tensile loading. Standard finite element (FE) analysis is also performed to validate the stress responses obtained by localization analysis. It is found that present method results are in a good agreement with standard FE analysis. This fact emphasizes that relieving periodicity in the thickness direction is necessary to accurately simulate the real free-traction condition in 3-D composite. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A novel asymptotic expansion homogenization analysis for 3-D composite with relieved periodicity in the thickness direction

    KAUST Repository

    Nasution, Muhammad Ridlo Erdata; Watanabe, Naoyuki; Kondo, Atsushi; Yudhanto, Arief

    2014-01-01

    A new asymptotic expansion homogenization analysis is proposed to analyze 3-D composite in which thermomechanical and finite thickness effects are considered. Finite thickness effect is captured by relieving periodic boundary condition at the top and bottom of unit-cell surfaces. The mathematical treatment yields that only 2-D periodicity (i.e. in in-plane directions) is taken into account. A unit-cell representing the whole thickness of 3-D composite is built to facilitate the present method. The equivalent in-plane thermomechanical properties of 3-D orthogonal interlock composites are calculated by present method, and the results are compared with those obtained by standard homogenization method (with 3-D periodicity). Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio obtained by present method are also compared with experiments whereby a good agreement is particularly found for the Young's modulus. Localization analysis is carried out to evaluate the stress responses within the unit-cell of 3-D composites for two cases: thermal and biaxial tensile loading. Standard finite element (FE) analysis is also performed to validate the stress responses obtained by localization analysis. It is found that present method results are in a good agreement with standard FE analysis. This fact emphasizes that relieving periodicity in the thickness direction is necessary to accurately simulate the real free-traction condition in 3-D composite. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Large time-dependent coercivity and resistivity modification under sustained voltage application in a Pt/Co/AlOx/Pt junction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.; van der Heijden, M.A.J.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Koopmans, B.

    2015-01-01

    The coercivity and resistivity of a Pt/Co/AlOx/Pt junction are measured under sustained voltage application. High bias voltages of either polarity are determined to cause a strongly enhanced, reversible coercivity modification compared to low voltages. Time-resolved measurements show a logarithmic

  16. Subjective experience of coercion in psychiatric care: a study comparing the attitudes of patients and healthy volunteers towards coercive methods and their justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielau, J; Altunbay, J; Gallinat, J; Heinz, A; Bermpohl, F; Lehmann, A; Montag, C

    2016-06-01

    Under certain conditions, coercive interventions in psychotic patients can help to regain insight and alleviate symptoms, but can also traumatize subjects. This study explored attitudes towards psychiatric coercive interventions in healthy individuals and persons suffering from schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder. The impact of personal history of coercive treatment on preferences concerning clinical management of patients unable to consent was investigated. Six case vignettes depicting scenarios of ethical dilemmas and demanding decisions in favour of or against coercive interventions were presented to 60 healthy volunteers and 90 patients. Structured interviews focusing on experienced coercion were performed in conjunction with the Coercion Experience Scale and the Admission Experience Survey. Symptom severity, psychosocial functioning and insight into illness were assessed as influencing variables. Student's t tests compared patients' and controls' judgments, followed by regression analyses to define the predictive value of symptoms and measures of coercion on judgments regarding the total patient sample and patients with experience of fixation. Patients and non-psychiatric controls showed no significant difference in their attitudes towards involuntary admission and forced medication. Conversely, patients more than controls significantly disapproved of mechanical restraint. Subjective experience of coercive interventions played an important role for the justification of treatment against an individual's "natural will". Factors influencing judgments on coercion were overall functioning and personal experience of treatment effectiveness and fairness. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of perceived coercion, in addition to insight into illness, predicted judgments of previously fixated patients. Results underline the importance of the quality of practical implementation and care, if coercive interventions cannot be avoided.

  17. Coercive Journal Self Citations, Impact Factor, Journal Influence and Article Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the issue of coercive journal self citations and the practical usefulness of two recent journal performance metrics, namely the Eigenfactor score, which may be interpreted as measuring “Journal Influence”, and the Article Influence score, using the Thomson Reuters ISI

  18. Development of a novel quality assurance system based on rolled-up and rolled-out radiochromic films in volumetric modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Sik; Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, You-Hyun; Hong, Semie; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a cylindrical phantom with rolled-up radiochromic films and dose analysis software in the rolled-out plane for quality assurance (QA) in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: The phantom consists of an acrylic cylindrical body wrapped with radiochromic film inserted into an outer cylindrical shell of 5 cm thickness. The rolled-up films with high spatial resolution enable detection of specific dose errors along the arc trajectory of continuously irradiated and modulated beams in VMAT. The developed dose analysis software facilitates dosimetric evaluation in the rolled-up and rolled-out planes of the film; the calculated doses on the corresponding points where the rolled-up film was placed were reconstructed into a rectangular dose matrix equivalent to that of the rolled-out plane of the film. The VMAT QA system was implemented in 3 clinical cases of prostate, nasopharynx, and pelvic metastasis. Each calculated dose on the rolled-out plane was compared with measurement values by modified gamma evaluation. Detected positions of dose disagreement on the rolled-out plane were also distinguished in cylindrical coordinates. The frequency of error occurrence and error distribution were summarized in a histogram and in an axial view of rolled-up plane to intuitively identify the corresponding positions of detected errors according to the gantry angle. Results: The dose matrix reconstructed from the developed VMAT QA system was used to verify the measured dose distribution along the arc trajectory. Dose discrepancies were detected on the rolled-out plane and visualized on the calculated dose matrix in cylindrical coordinates. The error histogram obtained by gamma evaluation enabled identification of the specific error frequency at each gantry angular position. The total dose error occurring on the cylindrical surface was in the range of 5%-8% for the 3 cases. Conclusions: The developed system provides a practical and reliable QA method to

  19. Development of a novel quality assurance system based on rolled-up and rolled-out radiochromic films in volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Sik; Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, You-Hyun; Hong, Semie; Suh, Tae-Suk [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Health Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 143-729 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Anyang SAM Hospital, Anyang 430-733 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Anyang SAM Hospital, Anyang 430-733 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiologic Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 143-729 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a cylindrical phantom with rolled-up radiochromic films and dose analysis software in the rolled-out plane for quality assurance (QA) in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: The phantom consists of an acrylic cylindrical body wrapped with radiochromic film inserted into an outer cylindrical shell of 5 cm thickness. The rolled-up films with high spatial resolution enable detection of specific dose errors along the arc trajectory of continuously irradiated and modulated beams in VMAT. The developed dose analysis software facilitates dosimetric evaluation in the rolled-up and rolled-out planes of the film; the calculated doses on the corresponding points where the rolled-up film was placed were reconstructed into a rectangular dose matrix equivalent to that of the rolled-out plane of the film. The VMAT QA system was implemented in 3 clinical cases of prostate, nasopharynx, and pelvic metastasis. Each calculated dose on the rolled-out plane was compared with measurement values by modified gamma evaluation. Detected positions of dose disagreement on the rolled-out plane were also distinguished in cylindrical coordinates. The frequency of error occurrence and error distribution were summarized in a histogram and in an axial view of rolled-up plane to intuitively identify the corresponding positions of detected errors according to the gantry angle. Results: The dose matrix reconstructed from the developed VMAT QA system was used to verify the measured dose distribution along the arc trajectory. Dose discrepancies were detected on the rolled-out plane and visualized on the calculated dose matrix in cylindrical coordinates. The error histogram obtained by gamma evaluation enabled identification of the specific error frequency at each gantry angular position. The total dose error occurring on the cylindrical surface was in the range of 5%-8% for the 3 cases. Conclusions: The developed system provides a practical and reliable QA method to

  20. Nonlinear anisotropic elliptic equations with variable exponents and degenerate coercivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocine Ayadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence and the regularity of distributional solutions for a class of nonlinear anisotropic elliptic equations with $p_i(x$ growth conditions, degenerate coercivity and $L^{m(\\cdot}$ data, with $m(\\cdot$ being small, in appropriate Lebesgue-Sobolev spaces with variable exponents. The obtained results extend some existing ones [8,10].

  1. The fabrication and the coercivity mechanism of segmented (Ni/Fe)m composite nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, D S; Shi, H G; Si, M S

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of segmented (Ni/Fe) m (m = 1,2,3,4,5) composite nanowires about 3 μm in length and with aspect ratios of about 60 were electrodeposited on anodic porous alumina templates using a dual bath. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively. It is found that Fe(110) and Ni(111) orientations along nanowire axis are preferred. The large aspect ratio of the composite nanowires reveals a strong shape magnetic anisotropy. As the number of the Ni/Fe composite segments m increases, the coercivity of the nanowire arrays, with the magnetic field applied parallel to the wire, gradually increases. The coercivity variation of the segmented composite nanowires is closely related to the effective exchange coupling between the Ni and Fe segments

  2. Coercivity degradation caused by inhomogeneous grain boundaries in sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hansheng; Yun, Fan; Qu, Jiangtao; Li, Yingfei; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Fang, Ruhao; Ye, Zhixiao; Ringer, Simon P.; Zheng, Rongkun

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative correlation between intrinsic coercivity and grain boundaries in three dimensions is critical to further improve the performance of sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. Here, we quantitatively reveal the local composition variation across and especially along grain boundaries using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography. We also estimate the saturation magnetization, magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, and exchange stiffness of the grain boundaries on the basis of the experimentally determined structure and composition. Finally, using micromagnetic simulations, we quantify the intrinsic coercivity degradation caused by inhomogeneous grain boundaries. This approach can be applied to other magnetic materials for the analysis and optimization of magnetic properties.

  3. Surface and Interface Properties of 10–12 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Saraf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin (∼10–12 unit cells thick epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and substrate roughness of ∼1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phase was likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.

  4. Coercivity enhancement and thermal-stability improvement in the melt-spun NdFeB ribbons by grain boundary diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiajun; Yuan, Chao; Luo, Yang; Yang, Yuanfei; Hu, Bin; Yu, Dunbo; Yan, Wenlong

    2018-01-01

    Rapidly quenched NdFeB ribbons with high coercivity were obtained by Nd70Cu30 diffusion process. Samples with a high coercivity of 22.02 kOe at room temperature were obtained after grain boundary diffusion with 20 wt% Nd70Cu30 alloys. The NdCu diffusion process promoted grain growth in the ribbons, and grain boundary phases were formed with Cu segregation among NdFeB grains. Coercivity above 10 kOe at 150 °C was achieved in the bonded magnets with NdCu content over 10 wt%. The flux loss of bonded magnets was reduced by ∼32% at 120 °C after diffusion treatment with only a small amount (2 wt%) of NdCu.

  5. Emergence of an Out-of-Plane Optical Phonon (ZO) Kohn Anomaly in Quasifreestanding Epitaxial Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politano, Antonio; de Juan, Fernando; Chiarello, Gennaro; Fertig, Herbert A

    2015-08-14

    In neutral graphene, two prominent cusps known as Kohn anomalies are found in the phonon dispersion of the highest optical phonon at q=Γ (LO branch) and q=K (TO branch), reflecting a significant electron-phonon coupling (EPC) to undoped Dirac electrons. In this work, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy is used to measure the phonon dispersion around the Γ point in quasifreestanding graphene epitaxially grown on Pt(111). The Kohn anomaly for the LO phonon is observed at finite momentum q~2k_{F} from Γ, with a shape in excellent agreement with the theory and consistent with known values of the EPC and the Fermi level. More strikingly, we also observe a Kohn anomaly at the same momentum for the out-of-plane optical phonon (ZO) branch. This observation is the first direct evidence of the coupling of the ZO mode with Dirac electrons, which is forbidden for freestanding graphene but becomes allowed in the presence of a substrate. Moreover, we estimate the EPC to be even greater than that of the LO mode, making graphene on Pt(111) an optimal system to explore the effects of this new coupling in the electronic properties.

  6. The coercive force of fine particles of monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7S8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperature dependence of coercive force (Hc) between 77 K and 600 K has been investigated for fine particles of monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) of < 1 mm and 1- 30 mm particle sizes. The study has shown that Hc is strongly dependent on temperature, as temperature rises above room temperature (293 K) to near the ...

  7. Nucleation size of hcp-CoPt dot arrays characterized by time dependence of coercivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, N; Kitakami, O [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Mitsuzuka, K; Shimatsu, T; Aoi, H, E-mail: kikuchin@tagen.tohoku.ac.j [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    The magnetization reversal process for dot arrays is likely to start from a nucleation followed by propagation process. In this study, we estimated the nucleation diameter D{sub n} for dot arrays made from thin hcp-CoPt perpendicular films (thickness {delta}=3 nm) and Co/Pt multilayered films ({delta}=9 nm), respectively. The dot diameter, D, was varied from 30 to 200 nm for CoPt dot arrays, and from 40 to 80 nm for Co/Pt dot arrays. The remanence coercivity was measured at measurement times t' = 10{sup 3} s and 10{sup -5} s (pulse field), and defined as H{sub r} and H{sub r}{sup P}. The energy barrier {Delta}E was evaluated by fitting H{sub r} and H{sub r}{sup P} to Sharrock's equation. The value of D{sub n} was estimated from {Delta}E, {delta} and the effective magnetic anisotropy of dot arrays including the demagnetizing energy due to the dot shape K{sub u}{sup eff}. D{sub n} was independent of Din both series of dot arrays, and about 17 nm for CoPt dot arrays and about 11 nm for Co/Pt dot arrays. These values were close to both the grain size and the exchange length of these films.

  8. Magnetization reversal mechanism and coercivity enhancement in three-dimensional granular Nd-Fe-B magnets studied by micromagnetic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Choe, Jinhyeok; Hwang, Shinwon; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2017-08-01

    We studied the mechanism of magnetization reversals and coercivity enhancements in three-dimensional (3D) granular Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets using finite-element micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization reversals in the hard magnets consisting of hard-phase grains separated by relatively soft-phase grain boundaries were analyzed with reference to the simulation results for the magnetic field-dependent distributions of the local magnetizations. The saturation magnetization of the grain-boundary phase plays a crucial role in the transition between nucleation- and domain-wall-propagation-controlled reversal processes. The smaller the saturation magnetization of the grain-boundary phase is, the more preferable is the nucleation-controlled process, which results in a larger coercivity. The exchange stiffness of the grain-boundary phase determines the preferred paths of domain-wall propagations, whether inward into grains or along the grain boundaries for relatively small and large exchange stiffness, respectively. However, the exchange stiffness of the grain-boundary phase alone does not significantly contribute to coercivity enhancement in cases where the size of hard-phase grains is much greater than the exchange length. This work paves the way for the design of high-performance hard magnets of large coercivity and maximum-energy-product values.

  9. Thickness dependence of electrical properties in (0 0 1) oriented lead zirconate titanate films by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T.J.; Lu, L.; Lai, M.O.; Soh, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Highly (0 0 1)-oriented Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films with LaNiO 3 (LNO) bottom electrodes have been fabricated on amorphous TiN buffered Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis of the deposited PZT films with different thickness ranging from 25 to 850 nm was measured. Results showed that the coercive field increases with the film thickness scaling down. No P-E loops could be obtained for the film of thickness of 25 nm. The deterioration of ferroelectric property in the thinnest film was attributed to extrinsic effect other than intrinsic size effect. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics measurement showed the increase in leakage current of the PZT films with the decrease in the thickness of the films under the same bias voltage. At a high field regime, the leakage current of the PZT films of 25 nm thickness remained unchanged with increasing applied voltage. A totally depleted back-to-back Shottky barrier model was used to explain the effect of electrode interfaces on leakage current in the PZT films. It is believed that ferroelectric/electrode interfaces play an important role in the electrical properties of ferroelectric thin films with thickness at nanometer level

  10. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  11. Coercivity of Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets produced by the spark plasma sintering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Saito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nd-Cu alloy powder addition on the microstructures and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets produced by the spark plasma sintering (SPS method were investigated. The addition of a small amount of Nd-Cu alloy powder, up to 2%, significantly increased the coercivity of the Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets without deteriorating the crystallographic alignment of the Nd2Fe14B phase. The Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnet with 2% Nd-Cu alloy powder had the same remanence value as the Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnet without Nd-Cu alloy powder addition, but the magnet with 2% Nd-Cu alloy powder exhibited higher coercivity and a higher maximum energy product than the magnet without Nd-Cu alloy powder addition.

  12. Numerical investigation of out-of-plane secondary stress in the web of floor beam of steel truss bridge. Ko torasu kyo no yukageta web ni shojiru mengai niji oryoku no suchiteki gen'in bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T. (Kisarazu National College of Technology, Chiba (Japan)); Kuranishi, S. (Kanto Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Nakazawa, M. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Enginering)

    1994-06-20

    Comparative investigation of numerical analysis results of out-of-plane secondary stress caused in a cross beam web around scallop before reinforcement and around cutting portion of vertical stiffeners after reinforcement was carried out. In case of steel truss bridge, there exists difference in axial thrust between outside stringers which continue through a cross beam, and it was revealed that this axial thrust was the main factor which causes partial bending stress in a cross beam web plate. When the lower end of vertical stiffeners is not connected to a cross beam foot flange considering of welding, out-of-plane secondary stress was caused partially in a cross beam web plate around scallop, because of the difficult to transmit adjoining stringers axial thrust difference directly to foot flange. In case of the actual analysis, cross beam web plate around cutting portion of vertical stiffeners causes partial out-of-plane secondary stress in web plate, due to being pressed partially by comparatively high stiffness vertical stiffeners. When repair and reinforcement of steel road truss bridge are carried out, it is necessary to take close attention specially on the structure of the parts in which outside stringers is connected to cross beam. 18 refs., 16 figs.

  13. Thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy and domains in amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} thin films grown on PET flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhenhua, E-mail: tangzhenhua1988@163.com [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Ni, Hao [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); College of science, China university of petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266580 China (China); Lu, Biao [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zheng, Ming [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Huang, Yong-An [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lu, Sheng-Guo, E-mail: sglu@gdut.edu.cn [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Minghua [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education (Xiangtan University), Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Gao, Ju [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-03-15

    The amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} (CoFeB) films (5–200 nm in thickness) were grown on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using the DC magnetron-sputtering method. The thickness dependence of structural and magnetic properties of flexible CoFeB thin films was investigated in detail. The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strain as a function of thickness was obtained in flexible CoFeB thin films, and a critical thickness of ~150 nm for in-plane magnetic anisotropy was observed. Moreover, the domains and the uniaxial anisotropy as a function of angular direction of applied magnetic field were characterized. The results show potential for designing CoFeB-based flexible spintronic devices in which the physical parameters could be tailored by controlling the thickness of the thin film. - Graphical abstract: The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strain as a function of thickness was obtained in flexible CoFeB thin films, and a critical thickness of ~150 nm for in-plane magnetic anisotropy was observed. Moreover, the domains and the uniaxial anisotropy as a function of angular direction of applied magnetic field were characterized. - Highlights: • The thickness effect on the magnetic properties in amorphous CoFeB thin films grown on flexible substrates was investigated. • The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strains was observed. • A critical thickness of ~ 150 nm for the flexible CoFeB thin film on PET substrate was obtained.

  14. High-resolution vector magnetometry: Piezo-spin-polarization effect and in-plane strain-induced dominating uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in a 200-nm-thick Ni thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, L.

    2018-04-01

    Owing to its high-sensitivity, reliability, fast, versatile and cost-effective operation, vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM) are massively popular characterization instruments at Magnetism laboratories worldwide. Nevertheless, the inherent appearance of synchronous noise represents a major drawback, which critically limits the fine probing of nanometer-sized media. I here report on an innovative approach to eliminate synchronous noise in VSM. This consists of fitting engineered mechanical devices that absorbs vibration energy, dissipating that into heat. Complementarily, a novel transversal pick-up coil system is also presented and analyzed; this detection system has been engineered to enhance the noise-to-signal ratio and optimized for measuring small size thin film samples. The implementation of a combined mechanical and electromagnetic approach enables to notably enhance the VSM performance, achieving a sensitivity better than 1 ×10-6 emu and a resolution below 5 ×10-8 emu, so that the magnetization vector in nanostructured media can be accurately mapped out down to cryogenic temperatures. I lastly show precision magnetometry measurements carried out in an epitaxial (0 0 1)-oriented 200 nm-thick Ni thin film. The analysis reveals the arising of an in-plane dominating strain-induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, K2ef = - 6.455kJ m - 3 , and a stunning piezo-spin-polarization effect resulting in a remarkable 10% modulation of the magnetization vector, ∼ 27 emu/cm3, with respect to the cubic lattice axes. Both effects are attributed to the likely existence of an orthorhombic lattice distortion, i.e.εxx -εyy ≈ - 2 ×10-3 . This categorical link enables to assign the observed anisotropic spin-polarization in the Ni overlayer to a two-ion magnetoelastic coupling effect.

  15. Magnetic coercivity and intensity of Mars crust: Dichotomy formation via unicellular convection mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletetschka, Günther; Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Ness, F. N.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 52 (2005), GP43A-0884 ISSN 0096-3941. [American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. 05.12.2005-05.12.2005, San Francisco] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetic coercivity * magnetic intesity * plate tectonics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  16. Local profile dependence of coercivity in (MM0.3Nd0.7)-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqiang; Zhu, Minggang; Liu, Weiqiang; Li, Wei; Sun, Yachao; Shi, Xiaoning; Yue, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Two magnets with the same nominal composition of (MM0.3Nd0.7)-Fe-B (Marked as A) and [(La0.27Ce0.53Pr0.03Nd0.17)0.3Nd0.7]-Fe-B (Marked as B) were prepared using traditional powder metallurgical process, respectively. In order to point out the difference between two magnets, the magnetic properties, microstructure and magnetic domain of both magnets were investigated. Both magnets have the same elements, but different raw materials of misch-metal (MM) and La/Ce/Pr/Nd pure metal, which induces different magnetic properties. The magnet A with Br of 13.1 kGs, Hcj of 7.6 kOe, (BH)max of 37.8 MGOe and magnet B with Br of 13.4 kGs, Hcj of 5.8 kOe, (BH)max of 34.5 MGOe are obtained. Although both magnets have the similar Br, magnet A has higher coercivity than that of magnet B. According to refined results of characteristic X-ray diffraction peaks, there is a hard magnetic main phase with higher magnetic anisotropy field (HA) in magnet A and opposite case happens on magnet B. SEM images demonstrate that magnet A has more continuous RE-rich phase and smaller grain size compared to that of magnet B, which contributes to enhancing the coercivity. In addition, two main phases of [Nd0.82(La, Ce)0.18]-Fe-B and [Nd0.75(La, Ce)0.25]-Fe-B were detected by the EDX calculation, and the two main phases in both magnets were observed by magnetic domains again. Compared to magnet B, 2:14:1 main phases in magnet A contain more [Nd0.82(La, Ce)0.18]-Fe-B main phases and less [Nd0.75(La, Ce)0.25]-Fe-B main phases, which also leads to higher coercivity due to the different HA among Nd2Fe14B, La2Fe14B and Ce2Fe14B phases. Therefore, it is concluded that MM substitution could exhibit better magnetic properties than (La0.27Ce0.53Pr0.03Nd0.17)-metal substitution. Furthermore, applications of MM are beneficial to fabricate (MM, Nd)-Fe-B permanent magnets with lower cost.

  17. Determination of the effective anisotropy constant of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles through the T-dependence of the coercive field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M. H.; Lima, R. J. S.; Meneses, C. T.; Folly, W. S. D.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Coelho, A. A.; Duque, J. G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a systematic study of the coercive field of CoFe2O4-SiO2 nanocomposites. The samples were prepared via the sol-gel method by using the Tetraethyl Orthosilicate as starting reagent. Results of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence confirm the dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles inside the silica matrix. In addition, the shift in the maximum of Zero-Field-Cooled curves observed by varying the weight ratio of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to the precursor of silica is consistent with the increasing of average interparticle distances. Because our samples present a particle size distribution, we have used a generalized model which takes account such parameter to fit the experimental data of coercive field extracted from the magnetization curves as a function of applied field. Unlike most of the coercive field results reported in the literature for this material, the use of this model provided a successful description of the temperature dependence of the coercive field of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a wide temperature range. Surprisingly, we have observed the decreasing of the nanoparticles anisotropy constant in comparison to the bulk value expected for the material. We believe that this can be interpreted as due to both the migration of the Co2+ from octahedral to tetrahedral sites.

  18. Dependence of the polar Kerr angle and coercivity on repeat distance in sequentially prepared Tb/FeCo films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S.

    1991-01-01

    Multilayer thin films of Tb and FeCo were prepared by sequential thermal evaporation of Tb and Fe 90 Co 10 alloy on glass substrates at ambient temperature in a vacuum of about 1 x 10 -6 Torr. The repeat distance of the films was varied from 3.5 to 175 A while maintaining the composition constant for all samples. Low-angle x-ray diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy showed that a multilayer structure was achieved for films fabricated with a repeat distance Λ≥31.5 A. The polar Kerr rotation angle and coercivity of the samples were obtained by measuring the polar Kerr hysteresis loop using a 632.8-nm HeNe laser. It was observed that for the samples having a multilayer structure, the remnant Kerr angle and coercivity monotonically decreased with increasing repeat distance, and eventually disappeared for Λ≥70 A. For the samples showing a nonmultilayer structure, the remnant Kerr angle was independent of repeat distance. However, the coercivity increased with repeat distance until a broad maximum was obtained around Λ congruent 14--21 A

  19. A collimated detection system for assessing leakage dose from medical linear accelerators at the patient plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonski, P; Taylor, M L; Franich, R D; Kron, T

    2014-03-01

    Leakage radiation from linear accelerators can make a significant contribution to healthy tissue dose in patients undergoing radiotherapy. In this work thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLD chips) were used in a focused lead cone loaded with TLD chips for the purpose of evaluating leakage dose at the patient plane. By placing the TLDs at one end of a stereotactic cone, a focused measurement device is created; this was tested both in and out of the primary beam of a Varian 21-iX linac using 6 MV photons. Acrylic build up material of 1.2 cm thickness was used inside the cone and measurements made with either one or three TLD chips at a given distance from the target. Comparing the readings of three dosimeters in one plane inside the cone offered information regarding the orientation of the cone relative to a radiation source. Measurements in the patient plane with the linac gantry at various angles demonstrated that leakage dose was approximately 0.01% of the primary beam out of field when the cone was pointed directly towards the target and 0.0025% elsewhere (due to scatter within the gantry). No specific 'hot spots' (e.g., insufficient shielding or gaps at abutments) were observed. Focused cone measurements facilitate leakage dose measurements from the linac head directly at the patient plane and allow one to infer the fraction of leakage due to 'direct' photons (along the ray-path from the bremsstrahlung target) and that due to scattered photons.

  20. A collimated detection system for assessing leakage dose from medical linear accelerators at the patient plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonski, P.; Kron, T.; Taylor, M.L.; Franich, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Leakage radiation from linear accelerators can make a significant contribution to healthy tissue dose in patients undergoing radiotherapy. In this work thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLD chips) were used in a focused lead cone loaded with TLD chips for the purpose of evaluating leakage dose at the patient plane. By placing the TLDs at one end of a stereotactic cone, a focused measurement device is created; this was tested both in and out of the primary beam of a Varian 21-iX linac using 6 MV photons. Acrylic build up material of 1.2 cm thickness was used inside the cone and measurements made with either one or three TLD chips at a given distance from the target. Comparing the readings of three dosimeters in one plane inside the cone offered information regarding the orientation of the cone relative to a radiation source. Measurements in the patient plane with the linac gantry at various angles demonstrated that leakage dose was approximately 0.01 % of the primary beam out of field when the cone was pointed directly towards the target and 0.0025 % elsewhere (due to scatter within the gantry). No specific ‘hot spots’ (e.g., insufficient shielding or gaps at abutments) were observed. Focused cone measurements facilitate leakage dose measurements from the linac head directly at the patient plane and allow one to infer the fraction of leakage due to ‘direct’ photons (along the ray-path from the bremsstrahlung target) and that due to scattered photons.

  1. Spin Seebeck effect in nanometer-thick YIG micro-fabricated strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Collet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the spin Seebeck effect (SSE generated by current induced-heating in ultra-thin yttrium iron garnet film (20 nm covered by an 8 nm thick Pt layer. By passing current in the Pt layer, an out-of-plane temperature gradient is established that, in turn, generates an out-of-equilibrium magnons population. The resulting pure spin current is detected using the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE measured in the Pt electrode. A lock-in detection scheme is used to separate the SSE signal from other magneto-galvanic effect. Indeed, the SSE signal is obtained as the second harmonic voltage response, while spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR is measured as the first harmonic response to the ac excitation current. Interestingly, the amplitude of the SSE in such thin YIG film is comparable to what has been reported for much thicker films.

  2. Annealing and thickness effects on magnetic properties of Co2FeAl alloy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Xu, Zhan; Ling, Fujin; Wang, Yahong; Dong, Shuo

    2018-03-01

    Co2FeAl (CFA) films in a wide thickness range between 2 and 100 nm are sputtered at room temperature. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is achieved in the annealed structure of Pd/CFA/MgO with CFA thickness ranging between 2.3 and 4.9 nm. PMA as high as 2 × 106 erg/cm3 is demonstrated in the structures annealed in the temperature range between 300 and 350 °C. Positive contributions to the PMA made by the interfaces of Pd/CFA and CFA/MgO are identified. For the as-deposited structure of MgO/CFA/Ta with thick CFA alloy up to 5 nm or above a high effective saturation magnetization of 983.9 ± 30.1 emu/cc is derived from the fitting and an in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of 104 erg/cm3 in magnitude is revealed by angular dependent magnetic measurements. In addition to the increase in saturation magnetization, a fourfold cubic magnetic anisotropy is found to develop with annealing, in line with the improvement of the crystalline structure confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Out results provide some useful information for the design of the CFA-based magnetoelectronic devices.

  3. Large In-Plane and Vertical Piezoelectricity in Janus Transition Metal Dichalchogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Lou, Jun; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2017-08-22

    Piezoelectricity in 2D van der Waals materials has received considerable interest because of potential applications in nanoscale energy harvesting, sensors, and actuators. However, in all the systems studied to date, strain and electric polarization are confined to the basal plane, limiting the operation of piezoelectric devices. In this paper, based on ab initio calculations, we report a 2D materials system, namely, the recently synthesized Janus MXY (M = Mo or W, X/Y = S, Se, or Te) monolayer and multilayer structures, with large out-of-plane piezoelectric polarization. For MXY monolayers, both strong in-plane and much weaker out-of-plane piezoelectric polarizations can be induced by a uniaxial strain in the basal plane. For multilayer MXY, we obtain a very strong out-of-plane piezoelectric polarization when strained transverse to the basal plane, regardless of the stacking sequence. The out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficient d 33 is found to be strongest in multilayer MoSTe (5.7-13.5 pm/V depending on the stacking sequence), which is larger than that of the commonly used 3D piezoelectric material AlN (d 33 = 5.6 pm/V); d 33 in other multilayer MXY structures are a bit smaller, but still comparable. Our study reveals the potential for utilizing piezoelectric 2D materials and their van der Waals multilayers in device applications.

  4. Effect of laser beam parameters on magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B thick-film magnets fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, H.; Nakano, M.; Yanai, T.; Kamikawatoko, T.; Yamashita, F.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of varying the laser power and the spot diameter of a laser beam on the magnetic properties, morphology, and deposition rate of Nd-Fe-B thick-film magnets fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were investigated. Reducing the laser fluence on the target reduces the remanence and increases the Nd content and consequently the coercivity of the prepared films. The spot size of the laser beam was found to affect the film surface morphology, the deposition rate, and the reproducibility of the magnetic properties of the prepared films. Reducing the spot size reduces the number of droplets and the reproducibility of the magnetic properties and increases the droplet size. Controlling the spot size of the laser beam enabled us to maximize the deposition rate. Consequently, a coercivity of 1210 kA/m and a remanence of 0.51 T were obtained at a deposition rate of 11.8 μm/(h·W). This deposition rate is 30% greater than the highest previously reported deposition rate by PLD.

  5. Photoelastic Analysis of Cracked Thick Walled Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastramă, Ştefan Dan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the experimental determination of the stress intensity factor in thick walled cylinders subject to uniform internal pressure and having longitudinal non-penetrating cracks is presented. Photoelastic measurements were used together with the expressions of the stress field near the crack tip for Mode I crack extension and a specific methodology for stress intensity factor determination. Two types of longitudinal cracks - internal and external - were considered. Four plane models were manufactured and analyzed in a plane polariscope at different values of the applied internal pressure. The values of the normalized stress intensity factor were calculated and the results were compared to those reported by other authors. A good accuracy was noticed, showing the reliability of the experimental procedure.

  6. Electroplated thick-film cobalt platinum permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P.

    2016-01-01

    The material and magnetic properties of multi-micron-thick (up to 6 μm) L1 0 CoPt magnetic films electroplated onto silicon substrates are investigated as candidate materials for integration in silicon-based microsystems. The influence of various process conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt thick-films is studied in order to better understand the complex process/structure/property relationships associated with the electroplated films. Process variables studied here include different seed layers, electroplating current densities (ranging from 25–200 mA/cm 2 ), deposition times (up to 60 min), and post-deposition annealing times and temperatures. Analyses include film morphology, film thickness, composition, surface roughness, grain size, phase volume fractions, and L1 0 ordering parameter. Key correlations are found relating process and structure variations to the extrinsic magnetic properties (remanence, coercivity, squareness, and energy product). Strong hard magnetic properties (B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness close to 0.9, and BH max of 100 kJ/m 3 ) are obtained for films deposited on Si/TiN/Ti/Cu at current densities of 100 mA/cm 2 , pH of 7, and subsequently annealed at 675 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • CoPt films plated up to 6 μm thick on silicon substrates. • A1 to L1 0 phase transformation by annealing in forming gas. • Various process–structure–property relationships explored. • Key results: B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness 0.9, and BH max ~100 kJ/m 3 .

  7. High-coercivity Nd-Fe-B magnets obtained with the electrophoretic deposition of submicron TbF3 followed by the grain-boundary diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderžnik, Marko; Korent, Matic; Žagar Soderžnik, Kristina; Katter, Matthias; Üstüner, Kaan; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-01-01

    Using a grain-boundary diffusion process (GBDP) involving the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of submicron TbF 3 powder, we substantially increased the coercivity of sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The experiments used magnets with low heavy-rare-earth (HRE) content (HRE = 1.2 wt%) and a coercivity of 790 kA/m (at 75 °C). After experiencing optimized conditions at 875 °C for 10 h and subsequent annealing at 500 °C for 1 h, the coercivity was increased to 1536 kA/m (at 75 °C). This value is 1.94 times higher than that for a sintered magnet, without post-sintering heat treatment. Furthermore, a vibration test revealed satisfactory adhesion of the TbF 3 powder to the surface of the magnet with no detected reduction in coercivity. Using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) with an energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), we confirmed the formation of various secondary intergranular phases and the core-shell-type microstructure, which increases the coercivity. The Tb content in the magnet, exposed to the EPD-based GBDP, was controlled by inductively coupled plasma optical electron spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The additional Tb detected in the magnet due to the described technology was only 0.12 wt%.

  8. Coercivity enhancement in Nd-Fe-B sintered permanent magnet by Dy nanoparticles doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.Q., E-mail: liuweiqiang77@hotmail.co [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Sun, H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yi, X.F. [Anhui Earth-panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd., Anhui 231500 (China); Liu, X.C.; Zhang, D.T. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yue, M., E-mail: yueming@bjut.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Zhang, J.X. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2010-07-02

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets with a small amount of Dysprosium (Dy) nanoparticles doping were prepared by conventional sintered method, and the microstructure and magnetic properties of the magnets were studied. Investigation shows that the coercivity rises gradually, while the remanence decreases simultaneously with increased Dy doping amount. As a result, the magnet with 1.5 wt.% Dy exhibits optimal magnetic properties. Further investigation presumed that Dy is enriched as (Nd, Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase in the surface region of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B matrix grains indicated by the enhancement of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy field of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase. As a result, the magnet doped with a small amount of Dy nanoparticles possesses remarkably enhanced coercivity without sacrificing its magnetization noticeably.

  9. Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, P.; Krishnan, A.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical technique for refractive index and thickness sensing of sub-wavelength-thick dielectric analytes. The technique utilizes the broadband, multimode, directional leakage radiation arising from the excitation of hybrid mode surface plasmons (SP) on low aspect ratio periodic plasmonic substrates with period ≈λ. The approach requires relaxed fabrication tolerances compared to extra ordinary transmission-based sensing techniques, wherein minor shifts in the fabricated dimensions result in a very large change from the designed resonant wavelength. We show that refractive index perturbations due to about 10-nm-thick dielectric can be captured optically by the usage of carefully designed plasmonic substrates, a halogen lamp source, free-space optical components, polarizers, and a low-end, consumer-grade charge coupled device camera. The plasmonic substrates were designed for converting the signature of hybrid mode SP excitation into a transmission peak by utilizing a thin homogeneous metal layer sandwiched between the periodic plasmonic structures and the substrate. The resonance is highly sensitive to the refractive index and thickness of the analyte superstrate. The excitation of hybrid mode SP results in a polarization rotation of 90° of the leaked radiation at resonant wavelength. In order to eliminate the problem of image registration (i.e., placing the same feature in the same pixel of the image, for comparison before and after a change in refractive index) for sensing, we perform the color analysis in the Fourier plane. The change in color of the bright emitted spot with highest momentum, corresponding to the leakage of fundamental SP mode, was used to measure the changes in refractive index, whereas the number and color of spots of lower momenta, corresponding to higher-order Fabry Perot modes, was used to measure the variation in thickness. We further show that the Fourier plane analysis can also be used to sense the index of thicker

  10. Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, P.; Krishnan, A., E-mail: ananthk@iitm.ac.in [Centre for NEMS and Nano Photonics (CNNP), Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036 (India); Experimental Optics Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036 (India)

    2015-12-21

    We demonstrate an optical technique for refractive index and thickness sensing of sub-wavelength-thick dielectric analytes. The technique utilizes the broadband, multimode, directional leakage radiation arising from the excitation of hybrid mode surface plasmons (SP) on low aspect ratio periodic plasmonic substrates with period ≈λ. The approach requires relaxed fabrication tolerances compared to extra ordinary transmission-based sensing techniques, wherein minor shifts in the fabricated dimensions result in a very large change from the designed resonant wavelength. We show that refractive index perturbations due to about 10-nm-thick dielectric can be captured optically by the usage of carefully designed plasmonic substrates, a halogen lamp source, free-space optical components, polarizers, and a low-end, consumer-grade charge coupled device camera. The plasmonic substrates were designed for converting the signature of hybrid mode SP excitation into a transmission peak by utilizing a thin homogeneous metal layer sandwiched between the periodic plasmonic structures and the substrate. The resonance is highly sensitive to the refractive index and thickness of the analyte superstrate. The excitation of hybrid mode SP results in a polarization rotation of 90° of the leaked radiation at resonant wavelength. In order to eliminate the problem of image registration (i.e., placing the same feature in the same pixel of the image, for comparison before and after a change in refractive index) for sensing, we perform the color analysis in the Fourier plane. The change in color of the bright emitted spot with highest momentum, corresponding to the leakage of fundamental SP mode, was used to measure the changes in refractive index, whereas the number and color of spots of lower momenta, corresponding to higher-order Fabry Perot modes, was used to measure the variation in thickness. We further show that the Fourier plane analysis can also be used to sense the index of thicker

  11. Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, P.; Krishnan, A.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate an optical technique for refractive index and thickness sensing of sub-wavelength-thick dielectric analytes. The technique utilizes the broadband, multimode, directional leakage radiation arising from the excitation of hybrid mode surface plasmons (SP) on low aspect ratio periodic plasmonic substrates with period ≈λ. The approach requires relaxed fabrication tolerances compared to extra ordinary transmission-based sensing techniques, wherein minor shifts in the fabricated dimensions result in a very large change from the designed resonant wavelength. We show that refractive index perturbations due to about 10-nm-thick dielectric can be captured optically by the usage of carefully designed plasmonic substrates, a halogen lamp source, free-space optical components, polarizers, and a low-end, consumer-grade charge coupled device camera. The plasmonic substrates were designed for converting the signature of hybrid mode SP excitation into a transmission peak by utilizing a thin homogeneous metal layer sandwiched between the periodic plasmonic structures and the substrate. The resonance is highly sensitive to the refractive index and thickness of the analyte superstrate. The excitation of hybrid mode SP results in a polarization rotation of 90° of the leaked radiation at resonant wavelength. In order to eliminate the problem of image registration (i.e., placing the same feature in the same pixel of the image, for comparison before and after a change in refractive index) for sensing, we perform the color analysis in the Fourier plane. The change in color of the bright emitted spot with highest momentum, corresponding to the leakage of fundamental SP mode, was used to measure the changes in refractive index, whereas the number and color of spots of lower momenta, corresponding to higher-order Fabry Perot modes, was used to measure the variation in thickness. We further show that the Fourier plane analysis can also be used to sense the index of thicker

  12. Fabrication of Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeters for X-Ray Focal Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Audley, Heather; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline; Lee, Sang Jun; hide

    2015-01-01

    Requirements for focal planes for x-ray astrophysics vary widely depending on the needs of the science application such as photon count rate, energy band, resolving power, and angular resolution. Transition edge sensor x-ray calorimeters can encounter limitations when optimized for these specific applications. Balancing specifications leads to choices in, for example, pixel size, thermal sinking arrangement, and absorber thickness and material. For the broadest specifications, instruments can benefit from multiple pixel types in the same array or focal plane. Here we describe a variety of focal plane architectures that anticipate science requirements of x-ray instruments for heliophysics and astrophysics. We describe the fabrication procedures that enable each array and explore limitations for the specifications of such arrays, including arrays with multiple pixel types on the same array.

  13. Two-plane symmetry in the structural organization of man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, A E

    2005-01-01

    Manifestations of symmetry in the human structural organization in ontogenesis and phylogenetic development are analysed. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant: (a) the location of the organs is governed by two principles: in compliance with the symmetry planes and in compliance with the radial symmetry around cavities; (b) the location of the radial symmetry organs is also governed by the principle of two-plane symmetry; (c) out of the four antimeres of two-plane symmetry, two are paired while the other two have merged into one organ; (d) some organs which are antimeres relative to the horizontal plane are located at the cranial end of the organism (sensory organs, cerebrum-cerebellum, heart-spleen and others). The two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms--(a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and (b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry. When comparing mineral and biological entities we should consider not the whole immobile crystal but only the active superficial part of a growing or dissolving crystal, the interface between the crystal surface and the crystal-forming environment which directly controls crystal growth and adapts itself to it, as well as crystal feed stock expressed in the structure of concentration flows. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrion at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described.

  14. Theoretical study of in-plane response of magnetic field sensor to magnetic beads in an in-plane homogeneous field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the average in-plane magnetic field on square and rectangular magnetic field sensors from a single magnetic bead and a monolayer of magnetic beads magnetized by an in-plane externally applied homogeneous magnetic field. General theoretical expressions...... are derived such that the sensor response and its dependence on the sensor size, spacer layer thickness, bead diameter, and bead susceptibility can easily be evaluated. The average magnetic field from a single bead close to the sensor shows a strong dependence on the position of the bead and a change of sign...... when the bead passes the edge of the sensor in the direction of the applied field. Analytical approximations are derived for the average field from a homogeneous monolayer of beads for beads much smaller than the sensor dimension and for a bead size chosen to minimize the position sensitivity...

  15. Parametrization of angular correlation function of final particles and gamma quanta at the gamma quanta detection out off reaction plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskaya, N.S.; Teplov, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    A possibility for determining all the elements of a density matrix for reactions and inelastic particle scattering with the production of even-even nucleus in the 2 + state is analyzed on the base of studying angular correlation function in different planes of gamma quantum escape. Angular correlations are considered in the coordinate system, where an incident beam of particles is directed along the Z axis, and the reaction plane coincides with the xZ plane. Given is the summary of the number of angular correlation function parameters and the number of Asub(kx) spin-tensor components (or amplitude combinations) which these parameters depend on. Analytical expressions for the function of angular correlation of finite particles and gamma quanta have been obtained. It is shown, that the angular correlation function shape and, correspondingly, reliability of determining its parameters from the experiment in different planes differ. The angular correlation function of finite particles and gamma quanta for any reaction with the production of even-even nuclei in the 2 + state irrespective of the reaction mechanism is defined by five parameters. Dependence of the parameters on azimuthal angle of gamma quantum escape is determined analytically. Orientation of gamma quantum registration plane in relation to the reaction plane is determined from the azimuthal angle phisub(γ). For complete reduction of the density matrix of an arbitrary reaction it is necessary to measure the function of angular correlation of finite particles and gamma quanta emitted by a finite nucleus during the transition from the 2 + state to the 0 + main state in two planes one of which can be a plane with phisub(γ)=45 deg, and the other has not to coincide with phisub(γ)=90 deg. For inelastic scattering of spinless particles the density matrix reduction is related to measuring the angular correlation function in two planes of gamma quanta escape, where phi sub(γ) not equal to 0 phi sub(γ0 deg. The

  16. Thermal effect on magnetic parameters of high-coercivity cobalt ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, E. F., E-mail: efchagas@fisica.ufmt.br; Ponce, A. S.; Prado, R. J.; Silva, G. M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá-MT (Brazil); Bettini, J. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 Urca. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-07-21

    We prepared very high-coercivity cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by a combustion method and using short-time high-energy mechanical milling to increase strain and the structural defects density. The coercivity (H{sub C}) of the milled sample reached 3.75 kOe—a value almost five times higher than that obtained for the non-milled material (0.76 kOe). To investigate the effect of the temperature on the magnetic behavior of the milled sample, we performed a thermal treatment on the milled sample at 300, 400, and 600 °C for 30 and 180 min. We analyzed the changes in the magnetic behavior of the nanoparticles due to the thermal treatment using the hysteresis curves, Williamson-Hall analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The thermal treatment at 600 °C causes decreases in the microstructural strain and density of structural defects resulting in a significant decrease in H{sub C}. Furthermore, this thermal treatment increases the size of the nanoparticles and, as a consequence, there is a substantial increase in the saturation magnetization (M{sub S}). The H{sub C} of the samples treated at 600 °C for 30 and 180 min were 2.24 and 1.93 kOe, respectively, and the M{sub S} of these same samples increased from 57 emu/g to 66 and 70 emu/g, respectively. The H{sub C} and the M{sub S} are less affected by the thermal treatment at 300 and 400 °C.

  17. In-plane anisotropic strain of elastically and plastically deformed III-nitrides on lithium gallate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkoong, Gon, E-mail: gnamkoon@odu.ed [Old Dominion University, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Applied Research Center, 12050 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Huang, Sa; Moseley, Michael; Doolittle, W. Alan [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 777 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2009-10-30

    We have investigated both elastically and plastically deformed GaN films on lithium gallate, LiGaO{sub 2}, by molecular beam epitaxy. The in-plane lattice parameters were determined from high resolution X-ray diffraction and indicated two different groups of in-plane lattice parameters, influenced by the a- and b-axis of LiGaO{sub 2}. The measured in-plane lattice parameters indicate that there exist both compressive and tensile strains of in-plane GaN along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO{sub 2}, respectively. This anisotropic strain in GaN films forms a slight distortion of the basal-plane hexagonal structure of GaN films, leading to a different critical thickness of 4.0 {+-} 0.17 and 7.8 {+-} 0.7 nm along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO{sub 2}, respectively.

  18. In-plane anisotropic strain of elastically and plastically deformed III-nitrides on lithium gallate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Huang, Sa; Moseley, Michael; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated both elastically and plastically deformed GaN films on lithium gallate, LiGaO 2 , by molecular beam epitaxy. The in-plane lattice parameters were determined from high resolution X-ray diffraction and indicated two different groups of in-plane lattice parameters, influenced by the a- and b-axis of LiGaO 2 . The measured in-plane lattice parameters indicate that there exist both compressive and tensile strains of in-plane GaN along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO 2 , respectively. This anisotropic strain in GaN films forms a slight distortion of the basal-plane hexagonal structure of GaN films, leading to a different critical thickness of 4.0 ± 0.17 and 7.8 ± 0.7 nm along the a- and b-axis of LiGaO 2 , respectively.

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of in- and out- of plane constraint effects on fracture parameters: Aluminium alloy 2024

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Hutař, Pavel; García, T.; Canteli, A.

    7 2013, č. 7 (2013), s. 53-64 ISSN 1802-680X Grant - others:Interní podpora AV ČR(CZ) M100411204 Keywords : LELM * stress intensity tensor * constraint * aluminium alloy * plane strain * plane stress Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  20. Growth and giant coerciv