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Sample records for thickness gradually increasing

  1. Abrupt or gradual increases in photoperiod for broiler breeders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant differences between the two lighting groups for age at sexual maturity, total egg production, egg mass output, mean egg weight to or body weight at 60 weeks. However, the birds given a single abrupt increment had a higher peak rate of lay whilst those given a gradual increase in daylength had ...

  2. Enhanced monoclonal antibody production by gradual increase of osmotic pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jianqiang; Takagi, Mutsumi; Qu, Yinbo; Gao, Peiji; Yoshida, Toshiomi

    1999-01-01

    The time length required for the adaptation of AFP-27 hybridoma cells to high osmotic pressure and the effect of a gradual increase of osmotic pressure on monoclonal antibody production were investigated. When the cells were subjected to an increase of osmotic pressure from 300 mOsmol kg-1 to 366 mOsmol kg- 1, the intracellular content of osmoprotective free amino acids reached a maximum level 6 h after the osmotic pressure was increased to 366 mOsmol kg-1. The same time period of 6 h incubat...

  3. Climatic response to a gradual increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stouffer, R.J.; Manabe, S.; Bryan, K.

    1990-01-01

    The transient response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to an increase of carbon dioxide has been the subject of several studies. The models used in these studies explicitly incorporate the effect of heat transport by ocean currents and are different from the model used by Hansen et al. Here the authors evaluate the climatic influence of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled model recently developed at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. The model response exhibits a marked and unexpected interhemispheric asymmetry. In the circumpolar ocean of the southern hemisphere, a region of deep vertical mixing, the increase of surface air temperature is very slow. In the Northern hemisphere of the model, the rise of surface air temperature is faster and increases with latitude, with the exception of the northern North Atlantic, where it is relatively slow because of the weakening of the thermohaline circulation

  4. Responses of respiration and photosynthesis of Scenedesmus protuberans Fritsch to gradual and steep salinity increases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flameling, I.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of an increase in salinity on the physiology of the halotolerant chlorophyte Scenedesmus protuberans was studied in light-limited continuous cultures. It was observed that a gradual, as well as a steep increase in salinity resulted in lower biomass. However, the mechanisms by which this

  5. Modeling Effectiveness of Gradual Increases in Source Level to Mitigate Effects of Sonar on Marine Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Wensveen, P.J.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.; Tyack, P.L.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the

  6. Gradually Increased Training Intensity Benefits Rehabilitation Outcome after Stroke by BDNF Upregulation and Stress Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical training is necessary for effective rehabilitation in the early poststroke period. Animal studies commonly use fixed training intensity throughout rehabilitation and without adapting it to the animals' recovered motor ability. This study investigated the correlation between training intensity and rehabilitation efficacy by using a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Sixty rats with successful stroke were then randomly assigned into four groups: control (CG, n=15, low intensity (LG, n=15, gradually increased intensity (GIG, n=15, and high intensity (HG, n=15. Behavioral tests were conducted daily to evaluate motor function recovery. Stress level and neural recovery were evaluated via plasma corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration, respectively. GIG rats significantly (P<0.05 recovered motor function and produced higher hippocampal BDNF (112.87 ± 25.18 ng/g. GIG and LG rats exhibited similar stress levels (540.63 ± 117.40 nM/L and 508.07 ± 161.30 nM/L, resp., which were significantly lower (P<0.05 than that (716.90 ± 156.48 nM/L of HG rats. Training with gradually increased intensity achieved better recovery with lower stress. Our observations indicate that a training protocol that includes gradually increasing training intensity should be considered in both animal and clinical studies for better stroke recovery.

  7. Gradually Increased Oxygen Administration Improved Oxygenation and Mitigated Oxidative Stress after Resuscitation from Severe Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Yin, Yujing; You, Guoxing; Chen, Gan; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Jingxiang; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The optimal oxygen administration strategy during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (HS) is still controversial. Improving oxygenation and mitigating oxidative stress simultaneously seem to be contradictory goals. To maximize oxygen delivery while minimizing oxidative damage, the authors proposed the notion of gradually increased oxygen administration (GIOA), which entails making the arterial blood hypoxemic early in resuscitation and subsequently gradually increasing to hyperoxic, and compared its effects with normoxic resuscitation, hyperoxic resuscitation, and hypoxemic resuscitation in severe HS. Rats were subjected to HS, and on resuscitation, the rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8): the normoxic, the hyperoxic, the hypoxemic, and the GIOA groups. Rats were observed for an additional 1 h. Hemodynamics, acid-base status, oxygenation, and oxidative injury were observed and evaluated. Central venous oxygen saturation promptly recovered only in the hyperoxic and the GIOA groups, and the liver tissue partial pressure of oxygen was highest in the GIOA group after resuscitation. Oxidative stress in GIOA group was significantly reduced compared with the hyperoxic group as indicated by the reduced malondialdehyde content, increased catalase activity, and the lower histologic injury scores in the liver. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 expressions in the liver were markedly decreased in the GIOA group than in the hyperoxic and normoxic groups as shown by the immunohistochemical staining. GIOA improved systemic/tissue oxygenation and mitigated oxidative stress simultaneously after resuscitation from severe HS. GIOA may be a promising strategy to improve resuscitation from HS and deserves further investigation.

  8. Broadband absorption and enhanced photothermal conversion property of octopod-like Ag@Ag2S core@shell structures with gradually varying shell thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Zeng, Wenxia; Zhang, Canying; Meng, Zhaoguo; Wu, Jiawei; Zhu, Qunzhi; Wu, Daxiong; Zhu, Haitao

    2017-12-19

    Photothermal conversion materials have promising applications in many fields and therefore they have attracted tremendous attention. However, the multi-functionalization of a single nanostructure to meet the requirements of multiple photothermal applications is still a challenge. The difficulty is that most nanostructures have specific absoprtion band and are not flexible to different demands. In the current work, we reported the synthesis and multi-band photothermal conversion of Ag@Ag 2 S core@shell structures with gradually varying shell thickness. We synthesized the core@shell structures through the sulfidation of Ag nanocubes by taking the advantage of their spatially different reactivity. The resulting core@shell structures show an octopod-like mopgorlogy with a Ag 2 S bulge sitting at each corner of the Ag nanocubes. The thickness of the Ag 2 S shell gradually increases from the central surface towards the corners of the structure. The synthesized core@shell structures show a broad band absorption spectrum from 300 to 1100 nm. Enhanced photothermal conversion effect is observed under the illuminations of 635, 808, and 1064 nm lasers. The results indicate that the octopod-like Ag@Ag 2 S core@shell structures have characteristics of multi-band photothermal conversion. The current work might provide a guidance for the design and synthesis of multifunctional photothermal conversion materials.

  9. Increased endometrial thickness in women with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, J; Auslender, R; Goldstein, S; Kohan, R; Stolar, Z; Abramovici, H

    2000-09-01

    We noticed an increase in endometrial thickness in women with hypertension who were treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the endometrium of hypertensive women is thicker than that of healthy women and to determine whether endometrial thickening in hypertensive women is directly related to the antihypertensive beta-blocker treatment. We compared 3 groups of postmenopausal patients as follows: (1) women with a history of essential hypertension treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers; (2) women with a history of hypertension treated with a combination of medications that did not include beta-blockers; and (3) healthy women without hypertension. All patients were interviewed and examined, blood tests were performed, and endometrial thickness in the anterior-posterior diameter was measured by vaginal ultrasonography. Among the exclusion criteria were diabetes or an abnormal fasting blood glucose level, obesity, hormonal medication or replacement hormonal therapy during the previous 6 months, and a history of hormonal disturbances, infertility, or polycystic ovary syndrome. Of 45 hypertensive women enrolled in the study, 22 were treated with a beta-blocker combination medication and 23 were treated with other antihypertensive medications. They were compared with 25 healthy women. There was no statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness between women treated with medications, including beta-blockers, and those who were treated with other hypotensive agents. Twenty percent of women with hypertension and none of the healthy women had endometrium >5 mm thick (P infinity). Twenty percent of hypertensive postmenopausal women were found to have increased endometrial thickness. However, we were unable to substantiate an association between the type of treatment administered, whether beta-blockers were included, and the increase in endometrial thickness.

  10. Gradually increasing ethinyl estradiol for Turner syndrome may produce good final height but not ideal BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Ariyasu, Daisuke; Izawa, Masako; Igaki-Miyamoto, Junko; Fukuma, Mami; Hatano, Megumi; Yagi, Hiroko; Goto, Masahiro

    2017-02-27

    Estrogen replacement therapy in Turner syndrome should theoretically mimic the physiology of healthy girls. The objective of this study was to describe final height and bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of 17 Turner syndrome patients (group E) who started their ethinyl estradiol therapy with an ultra-low dosage (1-5 ng/kg/day) from 9.8-13.7 years. The subjects in group E had been treated with GH 0.35 mg/kg/week since the average age of 7.4 years. The 30 subjects in group L, one of the historical groups, were given comparable doses of GH, and conjugated estrogen 0.3125 mg/week ∼0.3125 mg/day was initiated at 12.2-18.7 years. The subjects in group S, the other historical group, were 21 patients who experienced breast development and menarche spontaneously. Final height (height gain Turner syndrome. The final height in group L was 148.5 ± 3.0 cm with a SD of 1.30 ± 0.55, which was significantly different from the values for group E. The volumetric BMD of group S (0.290 ± 0.026 g/cm 3 ) was significantly different from that of group L or E (0.262 or 0.262 g/cm 3 as a mean, respectively). This is the first study of patients with Turner syndrome where estrogen was administered initially in an ultra-low dose and then increased gradually. Our estrogen therapy in group E produced good final height but not ideal BMD.

  11. Elastic and Viscoelastic Stresses of Nonlinear Rotating Functionally Graded Solid and Annular Disks with Gradually Varying Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam M. N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical and numerical nonlinear solutions for rotating variable-thickness functionally graded solid and annular disks with viscoelastic orthotropic material properties are presented by using the method of successive approximations.Variable material properties such as Young’s moduli, density and thickness of the disk, are first introduced to obtain the governing equation. As a second step, the method of successive approximations is proposed to get the nonlinear solution of the problem. In the third step, the method of effective moduli is deduced to reduce the problem to the corresponding one of a homogeneous but anisotropic material. The results of viscoelastic stresses and radial displacement are obtained for annular and solid disks of different profiles and graphically illustrated. The calculated results are compared and the effects due to many parameters are discussed.

  12. Response of ocean acidification to a gradual increase and decrease of atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Long; Zhang, Han; Zheng, Meidi; Wang, Shuangjing

    2014-01-01

    We perform coupled climate–carbon cycle model simulations to examine changes in ocean acidity in response to idealized change of atmospheric CO 2 . Atmospheric CO 2 increases at a rate of 1% per year to four times its pre-industrial level of 280 ppm and then decreases at the same rate to the pre-industrial level. Our simulations show that changes in surface ocean chemistry largely follow changes in atmospheric CO 2 . However, changes in deep ocean chemistry in general lag behind the change in atmospheric CO 2 because of the long time scale associated with the penetration of excess CO 2 into the deep ocean. In our simulations with the effect of climate change, when atmospheric CO 2 reaches four times its pre-industrial level, global mean aragonite saturation horizon (ASH) shoals from the pre-industrial value of 1288 to 143 m. When atmospheric CO 2 returns from the peak value of 1120 ppm to pre-industrial level, ASH is 630 m, which is approximately the value of ASH when atmospheric CO 2 first increases to 719 ppm. At pre-industrial CO 2 9% deep-sea cold-water corals are surrounded by seawater that is undersaturated with aragonite. When atmospheric CO 2 reaches 1120 ppm, 73% cold-water coral locations are surrounded by seawater with aragonite undersaturation, and when atmospheric CO 2 returns to the pre-industrial level, 18% cold-water coral locations are surrounded by seawater with aragonite undersaturation. Our analysis indicates the difficulty for some marine ecosystems to recover to their natural chemical habitats even if atmospheric CO 2 content can be lowered in the future. (paper)

  13. OPTIMAL practice conditions enhance the benefits of gradually increasing error opportunities on retention of a stepping sequence task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; Driscoll, Kate; Galvez, Jessica; Mercado, Kathleen; O'Neil, Lindsey

    2017-12-01

    Physical therapists should implement practice conditions that promote motor skill learning after neurological injury. Errorful and errorless practice conditions are effective for different populations and tasks. Errorful learning provides opportunities for learners to make task-relevant choices. Enhancing learner autonomy through choice opportunities is a key component of the Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) theory of motor learning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between error opportunity frequency and OPTIMAL (autonomy-supportive) practice conditions during stepping sequence acquisition in a virtual environment. Forty healthy young adults were randomized to autonomy-supportive or autonomy-controlling practice conditions, which differed in instructional language, focus of attention (external vs internal) and positive versus negative nature of verbal and visual feedback. All participants practiced 40 trials of 4, six-step stepping sequences in a random order. Each of the 4 sequences offered different amounts of choice opportunities about the next step via visual cue presentation (4 choices; 1 choice; gradually increasing [1-2-3-4] choices, and gradually decreasing [4-3-2-1] choices). Motivation and engagement were measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) and the User Engagement Scale (UES). Participants returned 1-3 days later for retention tests, where learning was measured by time to complete each sequence. No choice cues were offered on retention. Participants in the autonomy-supportive group outperformed the autonomy-controlling group at retention on all sequences (mean difference 2.88s, p errorful (4 choice) sequence (p error opportunities over time, suggest that participants relied on implicit learning strategies for this full body task and that feedback about successes minimized errors and reduced their potential information-processing benefits. Subsequent

  14. Increase in average foveal thickness after internal limiting membrane peeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumagai K

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kazuyuki Kumagai,1 Mariko Furukawa,1 Tetsuyuki Suetsugu,1 Nobuchika Ogino2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kami-iida Daiichi General Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nishigaki Eye Clinic, Aichi, Japan Purpose: To report the findings in three cases in which the average foveal thickness was increased after a thin epiretinal membrane (ERM was removed by vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling.Methods: The foveal contour was normal preoperatively in all eyes. All cases underwent successful phacovitrectomy with ILM peeling for a thin ERM. The optical coherence tomography (OCT images were examined before and after the surgery. The changes in the average foveal (1 mm thickness and the foveal areas within 500 µm from the foveal center were measured. The postoperative changes in the inner and outer retinal areas determined from the cross-sectional OCT images were analyzed.Results: The average foveal thickness and the inner and outer foveal areas increased significantly after the surgery in each of the three cases. The percentage increase in the average foveal thickness relative to the baseline thickness was 26% in Case 1, 29% in Case 2, and 31% in Case 3. The percentage increase in the foveal inner retinal area was 71% in Case 1, 113% in Case 2, and 110% in Case 3, and the percentage increase in foveal outer retinal area was 8% in Case 1, 13% in Case 2, and 18% in Case 3.Conclusion: The increase in the average foveal thickness and the inner and outer foveal areas suggests that a centripetal movement of the inner and outer retinal layers toward the foveal center probably occurred due to the ILM peeling. Keywords: internal limiting membrane, optical coherence tomography, average foveal thickness, epiretinal membrane, vitrectomy

  15. Increased Cortical Thickness in Professional On-Line Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. Methods High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. Results Career length was positively correlated with cortical thickness in three brain regions: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility. PMID:24474988

  16. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solli, Linn; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New results from continuous anaerobic co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM). • Co-digestion of FWS and CM has a high biogas potential. • Optimal mixing ratio of FWS/CM is 13–16/87–84 volume%. • High input of FWS leads to accumulation of NH4+ and VFAs and process failure. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8 L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% – 6% – 13% – 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS −1 , obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids

  17. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solli, Linn, E-mail: linn.solli@bioforsk.no; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • New results from continuous anaerobic co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM). • Co-digestion of FWS and CM has a high biogas potential. • Optimal mixing ratio of FWS/CM is 13–16/87–84 volume%. • High input of FWS leads to accumulation of NH4+ and VFAs and process failure. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8 L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% – 6% – 13% – 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS{sup −1}, obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids.

  18. A MULTISTAGE GRADUAL NITROGENREDUCTION STRATEGY FOR INCREASED LIPID PRODUCTIVITY AND NITROGEN REMOVAL IN WASTEWATER USING Chlorella vulgaris AND Scenedesmus obliquus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Robles-Heredia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractChlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquuswere grown in artificial-wastewater using a new nitrogen-limitation strategy aimed at increasing lipid productivity. This strategy consisted in a multi-stage process with sequential reduction of N-NH4 concentration (from 90 to 60, 40, and 20 mg.L-1 to promote a balance between cell growth and lipid accumulation. Lipid productivity was compared against a reference process consisting of nitrogen reduction in two stages, where the nitrogen concentration was suddenly reduced from 90 mg.L-1 to three different concentrations (10, 20, and 30 mg.L-1. In the multi-stage mode, only C. vulgaris exhibited a net lipid-productivity increase. Lipid content of S. obliquus did not present a significant increase, thus decreasing lipid productivity. The highest lipid productivities were observed in the two-stage mode for both S. obliquus and C. vulgaris (194.9 and 133.5 mg.L-1.d-1, respectively, and these values are among the highest reported in the literature to date.

  19. Thermal tolerance of Limnoperna fortunei to gradual temperature increase and its applications for biofouling control in industrial and power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelizin, Pablo V; Boltovskoy, Demetrio

    2011-07-01

    The acute upper lethal temperature (AULT) at different rates of increase was evaluated as a tool for the design of cheaper and environmentally friendlier control strategies for the invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei. Survivorship of 6 ± 2 mm and 20 ± 2 mm mussels acclimated to 12, 23 and 28 ° C and subjected to different heating rates (1 ° C per 5, 15 and 30 min) was estimated in the laboratory. The temperatures required to kill 50% (LT(50)) and 100% (SM(100)) of the mussels, and the mean death temperature (MDT) varied between 42.2 and 51 ° C over 54 experiments. Heating rates significantly (p industrial capacities, suggesting that heat treatment is a viable alternative for controlling its fouling in utility systems.

  20. Increased nuchal translucency thickness and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmuth, Signe G; Pedersen, L H; Miltoft, Caroline B

    2016-01-01

    spectrum disorders (ASD), cerebral palsy, epilepsy and febrile seizures was obtained from national patient registries. RESULTS: There was no excess risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among euploid children with first-trimester NT 95(th) -99(th) percentile. For children with NT > 99(th) percentile...... in the risk of cerebral palsy (OR, 1.91 (95% CI, 0.61-5.95), 0.47%), epilepsy (OR, 1.51 (95% CI, 0.63-3.66), 0.78%) or febrile seizures (OR, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.44-1.16), 2.65%). CONCLUSIONS: In a large unselected cohort of euploid children, there was no increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among those......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and neurodevelopmental disorders in euploid children. METHODS: This study included 222 505 euploid children who had undergone routine first-trimester screening during fetal life. Children were divided...

  1. Gradual Increase of FcγRIIIa/CD16a Expression and Shift toward IFN-γ Secretion during Differentiation of CD56dim Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lajoie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cell effector functions include cytotoxicity and secretion of cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ. The immature CD56bright subset of human NK cells lacks expression of FcγRIIIa/CD16a, one of the low-affinity immunoglobulin G receptors, or exhibits low-density expression (CD56brightCD16−/dim and produces IFN-γ in response to cytokine stimulation, whereas the mature CD56dimCD16+ subset is the most cytotoxic one. A further differentiation/maturation of the latter subset according to the gradual loss of NKG2A and/or gain of KIR2DL (CD158a and CD158b has been demonstrated and the ability to produce IFN-γ in response to activating receptor (AR co-engagement is gradually acquired during terminal differentiation. In the course of flow cytometry analysis of CD56dim NK cells, we noted a substantial intraindividual heterogeneity of expression of FcγRIIIa. FcγRIIIa is unique among ARs: it does not require the co-engagement of other ARs to induce substantial cytotoxicity or cytokine synthesis in CD56dim cells. We, therefore, investigated whether individual differentiation/maturation of polyclonal CD56dim NK cells defined by expression of NKG2A/KIR2DL is related to FcγRIIIa expression and to the heterogeneity of NK cell responses upon FcγRIIIa engagement. When we analyzed unstimulated CD56dim cells by increasing level of FcγRIIIa expression, we found that the proportion of the more differentiated CD158a,h+ and/or CD158b,j+ cells and that of the less differentiated NKG2A+ cells gradually increased and decreased, respectively. FcγRIIIa engagement by using plate-bound murine anti-CD16 monoclonal antibody (mAb or rituximab or trastuzumab (two therapeutic mAbs, resulted in donor-dependent partial segregation of IFN-γ-producing and/or degranulating CD56dim cells. Importantly, the proportion of CD158a,h/b,j+ cells and that of NKG2A+ cells was increased and decreased, respectively, IFN-γ-producing cells, whereas these proportions

  2. Increased Cortical Thickness in Male-to-Female Transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Sánchez, Francisco J; Tosun, Duygu; Shattuck, David W; Gaser, Christian; Vilain, Eric; Toga, Arthur W

    2012-08-01

    The degree to which one identifies as male or female has a profound impact on one's life. Yet, there is a limited understanding of what contributes to this important characteristic termed gender identity . In order to reveal factors influencing gender identity, studies have focused on people who report strong feelings of being the opposite sex, such as male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals. To investigate potential neuroanatomical variations associated with transsexualism, we compared the regional thickness of the cerebral cortex between 24 MTF transsexuals who had not yet been treated with cross-sex hormones and 24 age-matched control males. Results revealed thicker cortices in MTF transsexuals, both within regions of the left hemisphere (i.e., frontal and orbito-frontal cortex, central sulcus, perisylvian regions, paracentral gyrus) and right hemisphere (i.e., pre-/post-central gyrus, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, precuneus, fusiform, lingual, and orbito-frontal gyrus). These findings provide further evidence that brain anatomy is associated with gender identity, where measures in MTF transsexuals appear to be shifted away from gender-congruent men.

  3. Towards Practical Gradual Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Takikawa, Asumu; Feltey, Daniel; Dean, Earl; Flatt, Matthew; Findler, Robert Bruce; Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam; Felleisen, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, programmers have embraced dynamically-typed programming languages. By now, they have also come to realize that programs in these languages lack reliable type information for software engineering purposes. Gradual typing addresses this problem; it empowers programmers to annotate an existing system with sound type information on a piecemeal basis. This paper presents an implementation of a gradual type system for a full-featured class-based language as well as a novel p...

  4. A Successful Pregnancy by Utilization of Gradually Increasing Low Dose Gonadotrophin Stimulation in a Modified Natural Cycle in Vitro Fertilization Procedure: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kahyaoğlu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The modified natural cycle in vitro fertilization (MNC-IVF treatment can be a promising method for poor responder patients especially in young patients with poor ovarian reserve. A 34-year-old primary infertile woman presented with a history of poor ovarian response and cycle cancellation following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during an IVF-ET procedure two months ago. During MNC-IVF treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, gradually increasing doses of hMG for three days (totally 675 IU have been administered accompanied by daily 0,25 mg cetrorelix. Following ovulation triggering, one oocyte was picked up and a good quality (grade 1 embryo was transferred on day 2. A clinical pregnancy was established with ultrasonography on sixth weeks of gestation. Acceptable pregnancy rates per embryo transfer, low medication cost, relatively low risk of complications and higher patient acceptability are the main advantages of MNC-IVF treatment as a feasible treatment option especially for poor responder patients.

  5. Plasma leptin and growth hormone levels in the fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) increase gradually during fasting and decline rapidly after refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Kling, Peter; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg Eir; Alvarez, Marco; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2012-05-15

    In fish, recent studies have indicated an anorexigenic role of leptin and thus its possible involvement in regulation of energy balance and growth. In the present study, the effects of fasting and refeeding periods on plasma leptin levels were studied in the fine flounder, a flatfish with remarkably slow growth. To further assess the endocrine status of the fish during periods of catabolism and anabolism, plasma growth hormone (GH) levels were also analyzed. Under normal feeding condition, plasma leptin and GH levels remained stable and relatively high in comparison with other teleost species. For the three separate groups of fish, fasted for 2, 3, and 4 weeks, respectively, plasma leptin levels increase gradually, becoming significantly elevated after 3 weeks, and reaching highest levels after 4-week fasting. Plasma GH levels were significantly elevated after 2-week fasting. At the onset of refeeding, following a single meal, leptin levels decline rapidly to lower than initial levels within 2 h, irrespective of the length of fasting. Plasma GH also decline, the decrease being significant after 4, 24 and 2 h for the 2, 3 and 4-week fasted groups, respectively. This study shows that plasma leptin levels in the fine flounder are strongly linked to nutritional status and suggests that leptin secretion is regulated by fast-acting mechanisms. Elevated leptin levels in fasted fish may contribute to a passive survival strategy of species which experience natural food shortage periods by lowering appetite and limiting physical foraging activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gradual linguistic summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; Kaymak, U.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, xx

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new type of protoform-based linguistic summary – the gradual summary. This new type of summaries aims in capturing the change over some time span. Such summaries can be useful in many domains, for instance in economics, e.g., "prices of X are getting smaller" in eldercare,

  7. A long-term increase in eggshell thickness of Greenlandic Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Matox, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase...

  8. Resveratrol increases nitric oxide production in the rat thick ascending limb via Ca2+/calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Cabral, Pablo D; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle reabsorbs 30% of the NaCl filtered through the glomerulus. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl absorption by this segment. Resveratrol, a polyphenol, has beneficial cardiovascular and renal effects, many of which are mediated by NO. Resveratrol increases intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) and AMP kinase (AMPK) and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activities, all of which could activate NO production. We hypothesized that resveratrol stimulates NO production by thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. To test this, the effect of resveratrol on NO bioavailability was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions. Cai was measured in single perfused thick ascending limbs. SIRT1 activity and expression were measured in thick ascending limb lysates. Resveratrol (100 µM) increased NO bioavailability in thick ascending limb suspensions by 1.3±0.2 AFU/mg/min (pthick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin dependent mechanism, and SIRT1 and AMPK do not participate. Resveratrol-stimulated NO production in thick ascending limbs may account for part of its beneficial effects.

  9. Genetic and Developmental Basis for Increased Leaf Thickness in the Arabidopsis Cvi Ecotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Coneva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf thickness is a quantitative trait that is associated with the ability of plants to occupy dry, high irradiance environments. Despite its importance, leaf thickness has been difficult to measure reproducibly, which has impeded progress in understanding its genetic basis, and the associated anatomical mechanisms that pattern it. Here, we used a custom-built dual confocal profilometer device to measure leaf thickness in the Arabidopsis Ler × Cvi recombinant inbred line population and found statistical support for four quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with this trait. We used publically available data for a suite of traits relating to flowering time and growth responses to light quality and show that three of the four leaf thickness QTL coincide with QTL for at least one of these traits. Using time course photography, we quantified the relative growth rate and the pace of rosette leaf initiation in the Ler and Cvi ecotypes. We found that Cvi rosettes grow slower than Ler, both in terms of the rate of leaf initiation and the overall rate of biomass accumulation. Collectively, these data suggest that leaf thickness is tightly linked with physiological status and may present a tradeoff between the ability to withstand stress and rapid vegetative growth. To understand the anatomical basis of leaf thickness, we compared cross-sections of Cvi and Ler leaves and show that Cvi palisade mesophyll cells elongate anisotropically contributing to leaf thickness. Flow cytometry of whole leaves show that endopolyploidy accompanies thicker leaves in Cvi. Overall, our data suggest that mechanistically, an altered schedule of cellular events affecting endopolyploidy and increasing palisade mesophyll cell length contribute to increase of leaf thickness in Cvi. Ultimately, knowledge of the genetic basis and developmental trajectory leaf thickness will inform the mechanisms by which natural selection acts to produce variation in this adaptive trait.

  10. Increased Bladder Wall Thickness in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Women With Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Uzun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bladder wall thickness has been reported to be associated with overactive bladder (OAB in women. Diabetic women have an increased risk for OAB syndrome and may have an increased risk for bladder wall thickness. Methods: A total of 235 female patients aged 40 to 75 years were categorized into four groups. The first group consisted of women free of urgency or urge urinary incontinence. The second group included nondiabetic women with idiopathic OAB. The third group consisted of women with diabetes and clinical OAB, and women with diabetes but without OAB constituted the fourth group. Bladder wall thickness at the anterior wall was measured by ultrasound by the suprapubic approach with bladder filling over 250 mL. Results: The diabetic (third group and nondiabetic (second group women with OAB had significantly greater bladder wall thickness at the anterior bladder wall than did the controls. However, the difference was not significant between the diabetic (third group and the nondiabetic (second group women with OAB. Women with diabetes but without OAB (fourth group had greater bladder wall thickness than did the controls but this difference was not significant. Additionally, the difference in bladder wall thickness between diabetic women with (third group and without (fourth group OAB was not significant. Conclusions: This is the first study to show that bladder wall thickness is increased in diabetic women with and without OAB. Additionally, nondiabetic women with OAB had increased bladder wall thickness. Further studies may provide additional information for diabetic and nondiabetic women with OAB, in whom the etiopathogenesis of the disease may be similar.

  11. iNOS-dependent increase in colonic mucus thickness in DSS-colitic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Schreiber

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h, the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS -/- mice were used. RESULTS: Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 µm vs 76±1 µm. During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (-16±5 µm vs -14±2 µm. While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 µm vs +3±1 µm, L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (-33±4 µm vs -10±3 µm. The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS-/- mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 µm vs 50±2 µm, respectively. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. CONCLUSION: Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an i

  12. Flexoelectricity induced increase of critical thickness in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hao; Hong Jiawang; Zhang Yihui; Li Faxin; Pei Yongmao; Fang Daining

    2012-01-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the coupling between polarization and strain/stress gradients in insulating crystals. In this paper, using the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach, we found that flexoelectricity could increase the theoretical critical thickness in epitaxial BaTiO 3 thin films, below which the switchable spontaneous polarization vanishes. This increase is remarkable in tensile films while trivial in compressive films due to the electrostriction caused decrease of potential barrier, which can be easily destroyed by the flexoelectricity, between the ferroelectric state and the paraelectric state in tensile films. In addition, the films are still in a uni-polar state even below the critical thickness due to the flexoelectric effect.

  13. Topical adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Nagashima, T; Hanzawa, N; Ishino, A; Nakazawa, Y; Ogo, M; Iwabuchi, T; Tajima, M

    2015-12-01

    Hair thickness is more important than hair density in the appearance of baldness in male with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Adenosine improves hair loss by stimulating hair growth and by thickening hair shafts in women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hair growth efficacy and safety of topical adenosine in men with AGA. A lotion containing either adenosine or niacinamide was administered to the scalps of 102 Japanese men twice daily for 6 months in a double-blind, randomized study. Efficacy was evaluated by dermatologists who assessed the quality of the hair and by calculating the percentages of vellus-like and thick hairs among the vertex hairs, as well as hair density. Adenosine was significantly (P < 0.05) superior to niacinamide in terms of global improvement of AGA, increase in the percentage of thick hairs (at least 60 μm) and self-assessment of hair thickness by the study participants. No causal adverse event due to the adenosine lotion was observed. These data indicate that adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with AGA, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Apparent increase in the thickness of superconducting particles at low temperatures measured by electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J E

    2013-10-01

    We predict that superconducting particles will show an apparent increase in thickness at low temperatures when measured by electron holography. This will result not from a real thickness increase, rather from an increase in the mean inner potential sensed by the electron wave traveling through the particle, originating in expansion of the electronic wavefunction of the superconducting electrons and resulting negative charge expulsion from the interior to the surface of the superconductor, giving rise to an increase in the phase shift of the electron wavefront going through the sample relative to the wavefront going through vacuum. The temperature dependence of the observed phase shifts will yield valuable new information on the physics of the superconducting state of metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Apparent increase in the thickness of superconducting particles at low temperatures measured by electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    We predict that superconducting particles will show an apparent increase in thickness at low temperatures when measured by electron holography. This will result not from a real thickness increase, rather from an increase in the mean inner potential sensed by the electron wave traveling through the particle, originating in expansion of the electronic wavefunction of the superconducting electrons and resulting negative charge expulsion from the interior to the surface of the superconductor, giving rise to an increase in the phase shift of the electron wavefront going through the sample relative to the wavefront going through vacuum. The temperature dependence of the observed phase shifts will yield valuable new information on the physics of the superconducting state of metals. - Highlights: • A new property of superconducting particles is predicted. • Electron holography will show an apparent increase in thickness at low temperatures. • This will result from a predicted increase in the mean inner potential. • This will originate in expulsion of electrons from the interior to the surface. • This is not predicted by the conventional BCS theory of superconductivity

  16. Increased Executive Functioning, Attention, and Cortical Thickness in White-Collar Criminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Laufer, William S.; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known on white collar crime and how it differs to other forms of offending. This study tests the hypothesis that white collar criminals have better executive functioning, enhanced information processing, and structural brain superiorities compared to offender controls. Using a case-control design, executive functioning, orienting, and cortical thickness was assessed in 21 white collar criminals matched with 21 controls on age, gender, ethnicity, and general level of criminal offending. White collar criminals had significantly better executive functioning, increased electrodermal orienting, increased arousal, and increased cortical gray matter thickness in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory cortex, and the temporal-parietal junction compared to controls. Results, while initial, constitute the first findings on neurobiological characteristics of white-collar criminals It is hypothesized that white collar criminals have information-processing and brain superiorities that give them an advantage in perpetrating criminal offenses in occupational settings. PMID:22002326

  17. Increased supraspinatus tendon thickness following fatigue loading in rotator cuff tendinopathy: potential implications for exercise therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Karen M; Purtill, Helen; Donnelly, Alan E; Lewis, Jeremy S

    2017-01-01

    Exercise imparts a load on tendon tissue that leads to changes in tendon properties. Studies suggest that loading immediately reduces tendon thickness, with a loss of this response in symptomatic tendinopathy. No studies investigating the response of tendon dimensions to load for the rotator cuff tendons exist. This study aimed to examine the short-term effect of loading on the thickness of the supraspinatus tendon and acromiohumeral distance those with and without rotator cuff tendinopathy. Participants were 20 painfree controls, and 23 people with painful rotator cuff tendinopathy. Supraspinatus tendon thickness and acromiohumeral distance were measured using ultrasound scans before, and at three time points after loading (1, 6 and 24 hours). Loading involved isokinetic eccentric and concentric external rotation and abduction. There was a significant increase in supraspinatus tendon thickness in the pain group at 1 (7%, ∆=0.38, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.57) and 6 hours (11%, ∆=0.53, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.71), although only the 6 hours difference exceeded minimal detectable difference. In contrast, there was a small non-significant reduction in thickness in controls. The acromiohumeral distance reduced significantly in both groups at 1 hour (controls: ∆=0.64, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.90; pain: ∆=1.1, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.33), with a larger change from baseline in the pain group. Those diagnosed with painful supraspinatus tendinopathy demonstrated increased thickening with delayed return to baseline following loading. Rehabilitation professionals may need to take into account the impact of loading to fatigue when planning rehabilitation programmes.

  18. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sörös

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD.MethodsSurface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear regressions were calculated between cortical thickness and the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity subscales of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS. Two separate analyses were performed. For the first analysis, age was included as additional regressor. For the second analysis, both age and severity of depression were included as additional regressors. Study participants were recruited between June 2012 and January 2014.ResultsLinear regression identified an area in the left occipital cortex of men, covering parts of the middle occipital sulcus and gyrus, in which the score on the CAARS inattention subscale predicted increased mean cortical thickness [F(1,27 = 26.27, p < 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.4744]. No significant associations were found between cortical thickness and the scores on CAARS subscales in women. No significant associations were found between the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the scores on CAARS subscales, neither in men nor in women. These results remained stable when severity of depression was included as additional regressor, together with age.ConclusionIncreased cortical thickness in the left occipital cortex may represent a mechanism to compensate for dysfunctional attentional networks in male adult ADHD patients.

  19. Flexoelectricity induced increase of critical thickness in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hao [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hong Jiawang; Zhang Yihui [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Faxin [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pei Yongmao, E-mail: peiym@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang Daining, E-mail: fangdn@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the coupling between polarization and strain/stress gradients in insulating crystals. In this paper, using the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach, we found that flexoelectricity could increase the theoretical critical thickness in epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films, below which the switchable spontaneous polarization vanishes. This increase is remarkable in tensile films while trivial in compressive films due to the electrostriction caused decrease of potential barrier, which can be easily destroyed by the flexoelectricity, between the ferroelectric state and the paraelectric state in tensile films. In addition, the films are still in a uni-polar state even below the critical thickness due to the flexoelectric effect.

  20. Ocean acidification and temperature increase impact mussel shell shape and thickness: problematic for protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Vittert, Liberty; Bowman, Adrian; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Phoenix, Vernon R; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification threatens organisms that produce calcium carbonate shells by potentially generating an under-saturated carbonate environment. Resultant reduced calcification and growth, and subsequent dissolution of exoskeletons, would raise concerns over the ability of the shell to provide protection for the marine organism under ocean acidification and increased temperatures. We examined the impact of combined ocean acidification and temperature increase on shell formation of the economically important edible mussel Mytilus edulis. Shell growth and thickness along with a shell thickness index and shape analysis were determined. The ability of M. edulis to produce a functional protective shell after 9 months of experimental culture under ocean acidification and increasing temperatures (380, 550, 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2, and 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2 + 2°C) was assessed. Mussel shells grown under ocean acidification conditions displayed significant reductions in shell aragonite thickness, shell thickness index, and changes to shell shape (750, 1000 μatm pCO 2) compared to those shells grown under ambient conditions (380 μatm pCO 2). Ocean acidification resulted in rounder, flatter mussel shells with thinner aragonite layers likely to be more vulnerable to fracture under changing environments and predation. The changes in shape presented here could present a compensatory mechanism to enhance protection against predators and changing environments under ocean acidification when mussels are unable to grow thicker shells. Here, we present the first assessment of mussel shell shape to determine implications for functional protection under ocean acidification.

  1. Methods for working thick seams and research on increasing their effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1976-01-01

    In Poland nearly 40 per cent of all coal is extracted from seams more than 3 m. thick. In absolute figures this represents about 70 million tons of coal per year. Working seams with thicknesses up to 3.5 m. does not present, at present, major difficulties. Working thicker seams calls for a steady improvement in order to increase the degree of utilizaion of the deposit and to enlarge the concentration of output. The seams are worked under protected surface structures which compels the mines to use hydraulic stowing with all its advantages and disadvantages. Rock burst hazard, the control of which is the basic problem hindering the mining, is a further problem. 3 refs.

  2. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörös, Peter; Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Kanat, Manuela; Hoxhaj, Eliza; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Müller, Helge H O; Thiel, Christiane; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD. Surface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear regressions were calculated between cortical thickness and the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity subscales of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). Two separate analyses were performed. For the first analysis, age was included as additional regressor. For the second analysis, both age and severity of depression were included as additional regressors. Study participants were recruited between June 2012 and January 2014. Linear regression identified an area in the left occipital cortex of men, covering parts of the middle occipital sulcus and gyrus, in which the score on the CAARS inattention subscale predicted increased mean cortical thickness [ F (1,27) = 26.27, p  attentional networks in male adult ADHD patients.

  3. Lactobacillus reuteri increases mucus thickness and ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, D; Liu, H; Schreiber, O; Roos, S; Phillipson, M; Holm, L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether two Lactobacillus reuteri strains (rat-derived R2LC and human-derived ATCC PTA 4659 (4659)) could protect mice against colitis, as well as delineate the mechanisms behind this protection. Mice were given L. reuteri R2LC or 4659 by gavage once daily for 14 days, and colitis was induced by addition of 3% DSS (dextran sulphate sodium) to drinking water for the last 7 days of this period. The severity of disease was assessed through clinical observations, histological evaluation and ELISA measurements of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines from colonic samples. Mucus thickness was measured in vivo with micropipettes, and tight junction protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Colitis severity was significantly reduced by L. reuteri R2LC or 4659 when evaluated both clinically and histologically. The inflammation markers MPO, IL-1β, IL-6 and mKC (mouse keratinocyte chemoattractant) were increased by DSS and significantly reduced by the L. reuteri strains. The firmly adherent mucus thickness was reduced by DSS, but significantly increased by L. reuteri in both control and DSS-treated mice. Expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 was significantly increased in the bottom of the colonic crypts by L. reuteri R2LC. These results demonstrate that each of the two different L. reuteri strains, one human-derived and one-rat-derived, protects against colitis in mice. Mechanisms behind this protection could at least partly be explained by the increased mucus thickness as well as a tightened epithelium in the stem cell area of the crypts. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A High Performance Silicon-on-Insulator LDMOSTT Using Linearly Increasing Thickness Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Feng, Guo; Zhi-Gong, Wang; Gene, Sheu; Jian-Bing, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    We present a new technique to achieve uniform lateral electric field and maximum breakdown voltage in lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates. A linearly increasing drift-region thickness from the source to the drain is employed to improve the electric field distribution in the devices. Compared to the lateral linear doping technique and the reduced surface field technique, two-dimensional numerical simulations show that the new device exhibits reduced specific on-resistance, maximum off- and on-state breakdown voltages, superior quasi-saturation characteristics and improved safe operating area. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Domains of increased thickness in microvillar membranes of the small intestinal enterocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunding, Andreas H; Christensen, Sune M; Danielsen, E Michael

    2010-01-01

    The apical surface of the enterocyte is sculpted into a dense array of cylindrical microvillar protrusions by supporting actin filaments. Membrane microdomains (rafts) enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids comprise roughly 50% of the microvillar membrane and play a vital role in orchestr......The apical surface of the enterocyte is sculpted into a dense array of cylindrical microvillar protrusions by supporting actin filaments. Membrane microdomains (rafts) enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids comprise roughly 50% of the microvillar membrane and play a vital role...... in orchestrating absorptive/digestive action of dietary nutrients at this important cellular interface. Increased membrane thickness is believed to be a morphological characteristic of rafts. Thus, we investigated whether the high contents of lipid rafts in the microvillar membrane is reflected in local variations...... was clearly monophasic. The encountered domains of increased thickness (DITs) occupied 48% of the microvillar membrane and from the data we estimated the area of a single DIT to have a lower limit of 600 nm(2). In other experiments we mapped the organization of biochemically defined lipid rafts by immunogold...

  6. Influence of Gradual Elongation to the Patella Tendon Insertion in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the histological changes at the patella tendon (PT insertion site under gradual elongation in rabbits. Gradual elongation of the PT was performed using external fixation for 4 weeks, with a lengthening speed of 0.5 mm/day (elongation group; n = 24. Rabbits in the sham group underwent the same surgical procedure without gradual elongation (sham group; n = 24. Eight animals were sacrificed 1, 2 and 4 weeks after surgery in each group, respectively. Average thicknesses of stained glycosaminoglycan (GAGs areas by Safranin-O staining in the total cartilage layer and the uncalcified fibrocartilage layer in the elongation group were significantly higher than that in the sham group at 4 weeks (p < 0.05 and that in the intact PT group (n = 6, p < 0.05. In the elongation group, the peak in the average thicknesses of the stained GAGs areas in the total cartilage layer and the uncalcified fibrocartilage layer were observed at 4 weeks. Gradual elongation of PT insertion significantly affected the increase in the average thicknesses of the stained GAGs areas in the cartilage layer especially in the uncalcified fibrocartilage layer at 4 weeks in rabbits. Clinically, insertions of tendon and ligament can extend during gradual elongation using external fixation more than 4 weeks after the operation.

  7. Increased-resolution OCT thickness mapping of the human macula: a statistically based registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Rui; Santos, Torcato; Cunha-Vaz, José

    2008-05-01

    To describe the development of a technique that enhances spatial resolution of retinal thickness maps of the Stratus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA). A retinal thickness atlas (RT-atlas) template was calculated, and a macular coordinate system was established, to pursue this objective. The RT-atlas was developed from principal component analysis of retinal thickness analyzer (RTA) maps acquired from healthy volunteers. The Stratus OCT radial thickness measurements were registered on the RT-atlas, from which an improved macular thickness map was calculated. Thereafter, Stratus OCT circular scans were registered on the previously calculated map to enhance spatial resolution. The developed technique was applied to Stratus OCT thickness data from healthy volunteers and from patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Results showed that for normal, or close to normal, macular thickness maps from healthy volunteers and patients with DR, this technique can be an important aid in determining retinal thickness. Efforts are under way to improve the registration of retinal thickness data in patients with AMD. The developed technique enhances the evaluation of data acquired by the Stratus OCT, helping the detection of early retinal thickness abnormalities. Moreover, a normative database of retinal thickness measurements gained from this technique, as referenced to the macular coordinate system, can be created without errors induced by missed fixation and eye tilt.

  8. Increasing the critical thickness of InGaAs quantum wells using strain-relief technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Marquis

    The advantages of optical communication through silica fiber have made long-distance electrical communication through copper wire obsolete. The two windows of operation for long-haul optical communication are centered around the wavelengths of 1.3 mum and 1.55 mum, which have minimal amounts of signal attenuation and dispersion. Benefits of optical communications within these windows include low system costs, high bandwidth, and high system reliability which have encouraged the development of emitters and receivers at these relatively long wavelengths. Long-wavelength semiconductor lasers are typically fabricated on InP substrates, but their performance suffers greatly with increases in operating temperature. Laser diodes on GaAs substrates are not as sensitive to operating temperature due to quantum-well active regions with relative deep potential barriers, but critical thickness limits the wavelength ceiling to 1.1 mum. Strain-relief technologies are currently being investigated to enable long-wavelength lasers with deeper potential wells leading to a corresponding increase in characteristic temperatures. Having a larger lattice constant than GaAs enables ternary InGaAs substrates to increase the 1.1-mum wavelength ceiling. Extending this ceiling to one of the optical communication windows could enable high-characteristic-temperature, long-wavelength lasers. Broad-area and buried-heterostructure lasers have demonstrated the potential of ternary substrates to increase characteristic temperatures and emission wavelengths. Wavelengths as long as 1.15 mum and characteristic temperatures as high as 145 K have been achieved. Reduced-area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition involves the deposition of strained materials on isolated islands. Due to the discontinuous nature of reduced-area epitaxy, strained materials are allowed to expand near the mesa edges, decreasing the overall strain in the structure. Laser diodes using this technology have been successfully

  9. Increased carotid intima-media thickness in Brazilian adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria Fernanda Gontijo Sepulveda; Zanini, Jovita Lane Soares Santos; Silva, Ivani Novato

    2016-01-01

    Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, and has been reported in children with various chronic diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Evaluate CIMT and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian adolescents with DM1. Cross-sectional study of 118 adolescents, 57 with DM1 and no chronic complications related to the disease, and 61 healthy individuals. Clinical, biochemical, and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonographic evaluations according to the Consensus Statement of the American Society of Echocardiography CIMT Task Force were performed. Adolescents with diabetes (66.6% female) were 14.5 ± 2.9 years old and had 9.0 ± 4.0 years of disease duration. The healthy adolescents (62.3% female) were 14.3 ± 2.6 years old. All the adolescents had blood pressure within their reference ranges. In 66% of DM1 adolescents the systolic blood pressure was >50th percentile. Increased CIMT was observed in adolescents with diabetes compared with those in the control group: 0.53 vs 0.51 mm (p Brazilian adolescents with DM1, and was associated with cardiovascular risk factors. CIMT assessment may be useful for the early identification and monitoring of cardiovascular risk in this age group.

  10. Vertical leaf mass per area gradient of mature sugar maple reflects both height-driven increases in vascular tissue and light-driven increases in palisade layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2017-10-01

    A key trait used in canopy and ecosystem function modeling, leaf mass per area (LMA), is influenced by changes in both leaf thickness and leaf density (LMA = Thickness × Density). In tall trees, LMA is understood to increase with height through two primary mechanisms: (i) increasing palisade layer thickness (and thus leaf thickness) in response to light and/or (ii) reduced cell expansion and intercellular air space in response to hydrostatic constraints, leading to increased leaf density. Our objective was to investigate within-canopy gradients in leaf anatomical traits in order to understand environmental factors that influence leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest canopy. We teased apart the effects of light and height on anatomical traits by sampling at exposed and closed canopies that had different light conditions at similar heights. As expected, palisade layer thickness responded strongly to cumulative light exposure. Mesophyll porosity, however, was weakly and negatively correlated with light and height (i.e., hydrostatic gradients). Reduced mesophyll porosity was not likely caused by limitations on cell expansion; in fact, epidermal cell width increased with height. Palisade layer thickness was better related to LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness than was mesophyll porosity. Vein diameter and fraction of vascular tissue also increased with height and LMA, density and thickness, revealing that greater investment in vascular and support tissue may be a third mechanism for increased LMA with height. Overall, decreasing mesophyll porosity with height was likely due to palisade cells expanding into the available air space and also greater investments in vascular and support tissue, rather than a reduction of cell expansion due to hydrostatic constraints. Our results provide evidence that light influences both palisade layer thickness and mesophyll porosity and indicate that hydrostatic gradients influence leaf vascular and support

  11. Increased carotid intima-media thickness in Brazilian adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Gontijo Sepulveda Fusaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, and has been reported in children with various chronic diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1. Objectives Evaluate CIMT and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian adolescents with DM1. Methods Cross-sectional study of 118 adolescents, 57 with DM1 and no chronic complications related to the disease, and 61 healthy individuals. Clinical, biochemical, and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonographic evaluations according to the Consensus Statement of the American Society of Echocardiography CIMT Task Force were performed. Results Adolescents with diabetes (66.6% female were 14.5 ± 2.9 years old and had 9.0 ± 4.0 years of disease duration. The healthy adolescents (62.3% female were 14.3 ± 2.6 years old. All the adolescents had blood pressure within their reference ranges. In 66% of DM1 adolescents the systolic blood pressure was >50th percentile. Increased CIMT was observed in adolescents with diabetes compared with those in the control group: 0.53 vs 0.51 mm (p < 0.004 on the right side, and 0.55 vs 0.51 mm (p < 0.001 on the left side. CIMT presented independent and positive associations with diabetes duration, total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and systolic blood pressure percentile in DM1 adolescents. Conclusions Increased CIMT was observed in young Brazilian adolescents with DM1, and was associated with cardiovascular risk factors. CIMT assessment may be useful for the early identification and monitoring of cardiovascular risk in this age group.

  12. Increased common carotid artery wall thickness is associated with rapid progression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomedi, Marina; Scacciatelli, Daria; Misaggi, Giulia; Balestrini, Simona; Balucani, Clotilde; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Di Legge, Silvia; Stanzione, Paolo; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify clinical and ultrasound imaging predictors of progression of carotid luminal narrowing in subjects with asymptomatic moderate internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. A total of 571 subjects with asymptomatic moderate (50-69%) ICA stenoses were enrolled. They underwent ultrasound examination at baseline and after 12 months. Demographics, vascular risk factors, medications, plaque characteristics (surface and echogenicity) and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were collected. At the follow-up examination, any change of ICA stenosis was graded in three categories (i) ≥70% to near occlusion, (ii) near occlusion, and (iii) occlusion. Progression of stenosis was defined as an increase in the stenosis degree by at least one category from baseline to follow-up. At 12 months, progression occurred in 142 subjects (prevalence rate 25%). At the multivariable logistic model, pathological IMT values (considered as binary variable: normal: ≤1 mm vs. pathologic: >1 mm) significantly predicted the risk for plaque progression after adjusting the model for possible confounders (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.43, P = .014, multivariable logistic model). Our results confirm the role of carotid wall thickening as a marker of atherosclerosis. Carotid IMT measurement should be considered to implement risk stratification in patients with asymptomatic carotid disease.

  13. Endothelial dysfunction but not increased carotid intima-media thickness in young European women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Luca; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Campo, Sebastiano; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Tondi, Paolo; Campo, Vincenzo; Flex, Andrea; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Santoliquido, Angelo

    2012-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic and degenerative disease developing typically in the elderly; nonetheless, a condition of accelerated atherosclerosis can be observed precociously in the presence of some diseases. Endometriosis, a chronic benign gynecological disorder, shows some characteristics, such as oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and a pro-atherogenic lipid profile, which could increase the risk of developing accelerated atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in young European women with endometriosis. This cross-sectional study included 37 women with endometriosis and 31 control subjects. The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was investigated by ultrasound evaluation of common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD); in addition, serum levels of lipids, inflammatory and coagulation parameters, as well as markers of endothelial inflammation and activation, were determined. Women with endometriosis showed significantly lower values of FMD compared with controls [mean difference: -4.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): -6.52, -2.73; P women with endometriosis had significantly higher values of inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (P women with endometriosis have more subclinical atherosclerosis, resulting in a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction can occur in the absence of structural atherosclerotic changes; its evaluation might be helpful in young women with endometriosis.

  14. Association between Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Heart Rate Variability in Adults at Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu C. Baltatu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid intima-media thickness (IMT may be associated with alterations in the sensitivity of carotid baroreceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid IMT and the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV.Methods: A total of 101 subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The carotid IMT was determined by duplex ultrasonography. The cardiac autonomic function was determined through HRV measures during the Deep Breathing Test. Linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, body mass index, waist-hip-ratio, and left ventricular ejection fraction were used to evaluate the association between HRV parameters and carotid IMT.Results: Participants had a mean age of 60.4 ± 13.4 years and an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk score (using the Pooled Cohort Equations of 16.4 ± 17. The mean carotid media thickness was highest (0.90 ± 0.19 mm in the first quartile of the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN (19.7 ± 5.1 ms and progressively declined in each subsequent quartile to 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, 0.81 ± 0.16 mm, and 0.68 ± 0.19 in quartiles 2 (36.5 ± 5.9 ms, 3 (57.7 ± 6.2 ms and 4 (100.9 ± 22.2 ms, respectively. In multivariable adjusted models, there was a statistical significant association between SDNN and carotid IMT (OR −0.002; 95%CI −0.003 to −0.001, p = 0.005. The same significant association was found between carotid IMT and other measures of HRV, including coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CV and dispersion of points along the line of identity (SD2.Conclusions: In a cohort of individuals at increased cardiovascular risk, carotid IMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with alterations of HRV indicating an impaired cardiac autonomic control, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors.

  15. Increased supraspinatus tendon thickness following fatigue loading in rotator cuff tendinopathy: potential implications for exercise therapy

    OpenAIRE

    McCreesh, Karen M; Purtill, Helen; Donnelly, Alan E; Lewis, Jeremy S

    2017-01-01

    Background/aim Exercise imparts a load on tendon tissue that leads to changes in tendon properties. Studies suggest that loading immediately reduces tendon thickness, with a loss of this response in symptomatic tendinopathy. No studies investigating the response of tendon dimensions to load for the rotator cuff tendons exist. This study aimed to examine the short-term effect of loading on the thickness of the supraspinatus tendon and acromiohumeral distance those with and without rotator cuff...

  16. Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia in GCK-MODY Patients Does Not Increase Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanka Pruhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. GCK-MODY is an autosomal dominant form of diabetes caused by heterozygous mutations in the glucokinase gene leading to a lifelong mild hyperglycemia. The risk of macrovascular complications is considered low, but studies are limited. We, therefore, investigated the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT as an indicator of macrovascular complications in a group of patients with GCK-MODY. Methods. Twenty-seven GCK mutation carriers and 24 controls recruited among their first-degree relatives were compared, all aging over 35 years. The CIMT was tested using a high-resolution B-mode carotid ultrasonography. Medical history, anthropometry, and biochemical blood workup were obtained. Results. The mean CIMT was 0.707 ± 0.215 mm (mean ± SD in GCK mutation carriers and 0.690 ± 0.180 mm in control individuals. When adjusted for age, gender, and family status, the estimated mean difference in CIMT between the two groups increased to 0.049 mm (P=0.19. No difference was detected for other characteristics, with the exception of fasting blood glucose (GCK-MODY 7.6 mmol/L ± 1.2 (136.4 mg/dL; controls 5.3 mmol/L ± 0.3 (95.4 mg/dL; P<0.0001 and glycated hemoglobin HbA1c (GCK-MODY 6.9% ± 1.0%, 52 mmol/mol ± 10; controls 5.7% ± 0.4%, 39 mmol/mol ± 3; P<0.0001. The frequency of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Our data indicate that the persistent hyperglycemia in GCK-MODY is associated with a low risk of developing diabetic macrovascular complications.

  17. The Gradual Evolution of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Corballis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Language is commonly held to be unique to humans, and to have emerged suddenly in a single “great leap forward” within the past 100,000 years. The view is profoundly anti-Darwinian, and I propose instead a framework for understanding how language might have evolved incrementally from our primate heritage. One major proposition is that language evolved from manual action, with vocalization emerging as the dominant mode late in hominin evolution. The second proposition has to do with the role of language as a means of communicating about events displaced in space and time from the present. Some have argued that mental time travel itself is unique to human, which might explain why language itself is uniquely human. I argue instead that mental time travel has ancient evolutionary origins, and gradually assumed narrative-like properties during the Pleistocene, when language itself began to take shape.

  18. Increased mucosal thickness of the stomach in transabdominal ultrasonogram: Correlation with gastric hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ko, Myoung Kwan; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee [Chosun University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of transabdominal ultrasonography in predicting the hemorrhage gastritis by the evaluation of gastric wall. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of gastric wall was performed 42 patients. Layers of gastric wall were preserved in all patients. Twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had diffuse thickening more than 5 mm were classified as hypertrophic group. The other twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had thickness less than 5 mm were classified as control group. In all 42 patients, endoscopic examination was performed and the prevalence of gastric hemorrhage was recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy for predicting the hemorrhage gastritis were calculated based on mucosal thickness. Sixteen patients who had been diagnosed as a hemorrhagic gastritis in the hypertrophic group on endoscopic examination were classified as a hemorrhage group. The thickness of each layers in hemorrhagic and the control group were compared using t-test and Fisher's exact test. Using 5 mm of mucosal thickness as a predictor, the sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 80.8%, the positive predictive value was 76.2%, and the accuracy was 88.1%. Mean thickness of mucosa in hemorrhagic group and the control group were 9.6 {+-} 1.6 mm, and 1.4 {+-} 0.4 mm, respectively (p<0.01). Mean thickness of submucosa was 1.1 {+-} 0.3 mm in hemorrhagic group and 0.6 {+-} 0.3 mm in control group (p,0.01). The submucosal layer was hyperechoic and well- defined in most control groups (18/21) while it was ill-defined and less echogenic in hemorrhagic group (p<0.01). The diagnosis of hemorrhagic gastritis can be suggested when there is diffuse thickening in the gastric mucosa shile submucosal layer shows decreased echogenicits and indistinct border. This may improve the value of sonographic evaluation.

  19. Increased mucosal thickness of the stomach in transabdominal ultrasonogram: Correlation with gastric hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ko, Myoung Kwan; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of transabdominal ultrasonography in predicting the hemorrhage gastritis by the evaluation of gastric wall. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of gastric wall was performed 42 patients. Layers of gastric wall were preserved in all patients. Twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had diffuse thickening more than 5 mm were classified as hypertrophic group. The other twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had thickness less than 5 mm were classified as control group. In all 42 patients, endoscopic examination was performed and the prevalence of gastric hemorrhage was recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy for predicting the hemorrhage gastritis were calculated based on mucosal thickness. Sixteen patients who had been diagnosed as a hemorrhagic gastritis in the hypertrophic group on endoscopic examination were classified as a hemorrhage group. The thickness of each layers in hemorrhagic and the control group were compared using t-test and Fisher's exact test. Using 5 mm of mucosal thickness as a predictor, the sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 80.8%, the positive predictive value was 76.2%, and the accuracy was 88.1%. Mean thickness of mucosa in hemorrhagic group and the control group were 9.6 ± 1.6 mm, and 1.4 ± 0.4 mm, respectively (p<0.01). Mean thickness of submucosa was 1.1 ± 0.3 mm in hemorrhagic group and 0.6 ± 0.3 mm in control group (p,0.01). The submucosal layer was hyperechoic and well- defined in most control groups (18/21) while it was ill-defined and less echogenic in hemorrhagic group (p<0.01). The diagnosis of hemorrhagic gastritis can be suggested when there is diffuse thickening in the gastric mucosa shile submucosal layer shows decreased echogenicits and indistinct border. This may improve the value of sonographic evaluation.

  20. Positive association between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis: is OA also part of the metabolic syndrome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Sharma, Ruby; Geest, Rob J. van der; Lamb, Hildo J.; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Hellio le Graverand, Marie-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if a positive association exists between arterial vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis (OA). Our hypothesis is that generalized OA is another facet of the metabolic syndrome. The medical ethical review board of our institution approved the study. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to the study. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained in 42 patients who had been diagnosed with generalized OA at multiple joint sites. Another 27 MR images of the knee were obtained from a matched normal (non-OA) reference population. Vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was quantitatively measured by dedicated software. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between vessel wall thickness and generalized OA. Adjustments were made for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Confidence intervals (CI) were computed at the 95% level and a significance level of α = 0.05 was used. Patients in the generalized OA population had a significant higher average vessel wall thickness than persons from the normal reference population (p ≤ α), even when correction was made for sex, age, and BMI. The average vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was 1.09 mm in patients with generalized OA, and 0.96 mm in the matched normal reference population. The association found between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis suggests that generalized OA might be another facet of the metabolic syndrome. (orig.)

  1. Positive association between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis: is OA also part of the metabolic syndrome?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Sharma, Ruby; Geest, Rob J. van der; Lamb, Hildo J.; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Hellio le Graverand, Marie-Pierre [Pfizer Global Research and Development, New London, CT (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine if a positive association exists between arterial vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis (OA). Our hypothesis is that generalized OA is another facet of the metabolic syndrome. The medical ethical review board of our institution approved the study. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to the study. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained in 42 patients who had been diagnosed with generalized OA at multiple joint sites. Another 27 MR images of the knee were obtained from a matched normal (non-OA) reference population. Vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was quantitatively measured by dedicated software. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between vessel wall thickness and generalized OA. Adjustments were made for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Confidence intervals (CI) were computed at the 95% level and a significance level of {alpha} = 0.05 was used. Patients in the generalized OA population had a significant higher average vessel wall thickness than persons from the normal reference population (p {<=} {alpha}), even when correction was made for sex, age, and BMI. The average vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was 1.09 mm in patients with generalized OA, and 0.96 mm in the matched normal reference population. The association found between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis suggests that generalized OA might be another facet of the metabolic syndrome. (orig.)

  2. Global adiposity and thickness of intraperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue depots are increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borruel, Susana; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Alpañés, Macarena; Martí, David; Alvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2013-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism suggests a role for androgens in body fat distribution. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a mainly androgen excess disorder, often present with abdominal obesity and visceral adiposity. We hypothesized that women with PCOS have a masculinized body fat distribution favoring the deposition of fat in visceral and organ-specific adipose tissue depots. This was a case-control study. The study was conducted at an academic hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 55), women without androgen excess (n = 25), and men (n = 26) presenting with similar body mass index participated in the study. There were no interventions. Ultrasound measurements of adipose tissue depots including sc (minimum and maximum), preperitoneal, ip, mesenteric, epicardial, and perirenal fat thickness were obtained and total body fat mass was estimated using a body fat monitor. Men and patients with PCOS had increased amounts of total body fat compared with control women. Men had increased thickness of intraabdominal adipose tissue depots compared with the control women, with the women with PCOS showing intermediate values that were also higher than those of control women in the case of ip and mesenteric fat thickness and was close to reaching statistical significance in the case of epicardial fat thickness. Women with PCOS also showed increased minimum sc fat thickness compared with the control women. Obesity increased the thickness of all of the adipose tissue depots in the 3 groups of subjects. Women with PCOS have higher global adiposity and increased amounts of visceral adipose tissue compared with control women, especially in the ip and mesenteric depots.

  3. High-Impact Aerobic and Zumba Fitness on Increasing VO2MAX, Heart Rate Recovery and Skinfold Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminar, T. J.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wiriawan, O.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to determine the significant effect of high-impact aerobics exercise, and Zumba fitness on increasing VO2Max, decreasing of heart rate recovery, and decreasing of skinfold thickness. A sample of this study is 30 members aerobics of student activity unit. Type of this study was quantitative by using a quasi-experimental design method. The design of this study used Matching-Only Design. Data were Analyzed by using the t test (paired t-test). The samples divided into three groups consisted of experimental group I, experimental group II, and control group. They were given a treatment for 8 weeks or 24 meeting. For the data, retrieval is done by MFT test, heart rate recovery test, and skinfold thickness test. Furthermore, the result was analyzed by using SPSS 21 series. In conclusion, significant effect of high-impact aerobics and Zumba fitness on increasing VO2Max, heart rate recovery, skinfold thickness.

  4. Enhanced selectivity of boron doped diamond electrodes for the detection of dopamine and ascorbic acid by increasing the film thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yao; Long, Hangyu [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ma, Li, E-mail: marycsupm@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wei, Quiping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Site [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yu, Zhiming [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu, Jingyuan [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Peizhi [Key laboratory of interface science and engineering in advanced materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024,PR China (China); Wang, Yijia [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Meng, Lingcong [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, West Midlands CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • BDD electrodes with different thickness have been fabricated. • BDD electrodes are used for simultaneous detection of DA and AA. • Anodic pretreatment enhance the separation of DA and AA oxidation peak potential. • Thicker BDD electrode show better performance for DA detection coexisting with AA. - Abstract: In this paper, boron doped diamond (BDD) with different thickness were prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The performance of BDD electrodes for detecting dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra reveal the grain size increases and the film quality improves with the increase of film thickness. Electrochemical test show that the transfer coefficient in [Fe{sub 3} (CN) {sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} redox system increases with the increase of the film thickness. The results of selectivity and sensitivity for DA mixed with AA detection show that 8h-BDD and 12h-BDD electrodes possess well selective separated oxidation peaks of DA and AA, and the 12h-BDD electrode exhibits optimal sensitivity until the DA concentration drops to 1 μ M.

  5. Reduced cortical thickness and increased surface area in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weixiong; Li, Gang; Liu, Huasheng; Shi, Feng; Wang, Tao; Shen, Celina; Shen, Hui; Lee, Seong-Whan; Hu, Dewen; Wang, Wei; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-11-19

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), one of whose characteristics is high impulsivity, is of great interest in the field of brain structure and function. However, little is known about possible impairments in the cortical anatomy in ASPD, in terms of cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (SA), as well as their possible relationship with impulsivity. In this neuroimaging study, we first investigated the changes of CTh and SA in ASPD patients, in comparison to those of healthy controls, and then performed correlation analyses between these measures and the ability of impulse control. We found that ASPD patients showed thinner cortex while larger SA in several specific brain regions, i.e., bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG), orbitofrontal and triangularis, insula cortex, precuneus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and left bank of superior temporal sulcus (STS). In addition, we also found that the ability of impulse control was positively correlated with CTh in the SFG, MFG, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), pars triangularis, superior temporal gyrus (STG), and insula cortex. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal simultaneous changes in CTh and SA in ASPD, as well as their relationship with impulsivity. These cortical structural changes may introduce uncontrolled and callous behavioral characteristic in ASPD patients, and these potential biomarkers may be very helpful in understanding the pathomechanism of ASPD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOEMOTIONAL DISORDERS WITH INCREASING THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA COMPLEX AND VASCULAR MICRO INFLAMMATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shavrin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to study relationship of psycho-emotional factors and indicators of intravascular microinflammation and vascular changes in healthy patients.Materials and methods. To study psycho-emotional status in 239 healthy patients aged 30 to 60 years, markers of inflammation (C-reactiveprotein — CRP and cytokines — tumor necrosis factor-α — TNF-α, interleukins — IL-1, -4, - 8 and ultrasonography of the vascular wall of the common carotid artery with the definition of the thickness of intimamedia.Results. In group with high levels of emotional stress significant increase in the thickness of intima media and increase in plasma concentrationsof markers of vascular mikrovospaleniya — CRP, IL-1, IL-8, TNF-α were showed. These correlation analysis indicated relationship between thickness of intima-media, psychoemotional factors and markers of vascular microinflamation. Calculating odds ratios revealed that thickening of the intima-media process such psycho-emotional disorders like anxiety, depression and fatigue are of great importance.Conclusion. Otherwise development of latent intravascular inflammation and thickening intima-media complex of common carotid artery is registered inhealthy patients with presence of psycho-emotional disorders (depression, anxiety, fatigue.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOEMOTIONAL DISORDERS WITH INCREASING THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA COMPLEX AND VASCULAR MICRO INFLAMMATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shavrin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to study relationship of psycho-emotional factors and indicators of intravascular microinflammation and vascular changes in healthy patients.Materials and methods. To study psycho-emotional status in 239 healthy patients aged 30 to 60 years, markers of inflammation (C-reactiveprotein — CRP and cytokines — tumor necrosis factor-α — TNF-α, interleukins — IL-1, -4, - 8 and ultrasonography of the vascular wall of the common carotid artery with the definition of the thickness of intimamedia.Results. In group with high levels of emotional stress significant increase in the thickness of intima media and increase in plasma concentrationsof markers of vascular mikrovospaleniya — CRP, IL-1, IL-8, TNF-α were showed. These correlation analysis indicated relationship between thickness of intima-media, psychoemotional factors and markers of vascular microinflamation. Calculating odds ratios revealed that thickening of the intima-media process such psycho-emotional disorders like anxiety, depression and fatigue are of great importance.Conclusion. Otherwise development of latent intravascular inflammation and thickening intima-media complex of common carotid artery is registered inhealthy patients with presence of psycho-emotional disorders (depression, anxiety, fatigue.

  8. Increased cortical thickness and altered functional connectivity of the right superior temporal gyrus in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Lu, Fengmei; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    Altered structure in the temporal cortex has been implicated in the variable language laterality of left-handers (LH). The neuroanatomy of language lateralization and the corresponding synchronous functional connectivity (FC) in handedness cohorts are not, however, fully understood. We used structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to investigate the effect of altered cortical thickness on FC in LH and right-handers (RH). Whole-brain cortical thickness was calculated and compared between the LH and RH. We observed increased cortical thickness in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the LH. A further FC analysis was conducted between the right STG and the remaining voxels in the brain. Compared with RH, the LH showed significantly higher FC in the left STG, right occipital cortex, and lower FC in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Our findings suggest that LH have atypical connectivity in the language network, with an enhanced role of the STG, findings which provide novel insights into the structural and functional substrates underlying the atypical language development of left-handed individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prior stress exposure increases pain behaviors in a rat model of full thickness thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Jennifer E; McLean, Samuel A; Averitt, Dayna L

    2015-12-01

    Thermal burns among individuals working in highly stressful environments, such as firefighters and military Service Members, are common. Evidence suggests that pre-injury stress may exaggerate pain following thermal injury; however current animal models of burn have not evaluated the potential influence of pre-burn stress. This sham-controlled study evaluated the influence of prior stress exposure on post-burn thermal and mechanical sensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to 20 min of inescapable swim stress or sham stress once per day for three days. Exposure to inescapable swim stress (1) increased the intensity and duration of thermal hyperalgesia after subsequent burn and (2) accelerated the onset of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia after subsequent burn. This stress-induced exacerbation of pain sensitivity was reversed by pretreatment and concurrent treatment with the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) duloxetine. These data suggest a better understanding of mechanisms by which prior stress augments pain after thermal burn may lead to improved pain treatments for burn survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Empirical tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, P.; Hayes, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Gradual Learning Algorithm (Boersma 1997) is a constraint ranking algorithm for learning Optimality-theoretic grammars. The purpose of this article is to assess the capabilities of the Gradual Learning Algorithm, particularly in comparison with the Constraint Demotion algorithm of Tesar and

  11. Empirical tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, P.; Hayes, B.

    2001-01-01

    The Gradual Learning Algorithm (Boersma 1997) is a constraint-ranking algorithm for learning optimality-theoretic grammars. The purpose of this article is to assess the capabilities of the Gradual Learning Algorithm, particularly in comparison with the Constraint Demotion algorithm of Tesar and

  12. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S.

    1999-06-01

    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 μm, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 μm and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 μm. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 μm at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 μm at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs

  13. Subclinical atherosclerosis and hyperandrogenemia are independent risk factors for increased epicardial fat thickness in patients with PCOS and idiopathic hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Evrim; Doğan, Mehmet; Topaloglu, Oya; Ozbek, Mustafa; Cakal, Erman; Vural, Mustafa Gokhan; Yeter, Ekrem; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting reproductive-age women and is reported to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and early atherosclerosis. Epicardial fat thickness (EF) is clinically related to subclinical atherosclerosis and visceral fat changes. Therefore, the objective of this study is to compare the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), EF and cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with PCOS, patients with idiopathic hirsutism (IH) and healthy controls. This cross-sectional controlled study was conducted in a training and research hospital. The study population consisted of 50 reproductive-age PCOS women, 34 women with IH and 39 control subjects. We evaluated anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters as well as CIMT and EF measurements in PCOS patients, IH patients and controls. The mean fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, hsCRP, GGT, CIMT, and EF levels were significantly higher in patients with PCOS and IH (p cardiometabolic response in patients with PCOS and IH, even at an early stage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gradual Hunterian ligation for infected prosthetic bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egun, A; Slade, D; McCollum, C N

    2000-04-01

    To review gradual snare occlusion for the management of complex or recurrent graft infection. Medical records of patients treated with gradual snare occlusion following graft infection were reviewed for indication for operation, type of bypass and graft material used. In addition, infecting organism, grade of infection (Szilágyi) and outcome were recorded. Four femoropopliteal, two extra-anatomic (axillofemoral) and aortobifemoral bypasses were included in this study. All had chronic infection (Szilágyi grade III) with onset of 4 to 24 months and two of which were recurrent. The causative organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in three patients, with no organism isolated in the remaining cases. There was no loss of limb following gradual snare occlusion but there was only one death due to aortic stump rupture 2 weeks later. Gradual snare occlusion is an alternative for the management of chronic or recurrent graft infection. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  15. Increased carotid intima thickness and decreased media thickness in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus: an investigation by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, D; Akhter, T; Nordmark, G; Rönnblom, L; Naessen, T

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether high-frequency ultrasound (US) yielding separate assessments of intima and media thickness gives additional information about the vascular morphology compared with the total common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). Using a 22 MHz US instrument, we determined the near-wall CCA-IMT, the intima and media layers, and the intima/media (I/M) ratio in 47 premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 20 healthy women, and 17 postmenopausal women (mean ages 37, 40, and 69 years, respectively). In SLE, the carotid intima was thicker (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.12 ± 0.02 mm), the media thinner (0.45 ± 0.12 vs. 0.68 ± 0.24 mm), the I/M ratio higher (0.45 ± 0.17 vs. 0.20 ± 0.07) (all p women (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.14 ± 0.03 mm, p media, and a higher I/M ratio in women with SLE compared to healthy controls and indicated an artery wall status in SLE comparable to 30-years-older healthy women. Separate estimates of carotid intima and media layers may be preferable to CCA-IMT in SLE patients.

  16. Retinal layer location of increased retinal thickness in eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema in diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandello, Francesco; Tejerina, Amparo Navea; Vujosevic, Stela

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify the retinal layer predominantly affected in eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema in diabetes type 2. METHODS: A cohort of 194 type 2 diabetic eyes/patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (ETDRS levels 20/35) were examined with Cirrus spectral......-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the baseline visit (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01145599). Automated segmentation of the retinal layers of the eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema was compared with a sample of 31 eyes from diabetic patients with normal OCT and an age......-matched control group of 58 healthy eyes. RESULTS: From the 194 eyes in the study, 62 had subclinical macular edema and 12 had clinical macular edema. The highest increases in retinal thickness (RT) were found in the inner nuclear layer (INL; 33.6% in subclinical macular edema and 81.8% in clinical macular edema...

  17. Epicardial fat tissue thickness is increased in patients with lichen planus and is linked to inflammation and dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Ahmet Goktug; Erdogan, Mehmet; Koseoglu, Cemal; Akoglu, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Elcin; Koseoglu, Gamze; Sivri, Serkan; Keles, Telat; Durmaz, Tahir; Aktas, Akın; Bozkurt, Engin

    2016-10-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous inflammatory disease. Inflammation plays a major role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Epicardial fat tissue (EFT) has been shown to produce and secrete various proatherogenic and proinflammatory hormones and cytokines. The aim of this study was to assess EFT in patients with lichen planus. Fifty-four patients with LP and 50 controls were enrolled in the study. LP was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. EFT was measured on the free wall of the right ventricle in parasternal long-axis view, as previously described and validated. There were positive correlations between EFT thickness and platelet/lymphocyte ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, duration of LP, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, after adjustments for relevant confounders, LDL cholesterol, hsCRP, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and duration of LP were independent predictors of EFT thickness in patients with LP (β=0.231, p=0.014; β=0.205, p=0.037; β=0.361, p=0.001 and β=0.133, p=0.047, respectively). EFT is increased in patients with LP compared to control subjects. Duration of LP is correlated with EFT, and duration of LP is also an independent predictor of increased EFT, which is a predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Androgen excess is associated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness observed in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Mendieta-Azcona, Covadonga; Alvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as an early marker of atherosclerosis, as well as its main determinants among androgen excess, obesity and insulin resistance, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We selected 40 PCOS patients and 20 non-hyperandrogenic women who were similar in terms of age and grade of obesity. Complete clinical, metabolic and hormonal profiles and left common CIMT measurements were obtained. Patients with PCOS presented with increased mean CIMT values when compared with controls (F = 8.575; P = 0.005), and this was independent of obesity. Five PCOS patients but no controls had increased CIMT values. CIMT correlated directly with serum total and free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels and mean 24-h heart rate (HR), and inversely with the insulin sensitivity index (ISI), but no correlation was observed with the body mass index (BMI). Multiple stepwise linear regression models showed that in PCOS patients, the main determinants of CIMT were serum total testosterone or androstenedione concentrations, with no influence of ISI or the mean 24-h HR. Compared with control women, PCOS patients present with an increased CIMT, independent of obesity and related directly to androgen excess; this suggests that hyperandrogenism is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in these women.

  19. Reduced epidermal thickness, nerve degeneration and increased pain-related behavior in rats with diabetes type 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boric, Matija; Skopljanac, Ivan; Ferhatovic, Lejla; Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Banozic, Adriana; Puljak, Livia

    2013-11-01

    To examine the mechanisms contributing to pain genesis in diabetic neuropathy, we investigated epidermal thickness and number of intraepidermal nerve fibers in rat foot pad of the animal model of diabetes type 1 and type 2 in relation to pain-related behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes type 1 was induced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and diabetes type 2 was induced with a combination of STZ and high-fat diet. Control group for diabetes type 1 was fed with regular laboratory chow, while control group for diabetes type 2 received high-fat diet. Body weights and blood glucose levels were monitored to confirm induction of diabetes. Pain-related behavior was analyzed using thermal (hot, cold) and mechanical stimuli (von Frey fibers, number of hyperalgesic responses). Two months after induction of diabetes, glabrous skin samples from plantar surface of the both hind paws were collected. Epidermal thickness was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Intraepidermal nerve fibers quantification was performed after staining skin with polyclonal antiserum against protein gene product 9.5. We found that induction of diabetes type 1 and type 2 causes significant epidermal thinning and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in a rat model, and both changes were more pronounced in diabetes type 1 model. Significant increase of pain-related behavior two months after induction of diabetes was observed only in a model of diabetes type 1. In conclusion, animal models of diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2 could be used in pharmacological studies, where cutaneous changes could be used as outcome measures for predegenerative markers of neuropathies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension increases plasma membrane Na pump activity by enhancing Na entry in rat thick ascending limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2013-11-01

    Thick ascending limbs (TAL) reabsorb 30% of the filtered NaCl load. Na enters the cells via apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporters and Na/H exchangers and exits via basolateral Na pumps. Chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion increases net TAL Na transport and Na apical entry; however, little is known about its effects on the basolateral Na pump. We hypothesized that in rat TALs Na pump activity is enhanced by ANG II-infusion, a model of ANG II-induced hypertension. Rats were infused with 200 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) ANG II or vehicle for 7 days, and TAL suspensions were obtained. We studied plasma membrane Na pump activity by measuring changes in 1) intracellular Na (Nai) induced by ouabain; and 2) ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption (QO2). We found that the ouabain-sensitive rise in Nai in TALs from ANG II-infused rats was 12.8 ± 0.4 arbitrary fluorescent units (AFU)·mg(-1)·min(-1) compared with only 9.9 ± 1.1 AFU·mg(-1)·min(-1) in controls (P Na pump expression, the number of Na pumps in the plasma membrane, or the affinity for Na. When furosemide (1.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was coinfused with ANG II, no increase in plasma membrane Na pump activity was observed. We concluded that in ANG II-induced hypertension Na pump activity is increased in the plasma membrane of TALs and that this increase is caused by the chronically enhanced Na entry occurring in this model.

  1. VUJE tasks and activities during gradual upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenc, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the organization and management of the Gradual Upgrading of the Bohunice V1 NPP and the principle tasks and scope of activities provided by VUJE Trnava, Inc. It also describes the system of supplies and the system of quality assurance both in the consortium and in subcontractors. (author)

  2. Regression of the increased common carotid artery-intima media thickness in subclinical hypothyroidism after thyroid hormone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Se-Hwa; Park, Kyung-Sun; Park, Seok-Won; Cho, Yong-Wook

    2009-01-01

    The association between subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular disease and the beneficial effect of levothyroxine replacement in subclinical hypothyroidism are still under debate. The present study was designed to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with an increase in the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (C-IMT) and whether thyroid hormone replacement can reverse this change in the C-IMT. Patients with newly-diagnosed subclinical (n=36) and overt (n=40) hypothyroidism and healthy euthyroid individuals (n=32) participated in this study. All the patients were examined for clinical characteristics, and the serum lipid levels and the C-IMT were measured. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had a C-IMT measurement after 18 months of levothyroxine replacement. There were meaningful differences in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels between patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. The subjects with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism had a greater C-IMT compared with euthyroid controls (0.66+/- 0.10 and 0.70+/- 0.11 vs. 0.57+/- 0.08 mm, respectively; P replacement significantly decreased the C-IMT (0.67+/- 0.11 to 0.60+/- 0.10 mm; P = 0.021) and improved the lipid profile. Based on multiple regression analysis, the decrement in LDL-cholesterol was independently associated with the regression of the C-IMT. Subclinical hypothyroidism was closely related to an increased C-IMT. Thyroid hormone replacement resulted in regression of the increased C-IMT, which was attributed to the improvement in the lipid profile.

  3. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    The majority of today’s systems increasingly require sophisticated data management as they need to store and to query large amounts of data for analysis and reporting purposes. In order to keep more “detailed” data available for longer periods, “old” data has to be reduced gradually to save space...

  4. Perceived stress is associated with increased rostral middle frontal gyrus cortical thickness: a family-based and discordant-sibling investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, L J; Demers, C H; Baranger, D A A; Barch, D M; Harms, M P; Burgess, G C; Bogdan, R

    2017-11-01

    Elevated stress perception and depression commonly co-occur, suggesting that they share a common neurobiology. Cortical thickness of the rostral middle frontal gyrus (RMFG), a region critical for executive function, has been associated with depression- and stress-related phenotypes. Here, we examined whether RMFG cortical thickness is associated with these phenotypes in a large family-based community sample. RMFG cortical thickness was estimated using FreeSurfer among participants (n = 879) who completed the ongoing Human Connectome Project. Depression-related phenotypes (i.e. sadness, positive affect) and perceived stress were assessed via self-report. After accounting for sex, age, ethnicity, average whole-brain cortical thickness, twin status and familial structure, RMFG thickness was positively associated with perceived stress and sadness and negatively associated with positive affect at small effect sizes (accounting for 0.2-2.4% of variance; p-fdr: 0.0051-0.1900). Perceived stress was uniquely associated with RMFG thickness after accounting for depression-related phenotypes. Further, among siblings discordant for perceived stress, those reporting higher perceived stress had increased RMFG thickness (P = 4 × 10 -7 ). Lastly, RMFG thickness, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and positive affect were all significantly heritable, with evidence of shared genetic and environmental contributions between self-report measures. Stress perception and depression share common genetic, environmental, and neural correlates. Variability in RMFG cortical thickness may play a role in stress-related depression, although effects may be small in magnitude. Prospective studies are required to examine whether variability in RMFG thickness may function as a risk factor for stress exposure and/or perception, and/or arises as a consequence of these phenotypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology.......Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that may...

  6. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  7. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-01-01

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 (micro)m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation

  8. Thicker carotid intima-media thickness and increased plasma VEGF levels suffered by post-acute thrombotic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueniwati Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuyun Yueniwati,1 Ni Komang Darmiastini,1 Eko Arisetijono2 1Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia; 2Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia Background and objectives: Atherosclerosis causes reduction of the oxygen supply to structures in the far arterial wall, provoking the release of factors that drive angiogenesis of vasa vasorum, including VEGF. Other studies have revealed the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis and the role of platelet factor 4 (PF4 as an anti-angiogenic chemokine through the inhibition of VEGF. This cross-sectional study aims at measuring the effect of atherosclerosis assessed through carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT against plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. Materials and methods: CIMT was assessed sonographically using GE Logiq S6 with 13 MHz frequency linear probe. VEGF-A plasma levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Differences among variables were compared statistically. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation. Results: A total of 25 patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke were identified in days 7 to 90. CIMT thickening was indicated in 88% of patients (1.202 ± 0.312 mm, while an increase in plasma VEGF was identified in all patients (178.28 ± 93.96 ng/mL. There was no significant correlation between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke (p=0.741. A significant correlation was recognized between CIMT and total cholesterol (p=0.029 and low-density lipoprotein (p=0.018. Conclusion: There were no significant correlations between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. However, plasma VEGF increased in patients with thrombotic stroke. CIMT measurement is a promising noninvasive modality to assess the vascular condition of patients with stroke and diabetes, while plasma VEGF

  9. Siemens tasks and activities during gradual upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, B.

    2001-01-01

    The gradual upgrading of NPP V1 Bohunice constitutes the most extensive reconstruction project to be performed in an operational WWER plant to date. It constitutes a milestone in Siemens co-operation on projects for WWERs to date and is an encouraging example for the successful combination of western and eastern safety cultures. During the runtime of this project Siemens learnt very much about the 'complete function' as well as the details of this WWER plant type. In contrast the Slovakian partners really gained a much better understanding for the western approach to ensure safety, for the most modern safety technology, in particular for instrumentation and control, and last but not least or advanced project management. (author)

  10. Carotid artery intima-media thickness measurement in children with normal and increased body mass index: a comparison of three techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jalbout, Ramy; Cloutier, Guy; Cardinal, Marie-Hélène Roy; Henderson, Mélanie; Lapierre, Chantale; Soulez, Gilles; Dubois, Josée

    2018-05-09

    Common carotid artery intima-media thickness is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. In children, increased intima-media thickness is associated with obesity and the risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood. To compare intima-media thickness measurements using B-mode ultrasound, radiofrequency (RF) echo tracking, and RF speckle probability distribution in children with normal and increased body mass index (BMI). We prospectively measured intima-media thickness in 120 children randomly selected from two groups of a longitudinal cohort: normal BMI and increased BMI, defined by BMI ≥85th percentile for age and gender. We followed Mannheim recommendations. We used M'Ath-Std for automated B-mode imaging, M-line processing of RF signal amplitude for RF echo tracking, and RF signal segmentation and averaging using probability distributions defining image speckle. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests, and Pearson correlation coefficient and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Children were 10-13 years old (mean: 11.7 years); 61% were boys. The mean age was 11.4 years (range: 10.0-13.1 years) for the normal BMI group and 12.0 years (range: 10.1-13.5 years) for the increased BMI group. The normal BMI group included 58% boys and the increased BMI group 63% boys. RF echo tracking method was successful in 79 children as opposed to 114 for the B-mode method and all 120 for the probability distribution method. Techniques were weakly correlated: ICC=0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27-0.39). Intima-media thickness was significantly higher in the increased BMI than normal BMI group using the RF techniques and borderline for the B-mode technique. Mean differences between weight groups were: B-mode, 0.02 mm (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.04), P=0.05; RF echo tracking, 0.03 mm (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05), P=0.01; and RF speckle probability distribution, 0.03 mm (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05), P=0.002. Though techniques are not interchangeable, all showed

  11. Continuous Aspirin Use Does Not Increase Bleeding Risk of Split-Thickness Skin Transplantation Repair to Chronic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Yibing; Li, Liang; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Ning; Wu, Dan

    Discontinuation of aspirin therapy before cutaneous surgery may cause serious complications. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the bleeding risk of split-thickness skin transplantation repair to chronic wounds in patients on aspirin therapy. A total of 97 patients who underwent split-thickness skin transplantation surgery of chronic wounds during a 2-year period were enrolled. They were categorized on the basis of aspirin therapies. The primary outcome was postoperative bleeding and bleeding complications. Univariate analysis was performed to examine the association between aspirin and bleeding complications. Among the 26 patients taking aspirin continuously in group A, there were 5 bleeding complications (19.23%). Among the 55 nonusers in group B, there were 10 bleeding complications (18.18%). Among the 16 discontinuous patients in group C, there were 3 bleeding complications (18.75%). No statistical differences were found among the groups ( P = .956). Univariate analysis showed that continuous aspirin use was not significantly associated with bleeding complications (odds ratio, 0.933; 95% confidence interval, 0.283-3.074; P = .910 in the aspirin and control groups) and that discontinuous aspirin use was not significantly associated with bleeding complications (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.230-4.025; P = .959 in the aspirin and control groups; odds ratio, 0.969; 95% confidence interval, 0.198-4.752; P = .969 in the aspirin and discontinuous groups). Continuous aspirin use does not produce an additional bleeding risk in patients who undergo split-thickness skin transplantation repair of chronic wounds.

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOEMOTIONAL DISORDERS WITH INCREASING THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA COMPLEX AND VASCULAR MICRO INFLAMMATION DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Shavrin; B. V. Golovskoy

    2011-01-01

    Objective — to study relationship of psycho-emotional factors and indicators of intravascular microinflammation and vascular changes in healthy patients.Materials and methods. To study psycho-emotional status in 239 healthy patients aged 30 to 60 years, markers of inflammation (C-reactiveprotein — CRP and cytokines — tumor necrosis factor-α — TNF-α, interleukins — IL-1, -4, - 8) and ultrasonography of the vascular wall of the common carotid artery with the definition of the thickness of intim...

  13. Lower plasma adiponectin is a marker of increased intima-media thickness associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie; Sluiter, Wim J.

    Objective: We tested the extent to which altered plasma adipokine levels may contribute to the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance, and

  14. 500-Gray γ-Irradiation May Increase Adhesion Strength of Lyophilized Cadaveric Split-Thickness Skin Graft to Wound Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Wang, Chi-Hsien; Cheng, Ya-Chen; Li, Chun-Chang; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Hsian-Jenn

    2017-03-01

    Human cadaveric skin grafts are considered as the "gold standard" for temporary wound coverage because they provide a more conductive environment for natural wound healing. Lyophilization, packing, and terminal sterilization with gamma-ray can facilitate the application of cadaveric split-thickness skin grafts, but may alter the adhesion properties of the grafts. In a pilot study, we found that 500 Gy γ-irradiation seemed not to reduce the adherence between the grafts and wound beds. We conducted this experiment to compare the adherences of lyophilized, 500-Gy γ-irradiated skin grafts to that of lyophilized, nonirradiated grafts. Pairs of wounds were created over the backs of Sprague- Dawley rats. Pairs of "lyophilized, 500-Gy γ-irradiated" and "lyophilized, nonirradiated" cadaveric split-thickness skin grafts were fixed to the wound beds. Adhesion strength between the grafts and the wound beds was measured and compared. On post-skin-graft day 7 and day 10, the adhesion strength of γ-irradiated grafts was greater than that of the nonirradiated grafts. Because lyophilized cadaveric skin grafts can be vascularized and the collagen of its dermal component can be remodeled after grafting, the superior adhesion strength of 500-Gy γ-irradiated grafts can be explained by the collagen changes from irradiation.

  15. Economic analysis of gradual "social exhaustion" of waste management capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Hideo; Nakayama, Hirofumi

    2013-12-01

    This article proposes to analyze the quantitative effects of a gradual physical and "social" exhaustion of a landfill site on an equilibrium waste management service. A gradual social exhaustion of a landfill is defined here as an upward shift of a "subjective factor" associated with the amount of waste, based on the plausible hypothesis that an individual will not accept excessive presence of landfilled waste. Physical exhaustion occurs when the absolute capacity of a landfill site decreases. The paper shows some numerical examples using specific functions and parameters, and proposes appropriate directions for three policy objectives: to decrease the equilibrium waste disposal, to increase the economic surplus of the individual and/or the waste management firm, and to lower the equilibrium collection fee. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of gradual density transition and nonlinear saturation on Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, H.

    1984-08-01

    Linear theory of Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth at a density profile which varies exponentially between regions of constant density is discussed in detail. The exact theory provides an approximate but conservative simple formula for the growth constant and it shows that a hitherto widely used theory erroneously underestimates the growth constant. A simple but effective ''synthetical model'' of nonlinear bubble growth is obtained from a synthesis of linear theory and constant terminal bubble speed. It is applied to pusher shell break-up in an inertial confinement fusion pellet to determine the maximum allowable initial perturbations and the most dangerous wavelength. In a situation typical of heavy ion drivers it is found that the allowable initial perturbations are increased by a few orders of magnitude by the gradual density transition and another order of magnitude by nonlinear saturation of the bubble speed. The gradual density transition also shifts the most dangerous wavelength from about once to about four times the minimum pusher shell thickness. The following topics are treated briefly: Reasons conflicting with use of the synthetical model to decide whether the pusher shell in a certain simulation will be broken up; other nonlinear theories available in the literature; further realistic effects that might aggravate instability growth. (orig.) [de

  17. Increased sensitivity in thick-target particle induced X-ray emission analyses using dry ashing for preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Harju, L.; Saarela, K.-E.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity in thick-target particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analyses of biological materials can be enhanced by dry ashing. The gain depends mainly on the mass reduction factor and the composition of the residual ash. The enhancement factor was 7 for the certified reference material Pine Needles and the limits of detection (LODs) were below 0.2 μg/g for Zn, Cu, Rb and Sr. When ashing biological materials with low ash contents such as wood of pine or spruce (0.3% of dry weight) and honey (0.1% of wet weight) the gain was far greater. The LODs for these materials were 30 ng/g for wood and below 10 ng/g for honey. In addition, the ashed samples were more homogenous and more resistant to changes during the irradiation than the original biological samples. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. The energetics of the gradual phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, K. T.; Bentley, R. D.; Bornmann, P. L.; Bruner, M. E.; Cargill, P. J.; Doyle, J. G.; Lemen, J. R.; Pallavicini, R.; Peres, G.; Serio, S.

    1986-01-01

    Reseachers compare results with those in the chapter by Moore et al. (1980), who reached five main conclusions about the gradual phase: (1) the typical density of the soft X-ray emitting plasma is between 10 to the 11th power and 10 to the 12th power cm-3 for compact flares and between 10 to the 10th power and 10 to the 11th power cm-3 for a large-area flare; (2) cooling is by conduction and radiation in roughly equal proportions; (3) continual heating is needed in the decay phase of two-ribbon flares; (4) continual heating is probably not needed in compact events; (5) most of the soft-X-ray-emitting plasma results from chromospheric evaporation. The goal was to reexamine these problems with the data from the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and other supporting instruments as well as to take advantage of recent theoretical advances. SMM is capable of measuring coronal temperatures more accurately and with a better cadence than has been possible before. The SMM data set is also unique in that the complete transit of an active region was observed, with soft X-ray and UV images being taken every few minutes. Researcher's were therefore able to establish the pre-flare conditions of the region and see whether anything has changed as a result of the flare. The assumptions made in attempting to determine the required plasma parameters are described. The derived parameters for the five prime flares are presented, and the role of numerical simulations is discussed.

  19. High birth weight is associated with obesity and increased carotid wall thickness in young adults: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Siitonen, Niina; Würtz, Peter; Viikari, Jorma S A; Juonala, Markus; Seppälä, Ilkka; Laitinen, Tomi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Kähönen, Mika; Celermajer, David S; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-05-01

    There is some evidence that people born with high birth weight may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Details of the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We sought to determine whether people born large for gestational age have poor arterial health, increased adiposity, and a poor cardiovascular risk factor profile. Carotid intima-media thickness, brachial flow-mediated dilatation, and cardiovascular risk factors were compared between young adults (24-45 years) born at term who were large for gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile; n=171), and a control group with normal birth weight (50-75th percentile; n=525), in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Those born large for gestational age had higher body mass index throughout childhood, adolescence, and as young adults (26.4 kg/m(2) [SD 4.9], versus normal birth weight 25.1 kg/m(2) [SD 4.6]; P=0.002), and 2-fold greater risk of obesity. Other cardiovascular risk factors and arterial function did not differ; however, carotid intima-media thickness was increased in people born large for gestational age (0.60 mm [SD 0.09], versus normal birth weight 0.57 mm [SD 0.09]; P=0.003), independent of cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.001 after adjustment). Both obesity and high birth weight were independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness in a graded and additive fashion. Young adults born large for gestational age are more likely to be obese, yet have an otherwise healthy cardiovascular risk profile. Nonetheless, they have increased carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Repairing the brain with physical exercise: Cortical thickness and brain volume increases in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors in response to a structured exercise intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila U. Szulc-Lerch

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that exercise induced experience dependent plasticity may foster structural and functional recovery following brain injury. We examined the efficacy of exercise training for neural and cognitive recovery in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with radiation.We conducted a controlled clinical trial with crossover of exercise training (vs. no training in a volunteer sample of 28 children treated with cranial radiation for brain tumors (mean age = 11.5 yrs.; mean time since diagnosis = 5.7 yrs. The endpoints were anatomical T1 MRI data and multiple behavioral outcomes presenting a broader analysis of structural MRI data across the entire brain. This included an analysis of changes in cortical thickness and brain volume using automated, user unbiased approaches. A series of general linear mixed effects models evaluating the effects of exercise training on cortical thickness were performed in a voxel and vertex-wise manner, as well as for specific regions of interest. In exploratory analyses, we evaluated the relationship between changes in cortical thickness after exercise with multiple behavioral outcomes, as well as the relation of these measures at baseline.Exercise was associated with increases in cortical thickness within the right pre and postcentral gyri. Other notable areas of increased thickness related to training were present in the left pre and postcentral gyri, left temporal pole, left superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. Further, we observed that compared to a separate cohort of healthy children, participants displayed multiple areas with a significantly thinner cortex prior to training and fewer differences following training, indicating amelioration of anatomical deficits. Partial least squares analysis (PLS revealed specific patterns of relations between cortical thickness and various behavioral outcomes both after training and at baseline.Overall, our results

  1. Increased bladder wall thickness is associated with severe symptoms and reduced bladder capacity in patients with bladder pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: There are obvious differences in bladder CT scans of patients with symptoms of bladder pain due to different etiology. Increased BWT was associated with increased pain scores and decreased bladder capacity in patients with KC and IC. BWT on a CT scan might be considered a marker for the severity of bladder inflammation.

  2. Dopaminergic agonists that result in ocular growth inhibition also elicit transient increases in choroidal thickness in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickla, Debora L; Totonelly, Kristen; Dhillon, Balprit

    2010-11-01

    -induced refractive error (-2.9 and -2.8 D vs 0.6 D; p effects on neither axial length nor choroidal thickness were significant. These data support a role for both D1 and D2 receptors in the ocular growth responses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. TU-F-18C-02: Increasing Amorphous Selenium Thickness in Direct Conversion Flat-Panel Imagers for Contrast-Enhanced Dual-Energy Breast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaduto, DA; Hu, Y-H; Zhao, W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Contrast-enhanced (CE) breast imaging using iodinated contrast agents requires imaging with x-ray spectra at energies greater than those used in mammography. Optimizing amorphous selenium (a-Se) flat panel imagers (FPI) for this higher energy range may increase lesion conspicuity. Methods: We compare imaging performance of a conventional FPI with 200 μm a-Se conversion layer to a prototype FPI with 300 μm a-Se layer. Both detectors are evaluated in a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration prototype digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system using low-energy (W/Rh 28 kVp) and high-energy (W/Cu 49 kVp) x-ray spectra. Detectability of iodinated lesions in dual-energy images is evaluated using an iodine contrast phantom. Effects of beam obliquity are investigated in projection and reconstructed images using different reconstruction methods. The ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio is used as a figure-of-merit to predict the optimal a-Se thickness for CE lesion detectability without compromising conventional full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and DBT performance. Results: Increasing a-Se thickness from 200 μm to 300 μm preserves imaging performance at typical mammographic energies (e.g. W/Rh 28 kVp), and improves the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for high energy (W/Cu 49 kVp) by 30%. While the more penetrating high-energy x-ray photons increase geometric blur due to beam obliquity in the FPI with thicker a-Se layer, the effect on lesion detectability in FBP reconstructions is negligible due to the reconstruction filters employed. Ideal observer SNR for CE objects shows improvements in in-plane detectability with increasing a-Se thicknesses, though small lesion detectability begins to degrade in oblique projections for a-Se thickness above 500 μm. Conclusion: Increasing a-Se thickness in direct conversion FPI from 200 μm to 300 μm improves lesion detectability in CE breast imaging with virtually no cost to conventional FFDM and DBT. This work was partially

  4. Repairing the brain with physical exercise: Cortical thickness and brain volume increases in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors in response to a structured exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc-Lerch, Kamila U; Timmons, Brian W; Bouffet, Eric; Laughlin, Suzanne; de Medeiros, Cynthia B; Skocic, Jovanka; Lerch, Jason P; Mabbott, Donald J

    2018-01-01

    There is growing evidence that exercise induced experience dependent plasticity may foster structural and functional recovery following brain injury. We examined the efficacy of exercise training for neural and cognitive recovery in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with radiation. We conducted a controlled clinical trial with crossover of exercise training (vs. no training) in a volunteer sample of 28 children treated with cranial radiation for brain tumors (mean age = 11.5 yrs.; mean time since diagnosis = 5.7 yrs). The endpoints were anatomical T1 MRI data and multiple behavioral outcomes presenting a broader analysis of structural MRI data across the entire brain. This included an analysis of changes in cortical thickness and brain volume using automated, user unbiased approaches. A series of general linear mixed effects models evaluating the effects of exercise training on cortical thickness were performed in a voxel and vertex-wise manner, as well as for specific regions of interest. In exploratory analyses, we evaluated the relationship between changes in cortical thickness after exercise with multiple behavioral outcomes, as well as the relation of these measures at baseline. Exercise was associated with increases in cortical thickness within the right pre and postcentral gyri. Other notable areas of increased thickness related to training were present in the left pre and postcentral gyri, left temporal pole, left superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. Further, we observed that compared to a separate cohort of healthy children, participants displayed multiple areas with a significantly thinner cortex prior to training and fewer differences following training, indicating amelioration of anatomical deficits. Partial least squares analysis (PLS) revealed specific patterns of relations between cortical thickness and various behavioral outcomes both after training and at baseline. Overall, our results indicate that

  5. Clinical evaluation of the effect of gingival thickness on increasing the width of keratinized and attached gingiva with and without preserving periosteum in an animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Ebrahimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present study was performed in order to assess the effect of gingival thickness on amount of gingival augmentation with and without preserving periosteum. METHODS: The study was conducted on 8 ecotype dogs aged 1-5 years. At the beginning, clinical probing depth and keratinized and attached gingiva width were measured. Totally, 64 sites were operated in this study. Periosteal fenestration and denuded beds were randomly created on opposite sides of upper and lower jaws (4 sites each side. The thickness of gingiva was measured in mucogingival junction after preparation of the beds. The clinical parameters were evaluated 2 months after the surgery. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, and Pearson correlation tests. RESULTS: The results showed the average increased width of keratinized and attached gingiva was 1.8 mm and 2 mm in periosteal fenestration sites and 1.9 mm and 2.3 mm in denudation sites, respectively at 2 months post-surgery. The difference between the width of keratinized gingiva and attached gingiva before and 2 months after operation was significant in both groups (P < 0.001. However, no significant difference was shown between the two groups in terms of attached and keratinized gingival width (P = 0.100 and P = 0.720, respectively. There was no correlation between the thickness of gingiva and the amount of increased width of keratinized and attached gingiva. CONCLUSION: A gingival thickness of 0.8 to 2 mm does not affect the increment of the attached and keratinized gingival width with and without preserving periosteum.

  6. Enhanced energy storage and suppressed dielectric loss in oxide core-shell-polyolefin nanocomposites by moderating internal surface area and increasing shell thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredin, Lisa A.; Li, Zhong; Ratner, Mark A.; Marks, Tobin J. [Department of Chemistry Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Lanagan, Michael T. [Center for Dielectric Studies, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-4800 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    Dielectric loss in metal oxide core/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell polypropylene nanocomposites scales with the particle surface area. By moderating the interfacial surface area between the phases and using increasing shell thicknesses, dielectric loss is significantly reduced, and thus the energy stored within, and recoverable from, capacitors fabricated from these materials is significantly increased, to as high as 2.05 J/cm{sup 3}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Random myosin loss along thick-filaments increases myosin attachment time and the proportion of bound myosin heads to mitigate force decline in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; McNabb, Mark; Palmer, Bradley M.; Toth, Michael J.; Miller, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished skeletal muscle performance with aging, disuse, and disease may be partially attributed to the loss of myofilament proteins. Several laboratories have found a disproportionate loss of myosin protein content relative to other myofilament proteins, but due to methodological limitations, the structural manifestation of this protein loss is unknown. To investigate how variations in myosin content affect ensemble cross-bridge behavior and force production we simulated muscle contraction in the half-sarcomere as myosin was removed either i) uniformly, from the Z-line end of thick-filaments, or ii) randomly, along the length of thick-filaments. Uniform myosin removal decreased force production, showing a slightly steeper force-to-myosin content relationship than the 1:1 relationship that would be expected from the loss of cross-bridges. Random myosin removal also decreased force production, but this decrease was less than observed with uniform myosin loss, largely due to increased myosin attachment time (ton) and fractional cross-bridge binding with random myosin loss. These findings support our prior observations that prolonged ton may augment force production in single fibers with randomly reduced myosin content from chronic heart failure patients. These simulation also illustrate that the pattern of myosin loss along thick-filaments influences ensemble cross-bridge behavior and maintenance of force throughout the sarcomere. PMID:24486373

  8. Arterial wave reflection decreases gradually from supine to upright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Bogaard, Bas; Westerhof, Berend E; Best, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. An increase in total peripheral resistance (TPR) usually increases arterial wave reflection. During passive head-up tilt (HUT), however, arterial wave reflection decreases with increasing TPR. This study addressed whether arterial wave reflection gradually decreases during HUT. METHODS....... In 10 healthy volunteers (22-39 years, nine males), we recorded finger arterial pressures in supine position (0°), and 30°and 70°degrees HUT and active standing (90°). Aortic pressure was constructed from the finger pressure signal and hemodynamics were calculated. Arterial wave reflection...... from 0.9 dyn s/cm(5) at 0? to 1.2, 1.4 and 1.4 dyn s/cm(5) at 30°, 70° and 90° (p wave reflection...

  9. Circulating adiponectin increases in obese women after sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass driving beneficial metabolic changes but with no relationship with carotid intima-media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martin, Jesús M; Balsa, José A; Aracil, Enrique; Insenser, María; Priego, Pablo; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2017-10-12

    Obesity surgery induces beneficial effects in metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Adiponectin increase might be associated with some of these changes. However, direct comparison between different surgical techniques has not been extensively performed. We studied 20 obese women submitted to laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 20 to sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Twenty control women matched for age and baseline metabolic profiles were also included. Both patients and controls were followed up for one year after surgery or conventional treatment with diet and exercise, respectively. Serum adiponectin was measured at baseline, 6 months and 1 year after, as well as lipid profiles, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), fasting glucose and insulin. Carotid intima-media thickness was measured by ultrasonography at baseline and after 1 year. Circulating adiponectin increased after obesity surgery (more markedly following RYGB than after SG), whereas no changes were observed in the controls (Wilks' λ = 0.659, P media thickness (r = -0.055, P = 0.679). RYGB induces a higher increase in adiponectin than SG, which parallels SHBG, the reduction of fasting insulin and insulin resistance. On the other hand, no association was found with carotid intima-media, lipid profiles or blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. The gradual nature of threshold switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, M; Salinga, M

    2014-01-01

    The recent commercialization of electronic memories based on phase change materials proved the usability of this peculiar family of materials for application purposes. More advanced data storage and computing concepts, however, demand a deeper understanding especially of the electrical properties of the amorphous phase and the switching behaviour. In this work, we investigate the temporal evolution of the current through the amorphous state of the prototypical phase change material, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , under constant voltage. A custom-made electrical tester allows the measurement of delay times over five orders of magnitude, as well as the transient states of electrical excitation prior to the actual threshold switching. We recognize a continuous current increase over time prior to the actual threshold-switching event to be a good measure for the electrical excitation. A clear correlation between a significant rise in pre-switching-current and the later occurrence of threshold switching can be observed. This way, we found experimental evidence for the existence of an absolute minimum for the threshold voltage (or electric field respectively) holding also for time scales far beyond the measurement range. (paper)

  11. Comparing abrupt and gradual smoking cessation: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2011-11-01

    To compare abrupt and gradual smoking cessation. Randomized trial and observational study, Internet, 2007-2010. Smokers with no strong preference for abrupt or gradual quitting were randomly assigned to quitting immediately (n=472), or to gradually reducing their cigarette consumption over 2 weeks and then quit (n=502). Smokers who strongly preferred to quit abruptly were instructed to do so immediately (n=2456), those who strongly preferred gradual were instructed to reduce their cigarette consumption over 2 weeks, then quit (n=1801). Follow-up was conducted 4 weeks after target quit dates. Those who preferred abrupt quitting were the most motivated to quit and the most confident in their ability to quit. At follow-up, quit rates were 16% in those who preferred abrupt cessation, 7% in those who preferred gradual cessation and 9% in those who had no preference (pmotivation to quit and confidence in ability to quit: those who had low levels of motivation or low levels of confidence were more likely to quit at follow-up if they preferred and used abrupt rather than gradual. In those who had no strong preference for either method, abrupt and gradual produced similar results. Those who preferred and used the abrupt method were more likely to quit than those who preferred and used the gradual method, in particular when they had low motivation and confidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased infarct wall thickness by a bio-inert material is insufficient to prevent negative left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboli A Rane

    Full Text Available Several injectable materials have been shown to preserve or improve cardiac function as well as prevent or slow left ventricular (LV remodeling post-myocardial infarction (MI. However, it is unclear as to whether it is the structural support or the bioactivity of these polymers that lead to beneficial effects. Herein, we examine how passive structural enhancement of the LV wall by an increase in wall thickness affects cardiac function post-MI using a bio-inert, non-degradable synthetic polymer in an effort to better understand the mechanisms by which injectable materials affect LV remodeling.Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG gels of storage modulus G' = 0.5±0.1 kPa were injected and polymerized in situ one week after total occlusion of the left coronary artery in female Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at 7±1 day(s post-MI as a baseline and again post-injection 49±4 days after MI. Infarct wall thickness was statistically increased in PEG gel injected vs. control animals (p<0.01. However, animals in the polymer and control groups showed decreases in cardiac function in terms of end diastolic volume, end systolic volume and ejection fraction compared to baseline (p<0.01. The cellular response to injection was also similar in both groups.The results of this study demonstrate that passive structural reinforcement alone was insufficient to prevent post-MI remodeling, suggesting that bioactivity and/or cell infiltration due to degradation of injectable materials are likely playing a key role in the preservation of cardiac function, thus providing a deeper understanding of the influencing properties of biomaterials necessary to prevent post-MI negative remodeling.

  13. Thick Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find ...

  14. Increased Insular Cortical Thickness Associated With Symptom Severity in Male Youths With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Surface-Based Morphometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Liu, Jing; Tian, Lin; Chen, Limin; Wang, Jun; Tang, Qunfeng; Zhang, Fuquan; Zhou, Zhenhe

    2018-01-01

    With the rising increase in Internet-usage, Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has gained massive attention worldwide. However, detailed cerebral morphological changes remain unclear in youths with IGD. In the current study, our aim was to investigate cortical morphology and further explore the relationship between the cortical morphology and symptom severity in male youths with IGD. Forty-eight male youths with IGD and 32 age- and education-matched normal controls received magnetic resonance imaging scans. We employed a recently proposed surface-based morphometric approach for the measurement of cortical thickness (CT). We found that youths with IGD showed increased CT in the bilateral insulae and the right inferior temporal gyrus. Moreover, significantly decreased CT were found in several brain areas in youths with IGD, including the bilateral banks of the superior temporal sulci, the right inferior parietal cortex, the right precuneus, the right precentral gyrus, and the left middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, youths with IGD demonstrated a significantly positive correlation between the left insular CT and symptom severity. Our data provide evidence for the finding of abnormal CT in distributed cerebral areas and support the notion that altered structural abnormalities observed in substance addiction are also manifested in IGD. Such information extends current knowledge about IGD-related brain reorganization and could help future efforts in identifying the role of insula in the disorder. PMID:29666588

  15. Increased Insular Cortical Thickness Associated With Symptom Severity in Male Youths With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Surface-Based Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rising increase in Internet-usage, Internet gaming disorder (IGD has gained massive attention worldwide. However, detailed cerebral morphological changes remain unclear in youths with IGD. In the current study, our aim was to investigate cortical morphology and further explore the relationship between the cortical morphology and symptom severity in male youths with IGD. Forty-eight male youths with IGD and 32 age- and education-matched normal controls received magnetic resonance imaging scans. We employed a recently proposed surface-based morphometric approach for the measurement of cortical thickness (CT. We found that youths with IGD showed increased CT in the bilateral insulae and the right inferior temporal gyrus. Moreover, significantly decreased CT were found in several brain areas in youths with IGD, including the bilateral banks of the superior temporal sulci, the right inferior parietal cortex, the right precuneus, the right precentral gyrus, and the left middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, youths with IGD demonstrated a significantly positive correlation between the left insular CT and symptom severity. Our data provide evidence for the finding of abnormal CT in distributed cerebral areas and support the notion that altered structural abnormalities observed in substance addiction are also manifested in IGD. Such information extends current knowledge about IGD-related brain reorganization and could help future efforts in identifying the role of insula in the disorder.

  16. The topical penta-peptide Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser increases the proportion of thick hair in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Takeda, Shunsuke; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Tsuruda, Akinori; Shibata, Hideaki; Ito, Tomoko; Komatsu, Nobuyuki; Terai, Keiko; Oka, Syuichi

    2016-06-01

    A penta-peptide, Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser (GPIGS), promotes proliferation of mouse hair keratinocytes and accelerates hair growth in mice. This study focused on the ability of the peptide to promote human hair growth. We used a human hair keratinocyte proliferation assay and organ cultures of human hair follicle as in vitro systems. The lotions with and without the penta-peptide were administered to 22 Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for 4 months in a double-blind and randomized clinical study. The penta-peptide significantly stimulated the proliferation of human hair keratinocytes at a concentration of 2.3 μm (P baldness (P = 0.020) when blinded reviewers graded photographs of the participants according to a standardized baldness scale. No adverse dermatological effects due to treatment were noted during this clinical study. This penta-peptide promotes proliferation of human hair keratinocytes and hair shaft elongation of human hair follicles, in vitro. This peptide increases thick hair ratio in vivo, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Family History of Stroke Is Associated with Increased Intima-Media Thickness in Young Ischemic Stroke - The Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study (NOR-SYS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øygarden, Halvor; Fromm, Annette; Sand, Kristin Modalsli; Kvistad, Christopher Elnan; Eide, Geir Egil; Thomassen, Lars; Naess, Halvor; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Positive family history (FH+) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a risk factor for own CVD. We aimed to analyze the effect of different types of FH (stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in young and middle-aged ischemic stroke patients. First-degree FH of CVD was assessed in ischemic stroke patients ≤ 60y using a standardized interview. Carotid ultrasound was performed and far wall cIMT in three carotid artery segments was registered, representing the common carotid (CCA-IMT), carotid bifurcation (BIF-IMT) and the internal carotid artery (ICA-IMT). Measurements were compared between FH+ and FH negative groups and stepwise backward regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with increased cIMT. During the study period 382 patients were enrolled, of which 262 (68%) were males and 233 (61%) reported FH of CVD. Regression analyses adjusting for risk factors revealed age as the most important predictor of cIMT in all segments. The association between FH+ and cIMT was modified by age (p = 0.014) and was significant only regarding ICA-IMT. FH+ was associated with increased ICA-IMT in patients aged stroke (p = 0.034), but not a FH+ of CHD or PAD. FH of stroke is associated with higher ICA-IMT in young ischemic stroke patients. Subtyping of cardiovascular FH is important to investigate heredity in young ischemic stroke patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01597453.

  18. Gradual reintroduction of oxygen reduces reperfusion injury in cat stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.A.; Wadhwa, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that oxygen-derived free radicals are responsible for a major portion of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the stomach. The oxygen radicals are produced during perfusion when oxygen delivery to the tissue increases. In the present study the authors investigate the effect on mucosal injury of regulating the rate of reintroduction of oxygen to the stomach after ischemia. Local gastric ischemia was achieved by reducing celiac artery pressure to 30 mmHg for 1 h. Ischemic injury was assessed by measuring the loss of 51 Cr-labeled red blood cells across the gastric mucosa. Mucosal blood loss was negligible before and during the ischemia period but increased during reperfusion. When blood flow to the stomach was gradually returned to normal after ischemia, the mucosal blood loss was reduced. If the stomach was vascularly perfused with low Po 2 blood for 1 h after ischemia before being returned to normal arterial perfusion, the mucosal blood loss was also reduced. When the stomach was made hypoxemic for 1 h rather than ischemic by perfusing the vasculature with low Po 2 blood then reperfused with normoxic blood, there was very little mucosal bleeding. The data indicate that gastric mucosal bleeding after ischemia is reduced if the tissue is returned slowly to a normal Po 2 . These findings support the concept that reperfusion injury is due largely to the production of oxygen radicals. The low level of injury produced by hypoxemia indicates that hypoxia per se makes only a minor contribution to reperfusion injury in the stomach

  19. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    solution for data reduction based on gradual granular data aggregation. With the gradual granular data aggregation mechanism, older data can be made coarse-grained while keeping the newest data fine-grained. For instance, when data is 3 months old aggregate to 1 minute level from 1 second level, when data...... and improve query performance, especially on resource-constrained systems with limited storage and query processing capabilities. A number of data reduction solutions have been developed, however an effective solution particularly based on gradual data reduction is missing. This paper presents an effective...... is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  20. Effect of the inoculation site of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) on the skin fold thickness increase in cattle from officially tuberculosis free and tuberculosis-infected herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Quick, Harrison; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Romero, Beatriz; Saez, Jose L; Liandris, Emmanouil; Navarro, Alejandro; Perez, Andrés; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2015-09-01

    The official technique for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide is the tuberculin skin test, based on the evaluation of the skin thickness increase after the intradermal inoculation of a purified protein derivative (PPD) in cattle. A number of studies performed on experimentally infected or sensitized cattle have suggested that the relative sensitivity of the cervical test (performed in the neck) may vary depending on the exact location in which the PPD is injected. However, quantitative evidence on the variation of the test accuracy associated to changes in the site of inoculation in naturally infected animals (the population in which performance of the test is most critical for disease eradication) is lacking. Here, the probability of obtaining a positive reaction (>2 or 4 millimeters and/or presence of local clinical signs) after multiple inoculations of bovine PPD in different cervical and scapular locations was assessed in animals from five bTB-infected herds (818 cattle receiving eight inoculations) using a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression model and adjusting for the potential effect of age and sex. The effect of the inoculation site was also assessed qualitatively in animals from four officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herds (two inoculations in 210 animals and eight inoculations in 38 cattle). Although no differences in the qualitative outcome of the test were observed in cattle from OTF herds, a statistically important association between the test outcome and the inoculation site in animals from infected herds was observed, with higher probabilities of positive results when the test was performed in the neck anterior area. Our results suggest that test sensitivity may be maximized by considering the area of the neck in which the test is applied, although lack of effect of the inoculation site in the specificity of the test should be confirmed in a larger sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Demographic analysis reveals gradual senescence in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeckman Bart P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Free-living flatworms ("Turbellaria" are appropriate model organisms to gain better insight into the role of stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. Ageing research in flatworms is, however, still scarce. This is partly due to culture difficulties and the lack of a complete set of demographic data, including parameters such as median lifespan and age-specific mortality rate. In this paper, we report on the first flatworm survival analysis. We used the species Macrostomum lignano, which is an emerging model for studying the reciprocal influence between stem cells, ageing and rejuvenation. This species has a median lifespan of 205 ± 13 days (average ± standard deviation [SD] and a 90th percentile lifespan of 373 ± 32 days. The maximum lifespan, however, is more than 745 days, and the average survival curve is characterised by a long tail because a small number of individuals lives twice as long as 90% of the population. Similar to earlier observations in a wide range of animals, in M. lignano the age-specific mortality rate increases exponentially, but levels off at the oldest ages. To compare the senescence of M. lignano with that of other ageing models, we determined the mortality rate doubling time, which is 0.20 ± 0.02 years. As a result, we can conclude that M. lignano shows gradual senescence at a rate similar to the vertebrate ageing models Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. We argue that M. lignano is a suitable model for ageing and rejuvenation research, and especially for the role of stem cells in these processes, due to its accessible stem cell system and regeneration capacity, and the possibility of combining stem cell studies with demographic analyses.

  2. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The flow of water in an open channel can be treated as steady, gradually varied flow for ... channel between two nodes is treated as a single reach to calculate the loss ... dition at control points and (iii) critical depth is also required to verify the ...

  3. Implications of a fossil stickleback assemblage for Darwinian gradualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M A

    2009-11-01

    Darwin postulated that a complete fossil record would contain numerous gradual transitions between ancestral and descendant species, but 150 years after publication of The Origin of Species, few such transitions have materialized. The fossil stickleback Gasterosteus doryssus and the deposit in which it occurs provide excellent conditions to detect such transitions. Abundant, well-preserved fossils occur in a stratigraphic setting with fine temporal resolution. The paleoecology of G. doryssus resembles the ecology of modern lakes that harbour the phenotypically similar three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Gasterosteus aculeatus are primitively highly armoured, but G. doryssus comprised two contemporaneous biological species with relatively weak armour, including a near-shore, benthic feeder (benthic) and an offshore planktivore (limnetic). The benthic species expanded its range into the limnetic zone of the lake, where it apparently switched to planktivory and evolved reduced armour within c. 5000 years in response to directional selection. Although gradual evolution of mean phenotypes occurred, a single major gene caused much of evolutionary change of the pelvic skeleton. Thus, Darwin's expectation that transitions between species in the fossil record would be gradual was met at a fine time scale, but for pelvic structure, a well-studied trait, his expectation that gradual change would depend entirely on numerous, small, heritable differences among individuals was incorrect.

  4. On some steady-state characteristics of systems with gradual repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Maxim; Ludick, Zani

    2014-01-01

    We consider a repairable system with continuous output that alternates between states of operation and repair. The output of the system in the operating state is represented by a continuous, decreasing function of time. We assume that during the repair state, the system can produce output that is modelled by an increasing stochastic process. The repair action gradually restores the output of the system to its initial level and it returns to the operating state. We obtain and analyse expressions for the generalized availability and related characteristics of systems with gradual repair and consider several meaningful examples

  5. Increased carotid intima-media thickness associated with antibody responses to varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus in HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Masiá

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship of the Herpesviridiae with inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Prospective study including virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. IgG antibodies against herpesviruses, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT, endothelial function through flow-mediated dilatation (FMD of the brachial artery, and blood atherosclerosis biomarkers (hsCRP, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, MDA, sCD14, sCD163, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, D-dimer, and PAI-1 were measured. RESULTS: 136 patients with HIV viral load <200 copies/ml were included. 93.4% patients were infected with herpes simplex virus type-1, 55.9% with herpes simplex virus type-2, 97.1% with varicella-zoster virus, 65.4% with human herpesvirus-6, 91.2% with cytomegalovirus, and 99.3% with Epstein-Barr virus. Previous AIDS diagnosis was associated with higher cytomegalovirus IgG titers (23,000 vs 17,000 AU, P = 0.011 and higher varicella-zoster virus IgG titers (3.19 vs 2.88 AU, P = 0.047, and there was a positive correlation of the Framingham risk score with IgG levels against cytomegalovirus (Spearman's Rho 0.216, P = 0.016 and Herpes simplex virus-2 (Spearman's Rho 0.293, P = 0.001. IgG antibodies against cytomegalovirus correlated in adjusted analysis with the cIMT (P = 0.030. High seropositivity for varicella-zoster virus (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.05-8.01, P = 0.039, and for cytomegalovirus (OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.20-11.97, P = 0.023 were predictors for the highest quartile of the cIMT in adjusted analyses. PAI-1 levels were independently associated with cytomegalovirus IgG titers (P = 0.041, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels with varicella-zoster virus IgG (P = 0.046 and P = 0.035 respectively, and hsCRP levels with Herpes simplex virus-2 IgG (P = 0.035. CONCLUSION: In virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients, antibody responses against herpesviruses are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, and with increased inflammation and coagulation

  6. A born global’s radical, gradual and nonlinear internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissak, Tiia; Zhang, Xiaotian

    2016-01-01

    a case of a Belarusian door producer that has invested to seven and exported to 11 more countries, we conclude that a home country’s political, economic environment can be a crucial ‘push’ factor for a firm’s fast internationalization but, thereafter, it can internationalize gradually due to lacking...... knowledge or other resources, and de-and re-internationalize due to various internal and, or external reasons. © Rainer Hampp Verlag....

  7. Gradualism in Tax Treaties with Irreversible Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Chisik; Ronald B. Davies

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral international tax treaties govern the host country taxation for the vast majority of the world’s foreign direct investment (FDI). Of particular interest is the fact that the tax rates used under these treaties are gradually falling although the treaties themselves do not specify any such reductions. Since there is no outside governing agency to redress treaty violations, such reductions must be both mutually beneficial and self-enforcing. Furthermore, the optimal tax rates must be l...

  8. Adaptation of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to gradual changes to a low-pH environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Si-Yin; Wang, Bao-Jie; Liu, Mei; Wang, Meng-Qiang; Jiang, Ke-Yong; Liu, Xin-Wei; Wang, Lei

    2018-03-01

    pH variation could cause a stress response in euryhaline penaeids, we evaluated the mortality, growth performance, osmoregulation gene expression, digestive enzyme activity, histology, and resistance against Vibrio parahemolyticus of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared under conditions of gradual changes to a low-pH environment (gradual-low pH, 6.65-8.20) or a high-pH environment (gradual-high pH, 8.20-9.81) versus a normal pH environment (8.14-8.31) during a 28-d experiment. Consequently, under gradual-high pH, the cumulative mortality rate (CMR) rose with time until 39.9% on days 28; the weight gain percentage (WGP) and length gain percentage (LGP) decreased continuously. However, under gradual-low pH, the CMR of shrimp stabilized at 6.67% during 7-28 d; the WGP and LGP decreased first and then returned to normal. These results indicated that L. vannamei displayed a moderate tolerance to gradual-low pH, compared with gradual-high pH. Under gradual-low pH, the Na + /K + -ATPase, cytoplasmic carbonic anydrase (CAc), and glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked carbonic anhydrase (CAg) transcripts of shrimp increased continuously or then back to normal; the amylase, lipase, and trypsin activities decreased first and then returned to normal or increased; the hepatopancreases and midguts showed histopathological lesions first and then got remission. Thus, the major adaptation mechanism of shrimp to gradual-low pH might be its high osmoregulation ability, which made shrimp achieve a new, balanced steady-state, then promoted longer intestinal villi and recuperative hepatopancreases of shrimp with enhanced digestive enzyme activities to increase nutrient absorption after long-term exposure. Meanwhile, the enhanced resistance against V. parahemolyticus under gradual-low pH would probably inhibit disease outbreak in the shrimp farming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  10. Cerebral activations related to ballistic, stepwise interrupted and gradually modulated movements in Parkinson patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien M Toxopeus

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12 and healthy subjects (N = 18. In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account

  11. THE EFFECT OF THE BACKFAT THICKNESS LOSS ON REPRODUCTION IN LACTATING SOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Brzobohatý

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work discusses the influence of the backfat thickness change, during sow´s lactation, on their subsequent litter characteristics. The reproduction potential of 478 sows of two genotypes was assessed. The genotypes were 50 Large White (LWD sows and 428 crossbreeds Large White x Landrace (LWD x L sows. The backfat thickness decline was examined in accordance to P2, backfat thickness in sows during lactation namely 1 day before planned parturition as well as weaning. From the obtained results it can be stated that the backfat thickness decline level during lactation has a small influence on the number of total born piglets. In contrast, the number of piglets born alive increased when backfat thickness rate increased. With a moderate backfat thickness decline, the average birthweight piglets gradually increased. However, the opposite trend was shown for the average weight at weaning. The backfat thickness decline level during sow´s lactation influences their farrowing interval. Animals with a lower increase of the backfat thickness subsequently showed a shorter farrowing interval (148.99, respectively 151.86 days, as well as a shorter weaning – estrus interval.

  12. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressing combined with negative-pressure wound therapy increases split-thickness skin graft engraftment: a simple effective technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Chew, Khong-Yik; Chen, Chien-Chang; Kuo, Yur-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Immobilization and adequate surface contact to wounds are critical for skin graft take. Techniques such as the tie-over dressing, cotton bolster, and vacuum-assisted closure are used to address this, but each has its limitations. This study is designed to assess the effect of antimicrobial-impregnated dressing (AMD) combined with negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on skin graft survival. Retrospective case-control study : Patients with chronic or contaminated wounds treated with split-thickness skin graft. A broad spectrum of wounds was included, from causes such as trauma, burns, chronic diabetic ulcers, and infection. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressing, which contains 0.2% polyhexamethylene biguanide, with NPWT MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:: Success of skin graft : In the AMD group, all skin grafts achieved 100% take without secondary intervention. No infection or graft failure was observed in any patients, and no complications, such as hematoma or seroma formation, were noted, although in the control group partial loss of skin grafts was noted in 3 patients. Infection and inadequate immobilization were thought to be the main reasons. There were no hematoma or seroma formations in the control group. Use of an AMD dressing with NPWT after split-thickness skin grafting can be an effective method to ensure good graft to wound contact and enhances skin graft take in chronic and contaminated wounds.

  13. Is synaesthesia really stable – or does it gradually consolidate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Synaesthesia is a condition describing a perceptual variation where experience an additional concurrent following an inducer stimulus (Grossenbacher & Lovelace, 2001); some may experience that weekdays or letters have a specific colour, or that a number has a certain size or relate to a particular...... is that the associations are stable over time. However, here we present the case of AR, a colour-grapheme synaesthete who clearly demonstrate synaesthesia, but also a gradual consolidation over time (Sørensen, Nordfang, & Ásgeirsson, accepted). Also, AR does not demonstrate some of the typical modulations of attention...

  14. LONG DURATION FLARE EMISSION: IMPULSIVE HEATING OR GRADUAL HEATING?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    Flare emissions in X-ray and EUV wavelengths have previously been modeled as the plasma response to impulsive heating from magnetic reconnection. Some flares exhibit gradually evolving X-ray and EUV light curves, which are believed to result from superposition of an extended sequence of impulsive heating events occurring in different adjacent loops or even unresolved threads within each loop. In this paper, we apply this approach to a long duration two-ribbon flare SOL2011-09-13T22 observed by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly (AIA). We find that to reconcile with observed signatures of flare emission in multiple EUV wavelengths, each thread should be heated in two phases, an intense impulsive heating followed by a gradual, low-rate heating tail that is attenuated over 20–30 minutes. Each AIA resolved single loop may be composed of several such threads. The two-phase heating scenario is supported by modeling with both a zero-dimensional and a 1D hydrodynamic code. We discuss viable physical mechanisms for the two-phase heating in a post-reconnection thread.

  15. Gradual approach to refinement of the nasal tip: surgical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni de Carvalho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The complexity of the nasal tip structures and the impact of surgical maneuvers make the prediction of the final outcome very difficult. Therefore, no single technique is enough to correct the several anatomical presentations, and adequate preoperative planning represents the basis of rhinoplasty. Objective: To present results of rhinoplasty, through the gradual surgical approach to nasal tip definition based on anatomical features, and to evaluate the degree of patient satisfaction after the surgical procedure. Methods: Longitudinal retrospective cohort study of the medical charts of 533 patients of both genders who underwent rhinoplasty from January of 2005 to January of 2012 was performed. Cases were allocated into seven groups: (1 no surgery on nasal tip; (2 interdomal breakup; (3 cephalic trim; (4 domal suture; (5 shield-shaped graft; (6 vertical dome division; (7 replacement of lower lateral cartilages. Results: Group 4 was the most prevalent. The satisfaction rate was 96% and revision surgery occurred in 4% of cases. Conclusion: The protocol used allowed the implementation of a gradual surgical approach to nasal tip definition with the nasal anatomical characteristics, high rate of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome, and low rate of revision.

  16. Feasibility of computerized scheduled gradual reduction for adolescent smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Jerome, Albert; Behar, Albert; Zack, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify a smoking cessation program that uses computerized scheduled gradual reduction for use with adolescent smokers and to test the feasibility of this cessation approach in group support and minimal contact modalities. Utilizing a lesson plan approach with high school marketing students in five high schools and student survey feedback, the LifeSign program was modified to be an acceptable smoking cessation program for adolescent smokers. In the first study, 17 adolescent smokers used the modified program with seven associated weekly group support sessions. At the end of treatment, 29% had quit smoking, and over half of those who continued to smoke reduced their smoking rate by 50%. In the second study, the LifeSign for Teens program was evaluated with 18 adolescent smokers in a minimal contact format. At the end of treatment, 17% had quit smoking, and mean smoking rate reductions of 43% were found among those who continued smoking. At 1-year follow-up, all subjects who had quit at posttreatment reported continuous abstinence. The results of these two small trials suggest that a computerized scheduled gradual reduction approach may be an accepted and potentially efficacious approach for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers.

  17. Automated choroid segmentation based on gradual intensity distance in HD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Fan, Wen; Niu, Sijie; Shi, Jiajia; Shen, Honglie; Yuan, Songtao

    2015-04-06

    The choroid is an important structure of the eye and plays a vital role in the pathology of retinal diseases. This paper presents an automated choroid segmentation method for high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) images, including Bruch's membrane (BM) segmentation and choroidal-scleral interface (CSI) segmentation. An improved retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) complex removal algorithm is presented to segment BM by considering the structure characteristics of retinal layers. By analyzing the characteristics of CSI boundaries, we present a novel algorithm to generate a gradual intensity distance image. Then an improved 2-D graph search method with curve smooth constraints is used to obtain the CSI segmentation. Experimental results with 212 HD-OCT images from 110 eyes in 66 patients demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high segmentation accuracy. The mean choroid thickness difference and overlap ratio between our proposed method and outlines drawn by experts was 6.72µm and 85.04%, respectively.

  18. Designing a gradual transition to a hydrogen economy in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. J.; Brey, R.; Carazo, A. F.; Contreras, I.; Hernández-Díaz, A. G.; Gallardo, V.

    The lack of sustainability of the current Spanish energy system makes it necessary to study the adoption of alternative energy models. One of these is what is known as the hydrogen economy. In this paper, we aim to plan, for the case of Spain, an initial phase for transition to this energy model making use of the potential offered by each Spanish region. Specifically, the target pursued is to satisfy at least 15% of energy demand for transport by 2010 through renewable sources. We plan to attain this target gradually, establishing intermediate stages consisting of supplying 5 and 10% of the energy demand for transport by 2006 and 2008, respectively. The results obtained allow us to determine, for each region, the hydrogen production and consumption, the renewable energy sources used to obtain hydrogen and the transport requirements between regions.

  19. Principle of progressive (gradual use of contractual remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazil OGLINDĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we intend to answer to the question whether, in the modern contract law, in general, and in Romanian contract law, in particular, the creditor may resort almost discretionary to remedies (contractual sanctions such as termination, rescission without being opposed that he should have resorted to other more appropriate remedies. In order to answer to this question, we find it extremely useful to define the term of contractual remedy and to analyse the correlation of this principle with other principles of modern contract law. Also, last but not least, we intend to define the principle of progressive (gradual use of the contractual remedies and to detail the vocation (legal nature of this principle in the modern contract law, having as starting point the provisions of the new Romanian Civil Code.

  20. High temperature deformation behavior of gradually pressurized zircaloy-4 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoye

    1982-03-01

    In order to obtain preliminary perspectives on fuel cladding deformation behavior under changing temperature and pressure conditions in a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident of PWR, a Zircaloy-4 tube burst test was conducted in both air and 99.97% Ar atomospheres. The tubes were directly heated by AC-current and maintained at various temperatures, and pressurized gradually until rupture occurred. Rupture circumferential strains were generally larger in Ar gas than in air and attained a maximum around 1100 K in both atmospheres. Some tube tested in air produced axially-extended long balloons, which proved not to be explained by such properties or ideas as effect of cooling on strain rate, superplasticity, geometrical plastic instability and stresses generated by surface oxide layer. A cause of the long balloon may be obtained in the anisotropy of the material structure. But even a qualitative analysis based on this property can not be made due to insufficient data of the anisotropy. (author)

  1. Ibuprofen loaded PLA nanofibrous scaffolds increase proliferation of human skin cells in vitro and promote healing of full thickness incision wounds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Saha, S; Murphy, S V; Gracz, H; Pourdeyhimi, B; Atala, A; Loboa, E G

    2017-02-01

    This article presents successful incorporation of ibuprofen in polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers to create scaffolds for the treatment of both acute and chronic wounds. Nanofibrous PLA scaffolds containing 10, 20, or 30 wt % ibuprofen were created and ibuprofen release profiles quantified. In vitro cytotoxicity to human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) of the three scaffolds with varying ibuprofen concentrations were evaluated and compared to pure PLA nanofibrous scaffolds. Thereafter, scaffolds loaded with ibuprofen at the concentration that promoted human skin cell viability and proliferation (20 wt %) were evaluated in vivo in nude mice using a full thickness skin incision model to determine the ability of these scaffolds to promote skin regeneration and/or assist with scarless healing. Both acellular and HEK and HDF cell-seeded 20 wt % ibuprofen loaded nanofibrous bandages reduced wound contraction compared with wounds treated with Tegaderm™ and sterile gauze. Newly regenerated skin on wounds treated with cell-seeded 20 wt % ibuprofen bandages exhibited significantly greater blood vessel formation relative to acellular ibuprofen bandages. We have found that degradable anti-inflammatory scaffolds containing 20 wt % ibuprofen promote human skin cell viability and proliferation in vitro, reduce wound contraction in vivo, and when seeded with skin cells, also enhance new blood vessel formation. The approaches and results reported here hold promise for multiple skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 327-339, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Interacting Learning Processes during Skill Acquisition: Learning to control with gradually changing system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolph, Nicolas; Giese, Martin A; Ilg, Winfried

    2017-10-16

    There is increasing evidence that sensorimotor learning under real-life conditions relies on a composition of several learning processes. Nevertheless, most studies examine learning behaviour in relation to one specific learning mechanism. In this study, we examined the interaction between reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation to changes of object dynamics. Thirty healthy subjects, split into two groups, acquired the skill of balancing a pole on a cart in virtual reality. In one group, we gradually increased the gravity, making the task easier in the beginning and more difficult towards the end. In the second group, subjects had to acquire the skill on the maximum, most difficult gravity level. We hypothesized that the gradual increase in gravity during skill acquisition supports learning despite the necessary adjustments to changes in cart-pole dynamics. We found that the gradual group benefits from the slow increment, although overall improvement was interrupted by the changes in gravity and resulting system dynamics, which caused short-term degradations in performance and timing of actions. In conclusion, our results deliver evidence for an interaction of reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation processes, which indicates the importance of both processes for the development of optimized skill acquisition schedules.

  3. Effect of Coating-thickness on the formability of hot dip aluminized steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, G.H.; Ahmed, F.; Hasan, F.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of coating thickness on the formability and ductility of hot-dip-aluminized steel has been determined using a 3-point bend test and optical metallography. The ductility / formability was estimated from the 3-point bend test wherein the angle of bend at which the cracks start to appear on the surface of the aluminized sheet during bending, was taken as an index of the formability / ductility. It was observed that as the amount of silicon in the aluminising melt was gradually increased the measured ductility of the sheet sample also increased. Metallographic examination has shown that as the amount of silicon in the aluminising melt was increased the thickness of the intermediate compound layer, between the outer aluminum coat and the substrate steel, decreased. It was thus indicated from these experiments that the formability / ductility of the sheet was inversely related to the thickness of the interlayer. (author)

  4. Individual common carotid artery wall layer dimensions, but not carotid intima-media thickness, indicate increased cardiovascular risk in women with preeclampsia: an investigation using noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Tansim; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Larsson, Marita; Naessen, Tord

    2013-09-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Ultrasound assessment of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) during or after PE has not indicated any increased cardiovascular risk. We used high-frequency ultrasound (22 MHz) to estimate the individual common carotid artery IMTs in 55 women at PE diagnosis and in 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar stage. All were re-examined about 1 year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media, and high intima/media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. PE was associated with a significantly thicker mean common carotid artery intima, thinner media, and higher I/M ratio than in normal pregnancy (mean I/M difference, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.25; Pwomen with PE were negatively affected during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum compared with women with normal pregnancies, indicating increased cardiovascular risk. Estimation of intima thickness and I/M ratio seem preferable to estimation of common carotid artery IMT in imaging cardiovascular risk in PE. Results from this pilot study warrant further confirmation.

  5. Correspondence optimization in 2D standardized carotid wall thickness map by description length minimization: A tool for increasing reproducibility of 3D ultrasound-based measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yimin; Chiu, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    The previously described 2D standardized vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (VWT) maps constructed from 3D ultrasound vessel wall measurements using an arc-length (AL) scaling approach adjusted the geometric variability of carotid arteries and has allowed for the comparisons of VWT distributions in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. However, this mapping technique did not optimize point correspondence of the carotid arteries investigated. The potential misalignment may lead to errors in point-wise VWT comparisons. In this paper, we developed and validated an algorithm based on steepest description length (DL) descent to optimize the point correspondence implied by the 2D VWT maps. The previously described AL approach was applied to obtain initial 2D maps for a group of carotid arteries. The 2D maps were reparameterized based on an iterative steepest DL descent approach, which consists of the following two steps. First, landmarks established by resampling the 2D maps were aligned using the Procrustes algorithm. Then, the gradient of the DL with respect to horizontal and vertical reparameterizations of each landmark on the 2D maps was computed, and the 2D maps were subsequently deformed in the direction of the steepest descent of DL. These two steps were repeated until convergence. The quality of the correspondence was evaluated in a phantom study and an in vivo study involving ten carotid arteries enrolled in a 3D ultrasound interscan variability study. The correspondence quality was evaluated in terms of the compactness and generalization ability of the statistical shape model built based on the established point correspondence in both studies. In the in vivo study, the effect of the proposed algorithm on interscan variability of VWT measurements was evaluated by comparing the percentage of landmarks with statistically significant VWT-change before and after point correspondence optimization. The statistical shape model constructed with optimized

  6. Static and dynamic through thickness lamina properties of thick laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thick laminates are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of self-heating, the scaling effect, and the manufacturing

  7. Influence of Pt Gate Electrode Thickness on the Hydrogen Gas Sensing Characteristics of Pt/In2O3/SiC Hetero-Junction Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kandasamy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hetero-junction Pt/In2O3/SiC devices with different Pt thickness (30, 50 and 90nm were fabricated and their hydrogen gas sensing characteristics have been studied. Pt and In2O3 thin films were deposited by laser ablation. The hydrogen sensitivity was found to increase with decreasing Pt electrode thickness. For devices with Pt thickness of 30 nm, the sensitivity gradually increased with increasing temperature and reached a maximum of 390 mV for 1% hydrogen in air at 530°C. Atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis revealed a decrease in Pt grain size and surface roughness for increasing Pt thickness. The relationship between the gas sensing performance and the Pt film thickness and surface morphology is discussed.

  8. Use of radiation processing technology gradually expands in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes and radiation is expanding in the fields of industries and medicine with a high potentiality of the application to environmental protection. The technology transfer on the use of isotopes and radiation is progressing in the framework of international cooperation. But the industry has maintained wait and see attitude on the commercialization of food irradiation. Such present features were the highlight in the 19th Japan Conference on Radiation and Radioisotopes held on November 14-16. 72 papers from 19 countries were presented and discussed in 13 sessions. The progress of accelerator technology has contributed to the expansion of radiation processing market. The importance of the application of isotopes and radiation to environmental protection has been gradually acknowledged, and the electron beam treatment of flue gas for acid rain abatement and the elimination of chlorinated ethylene from drinking water were discussed. Drastic change has not been seen in the climate of food irradiation, however there are several positive indicators which support the prediction of slow but steady progress in the commercialization of the process and the trade of irradiated foods. (K.I.)

  9. Impact of a gradual increase in milk quotas on the EU dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouamra-Mechemache, Z.; Jongeneel, R.; Requillart, V.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union (EU) dairy sector is facing significant changes due to EU enlargement, the Luxembourg reform and ongoing World Trade Organisation (WTO) negotiations. This paper explores the impact of alternative dairy policies in the context of a WTO agreement and further dairy policy

  10. Molecular sieving action of the cell membrane during gradual osmotic hemolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, R.D. II

    1977-05-01

    Rat erythrocytes were hemolyzed by controlled gradual osmotic hemolysis to study cell morphology and hemoglobin loss from individual cells. Results suggest that each increase in the rate of loss of a protein from the cells during the initial phases of controlled gradual osmotic hemolysis is caused by the passage of a previously impermeable species across the stressed membrane. Similarly, during the final stages of controlled gradual osmotic hemolysis, each sharp decrease in the rate of loss of a protein corresponds to the termination of a molecular flow. A theoretical model is described that predicts the molecular sieving of soluble globular proteins across the stressed red cell membrane. Hydrophobic interactions occur between the soluble proteins and the lipid bilayer portion of the cell membrane. A spectrin network subdivides the bilayer into domains that restrict the insertion of large molecules into the membrane. Other membrane proteins affect soluble protein access to the membrane. Changes in the loss curves caused by incubation of red cells are discussed in terms of the model.

  11. Impairment of gradual muscle adjustment during wrist circumduction in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien M Toxopeus

    Full Text Available Purposeful movements are attained by gradually adjusted activity of opposite muscles, or synergists. This requires a motor system that adequately modulates initiation and inhibition of movement and selectively activates the appropriate muscles. In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD initiation and inhibition of movements are impaired which may manifest itself in e.g. difficulty to start and stop walking. At single-joint level, impaired movement initiation is further accompanied by insufficient inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. As the motor symptoms in PD primarily result from cerebral dysfunction, quantitative investigation of gradually adjusted muscle activity during execution of purposeful movement is a first step to gain more insight in the link between impaired modulation of initiation and inhibition at the levels of (i cerebrally coded task performance and (ii final execution by the musculoskeletal system. To that end, the present study investigated changes in gradual adjustment of muscle synergists using a manipulandum that enabled standardized smooth movement by continuous wrist circumduction. Differences between PD patients (N = 15, off-medication and healthy subjects (N = 16 concerning the relation between muscle activity and movement performance in these groups were assessed using kinematic and electromyographic (EMG recordings. The variability in the extent to which a particular muscle was active during wrist circumduction--defined as muscle activity differentiation--was quantified by EMG. We demonstrated that more differentiated muscle activity indeed correlated positively with improved movement performance, i.e. higher movement speed and increased smoothness of movement. Additionally, patients employed a less differentiated muscle activity pattern than healthy subjects. These specific changes during wrist circumduction imply that patients have a decreased ability to gradually adjust muscles causing a decline in

  12. Thick melanoma in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Brandani, Paola; Gerlini, Gianni; Rubegni, Pietro; Lamberti, Arianna; Salvini, Camilla; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Cecchi, Roberto; Sirna, Riccardo; Lorenzi, Stefano; Gattai, Riccardo; Battistini, Silvio; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2017-03-14

    The epidemiologic trends of cutaneous melanoma are similar in several countries with a Western-type life style, where there is a progressive increasing incidence and a low but not decreasing mor- tality, or somewhere an increase too, especially in the older age groups. Also in Tuscany there is a steady rise in incidence with prevalence of in situ and invasive thin melanomas, with also an increase of thick melanomas. It is necessary to reduce the frequency of thick melanomas to reduce specific mortality. The objective of the current survey has been to compare, in the Tuscany population, by a case- case study, thin and thick melanoma cases, trying to find out those personal and tumour characteristics which may help to customize preventive interventions. RESULTS The results confirmed the age and the lower edu- cation level are associated with a later detection. The habit to perform skin self-examination is resulted protec- tive forward thick melanoma and also the diagnosis by a doctor. The elements emerging from the survey allow to hypothesize a group of subjects resulting at higher risk for a late diagnosis, aged over 50 and carrier of a fewer constitutional and environmental risk factors: few total and few atypical nevi, and lower sun exposure and burning. It is assumable that a part of people did not be reached from messages of prevention because does not recognize oneself in the categories of people at risk for skin cancers described in educational cam- paigns. If we want to obtain better results on diagnosis of skin melanoma we have to think a new strategy. At least to think over the educational messages discriminating people more at risk of incidence of melanoma from people more at risk to die from melanoma, and to renewed active involvement of the Gen- eral Practitioners .

  13. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  14. Electron–Ion Intensity Dropouts in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lun C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the field-line mixing model of Giacalone et al. suggests that ion dropouts cannot happen in the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event because of the large size of the particle source region in the event, the observational evidence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event should challenge the model. We have searched for the presence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event during solar cycle 23. From 10 SEP events the synchronized occurrence of ion and electron dropouts is identified in 12 periods. Our main observational facts, including the mean width of electron–ion dropout periods being consistent with the solar wind correlation scale, during the dropout period the dominance of the slab turbulence component and the enhanced turbulence power parallel to the mean magnetic field, and the ion gyroradius dependence of the edge steepness in dropout periods, are all in support of the solar wind turbulence origin of dropout events. Also, our observation indicates that a wide longitude distribution of SEP events could be due to the increase of slab turbulence fraction with the increased longitude distance from the flare-associated active region.

  15. Electron-Ion Intensity Dropouts in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lun C.

    2017-09-01

    Since the field-line mixing model of Giacalone et al. suggests that ion dropouts cannot happen in the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event because of the large size of the particle source region in the event, the observational evidence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event should challenge the model. We have searched for the presence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event during solar cycle 23. From 10 SEP events the synchronized occurrence of ion and electron dropouts is identified in 12 periods. Our main observational facts, including the mean width of electron-ion dropout periods being consistent with the solar wind correlation scale, during the dropout period the dominance of the slab turbulence component and the enhanced turbulence power parallel to the mean magnetic field, and the ion gyroradius dependence of the edge steepness in dropout periods, are all in support of the solar wind turbulence origin of dropout events. Also, our observation indicates that a wide longitude distribution of SEP events could be due to the increase of slab turbulence fraction with the increased longitude distance from the flare-associated active region.

  16. Electron–Ion Intensity Dropouts in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lun C., E-mail: ltan@umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Since the field-line mixing model of Giacalone et al. suggests that ion dropouts cannot happen in the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event because of the large size of the particle source region in the event, the observational evidence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event should challenge the model. We have searched for the presence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event during solar cycle 23. From 10 SEP events the synchronized occurrence of ion and electron dropouts is identified in 12 periods. Our main observational facts, including the mean width of electron–ion dropout periods being consistent with the solar wind correlation scale, during the dropout period the dominance of the slab turbulence component and the enhanced turbulence power parallel to the mean magnetic field, and the ion gyroradius dependence of the edge steepness in dropout periods, are all in support of the solar wind turbulence origin of dropout events. Also, our observation indicates that a wide longitude distribution of SEP events could be due to the increase of slab turbulence fraction with the increased longitude distance from the flare-associated active region.

  17. Natural gas prices and the end of gradual change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Natural gas price predictions for the years 1998, 1999-2001, 2000-2005 are provided. In general, prices are predicted to decrease with increase in storage. Some other factors that will influence the price of natural gas and, therefore, should receive consideration in price predictions, include growth in demand, natural gas production, deliverability, new pipelines, and the Alberta price basis. tabs., figs

  18. Loess Thickness Variations Across the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Mingan

    2018-01-01

    The soil thickness is very important for investigating and modeling soil-water processes, especially on the Loess Plateau of China with its deep loess deposit and limited water resources. A digital elevation map (DEM) of the Loess Plateau and neighborhood analysis in ArcGIS software were used to generate a map of loess thickness, which was then validated by 162 observations across the plateau. The generated loess thickness map has a high resolution of 100 m × 100 m. The map indicates that loess is thick in the central part of the plateau and becomes gradually shallower in the southeast and northwest directions. The areas near mountains and river basins have the shallowest loess deposit. The mean loess thickness is the deepest in the zones with 400-600-mm precipitation and decreases gradually as precipitation varies beyond this range. Our validation indicates that the map just slightly overestimates loess thickness and is reliable. The loess thickness is mostly between 0 and 350 m in the Loess Plateau region. The calculated mean loess thickness is 105.7 m, with the calibrated value being 92.2 m over the plateau exclusive of the mountain areas. Our findings provide very basic data of loess thickness and demonstrate great progress in mapping the loess thickness distribution for the plateau, which are valuable for a better study of soil-water processes and for more accurate estimations of soil water, carbon, and solute reservoirs in the Loess Plateau of China.

  19. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of 2 genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of 4 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  20. Experimental test of Neel's theory of the Rayleigh rule using gradually devitrified Co-based glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachowicz, H.K.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that gradually devitrified Co-based nonmagnetostrictive metallic glass is an excellent model material to verify Louis Neel's theory of the Rayleigh rule. In the course of the calculations, Neel showed that the parameter p=bH c /a (where H c is the coercivity, a and b are the coefficients of a quadratic polynomial expressing the Rayleigh rule) is expected to range between 0.6 (hard magnets) and 1.6 (soft). However, the experimental values of this parameter, reported in the literature for a number of mono- and poly-crystalline magnets, are much greater than those expected from the theory presented by Neel (in some cases even by two orders of magnitude). The measurements, performed for a series of Co-based metallic glass samples annealed at gradually increasing temperature to produce nanocrystalline structures with differentiated density and size of the crystallites, have shown that the calculated values of the parameter p fall within the range expected from Neel's theory

  1. Macular thickness and volume in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Forshaw, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    manifests in the macula of the elderly focusing on clinical relevant measures that are thicknesses and volumes of different macular areas. Ageing seems to increase center point foveal thickness. Ageing does not seem to change the center subfield thickness significantly. Ageing decreases the inner and outer...

  2. Acoustic backscatter models of fish: Gradual or punctuated evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, John K.

    2004-05-01

    Sound-scattering characteristics of aquatic organisms are routinely investigated using theoretical and numerical models. Development of the inverse approach by van Holliday and colleagues in the 1970s catalyzed the development and validation of backscatter models for fish and zooplankton. As the understanding of biological scattering properties increased, so did the number and computational sophistication of backscatter models. The complexity of data used to represent modeled organisms has also evolved in parallel to model development. Simple geometric shapes representing body components or the whole organism have been replaced by anatomically accurate representations derived from imaging sensors such as computer-aided tomography (CAT) scans. In contrast, Medwin and Clay (1998) recommend that fish and zooplankton should be described by simple theories and models, without acoustically superfluous extensions. Since van Holliday's early work, how has data and computational complexity influenced accuracy and precision of model predictions? How has the understanding of aquatic organism scattering properties increased? Significant steps in the history of model development will be identified and changes in model results will be characterized and compared. [Work supported by ONR and the Alaska Fisheries Science Center.

  3. Interplay of dendritic avalanches and gradual flux penetration in superconducting MgB2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantsev, D V; Goa, P E; Barkov, F L; Johansen, T H; Kang, W N; Lee, S I

    2003-01-01

    Magneto-optical imaging was used to study a zero-field-cooled MgB 2 film at 9.6 K where in a slowly increasing field the flux penetrates by an abrupt formation of large dendritic structures. Simultaneously, a gradual flux penetration takes place, eventually covering the dendrites, and a detailed analysis of this process is reported. We find an anomalously high gradient of the flux density across a dendrite branch, and a peak value that decreases as the applied field increases. This unexpected behaviour is reproduced by flux creep simulations based on the non-local field-current relation in the perpendicular geometry. The simulations also provide indirect evidence that flux dendrites are formed at an elevated local temperature, consistent with a thermo-magnetic mechanism of the instability

  4. Assessing the economic feasibility of the gradual decarbonization of a large electric power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos-Alamillos, Francisco; Archer, Cristina; Noel, Lance Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The decarbonization of power systems is among the primary actions to fight air pollution and climate change. In this study, we evaluate the costs of a gradual transition towards a new power system in which the oldest coal plants are replaced with low-carbon power plants. We developed the Wind...... Energy Integration Cost Advisor Model (WEICAM) to analyze different strategies for this energy transition and determine the most cost-effective roadmap, with and without externalities. The test case is the PJM Interconnection, one of the power systems in the United States with the largest fraction...... decommissioned and an increase in the levelized cost of electricity from 49.1 to 53.6 $/MWh (without externalities). In addition, selecting the windiest sites – even far away from the PJM region – is cheaper than selecting local but less windy sites. When externalities due to human health and environmental...

  5. Gradual and Cumulative Improvements to the Classical Differential Evolution Scheme through Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anescu George

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental results of some tests conducted with the purpose to gradually and cumulatively improve the classical DE scheme in both efficiency and success rate. The modifications consisted in the randomization of the scaling factor (a simple jitter scheme, a more efficient Random Greedy Selection scheme, an adaptive scheme for the crossover probability and a resetting mechanism for the agents. After each modification step, experiments have been conducted on a set of 11 scalable, multimodal, continuous optimization functions in order to analyze the improvements and decide the new improvement direction. Finally, only the initial classical scheme and the constructed Fast Self-Adaptive DE (FSA-DE variant were compared with the purpose of testing their performance degradation with the increase of the search space dimension. The experimental results demonstrated the superiority of the proposed FSA-DE variant.

  6. Gradual pressure-induced change in the magnetic structure of the noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, A. S.; Singh, Sanjay; Caron, L.; Hansen, Th.; Hoser, A.; Kumar, V.; Borrmann, H.; Fitch, A.; Devi, P.; Manna, K.; Felser, C.; Inosov, D. S.

    2018-06-01

    By means of powder neutron diffraction we investigate changes in the magnetic structure of the coplanar noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge caused by an application of hydrostatic pressure up to 5 GPa. At ambient conditions the kagomé layers of Mn atoms in Mn3Ge order in a triangular 120∘ spin structure. Under high pressure the spins acquire a uniform out-of-plane canting, gradually transforming the magnetic texture to a noncoplanar configuration. With increasing pressure the canted structure fully transforms into the collinear ferromagnetic one. We observed that magnetic order is accompanied by a noticeable magnetoelastic effect, namely, spontaneous magnetostriction. The latter induces an in-plane magnetostrain of the hexagonal unit cell at ambient pressure and flips to an out-of-plane strain at high pressures in accordance with the change of the magnetic structure.

  7. Gradual unlocking of plate boundary controlled initiation of the 2014 Iquique earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Hainzl, Sebastian; Bedford, Jonathan; Hoechner, Andreas; Palo, Mauro; Wang, Rongjiang; Moreno, Marcos; Bartsch, Mitja; Zhang, Yong; Oncken, Onno; Tilmann, Frederik; Dahm, Torsten; Victor, Pia; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-21

    On 1 April 2014, Northern Chile was struck by a magnitude 8.1 earthquake following a protracted series of foreshocks. The Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile monitored the entire sequence of events, providing unprecedented resolution of the build-up to the main event and its rupture evolution. Here we show that the Iquique earthquake broke a central fraction of the so-called northern Chile seismic gap, the last major segment of the South American plate boundary that had not ruptured in the past century. Since July 2013 three seismic clusters, each lasting a few weeks, hit this part of the plate boundary with earthquakes of increasing peak magnitudes. Starting with the second cluster, geodetic observations show surface displacements that can be associated with slip on the plate interface. These seismic clusters and their slip transients occupied a part of the plate interface that was transitional between a fully locked and a creeping portion. Leading up to this earthquake, the b value of the foreshocks gradually decreased during the years before the earthquake, reversing its trend a few days before the Iquique earthquake. The mainshock finally nucleated at the northern end of the foreshock area, which skirted a locked patch, and ruptured mainly downdip towards higher locking. Peak slip was attained immediately downdip of the foreshock region and at the margin of the locked patch. We conclude that gradual weakening of the central part of the seismic gap accentuated by the foreshock activity in a zone of intermediate seismic coupling was instrumental in causing final failure, distinguishing the Iquique earthquake from most great earthquakes. Finally, only one-third of the gap was broken and the remaining locked segments now pose a significant, increased seismic hazard with the potential to host an earthquake with a magnitude of >8.5.

  8. Photosynthetic performance of invasive Pinus ponderosa and Juniperus virginiana seedlings under gradual soil water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihmidine, S; Bryan, N M; Payne, K R; Parde, M R; Okalebo, J A; Cooperstein, S E; Awada, T

    2010-07-01

    Changes in climate, land management and fire regime have contributed to woody species expansion into grasslands and savannas worldwide. In the USA, Pinus ponderosa P.&C. Lawson and Juniperus virginiana L. are expanding into semiarid grasslands of Nebraska and other regions of the Great Plains. We examined P. ponderosa and J. virginiana seedling response to soil water content, one of the most important limiting factors in semiarid grasslands, to provide insight into their success in the region. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII, maximum carboxylation velocity, maximum rate of electron transport, stomatal limitation to photosynthesis, water potential, root-to-shoot ratio, and needle nitrogen content were followed under gradual soil water depletion for 40 days. J. virginiana maintained lower L(s), higher A, g(s), and initial F(v)/F(m), and displayed a more gradual decline in V(cmax) and J(max) with increasing water deficit compared to P. ponderosa. J. virginiana also invested more in roots relative to shoots compared to P. ponderosa. F(v)/F(m) showed high PSII resistance to dehydration in both species. Photoinhibition was observed at approximately 30% of field capacity. Soil water content was a better predictor of A and g(s) than Psi, indicating that there are other growth factors controlling physiological processes under increased water stress. The two species followed different strategies to succeed in semiarid grasslands. P. ponderosa seedlings behaved like a drought-avoidant species with strong stomatal control, while J. virginiana was more of a drought-tolerant species, maintaining physiological activity at lower soil water content. Differences between the studied species and the ecological implications are discussed.

  9. The signature of undetected change: an exploratory electrotomographic investigation of gradual change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiat, John E; Dodd, Michael D; Belli, Robert F; Cheadle, Jacob E

    2018-05-01

    Neuroimaging-based investigations of change blindness, a phenomenon in which seemingly obvious changes in visual scenes fail to be detected, have significantly advanced our understanding of visual awareness. The vast majority of prior investigations, however, utilize paradigms involving visual disruptions (e.g., intervening blank screens, saccadic movements, "mudsplashes"), making it difficult to isolate neural responses toward visual changes cleanly. To address this issue in this present study, high-density EEG data (256 channel) were collected from 25 participants using a paradigm in which visual changes were progressively introduced into detailed real-world scenes without the use of visual disruption. Oscillatory activity associated with undetected changes was contrasted with activity linked to their absence using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Although an insufficient number of detections were present to allow for analysis of actual change detection, increased beta-2 activity in the right inferior parietal lobule (rIPL), a region repeatedly associated with change blindness in disruption paradigms, followed by increased theta activity in the right superior temporal gyrus (rSTG) was noted in undetected visual change responses relative to the absence of change. We propose the rIPL beta-2 activity to be associated with orienting attention toward visual changes, with the subsequent rise in rSTG theta activity being potentially linked with updating preconscious perceptual memory representations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study represents the first neuroimaging-based investigation of gradual change blindness, a visual phenomenon that has significant potential to shed light on the processes underlying visual detection and conscious perception. The use of gradual change materials is reflective of real-world visual phenomena and allows for cleaner isolation of signals associated with the neural registration of change relative to the

  10. Quantile index for gradual and abrupt change detection from CFB boiler sensor data in online settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslov, A.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Kärkkäinen, T.; Tähtinen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of online detection of gradual and abrupt changes in sensor data having high levels of noise and outliers. We propose a simple heuristic method based on the Quantile Index (QI) and study how robust this method is for detecting both gradual and abrupt changes

  11. Gradual regeneration of mouse testicular stem cells after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meistrich, M.L.; Hunter, N.R.; Suzuki, N.; Trostle, P.K.; Withers, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    The regeneration of mouse testicular stem cells during 60 weeks after exposure to 600 or 1200 rad of γ radiation was examined. Restoration of spermatogenesis depended on stem cell survival, regeneration, and differentiation. Several assays were employed to measure the number of stem cells and their ability to repopulate the seminiferous epithelium as follows. Assay 1: The percentage of repopulated tubular cross sections was determined histologically at various times after irradiation. Assay 2: Mice were irradiated and, after given time intervals to allow for regeneration of stem cell numbers, a second dose was given. The percentage of repopulated tubular cross sections was determined 5 weeks later. Assay 3: The ability of the stem cells to produce spermatocytes and spermatids was assayed by the levels of the germ cell specific isoenzyme, LDH-X. Assay 4: The ability of the stem cells to produce sperm was assayed by the number of sperm heads in the testes. In addition, the ability of the stem cells to produce functional spermatozoa was measured by the fertility of the animals. The results obtained were as follows. All assays demonstrated that gradual regeneration of stem cell number occurred simultaneously with repopulation of the seminiferous epithelium by differentiating cells derived from stem cells. The regeneration kinetics of stem cells followed an exponential increase approaching a dose-dependent plateau below the level prior to irradiation. The doubling time for stem cells during the exponential portion was about 2 weeks. The regeneration of stem cell number after depletion by irradiation was gradual and incomplete, and only partially restored spermatogenesis. Correlation of regeneration with fertility data demonstrated that fertility was reestablished when sperm production returned to about 15% of control levels

  12. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  13. Increased Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reflect Acceleration of Atherosclerosis in Male Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Active Phase and without the Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary aim of the study was to assess levels of oxidative stress markers, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, and placental growth factor (PlGF as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS with active phase without concomitant classical cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. The observational study involved 96 male subjects: 48 AS patients and 48 healthy ones, who did not differ significantly regarding age, BMI, comorbid disorders, and distribution of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups, we estimated levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and inflammation parameters as well as sCD40L, serum PAPP-A, and PlGF. In addition, we estimated carotid IMT in each subject. Results. The study showed that markers of oxidative stress, lipid profile, and inflammation, as well as sCD40L, PlGF, and IMT, were significantly higher in the AS group compared to the healthy group. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis.

  14. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  15. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  16. [Performance dependence of organic light-emitting devices on the thickness of Alq3 emitting layer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jia-rong; Liao, Qiao-sheng; Yang, Rui-bo; Zheng, Wei; Zeng, Peng-ju

    2010-10-01

    The dependence of opto-electronical characteristics in organic light-emitting devices on the thickness of Alq3 emitter layer was studied, where MoO3, NPB, and Alq3 were used as hole injector, hole transporter, and emitter/electron transporter, respectively. By increasing the thickness of Alq3 layer from 20 to 100 nm, the device current decreased gradually, and the EL spectra of devices performed a little red shift with an obvious broadening in long wavelength range but a little decrease in intensity of short wavelength range. The authors simulated the EL spectra using the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Alq3 as Alq3 intrinsic emission, which coincided with the experimental EL spectra well. The simulated results suggested that the effect of interference takes the major role in broadening the long wavelength range of EL spectra, and the distribution of emission zone largely affects the profile of EL spectra in short wavelength range.

  17. A Study on the Thickness Measurement of Thin Film by Ultrasonic Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eung Kyo; Lee, Jae Joon; Kim, Jae Yeol

    1988-01-01

    Recently, it is gradually raised necessity that thickness of thin film is measured accurately and managed in industrial circles and medical world. In this study, regarding to the thickness of film which is in opaque object and is beyond distance resolution capacity, thickness measurement was done by MEM-cepstrum analysis of received ultrasonic wave. In measurement results, film thickness which is beyond distance resolution capacity was measured accurately. And within thickness range that don't exist interference, thickness measurement by MEM-ceptrum analysis was impossible

  18. Study of gradual conversion of Al to insulator by oxygen implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhawalker, P.D.; Raole, P.M.; Kothari, D.C.; Pawer, P.S.; Gogawale, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    30 keV O 2 + ions are implanted in aluminium foil, at various doses ranging from 5 x 10 16 to 5 x 10 17 atoms cm -2 . The sheet resistance was measured for unimplanted and implanted specimens. Up to the dose of 3 x 10 17 atoms cm -2 , the sheet resistance gradually increased. It formed a perfect insulating layer on the surface, above a dose of 3 x 10 17 atoms cm -2 . X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy measurements indicated the formation of an Al 2 O 3 layer with the absence of a signal due to unbonded aluminium for a dose of 5 x 10 17 atoms cm -2 . Whereas a specimen implanted at 5 x 10 16 atoms cm -2 shows the presence of pure aluminium. Micrographs of the specimen implanted at the higher dose displayed the microtopography characteristic of alumina. The results are in agreement with a recently published mechanism of Al 2 O 3 formation. The Al 2 O 3 precipitates increasing with dose and a layer of Al 2 O 3 being formed at the doses higher than that required to form the stoichiometric Al 2 O 3 . (author)

  19. Technique for fabrication of gradual standards of radiographic image blachening density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovin, I.V.; Kondina, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of fabrication of gradual standards of blackening density for industrial radiography by contact printing from a negative is described. The technique is designed for possibilities of industrial laboratoriesof radiation defectoscopy possessing no special-purpose sensitometric equipment

  20. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  1. Method for modeling the gradual physical degradation of a porous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Greg [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-20

    Cementitious and other engineered porous materials encountered in waste disposals may degrade over time due to one or more mechanisms. Physical degradation may take the form of cracking (fracturing) and/or altered (e.g. increased) porosity, depending on the material and underlying degradation mechanism. In most cases, the hydraulic properties of degrading materials are expected to evolve due to physical changes occurring over roughly the pore to decimeter scale, which is conducive to calculating equivalent or effective material properties. The exact morphology of a degrading material in its end-state may or may not be known. In the latter case, the fully-degraded condition can be assumed to be similar to a more-permeable material in the surrounding environment, such as backfill soil. Then the fully-degraded waste form or barrier material is hydraulically neutral with respect to its surroundings, constituting neither a barrier to nor conduit for moisture flow and solute transport. Unless the degradation mechanism is abrupt, a gradual transition between the intact initial and fully-degraded final states is desired. Linear interpolation through time is one method for smoothly blending hydraulic properties between those of an intact matrix and those of a soil or other surrogate for the end-state.

  2. Reliability assessment of aging structures subjected to gradual and shock deteriorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cao; Zhang, Hao; Li, Quanwang

    2017-01-01

    Civil structures and infrastructure facilities are susceptible to deterioration posed by the effects of natural hazards and aggressive environmental conditions. These factors may increase the risk of service interruption of infrastructures, and should be taken into account when assessing the structural reliability during an infrastructure's service life. Modeling the resistance deterioration process reasonably is the basis for structural reliability analysis. In this paper, a novel model is developed for describing the deterioration of aging structures. The deterioration is a combination of two stochastic processes: the gradual deterioration posed by environmental effects and the shock deterioration caused by severe load attacks. The dependency of the deterioration magnitude on the load intensity is considered. The Gaussian copula function is employed to help construct the joint distribution of correlated random variables. Semi-analytical methods are developed to assess the structural failure time and the number of significant load events (shocks) to failure. Illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model in structural reliability analysis. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the role of deterioration-load correlation in structural reliability. - Highlights: • A new resistance deterioration model for aging structures is proposed. • Time-dependent reliability analysis methods incorporating the proposed deterioration model are developed. • Parametric studies are performed to investigate the role of deterioration-load correlation in structural reliability.

  3. Method for modeling the gradual physical degradation of a porous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Cementitious and other engineered porous materials encountered in waste disposals may degrade over time due to one or more mechanisms. Physical degradation may take the form of cracking (fracturing) and/or altered (e.g. increased) porosity, depending on the material and underlying degradation mechanism. In most cases, the hydraulic properties of degrading materials are expected to evolve due to physical changes occurring over roughly the pore to decimeter scale, which is conducive to calculating equivalent or effective material properties. The exact morphology of a degrading material in its end-state may or may not be known. In the latter case, the fully-degraded condition can be assumed to be similar to a more-permeable material in the surrounding environment, such as backfill soil. Then the fully-degraded waste form or barrier material is hydraulically neutral with respect to its surroundings, constituting neither a barrier to nor conduit for moisture flow and solute transport. Unless the degradation mechanism is abrupt, a gradual transition between the intact initial and fully-degraded final states is desired. Linear interpolation through time is one method for smoothly blending hydraulic properties between those of an intact matrix and those of a soil or other surrogate for the end-state.

  4. [Endoscopic full-thickness resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K

    2016-08-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.

  5. Dry Bean Morpho-Physiological Responses to Gradual Weed Biomass Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Field study was carried out in 2011 in west of Iran to assess responses of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. morpho-physiological traits to gradual weed biomass accumulation. The treatments consisted of two different periods of weed interference, which weeds either infested the plots or removed for an increasing duration of time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 days after crop emergence. Relative dominance and relative importance of weed species fluctuated over the crop cycle. As the duration of weed interference was increased, a declining trend of crop growth rate (CGR was observed. When weeds were allowed to compete with crop throughout the crop cycle, maximum value of CGR was decreased from 25.57 g m-2 days in full season weed free treatment to 16.78 g m-2 days in full season weed infested treatment. Effect of treatments on leaf area index (LAI was significant. Weed removal increased LAI but it could not significantly affect this trait, at the early of growing season. Weed interference caused a significant reduction on number of branches. The minimum number of branches was registered in full season weed infested treatment (2.58 branches per plant, while the maximum one was observed in the full season weed free treatment (4.25 branches per plant. Weed competition severely reduced crop yield. At 10 and 20 days after crop emergence, weed infestation could not significantly affect the yield. A negative relationship between weeds’ dry matter accumulation and LAI as well as number of branches was observed which signify the vulnerability of these morpho-physiological traits to weed competition.

  6. The Crustal Thickness of the Philippine Sea Plate Derived from Gravity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Yuan Yen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a new free-air gravity anomaly map of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP using ship-tracked gravity data from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC. Our results show that the isogals trend correlates well with the tectonic structures in the PSP. After removing the gravity induced by sea water from the free-air gravity data, we obtained the regional Bouguer gravity anomaly, which is later used to compute the Moho geometry in the PSP by applying the Parker-Oldenburg iterative method. Our results indicate that in the southern part of the West Philippine Basin (WPB the crustal thickness is nearly homogeneous with a value of about 5 km, which implies that the WPB is quite stable. The low-amplitude and near-zero free-air gravity anomalies clearly indicate that the whole WPB, except at trenches and island arcs, is nearly in a state of isostatic equilibrium. The average crustal thickness of the Palau Kyushu Ridge (PKR is more than 10 km. In the eastern PSP the crustal thickness gradually increases eastward. Our results also imply that a relatively thin and low density mantle exists beneath the Parece Vela Basin (PVB as a consequence of back-arc spreading and serpentinized upwells of the thin crustal thickness.

  7. ["Tied down"--the process of becoming bedridden through gradual local confinement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegelin, Angelika

    2005-10-01

    To be bedridden is a common phenomenon in nursing. However, there is no solid base of knowledge on reasons, types, development of and coping with this situation. The concept of being bedridden is applied in an arbitrary manner and the state of being bedridden is far from being clearly defined. A literature review revealed that only pathophysiological effects of this state are sufficiently explained. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the development of being confined to bed. Thirty-two interviews with elderly, bedridden people (nineteen women, thirteen men) were conducted. They were asked about their perspective on and their experience of the development of being confined to bed. Half of the interviewees lived in a nursing home, the others were cared for at home. Data collection and analysis were performed by using a Grounded Theory approach as developed by Strauss and Corbin. "Gradual local fixation" was identified as the core category. Becoming bedridden is a slow process by which the person is increasingly confined to one location. This development is related to an increasing need for support and to negative consequences such as a pathology of immobility, narrowing of interests, and loss of time. These consequences again are responsible for a downward spiral development. This study reveals phases of development and a range of factors influencing them. Many of these factors arise from the person and his/her interactional behaviour in the circumstances, other influences are structural factors such as external pressure caused by time constraints of professional nursing services or unfavourable arrangements of furniture. A lot of factors of being confined to bed are changeable. Long periods of being bedridden can be prevented in many cases, if early warning signs are being recognized and preventive measures are taken in time.

  8. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  9. Tissue specific responses alter the biomass accumulation in wheat under gradual and sudden salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumurtaci A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one the major limiting environmental factors which has negative side effects on crop production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the gradual and sudden salt stress effects on biomass accumulation associated with whole plant development in three different tissues of two wheat species ( Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under hydroponic conditions in the long term. Considering the effects of sudden and gradual stress for biomass accumulation, while importance of salinity x genotype interaction for fresh weights was 5%, association for salinity x tissue type was found as 1% important. Interestingly, root branching and development of lateral roots were much more negatively affected by gradual stress rather than sudden salt application. Our results demonstrated that root and leaf were both critical tissues to test the salt tolerance by physiologically but sheath tissue might be used as an alternative source of variation for solving the interactions between root and leaves in wheat.

  10. Gradual withdrawal of remifentanil infusion may prevent opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelon, M; Raeder, J; Stubhaug, A; Nielsen, C S; Draegni, T; Lenz, H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if gradual withdrawal of remifentanil infusion prevented opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) as opposed to abrupt withdrawal. OIH duration was also evaluated. Nineteen volunteers were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All went through three sessions: abrupt or gradual withdrawal of remifentanil infusion and placebo. Remifentanil was administered at 2.5 ng ml(-1) for 30 min before abrupt withdrawal or gradual withdrawal by 0.6 ng ml(-1) every five min. Pain was assessed at baseline, during infusion, 45-50 min and 105-110 min after end of infusions using the heat pain test (HPT) and the cold pressor test (CPT). The HPT 45 min after infusion indicated OIH development in the abrupt withdrawal session with higher pain scores compared with the gradual withdrawal and placebo sessions (both Pwithdrawal compared with placebo (P=0.93). In the CPT 50 min after end of infusion there was OIH in both remifentanil sessions compared with placebo (gradual P=0.01, abrupt Pwithdrawal of remifentanil infusion in the HPT. After abrupt withdrawal OIH was present in the HPT. In the CPT there was OIH after both gradual and abrupt withdrawal of infusion. The duration of OIH was less than 105 min for both pain modalities. NCT 01702389. EudraCT number 2011-002734-39. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A farm-level analysis of economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.M.; Sampath, R.; Riha, S.J.; Wilks, D.S.; Rossiter, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The potential economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming are examined at the farm level. Three models of the relevant climatic, agronomic, and economic processes are developed and linked to address climate change impacts and agricultural adaptability. Several climate warming severity. The results indicate that grain farmers in southern Minnesota can effectively adapt to a gradually changing climate (warmer and either wetter or drier) by adopting later maturing cultivars, changing crop mix, and altering the timing of field operations to take advantage of a longer growing season resulting from climate warming

  12. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  13. Germany: of the nuclear energy expansion to the structure for their gradual abandonment; Alemania: de la expansion de la energia nuclear a la estructura para su abandono gradual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mez, L. [Frei Universitat Berlin, Environmental Policy Research Centre, Thielallee 47, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This work exposes a panorama of the German nuclear industry, where the investment in this sector began around the fifty, having great peak during the period 1968 at 1989. Causes like a poor electricity demand, the over capacity and a persistent controversy among the public opinion for the nuclear energy use, stop the expansion from this industry to the little time of established. In contrast with the legal situation in most of the countries, in Germany the operation licences were granted without it limits of time. Nevertheless, the operation expectation was estimated inside a range of 20 to 40 years, depending in particular on the service life of the renovation parts. Taking into account these data, seven nuclear power plants of those that have already operated for 20 years or more, are about to confront expensive reconstructions or the closing in the following five years; while other seven will be closed in the subsequent 10 or 15 years. While the federal politicians and their directive went favorable until recent time in general to the extended use of nuclear energy, some authorities of the states became more restrictive when interpreting the allowed forecasts, what has generated continuous differences and regulatory uncertainty. In consequence, the facilities in operation gradually have shown interest in reaching agreements with the government about the nuclear politics, by means of the regulations reestablishment and one calculus linked at the costs. In spite of the many and constant judgments of the public opinion, the federal nuclear politics was up to 1998 on the side of the alliance pro nuclear and back to the industry by means of multiple fiscal and regulatory privileges. This official position was reverted by first time after the federal elections of that year, when a new red-green federal government announcement the gradual retirement of the nuclear energy of Germany. That coalition pact among the Democratic Social parties (red) and green

  14. Testing gradual and speciational models of evolution in extant taxa: the example of ratites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurin, M.; Gussekloo, S.W.S.; Marjanovic, D.; Legendre, L.; Cubo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since Eldredge and Gould proposed their model of punctuated equilibria, evolutionary biologists have debated how often this model is the best description of nature and how important it is compared to the more gradual models of evolution expected from natural selection and the neo-Darwinian

  15. Locating spare part warehouses using the concept of gradual coverage - A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    for MAN Diesel SE is presented, where gradual coverage has been used for locating warehouses for spare parts. In particular it is described, how coverage decay functions are found, which identifies customers’ reaction to the offered ’speed of delivery’ and ’total order cost’. With these functions, demand...

  16. Evaluation of gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, John T; Fossum, Theresa W; Bahr, Anne M; Miller, Matthew W; Edwards, John F

    2003-11-01

    To devise a technique for gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in dogs and determine effects of complete occlusion of the caudal vena cava. 8 mixed-breed hounds that weighed between 25 and 30 kg. Baseline evaluation of dogs included serum biochemical analyses and determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with dynamic renal scintigraphy and plasma clearance analysis. An occluder was placed around the vena cava in the region cranial to the renal veins. The occluder was attached to a vascular access port. The vena cava was gradually occluded over 2 weeks. The GFR was measured every 2 weeks after surgery, and venograms were performed every 3 weeks after surgery. Blood samples were collected every 48 hours for the first week and then weekly thereafter to measure BUN and creatinine concentrations and activities of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine kinase. Dogs were euthanatized 6 weeks after surgery, and tissues were submitted for histologic examination. The GFR and biochemical data were compared with baseline values. Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava was easily and consistently performed with this method, and adverse clinical signs were not detected. Formation of collateral vessels allowed overall GFR to remain constant despite a decrease in function of the left kidney. Measured biochemical values did not deviate from reference ranges. Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava may allow removal of adrenal gland tumors with vascular invasion that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to resect.

  17. Reflecting on Talk: A Mentor Teacher's Gradual Release in Co-Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylman, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this case study was to explore how a mentor teacher used video-recorded co-planning sessions to reflect on and improve one's mentoring practice. Findings reveal ways in which the mentor used talk in co-planning sessions to model one's thinking process and to gradually release planning responsibility to engage the intern in learning to…

  18. Abrupt rather than gradual hormonal changes induce postpartum blues-like behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, Bennard; Fokkema, Dirk S.; Molhoek, Margo; Tanke, Marit A. C.; Postema, Folkert; Korf, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Postpartum blues is thought to be related to hormonal events accompanying delivery. We investigated whether blues-like symptoms depend on the rate of the decline of hormones, by comparing the behavioral consequences of an abrupt versus a gradual decline of gonadal hormones in an animal model.

  19. Quantifying short run cost-effectiveness during a gradual implementation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, G. van de; Woertman, W.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Adang, E.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the short run inefficiencies that arise during gradual implementation of a new cost-effective technology in healthcare. These inefficiencies arise when health gains associated with the new technology cannot be obtained immediately because the new technology does not yet supply

  20. Sudden versus gradual pressure wean from Nasal CPAP in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, S; Macomber, M; Bhutada, A; Rastogi, D; Rastogi, S

    2017-06-01

    In preterm infants, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is widely used for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. However, the strategies for successfully weaning infants off NCPAP are still not well defined and there remains considerable variation between the methods. The objective of this study is to determine whether gradual weaning of NCPAP pressure is more successful than sudden weaning off NCPAP to room air. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit on 70 preterm neonates who were born between 26 and 32 weeks gestation and required NCPAP for at least 48 h. When infants were stable on NCPAP at 0.21 FiO 2 and 5 cm H 2 O positive end expiratory pressure, neonates were randomized to the gradual wean group (reduction in pressure by 1 cm every 8 h until 3 cm H 2 0 was reached) or to sudden wean group (one time NCPAP removal to room air). The primary outcome was a success at the first trial to wean to room air. Secondary outcomes were a number of trials, and weight and postmenstrual age (PMA) at the time of successful wean. Total number of days on NCPAP and length of stay (LOS) in the hospital were also compared between the groups. Of the 70 infants included in the study, 35 were randomized to sudden group and 33 infants to gradual group (2 excluded for protocol deviation). In sudden and gradual groups, 14 and 22 infants, respectively, were weaned successfully in the first attempt (P=0.03). The infants were successfully weaned at 32.7±1.7 weeks versus 33.1±2.4 weeks (P=0.39) PMA and at a weight of 1651±290 g versus 1589±398 g (P=0.46) in the sudden and gradual groups, respectively. The total number of days on NCPAP was 27±19 days versus 32±24 days (P=0.38) and LOS was 63±25 days versus 63±22 days (P=0.99) in the sudden and gradual groups, respectively. Gradual weaning method was more successful as compared to sudden weaning method in the initial trial off NCPAP. There was no

  1. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  2. Thick brane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Minamitsuji, Masato; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive review on thick brane solutions and related topics. Such models have attracted much attention from many aspects since the birth of the brane world scenario. In many works, it has been usually assumed that a brane is an infinitely thin object; however, in more general situations, one can no longer assume this. It is also widely considered that more fundamental theories such as string theory would have a minimal length scale. Many multidimensional field theories coupled to gravitation have exact solutions of gravitating topological defects, which can represent our brane world. The inclusion of brane thickness can realize a variety of possible brane world models. Given our understanding, the known solutions can be classified into topologically non-trivial solutions and trivial ones. The former class contains solutions of a single scalar (domain walls), multi-scalar, gauge-Higgs (vortices), Weyl gravity and so on. As an example of the latter class, we consider solutions of two interacting scalar fields. Approaches to obtain cosmological equations in the thick brane world are reviewed. Solutions with spatially extended branes (S-branes) and those with an extra time-like direction are also discussed.

  3. Delaying Shoulder Motion and Strengthening and Increasing Achilles Allograft Thickness for Glenoid Resurfacing Did Not Improve the Outcome for a 30-Year-Old Patient with Postarthroscopic Glenohumeral Chondrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Skedros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although interposition soft-tissue (biologic resurfacing of the glenoid with humeral hemiarthroplasty has been considered an option for end-stage glenohumeral arthritis, the results of this procedure are highly unsatisfactory in patients less than 40 years old. Achilles tendon allograft is popular for glenoid resurfacing because it can be made robust by folding it. But one reason that the procedure might fail in younger patients is that the graft is not initially thick enough for the young active patient. Most authors report folding the graft only once to achieve two-layer thickness. We report the case of a 30-year-old male who had postarthroscopic glenohumeral chondrolysis that was treated with Achilles tendon allograft resurfacing of the glenoid and humeral hemiarthroplasty. An important aspect of our case is that the tendon was folded so that it was 50–100% thicker than most allograft constructs reported previously. We also used additional measures to enhance allograft resiliency and bone incorporation: (1 multiple nonresorbable sutures to attach the adjacent graft layers, (2 additional resorbable suture anchors and nonresorbable sutures in order to more robustly secure the graft to the glenoid, and (3 delaying postoperative motion and strengthening. However, despite these additional measures, our patient did not have an improved outcome.

  4. Effect of gradual weight-bearing on regenerated articular cartilage after joint distraction and motion in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomofumi; Ishii, Tomoo; Chang, Fei; Yanai, Takaji; Watanabe, Arata; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mishima, Hajime; Nakai, Kenjiro; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of gradual weight bearing (GWB) on regenerating cartilage. We developed a novel external fixation device (EFD) with a controllable weight-bearing system and continuous passive motion (CPM). A full-thickness defect was created by resection of the entire articular surface of the tibial plateau after the EFD was fixed in the rabbit's left knee. In the GWB group (n=6), GWB was started 6 weeks after surgery. In the CPM group (n=6), CPM with EFD was applied in the same manner without GWB. The control group (n=5) received only joint distraction. All rabbits were sacrificed 9 weeks after surgery. The central one-third of the regenerated tissue was assessed and scored blindly using a grading scale modified from the International Cartilage Repair Society visual histological assessment scale. The areas stained by Safranin-O and type II collagen antibody were measured, and the percentage of each area was calculated. There was no significant difference in the histological assessment scale among the groups. The percentage of the type II collagen-positive area was significantly larger in the GWB group than in the CPM group. The present study suggests that optimal mechanical stress, such as GWB, may affect regeneration of cartilage, in vivo. Copyright (c) 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  5. Can gradual dose titration of ketamine for management of neuropathic pain prevent psychotomimetic effects in patients with advanced cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Yoichi; Ohno, Yumiko; Tsugane, Mamiko; Uejima, Etsuko

    2013-08-01

    Ketamine is often used to manage neuropathic pain in patients with cancer. However, it occasionally causes psychotomimetic effects such as vivid dreams, nightmares, illusions, hallucinations, and altered body image. To examine whether gradual dose titration of ketamine for management of neuropathic pain prevents psychotomimetic effects in patients with advanced cancer. This was a retrospective chart review. We administered ketamine when neuropathic pain in patients with advanced cancer became refractory to opioids and oral adjuvant analgesics. The starting dose of ketamine was 10 mg/d by continuous intravenous infusion. The dose was gradually increased by 10 mg/d every 4 to 6 hours to 50 mg/d or until the pain was relieved. It was subsequently increased by 25 mg/d every 12 to 24 hours until the pain was relieved. For this study, we enrolled 46 patients with advanced cancer. The mean age was 52.2 ± 16.9 years. The mean dose at onset of action and maximum dose of ketamine were 56 ± 58 and 272 ± 214 mg/d, respectively. The mean pain intensity (numerical rating scale) decreased significantly from 7.3 ± 2.0 to 3.5 ± 2.2 after the administration of ketamine (P ketamine for management of neuropathic pain can prevent psychotomimetic effects in patients with advanced cancer.

  6. 'Tied down'- the process of becoming bedridden through gradual local confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegelin, Angelika

    2008-09-01

    To raise awareness of the process of being bedridden, to create knowledge about the different causes and types of being bedridden, to highlight what exactly constitutes being bedridden, to describe which factors influence being bedridden. Being bedridden is a common phenomenon in nursing. However, there is no solid base of knowledge on reasons, types, development of and coping with this situation. The concept of being bedridden is applied in an arbitrary manner and the state of being bedridden is far from being clearly defined. A literature review revealed that only pathophysiological effects of this state are sufficiently explained. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the development of being confined to bed. Data collection and analysis were performed by using a Grounded Theory approach as developed by Strauss and Corbin. Thirty-two interviews with older, bedridden people were conducted. They were asked about their perspective on and their experience of the development of being confined to bed. Half of the interviewees lived in a nursing home, the others were cared for at home. 'Gradual local confinement' was identified as the core category. Becoming bedridden is a slow process by which the person is increasingly confined to one location. This development is related to an increasing need for support and to negative consequences, such as a pathology of immobility, narrowing of interests and loss of time. These consequences again are responsible for a downward spiral development. The study is the first research on the topic of being bedridden; no research in this field had been done before. There are some research results on bedrest, based on a purely medical perspective. The problem of being bedridden from the perspective of nursing is totally different. This study reveals phases of development and a range of factors influencing the problem of becoming bedridden. Many of these factors arise from the person and his/her interactional behaviour in the

  7. Volcanic gas composition changes during the gradual decrease of the gigantic degassing activity of Miyakejima volcano, Japan, 2000-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Hiroshi; Geshi, Nobuo; Matsushima, Nobuo; Saito, Genji; Kazahaya, Ryunosuke

    2017-02-01

    The composition of volcanic gases discharged from Miyakejima volcano has been monitored during the intensive degassing activity that began after the eruption in 2000. During the 15 years from 2000 to 2015, Miyakejima volcano discharged 25.5 Mt of SO2, which required degassing of 3 km3 of basaltic magma. The SO2 emission rate peaked at 50 kt/day at the end of 2000 and quickly decreased to 5 kt/day by 2003. During the early degassing period, the volcanic gas composition was constant with the CO2/SO2 = 0.8 (mol ratio), H2O/SO2 = 35, HCl/SO2 = 0.08, and SO2/H2S = 15. The SO2 emission rate decreased gradually to 0.5 kt/day by 2012, and the gas composition also changed gradually to CO2/SO2 = 1.5, H2O/SO2 = 150, HCl/SO2 = 0.15, and SO2/H2S = 6. The compositional changes are not likely caused by changes in degassing pressure or volatile heterogeneity of a magma chamber but are likely attributed to an increase of hydrothermal scrubbing caused by large decrease of the volcanic gas emission rate, suggesting a supply of gases with constant composition during the 15 years. The intensive degassing was modeled based on degassing of a convecting magma conduit. The gradual SO2 emission rate that decrease without changes in volcanic gas composition is attributed to a reduction of diameter of the convecting magma conduit.

  8. Excision of Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Reconstruction with Full Thickness Skin Graft: A Case Study and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshadwi, Ahmad; Bhatia, Ishwar

    2012-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by gradually increasing fibrosis of the oral cavity and pharynx, mainly the buccal mucosa, resulting in trismus. The highest incidence of oral submucous fibrosis is seen in South India due to various deleterious habits. In spite of the numerous medical modalities employed in the management of oral submucous fibrosis, occasionally surgical intervention becomes inevitable. Various surgical approaches have been used to reconstruct the surgical defects following excision of fibrous bands. Full thickness skin grafts have been described in the literature with variable outcomes. In the present study a 38-year-old male presented with severe oral submucous fibrosis of the buccal mucosa, which was successfully treated and reconstructed using full thickness skin graft with stable functional result after one year of treatment. An integrated review of the literature regarding etiology, histopathology, diagnostic, and treatment modalities of the disease follows. PMID:23304568

  9. The thickness of the interplanetary collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, S.

    1980-05-01

    The thicknesses of magnetic structures of the interplanetary shock waves related to the upstream solar wind plasma parameters are studied. From this study the following results have been obtained: the measured shock thickness increases for decreasing upstream proton number density and decreases for increasing proton flux energy. The shock thickness strongly depends on the ion plasma β, i.e. for higher values of the β the thickness decreases. (author)

  10. Confocal absorption spectral imaging of MoS2: optical transitions depending on the atomic thickness of intrinsic and chemically doped MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Duong, Dinh Loc; Lee, Jubok; Nam, Honggi; Kim, Minsu; Kan, Min; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2014-11-07

    We performed a nanoscale confocal absorption spectral imaging to obtain the full absorption spectra (over the range 1.5-3.2 eV) within regions having different numbers of layers and studied the variation of optical transition depending on the atomic thickness of the MoS2 film. Three distinct absorption bands corresponding to A and B excitons and a high-energy background (BG) peak at 2.84 eV displayed a gradual redshift as the MoS2 film thickness increased from the monolayer, to the bilayer, to the bulk MoS2 and this shift was attributed to the reduction of the gap energy in the Brillouin zone at the K-point as the atomic thickness increased. We also performed n-type chemical doping of MoS2 films using reduced benzyl viologen (BV) and the confocal absorption spectra modified by the doping showed a strong dependence on the atomic thickness: A and B exciton peaks were greatly quenched in the monolayer MoS2 while much less effect was shown in larger thickness and the BG peak either showed very small quenching for 1 L MoS2 or remained constant for larger thicknesses. Our results indicate that confocal absorption spectral imaging can provide comprehensive information on optical transitions of microscopic size intrinsic and doped two-dimensional layered materials.

  11. Translucency of dental ceramics with different thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2013-07-01

    The increased use of esthetic restorations requires an improved understanding of the translucent characteristics of ceramic materials. Ceramic translucency has been considered to be dependent on composition and thickness, but less information is available about the translucent characteristics of these materials, especially at different thicknesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between translucency and the thickness of different dental ceramics. Six disk-shaped specimens of 8 glass ceramics (IPS e.max Press HO, MO, LT, HT, IPS e.max CAD LT, MO, AvanteZ Dentin, and Trans) and 5 specimens of 5 zirconia ceramics (Cercon Base, Zenotec Zr Bridge, Lava Standard, Lava Standard FS3, and Lava Plus High Translucency) were prepared following the manufacturers' instructions and ground to a predetermined thickness with a grinding machine. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the translucency parameters (TP) of the glass ceramics, which ranged from 2.0 to 0.6 mm, and of the zirconia ceramics, which ranged from 1.0 to 0.4 mm. The relationship between the thickness and TP of each material was evaluated using a regression analysis (α=.05). The TP values of the glass ceramics ranged from 2.2 to 25.3 and the zirconia ceramics from 5.5 to 15.1. There was an increase in the TP with a decrease in thickness, but the amount of change was material dependent. An exponential relationship with statistical significance (Pceramics and zirconia ceramics. The translucency of dental ceramics was significantly influenced by both material and thickness. The translucency of all materials increased exponentially as the thickness decreased. All of the zirconia ceramics evaluated in the present study showed some degree of translucency, which was less sensitive to thickness compared to that of the glass ceramics. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Driving gradual endogenous c-myc overexpression by flow-sorting: intracellular signaling and tumor cell phenotype correlate with oncogene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kasper Jermiin; Holm, G.M.N.; Krabbe, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-exposed rat mammary cancer cells were flow sorted based on a c-myc reporter plasmid encoding a destabilized green fluorescent protein. Sorted cells exhibited gradual increases in c-myc levels. Cells overexpressing c-myc by only 10% exhibited phenotypic changes attributable to c-myc overex...

  13. Perspectives on monitoring gradual change across the continuity of Landsat sensors using time-series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, James; Gallant, Alisa L.; Shi, Hua; Zhu, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    There are many types of changes occurring over the Earth's landscapes that can be detected and monitored using Landsat data. Here we focus on monitoring “within-state,” gradual changes in vegetation in contrast with traditional monitoring of “abrupt” land-cover conversions. Gradual changes result from a variety of processes, such as vegetation growth and succession, damage from insects and disease, responses to shifts in climate, and other factors. Despite the prevalence of gradual changes across the landscape, they are largely ignored by the remote sensing community. Gradual changes are best characterized and monitored using time-series analysis, and with the successful launch of Landsat 8 we now have appreciable data continuity that extends the Landsat legacy across the previous 43 years. In this study, we conducted three related analyses: (1) comparison of spectral values acquired by Landsats 7 and 8, separated by eight days, to ensure compatibility for time-series evaluation; (2) tracking of multitemporal signatures for different change processes across Landsat 5, 7, and 8 sensors using anniversary-date imagery; and (3) tracking the same type of processes using all available acquisitions. In this investigation, we found that data representing natural vegetation from Landsats 5, 7, and 8 were comparable and did not indicate a need for major modification prior to use for long-term monitoring. Analyses using anniversary-date imagery can be very effective for assessing long term patterns and trends occurring across the landscape, and are especially good for providing insights regarding trends related to long-term and continuous trends of growth or decline. We found that use of all available data provided a much more comprehensive level of understanding of the trends occurring, providing information about rate, duration, and intra- and inter-annual variability that could not be readily gleaned from the anniversary date analyses. We observed that using all

  14. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  15. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  16. Contribution of thickness dependent void fraction and TiSixOy interlayer to the optical properties of amorphous TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Xu, Zi-Jie; Zhang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zi-Yi; Yu, Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2013-01-01

    The optical properties of TiO 2 thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and analyzed quantitatively using effective medium approximation theory and an effective series capacitance model. The refractive indices of TiO 2 are essentially constant and approach to those of bulk TiO 2 for films thicker than 40 nm, but drop sharply with a decrease in thickness from 40 to 5.5 nm. This phenomenon can be interpreted quantitatively by the thickness dependence of the void fraction and interfacial oxide region. The optical band gaps calculated from Tauc law increase with an increase of film thickness, and can be attributed to the contribution of disorder effect. - Highlights: • Amorphous TiO 2 thin films fabricated on Si substrate by electron beam evaporation • The refractive index and band gap are obtained from spectroscopic ellipsometry. • The refractive index decreases with decreasing film thickness. • Effective medium approximation theory and effective series capacitance model introduced • A band gap increases gradually with an increase in film thickness

  17. Estudio transcultural con la prueba de Bender: Sistema de puntuación gradual (Cross-Cultural Study with Bender Test- Gradual Scoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Javier Marín Rueda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar el desempeño en la Prueba Gestáltica Visomotriz de Bender - Sistema de Puntuación Gradual (B-SPG en un grupo de niños peruanos en función a los datos ofrecidos por el manual brasilero de la prueba. Participaron 82 niños, de ambos sexos, con edades entre los 8 y 10 años (M = 9.21, DT = 0.83. Los niños provenían de los distritos de Pueblo Libre (43.9% y Rímac (51.2%, de la provincia de Lima, así como también de Lima Metropolitana (4.9%. El B-SPG fue aplicado de forma colectiva. Los promedios de puntos obtenidos por los niños peruanos en el B-SPG fueron significativamente superiores a los obtenidos por los niños brasileros en cada una de las edades estudiadas. Se destaca la importancia de investigar evidencias de validez y de confiabilidad para que la prueba pueda ser usada de forma adecuada en el Perú, considerando las particularidades de desarrollo de los niños del país. ABSTRACT: The objective of the study is to compare performance on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test - system of Gradual punctuation (B-SPG in a group of Peruvian children in connection with the data provided by the Brazilian manual of the test. In this research 82 Peruvian children were involved, both sexes, with ages between 8 and 10 years (M = 9.21, DT = 0.83. The hildren came from the districts of Pueblo Libre (43.9% and Rimac (51.2% in the province of Lima, as well as from metropolitan Lima (4.9%. The B-SPG was collectively applied in the children’s schools. The average points earned by the Peruvian children in the B-SPG were significantly higher than those obtained by Brazilian children in each one of the ages studied. It emphasizes the importance of investigating evidence of validity and reliability, so that, the test can be used appropriately in Peru, considering the peculiarities of the development of children in the country.

  18. Floral pathway integrator gene expression mediates gradual transmission of environmental and endogenous cues to flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Aalt D J; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.

  19. Floral pathway integrator gene expression mediates gradual transmission of environmental and endogenous cues to flowering time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalt D.J. van Dijk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.

  20. Detecting gradual visual changes in colour and brightness agnosia: a double dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; te Pas, Susan F; van der Smagt, Maarten J

    2011-03-09

    Two patients, one with colour agnosia and one with brightness agnosia, performed a task that required the detection of gradual temporal changes in colour and brightness. The results for these patients, who showed anaverage or an above-average performance on several tasks designed to test low-level colour and luminance (contrast) perception in the spatial domain, yielded a double dissociation; the brightness agnosic patient was within the normal range for the coloured stimuli, but much slower to detect brightness differences, whereas the colour agnosic patient was within the normal range for the achromatic stimuli, but much slower for the coloured stimuli. These results suggest that a modality-specific impairment in the detection of gradual temporal changes might be related to, if not underlie, the phenomenon of visual agnosia.

  1. Computational issues of solving the 1D steady gradually varied flow equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artichowicz Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a problem of multiple solutions of steady gradually varied flow equation in the form of the ordinary differential energy equation is discussed from the viewpoint of its numerical solution. Using the Lipschitz theorem dealing with the uniqueness of solution of an initial value problem for the ordinary differential equation it was shown that the steady gradually varied flow equation can have more than one solution. This fact implies that the nonlinear algebraic equation approximating the ordinary differential energy equation, which additionally coincides with the wellknown standard step method usually applied for computing of the flow profile, can have variable number of roots. Consequently, more than one alternative solution corresponding to the same initial condition can be provided. Using this property it is possible to compute the water flow profile passing through the critical stage.

  2. Gradual reforms and the emergence of energy market in China: Evidence from tests for convergence of energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hengyun; Oxley, Les; Gibson, John

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the emergence of energy markets by testing for convergence of energy prices with a new dataset on energy spot prices in 35 major cities in China. Both descriptive statistics and unit root are employed to test the convergence of energy prices for each of four fuel price series. The whole study period is divided into two sub-periods in order to reconcile the gradual energy reforms. The results show the steady improvement in energy market performance in China, especially during the second sub-period, which suggests that the market appears to be playing an increasing role in determining energy prices. While panel unit root tests show energy markets are integrated in China as a whole, city-by-city univariate unit root tests suggest that there are still many regional energy markets, probably because energy reserves (especially coal) vary widely across regions. Since China's energy economy is gradually moving towards market-oriented mechanisms, the existing literature may become obsolete soon.

  3. Gradual instrumentation and control upgrades in U.S. nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welk, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, US nuclear power plants have been struggling with the technical and licensing realities associated with installing digital protection and control systems into existing facilities. The industry, regulators and equipment vendors are finally reaching agreements regarding acceptable practices and requirements. The present paper explains the philosophy for gradual instrumentation and control replacements being pursued and the technical issues being addressed. It also describes some of the future challenges facing the industry. (author)

  4. Causal correlations between genes and linguistic features: The mechanism of gradual language evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Dediu, D.

    2008-01-01

    The causal correlations between human genetic variants and linguistic (typological) features could represent the mechanism required for gradual, accretionary models of language evolution. The causal link is mediated by the process of cultural transmission of language across generations in a population of genetically biased individuals. The particular case of Tone, ASPM and Microcephalin is discussed as an illustration. It is proposed that this type of genetically-influenced linguistic bias, c...

  5. Full reflector thickness and isolation thickness on neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tomohiro; Naito, Yoshitaka; Komuro, Yuichi.

    1988-08-01

    A method to determine ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'', which is utilized for criticality safety evaluation on nuclear fuel facilities, was proposed in this paper. Firstly, a calculation was tryed to obtain the two kinds of thicknesses from the result of criticality calculations for a specific case. Then, two simple equations which calculates the two kinds of thicknesses were made from the relation between reflector (or isolator) thickness and k eff , and one-group diffusion theory. Finally, we proposed a new method to determine the thicknesses. From the method we proposed, ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'' can be obtain using the equations and migration length of the reflector (or isolator) and infinite and effective multiplication factor of the fuel. (author)

  6. Gradual plasticity alters population dynamics in variable environments: thermal acclimation in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhartdii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Colin T; Fey, Samuel B; Arellano, Aldo A; Vasseur, David A

    2018-01-10

    Environmental variability is ubiquitous, but its effects on populations are not fully understood or predictable. Recent attention has focused on how rapid evolution can impact ecological dynamics via adaptive trait change. However, the impact of trait change arising from plastic responses has received less attention, and is often assumed to optimize performance and unfold on a separate, faster timescale than ecological dynamics. Challenging these assumptions, we propose that gradual plasticity is important for ecological dynamics, and present a study of the plastic responses of the freshwater green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as it acclimates to temperature changes. First, we show that C. reinhardtii 's gradual acclimation responses can both enhance and suppress its performance after a perturbation, depending on its prior thermal history. Second, we demonstrate that where conventional approaches fail to predict the population dynamics of C. reinhardtii exposed to temperature fluctuations, a new model of gradual acclimation succeeds. Finally, using high-resolution data, we show that phytoplankton in lake ecosystems can experience thermal variation sufficient to make acclimation relevant. These results challenge prevailing assumptions about plasticity's interactions with ecological dynamics. Amidst the current emphasis on rapid evolution, it is critical that we also develop predictive methods accounting for plasticity. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Chronic environmental stress enhances tolerance to seasonal gradual warming in marine mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionan Marigómez

    Full Text Available In global climate change scenarios, seawater warming acts in concert with multiple stress sources, which may enhance the susceptibility of marine biota to thermal stress. Here, the responsiveness to seasonal gradual warming was investigated in temperate mussels from a chronically stressed population in comparison with a healthy one. Stressed and healthy mussels were subjected to gradual temperature elevation for 8 days (1°C per day; fall: 16-24°C, winter: 12-20°C, summer: 20-28°C and kept at elevated temperature for 3 weeks. Healthy mussels experienced thermal stress and entered the time-limited survival period in the fall, became acclimated in winter and exhibited sublethal damage in summer. In stressed mussels, thermal stress and subsequent health deterioration were elicited in the fall but no transition into the critical period of time-limited survival was observed. Stressed mussels did not become acclimated to 20°C in winter, when they experienced low-to-moderate thermal stress, and did not experience sublethal damage at 28°C in summer, showing instead signs of metabolic rate depression. Overall, although the thermal threshold was lowered in chronically stressed mussels, they exhibited enhanced tolerance to seasonal gradual warming, especially in summer. These results challenge current assumptions on the susceptibility of marine biota to the interactive effects of seawater warming and pollution.

  8. Effects of film thickness and preferred orientation on the dielectric properties of (Bi1.5Zn0.5)(Zn0.5Nb1.5)O7 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, L Z; Fu, W Y; Wang, S F; Wang, Q; Sun, Z H; Yang, H; Cheng, B L; Wang, H; Zhou, Y L

    2007-01-01

    (Bi 1.5 Zn 0.5 )(Zn 0.5 Nb 1.5 )O 7 (BZN) films with different thicknesses and preferred orientations have been fabricated on Nb doped SrTiO 3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. As the thickness increases, the permittivity increases, and the dielectric loss decreases, while the tunability only has a little variation. The asymmetric behaviour of the electric field dependent permittivity reduces gradually with the increasing thickness, which should be attributed to the decrease in the effect of the interfacial layer between the dielectric film and substrate (electrode). Furthermore, compared with the (1 0 0) oriented BZN film, BZN film with (1 1 1) preferred orientation exhibits high dielectric loss

  9. Gradual adaptation to salt and dissolved oxygen: Strategies to minimize adverse effect of salinity on aerobic granular sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhongwei; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Salinity can affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment in terms of nutrient removal. The effect of salt on aerobic granular sludge (AGS) process in terms of granulation and nutrient removal was examined in this study. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of salt (15 g/L NaCl) on granule formation and nutrient removal in AGS system started with flocculent sludge and operated at DO of 2.5 mg/L (phase I). In addition, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of gradually increasing the salt concentration (2.5 g/L to 15 g/L NaCl) or increasing the DO level (2.5 mg/L to 8 mg/L) on nutrient removal in AGS system started with granular sludge (phase II) taken from an AGS reactor performing well in terms of N and P removal. Although the addition of salt in phase I did not affect the granulation process, it significantly affected nutrient removal due to inhibition of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Increasing the DO to 8 mg/L or adapting granules by gradually increasing the salt concentration minimized the adverse effect of salt on nitrification (phase II). However, these strategies were not successful for mitigating the effect of salt on biological phosphorus removal. No nitrite accumulation occurred in all the reactors suggesting that inhibition of biological phosphorus removal was not due to the accumulation of nitrite as previously reported. Also, glycogen accumulating organisms were shown to be more tolerant to salt than PAO II, which was the dominant PAO clade detected in this study. Future studies comparing the salinity tolerance of different PAO clades are needed to further elucidate the effect of salt on PAOs.

  10. Gradual adaptation to salt and dissolved oxygen: Strategies to minimize adverse effect of salinity on aerobic granular sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhongwei

    2017-08-13

    Salinity can affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment in terms of nutrient removal. The effect of salt on aerobic granular sludge (AGS) process in terms of granulation and nutrient removal was examined in this study. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of salt (15 g/L NaCl) on granule formation and nutrient removal in AGS system started with flocculent sludge and operated at DO of 2.5 mg/L (phase I). In addition, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of gradually increasing the salt concentration (2.5 g/L to 15 g/L NaCl) or increasing the DO level (2.5 mg/L to 8 mg/L) on nutrient removal in AGS system started with granular sludge (phase II) taken from an AGS reactor performing well in terms of N and P removal. Although the addition of salt in phase I did not affect the granulation process, it significantly affected nutrient removal due to inhibition of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Increasing the DO to 8 mg/L or adapting granules by gradually increasing the salt concentration minimized the adverse effect of salt on nitrification (phase II). However, these strategies were not successful for mitigating the effect of salt on biological phosphorus removal. No nitrite accumulation occurred in all the reactors suggesting that inhibition of biological phosphorus removal was not due to the accumulation of nitrite as previously reported. Also, glycogen accumulating organisms were shown to be more tolerant to salt than PAO II, which was the dominant PAO clade detected in this study. Future studies comparing the salinity tolerance of different PAO clades are needed to further elucidate the effect of salt on PAOs.

  11. Ice thickness profile surveying with ground penetrating radar at Artesonraju Glacier, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Rabatel, Antoine; McKinney, Daene; Condom, Thomas; Cochacin, Alejo; Davila Roller, Luzmilla

    2014-05-01

    survey was also undertaken to determine the radar velocity in the ice at Artesonraju Glacier. GPR measurements of Artesonraju Glacier show the ice thickness ranging from 20 meters at the terminus and gradually increasing to about 160 meters at the deepest part in the tongue of the glacier. After this point the bed slope begins to increase and the ice thickness decreases in the direction of the accumulation zone. A negative bed slope from the glacier terminus to the middle of the glacier tongue indicates that the conditions are favorable for the growth of a glacial lake with a potential maximum depth of about 60-80 m.

  12. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  13. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  14. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  15. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  16. Evaluation of the force generated by gradual deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional metallic, esthetic, and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisconi, Manoela Fávaro; Janson, Guilherme; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deflection forces of Nitinol orthodontic wires placed in different types of brackets: metallic, reinforced polycarbonate with metallic slots, sapphire, passive and active self-ligating, by assessing strength values variation according to gradual increase in wire diameter and deflection and comparing different combinations in the different deflections. Specimens were set in a clinical simulation model and evaluated in a Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON 3342), using the ISO 15841 protocol. Data were subjected to One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey tests (pbrackets presented the most similar behavior to each other. For conventional brackets there was no consistent behavior for any of the deflections studied. Self-ligating brackets presented the most consistent and predictable results while conventional brackets, as esthetic brackets, showed very different patterns of forces. Self-ligating brackets showed higher strength in all deflections when compared with the others, in 0.020-inch wires.

  17. An arterio-venous bridge for gradual weaning from adult veno-arterial extracorporeal life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Z U D; Sharma, A S; Ganushchak, Y M; Delnoij, T S R; Donker, D W; Maessen, J G; Weerwind, P W

    2015-11-01

    Weaning from extracorporeal life support (ELS) is particularly challenging when cardiac recovery is slow, largely incomplete and hard to predict. Therefore, we describe an individualized gradual weaning strategy using an arterio-venous (AV) bridge incorporated into the circuit to facilitate weaning. Thirty adult patients weaned from veno-arterial ELS using an AV bridge were retrospectively analyzed. Serial echocardiography and hemodynamic monitoring were used to assess cardiac recovery and load responsiveness. Upon early signs of myocardial recovery, an AV bridge with an Hoffman clamp was added to the circuit and weaning was initiated. Support flow was reduced stepwise by 10-15% every 2 to 8 hours while the circuit flow was maintained at 3.5-4.5 L/min. The AV bridge facilitated gradual weaning in all 30 patients (median age: 66 [53-71] years; 21 males) over a median period of 25 [8-32] hours, with a median support duration of 96 [31-181] hours. During weaning, the median left ventricular ejection fraction was 25% [15-32] and the median velocity time integral of the aortic valve was 16 cm [10-23]. Through the weaning period, the mean arterial blood pressure was maintained at 70 mmHg and the activated partial thromboplastin time was 60 ± 10 seconds without additional systemic heparinization. Neither macroscopic thrombus formation in the ELS circuit during and after weaning nor clinically relevant thromboembolism was observed. Incorporation of an AV bridge for weaning from veno-arterial ELS is safe and feasible to gradually wean patients with functional cardiac recovery without compromising the circuit integrity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. The Dependence of Characteristic Times of Gradual SEP Events on Their Associated CME Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z. H.; Wang, C. B.; Xue, X. H.; Wang, Y. M.

    It is generally believed that coronal mass ejections CMEs are the drivers of shocks that accelerate gradual solar energetic particles SEPs One might expect that the characteristics of the SEP intensity time profiles observed at 1 AU are determined by properties of the associated CMEs such as the radial speed and the angular width Recently Kahler statistically investigated the characteristic times of gradual SEP events observed from 1998-2002 and their associated coronal mass ejection properties Astrophys J 628 1014--1022 2005 Three characteristic times of gradual SEP events are determined as functions of solar source longitude 1 T 0 the time from associated CME launch to SEP onset at 1 AU 2 T R the rise time from SEP onset to the time when the SEP intensity is a factor of 2 below peak intensity and 3 T D the duration over which the SEP intensity is within a factor of 2 of the peak intensity However in his study the CME speeds and angular widths are directly taken from the LASCO CME catalog In this study we analyze the radial speeds and the angular widths of CMEs by an ice-cream cone model and re-investigate their correlationships with the characteristic times of the corresponding SEP events We find T R and T D are significantly correlated with radial speed for SEP events in the best-connected longitude range and there is no correlation between T 0 and CME radial speed and angular width which is consistent with Kahler s results On the other hand it s found that T R and T D are also have

  19. Crustal thickness and Vp/Vs beneath the southeastern United States: Constraints from receiver function stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    To provide new constraints on crustal structure and evolution models beneath a collage of tectonic provinces in the southeastern United States, a total of 10,753 teleseismic receiver functions recorded by 125 USArray and other seismic stations are used to compute crustal thickness and Vp/Vs values. The resulting crustal thicknesses range from 25 km at the coast to 51 km beneath the peak of the southern Appalachians with an average of 36.2 km ± 5.5 km. The resulting crustal thicknesses correlate well with surface elevation and Bouguer gravity anomalies. Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the crustal thicknesses show a clear eastward thinning with a magnitude of 10 km, from about 40 km beneath the western margin to 30 km beneath the coast. The Vp/Vs values for the entire study area range from 1.71 to 1.90 with a mean value of 1.80 ± 0.04. The mean Vp/Vs value is 1.82±0.035 in the southern Appalachian Mountain. The slightly larger than normal crustal Vp/Vs for this area might be the result of significant erosion of the felsic upper crust over the past 300 million years. Alternatively, it could also suggest the existence of pervasive magmatic intrusion into the Appalachian crust. The Vp/Vs measurements in the Atlantic Coastal Plain increase toward the east, ranging from 1.75 to 1.82, probably indicating a gradual increase of mafic magmatic intrusion into thinner crust during the development of the passive continental margin.

  20. Direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cell operating in gradual internal reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, S. D.; Galesco, M. V.; Girona, K.; de Florio, D. Z.; Steil, M. C.; Georges, S.; Fonseca, F. C.

    2012-09-01

    An electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using standard electrodes, doped-lanthanum manganite cathode and Ni-cermet anode, was operated with direct (anhydrous) ethanol for more than 100 h, delivering essentially the same power output as running on hydrogen. A ceria-based layer provides the catalytic activity for the gradual internal reforming, which uses the steam formed by the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen for the decomposition of ethanol. Such a concept opens up the way for multi-fuel SOFCs using standard components and a catalytic layer.

  1. Social representations of climate change in Swedish lay focus groups: local or distant, gradual or catastrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.

  2. A Cost-based Explanation of Gradual, Regional Internationalization of Multinationals on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines firm internationalization on social networking sites (SNS). It systematically examines costs faced by an internationalizing firm and how firms react to these costs according to “distance-dependent” (gradual and regional) and “distance-invariant” (born-global) explanations...... of internationalization. Data on 5827 country pages of 240 multinational firms on Facebook, the most popular SNS today, is used. Creating a foreign country-specific Facebook page is considered the SNS equivalent of opening a physical subsidiary in that country. The data show that multinationals exhibit...

  3. La abstracción de datos y su proceso gradual de construcción

    OpenAIRE

    MORENO, FRANCISCO; ECHEVERRI, JAIME; FLÓREZ, ROBERTO

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el proceso gradual de construcción de tipos abstractos de datos (TADs), como los Fraccionarios y los Polinomios, a partir de TADs esenciales, como los Lógicos y los Enteros. Se propone un conjunto de categorías funcionales para clasificar las funciones de un TAD. Las funciones se especifican mediante programación funcional, es decir, no se utilizan construcciones estructuradas como la asignación, la secuencia y los ciclos. Hasta ahora no se encuentra r...

  4. Engineering web maps with gradual content zoom based on streaming vector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lina; Meijers, Martijn; Šuba, Radan; van Oosterom, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Vario-scale data structures have been designed to support gradual content zoom and the progressive transfer of vector data, for use with arbitrary map scales. The focus to date has been on the server side, especially on how to convert geographic data into the proposed vario-scale structures by means of automated generalisation. This paper contributes to the ongoing vario-scale research by focusing on the client side and communication, particularly on how this works in a web-services setting. It is claimed that these functionalities are urgently needed, as many web-based applications, both desktop and mobile, require gradual content zoom, progressive transfer and a high performance level. The web-client prototypes developed in this paper make it possible to assess the behaviour of vario-scale data and to determine how users will actually see the interactions. Several different options of web-services communication architectures are possible in a vario-scale setting. These options are analysed and tested with various web-client prototypes, with respect to functionality, ease of implementation and performance (amount of transmitted data and response times). We show that the vario-scale data structure can fit in with current web-based architectures and efforts to standardise map distribution on the internet. However, to maximise the benefits of vario-scale data, a client needs to be aware of this structure. When a client needs a map to be refined (by means of a gradual content zoom operation), only the 'missing' data will be requested. This data will be sent incrementally to the client from a server. In this way, the amount of data transferred at one time is reduced, shortening the transmission time. In addition to these conceptual architecture aspects, there are many implementation and tooling design decisions at play. These will also be elaborated on in this paper. Based on the experiments conducted, we conclude that the vario-scale approach indeed supports gradual

  5. The Design of 3D-Printed Lattice-Reinforced Thickness-Varying Shell Molds for Castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Haolong; Kang, Jinwu; Yi, Jihao; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Haibin; Huang, Tao

    2018-03-30

    3D printing technologies have been used gradually for the fabrication of sand molds and cores for castings, even though these molds and cores are dense structures. In this paper, a generation method for lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell molds is proposed and presented. The first step is the discretization of the STL (Stereo Lithography) model of a casting into finite difference meshes. After this, a shell is formed by surrounding the casting with varying thickness, which is roughly proportional to the surface temperature distribution of the casting that is acquired by virtually cooling it in the environment. A regular lattice is subsequently constructed to support the shell. The outside surface of the shell and lattice in the cubic mesh format is then converted to STL format to serve as the external surface of the new shell mold. The internal surface of the new mold is the casting's surface with the normals of all of the triangles in STL format reversed. Experimental verification was performed on an Al alloy wheel hub casting. Its lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold was generated by the proposed method and fabricated by the binder jetting 3D printing. The poured wheel hub casting was sound and of good surface smoothness. The cooling rate of the wheel hub casting was greatly increased due to the shell mold structure. This lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold generation method is of great significance for mold design for castings to achieve cooling control.

  6. The Design of 3D-Printed Lattice-Reinforced Thickness-Varying Shell Molds for Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Haolong; Kang, Jinwu; Yi, Jihao; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Haibin; Huang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    3D printing technologies have been used gradually for the fabrication of sand molds and cores for castings, even though these molds and cores are dense structures. In this paper, a generation method for lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell molds is proposed and presented. The first step is the discretization of the STL (Stereo Lithography) model of a casting into finite difference meshes. After this, a shell is formed by surrounding the casting with varying thickness, which is roughly proportional to the surface temperature distribution of the casting that is acquired by virtually cooling it in the environment. A regular lattice is subsequently constructed to support the shell. The outside surface of the shell and lattice in the cubic mesh format is then converted to STL format to serve as the external surface of the new shell mold. The internal surface of the new mold is the casting’s surface with the normals of all of the triangles in STL format reversed. Experimental verification was performed on an Al alloy wheel hub casting. Its lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold was generated by the proposed method and fabricated by the binder jetting 3D printing. The poured wheel hub casting was sound and of good surface smoothness. The cooling rate of the wheel hub casting was greatly increased due to the shell mold structure. This lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold generation method is of great significance for mold design for castings to achieve cooling control. PMID:29601543

  7. The Design of 3D-Printed Lattice-Reinforced Thickness-Varying Shell Molds for Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haolong Shangguan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technologies have been used gradually for the fabrication of sand molds and cores for castings, even though these molds and cores are dense structures. In this paper, a generation method for lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell molds is proposed and presented. The first step is the discretization of the STL (Stereo Lithography model of a casting into finite difference meshes. After this, a shell is formed by surrounding the casting with varying thickness, which is roughly proportional to the surface temperature distribution of the casting that is acquired by virtually cooling it in the environment. A regular lattice is subsequently constructed to support the shell. The outside surface of the shell and lattice in the cubic mesh format is then converted to STL format to serve as the external surface of the new shell mold. The internal surface of the new mold is the casting’s surface with the normals of all of the triangles in STL format reversed. Experimental verification was performed on an Al alloy wheel hub casting. Its lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold was generated by the proposed method and fabricated by the binder jetting 3D printing. The poured wheel hub casting was sound and of good surface smoothness. The cooling rate of the wheel hub casting was greatly increased due to the shell mold structure. This lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold generation method is of great significance for mold design for castings to achieve cooling control.

  8. Study on FPGA-Based Emulator for the Diagnosis of Gradual Degradation in Reciprocating Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Sun; Kim, Wooshik [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Yun; Chai, Jang Bom [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop a method for diagnosing the degree of gradual degradation of a reciprocating pump caused by continuous use as a water supply pump in a nuclear power plant. Normally, the progress of such degradation is too slow to be noticed. Hence, it is difficult to determine the degree of degradation using the existing diagnostic methods. In this paper, we propose a new method by which the normal state and the degraded state of the pump can be differentiated, so that the degree of degradation can be identified. First, an emulator was developed using FPGA by providing the parameters of the pump under normal state, so that the emulator generates the information of the pump in the healthy state. Then, by comparing this information with the parameters received from various output sensors of the emulator during the current state, it is possible to identify and measure the degree of gradual degradation. This paper presents some of the results obtained during the development process, and results that show how the emulator operates, by comparing the data collected from an actual pump.

  9. Optimal cellular mobility for synchronization arising from the gradual recovery of intercellular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriu, Koichiro; Ares, Saúl; Oates, Andrew C; Morelli, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    Cell movement and intercellular signaling occur simultaneously during the development of tissues, but little is known about how movement affects signaling. Previous theoretical studies have shown that faster moving cells favor synchronization across a population of locally coupled genetic oscillators. An important assumption in these studies is that cells can immediately interact with their new neighbors after arriving at a new location. However, intercellular interactions in cellular systems may need some time to become fully established. How movement affects synchronization in this situation has not been examined. Here, we develop a coupled phase oscillator model in which we consider cell movement and the gradual recovery of intercellular coupling experienced by a cell after movement, characterized by a moving rate and a coupling recovery rate, respectively. We find (1) an optimal moving rate for synchronization and (2) a critical moving rate above which achieving synchronization is not possible. These results indicate that the extent to which movement enhances synchrony is limited by a gradual recovery of coupling. These findings suggest that the ratio of time scales of movement and signaling recovery is critical for information transfer between moving cells. (paper)

  10. Gradual nerve elongation affects nerve cell bodies and neuro-muscular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuo Ikeda, K I; Masaki Matsuda, M M; Daisuke Yamauchi, D Y; Katsuro Tomita, K T; Shigenori Tanaka, S T

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the reactions of the neuro-muscular junction and nerve cell body to gradual nerve elongation. The sciatic nerves of Japanese white rabbits were lengthened by 30 mm in increments of 0.8 mm/day, 2.0 mm/day and 4.0 mm/day. A scanning electron microscopic examination showed no degenerative change at the neuro-muscular junction, even eight weeks after elongation in the 4-mm group. Hence, neuro-muscular junction is not critical for predicting damage from gradual nerve elongation. There were no axon reaction cells in the 0.8-mm group, a small amount in the 2-mm group, and a large amount in the 4-mm group. The rate of growth associated protein-43 positive nerve cells was significant in the 4-mm group. Hence, the safe speed for nerve cells appeared to be 0.8-mm/day, critical speed to be 2.0-mm/day, and dangerous speed to be 4.0-mm/day in this elongation model.

  11. Finding common ground in implementation: towards a theory of gradual commonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Haar, Marian; Aarts, Noelle; Verhoeven, Piet

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on an empirical study that aimed to design a practice-based theory about collaboration on the local implementation of a nationally developed health-promoting intervention. The study's objective is to better understand the dynamic process of complex collaboration. The research is based on a Delphi study among some 100 individuals in local and regional networks, in which various professionals work together to implement the BeweegKuur, which translates as 'course of exercise'. The BeweegKuur is a combined lifestyle intervention aimed at promoting sufficient physical exercise and a healthy diet among people in the Netherlands who are overweight and at risk of diabetes. The Delphi study in three rounds systematically and interactively constructs a common perspective on implementation, reflecting stakeholders' ideas about the collaboration and providing an insight into how these ideas are influenced by the context of the implementation. The statistical and qualitative analyses of the responses to the feedback in the Delphi study form the basis for this practice-based theory on complex collaboration, called the theory of gradual commonality. During interaction, consensus gradually emerges about co-creation as a collaboration strategy. Co-creation leaves room for various ways of achieving the ambitions of the BeweegKuur. This article discusses the importance of this practice-based theory and the value of the Delphi research strategy for promoting health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Enhanced Attention to Speaking Faces Versus Other Event Types Emerges Gradually Across Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Todd, James Torrence; Castellanos, Irina; Sorondo, Barbara M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of attention to dynamic faces vs. objects providing synchronous audiovisual vs. silent visual stimulation was assessed in a large sample of infants. Maintaining attention to the faces and voices of people speaking is critical for perceptual, cognitive, social, and language development. However, no studies have systematically assessed when, if, or how attention to speaking faces emerges and changes across infancy. Two measures of attention maintenance, habituation time (HT) and look-away rate (LAR), were derived from cross-sectional data of 2- to 8-month-old infants (N = 801). Results indicated that attention to audiovisual faces and voices was maintained across age, whereas attention to each of the other event types (audiovisual objects, silent dynamic faces, silent dynamic objects) declined across age. This reveals a gradually emerging advantage in attention maintenance (longer habituation times, lower look-away rates) for audiovisual speaking faces compared with the other three event types. At 2 months, infants showed no attentional advantage for faces (with greater attention to audiovisual than to visual events), at 3 months, they attended more to dynamic faces than objects (in the presence or absence of voices), and by 4 to 5 and 6 to 8 months significantly greater attention emerged to temporally coordinated faces and voices of people speaking compared with all other event types. Our results indicate that selective attention to coordinated faces and voices over other event types emerges gradually across infancy, likely as a function of experience with multimodal, redundant stimulation from person and object events. PMID:27786526

  13. Effectiveness of dispersants on thick oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.; Belore, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between dispersant effectiveness and oil slick thickness, and thereby determine the optimum time for applying dispersant onto spilled oil at sea. Tests were completed at a lab-scale level by varying the three parameters of oil type, dispersant application, and oil thickness. The tests were intended to be comparative only. The primary oils used were Alberta sweet mix blend and Hibernia B-27 crude. The dispersant, Corexit 9527, was applied either premixed with the oil, dropwise in one application, or dropwise in multiple applications to simulate a multi-hit aircraft operation. The apparatus used in the experiment was an oscillating hoop tank, with oil-containing rings used to obtain and maintain uniform slick thickness. The results indicate that the effectiveness potential of a chemical dispersant does not decrease as slick thickness increases. In fact, results of the tests involving Hibernia oil suggest that oils that tend to herd easily would be treated more effectively if dispersant were applied when the oil was relatively thick (1 mm or greater) to avoid herding problems. The oil slicks premixed with dispersant did not disperse well in the thick oil tests, not because of dispersant-oil interaction problems but because of reduced mixing energy. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdelen, Turker; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-04-17

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  15. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker Dagdelen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  16. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire. PMID:29673194

  17. Germany: of the nuclear energy expansion to the structure for their gradual abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mez, L.

    2009-01-01

    This work exposes a panorama of the German nuclear industry, where the investment in this sector began around the fifty, having great peak during the period 1968 at 1989. Causes like a poor electricity demand, the over capacity and a persistent controversy among the public opinion for the nuclear energy use, stop the expansion from this industry to the little time of established. In contrast with the legal situation in most of the countries, in Germany the operation licences were granted without it limits of time. Nevertheless, the operation expectation was estimated inside a range of 20 to 40 years, depending in particular on the service life of the renovation parts. Taking into account these data, seven nuclear power plants of those that have already operated for 20 years or more, are about to confront expensive reconstructions or the closing in the following five years; while other seven will be closed in the subsequent 10 or 15 years. While the federal politicians and their directive went favorable until recent time in general to the extended use of nuclear energy, some authorities of the states became more restrictive when interpreting the allowed forecasts, what has generated continuous differences and regulatory uncertainty. In consequence, the facilities in operation gradually have shown interest in reaching agreements with the government about the nuclear politics, by means of the regulations reestablishment and one calculus linked at the costs. In spite of the many and constant judgments of the public opinion, the federal nuclear politics was up to 1998 on the side of the alliance pro nuclear and back to the industry by means of multiple fiscal and regulatory privileges. This official position was reverted by first time after the federal elections of that year, when a new red-green federal government announcement the gradual retirement of the nuclear energy of Germany. That coalition pact among the Democratic Social parties (red) and green

  18. Thick metallic coatings produced by coaxial and side laser cladding : Processing and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelík, V.; De Hosson, J.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Cobalt and iron-based, defect-free coatings with thicknesses from 1 to 3.3. mm were created by a laser cladding process on different steel substrates. Extensive laser cladding experiments with a gradual change of laser power were used to study relations between main processing parameters and

  19. The learning of sciences: a gradual change in the way of learning. The case of vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Bravo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning the scientific way of knowledge implies a change in the most implicit principles that guide comprehension, interpretation and explanation of scientific phenomena as well as a change in the type of associated reasoning. With the aim of favouring this type of learning, a teaching programme was developed in relation to vision and implemented with a group of secondary school students. The way of learning of these students was observed at different teaching stages. Findings suggest that during the learning process the way students learn seems to change gradually and that students construct “intermediate” models (right but incomplete that become the basis for the construction of a systemic model proposed by school science.

  20. Gradual cut detection using low-level vision for digital video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Yeun-Sung; Jang, Ok-bae

    1996-09-01

    Digital video computing and organization is one of the important issues in multimedia system, signal compression, or database. Video should be segmented into shots to be used for identification and indexing. This approach requires a suitable method to automatically locate cut points in order to separate shot in a video. Automatic cut detection to isolate shots in a video has received considerable attention due to many practical applications; our video database, browsing, authoring system, retrieval and movie. Previous studies are based on a set of difference mechanisms and they measured the content changes between video frames. But they could not detect more special effects which include dissolve, wipe, fade-in, fade-out, and structured flashing. In this paper, a new cut detection method for gradual transition based on computer vision techniques is proposed. And then, experimental results applied to commercial video are presented and evaluated.

  1. Gradually varied flow in compound open channels; Flujo gradualmente variado en canales de seccion compuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotela Avila, Gilberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    The author shows that the computation of gradually-varied-flow profiles in prismatic compound channels involves the solution of the dynamic equation, but using the compound channel Froude number defined by Blalock and Sturm. The same equation is used for non-prismatic channels by dividing the channel into short reaches and carrying the computation step by step through an iterative process. [Spanish] El autor demuestra que los perfiles del flujo gradualmente variado en canales prismaticos de seccion compuesta se pueden determinar mediante la integracion de la llamada ecuacion dinamica, pero usando el numero de Froude definido por Blalock y Sturm para este tipo de canales. Cuando no son prismaticos, tambien se aplica la ecuacion de la energia por tramos y el calculo sigue un proceso iterativo una vez definidos los tirantes criticos multiples y la zona en que se desarrolla el perfil.

  2. Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hooper, Andrew; Holohan, Eoghan P; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G; Cesca, Simone; Vogfjörd, Kristín S; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Einarsson, Páll; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Jarosch, Alexander H; Jónasson, Kristján; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Bagnardi, Marco; Parks, Michelle M; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Pálsson, Finnur; Walter, Thomas R; Schöpfer, Martin P J; Heimann, Sebastian; Reynolds, Hannah I; Dumont, Stéphanie; Bali, Eniko; Gudfinnsson, Gudmundur H; Dahm, Torsten; Roberts, Matthew J; Hensch, Martin; Belart, Joaquín M C; Spaans, Karsten; Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Gunnar B; Fridriksdóttir, Hildur M; Drouin, Vincent; Dürig, Tobias; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Riishuus, Morten S; Pedersen, Gro B M; van Boeckel, Tayo; Oddsson, Björn; Pfeffer, Melissa A; Barsotti, Sara; Bergsson, Baldur; Donovan, Amy; Burton, Mike R; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2016-07-15

    Large volcanic eruptions on Earth commonly occur with a collapse of the roof of a crustal magma reservoir, forming a caldera. Only a few such collapses occur per century, and the lack of detailed observations has obscured insight into the mechanical interplay between collapse and eruption. We use multiparameter geophysical and geochemical data to show that the 110-square-kilometer and 65-meter-deep collapse of Bárdarbunga caldera in 2014-2015 was initiated through withdrawal of magma, and lateral migration through a 48-kilometers-long dike, from a 12-kilometers deep reservoir. Interaction between the pressure exerted by the subsiding reservoir roof and the physical properties of the subsurface flow path explain the gradual, near-exponential decline of both collapse rate and the intensity of the 180-day-long eruption. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. La abstracción de datos y su proceso gradual de construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO MORENO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el proceso gradual de construcción de tipos abstractos de datos (TADs, como los Fraccionarios y los Polinomios, a partir de TADs esenciales, como los Lógicos y los Enteros. Se propone un conjunto de categorías funcionales para clasificar las funciones de un TAD. Las funciones se especifican mediante programación funcional, es decir, no se utilizan construcciones estructuradas como la asignación, la secuencia y los ciclos. Hasta ahora no se encuentra reportada la especificación de funciones con programación funcional para la simplificación en el TAD de los Enteros ni para la suma ordenada en el TAD de los polinomios. Además se muestra la relación inherente entre las funciones de un TAD y la sobrecarga de operadores.

  4. An evolutionary perspective on gradual formation of superego in the primal horde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem ePulcu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Freud proposed that the processes which occurred in the primal horde are essential for understanding superego formation and therefore, the successful dissolution of the Oedipus complex. However, Freud theorized superego formation in the primal horde as if it is an instant, all-or-none achievement. The present paper proposes an alternative model aiming to explain gradual development of superego in the primitive man. The proposed model is built on knowledge from evolutionary and neural sciences as well as anthropology, and it particularly focuses on the evolutionary significance of the acquisition of fire by hominids in the Pleistocene period in the light of archaeological findings. Acquisition of fire is discussed as a form of sublimation which might have helped Prehistoric man to maximise the utility of limited evolutionary biological resources, potentially contributing to the rate and extent of bodily evolution. The limitations of both Freud's original conceptualisation and the present model are discussed accordingly in an interdisciplinary framework.

  5. Swarm of bees and particles algorithms in the problem of gradual failure reliability assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Anop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probability-statistical framework of reliability theory uses models based on the chance failures analysis. These models are not functional and do not reflect relation of reliability characteristics to the object performance. At the same time, a significant part of the technical systems failures are gradual failures caused by degradation of the internal parameters of the system under the influence of various external factors.The paper shows how to provide the required level of reliability at the design stage using a functional model of a technical object. Paper describes the method for solving this problem under incomplete initial information, when there is no information about the patterns of technological deviations and degradation parameters, and the considered system model is a \\black box" one.To this end, we formulate the problem of optimal parametric synthesis. It lies in the choice of the nominal values of the system parameters to satisfy the requirements for its operation and take into account the unavoidable deviations of the parameters from their design values during operation. As an optimization criterion in this case we propose to use a deterministic geometric criterion \\reliability reserve", which is the minimum distance measured along the coordinate directions from the nominal parameter value to the acceptability region boundary rather than statistical values.The paper presents the results of the application of heuristic swarm intelligence methods to solve the formulated optimization problem. Efficiency of particle swarm algorithms and swarm of bees one compared with undirected random search algorithm in solving a number of test optimal parametric synthesis problems in three areas: reliability, convergence rate and operating time. The study suggests that the use of a swarm of bees method for solving the problem of the technical systems gradual failure reliability ensuring is preferred because of the greater flexibility of the

  6. Experimental and numerical investigation of the flow field in the gradual transition of rectangular to trapezoidal open channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Asnaashari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitions are structures that can change geometry and flow velocity through varying the cross-sections of their channels. Under subcritical flow and steady flow conditions, it is necessary to reduce the flow velocity gradually due to increasing water pressure and adverse pressure gradients. Due to the separation of flow and subsequent eddy formation, a significant energy loss is incurred along the transition. This study presents the results of experimental investigations of the subcritical flow along the expansive transition of rectangular to trapezoidal channels. A numerical simulation was developed using a finite volume of fluid (VOF method with a Reynolds stress turbulence model. Water surface profiles and velocity distributions of flow through the transition were measured experimentally and compared with the numerical results. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical model results showed that the Reynolds model and VOF method are capable of simulating the hydraulic flow in open channel transitions. Also, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss were calculated. The results show that with an increasing upstream Froude number, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss decrease and increase, respectively. The results also show the ability of numerical simulation to simulate the flow separation zones and secondary current along the transition for different inlet discharges.

  7. Influence of layer thickness on the structure and the magnetic properties of Co/Pd epitaxial multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobari, Kousuke, E-mail: tobari@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nagano, Katsumasa; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Co/Pd epitaxial multilayer films were prepared on Pd(111){sub fcc} underlayers hetero-epitaxially grown on MgO(111){sub B1} single-crystal substrates at room temperature by ultra-high vacuum RF magnetron sputtering. In-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction shows that the in-plane lattice spacing of Co on Pd layer gradually decreases with increasing the Co layer thickness, whereas that of Pd on Co layer remains unchanged during the Pd layer formation. The CoPd alloy phase formation is observed around the Co/Pd interface. The atomic mixing is enhanced for thinner Co and Pd layers in multilayer structure. With decreasing the Co and the Pd layer thicknesses and increasing the repetition number of Co/Pd multilayer film, stronger perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is observed. The relationships between the film structure and the magnetic properties are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epitaxial Co/Pd multilayer films are prepared on Pd(111){sub fcc} underlayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lattice strain in Co layer and CoPd-alloy formation are noted around the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic property dependence on layer thickness is reported.

  8. Optimum target thickness for polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters with thick targets are a tool to measure the proton polarization. But the question about the optimum target thickness is still the subject of discussion. An attempt to calculate the most common parameters concerning this problem, in a few GeV region, is made

  9. Impact of active layer thickness of nitrogen-doped In–Sn–Zn–O films on materials and thin film transistor performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yue; Yang, Hao-Zhi; Chen, Sheng-Chi; Lu, Ying-Bo; Xin, Yan-Qing; Yang, Tian-Lin; Sun, Hui

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO:N) thin film transistors (TFTs) were deposited on SiO2 (200 nm)/p-Si〈1 0 0〉 substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The structural, chemical compositions, surface morphology, optical and electrical properties as a function of the active layer thickness were investigated. As the active layer thickness increases, Zn content decreases and In content increases gradually. Meanwhile, Sn content is almost unchanged. When the thickness of the active layer is more than 45 nm, the ITZO:N films become crystallized and present a crystal orientation along InN(0 0 2) plan. No matter what the thickness is, ITZO:N films always display a high transmittance above 80% in the visible region. Their optical band gaps fluctuate between 3.4 eV and 3.62 eV. Due to the dominance of low interface trap density and high carrier concentration, ITZO:N TFT shows enhanced electrical properties as the active layer thickness is 35 nm. Its field-effect mobility, on/off radio and sub-threshold swing are 17.53 cm2 V‑1 · s‑1, 106 and 0.36 V/dec, respectively. These results indicate that the suitable thickness of the active layer can enhance the quality of ITZO:N films and decrease the defects density of ITZO:N TFT. Thus, the properties of ITZO:N TFT can be optimized by adjusting the thickness of the active layer.

  10. Thick film heater for sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, J; Borecki, M; Kalenik, J; Król, K

    2014-01-01

    A thick film microheater was elaborated. The microheater is intended for fast heating of small volume samples under measurement in optical based system. Thermal analysis of microheater was carried out using finite element method (FEM) for heat transfer calculation as a function of time and space. A nodal heat transfer function was calculated in classical form including all basics mechanisms of heat exchange – heat conduction, convection and radiation were considered. Work focuses on the influence of some construction parameters (ex. length, thermal conductivity of substrate, substrate thickness) on microheater performance. The results show that application of thin substrate of low thermal conductivity and low thickness for miroheater construction and resistor of optimum dimensions leads to significant power consumption decrease and increase of overall optical measurement system performance.

  11. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  12. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Matthewson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized.

  13. Methods To Determine the Silicone Oil Layer Thickness in Sprayed-On Siliconized Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Viviane; Germershaus, Oliver; Steinberg, Henrik; Dreher, Sascha; Grauschopf, Ulla; Funke, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    -term exposure and emptying did not significantly influence the silicone oil layer at the investigated silicone level. It thus appears reasonable to use this approach to characterize silicone oil layers in filled syringes over time. The developed method characterizes non-destructively the layer thickness and distribution of silicone oil in empty syringes and provides fast access to reliable results. The gained information can be further used to support optimization of siliconization processes and increase the understanding of syringe functionality. LAY ABSTRACT: Silicone oil layers as lubricant are required to ensure functionality of prefilled syringes. Methods evaluating these layers are limited, and systematic evaluation is missing. The aim of this study was to develop and assess white light interferometry as an analytical method to characterize sprayed-on silicone oil layers in 1 mL prefilled syringes. White light interferometry showed a good accuracy (93-99%) as well as instrument and analyst precision (0.5% and 4.1%, respectively). Different applied instrument parameters had no significant impact on the measured layer thickness. The obtained values from white light interferometry applying a fully developed method concurred with orthogonal results from 3D-laser scanning microscopy and combined white light and laser interferometry. The average layer thicknesses in two investigated syringe lots gradually decreased from 170-190 nm at the flange to 100-90 nm at the needle side. The silicone layers were homogeneously distributed over the syringe barrel circumference (110-135 nm) for both lots. Empty break-loose (4-4.5 N) and gliding forces (2-2.5 N) were comparably low for both analyzed syringe lots. Syringe filling with a surrogate solution, including short-term exposure and emptying, did not significantly affect the silicone oil layer. The developed, non-destructive method provided reliable results to characterize the silicone oil layer thickness and distribution in empty

  14. Thick sedimentary sequence around Bahraich in the northern part of the central Ganga foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglik, A.; Adilakshmi, L.; Suresh, M.; Thiagarajan, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of a magnetotelluric study along a 285 km long profile between Hamirpur and Rupadia (Nepal border) across the central Ganga basin. The electrical resistivity image obtained by combining 1-D Occam inversion models for 39 sites reveals a significant contrast in the subsurface structure from south to north along the profile. At the southern end, the Bundelkhand massif is delineated as a high resistivity block buried beneath 250-300 m thick sediments. The thickness of sediments gradually increases to about 500-600 m at Kanpur, and to about 1.2 km at Lucknow. Here, the basement depth increases to more than 2.5 km within a profile distance of 20 km, which could be attributed to the Lucknow fault. The underlying rocks also have moderate resistivity and possibly represent the Vindhyans. The sedimentary sequence at the northern end of the profile around Bahraich is more than 9 km thick. Integrating the resistivity image with a published seismic velocity structure from the region and the lithology from the 3927 m deep Matera-I well reveals that the top 4 km succession is constituted of highly conductive Oligocene and younger rocks of the Matera Formation and the Siwaliks, and recent sediments whereas the underlying > 5 km section is composed of sedimentary rocks of the Bahraich Group overlying the Archean basement. The high conductivity of sediments in conjunction with the low seismic velocity and large Vp/Vs obtained by receiver function analysis implies poor consolidation of sediments and thus high seismic hazard potential. The present results have implications for hydrocarbon exploration, hazard potential scenario of the central Ganga basin, and flexural strength of the Indian Plate.

  15. Smoluchowski coagulation models of sea ice thickness distribution dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlovitch, D.; Illner, R.; Monahan, A.

    2011-12-01

    Sea ice thickness distributions display a ubiquitous exponential decrease with thickness. This tail characterizes the range of ice thickness produced by mechanical redistribution of ice through the process of ridging, rafting, and shearing. We investigate how well the thickness distribution can be simulated by representing mechanical redistribution as a generalized stacking process. Such processes are naturally described by a well-studied class of models known as Smoluchowski Coagulation Models (SCMs), which describe the dynamics of a population of fixed-mass "particles" which combine in pairs to form a "particle" with the combined mass of the constituent pair at a rate which depends on the mass of the interacting particles. Like observed sea ice thickness distributions, the mass distribution of the populations generated by SCMs has an exponential or quasi-exponential form. We use SCMs to model sea ice, identifying mass-increasing particle combinations with thickness-increasing ice redistribution processes. Our model couples an SCM component with a thermodynamic component and generates qualitatively accurate thickness distributions with a variety of rate kernels. Our results suggest that the exponential tail of the sea ice thickness distribution arises from the nature of the ridging process, rather than specific physical properties of sea ice or the spatial arrangement of floes, and that the relative strengths of the dynamic and thermodynamic processes are key in accurately simulating the rate at which the sea ice thickness tail drops off with thickness.

  16. Invisibility cloaks with arbitrary geometries for layered and gradually changing backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C; Yao, K; Li, F

    2009-01-01

    Cloaks with arbitrary geometries are proposed which can make objects invisible in inhomogeneous backgrounds. The general and explicit expressions of the complex permittivity and permeability tensors are derived for cloaks embedded in layered and gradually changing media. The inner and the outer boundaries of the cloaks can be non-conformal with arbitrary shapes, which considerably improve the flexibility of the cloak applications. The interactions of electromagnetic waves with irregular cloaks are studied based on numerical simulations. The influences of the cloaked and uncloaked perfect electric conductor (PEC) cylinders upon the scattering fields of the multilayered backgrounds are quantitatively evaluated. The effect of loss on the cloaking performance has also been investigated. It is verified that cloaks with ideal parameters can smoothly deflect and guide the incoming beams to propagate around the shielded regions without disturbing the beams when they return to the inhomogeneous backgrounds. Therefore, the objects in the shielded region can be effectively invisible to the corresponding backgrounds. The performance of lossy cloaks will degrade with comparatively large power reduction of the transmitted beams.

  17. Simultaneous Modeling of Gradual SEP Events at the Earth and the Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Li, G.

    2017-12-01

    Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) event is the number one space hazard for spacecraft instruments and astronauts' safety. Recent studies have shown that both longitudinal and radial extent of SEP events can be very significant. In this work, we use the improved Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (iPATH) model to simulate gradual SEP events that have impacts upon both the Earth and the Mars. We follow the propagation of a 2D CME-driven shock. Particles are accelerated at the shock via the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. Transport of the escaped particles to the Earth and the Mars is then followed using a backward stochastic differential equation method. Perpendicular diffusion is considered in both the DSA and the transport process. Model results such as time intensity profile and energetic particle spectrum at the two locations are compared to understand the spatial extent of an SEP event. Observational data at the Earth and the Mars are also studied to validate the model.

  18. Evolutionary characteristics of morbilliviruses during serial passages in vitro: Gradual attenuation of virus virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Zou, Yanli; Liu, Shan; Wang, Zhiliang

    2016-08-01

    The genus Morbillivirus is classified into the family Paramyxoviridae, and is composed of 6 members, namely measles virus (MV), rinderpest virus (RPV), peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV), canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV). The MV, RPV, PPRV and CDV have been successfully attenuated through their serial passages in vitro for the production of live vaccines. It has been demonstrated that the morbilliviral virulence in animals was progressively attenuated with their consecutive passages in vitro. However, only a few reports were involved in explanation of an attenuation-related mechanism on them until many years after the establishment of a quasispecies theory. RNA virus quasispecies arise from rapid evolution of viruses with high mutation rate during genomic replication, and play an important role in gradual loss of viral virulence by serial passages. Here, we overviewed the development of live-attenuated vaccine strains against morbilliviruses by consecutive passages in vitro, and further discussed a related mechanism concerning the relationship between virulence attenuation and viral evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gradual extinction prevents the return of fear: Implications for the discovery of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Joseph Gershman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fear memories are notoriously difficult to erase, often recovering over time. The longstanding explanation for this finding is that, in extinction training, a new memory is formed that competes with the old one for expression but does not otherwise modify it. This explanation is at odds with traditional models of learning such as Rescorla-Wagner and reinforcement learning. A possible reconciliation that was recently suggested is that extinction training leads to the inference of a new state that is different from the state that was in effect in the original training. This solution, however, raises a new question: under what conditions are new states, or new memories formed? Theoretical accounts implicate persistent large prediction errors in this process. As a test of this idea, we reasoned that careful design of the reinforcement schedule during extinction training could reduce these prediction errors enough to prevent the formation of a new memory, while still decreasing reinforcement sufficiently to drive modification of the old fear memory. In two Pavlovian fear-conditioning experiments, we show that gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli, rather than eliminating them abruptly, prevents the recovery of fear. This finding has important implications for theories of state discovery in reinforcement learning.

  20. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  1. Meat quality in pigs fed diets with gradual ractopamine supplementation and nutritional adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects that gradual ractopamine supplementation in diets with nutritional adjustments on pig meat. Were used 80 finishing crossbred barrows in a randomized block design with a 2×5 factorial arrangement (two diets: with and without nutritional adjustment; five levels of ractopamine supplementation: 5-5, 10-10, 20-20, 5-10 and 10-20 ppm in the 14 initial and 14 final study days, four replicates with two animals by experimental unit. Higher shear force values (P<0.05 were obtained using the 5-5 and 10-20 ppm ractopamine supplementation plans in the diets without nutritional adjustment. With nutritionally adjusted diets, the 5-10 ppm of ractopamine supplementation plan yielded higher shear force values (P<0.05. Water retention capacity was higher (P<0.05 for animals fed adjusted diets and 5-5 and 10-20 ppm of actopamine plans. In the 10-20 ppm of ractopamine supplementation plan, meat pH was higher (P<0.05 for diets without nutritional adjustment, whereas in the 20-20 ppm of supplementation plan, pH was higher for adjusted diets.

  2. Quantifying short run cost-effectiveness during a gradual implementation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, Gijs; Woertman, Willem H; Verbeek, Andre L; Broeders, Mireille J; Adang, Eddy M M

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines the short run inefficiencies that arise during gradual implementation of a new cost-effective technology in healthcare. These inefficiencies arise when health gains associated with the new technology cannot be obtained immediately because the new technology does not yet supply all patients, and when there is overcapacity for the old technology in the short run because the supply of care is divided among two mutually exclusive technologies. Such efficiency losses are not taken into account in standard textbook cost-effectiveness analysis in which a steady state is presented where costs and effects are assumed to be unchanging over time. A model is constructed to quantify such short run inefficiencies as well as to inform the decision maker about the optimal implementation pattern for the new technology. The model operates by integrating the incremental net benefit equations for both the period of co-existence of mutually exclusive technologies and the period after complete substitution of the old technology. It takes into account the rate of implementation of the new technology, depreciation of capital of the old technology as well as the demand curves for both technologies. The model is applied to the real world case of converting from screen film to digital mammography in the Netherlands.

  3. Acoustic Source Analysis of Magnetoacoustic Tomography With Magnetic Induction for Conductivity Gradual-Varying Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhou, Yuqi; Sun, Xiaodong; Ma, Qingyu; Zhang, Dong

    2016-04-01

    As a multiphysics imaging approach, magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) works on the physical mechanism of magnetic excitation, acoustic vibration, and transmission. Based on the theoretical analysis of the source vibration, numerical studies are conducted to simulate the pathological changes of tissues for a single-layer cylindrical conductivity gradual-varying model and estimate the strengths of sources inside the model. The results suggest that the inner source is generated by the product of the conductivity and the curl of the induced electric intensity inside conductivity homogeneous medium, while the boundary source is produced by the cross product of the gradient of conductivity and the induced electric intensity at conductivity boundary. For a biological tissue with low conductivity, the strength of boundary source is much higher than that of the inner source only when the size of conductivity transition zone is small. In this case, the tissue can be treated as a conductivity abrupt-varying model, ignoring the influence of inner source. Otherwise, the contributions of inner and boundary sources should be evaluated together quantitatively. This study provide basis for further study of precise image reconstruction of MAT-MI for pathological tissues.

  4. Sobre a classificação gradual das preposições

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou-Ann Kepla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo está ancorado na Neurolinguística de orientação enunciativo-discursiva. A demanda por uma proposta de classificação gradual (em oposição à tradicional classificação categorial das preposições surgiu quando nos propusemos a tarefa de descrever o funcionamento das preposições na fala de sujeitos que apresentam uma linguagem heterogênea. Nestes casos, as classificações correntes das preposições não se mostraram satisfatórias. Os motivos pelos quais preferimos uma classificação que dispõe as preposições numa escala de acordo com os seus graus de gramaticalização serão dispostos depois de feita uma revisão da literatura sobre as classificações das preposições. As classificações propostas por diferentes gramáticos são analisadas juntamente com aquelas adotadas por linguistas preocupados em descrever a linguagem agramática de sujeitos com afasia de produção.

  5. A Gradually Varied Approach to Model Turbidity Currents in Submarine Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla Pittaluga, M.; Frascati, A.; Falivene, O.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a one-dimensional model to describe the dynamics of turbidity current flowing in submarine channels. We consider the flow as a steady state polydisperse suspension accounting for water detrainment from the clear water-turbid interface, for spatial variations of the channel width and for water and sediment lateral overspill from the channel levees. Moreover, we account for sediment exchange with the bed extending the model to deal with situations where the current meets a nonerodible bed. Results show that when water detrainment is accounted for, the flow thickness becomes approximately constant proceeding downstream. Similarly, in the presence of channel levees, the flow tends to adjust to channel relief through the lateral loss of water and sediment. As more mud is spilled above the levees relative to sand, the flow becomes more sand rich proceeding downstream when lateral overspill is present. Velocity and flow thickness predicted by the model are then validated by showing good agreement with laboratory observations. Finally, the model is applied to the Monterey Canyon bathymetric data matching satisfactorily the December 2002 event field measurements and predicting a runout length consistent with observations.

  6. Free surface profiles in river flows: Can standard energy-based gradually-varied flow computations be pursued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Garcia-Marín, Amanda; Ayuso, José Luis; Dey, Subhasish

    2015-10-01

    Is the energy equation for gradually-varied flow the best approximation for the free surface profile computations in river flows? Determination of flood inundation in rivers and natural waterways is based on the hydraulic computation of flow profiles. This is usually done using energy-based gradually-varied flow models, like HEC-RAS, that adopts a vertical division method for discharge prediction in compound channel sections. However, this discharge prediction method is not so accurate in the context of advancements over the last three decades. This paper firstly presents a study of the impact of discharge prediction on the gradually-varied flow computations by comparing thirteen different methods for compound channels, where both energy and momentum equations are applied. The discharge, velocity distribution coefficients, specific energy, momentum and flow profiles are determined. After the study of gradually-varied flow predictions, a new theory is developed to produce higher-order energy and momentum equations for rapidly-varied flow in compound channels. These generalized equations enable to describe the flow profiles with more generality than the gradually-varied flow computations. As an outcome, results of gradually-varied flow provide realistic conclusions for computations of flow in compound channels, showing that momentum-based models are in general more accurate; whereas the new theory developed for rapidly-varied flow opens a new research direction, so far not investigated in flows through compound channels.

  7. Intelligent processing for thick composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daniel Dong-Ok

    2000-10-01

    Manufacturing thick composite parts are associated with adverse curing conditions such as large in-plane temperature gradient and exotherms. The condition is further aggravated because the manufacturer's cycle and the existing cure control systems do not adequately counter such affects. In response, the forecast-based thermal control system is developed to have better cure control for thick composites. Accurate cure kinetic model is crucial for correctly identifying the amount of heat generated for composite process simulation. A new technique for identifying cure parameters for Hercules AS4/3502 prepreg is presented by normalizing the DSC data. The cure kinetics is based on an autocatalytic model for the proposed method, which uses dynamic and isothermal DSC data to determine its parameters. Existing models are also used to determine kinetic parameters but rendered inadequate because of the material's temperature dependent final degree of cure. The model predictions determined from the new technique showed good agreement to both isothermal and dynamic DSC data. The final degree of cure was also in good agreement with experimental data. A realistic cure simulation model including bleeder ply analysis and compaction is validated with Hercules AS4/3501-6 based laminates. The nonsymmetrical temperature distribution resulting from the presence of bleeder plies agreed well to the model prediction. Some of the discrepancies in the predicted compaction behavior were attributed to inaccurate viscosity and permeability models. The temperature prediction was quite good for the 3cm laminate. The validated process simulation model along with cure kinetics model for AS4/3502 prepreg were integrated into the thermal control system. The 3cm Hercules AS4/3501-6 and AS4/3502 laminate were fabricated. The resulting cure cycles satisfied all imposed requirements by minimizing exotherms and temperature gradient. Although the duration of the cure cycles increased, such phenomena was

  8. A gradual change between methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis during a long-term UASB treatment of sulfate-rich chemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Niu, Qigui; Li, Lu; Hu, Yong; Mribet, Chaimaa; Hojo, Toshimasa; Li, Yu-You

    2018-04-25

    The competition between methane-producing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria is an important topic in anaerobic wastewater treatment. In this study, an Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB) was operated for 330 days to evaluate the treatment performance of sulfate-rich wastewater. The effects of competition change between methane production and sulfate reduction on the organic removal efficiency, methane production, and electrons allocation were investigated. Synthetic wastewater was composed of ethanol and acetate with a chemical oxygen demand (COD)/SO 4 2- of 1.0. As a result, the COD removal efficiency achieved in long-term treatment was higher than 90%. During the initial stage, methane production was the dominant reaction. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) could only partially oxidize ethanol to acetate, and methane-producing archaea (MPA) utilized acetate for methane production. Methane production declined gradually over the long-term operation, whereas the sulfate-reducing efficiency increased. However, UASB performed well throughout the experiment because there was no significant inhibition. After the complete reduction of the sulfate, MPA converted the remaining COD into methane. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the force generated by gradual deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional metallic, esthetic, and self-ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Fávaro Francisconi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deflection forces of Nitinol orthodontic wires placed in different types of brackets: metallic, reinforced polycarbonate with metallic slots, sapphire, passive and active self-ligating, by assessing strength values variation according to gradual increase in wire diameter and deflection and comparing different combinations in the different deflections. Material and Methods: Specimens were set in a clinical simulation model and evaluated in a Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON 3342, using the ISO 15841 protocol. Data were subjected to One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey tests (p<0.05. Results: Self-ligating brackets presented the most similar behavior to each other. For conventional brackets there was no consistent behavior for any of the deflections studied. Conclusions: Self-ligating brackets presented the most consistent and predictable results while conventional brackets, as esthetic brackets, showed very different patterns of forces. Self-ligating brackets showed higher strength in all deflections when compared with the others, in 0.020-inch wires.

  10. Gradual development of the interferon-γ response of swine to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection or vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, William A.; Galeota, Judy; Osorio, Fernando A.; Husmann, Robert J.; Schnitzlein, William M.; Zuckermann, Federico A.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of swine with virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus induced a rapid, robust antibody response that comprised predominantly nonneutralizing antibodies and waned after approximately 3 months. In contrast, the initial onset of virus-specific interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting cells (SC) in the pig lymphocyte population remained at a fairly low level during this period and then increased gradually in frequency, plateauing at 6 months postinfection. A similar polarization of the host humoral and cellular immune responses was also observed in pigs immunized with a PRRS-modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. Even coadministration of an adjuvant that enhanced the immune response to a pseudorabies (PR) MLV vaccine failed to alter the induction of PRRS virus-specific IFN-γ SC (comprising predominately CD4/CD8α double positive memory T cells with a minority being typical CD4 - /CD8αβ + T cells) and the generation of neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, unlike inactivated PR virus, nonviable PRRS virus did not elicit virus-neutralizing antibody production. Presumably, an intrinsic property of this pathogen delays the development of the host IFN-γ response and preferentially stimulates the synthesis of antibodies incapable of neutralization

  11. Gastric wall thickness and stapling in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, Krzysztof; Binda, Artur; Kudlicka, Emilia; Jaworski, Paweł; Tarnowski, Wiesław

    2018-03-01

    Despite the growing experience of bariatric surgeons in performing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, the number of complications involving staple line leaks remains constant. Hence a solution to avoid such complications is still sought. A defect of the staple line may be the consequence of an inappropriate choice of staple size in relation to gastric wall thickness. Due to the variable nature of gastric wall thickness, the choice of proper staple height is not obvious. In the few studies in which gastric wall thickness was measured, it was observed to decrease gradually from the antrum to the fundus. However, the authors are divided on the issue of whether gender and body mass index influence gastric wall thickness. The question whether there are other perioperative factors that would allow gastric wall thickness to be predicted remains unanswered.

  12. Repeated rat-forced swim test: reducing the number of animals to evaluate gradual effects of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezadri, T J; Batista, G M; Portes, A C; Marino-Neto, J; Lino-de-Oliveira, C

    2011-02-15

    The forced swim test (FST) is a pre-clinical test to short and long term treatment with antidepressant drugs (ADT), which requires between-subject designs. Herein a modified protocol of the FST using within-subject design (repeated rat-FST) was evaluated. Male Wistar rats were submitted to 15 min of swimming (Day 1: pretest) followed by three subsequent 5 min-swimming tests one week apart (Day 2: test, Day 7: retest 1, Day 14: retest 2). To determine the temporal and factorial characteristics of the variables scored in the repeated rat-FST, the protocol was carried out in untreated animals (E1). To validate the method, daily injections of Fluoxetine (FLX, 2.5mg/kg, i.p.) or saline were given over a 2-week period (E2). Tests and retests have been videotaped for further register of the latency, frequency and duration of behaviors. Over retesting the latency to immobility decreased whereas duration of immobility tended to increase. Factorial analysis revealed that the test, the retest 1 as well as the retest 2 have variables suitable to detection of antidepressant-like effects of ADT. Compared to saline, FLX chronically administrated reduced duration of immobility whereas increased duration of swimming in retest 2. The data suggest that repeated rat-FST detected the gradual increase in the efficacy of low doses of FLX over time. Therefore, repeated rat-FST seemed suitable to detect short and long term effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or other ADT, thus reducing the number of animals used in the screenings of this type of compounds. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition is a major source of trace metals in marine surface waters and supplies vital micronutrients to phytoplankton, yet measured aerosol trace metal solubility values are operationally defined and there are relatively few multi-element studies on aerosol-metal solubility in seawater. Here we measure the solubility of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn from natural aerosol samples in seawater over a 7 day period to (1 evaluate the role of extraction time in trace metal dissolution behavior and (2 explore how the individual dissolution patterns could influence biota. Dissolution behavior occurs over a continuum ranging from rapid dissolution, in which the majority of soluble metal dissolved immediately upon seawater exposure (Cd and Co in our samples, to gradual dissolution, where metals dissolved slowly over time (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al in our samples. Additionally, dissolution affected by interactions with particles was observed in which a decline in soluble metal concentration over time occurred (Fe and Pb in our samples. Natural variability in aerosol chemistry between samples can cause metals to display different dissolution kinetics in different samples, and this was particularly evident for Ni, for which samples showed a broad range of dissolution rates. The elemental molar ratio of metals in the bulk aerosols was 23,189Fe: 22,651Al: 445Mn: 348Zn: 71Cu: 48Ni: 23Pb: 9Co: 1Cd, whereas the seawater soluble molar ratio after 7 days of leaching was 11Fe: 620Al: 205Mn: 240Zn: 20Cu: 14Ni: 9Pb: 2Co: 1Cd. The different kinetics and ratios of aerosol metal dissolution have implications for phytoplankton nutrition, and highlight the need for unified extraction protocols that simulate aerosol metal dissolution in the surface ocean.

  14. Osborne Reynolds pipe flow: Direct simulation from laminar through gradual transition to fully developed turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J; Baltzer, Jon R

    2015-06-30

    The precise dynamics of breakdown in pipe transition is a century-old unresolved problem in fluid mechanics. We demonstrate that the abruptness and mysteriousness attributed to the Osborne Reynolds pipe transition can be partially resolved with a spatially developing direct simulation that carries weakly but finitely perturbed laminar inflow through gradual rather than abrupt transition arriving at the fully developed turbulent state. Our results with this approach show during transition the energy norms of such inlet perturbations grow exponentially rather than algebraically with axial distance. When inlet disturbance is located in the core region, helical vortex filaments evolve into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow when they descend to the surface from the core produces small-scale hairpin packets, which leads to breakdown. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, certain quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, and develops into a large-scale hairpin vortex. Small-scale hairpin packets emerge near the tip region of the large-scale hairpin vortex, and subsequently grow into a turbulent spot, which is itself a local concentration of small-scale hairpin vortices. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition, suggesting the possibility of a partial unification. Under parabolic base flow the friction factor overshoots Moody's correlation. Plug base flow requires stronger inlet disturbance for transition. Accuracy of the results is demonstrated by comparing with analytical solutions before breakdown, and with fully developed turbulence measurements after the completion of transition.

  15. Corneal thickness: measurement and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Niels; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2004-03-01

    The thickness of the cornea was reported in more than 100-year-old textbooks on physiological optics (Helmholtz, Gullstrand). Physiological interest was revived in the 1950s by David Maurice, and over the next 50 years, this 'simple' biological parameter has been studied extensively. Several techniques for its measurement have been described and physiological and clinical significance have been studied. In this review, the different methods and techniques of measurement are briefly presented (optical, ultrasound). While the corneal thickness of many animals are the same over a considerable part of the surface, in the human cornea anterior and posterior curvature are not concentric giving rise to a problem of definition. Based on this the precision and accuracy of determining the central corneal thickness are discussed. Changes in corneal thickness reflects changes in function of the boundary layers, in particular the endothelial barrier. The absolute value of thickness is of importance for the estimation of IOP but also in diagnosis of corneal and systemic disorders. Finally it is discussed to what extent the thickness is a biometric parameter of significance, e.g. in the progression of myopia or in the development of retinal detachment.

  16. Study of buffer layer thickness on bulk heterojunction solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seunguk; Suman, C K; Lee, Donggu; Kim, Seohee; Lee, Changhee

    2010-10-01

    We studied the effect of the buffer layer (molybdenum-oxide (MoO3)) thickness on the performance of organic solar cell based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester fullerene derivative (PCBM). The thickness of MoO3 was varied from 1 nm to 30 nm for optimization of device performance. The photocurrent-voltage and impedance spectroscopy were measured under dark and AM1.5G solar simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2 for exploring the role of the buffer layer thickness on carrier collection at an anode. The MoO3 thickness of the optimized device (efficiency approximately 3.7%) was found to be in the range of 5 approximately 10 nm. The short-circuit current and the shunt resistance decrease gradually for thicker MoO3 layer over 5 nm. The device can be modeled as the combination of three RC parallel circuits (each one for the active layer, buffer layer and interface between the buffer layer and the active layer) in series with contact resistance (Rs approximately 60 ohm).

  17. Multiple High Voltage Pulse Stressing of Polymer Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busi Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study high voltage interactions in polymer thick film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride- (PVC- graphite thick film resistors, and their applications in universal trimming of these resistors. High voltages in the form of impulses for various pulse durations and with different amplitudes have been applied to polymer thick film resistors and we observed the variation of resistance of these resistors with high voltages. It has been found that the resistance of polymer thick film resistors decreases in the case of higher resistivity materials and the resistance of polymer thick film resistor increases in the case of lower resistivity materials when high voltage impulses are applied to them. It has been also found that multiple high voltage pulse (MHVP stressing can be used to trim the polymer thick film resistors either upwards or downwards.

  18. Bark thickness related to tree diameter in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1969-01-01

    Bark thickness for sugar maple trees in Vermont was found to be related to tree diameter at breast height (d.b.h.). The relationship was positive-as the diameter increased, the bark thickness increased.

  19. Influence of strain on the growth of thick InGaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellmach, J.; Leyer, M.; Pristovsek, M.; Kneissl, M.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of high quality InGaN alloys is critical for a number of various optoelectronic device applications like LEDs and laser diodes. Nevertheless, the exact growth mechanisms of InGaN with high indium content is still not fully understood. In the present study the growth of thick InGaN layers was systematically investigated. InGaN films with thicknesses between ∝35 nm and ∝200 nm were grown on GaN templates with metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The group III partial pressures of 1.1 Pa for TMGa, 0.45 Pa for TMIn and the V/III-ratio of 1600 were kept constant. The growth temperature was varied between 750 C and 800 C. The growth of InGaN layer was characterized by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Up to temperatures of 790 C structural analysis by XRD showed two strained layers with different indium content. The formation of the layer structure was investigated by varying the growth times at 770 C. In the first 500 s (35 nm) a rough (rms=9 nm) and pseudomorphically strained InGaN layer with low indium content (4%) is formed. Between 500 s and 1000 s this strained layer becomes smoother (rms=3.4 nm). For thicknesses beyond the In content increases (8% at 84 nm) and reaches 11% at 200 nm. We propose that the transition from a first layer with a low indium content to a second layer with an higher indium content is due to a gradual release of strain

  20. Research on High Layer Thickness Fabricated of 316L by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM is a potential additive manufacturing (AM technology. However, the application of SLM was confined due to low efficiency. To improve efficiency, SLM fabrication with a high layer thickness and fine powder was systematically researched, and the void areas and hollow powders can be reduced by using fine powder. Single-track experiments were used to narrow down process parameter windows. Multi-layer fabrication relative density can be reached 99.99% at the exposure time-point distance-hatch space of 120 μs-40 μm-240 μm. Also, the building rate can be up to 12 mm3/s, which is about 3–10 times higher than the previous studies. Three typical defects were found by studying deeply, including the un-melted defect between the molten pools, the micro-pore defect within the molten pool, and the irregular distribution of the splashing phenomenon. Moreover, the microstructure is mostly equiaxed crystals and a small amount of columnar crystals. The averages of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation are 625 MPa, 525 MPa, and 39.9%, respectively. As exposure time increased from 80 μs to 200 μs, the grain size is gradually grown up from 0.98 μm to 2.23 μm, the grain aspect ratio is close to 1, and the tensile properties are shown as a downward trend. The tensile properties of high layer thickness fabricated are not significantly different than those with a coarse-powder layer thickness of low in previous research.

  1. Research on High Layer Thickness Fabricated of 316L by Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Liu, Yude; Shi, Wentian; Qi, Bin; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Feifei; Han, Dong; Ma, Yingyi

    2017-09-08

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a potential additive manufacturing (AM) technology. However, the application of SLM was confined due to low efficiency. To improve efficiency, SLM fabrication with a high layer thickness and fine powder was systematically researched, and the void areas and hollow powders can be reduced by using fine powder. Single-track experiments were used to narrow down process parameter windows. Multi-layer fabrication relative density can be reached 99.99% at the exposure time-point distance-hatch space of 120 μs-40 μm-240 μm. Also, the building rate can be up to 12 mm³/s, which is about 3-10 times higher than the previous studies. Three typical defects were found by studying deeply, including the un-melted defect between the molten pools, the micro-pore defect within the molten pool, and the irregular distribution of the splashing phenomenon. Moreover, the microstructure is mostly equiaxed crystals and a small amount of columnar crystals. The averages of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation are 625 MPa, 525 MPa, and 39.9%, respectively. As exposure time increased from 80 μs to 200 μs, the grain size is gradually grown up from 0.98 μm to 2.23 μm, the grain aspect ratio is close to 1, and the tensile properties are shown as a downward trend. The tensile properties of high layer thickness fabricated are not significantly different than those with a coarse-powder layer thickness of low in previous research.

  2. The Thickness and Volume of Young Basalts Within Mare Imbrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Chunlai; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Wu, Yunzhao; Lu, Yu; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Xunyu

    2018-02-01

    Basaltic volcanism is one of the most important geologic processes of the Moon. Research on the thickness and volume of late-stage basalts of Mare Imbrium helps better understand the source of lunar volcanism and eruption styles. Based on whether apparent flow fronts exist or not, the late-stage basalts within Mare Imbrium were divided into two groups, namely, Upper Eratosthenian basalts (UEm) and Lower Eratosthenian basalts (LEm). Employing the topographic profile analysis method for UEm and the crater excavation technique for LEm, we studied the thickness and distribution of Eratosthenian basalts in Mare Imbrium. For the UEm units, their thicknesses were estimated to be 16-34 (±2) m with several layers of individual lava ( 8-13 m) inside. The estimated thickness of LEm units was 14-45(±1) m, with a trend of reducing thickness from north to south. The measured thickness of late-stage basalts around the Chang'E-3 landing site ( 37 ± 1 m) was quite close to the results acquired by the lunar penetrating radar carried on board the Yutu Rover ( 35 m). The total volume of the late-stage basalts in Mare Imbrium was calculated to be 8,671 (±320) km3, which is 4 times lower than that of Schaber's estimation ( 4 × 104 km3). Our results indicate that the actual volume is much lower than previous estimates of the final stage of the late basaltic eruption of Mare Imbrium. Together, the area flux and transport distance of the lava flows gradually decreased with time. These results suggest that late-stage volcanic evolution of the Moon might be revised.

  3. Sputtering of Thick Deuterium Films by KeV Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Schou, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    Sputtering of thick films of solid deuterium up to several μm by keV electrons is reported for the first time. The sputtering yield increases within a narrow range of thicknesses around 1.6 μm by about 2 orders of magnitude for 1.5 keV electrons. A similar behavior has not been observed for ion...

  4. A gradual update method for simulating the steady-state solution of stiff differential equations in metabolic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Emi; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2009-02-01

    Numerical simulation of differential equation systems plays a major role in the understanding of how metabolic network models generate particular cellular functions. On the other hand, the classical and technical problems for stiff differential equations still remain to be solved, while many elegant algorithms have been presented. To relax the stiffness problem, we propose new practical methods: the gradual update of differential-algebraic equations based on gradual application of the steady-state approximation to stiff differential equations, and the gradual update of the initial values in differential-algebraic equations. These empirical methods show a high efficiency for simulating the steady-state solutions for the stiff differential equations that existing solvers alone cannot solve. They are effective in extending the applicability of dynamic simulation to biochemical network models.

  5. Are galaxy discs optically thick?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, Michael; Davies, Jonathan; Phillipps, Steven

    1989-01-01

    We re-examine the classical optical evidence for the low optical depths traditionally assigned to spiral discs and argue that it is highly model-dependent and unconvincing. In particular, layered models with a physically thin but optically thick dust layer behave like optically thin discs. The opposite hypotheses, that such discs are optically thick is then examined in the light of modern evidence. We find it to be consistent with the near-infrared and IRAS observations, with the surface brightnesses, with the HI and CO column densities and with the Hα measurements. (author)

  6. Substrate effects on terahertz metamaterial resonances for various metal thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Ahn, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate dielectric substrate effects on the resonance shift of terahertz metamaterials with various metal thicknesses by using finite-difference time-domain simulations. We found a small red shift in the metamaterial resonance with increasing metal thickness for the free-standing case. Conversely, when the metamaterial pattern was supported by a substrate with a high dielectric constant, the resonant frequency exhibited a large blue shift because the relative contribution of the substrate's refractive index to the resonant frequency decreased drastically as we increased the metal thickness. We determined the substrate's refractive index, 1.26, at which the metamaterial resonance was independent of the metal thickness. We extracted the effective refractive index as a function of the substrate's refractive index explicitly, which was noticeably different for different film thicknesses.

  7. Influence of thickness on properties of plasticized oat starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thickness (between 80 and 120 µm on apparent opacity, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties (tensile and puncture of oat starch films plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol, glycerol:sorbitol mixture, urea and sucrose. Films were stored under 11, 57, 76 and 90% relative humidity (RH to study the mechanical properties. It was observed that the higher the thickness, the higher was the opacity values. Films without the plasticizer were more opaque in comparison with the plasticized ones. Glycerol:sorbitol films presented increased elongation with increasing thickness at all RH. Puncture force showed a strong dependence on the film thickness, except for the films plasticized with sucrose. In general, thickness did not affect the water permeability.

  8. The Relationship between Mechanical Properties and Gradual Deterioration of Microstructures of Rock Mass Subject to Freeze-thaw Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Under freeze-thaw cycles, the relationship between rock microstructure deterioration and its macroscopic mechanical characteristics has drawn extensive attention from engineers. With the objective to incorporate freeze-thaw cycle experiment into headrace tunnel engineering, in the present study two groups of andesite rock samples in different states are tested under the conditions of the lowest freezing temperature of –40 ℃ and the thawing temperature of 20 ℃. Damage detection was performed by magnetic resonance imaging for the interior microstructure of rock samples subject to different freeze-thaw cycles, and the relationship between the sample mechanical properties and gradual deterioration of rock microstructures was discussed. The results demonstrate evident influence of freeze-thaw cycle on the damage and deterioration of internal pore structure in andesite, and the rock uniaxial compressive strength and elasticity modulus exhibit a decreasing trend with the increase of freeze-thaw cycles. After 40 cycles, the strength of naturally saturated rock samples decreases by 39.4% (equivalent to 69.4 MPa and the elasticity modulus drops by 47.46% (equivalent to 3.27 GPa. For rock samples saturated by vacuum, 40 freeze-thaw cycles lead to a decrease of 36.86% (equivalent to 58.2 MPa in rock strength and a drop of 44.85% (equivalent to 2.83 GPa in elasticity modulus. Therefore, the test results quantitatively elucidate the substantial influence of freeze-thaw cycle on the damage and deterioration of internal structure in andesite.

  9. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  10. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18 and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18 were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  11. Trochanteric Soft Tissue Thickness and Hip Fracture in Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Carrie M.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Freitas, Sinara S.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Greater thickness of the tissue extending laterally from the greater trochanter has been associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in women. The effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness on the risk of incident hip fracture has not been evaluated in men. Methods: We measured trochanteric soft tissue thickness by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for all incident hip fracture cases (n = 70) and 222 randomly selected noncases in older men (≥65 yr) enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Differences in tissue thickness between cases and controls were examined. Changes in fall force and factor-of-risk (the ratio of force from a sideways fall to femoral bone strength) associated with tissue thickness were determined. The relative risk for incident hip fracture per sd decrease in tissue thickness was calculated. Results: Mean trochanteric soft tissue thickness did not differ significantly between cases and noncases (29.1 ± 11.9 vs 31.0 ± 11.5 mm; P = 0.2). Although increased tissue thickness reduced both the estimates of fall force and the factor-of-risk, tissue thickness was not associated with the risk of hip fracture (age- and bone mineral density-adjusted relative risk per sd decrease in tissue thickness = 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.70–1.16). Conclusions: In this study of elderly community-dwelling men, we found no significant association between trochanteric soft tissue thickness and incident hip fracture. Trochanteric soft tissue thickness in these men was less than previously reported in older women and may explain the difference between these results and those reported in women. PMID:19017753

  12. Thermal evaluation by infrared measurement of implant site preparation between single and gradual drilling in artificial bone blocks of different densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlhenrich, S C; Abouridouane, M; Heussen, N; Hölzle, F; Klocke, F; Modabber, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bone density and drilling protocol on heat generation during implant bed preparation. Ten single and 10 gradual implant sites with diameters of 2.8, 3.5, and 4.2mm were prepared in four artificial bone blocks (density types I-IV; D1-D4). Drilling was done at constant speed (1500rpm) and with external irrigation (50ml/min); vertical speed was set at 2mm/s. An infrared camera was used for temperature measurements. Significantly higher temperatures for single drilling were found between 2.8-mm drills in D1 (P=0.0014) and D4 (P<0.0001) and between 3.5-mm drills in D3 (P=0.0087) and D4 (P<0.0001), as well as between 4.2-mm drills in D1 (P<0.0001) and D4 (P=0.0014). Low bone density led to a thermal decrease after single drilling and a thermal increase after gradual drilling. Burs with a large diameter always showed a higher temperature generation. In comparisons between 2.8- and 4.2-mm diameters for both single and gradual drills, significant differences (P<0.001) were noted for bone types II, III, and IV. Single drilling could generate more heat than traditional sequential drilling, and bone density, as well as drill diameter, influenced thermal increases. Particularly in lower-density bone, conventional sequential drilling seems to raise the temperature less. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gradual aridification of the Sahara during the last 11,000 years revealed by plant wax δD analyses of Lake Yoa (Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethemeyer, Janet; Kröpelin, Stefan; Karls, Jens; Thienemann, Matthias; Melles, Martin; Schefuß, Enno

    2014-05-01

    It is still an ongoing debate whether the transition of the last 'green Sahara' period to today's large desert during the Holocene, the African Humid Period (AHP), was a progressive or an abrupt change in hydrological conditions. Several climate records mainly from East Africa suggest a rapid decline of moisture availability at the end of the AHP including new data from a marine sequence off the Horn of Africa (Tierney & deMenocal, 2013). Other archives including sedimentological, geochemical and palynological data from the central North African Lakes Chad and Lake Yoa point to a gradual rather than an abrupt transition near 5,000 years ago (Amaral et al., 2013; Kröpelin et al., 2008). The discrepancy of the available paleo-hydrological reconstructions underline the importance of proxy parameters directly related to hydrological conditions for accurate assessment of continental rainfall changes. Here, we present the first molecular-isotopic data from Lake Yoa documenting the hydrologic evolution over the entire Holocene. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses were performed on long-chain n-alkanes. Our data indicate relative high but variable contributions of plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes carrying a distinct leaf-wax signature, i.e., a high Carbon Preference Index (CPI). A trend towards higher CPI values since 7,300 years ago suggests declining soil degradation and vegetation cover under increasingly drier conditions. In parallel, the average-chain-length of the long-chain n-alkanes increases gradually towards the present implying higher relative contributions from grasses. Compound-specific carbon isotope data confirm this finding, indicating a mixed C3/C4 contribution in the early and mid-Holocene changing towards a C4-grass dominated vegetation in the late Holocene. Most importantly, compound-specific hydrogen isotope data reveal a continuous increase from 8,100 years ago towards the present, reflecting a gradual aridification. The large

  14. A comparative study on oxidative stress response in the hepatopancreas and midgut of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under gradual changes to low or high pH environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Si-Yin; Wang, Meng-Qiang; Wang, Bao-Jie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Ke-Yong; Wang, Lei

    2018-05-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were reared under conditions of gradual changes to a low pH (gradual-low pH, 6.65-8.20) or a high pH (gradual-high pH, 8.20-9.81) versus a normal pH environment (8.14-8.31) during a 28-day period. Survival of shrimp, and ROS production, antioxidant responses and oxidative damage in the hepatopancreas and midgut were investigated. Consequently, shrimp enhanced MnSOD, GPx, and Hsp70 transcripts as early defense mechanism in the hepatopancreas and midgut to scavenge excessive ROS during short-term (≤ 7 days) gradual-low and high pH stress. Meanwhile, the hepatopancreas was more sensitive to ROS than midgut because of earlier ROS production increase, antioxidant response and oxidative damage. Then, suppressed antioxidant response in the hepatopancreas and midgut of shrimp suggested a loss of antioxidant regulatory capacity caused by aggravated oxidative damage after long-term (≥ 14 days) gradual-high pH stress, leading to continuous death. However, enhanced GPx, GST, and Hsp70 transcripts in the hepatopancreas and midgut might be long-term(≥ 14 days) antioxidant adaptation mechanism of shrimp to gradual-low pH stress, which could prevent further ROS perturbation and weaken oxidative damage to achieve a new immune homeostasis, contributing to stable survival rate. Therefore, we have a few insights that it is necessary to protect hepatopancreas for controlling shrimp death under gradual-high pH stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.

  16. Thickness-Dependent Bioelectrochemical and Energy Applications of Thickness-Controlled Meso-Macroporous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mieritz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of hierarchically meso-macroporous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO enable interfacing adsorbed species, such as biomacromolecules, with an electronic circuit. The coating thickness is a limiting factor for the surface coverage of adsorbates, that are electrochemically addressable. To overcome this challenge, a carbon black-based templating method was developed by studying the composition of the template system, and finding the right conditions for self-standing templates, preventing the reaction mixture from flowing out of the mask. The thicknesses of as-fabricated coatings were measured using stylus profilometry to establish a relationship between the mask thickness and the coating thickness. Cyclic voltammetry was performed on coatings with adsorbed cytochrome c to check whether the entire coating thickness was electrochemically addressable. Further, bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers were incorporated into the coatings, and photocurrent with respect to coating thickness was studied. The template mixture required enough of both carbon black and polymer, roughly 7% carbon black and 6% poly(ethylene glycol. Coatings were fabricated with thicknesses approaching 30 µm, and thickness was shown to be controllable up to at least 15 µm. Under the experimental conditions, photocurrent was found to increase linearly with the coating thickness, up to around 12 µm, above which were diminished gains.

  17. Tear progression of symptomatic full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears as measured by repeated MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Kim, Sung-Eun; Bae, Sung-Ho; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jee, Won-Hee; Park, Chang Kyun

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the natural course of symptomatic full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears treated non-operatively and to identify risk factors affecting tear enlargement. One hundred and twenty-two patients who received non-surgical treatment for a partial- or full-thickness supraspinatus tear were included in this study. All rotator cuff tears were diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the same modality was used for follow-up studies. Follow-up MRI was performed after at least a 6-month interval. We evaluated the correlation between tear enlargement and follow-up duration. Eleven risk factors were analysed by both univariate and multivariate analyses to identify factors that affect enlargement of rotator cuff tears. The mean follow-up period was 24.4 ± 19.5 months. Out of 122 patients, 34 (27.9%) patients had an initial full-thickness tear and 88 (72.1%) patients had a partial-thickness tear. Considering all patients together, tear size increased in 51/122 (41.8%) patients, was unchanged in 65/122 (53.3%) patients, and decreased in 6/122 (4.9%) patients. Tear size increased for 28/34 (82.4%) patients with full-thickness tears and 23/88 (26.1%) patients with partial-thickness tears. From the two groups which were followed over 12 months, a higher rate of enlargement was observed in full-thickness tears than in partial-thickness tears (6-12 months, n.s.; 12-24 months, P = 0.002; over 24 months, P rotator cuff tears and 23/88 (26.1%) of symptomatic partial-thickness tears increased in size over a follow-up period of 6-100 months. Full-thickness tears showed a higher rate of enlargement than partial-thickness tears regardless of the follow-up duration. Univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that full-thickness tear was the most reliable risk factor for tear enlargement. The clinical relevance of these observations is that full-thickness rotator cuff tears treated conservatively should be

  18. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  19. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  20. Gradual DropIn of Layers to Train Very Deep Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Leslie N.; Hand, Emily M.; Doster, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of dynamically growing a neural network during training. In particular, an untrainable deep network starts as a trainable shallow network and newly added layers are slowly, organically added during training, thereby increasing the network's depth. This is accomplished by a new layer, which we call DropIn. The DropIn layer starts by passing the output from a previous layer (effectively skipping over the newly added layers), then increasingly including units from the ne...

  1. Evaluación de la resistencia al choque térmico de recubrimientos de estructura gradual obtenidos mediante proyección plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilemany, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Power increasing demand in aeronautical engines promoted the development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs obtained by Atmospheric Plasma Spray (APS. The spectacular growth in their applications leads to the demand of a very specific TBC. One of the specific roles that must achieve some TBCs is to withstand severe thermal shocks. Functionally Graded Coatings (FGC can improve their lives due to the lack of interfaces between two layers with very different thermal expansion coefficient (TEC (for example a metallic layer and a ceramic layer. Differences in TEC increase the internal stresses during the cooling of the parts. In this work thermal spray conditions have been improved in order to obtain Functionally Graded Coatings. Thermal Shock Resistance of these coatings has been compared with conventional' s one. Thermal Spray conditions have been used in order to spray two different powders with very different melting point. In that way it is possible to build up Functionally Graded Coatings with a unique spray gun. Thermal Shock Resistance of Coatings is improved due to the lack of interfaces between layers with different Thermal Expansion Coefficients unlike the conventional coatings where two layers of different materials are put together.

    La creciente demanda de mayores temperaturas de trabajo y potencia en el sector de la aviación promovió el desarrollo de las barreras térmicas (TBCs obtenidas por la técnica de proyección térmica plasma (APS. Éstas se componen de una capa de anclaje y una capa cerámica aislante. El espectacular aumento en el uso de las TBCs hace que se requieran recubrimientos cada vez más específicos en función de cada aplicación. Para mejorar la vida de los recubrimientos frente a los choques térmicos se han desarrollado los recubrimientos graduales. Éstos constan de una capa con variación gradual de los componentes, eliminando las intercaras entre partes con diferentes coeficientes de expansión t

  2. TOSGAGETM-8000A series X-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    X-ray thickness gauges are widely used for online measurement of the thickness of plates in a steel roiling line. As the thickness of the steel has a direct effect on the yield rate of the rolling line, thickness gauge measurement data are necessary for accuracy and reliability. In recent years, there have also been increasing requirements for rapid delivery, flexible interface specifications, and low cost. To meet these market requirements. Toshiba has developed the TOSGAGE TM -8000A series X-ray thickness gauge, which is the first release of a new series of measuring instruments for rolling applications with a new interface and employing an industrial computer for data processing. (author)

  3. Energy-storage properties and electrocaloric effect of Pb(1-3x/2)LaxZr0.85Ti0.15O3 antiferroelectric thick films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Hao, Xihong; Zhang, Qi

    2014-07-23

    Antiferroelectric (AFE) thick (1 μm) films of Pb(1-3x/2)LaxZr0.85Ti0.15O3 (PLZT) with x = 0.08, 0.10, 0.12, and 0.14 were deposited on LaNiO3/Si (100) substrates by a sol-gel method. The dielectric properties, energy-storage performance, electrocaloric effect, and leakage current behavior were investigated in detail. With increasing La content, dielectric constant and saturated polarizations of the thick films were gradually decreased. A maximum recoverable energy-storage density of 38 J/cm(3) and efficiency of 71% were achieved in the thick films with x = 0.12 at room temperature. A large reversible adiabatic temperature change of ΔT = 25.0 °C was presented in the thick films with x = 0.08 at 127 °C at 990 kV/cm. Moreover, all the samples had a lower leakage current density below 10(-6) A/cm(2) at room temperature. These results indicated that the PLZT AFE thick films could be a potential candidate for applications in high energy-storage density capacitors and cooling devices.

  4. Macular thickness after glaucoma filtration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesar, Antonio; Cavar, Ivan; Sesar, Anita Pusić; Geber, Mia Zorić; Sesar, Irena; Laus, Katia Novak; Vatavuk, Zoran; Mandić, Zdravko

    2013-09-01

    The aim of present study was to analyze early postoperative changes in the macular area using optical coherence tomography (OCT) after uncomplicated glaucoma filtration surgery. This prospective study included 32 patients (34 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma, which underwent trabeculectomy with or without use of mitomycin C. Exclusion criteria were macular edema, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, blurred optical media, secondary glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. All standard clinical examinations were made before surgery, at the 2nd day, 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Tomography of the macula was performed during every examination using Cirrus HD OCT for the analysis of central subfield thickness. Results show that thickening of the macula was slightly higher 1 week and 1 month after operation in comparison with baseline end 2nd day postoperativelly. There was no significant difference in the change of macular thickness in patients who have used topical prostaglandins compared with those who have used other topical medications. Also, there was no difference in macular changes between patients treated with or without mitomycin C. In conclusion, we found a slight subclinical increase in macular thickness after uncomplicated trabeculectomy, for which we considered that was the result in reduction of intraocular pressure after glaucoma surgery. Macular thickening after glaucoma filtering surgery could be a physiological reaction to the stress of the retina caused by a sudden reduction of intraocular pressure and it is the consequence of altered relationship between capillary pressure and interstitial fluid pressure.

  5. Parameter changes during gradual flooding of a PEM fuel cell through EIS studies; Cambio en parametros de una celda de combustible PEM durante inundacion gradual mediante estudios de EIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises; Cruz Manzo, Samuel; Arriaga Hurtado, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ortiz, Alondra; Orozco, German [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C. (CIDETEQ) (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The gradual flooding of a single PEM fuel cell was produced and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were realized in order to follow changes of the fuel cell impedance parameters. These changes were followed by using two equivalent circuit models: one simple model of the Randles type accounting for cathode and anode interfaces and a more complex model based on distributed elements, more suitable for porous electrodes in order to include protonic resistance of the catalyst layers. [Spanish] La inundacion gradual de una monocelda de combustible tipo PEM fue estudiada empleando espectroscopia de impedancia electroquimica (EIS), con el proposito de seguir cambios en los parametros de impedancia de la celda. Estos cambios fueron estudiados utilizando dos circuitos equivalentes: un modelo simple de tipo Randles, el cual considerara las interfaces del catodo y del anodo, y un modelo mas complejo basado en elementos distribuidos, el cual fuera adecuado para electrodos porosos, a fin de incluir la resistencia protonica de las capas catalizadoras.

  6. Gradual retirement schemes and older workers : social inclusion and employability in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellert, Franz Jozef; Velthuijsen, Hugo

    The number of employees above 50 is increasing in organizations because of demographic changes. People above 50 feel less involved in work and societal activities as they should be and as they are expected to be. Older workers‟ employment is accompanied by stereotyping that workers are less

  7. Too little sleep gradually desensitizes the serotonin 1A receptor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, Viktor; Walstra, Irene; Luiten, PGM; Meerlo, P

    2005-01-01

    Study Objectives: In our 24-hour society, frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a rapidly increasing problem that may contribute to the development of diseases such as depression. One of the proposed neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression is a disturbance in the brain's serotonergic

  8. Accelerating Thick Aluminum Liners Using Pulsed Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrala, G.A.; Hammerburg, J.E.; Bowers, D.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Cochrane, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have investigated the acceleration of very thick cylindrical aluminum liners using the Pegasus II capacitory bank. These accelerated solid liners will be used to impact other objects at velocities below 1.5 km/sec, allowing one to generate and sustain shocks of a few 100 kilobar for a few microseconds. A cylindrical shell of 1100 series aluminum with an initial inner radius of 23.61 mm, an initial thickness of 3.0 mm, and a height of 20 mm, was accelerated using a current pulse of 7.15 MA peak current and a 7.4 microsecond quarter cycle time. The aluminum shell was imploded within confining copper glide planes with decreasing separation with an inward slope of 8 degrees. At impact with a cylindrical target of diameter 3-cm, the liner was moving at 1.4 km/sec and its thickness increased to 4.5 mm. Radial X-ray radiograms of the liner showed both the liner and the glide plane interface. The curvature of the inner surface of the liner was measured before impact with the 15-mm radius target. The radiograms also showed that the copper glide planes distorted as the liner radius decreased and that some axial stress is induced in the liner. The axial stresses did not affect the inner curvature significantly. Post-shot calculations of the liner behavior indicated that the thickness of the glide plane played a significant role in the distortion of the interface between the liner and the glide plane

  9. Improvement in the Sensitivity of PbO Doped Tin Oxide Thick Film Gas Sensor by RF and Microwave Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. SRIVASTAVA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work efforts have been made to analyze the effect of oxygen plasma and PbO doping on the sensitivity of SnO2-based thick film gas sensor for methanol, propanol and acetone. The effect of substrate temperature on the response of dual frequency (RF and microwave plasma treated thick film sensor array has also been studied. To achieve this, three sensor arrays (each with four tin oxide sensors doped with different (1 %, 2 %, 3 % and 4 % PbO concentrations were fabricated by thick film technology and then treated with oxygen plasma for various durations (5 min, 10 min. and 15 min.. The plasma treated sensors were found to possess appreciably high sensitivity at room temperature in comparison to untreated sensor. The sensitivity showed the increasing trend with plasma exposure time and 15 minutes exposure time was found to be most suitable as the sensitivity of the plasma treated sensors for this duration were high towards all the chosen vapors with maximum (97 % value for propanol. The sensitivity of the sensors were found to be increasing gradually as PbO concentration was varied from 1- 4%.

  10. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)

  11. Origami-Inspired Folding of Thick, Rigid Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trease, Brian P.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Zirbel, Shannon; Howell, Larry; Lang, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To achieve power of 250 kW or greater, a large compression ratio of stowed-to-deployed area is needed. Origami folding patterns were used to inspire the folding of a solar array to achieve synchronous deployment; however, origami models are generally created for near-zero-thickness material. Panel thickness is one of the main challenges of origami-inspired design. Three origami-inspired folding techniques (flasher, square twist, and map fold) were created with rigid panels and hinges. Hinge components are added to the model to enable folding of thick, rigid materials. Origami models are created assuming zero (or near zero) thickness. When a material with finite thickness is used, the panels are required to bend around an increasingly thick fold as they move away from the center of the model. The two approaches for dealing with material thickness are to use membrane hinges to connect the panels, or to add panel hinges, or hinges of the same thickness, at an appropriate width to enable folding.

  12. Soliton models for thick branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z 2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w 2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ 4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ 6 branes. (orig.)

  13. Soliton models for thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyravi, Marzieh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Nematollah [Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ{sup 4} and φ{sup 6} scalar fields, which have broken Z{sub 2} symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w{sup 2} term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ{sup 4} brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ{sup 6} branes. (orig.)

  14. Change in enzyme production by gradually drying culture substrate during solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazunari; Gomi, Katsuya; Kariyama, Masahiro; Miyake, Tsuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    The influence of drying the culture substrate during solid-state fermentation on enzyme production was investigated using a non-airflow box. The drying caused a significant increase in enzyme production, while the mycelium content decreased slightly. This suggests that changes in the water content in the substrate during culture affect enzyme production in fungi. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Device for mechanoluminescence excitation by applying gradually varying pressure on the sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, R.K.; Kher, R.S.; Upadhyay, A.K.; Dhoble, S.J.; Khan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanoluminescence (ML) is an interesting phenomenon, which is a light emission caused by mechanical stimuli such as grinding, cutting, collision, striking, friction etc. The nature of the ML emitted from a particular material depends upon how the materials are deformed. The compression technique and piston impact or impulsive techniques are the most popular for ML measurement. In these techniques, ML is excited by applying certain fixed load on to the sample and, it is not possible to study ML by continuously varying load on to the sample. Therefore in order to study ML by applying continuously increasing/decreasing pressure on the sample, a low cost set up has been designed and developed. We have compared the ML of sugar (non-irradiated), γ-irradiated LiF:Ba and BaAl 2 O 4 :Eu phosphor, when ML is excited impulsively and by applying continuously varying pressure on the sample. When BaAl 2 O 4 :Eu phosphor is deformed impulsively, a single peak with shoulder is observed in the time versus ML intensity curve, while number of peak is observed, when continuously increasing pressure applied on the sample. When pressure is continuously decreased less number of peaks is observed as compared to that of increasing pressure. Similar result is observed for LiF:Ba crystal. The enhancement in ML intensity with γ-irradiation suggest that the BaAl 2 O 4 :Eu is a suitable candidate for ML dosimetry. (author)

  16. The environmental paradox in generation: How South America is gradually becoming more dependent on thermal generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango, Santiago; Larsen, Erik R.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on global warming, emission of green house gases (GHG), and the problems this might create. In this article, we review the trend in sustainable and renewable electricity generation in South America, where the generation portfolio increasingly depends on thermal generation, in particular gas. South America is a region that has relatively low emissions, but the current development is not desirable in environmental terms. We analyze the underlying reasons for this development, which is related to security of supply, deregulation, and the cost of renewable energy. We review and discuss the policies to promote renewables in the region. We analyze the potential advantages and drawbacks of different types of market interventions, such as direct subsidies that create potentially strong market distortions, more sophisticated market interventions that might be less intrusive but not necessarily as effective as, e.g. firm energy markets. We also review market-based solutions such as the Clean Market Mechanism and its potential, and the use of renewable electricity in non-interconnected zones, which might be one of the most economically attractive applications of renewables. However, without a stronger and more aggressive intervention from the governments in the region it is unlikely that the increase in thermal generation can be stopped. (author)

  17. Induction of a gradual, reversible morphogenesis of its host's epithelial brush border by Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarcq, L H; McFall-Ngai, M J

    1998-02-01

    Bacteria exert a variety of influences on the morphology and physiology of animal cells whether they are pathogens or cooperative partners. The association between the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes provides an experimental model for the study of the influence of extracellular bacteria on the development of host epithelia. In this study, we analyzed bacterium-induced changes in the brush borders of the light organ crypt epithelia during the initial hours following colonization of this tissue. Transmission electron microscopy of the brush border morphology in colonized and uncolonized hosts revealed that the bacteria effect a fourfold increase in microvillar density over the first 4 days of the association. Estimates of the proportions of bacterial cells in contact with host microvilli showed that the intimacy of the bacterial cells with animal cell surfaces increases significantly during this time. Antibiotic curing of the organ following colonization showed that sustained interaction with bacteria is essential for the retention of the induced morphological changes. Bacteria that are defective in either light production or colonization efficiency produced changes similar to those by the parent strain. Conventional fluorescence and confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that the brush border is supported by abundant filamentous actin. However, in situ hybridization with beta-actin probes did not show marked bacterium-induced increases in beta-actin gene expression. These experiments demonstrate that the E. scolopes-V. fischeri system is a viable model for the experimental study of bacterium-induced changes in host brush border morphology.

  18. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Nuñez-Atahualpa, Lourdes; Figueroa-Sánchez, Mauricio; Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Martín-Márquez, Beatriz Teresita; Martínez-García, Erika Aurora; Macias-Reyes, Héctor; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa Elena; Nuñez-Atahualpa, María Alejandra; Andrade-Garduño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC) were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP), and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P < 0.001). Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P < 0.01), and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 0.02). The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r = 0.513, P = 0.001), CRP (r = 0.799, P < 0.001), TNFα (r = 0.642, P = 0.001), and IL-6 (r = 0.751, P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P < 0.001) and anti-CCP levels (P = 0.03). Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events. PMID:25821796

  19. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP, and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P<0.001. Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P<0.01, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c (P=0.02. The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r=0.513, P=0.001, CRP (r=0.799, P<0.001, TNFα (r=0.642, P=0.001, and IL-6 (r=0.751, P<0.001. In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P<0.001 and anti-CCP levels (P=0.03. Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events.

  20. Ageing as a price of cooperation and complexity: self-organization of complex systems causes the gradual deterioration of constituent networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Huba J M; Mihalik, Agoston; Nánási, Tibor; Ory, Bálint; Spiró, Zoltán; Soti, Csaba; Csermely, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The network concept is increasingly used for the description of complex systems. Here, we summarize key aspects of the evolvability and robustness of the hierarchical network set of macromolecules, cells, organisms and ecosystems. Listing the costs and benefits of cooperation as a necessary behaviour to build this network hierarchy, we outline the major hypothesis of the paper: the emergence of hierarchical complexity needs cooperation leading to the ageing (i.e. gradual deterioration) of the constituent networks. A stable environment develops cooperation leading to over-optimization, and forming an 'always-old' network, which accumulates damage, and dies in an apoptosis-like process. A rapidly changing environment develops competition forming a 'forever-young' network, which may suffer an occasional over-perturbation exhausting system resources, and causing death in a necrosis-like process. Giving a number of examples we demonstrate how cooperation evokes the gradual accumulation of damage typical to ageing. Finally, we show how various forms of cooperation and consequent ageing emerge as key elements in all major steps of evolution from the formation of protocells to the establishment of the globalized, modern human society.

  1. [Analysis of the results of bone healing in femurs lengthened by the gradual distraction method in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochymek, J; Skvaril, J; Ondrus, S

    2009-10-01

    Treatment of leg length inequality via lengthening of the shorter extremity is an infrequent orthopedic procedure due to the requirement of special distraction devices and possible serious complications. Essential qualitative changes in operative technique development are associated with the name of G. A. Ilizarov, who paved the way for the autoregenerate gradual distraction method in the 1950s. In the years 1990 through 2007 a total of 67 patients underwent femur lengthening via gradual distraction using various types of external fixators at the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Orthopedics, and Traumatology, Faculty Hospital in Brno. The quality of bone healing was monitored and a number of parameters followed and statistically evaluated using regularly scheduled X-ray examinations. In 13 cases we had to remove the external fixator following the distraction phase, perform an osteosynthesis via a splint and fill the distraction gap via spongioplasty. The bone healing was satisfactory in the remaining 54 patients and the lengthened bone required no other fixation method. The analysis showed statistically significant deceleration in bone healing following distraction in female patients over 12 years of age, and in boys over 14 years of age. Lack of periosteal callus five weeks after surgery always signified serious problems in further healing. Severe complications were recorded in 11 cases during the distraction phase, and in 12 cases after the removal of the distraction apparatus. Our results fully correspond with the data and experience of others cited authors. In addition our study showed deceleration in bone healing in girls over 12 years and in boys over 14 years of age and serious problem in healing when is lack of periostal callus five weeks after surgery. The aim of this report was to present the results of our study of distraction gap bone healing using the gradual lengthening approach. Key words: leg lengthening, gradual distraction, external fixation, leg

  2. Final results of the gradual reconstruction of Bohunice VI in Slovakia and evaluation of the reconstruction by international missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenc, M.

    2001-01-01

    The gradual reconstruction of the Bohunice V1 nuclear power plant (Slovakia) represents the most extensive reconstruction of a nuclear power plant in operation as implemented worldwide up to now. Extensive reconstruction works in both civil construction and process parts, in instrumentation and control part, and in electric part enhanced both nuclear safety and operational reliability of Bohunice V1 in a significant way.(author)

  3. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M. E.; Crannell, C. J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard X-rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft X-ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard X-ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard X-rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 x 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard X-ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard X-ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again.

  4. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.E.; Crannell, C.J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard x rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft x ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard x ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard x rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 X 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard x ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard x ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again

  5. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.E.; Crannell, C.J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard X-rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft X-ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard X-ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard X-rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 x 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard X-ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard X-ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again. 29 references

  6. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF RABBITS FED ON DIETS OF GRADUAL LEVELS OF BARLEY GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-Adawy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight male New Zealand White rabbits of 6 weeks age (BW 875 ± 28.3 g were randomly allocated among six groups in different levels of barley grains (BG; 0 (B0, 5 (B5, 10 (B10, 15 (B15, 20 (B20, 25% (B25 of the total diet on growth performance and carcass composition of rabbits . The highest live BW value (P < 0.05 was obtained in B20 rabbits, whereas the highest feed intake (P < 0.05 value was obtained in B25 rabbits followed by those fed on the other diets. The better-feed conversion ratio (FCR was obtained in B20 rabbits followed by those of B15 and B25. Animals of B20 had better FCR than those of the other experimental diets. The relative contribution of soft feces to dry matter or crude protein intake differed (P < 0.05 among the experimental diets. The caecal turnover rate was increased (P < 0.05 in B15 and B20 rabbits than those other diets. The per-slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were differed (P < 0.05 among the experimental groups and highest values were recorded in B20 rabbits. Data suggested that a partial replacement of corn grains (CG by 20% BG in rabbit diets was increased live body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio.

  7. Valley detection using a graphene gradual pn junction with spin–orbit coupling: An analytical conductance calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mou, E-mail: yang.mou@hotmail.com [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Rui-Qiang [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Bai, Yan-Kui [College of Physical Science and Information Engineering and Hebei Advance Thin Films Laboratory, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)

    2015-09-04

    Graphene pn junction is the brick to build up variety of graphene nano-structures. The analytical formula of the conductance of graphene gradual pn junctions in the whole bipolar region has been absent up to now. In this paper, we analytically calculated that pn conductance with the spin–orbit coupling and stagger potential taken into account. Our analytical expression indicates that the energy gap causes the conductance to drop a constant value with respect to that without gap in a certain parameter region, and manifests that the curve of the conductance versus the stagger potential consists of two Gaussian peaks – one valley contributes one peak. The latter feature allows one to detect the valley polarization without using double-interface resonant devices. - Highlights: • Analytical conductance formula of the gradual graphene pn junction with spin–orbit coupling in the whole bipolar region. • Exploring the valley-dependent transport of gradual graphene pn junctions analytically. • Conductance peak without resonance.

  8. Pelvic floor muscle thickness measured by perineal ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Juul, N; Grønvall, S

    1991-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle thickness was assessed in nine healthy female physiotherapists by perineal sonography. All measurements were performed as triple-measurements. The aims were to assess the reliability of the measurements and to establish a reference material. The muscle thickness at rest...... and at contraction was 9.4 +/- 0.8 mm and 11.5 +/- 1.1 mm respectively (mean +/- SD). Contraction increased the thickness by 2.2 +/- 0.8 mm or 23 +/- 8%. The intra- and inter observer standard deviation of the estimate was in the range of 4-6%. In conclusion, we find the reliability of the measurements acceptable....

  9. The crustal thickness of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Responses of two températe evergreen Nothofagus species to sudden and gradual waterlogging: relationships with distribution patterns Respuestas de dos especies siempreverdes de Nothofagus al anegamiento gradual y repentino: relaciones con patrones de distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRIDA PIPER

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of gradual waterlogging on trees have been little studied. The températe evergreens Nothofagus nítida and N. dombeyi are differentially distributed on soil moisture gradients, only the former being common on poorly-drained sites. We compared the relative height growth rate (RGR H and foliage loss of seedlings subjected experimentally to normal drainage (soil at field capacity, sudden waterlogging and gradual waterlogging for two months to determine which waterlogging regime more accurately predicts interspecific differences in tolerance, as evident from natural distributions. RGR H was similar between species but differed between treatments (normal watering > gradual waterlogging = sudden waterlogging. Sudden waterlogging caused massive foliage loss in the two species, but gradual waterlogging caused much greater foliage loss in N. dombeyi than in N. nítida, indicating some degree of acclimation by the latter species. Linear regressions indicated that RGR H was negatively affected by foliage loss in both species, without differences between them. Since no difference in RGR H was found between species in the waterlogging treatments, but yet in foliage loss, other mechanisms may be in volved in the short term growth reduction of N. nítida. Effects of waterlogging on long-term performance in the field were evaluated by reciprocal transplants between a poorly-drained site naturally occupied by N. nítida, and a well drained site naturally occupied by N. dombeyi. After two growing seasons, N. dombeyi had significantly lower specific leaf área (SLA and RGR H, at the poorly drained site than at its original site. At the poorly drained site N. nítida achieved 100 % survival, compared with 73.5 % in N. dombeyi. Reduced growth and survival of N. dombeyi associated with the negative effects on carbón gain of extensive foliage loss and reduced SLA may thus exelude it from the wetter sites. We conclude that tolerance may be better

  11. Sugarcane Initial Growth with Vinasse Application in Latosol under Gradual Aluminum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Viglio, Larissa; Leal Varanda, Leticia; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Casagrande, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    One of the strategies for overcoming the high acidity of soils and the consequent toxicity of aluminum (Al) is based on the use of varieties adapted to these conditions. In Brazil, the application of vinasse is routine practice in the cultivation of sugarcane due to its fertilizing effect, mainly because of high potassium content. However, the vinasse may also attenuate the toxic effects of Al in the soil by forming complexes with low molecular weight organic acids providing greater depth of the root of sugarcane. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of vinasse on the initial growth of three cultivars of sugarcane (RB855453, RB966928 and RB867515), as well as its influence on root depth in a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (Typic Hapludox) with gradient of saturation by Al. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in totally randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications. Seedlings of sugarcane were transplanted to PVC columns 0.8 m high, built by stacking four rings (0.2 m high), filled with soil samples, which offered an increasing gradient of saturation by Al (m%) at depth (0-0.2 m (m% = 0,7); 0.2-0.4 m (m% = 7,9); 0.4-0.6 m (m %= 40.8); 0.6-0.8 m (m%= 62.6)). The collection of the experiment was conducted 120 days after planting, with the determination of the stalk diameter (DC), plant height (ALT), leaf nutrient content, dry matter of the aerial part (MSPA) and dry matter of the root system (MSSR). Cultivars of sugarcane and the application of vinasse had effect on DC and the MSSR. Cultivar RB867515 showed higher DC than in other cultivars, with 20.8 mm. The increase of MSSR by sugarcane cultivars varied due to depth. There were no effects of sugarcane cultivars and vinasse application in MSPA. The vinasse application resulted in plants with higher ALT. With the exception of the foliar content of Fe, the N, Ca, Mg, S and Mn content were below those considered appropriate for sugarcane. Unlike other cultivars, the application

  12. Basic level category structure emerges gradually across human ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordan, Marius Cătălin; Greene, Michelle R; Beck, Diane M; Fei-Fei, Li

    2015-07-01

    Objects can be simultaneously categorized at multiple levels of specificity ranging from very broad ("natural object") to very distinct ("Mr. Woof"), with a mid-level of generality (basic level: "dog") often providing the most cognitively useful distinction between categories. It is unknown, however, how this hierarchical representation is achieved in the brain. Using multivoxel pattern analyses, we examined how well each taxonomic level (superordinate, basic, and subordinate) of real-world object categories is represented across occipitotemporal cortex. We found that, although in early visual cortex objects are best represented at the subordinate level (an effect mostly driven by low-level feature overlap between objects in the same category), this advantage diminishes compared to the basic level as we move up the visual hierarchy, disappearing in object-selective regions of occipitotemporal cortex. This pattern stems from a combined increase in within-category similarity (category cohesion) and between-category dissimilarity (category distinctiveness) of neural activity patterns at the basic level, relative to both subordinate and superordinate levels, suggesting that successive visual areas may be optimizing basic level representations.

  13. Effect of hypovolemia, infusion, and oral rehydration on gradual onset +Gz acceleration tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Haines, R. F.; Rositano, S. A.; Montgomery, L. D.; Keil, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood withdrawal, blood infusion, and oral fluid intake on +Gz tolerance at an acceleration rate of 0.5 G/min. Six healthy men aged 21-27 yr were centrifuged after the withdrawal of 400 ml of blood (hypovolemia) from each man; they were centrifuged again following blood infusion (Phase I). Three weeks later the men were accelerated after similar hypovolemia and again after consuming 800 ml of an isotonic NaCl drink (Phase II). Phase I hypovolemia resulted in a reduction in tolerance in all subjects from a mean control level of 6.42 + or - 0.35 min to 5.45 + or - 0.17 min (-15.1%, p less than 0.05). Both infusion and drinking returned tolerances to control levels. During acceleration there were significant (p less than 0.05) increases in plasma vasopressin levels to 35 pg/ml; these were not influenced appreciably by infusion or drinking. In all acceleration runs there was an obligatory shift (loss) of plasma volume and electrolytes, especially potassium, regardless of the experimental treatments. Oral rehydration is shown to be as effective as blood replacement in restoring +Gz acceleration tolerance decrements due to hypovolemia.

  14. Evidence of gradual loss of precision for simple features and complex objects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Rosanne L; Park, Young Eun; Sack, Alexander T; Tong, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that people can maintain prioritized items in visual working memory for many seconds, with negligible loss of information over time. Such findings imply that working memory representations are robust to the potential contaminating effects of internal noise. However, once visual information is encoded into working memory, one might expect it to inevitably begin degrading over time, as this actively maintained information is no longer tethered to the original perceptual input. Here, we examined this issue by evaluating working memory for single central presentations of an oriented grating, color patch, or face stimulus, across a range of delay periods (1, 3, 6, or 12 s). We applied a mixture-model analysis to distinguish changes in memory precision over time from changes in the frequency of outlier responses that resemble random guesses. For all 3 types of stimuli, participants exhibited a clear and consistent decline in the precision of working memory as a function of temporal delay, as well as a modest increase in guessing-related responses for colored patches and face stimuli. We observed a similar loss of precision over time while controlling for temporal distinctiveness. Our results demonstrate that visual working memory is far from lossless: while basic visual features and complex objects can be maintained in a quite stable manner over time, these representations are still subject to noise accumulation and complete termination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Assessment of Surface Area Characteristics of Dental Implants with Gradual Bioactive Surface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czan, Andrej; Babík, Ondrej; Miklos, Matej; Záušková, Lucia; Mezencevová, Viktória

    2017-10-01

    Since most of the implant surface is in direct contact with bone tissue, shape and integrity of said surface has great influence on successful osseointegration. Among other characteristics that predetermine titanium of different grades of pureness as ideal biomaterial, titanium shows high mechanical strength making precise miniature machining increasingly difficult. Current titanium-based implants are often anodized due to colour coding. This anodized layer has important functional properties for right usage and also bio-compatibility of dental implants. Physical method of anodizing and usage of anodizing mediums has a significant influence on the surface quality and itself functionality. However, basic requirement of the dental implant with satisfactory properties is quality of machined surface before anodizing. Roughness, for example, is factor affecting of time length of anodizing operation and so whole productivity. The paper is focused on monitoring of surface and area characteristics, such as roughness or surface integrity after different cutting conditions of miniature machining of dental implants and their impact on suitability for creation of satisfactory anodized layer with the correct biocompatible functional properties.

  16. Estimation of sand dune thickness using a vertical velocity profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif A.

    2004-01-01

    Previous field and mathematical studies have shown that sand dunes may have vertical velocity profiles (i.e. continuous increase of velocity with depth). Therefore, computing the dunes thickness using conventional seismic refraction methods that assume a vertically homogeneous layer will likely produce some errors. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of the vertical velocity profile in a sand dune on the process of thickness estimation using seismic refraction data. First, the time distance (T-X) data of the direct wave in the dune is calculated using a vertical velocity profile, V (z), derived from Hertz-Mindlin contact theory. Then the thickness is estimated from the calculated T-X data, intercept time and velocity of the refractor at the dune's base assuming a constant velocity in the dune. The error in the estimated thickness due to the constant-velocity assumption increases with increasing thickness and decreasing porosity of the dune. For sand dunes with porosities greater than 0.2 and thickness less than 200 meter, the error is less than 15%. (author)

  17. Parametric Investigation of Optimum Thermal Insulation Thickness for External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kaynakli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have estimated the optimum thickness of thermal insulation materials used in building walls for different climate conditions. The economic parameters (inflation rate, discount rate, lifetime and energy costs, the heating/cooling loads of the building, the wall structure and the properties of the insulation material all affect the optimum insulation thickness. This study focused on the investigation of these parameters that affect the optimum thermal insulation thickness for building walls. To determine the optimum thickness and payback period, an economic model based on life-cycle cost analysis was used. As a result, the optimum thermal insulation thickness increased with increasing the heating and cooling energy requirements, the lifetime of the building, the inflation rate, energy costs and thermal conductivity of insulation. However, the thickness decreased with increasing the discount rate, the insulation material cost, the total wall resistance, the coefficient of performance (COP of the cooling system and the solar radiation incident on a wall. In addition, the effects of these parameters on the total life-cycle cost, payback periods and energy savings were also investigated.

  18. Influence of processing parameters on PZT thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Oliver; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2005-01-01

    We have studied influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based thick films in the range of 5-25 μm. PZT and 2% La-doped PZT thick films were processed using a modified sol-gel process. In this process, PZT- and La-doped PZT powders were first prepared via sol-gel. These powders were calcined and then used with respective sols to form a slurry. Slurry composition was optimized to spin-coat thick films on platinized Si substrate (Si/SiO 2 /Ti/Pt). Spinning rate, acceleration and slurry deposition techniques were optimized to form thick films with uniform thickness and without any cracking. Increasing solids loading was found to enhance the surface smoothness of the film and decrease porosity. Films were tested for their electrical properties and ferroelectric fatigue response. The maximum polarization obtained was 40 μC/cm 2 at 250 kV/cm for PZT thick film and 30 μC/cm 2 at 450 kV/cm for La-doped PZT thick film. After 10 9 cycles of fatiguing at 35 kHz, La-doped PZT showed better resistance for ferroelectric fatigue compared with un-doped PZT films

  19. Factors influencing endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-07-01

    Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer. This study suggests that parity, BMI, presence of

  20. Thickly Syndetical Sensitivity of Topological Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider the surjective continuous map f:X→X, where X is a compact metric space. In this paper we give several stronger versions of sensitivity, such as thick sensitivity, syndetic sensitivity, thickly syndetic sensitivity, and strong sensitivity. We establish the following. (1 If (X,f is minimal and sensitive, then (X,f is syndetically sensitive. (2 Weak mixing implies thick sensitivity. (3 If (X,f is minimal and weakly mixing, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. (4 If (X,f is a nonminimal M-system, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. Devaney chaos implies thickly periodic sensitivity. (5 We give a syndetically sensitive system which is not thickly sensitive. (6 We give thickly syndetically sensitive examples but not cofinitely sensitive ones.

  1. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  2. Non-contact radiation thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, T.; Okino, T.

    1983-01-01

    A noncontact thickness gauge system for measuring the thickness of a material comprising a source of radiation, a detector for detecting the amount of radiation transmitted through the material which is a function of the absorptance and thickness of the material, a memory for storing the output signals of the detector and curve-defining parameters for a plurality of quadratic calibration curves which correspond to respective thickness ranges, and a processor for processing the signals and curve defining parameters to determine the thickness of the material. Measurements are made after precalibration to obtain calibration curves and these are stored in the memory, providing signals representative of a nominal thickness and an alloy compensation coefficient for the material. The calibration curve corresponding to a particular thickness range is selected and the curve compensated for drift; the material is inserted into the radiation path and the detector output signal processed with the compensated calibration curve to determine the thickness of the material. (author)

  3. The influence of fiber thickness, wall thickness and gap distance on the spiral nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junping; Shah, Ami; Yu Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a 3D nanofibrous spiral scaffold for bone tissue engineering which has shown enhanced cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation compared to traditional cylindrical scaffolds due to the spiral structures and the nanofiber incorporation. Some important parameters of these spiral scaffolds including gap distance, wall thickness and especially fiber thickness are crucial to the performance of the spiral structured scaffolds. In this study, we investigated the fiber thickness, gap distance and wall thickness of the spiral structure on the behavior of osteoblast cells. The human osteoblast cells are seeded on spiral structured scaffolds with various fiber thickness, gap distance and wall thickness and cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and mineralized matrix deposition on the scaffolds are evaluated. It was found that increasing the thickness of nanofiber layer not only limited the cell infiltration into the scaffolds, but also restrained the osteoblastic cell phenotype development. Moreover, the geometric effect studies indicated that scaffolds with the thinner wall and gap distance 0.2 mm show the best bioactivity for osteoblasts.

  4. Delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral formula feeding reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in preterm pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Ghoneim

    Full Text Available Enteral formula feeding is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in premature infants, yet studies are conflicting regarding the safest timing for introduction and advancement of feeds. Our aim was to test the effects of early vs. late initiation and abrupt vs. gradual advancement of enteral feeding of an intact vs. hydrolyzed protein formula on NEC incidence and severity in preterm pigs. In Experiment 1, preterm pigs received total parenteral nutrition (TPN at birth with abrupt initiation of enteral formula feeds (50% full intake on d of life (DOL 2 (EA or 5 (LA while PN continued. Pigs were also fed formula containing either intact or hydrolyzed protein. In Experiment 2, preterm pigs received TPN at birth with enteral, hydrolyzed-protein formula feeds introduced on DOL 2 either abruptly (EA; 50% full feeds or gradually (EG; 10-50% full feeds over 5 d while PN continued. NEC incidence and severity were assessed based on macroscopic and histological scoring. In Experiment 1, NEC incidence (41% vs. 70%, P<0.05 and severity were reduced in LA vs. EA groups and LA was associated with a higher survival rate, daily weight gain and jejunum villus height. Piglets fed hydrolyzed vs. intact protein formula had lower stomach content weights and similar NEC incidence. In Experiment 2, NEC incidence and severity were not different between pigs the EG vs. EA group. Proinflammatory gene expression (IL-1β, IL-6 and S100A9 in the ileum was lower in both LA and EG vs. EA groups. In conclusion, delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral feeding is protective against NEC in preterm pigs. Feeding hydrolyzed vs. intact protein formula improved gastric transit without affecting the NEC incidence.

  5. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the conductivity of an infinitely thick slab of sea ice. Ice thickness, Hice, is then obtained by subtracting the height of the ...Thickness Survey of Sea Ice Runway” ERDC/CRREL SR-16-4 ii Abstract We conducted an autonomous survey of sea -ice thickness using the Polar rover Yeti...efficiency relative to manual surveys routinely con- ducted to assess the safety of roads and runways constructed on the sea ice. Yeti executed the

  6. Hard-magnetic surface layer effect on the erbium orthoferrite plate domain structure in the region of gradual spin reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaeva, A.I.; Vojtsenya, S.V.; Yur'ev, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Rearrangement of domain structures in the erbium orthoferrite plates with hard-magnetic surface layer is investigated during gradual spin reorientation. This phenomenon is explained by means of the proposed physical models. It is shown that in these plates an approach to the temperature interval of spin reorientation causes a decrease in the density of energy of domain walls separating the internal and surface domains. This decrease results in transition to the domain structure which are close to equilibrium ones inside the crystal. 30 refs.; 4 figs

  7. The focusing effect of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals with gradually varying lattice constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bakhshi Garmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the focusing effect of electromagnetic wave in the two-dimensional graded photonic crystal consisting of Silicon rods in the air background with gradually varying lattice constant. The results showed that graded photonic crystal can focus wide beams on a narrow area at frequencies near the lower edge of the band gap, where equal frequency contours are not concave. For calculation of photonic band structure and equal frequency contours, we have used plane wave expansion method and revised plane wave expansion method, respectively. The calculation of the electric and magnetic fields was performed by finite difference time domain method.

  8. Advantages of PZT thick film for MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Moller, R.; Hansen, K.

    2010-01-01

    For all MEMS devices a high coupling between the mechanical and electrical domain is desired. Figures of merit describing the coupling are important for comparing different piezoelectric materials. The existing figures of merit are discussed and a new figure of merit is introduced for a fair comp....... Improved figure of merit is reached in the piezoelectric PZT thick film, TF2100CIP, by using cold isostatic pressure in the PZT preparation process. The porosity of TF2100 is decreased 38%, hence, allowing an increase of charge sensitivity for MEMS sensors of 59%....... thin film and PZT thick film. It is shown that MEMS sensors with the PZT thick film TF2100 from InSensor A/S have potential for significant higher voltage sensitivities compared to PZT thin film base MEMS sensors when the total thickness of the MEMS cantilever, beam, bridge or membrane is high...

  9. Charge Distribution Dependency on Gap Thickness of CMS Endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung K.; Lee, Kyongsei

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness. Prototypes of double-gap RPCs with six different gap thickness ranging from from 1.0 to 2.0 mm in 0.2-mm steps have been built with 2-mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated plates. The efficiencies of the six gaps are measured as a function of the effective high voltages. We report that the strength of the electric fields of the gap is decreased as the gap thickness is increased. The distributions of charges in six gaps are measured. The space charge effect is seen in the charge distribution at the higher voltages. The logistic function is used to fit the charge distribution data. Smaller charges can be produced within smaller gas gap. But the digitization threshold should be also lowered to utilize these smaller charges.

  10. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  11. Mechanical properties of F82H plates with different thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo, E-mail: sakasegawa.hideo@jaea.go.jp; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Mass effect, homogeneity, and anisotropy in mechanical properties were studied. • Thickness dependence of tensile property was not observed. • Thickness dependence of Charpy impact property was observed. • Appropriate mechanical properties were obtained using an electric furnace. - Abstract: Fusion DEMO reactor requires over 11,000 tons of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel and it is indispensable to develop the manufacturing technology for producing large-scale components of DEMO blanket with appropriate mechanical properties. This is because mechanical properties are generally degraded with increasing production volume. In this work, we focused mechanical properties of F82H–BA12 heat which was melted in a 20 tons electric arc furnace. Plates with difference thicknesses from 18 to 100 mm{sup t} were made from its ingot through forging and hot-rolling followed by heat treatments. Tensile and Charpy impact tests were then performed on plates focusing on their homogeneity and anisotropy. From the result, their homogeneity and anisotropy were not significant. No obvious differences were observed in tensile properties between the plates with different thicknesses. However, Charpy impact property changed with increasing plate thickness, i.e. the ductile brittle transition temperature of a 100 mm{sup t} thick plate was higher than that of the other thinner plates.

  12. Metatarsophalangeal joint extension changes ultrasound measurements for plantar fascia thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado, Michael J; Lohman, Everett B; Gordon, Keith E; Daher, Noha S

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound is an inexpensive method for quantifying plantar fascia thickness, especially in those with plantar fasciitis. Ultrasound has also been used to assess the effectiveness of various treatments for plantar fasciitis by comparing plantar fascia thickness before and after an intervention period. While a plantar fascia thickness over 4 mm via ultrasound has been proposed to be consistent with plantar fasciitis, some researchers believe the 4 mm plantar fascia thickness level to be a dubious guideline for diagnosing plantar fasciitis due to the lack of standardization of the measurement process for plantar fascia thickness. In particular, no universal guidelines exist on the positioning of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints during the procedure and the literature also has inconsistent protocols. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the influence of MTP joint extension on plantar fascia thickness in healthy participants and those with unilateral plantar fasciitis. The plantar fascia thickness of forty participants (20 with unilateral plantar fasciitis and 20 control) was measured via ultrasound three times at three different MTP joint positions: 1) at rest, 2) 30° of extension from the plantar surface, and 3) maximal extension possible. The plantar fascia became significantly thinner as MTP joint extension increased in both the plantar fasciitis group ( p  plantar fasciitis group, the involved plantar fascia was 1.2 to 1.3 mm thicker (p plantar fascia thickness between the two sides was less than 0.1 mm ( p  plantar fascia thickness. It is recommended that plantar fascia thickness measurements be performed with the toes at rest. If MTP joints must be extended, then the toes should be extended maximally and then noted to ensure subsequent ultrasound procedures are repeated. Standardizing the position of the MTP joints is not only important for attaining the most accurate thickness measurement of the plantar fascia, but is also

  13. When the Brain Takes 'BOLD' Steps: Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Can Further Enhance the Ability to Gradually Self-regulate Regional Brain Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorger, Bettina; Kamp, Tabea; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Peters, Judith Caroline; Goebel, Rainer

    2018-05-15

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) are currently explored in the context of developing alternative (motor-independent) communication and control means for the severely disabled. In such BCI systems, the user encodes a particular intention (e.g., an answer to a question or an intended action) by evoking specific mental activity resulting in a distinct brain state that can be decoded from fMRI activation. One goal in this context is to increase the degrees of freedom in encoding different intentions, i.e., to allow the BCI user to choose from as many options as possible. Recently, the ability to voluntarily modulate spatial and/or temporal blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-signal features has been explored implementing different mental tasks and/or different encoding time intervals, respectively. Our two-session fMRI feasibility study systematically investigated for the first time the possibility of using magnitudinal BOLD-signal features for intention encoding. Particularly, in our novel paradigm, participants (n=10) were asked to alternately self-regulate their regional brain-activation level to 30%, 60% or 90% of their maximal capacity by applying a selected activation strategy (i.e., performing a mental task, e.g., inner speech) and modulation strategies (e.g., using different speech rates) suggested by the experimenters. In a second step, we tested the hypothesis that the additional availability of feedback information on the current BOLD-signal level within a region of interest improves the gradual-self regulation performance. Therefore, participants were provided with neurofeedback in one of the two fMRI sessions. Our results show that the majority of the participants were able to gradually self-regulate regional brain activation to at least two different target levels even in the absence of neurofeedback. When provided with continuous feedback on their current BOLD-signal level, most

  14. Characterisation of haematological profiles and whole blood relative gene expression levels in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves undergoing gradual weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D; Kenny, D A; Kelly, A K; McCabe, M S; McGee, M; Waters, S M; Earley, B

    2016-09-01

    Haematological profiles indicate the health status of an animal and can be used to identify sub-clinical stress responses. The objectives of the study were to examine (i) the effect of breed and plane of nutrition, on haematological profiles of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves in response to gradual weaning, and (ii) the effect of breed on immune response genes in bovine whole blood using real-time quantitative PCR. Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves were group housed indoors and individually fed using an automatic feeder. They were allocated to a high, medium or low plane of nutrition, based on milk replacer (MR) and concentrate. The nutrition treatments were calculated using National Research Council guidelines in order to achieve a high, medium or low growth rate for each respective breed. During the weaning phase MR was gradually reduced over a 14-day (d) period (d -13 to d 0). Calves were blood sampled on d -14, -6, -3, 0, 1, 3, 8 and 14 relative to weaning (d 0) for subsequent haematological analysis. On d -14, 1 and 8, a subset of eight Holstein-Friesian calves randomly selected from the medium nutrition treatment and eight Jersey calves randomly selected from the high nutrition treatment, were blood sampled for gene expression profiling, targeting biomarkers of weaning stress. These two treatment groups were chosen to examine the effect of breed on expression of the genes of interest, as energy intake and animal performance were similar. There was no effect of breed×plane of nutrition interaction nor effect of plane of nutrition on any variable measured (P>0.05). Gradual weaning produced differential biological responses in the two breeds evidenced by breed×time interactions for lymphocyte, monocyte and red blood cell number, plasma haemoglobin and haptoglobin concentrations (Plevel of the pro-apoptotic gene, Fas, increased on d 1 relative to d -14 (Plevels were greater in Jersey calves compared with Holstein-Friesian for

  15. Gradual training of alpacas to the confinement of metabolism pens reduces stress when normal excretion behavior is accommodated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kirrin E; Maloney, Shane K; Milton, John T B; Blache, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Confinement in metabolism pens may provoke a stress response in alpacas that will reduce the welfare of the animal and jeopardize the validity of scientific results obtained in such pens. In this study, we tested a protocol designed to successfully train alpacas to be held in a specially designed metabolism pen so that the animals' confinement would not jeopardize their welfare. We hypothesized that the alpacas would show fewer behaviors associated with a response to stress as training gradually progressed, and that they would adapt to being in the confinement of the metabolism pen. The training protocol was successful at introducing alpacas to the metabolism pens, and it did reduce the incidence of behavioral responses to stress as the training progressed. The success of the training protocol may be attributed to the progressive nature of the training, the tailoring of the protocol to suit alpacas, and the use of positive reinforcement. This study demonstrated that both animal welfare and the validity of the scientific outcomes could be maximized by the gradual training of experimental animals, thereby minimizing the stress imposed on the animals during experimental procedures.

  16. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in China: origin and gradual inland range expansion associated with population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuanwu; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yinghong

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, expanded throughout mainland China in the last century to become one of the most serious pests in the area, yet information on this process are fragmentary. Three mitochondrial genes (nad1, cytb and nad5) were used to infer the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of the oriental fruit fly from its entire distribution range in China. High levels of genetic diversity, as well as a significant correspondence between genetic and geographic distances, suggest that the invasion process might have been gradual, with no associated genetic bottlenecks. Three population groups could be identified, nevertheless the overall genetic structure was weak. The effective number of migrants between populations, estimated using the coalescent method, suggested asymmetric gene flow from the costal region of Guangdong to most inland regions. The demographic analysis indicates the oriental fruit fly underwent a recent population expansion in the Central China. We suggest the species originated in the costal region facing the South China Sea and gradually expanded to colonize mainland China, expanding here to high population numbers.

  17. Gradual crossover in molecular organization of stable liquid H2O at moderately high pressure and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koga, Yoshikata; Westh, Peter; Yoshida, Koh

    2014-01-01

    temperature. The extrapolated temperature to zero p seems to be about 70 – 80 °C for points X and 90 – 110 °C for Y. Furthermore, the mid-points of X and Y seem to extrapolate to the triple point of liquid, ice Ih and ice III. Recalling that the zero x Gly extrapolation of point X and Y for binary aqueous...... of the step named point X and its end point Y. In analogy with another third and fourth derivative pair in binary aqueous solutions of glycerol, dα p /dx Gly and d2 α p /dx Gly 2, at 0.1 MPa (α p is the thermal expansivity and x Gly the mole fraction of solute glycerol) in our recent publication [J. Solution...... Chem. 43, 663-674 (2014); DOI:10.1007/s10953-013-0122-7], we argue that there is a gradual crossover in the molecular organization of pure H2O from a low to a high p-regions starting at point X and ending at Y at a fixed T. The crossover takes place gradually spanning for about 100 MPa at a fixed...

  18. Experimental study on neutronics in bombardment of thick targets by high energy proton beams for accelerator-driven sub-critical system

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Shi Lun; Shi Yong Qian; Shen Qing Biao; Wan Jun Sheng; Brandt, R; Vater, P; Kulakov, B A; Krivopustov, M I; Sosnin, A N

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on neutronics in the target region of accelerator-driven sub-critical system is carried out by using the high energy accelerator in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. The experiments with targets U(Pb), Pb and Hg bombarded by 0.533, 1.0, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV proton beams show that the neutron yield ratio of U(Pb) to Hg and Pb to Hg targets is (2.10 +- 0.10) and (1.76 +- 0.33), respectively. Hg target is disadvantageous to U(Pb) and Pb targets to get more neutrons. Neutron yield drops along 20 cm thick targets as the thickness penetrated by protons increases. The lower the energy of protons, the steeper the neutron yield drops. In order to get more uniform field of neutrons in the targets, the energy of protons from accelerators should not be lower than 1 GeV. The spectra of secondary neutrons produced by different energies of protons are similar, but the proportion of neutrons with higher energy gradually increases as the proton energy increases

  19. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, H; Sachan, R; Strader, J; Favazza, C; Khenner, M; Kalyanaraman, R

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO2 under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm < or = h < or = 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm < or = h < or = 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO2. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  20. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, H; Favazza, C [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Sachan, R; Strader, J; Kalyanaraman, R [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Khenner, M, E-mail: ramki@utk.edu [Department of Mathematics, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO{sub 2} under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm {<=} h {<=} 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm {<=} h {<=} 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO{sub 2}. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  1. New Crustal Thickness for Djibouti, Afar, Using Seismic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugda, Mulugeta; Bililign, Solomon

    2008-10-01

    Crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio for the seismic station ATD in Djibouti, Afar, has been investigated using two seismic techniques (H-κ stacking of receiver functions and a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities). Both techniques give consistent results of crustal thickness 23±1.5 km and Poisson's ratio 0.31±0.02. We also determined a mean P-wave velocity (Vp) of ˜6.2 km/s but ˜6.9-7.0 km/s below a 2 - 5 km thick low velocity layer at the surface. Previous studies of crustal structure for Djibouti reported that the crust is 6 to 11 km thick while our study shows that the crust beneath Djibouti is between 20 and 25 km. This study argues that the crustal thickness values reported for Djibouti for the last 3 decades were not consistent with the reports for the other neighboring region in central and eastern Afar. Our results for ATD in Djibouti, however, are consistent with the reports of crustal thickness in many other parts of central and eastern Afar. We attribute this difference to how the Moho (the crust-mantle discontinuity) is defined (an increase of Vp to 7.4 km/s in this study vs. 6.9 km/s in previous studies).

  2. Experimental observation of energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply scattered gamma photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The gamma photons continue to soften in energy as the number of scatterings increases in the target having finite dimensions both in depth and lateral dimensions. The number of multiply scattered photons increases with an increase in target thickness, and saturates at a particular value of the target thickness known as saturation thickness (depth). The present measurements are carried out to study the energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply scattered gamma photons from targets of various thicknesses. The scattered photons are detected by a properly shielded NaI(Tl) gamma ray detector placed at 90 deg. to the incident beam. We observe that the saturation thickness increases with increasing incident gamma photon energy. Monte Carlo calculations based upon the package developed by Bauer and Pattison [Compton scattering experiments at the HMI (1981), HMI-B 364, pp. 1-106] support the present experimental results

  3. Thickness-dependent photovoltaic effects in miscut Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Zengji; Zhao Kun; Zhao Songqing; Lu Zhiqing; Li Xiaoming; Ni Hao; Wang Aijun

    2010-01-01

    The photovoltaic effects of Nb-doped SrTiO 3 single crystals with different thicknesses were investigated under the illumination of ultraviolet pulsed lasers. The peak photovoltage increased and then decreased quickly with the decrease in crystal thickness, and a maximum photovoltage occurred for the 180 μm-thick crystal. The photovoltaic response time decreased monotonically with decreasing crystal thickness. The present results suggested the promising potential of reducing crystal thickness in high sensitivity detectors with fast response.

  4. Thickness Dependent on Photocatalytic Activity of Hematite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hua Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematite (Fe2O3 thin films with different thicknesses are fabricated by the rf magnetron sputtering deposition. The effects of film thicknesses on the photocatalytic activity of hematite films have been investigated. Hematite films possess a polycrystalline hexagonal structure, and the band gap decreases with an increase of film thickness. Moreover, all hematite films exhibit good photocatalytic ability under visible-light irradiation; the photocatalytic activity of hematite films increases with the increasing film thickness. This is because the hematite film with a thicker thickness has a rougher surface, providing more reaction sites for photocatalysis. Another reason is a lower band gap of a hematite film would generate more electron-hole pairs under visible-light illumination to enhance photocatalytic efficiency. Experimental data are well fitted with Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The photocatalytic rate constant of hematite films ranges from 0.052 to 0.068 min-1. This suggests that the hematite film is a superior photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation.

  5. Effects of heat input on mechanical properties of metal inert gas welded 1.6 mm thick galvanized steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiqul, M I; Ishak, M; Rahman, M M

    2012-01-01

    It is usually a lot easier and less expensive to galvanize steel before it is welded into useful products. Galvanizing afterwards is almost impossible. In this research work, Galvanized Steel was welded by using the ER 308L stainless steel filler material. This work was done to find out an alternative way of welding and investigate the effects of heat input on the mechanical properties of butt welded joints of Galvanized Steel. A 13.7 kW maximum capacity MIG welding machine was used to join 1.6 mm thick sheet of galvanized steel with V groove and no gap between mm. Heat inputs was gradually increased from 21.06 to 25.07 joules/mm in this study. The result shows almost macro defects free welding and with increasing heat input the ultimate tensile strength and welding efficiency decrease. The Vickers hardness also decreases at HAZ with increasing heat input and for each individual specimen; hardness was lowest in heat affected zone (HAZ), intermediate in base metal and maximum in welded zone. The fracture for all specimens was in the heat affected zone while testing in the universal testing machine.

  6. Effects of heat input on mechanical properties of metal inert gas welded 1.6 mm thick galvanized steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiqul, M. I.; Ishak, M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    It is usually a lot easier and less expensive to galvanize steel before it is welded into useful products. Galvanizing afterwards is almost impossible. In this research work, Galvanized Steel was welded by using the ER 308L stainless steel filler material. This work was done to find out an alternative way of welding and investigate the effects of heat input on the mechanical properties of butt welded joints of Galvanized Steel. A 13.7 kW maximum capacity MIG welding machine was used to join 1.6 mm thick sheet of galvanized steel with V groove and no gap between mm. Heat inputs was gradually increased from 21.06 to 25.07 joules/mm in this study. The result shows almost macro defects free welding and with increasing heat input the ultimate tensile strength and welding efficiency decrease. The Vickers hardness also decreases at HAZ with increasing heat input and for each individual specimen; hardness was lowest in heat affected zone (HAZ), intermediate in base metal and maximum in welded zone. The fracture for all specimens was in the heat affected zone while testing in the universal testing machine.

  7. Three-dimensional primate molar enamel thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Anthony J; Tafforeau, Paul; Feeney, Robin N M; Martin, Lawrence B

    2008-02-01

    Molar enamel thickness has played an important role in the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and dietary assessments of fossil primate teeth for nearly 90 years. Despite the frequency with which enamel thickness is discussed in paleoanthropological discourse, methods used to attain information about enamel thickness are destructive and record information from only a single plane of section. Such semidestructive planar methods limit sample sizes and ignore dimensional data that may be culled from the entire length of a tooth. In light of recently developed techniques to investigate enamel thickness in 3D and the frequent use of enamel thickness in dietary and phylogenetic interpretations of living and fossil primates, the study presented here aims to produce and make available to other researchers a database of 3D enamel thickness measurements of primate molars (n=182 molars). The 3D enamel thickness measurements reported here generally agree with 2D studies. Hominoids show a broad range of relative enamel thicknesses, and cercopithecoids have relatively thicker enamel than ceboids, which in turn have relatively thicker enamel than strepsirrhine primates, on average. Past studies performed using 2D sections appear to have accurately diagnosed the 3D relative enamel thickness condition in great apes and humans: Gorilla has the relatively thinnest enamel, Pan has relatively thinner enamel than Pongo, and Homo has the relatively thickest enamel. Although the data set presented here has some taxonomic gaps, it may serve as a useful reference for researchers investigating enamel thickness in fossil taxa and studies of primate gnathic biology.

  8. Enface Thickness Mapping and Reflectance Imaging of Retinal Layers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew W; Wanek, Justin; Lim, Jennifer I; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    To present a method for image segmentation and generation of enface thickness maps and reflectance images of retinal layers in healthy and diabetic retinopathy (DR) subjects. High density spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) images were acquired in 10 healthy and 4 DR subjects. Customized image analysis software identified 5 retinal cell layer interfaces and generated thickness maps and reflectance images of the total retina (TR), inner retina (IR), outer retina (OR), and the inner segment ellipsoid (ISe) band. Thickness maps in DR subjects were compared to those of healthy subjects by generating deviation maps which displayed retinal locations with thickness below, within, and above the normal 95% confidence interval. In healthy subjects, TR and IR thickness maps displayed the foveal depression and increased thickness in the parafoveal region. OR and ISe thickness maps showed increased thickness at the fovea, consistent with normal retinal anatomy. In DR subjects, thickening and thinning in localized regions were demonstrated on TR, IR, OR, and ISe thickness maps, corresponding to retinal edema and atrophy, respectively. TR and OR reflectance images showed reduced reflectivity in regions of increased thickness. Hard exudates appeared as hyper-reflective spots in IR reflectance images and casted shadows on the deeper OR and ISe reflectance images. The ISe reflectance image clearly showed the presence of focal laser scars. Enface thickness mapping and reflectance imaging of retinal layers is a potentially useful method for quantifying the spatial and axial extent of pathologies due to DR.

  9. The ticking time bomb: Using eye-tracking methodology to capture attentional processing during gradual time constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Watkins, Ana M; Davis, Matthew E; Johnson, Joseph G

    2016-11-01

    Many decisions are made under suboptimal circumstances, such as time constraints. We examined how different experiences of time constraints affected decision strategies on a probabilistic inference task and whether individual differences in working memory accounted for complex strategy use across different levels of time. To examine information search and attentional processing, we used an interactive eye-tracking paradigm where task information was occluded and only revealed by an eye fixation to a given cell. Our results indicate that although participants change search strategies during the most restricted times, the occurrence of the shift in strategies depends both on how the constraints are applied as well as individual differences in working memory. This suggests that, in situations that require making decisions under time constraints, one can influence performance by being sensitive to working memory and, potentially, by acclimating people to the task time gradually.

  10. Method of working thick beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giezynski, A; Bialasik, A; Krawiec, A; Wylenzek, A

    1981-12-30

    The patented method of working thick coal beds in layers consists of creating in the collapsed rocks or from the fill material a bearing rock plate by strengthening these rocks with a hardening composition made of wastes of raw material, resin and water injected into the rock through wells. The difference in the suggestion is that through boreholes drilled in the lower part of the rock roofing on a previously calculated network, a solution is regularly injected which consists of dust wastes obtained in electric filters during production of clinker from mineral raw material in a quantity of 60-70% by volume, wastes of open-hearth production in a quantity of 15-20% and natural sand in a quantity of 15-20%, and water in a quantity of 35-55% of the volume of mineral components. In the second variant, the injected compostion contains: wastes from production of clinker 55-57%, open-hearth wastes 20-23%, natural sand 12-14%, asbestos fine particles 7-8% and water 38-45% of the volume of mineral components. In addition, the difference is that in the boreholes drilled in the coal block directly under the roofing, a composition is injected which consists of natural sand and catalyst in the form of powder and individually supplied liquid synthetic resin in a quantity of 3-5% by weight in relation to the sand. The hardening time with normal temperature is 1-1.5 h, after which strength is reached of 80 kg-f/cm/sup 2/.

  11. Harmonic hopping, and both punctuated and gradual evolution of acoustic characters in Selasphorus hummingbird tail-feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Clark

    Full Text Available Models of character evolution often assume a single mode of evolutionary change, such as continuous, or discrete. Here I provide an example in which a character exhibits both types of change. Hummingbirds in the genus Selasphorus produce sound with fluttering tail-feathers during courtship. The ancestral character state within Selasphorus is production of sound with an inner tail-feather, R2, in which the sound usually evolves gradually. Calliope and Allen's Hummingbirds have evolved autapomorphic acoustic mechanisms that involve feather-feather interactions. I develop a source-filter model of these interactions. The 'source' comprises feather(s that are both necessary and sufficient for sound production, and are aerodynamically coupled to neighboring feathers, which act as filters. Filters are unnecessary or insufficient for sound production, but may evolve to become sources. Allen's Hummingbird has evolved to produce sound with two sources, one with feather R3, another frequency-modulated sound with R4, and their interaction frequencies. Allen's R2 retains the ancestral character state, a ∼1 kHz "ghost" fundamental frequency masked by R3, which is revealed when R3 is experimentally removed. In the ancestor to Allen's Hummingbird, the dominant frequency has 'hopped' to the second harmonic without passing through intermediate frequencies. This demonstrates that although the fundamental frequency of a communication sound may usually evolve gradually, occasional jumps from one character state to another can occur in a discrete fashion. Accordingly, mapping acoustic characters on a phylogeny may produce misleading results if the physical mechanism of production is not known.

  12. Porosity of porcine bladder acellular matrix: impact of ACM thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Walid; Chen, Jun; Erdeljan, Petar; Shemtov, Oren; Courtman, David; Khoury, Antoine; Yeger, Herman

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to examine the porosity of bladder acellular matrix (ACM) using deionized (DI) water as the model fluid and dextran as the indicator macromolecule, and to correlate the porosity to the ACM thickness. Porcine urinary bladders from pigs weighing 20-50 kg were sequentially extracted in detergent containing solutions, and to modify the ACM thickness, stretched bladders were acellularized in the same manner. Luminal and abluminal ACM specimens were subjected to fixed static DI water pressure (10 cm); and water passing through the specimens was collected at specific time interval. While for the macromolecule porosity testing, the diffusion rate and direction of 10,000 MW fluoroescein-labeled dextrans across the ACM specimens mounted in Ussing's chambers were measured. Both experiments were repeated on the thin stretched ACM. In both ACM types, the fluid porosity in both directions did not decrease with increased test duration (3 h); in addition, the abluminal surface was more porous to fluid than the luminal surface. On the other hand, when comparing thin to thick ACM, the porosity in either direction was higher in the thick ACM. Macromolecule porosity, as measured by absorbance, was higher for the abluminal thick ACM than the luminal side, but this characteristic was reversed in the thin ACM. Comparing thin to thick ACM, the luminal side in the thin ACM was more porous to dextran than in the thick ACM, but this characteristic was reversed for the abluminal side. The porcine bladder ACM possesses directional porosity and acellularizing stretched urinary bladders may increase structural density and alter fluid and macromolecule porosity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 970-974, 2003

  13. Characteristics of the thick, compound refractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, Richard H.; Feinstein, Joseph; Beguiristain, H. Raul; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Cremer, Jay T.

    2003-01-01

    A compound refractive lens (CRL), consisting of a series of N closely spaced lens elements each of which contributes a small fraction of the total focusing, can be used to focus x rays or neutrons. The thickness of a CRL can be comparable to its focal length, whereupon a thick-lens analysis must be performed. In contrast with the conventional optical lens, where the ray inside the lens follows a straight line, the ray inside the CRL is continually changing direction because of the multiple refracting surfaces. Thus the matrix representation for the thick CRL is quite different from that for the thick optical lens. Principal planes can be defined such that the thick-lens matrix can be converted to that of a thin lens. For a thick lens the focal length is greater than for a thin lens with the same lens curvature, but this lengthening effect is less for the CRL than for the conventional optical lens

  14. Graph Treewidth and Geometric Thickness Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Wood, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Consider a drawing of a graph $G$ in the plane such that crossing edges are coloured differently. The minimum number of colours, taken over all drawings of $G$, is the classical graph parameter "thickness". By restricting the edges to be straight, we obtain the "geometric thickness". By further restricting the vertices to be in convex position, we obtain the "book thickness". This paper studies the relationship between these parameters and treewidth. Our first main result states that for grap...

  15. Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba

    2004-01-01

    We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z 2 symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS 5 spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes

  16. Does cement mantle thickness really matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, J.

    2008-01-01

    The thickness of the cement mantle around the femoral component of total hip replacements is a contributing factor to aseptic loosening and revision. Nevertheless, various designs of stems and surgical tooling lead to cement mantles of differing thicknesses. This thesis is concerned with variability in cement thickness around the Stanmore Hip, due to surgical approach, broach size and stem orientation, and its effects on stress and cracking in the cement. The extent to which cement mantle thi...

  17. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  18. Dual beam x-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The apparatus and method for continuous measurement of thickness of a sheet at a rolling mill or the like without contacting the sheet are described. A system directing radiation through the sheet in two energy bands and providing a measure of change in composition of the material as it passes the thickness gauging station is included. A system providing for changing the absorption coefficient of the material in the thickness measurement as a function of the change in composition so that the measured thickness is substantially independent of variations in composition is described

  19. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  20. Uncertainties in thick-target PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.L.; Cookson, J.A.; Paul, H.

    1983-01-01

    Thick-target PIXE analysis insolves uncertainties arising from the calculation of thick-target X-ray production in addition to the usual PIXE uncertainties. The calculation demands knowledge of ionization cross-sections, stopping powers and photon attenuation coefficients. Information on these is reviewed critically and a computational method is used to estimate the uncertainties transmitted from this data base into results of thick-target PIXE analyses with reference to particular specimen types using beams of 2-3 MeV protons. A detailed assessment of the accuracy of thick-target PIXE is presented. (orig.)

  1. Thickness effect on the microstructure, morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathap, P; Revathi, N; Subbaiah, Y P Venkata; Reddy, K T Ramakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of ZnS with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 600 nm have been deposited on glass substrates by close spaced thermal evaporation. All the films were grown at the same deposition conditions except the deposition time. The effect of thickness on the physical properties of ZnS films has been studied. The experimental results indicated that the thickness affects the structure, lattice strain, surface morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films significantly. The films deposited at a thickness of 100 nm showed hexagonal structure whereas films of thickness 300 nm or more showed cubic structure. However, coexistence of both cubic and hexagonal structures was observed in the films of 200 nm thickness. The surface roughness of the films showed an increasing trend at higher thicknesses of the films. A blue-shift in the energy band gap along with an intense UV emission band was observed with the decrease of film thickness, which are ascribed to the quantum confinement effect. The behaviour of optical constants such as refractive index and extinction coefficient were analysed. The variation of refractive index and extinction coefficient with thickness was explained on the basis of the contribution from the packing density of the layers. The electrical resistivity as well as the activation energy were evaluated and found to decrease with the increase of film thickness. The thickness had a significant influence on the optical band gap as well as the luminescence intensity

  2. GRADING SCALE OF VISCERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE THICKNESS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuino de Oliveira ANDRADE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The mesenteric fat is drained by the portal system, being related to the metabolic syndrome which is an impor­tant risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Objectives Graduate of visceral fat thickness and correlate with the NAFLD degree through ultrasonography method. Methods We studied 352 subjects for age, gender, measures of subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness as well as the presence and degree of liver fatty. Was analyzed the independent relationship between visceral fat thickness and NAFLD, and linear regression analysis was used in order to predict the visceral fat thickness from subcutaneous fat thickness. Results The mean age of 225 women (63.9% and 127 men (36.1% was 47.5 ± 14.0 (18-77 years, 255 subjects had normal examinations, 97 had NAFLD thus distributed, 37 grade 1, 32 grade 2, and 28 grade 3. The subcutaneous fat thickness ranged from 0.26 to 3.50 cm with a mean of 1.3 ± 0.6 cm and visceral fat thickness ranged from 0.83 to 8.86 cm with a mean of 3.6 ± 1.7 cm. Linear regression showed that for every increase of 1 cm in subcutaneous fat thickness the visceral fat thickness will increase 0.9 cm. Conclusions The visceral fat thickness measured by ultrasonography is a useful and seems to be able to help estimate the risk of NAFLD.

  3. The interactive effects of a gradual temperature decrease and long-term food deprivation on cardiac and hepatic blood flows in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L H; Dzialowski, E; Huggett, D B

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which the fish liver is perfused with blood. Transonic® flow probes were therefore implanted around the ventral aorta and hepatic vein(s) to record baseline blood flows in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) previously held under two different feeding regimes (food-deprived or fed to satiation, 8-12 weeks). Fish from both groups were exposed to a gradual temperature decrease (12°C to 5°C) and physical disturbance. Cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (Sv) and hepatic venous blood flow (HVBF) were significantly reduced in food-deprived trout at 12°C. Heart rate was not significantly affected by nutritional status, but was significantly reduced when temperature was decreased to 5°C. Physically disturbing each fish at 12°C and 5°C showed that the performance capacity of the heart was not affected by food deprivation as the capacity to increase Q and Sv was not reduced in the food-deprived group. Overall this study showed that food deprivation in rainbow trout reduced cardiac and hepatic blood flows. However, long-term food deprivation did not affect the capacity of the heart to acutely increase performance. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Wall thickness tests by means of rotating electrodynamic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueschelrath, G.

    1986-01-01

    For about three years, the EROT system has been employed for measuring wall thicknesses on pipes of ferritic steels. The experience gathered and the degree of reliability reached up to now are definitely encouraging, so that an increased use of electrodynamic transducers can be expected for measuring pipes with outside diameters of up to 22 inches. (orig.) [de

  5. Reflectance confocal microscopy features of thin versus thick melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardynal, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Małgorzata; de Carvalho, Nathalie; Walecka, Irena; Pellacani, Giovanni; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2018-01-24

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) plays an increasingly important role in differential diagnosis of melanoma. The aim of the study was to assess typical confocal features of thin (≤1mm according to Breslow index) versus thick (>1mm) melanomas. 30 patients with histopathologically confirmed cutaneous melanoma were included in the study. Reflectance confocal microscopy was performed with Vivascope equipment prior to excision. Fifteen melanomas were thin (Breslow thickness ≤ 1mm) and 15 were thick melanomas (Breslow thickness >1mm). In the RCM examination, the following features were more frequently observed in thin compared to thick melanomas: edged papillae (26.7% vs 0%, p=0.032) and areas with honeycomb or cobblestone pattern (33.3% vs 6.7%, p=0.068). Both features are present in benign melanocytic lesions, so in melanoma are good prognostic factors. The group of thick melanomas compared to the group of thin melanomas in the RCM images presented with greater frequency of roundish cells (100% vs 40%, p=0.001), non-edged papillae (100% vs 60%, p=0.006), numerous pagetoid cells (73.3% vs 33.3%, p=0.028), numerous atypical cells at dermal-epidermal junction (53.3% vs 20%, p=0.058) and epidermal disarray (93.3% vs 66.7%, p=0.068). Non-invasive imaging methods helps in deepening of knowledge about the evolution and biology of melanoma. The most characteristic features for thin melanomas in confocal examination are: fragments of cobblestone or honeycomb pattern and edged papillae (as good prognostic factors). The features of thick melanomas in RCM examination are: roundish cells, non-edged papillae, numerous pagetoid cells at dermal-epidermal junction and epidermal disarray.

  6. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  7. Gradual crossover in molecular organization of stable liquid H2O at moderately high pressure and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikata Koga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the literature raw data of the speed of sound and the specific volume, the isothermal compressibility, κT, a second derivative thermodynamic quantity of G, was evaluated for liquid H2O in the pressure range up to 350 MPa and the temperature to 50 ºC. We then obtained its pressure derivative, dκT/dp, a third derivative numerically without using a fitting function to the κT data. On taking yet another p-derivative at a fixed T graphically without resorting to any fitting function, the resulting d2κT/dp2, a fourth derivative, showed a weak but clear step anomaly, with the onset of the step named point X and its end point Y. In analogy with another third and fourth derivative pair in binary aqueous solutions of glycerol, dαp/dxGly and d2αp/dxGly2, at 0.1 MPa (αp is the thermal expansivity and xGly the mole fraction of solute glycerol in our recent publication [J. Solution Chem. 43, 663-674 (2014; DOI:10.1007/s10953-013-0122-7], we argue that there is a gradual crossover in the molecular organization of pure H2O from a low to a high p-regions starting at point X and ending at Y at a fixed T. The crossover takes place gradually spanning for about 100 MPa at a fixed temperature. The extrapolated temperature to zero p seems to be about 70 – 80 °C for points X and 90 – 110 °C for Y. Furthermore, the mid-points of X and Y seem to extrapolate to the triple point of liquid, ice Ih and ice III. Recalling that the zero xGly extrapolation of point X and Y for binary aqueous glycerol at 0.1 MPa gives about the same T values respectively, we suggest that at zero pressure the region below about 70 °C the hydrogen bond network is bond-percolated, while above about 90 ºC there is no hydrogen bond network. Implication of these findings is discussed.

  8. Technique for determination of elastic limit of micron band-thick amorphous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, E.K.; Pol'dyaeva, G.P.; Tret'yakov, B.N.

    1984-01-01

    A method is suggested to determine the elastic limit of micron-thick amorphous band under bending. The elastic limit is determined by bending an amorphous band sample around a series of cylindrical mandrels of gradually decreasing radius. Experimental data on measuring the elastic limit of some amorphous iron base alloys according to the suggested technique are presented. The elastic limit of amorphous alloys is shown to lie in the 3140-4110 MPa range depending on chemical composition, which is about 2-2.5 times higher as compared to high-strength crystal alloys

  9. Contribution to the study of slab thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraitis, G.A.; Rorris, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the time-independent values of the equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere, defined as the ratio of the total electron content to the corresponding maximum electron density of the F region. Periodic variations of slab thickness are studied and are correlated to relative changes in exospheric temperature, deduced from the OGO-6 model

  10. Eggshell thickness in mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Eggs (n = 452) of the mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) were collected from 9 states in 1969 and 11 states in 1970, and shell thickness was compared with that of eggs (n = 97) collected from 24 states during the years 1861 to 1935. Mean shell thickness did not differ significantly in the test groups.

  11. Applications of precision ultrasonic thickness gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.A.; Elfbaum, G.M.; Husarek, V.; Castel, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse-echo ultrasonic thickness gauging is now recognized as an accurate method of measuring thickness of a product from one side when the velocity of ultrasound in the material is known. The advantages and present limitation of this gauging technique are presented, together with several applications of industrial interest [fr

  12. Skull thickness in patients with clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, T; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP).......The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP)....

  13. Smoking influences on the thickness of marginal gingival epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Cristina Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking patients show reduction of inflammatory clinical signs that might be associated with local vasoconstriction and an increased gingival epithelial thickness. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the thickness of the marginal gingival oral epithelium in smokers and non-smokers, with clinically healthy gingivae or with gingivitis. Twenty biopsies were obtained from four different groups. Group I: non-smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group II: non-smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. Group III: smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group IV: smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. These biopsies were histologically processed, serially sectioned at 5 mm, stained with H. E., and examined by image analysis software (KS400, which was used to perform the morphometric evaluation and the quantification of the major epithelial thickness, the epithelial base thickness and the external and internal epithelial perimeters. Differences between the four groups were analyzed using ANOVA test and Tukey's test. The criteria for statistical significance were accepted at the probability level p < 0.05. A greater epithelial thickness was observed in smokers independent of the gingival health situation.

  14. Thin dielectric film thickness determination by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, A.C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D.; Pennycook, S.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-09-01

    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by non-specialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods was steadily improved reaching now into the sub Angstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this paper, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this paper is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  15. Critical thickness of atomically ordered III-V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, R. M.; McMahon, W. E.; Guthrey, H. L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    The critical thickness model is modified with a general boundary energy that describes the change in bulk energy as a dislocation regularly alters the atomic structure of an ordered material. The model is evaluated for dislocations gliding through CuPt-ordered GaInP and GaInAs, where the boundary energy is negative and the boundary is stable. With ordering present, the critical thickness is significantly lowered and remains finite as the mismatch strain approaches zero. The reduction in critical thickness is most significant when the order parameter is greatest and the amount of misfit energy is low. The modified model is experimentally validated for low-misfit GaInP epilayers with varying order parameters using in situ wafer curvature and ex situ cathodoluminescence. With strong ordering, relaxation begins at a lower thickness and occurs at a greater rate, which is consistent with a lower critical thickness and increased glide force. Thus, atomic ordering is an important consideration for the stability of lattice-mismatched devices.

  16. Model for thickness dependence of radiation charging in MOS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, C. R.; Maserjian, J.

    1976-01-01

    The model considers charge buildup in MOS structures due to hole trapping in the oxide and the creation of sheet charge at the silicon interface. The contribution of hole trapping causes the flatband voltage to increase with thickness in a manner in which square and cube dependences are limiting cases. Experimental measurements on samples covering a 200 - 1000 A range of oxide thickness are consistent with the model, using independently obtained values of hole-trapping parameters. An important finding of our experimental results is that a negative interface charge contribution due to surface states created during irradiation compensates most of the positive charge in the oxide at flatband. The tendency of the surface states to 'track' the positive charge buildup in the oxide, for all thicknesses, applies both in creation during irradiation and in annihilation during annealing. An explanation is proposed based on the common defect origin of hole traps and potential surface states.

  17. Buckling Optimization of Thick Stiffened Cylindrical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Hassan Bader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the critical pressure due to buckling was calculated numerically by using ANSYS15 for both stiffened and un-stiffened cylinder for various locations and installing types , strengthening of the cylinder causes a more significant increase in buckling pressures than non reinforced cylinder . The optimum design of structure was done by using the ASYS15 program; in this step the number of design variables 21 DVs. These variables are Independent variables that directly affect. The design variables represented the thickness of the cylinder and( height and width of 10 stiffeners. State variables (SVs, these variables are dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs and are necessary to constrain the design. The objective function is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized. In this case the state variable is critical pressure (CP and the objective function is the total (volume of the structure. The optimum weight of the structure with reasonable required conditions for multi types of structure was found. The result shows the best location of stiffener at internal side with circumferential direction. In this case the critical pressure can be increased about 18.6% and the total weight of the structure decreases to 15.8%.

  18. Formation of Large-scale Coronal Loops Interconnecting Two Active Regions through Gradual Magnetic Reconnection and an Associated Heating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guohui; Chen, Yao; Zhu, Chunming; Liu, Chang; Ge, Lili; Wang, Bing; Li, Chuanyang; Wang, Haimin

    2018-06-01

    Coronal loops interconnecting two active regions (ARs), called interconnecting loops (ILs), are prominent large-scale structures in the solar atmosphere. They carry a significant amount of magnetic flux and therefore are considered to be an important element of the solar dynamo process. Earlier observations showed that eruptions of ILs are an important source of CMEs. It is generally believed that ILs are formed through magnetic reconnection in the high corona (>150″–200″), and several scenarios have been proposed to explain their brightening in soft X-rays (SXRs). However, the detailed IL formation process has not been fully explored, and the associated energy release in the corona still remains unresolved. Here, we report the complete formation process of a set of ILs connecting two nearby ARs, with successive observations by STEREO-A on the far side of the Sun and by SDO and Hinode on the Earth side. We conclude that ILs are formed by gradual reconnection high in the corona, in line with earlier postulations. In addition, we show evidence that ILs brighten in SXRs and EUVs through heating at or close to the reconnection site in the corona (i.e., through the direct heating process of reconnection), a process that has been largely overlooked in earlier studies of ILs.

  19. Gradual and stepwise pyrolyses of insoluble organic matter from the Murchison meteorite revealing chemical structure and isotopic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Fumiaki; Mimura, Koichi

    2011-11-01

    To study the detailed structural and isotopic heterogeneity of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) of the Murchison meteorite, we performed two types of pyrolytic experiments: gradual pyrolysis and stepwise pyrolysis. The pyrolysates from the IOM contained 5 specific organic groups: aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur-bearing compounds, nitrogen-bearing compounds, and oxygen-bearing compounds. The release temperatures and the compositions of these pyrolysates demonstrated that the IOM is composed of a thermally unstable part and a thermally stable part. The thermally unstable part mainly served as the linkage and substituent portion that bound the thermally stable part, which was dispersed throughout the IOM. The linkage and substituent portion consisted of aliphatic hydrocarbons from C 4 to C 8, aromatic hydrocarbons with up to 6 rings, sulfo and thiol groups (the main reservoirs of sulfur in the IOM), and carboxyl and hydroxyl groups (the main reservoirs of oxygen). However, the thermally stable part was composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing nitrogen heterocycles in the IOM. Isotopic data showed that the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the linkage and substituent portion were rich in D and 13C, while the thermally stable part was deficient in D and 13C. The structural and isotopic features suggested that the IOM was formed by mixing sulfur- and oxygen-bearing compounds rich in D and 13C (e.g., polar compounds in the interstellar medium (ISM)) and nitrogen-bearing PAHs deficient in D and 13C (e.g., polymerized compounds in the ISM).

  20. Gradual reduction of free sugars in beverages on sale by implementing the beverage checklist as a public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Maria; Winzer, Eva; Schätzer, Manuel; Dämon, Sabine; Moser, Nadine; Blagusz, Karin; Rittmannsberger, Barbara; Schätzer, Julia; Lechleitner, Monika; Rieder, Anita; Hoppichler, Friedrich

    2018-03-15

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major source of free sugar intake and contribute to obesity and obesity-related diseases. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of a gradual sugar reduction strategy within the so-called 'beverage checklist' on free sugar content in beverages on sale in Austria. From 2010 until 2017, data on the amount of free sugar of sweetened beverages (sweetened with sugars, fruit juice and artificial sweeteners) with 0.20-0.75l serving sizes in all main supermarkets and from industry was collected. These data were published annually as the beverage checklist, which displays beverages on sale in Austria. The checklist aims to encourage beverage production with a free sugar content of ≤7.4 g/100 ml and no artificial sweeteners. Free sugar content in the total supply decreased significantly [7.53 (2.86) vs. 6.75 (2.79) g/100 ml; 10.4%; P strategy, conducted by a small non-profit organization, showed a reduction in the mean free sugar content by working with the industry to voluntarily reformulate beverages. More beverages with less added sugar were brought to the market, which implies healthier choices. The challenge now is to further engage the industry and also policy makers to achieve a greater reduction in the future.

  1. Gradual conversion of cellular stress patterns into pre-stressed matrix architecture during in vitro tissue growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidan, Cécile M; Kollmannsberger, Philip; Gering, Vanessa; Ehrig, Sebastian; Joly, Pascal; Petersen, Ansgar; Vogel, Viola; Fratzl, Peter; Dunlop, John W C

    2016-05-01

    The complex arrangement of the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cells during tissue growth, healing and remodelling is fundamental to tissue function. In connective tissues, it is still unclear how both cells and the ECM become and remain organized over length scales much larger than the distance between neighbouring cells. While cytoskeletal forces are essential for assembly and organization of the early ECM, how these processes lead to a highly organized ECM in tissues such as osteoid is not clear. To clarify the role of cellular tension for the development of these ordered fibril architectures, we used an in vitro model system, where pre-osteoblastic cells produced ECM-rich tissue inside channels with millimetre-sized triangular cross sections in ceramic scaffolds. Our results suggest a mechanical handshake between actively contracting cells and ECM fibrils: the build-up of a long-range organization of cells and the ECM enables a gradual conversion of cell-generated tension to pre-straining the ECM fibrils, which reduces the work cells have to generate to keep mature tissue under tension. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. High-grade spondylolisthesis: gradual reduction using Magerl's external fixator followed by circumferential fusion technique and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampalis, Christos; Grevitt, Michael; Shafafy, Masood; Webb, John

    2012-05-01

    To report the results of a cohort of patients treated with this technique high lighting radiological and functional outcomes, discussing also benefits arising from a gradual reduction procedure compared with other techniques. We evaluated nine patients who have undergone high-grade listhesis reduction and circumferential fusion at our institution from 1988 to 2006. Average length of follow-up was 11 years (5-19). Functional outcomes and radiological measurements were recorded and reported. Slip magnitude was reduced by an average of 2.9 grades (Meyerding classification). Slip angle improved by an average of 66% (p = 0.0001), lumbosacral angle by 47% (p = 0.0002), sacral rotation by 51% (p = 0.0068) and sacral inclination by 47% (p = 0.0055). At the latest follow-up 88.9% had achieved solid fusion. Post-operative 10-point Visual Analogue Score (VAS) for back pain had improved by 70% (p Average postoperative Oswestry Disability Index for all patients was 8% (range 0-16%) and that for Low Back Outcome Scores was 56.6 (range 44-70). All components of Short Form 36 Health Survey were greater than 80%. Overall patients' expectations were met in 100%. This is an effective and safe technique which addresses the lumbosacral kyphosis and cosmetic deformity without the neurological complications which accompany other reduction and fusion techniques for high-grade spondylolisthesis.

  3. Giant moving vortex mass in thick magnetic nanodots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guslienko, K Y; Kakazei, G N; Ding, J; Liu, X M; Adeyeye, A O

    2015-09-10

    Magnetic vortex is one of the simplest topologically non-trivial textures in condensed matter physics. It is the ground state of submicron magnetic elements (dots) of different shapes: cylindrical, square etc. So far, the vast majority of the vortex dynamics studies were focused on thin dots with thickness 5-50 nm and only uniform across the thickness vortex excitation modes were observed. Here we explore the fundamental vortex mode in relatively thick (50-100 nm) dots using broadband ferromagnetic resonance and show that dimensionality increase leads to qualitatively new excitation spectra. We demonstrate that the fundamental mode frequency cannot be explained without introducing a giant vortex mass, which is a result of the vortex distortion due to interaction with spin waves. The vortex mass depends on the system geometry and is non-local because of important role of the dipolar interaction. The mass is rather small for thin dots. However, its importance increases drastically with the dot thickness increasing.

  4. Source Regions of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Variability in Heavy-Ion Elemental Composition in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Dietrich, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events are those in which ions are accelerated to their observed energies by interactions with a shock driven by a fast coronal mass-ejection (CME). Previous studies have shown that much of the observed event-to-event variability can be understood in terms of shock speed and evolution in the shock-normal angle. But an equally important factor, particularly for the elemental composition, is the origin of the suprathermal seed particles upon which the shock acts. To tackle this issue, we (1) use observed solar-wind speed, magnetograms, and the PFSS model to map the Sun-L1 interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line back to its source region on the Sun at the time of the SEP observations; and (2) then look for correlation between SEP composition (as measured by Wind and ACE at approx. 2-30 MeV/nucleon) and characteristics of the identified IMF-source regions. The study is based on 24 SEP events, identified as a statistically-significant increase in approx. 20 MeV protons and occurring in 1998 and 2003-2006, when the rate of newly-emergent solar magnetic flux and CMEs was lower than in solar-maximum years and the field-line tracing is therefore more likely to be successful. We find that the gradual SEP Fe/O is correlated with the field strength at the IMF-source, with the largest enhancements occurring when the footpoint field is strong, due to the nearby presence of an active region. In these cases, other elemental ratios show a strong charge-to-mass (q/M) ordering, at least on average, similar to that found in impulsive events. These results lead us to suggest that magnetic reconnection in footpoint regions near active regions bias the heavy-ion composition of suprathermal seed ions by processes qualitatively similar to those that produce larger heavy-ion enhancements in impulsive SEP events. To address potential technical concerns about our analysis, we also discuss efforts to exclude impulsive SEP events from our event sample.

  5. Thickness-dependent change in the valence band offset of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface studied using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, S., E-mail: toyoda.satoshi.4w@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Oshima, M. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    We have studied the thickness-dependent change in the valence band offset (VBO) of the SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) interface using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy with soft and hard X-rays. The SiO{sub 2}-film thickness (T{sub ox}) and X-ray irradiation time (t{sub irrad}) were systematically parameterized to distinguish between the “intrinsic” T{sub ox} effects in the VBOs and the “extrinsic” differential charging phenomena in SiO{sub 2} films on Si substrates. The results revealed that at a spontaneous time (t{sub irrad} ≈ 5 s) that suppresses the differential charging phenomena as much as possible, the experimental VBO abruptly increases as a function of T{sub ox} and gradually saturates to the traditional VBO value range determined by the internal photoemission and photoconduction measurements. This effect is not attributed to the differential charging phenomena, but rather it is attributed to the “intrinsic” T{sub ox}-dependent change in the VBO. The two possible physical behaviors include electronic polarization and image charge. We have derived the electronic polarization contribution from experimental data by carefully describing the effects of the long-range image charges based on the classical dielectric-screening model.

  6. TiO2 thin and thick films grown on Si/glass by sputtering of titanium targets in an RF inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 thin and thick films were deposited on silicon/glass substrates using RF inductive plasma in continuous wave. The films thickness, as well as phases control, is achieved with a gradual increase in temperature substrates varying supplied RF power or working gas pressure besides deposition time as well. The deposition conditions were: argon 80%/oxygen 20% carefully calibrated mixture of 2 to 7×10 −2 mbar as working gas pressure range. Deposition time 0.5 to 5 hours, 500 or 600 W RF power at 13.56 MHz frequency and 242-345 °C substrates temperature range. The titanium dioxide deposited on the substrates is grown by sputtering of a titanium target negatively polarized at 3-5 kV DC situated 14 mm in front of such substrates. The plasma reactor is a simple Pyrex-like glass cylindrical vessel of 50 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. Using the before describe plasma parameters we obtained films only anatase and both anatase/rutile phases with stoichiometric different. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), stylus profilometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  7. Self-assembly of bimetallic AuxPd1-x alloy nanoparticles via dewetting of bilayers through the systematic control of temperature, thickness, composition and stacking sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Sundar; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Bastola, Sushil; Lee, Jihoon

    2018-03-01

    Bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) are attractive materials for various applications with their morphology and elemental composition dependent optical, electronic, magnetic and catalytic properties. This work demonstrates the evolution of AuxPd1-x alloy nanostructures by the solid-state dewetting of sequentially deposited bilayers of Au and Pd on sapphire (0001). Various shape, size and configuration of AuxPd1‑x alloy NPs are fabricated by the systematic control of annealing temperature, deposition thickness, composition as well as stacking sequence. The evolution of alloy nanostructures is attributed to the surface diffusion, interface diffusion between bilayers, surface and interface energy minimization, Volmer-Weber growth model and equilibrium configuration. Depending upon the temperature, the surface morphologies evolve with the formation of pits, grains and voids and gradually develop into isolated semi-spherical alloy NPs by the expansion of voids and agglomeration of Au and Pd adatoms. On the other hand, small isolated to enlarged elongated and over-grown layer-like alloy nanostructures are fabricated due to the coalescence, partial diffusion and inter-diffusion with the increased bilayer thickness. In addition, the composition and stacking sequence of bilayers remarkably affect the final geometry of AuxPd1‑x nanostructures due to the variation in the dewetting process. The optical analysis based on the UV–vis-NIR reflectance spectra reveals the surface morphology dependent plasmonic resonance, scattering, reflection and absorption properties of AuxPd1‑x alloy nanostructures.

  8. Influence of cement film thickness on the retention of implant-retained crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Christian; Harder, Sönke; Steiner, Martin; Vollrath, Oliver; Kern, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    The main goal of this study was to establish a new, high precision procedure to evaluate the influence of cement film thickness on the retention of cemented implant-retained crowns. Ninety-six tapered titanium abutments (6° taper, 4.3 mm diameter, Camlog) were shortened to 4 mm. Computer-aided design was used to design the crowns, and selective laser sintering, using a cobalt-chromium alloy, was used to produce the crowns. This method used a focused high-energy laser beam to fuse a localized region of metal powder to build up the crowns gradually. Before cementing, preset cement film thicknesses of 15, 50, 80, or 110 μm were established. Glass ionomer, polycarboxylate, or resin cements were used for cementation. After 3 days storage in demineralized water, the retention of the crowns was measured in tension using a universal testing machine. The cement film thicknesses could be achieved with a high level of precision. Interactions between the factors cement and cement film thickness could be found (p ≤ 0.001). For all cements, crown retention decreased significantly between a cement film thickness of 15 and 50 μm (p ≤ 0.001). At 15 μm cement film thickness, the resin cement was the most retentive cement, followed by the polycarboxylate and then the glass ionomer cement (p ≤ 0.05). The results suggest that cement film thickness has an influence on the retentive strength of cemented implant-retained crowns. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Study on the ionization chamber for thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shili; Miao Qiangwen

    1988-01-01

    The principle, construction and performances of ionization chambers for measuring the thickness of metal and nonmetal materials are introduced. With them the thickness of thin materials (thickness ranging from 10 to 6000 g/m 2 ), the surface layer thickness of composed materials and the thickness of steel plate (thickness ranging from 0 to 32 kg/m 2 ) are measured effectively

  10. The correlation between plantar fascia thickness and symptoms of plantar fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, Sarah; Legge, Bradford S; Grady, John F

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in plantar fascia thickness are a reliable gauge of efficacy of treatment protocols for plantar fasciitis. Thirty-nine feet (30 patients) with plantar fasciitis received an ultrasound examination to measure the thickness of the medial band of the plantar fascia. Each patient assessed his or her pain using the visual analogue scale. Following various treatments, a second ultrasound examination was performed and the thickness of the plantar fascia was again measured and subjective pain level assessed. Twenty-nine feet (74.4%) showed a decrease in plantar fascia thickness and a decrease in pain. One foot (2.6%) experienced an increase in fascia thickness and reported an increase in pain. Four feet (10.3%) had an increase in thickness of the plantar fascia and reported no change in pain level. Three feet had minor increases in fascia thickness but reported a decrease in pain (7.7%). One foot (2.6%) had no change in fascia thickness but a decrease in pain and one foot (2.6%) had a decrease in the plantar fascia but no change in pain level. The average reduction in fascia thickness was 0.82 mm ± 1.04 mm, correlating with an average improvement in pain of 3.64 ± 2.7 (P plantar fascia is a valid objective measurement to assess effectiveness of new or existing treatment protocols.

  11. Macular Choroidal Small-Vessel Layer, Sattler's Layer and Haller's Layer Thicknesses: The Beijing Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B

    2018-03-13

    To study macular choroidal layer thickness, 3187 study participants from the population-based Beijing Eye Study underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging for thickness measurements of the macular small-vessel layer, including the choriocapillaris, medium-sized choroidal vessel layer (Sattler's layer) and large choroidal vessel layer (Haller's layer). In multivariate analysis, greater thickness of all three choroidal layers was associated (all P  0.05) associated with the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. There was a tendency (0.07 > P > 0.02) toward thinner choroidal layers in chronic angle-closure glaucoma. The ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness increased (P layer and Haller's layer thickness to total choroidal thickness decreased. A higher ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AMD (early type, intermediate type, late geographic type). Axial elongation-associated and aging-associated choroidal thinning affected Haller's and Sattler's layers more markedly than the small-vessel layer. Non-exudative and exudative AMD, except for geographic atrophy, was associated with slightly increased choroidal thickness.

  12. Effect of Processing Parameters on Thickness of Columnar Structured Silicon Wafers Directly Grown from Silicon Melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seok Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain optimum growth conditions for desired thickness and more effective silicon feedstock usage, effects of processing parameters such as preheated substrate temperatures, time intervals, moving velocity of substrates, and Ar gas blowing rates on silicon ribbon thickness were investigated in the horizontal growth process. Most of the parameters strongly affected in the control of ribbon thickness with columnar grain structure depended on the solidification rate. The thickness of the silicon ribbon decreased with an increasing substrate temperature, decreasing time interval, and increasing moving velocity of the substrate. However, the blowing of Ar gas onto a liquid layer existing on the surface of solidified ribbon contributed to achieving smooth surface roughness but did not closely affect the change of ribbon thickness in the case of a blowing rate of ≥0.65 Nm3/h because the thickness of the solidified layer was already determined by the exit height of the reservoir.

  13. Residual life assessment of thick wall boiler parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, M.; Rayatpour, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thick wall components of boiler, such as headers, main steam lines and hot reheat lines, operate at high temperature and stress condition. This condition makes various failure mechanisms to activate during service exposure that gradually deteriorate the microstructure of components. Consequently, knowing about metallurgical condition and remaining life sensitive components particularly in power plants with at least 100,000 her life time is of considerable importance. In this regard, to eliminate unexpected interruptions and reduce the repairing costs, life assessment technology is being used. Various life assessment methods have been developed for power plants components and entered industrial fields. In the present work, remaining life of drums, headers and main steam lines of a power plant were evaluated, using microstructural, hardness changes and dimensional checking methods with non destructive tests. The results show that, the components have appropriate condition according to their service life. Further more, it was revealed that hardness evaluation technique is not a reliable evaluation criteria and various methods should be used for accurate life assessment

  14. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions.

  15. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, G A; Gerbasi, R [CNR, Padua (Italy). Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati

    1996-09-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive.

  16. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G. A.; Gerbasi, R.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive

  17. Through thickness property variations in a thick plate AA7050 friction stir welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaday, Clinton T.; Moore, Matthew A.; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, moderately thick (32 mm) AA7050 plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW). Various methods were used to characterize the welded joints, including nugget grain size measurements at different locations through the thickness, micro-hardness indentation through nugget, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and heat affected zone (HAZ) at different cross section heights, and residual stress measurement using the cut compliance method with full thickness and partial thickness specimens. All testing results are consistent with the presence of a strong gradient in peak temperature through the plate thickness during FSW.

  18. Preschool Children’s Memory for Word Forms Remains Stable Over Several Days, but Gradually Decreases after Six Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Ruth Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on word learning has focused on children’s ability to identify a target object when given the word form after a minimal number of exposures to novel word-object pairings. However, relatively little research has focused on children’s ability to retrieve the word form when given the target object. The exceptions involve asking children to recall and produce forms, and children typically perform near floor on these measures. In the current study, 3- to 5-year-old children were administered a novel test of word form that allowed for recognition memory and manual responses. Specifically, when asked to label a previously trained object, children were given three forms to choose from: the target, a minimally different form, and a maximally different form. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at three post-training delays: 10 minutes (short-term, 2 to 3 days (long-term, and 6 months to 1 year (very long-term. However, children performed worse at the very long-term delay than the other time points, and the length of the very long-term delay was negatively related to performance. When in error, children were no more likely to select the minimally different form than the maximally different form at all time points. Overall, these results suggest that children remember word forms that are linked to objects over extended post-training intervals, but that their memory for the forms gradually decreases over time without further exposures. Furthermore, memory traces for word forms do not become less phonologically specific over time; rather children either identify the correct form, or they perform at chance.

  19. Correlation Analyses Between the Characteristic Times of Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events and the Properties of Associated Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wang, Yuming; Xue, X. H.

    2011-06-01

    It is generally believed that gradual solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated by shocks associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Using an ice-cream cone model, the radial speed and angular width of 95 CMEs associated with SEP events during 1998 - 2002 are calculated from SOHO/LASCO observations. Then, we investigate the relationships between the kinematic properties of these CMEs and the characteristic times of the intensity-time profile of their accompanied SEP events observed at 1 AU. These characteristic times of SEP are i) the onset time from the accompanying CME eruption at the Sun to the SEP arrival at 1 AU, ii) the rise time from the SEP onset to the time when the SEP intensity is one-half of peak intensity, and iii) the duration over which the SEP intensity is within a factor of two of the peak intensity. It is found that the onset time has neither significant correlation with the radial speed nor with the angular width of the accompanying CME. For events that are poorly connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have no significant correlation with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. However, for events that are magnetically well connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have significantly positive correlations with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. This indicates that a CME event with wider angular width and higher speed may more easily drive a strong and wide shock near to the Earth-connected interplanetary magnetic field lines, may trap and accelerate particles for a longer time, and may lead to longer rise time and duration of the ensuing SEP event.

  20. Filmes ópticos poliméricos fluorados com índice de refração gradual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoli Julio R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Filmes finos de PMMA foram preparados a partir de solução e expostos ao plasma de CF4+H2, visando mudar o Índice de Refração (I.R. da superficie do PMMA através da fluoração. Os filmes de PMMA expostos ao plasma, denominados de filmes ópticos, foram caracterizados usando as técnicas: ESCA, RBS, FTIR, gravimetria, ângulo de contato, refratometria e elipsometria. Os resultados revelaram que as superfícies de PMMA foram revestidas com uma fina camada de hidrofluorcarbono polimérico, com espessuras variando entre 0,43 e 0,49mim. A camada de hidrofluorcarbono polimérico na superfície do PMMA foi responsável pela significante redução do seu I.R. de 1,49 para 1,43. A concentração de flúor nessa camada aumentou gradualmente em função da profundidade, sendo menor na sua superficie. Como o átomo de flúor é responsável pela redução do I.R., concluiu-se que o I.R. no revestimento fluorado do filme óptico variou também de forma gradual. A técnica de polimerização por plasma de CF4+H2 mostrou-se útil para modificar in situ os I.R. da superfíces de guias de ondas e fibras ópticas poliméricas, visando reduzir as perdas e aumentar a velocidade de transmissão de dados.

  1. Testing functional and morphological interpretations of enamel thickness along the deciduous tooth row in human children.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The significance of a gradient in enamel thickness along the human permanent molar row has been debated in the literature. Some attribute increased enamel thickness from first to third molars to greater bite force during chewing. Others argue that thicker third molar enamel relates to a smaller crown size facilitated by a reduced dentin component. Thus, differences in morphology, not function, explains enamel thickness. This study draws on these different interpretive models to assess enamel ...

  2. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  3. Thick keratoconic cornea associated with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaarour, K; Slim, E; Antoun, J; Waked, N

    2017-03-01

    We herein report a case of bilateral unusually thick non-edematous keratoconic corneas with associated endothelial features of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD). We report the case of a 27-year-old myopic woman who presented for refractive surgery. Slit lamp exam showed bilateral corneal protrusion with diffuse deep stromal and endothelial vesicular opacities and small paracentral bands. Topography showed generalized advanced corneal steepening in both eyes with increased anterior and posterior central corneal elevations in comparison to the best fit sphere. Ultrasound pachymetry showed central corneal thickness of 605μm (RE) and 612μm (LE). On specular biomicroscopy, cell density of 2503 cells/mm 2 RE and 1526 cells/mm 2 LE with significant cellular pleomorphism and polymegathism were noted. Clinical and paraclinical findings together suggest the presence of simultaneous keratoconus and PPCD. The literature has suggested an association between PPCD and steep cornea. Moreover, many reports have also described cases of associated PPCD and keratoconus with characteristic thinning and ectasia, in comparison to the unusual thick corneas noted in our patient, despite the absence of edema. Identification of genetics factors is further needed to clarify this association. This case describes a patient whose corneas present features of both keratoconus and PPCD and is unique due to the presence of increased corneal thickness despite the absence of edema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of buffer thickness on ATW blanket performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Sik

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using an 840 MWt LBE cooled ATW design, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performances have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performances have been estimated by a series of calculations using MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance change are studied by investigating the low-energy (< 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. As the irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. The results show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable

  5. Effect of skin graft thickness on scar development in a porcine burn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruler, Danielle M; Blackstone, Britani N; McFarland, Kevin L; Baumann, Molly E; Supp, Dorothy M; Bailey, J Kevin; Powell, Heather M

    2018-06-01

    Animal models provide a way to investigate scar therapies in a controlled environment. It is necessary to produce uniform, reproducible scars with high anatomic and biologic similarity to human scars to better evaluate the efficacy of treatment strategies and to develop new treatments. In this study, scar development and maturation were assessed in a porcine full-thickness burn model with immediate excision and split-thickness autograft coverage. Red Duroc pigs were treated with split-thickness autografts of varying thickness: 0.026in. ("thin") or 0.058in. ("thick"). Additionally, the thin skin grafts were meshed and expanded at 1:1.5 or 1:4 to evaluate the role of skin expansion in scar formation. Overall, the burn-excise-autograft model resulted in thick, raised scars. Treatment with thick split-thickness skin grafts resulted in less contraction and reduced scarring as well as improved biomechanics. Thin skin autograft expansion at a 1:4 ratio tended to result in scars that contracted more with increased scar height compared to the 1:1.5 expansion ratio. All treatment groups showed Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression that increased over time and peaked 4 weeks after grafting. Burns treated with thick split-thickness grafts showed decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes 1 week after grafting, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and TGF-β1, compared to wounds treated with thin split-thickness grafts. Overall, the burn-excise-autograft model using split-thickness autograft meshed and expanded to 1:1.5 or 1:4, resulted in thick, raised scars similar in appearance and structure to human hypertrophic scars. This model can be used in future studies to study burn treatment outcomes and new therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Thickness on Ethanol Sensing Characteristics of Doctor-bladed Thick Film from Flame-made ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukon Phanichphant

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP using zincnaphthenate as a precursor dissolved in toluene/acetonitrile (80/20 vol%. The particleproperties were analyzed by XRD, BET, and HR-TEM. The sensing films were produced bymixing the particles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as avehicle binder and were fabricated by doctor-blade technique with various thicknesses (5,10, 15 μm. The morphology of the sensing films was analyzed by SEM and EDS analyses.The gas sensing characteristics to ethanol (25-250 ppm were evaluated as a function of filmthickness at 400°C in dry air. The relationship between thickness and ethanol sensingcharacteristics of ZnO thick film on Al2O3 substrate interdigitated with Au electrodes wereinvestigated. The effects of film thickness, as well as the cracking phenomenon, though,many cracks were observed for thicker sensing films. Crack widths increased withincreasing film thickness. The film thickness, cracking and ethanol concentration havesignificant effect on the sensing characteristics. The sensing characteristics with variousthicknesses were compared, showing the tendency of the sensitivity to ethanol decreasedwith increasing film thickness and response time. The relationship between gas sensingproperties and film thickness was discussed on the basis of diffusively and reactivity of thegases inside the oxide films. The thinnest sensing film (5 μm showed the highest sensitivityand the fastest response time (within seconds.

  7. Cloud-radiation interactions - Effects of cirrus optical thickness feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.; Iacobellis, Sam

    1987-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a cloud-radiation feedback mechanism which may be an important component of the climate changes expected from increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace greenhouse gases. A major result of the study is that cirrus cloud optical thickness feedbacks may indeed tend to increase the surface warming due to trace gas increases. However, the positive feedback from cirrus appears to be generally weaker than the negative effects due to lower clouds. The results just confirm those of earlier research indicating that the net effect of cloud optical thickness feedbacks may be a negative feedback which may substantially (by a factor of about 2) reduce the surface warming due to the doubling of CO2, even in the presence of cirrus clouds.

  8. Model SH intelligent instrument for thickness measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juntao; Jia Weizhuang; Zhao Yunlong

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduce Model SH Intelligent Instrument for thickness measuring by using principle of beta back-scattering and its application range, features, principle of operation, system design, calibration and specifications

  9. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  10. Fabrication of thick superconducting films by decantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Betancourt M.

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available We have found superconducting behavior in thick films fabricated by decantation. In this paper we present the experimental method and results obtained using commercial copper substrates.

  11. APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-24

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Russian River Ice Thickness and Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of river ice thickness measurements, and beginning and ending dates for river freeze-up events from fifty stations in northern Russia. The...

  13. Central corneal thickness among glaucoma patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AAU_CHS

    ocular pressure measurement and is different among different ethnic population and subtypes of glaucoma. The central corneal thickness of different subtypes of glaucoma at Menelik II Hospital ... Intraocular pressure is a key element in the.

  14. Eddy current technologies for thick metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Toshiyuki; Endo, Hisashi

    2004-01-01

    One of approach of an eddy current testing (ECT) for thick metal structures is introduced. The detection limit of ECT is capable of enlarging thick more than 10 mm, which is ordinarily about 5 mm, by the design of probe. On the basis of results of numerical analysis, the defect detection in thick and shape is evaluated by the distribution of experimental ECT signals. The problems of ECT for thick metal structures and measures, approach to probe design, the specifications of probe, evaluation of experimental results and defect detection are described. By ECT fast simulator, good slit sharp is simulated in the case of 10 and 20 mm of EDM slit length and 5, 10 and 15 mm of slit height. (S.Y.)

  15. investigating water absorption and thickness swelling tendencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    In addition, G30E (30% reinforced glass fibre in the epoxy composite) was more resilient to moisture ... determine its suitability as per its water absorption and thickness ... lower thermal conductivity and low density as outlined in the Tables.

  16. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice,...

  17. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture. The discrepancy between estimates of lithospheric thickness derived from subsidence data for the western Canning Basin and those derived from shear wave tomography suggests that the latter technique currently is limited in its ability to resolve lithospheric thickness variations at horizontal half-wavelength scales of <300 km.

  18. Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.

  19. Geologic thickness data: Candidate repository horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Fairchild, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    This data package contains information on the thickness of the Umtanum, McCoy Canyon, Cohassett, and Rocky Coulee flows and their intraflow structures in 20 boreholes and 2 surface sections in the Pasco Basin. Thickness data are for total flow, flow top, entablature, and colonnade (or just flow top and dense interior in some cases). Summary figures which contain descriptions and footages are included

  20. Preparation of tantalum targets of known thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.R.; Wirth, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A series of carbon-backed tantalum targets were produced in a heavy ion sputtering system with a Penning ion source. The target thicknesses were then measured using the alpha-ray energy loss method. The resulting tabulated measurements were reproducible and make possible the production of carbon-backed tantalum targets with pre-determined thicknesses ranging from 20 μg/cm 2 to 1 mg/cm 2 . (orig.)

  1. Rapid Measurement of Nanoparticle Thickness Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz-Boon, Hadas; Rossouw, Chris J.; Dwyer, Christian; Etheridge, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    A method to measure the thickness of a single-crystal nanoparticle in the direction parallel to the incident beam from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF-STEM) images is reported, providing a map of thickness versus position across the nanoparticle—a ‘thickness profile’ image. The method is rapid and hence suitable for surveying large numbers of nanoparticles. The method measures the intensity scattered to a characterised ADF detector and compares this to the incident beam intensity, to obtain a normalized ADF image. The normalised intensity is then converted to thickness via dynamical ADF image simulations. The method is accurate within 10% and the precision is dominated primarily by ‘shot noise’. Merits and limitations of this method are discussed. A method to calibrate the response function of the ADF detector without external equipment is also described, which is applicable to the entire range of gain and background settings. -- Highlights: ► A method is developed to convert ADF-STEM images to ‘thickness profile’ images. ► It is applicable in particles survey, facets determination and discrete tomography. ► A method to calibrate the response of the ADF detector is described. ► The response in analysed across a range of conditions. ► Dynamical ADF image simulations are presented, demonstrating intensity vs. thickness dependence.

  2. Dielectrophoretic capture of low abundance cell population using thick electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchalot, Julien; Chateaux, Jean-François; Faivre, Magalie; Mertani, Hichem C; Ferrigno, Rosaria; Deman, Anne-Laure

    2015-09-01

    Enrichment of rare cell populations such as Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) is a critical step before performing analysis. This paper presents a polymeric microfluidic device with integrated thick Carbon-PolyDimethylSiloxane composite (C-PDMS) electrodes designed to carry out dielectrophoretic (DEP) trapping of low abundance biological cells. Such conductive composite material presents advantages over metallic structures. Indeed, as it combines properties of both the matrix and doping particles, C-PDMS allows the easy and fast integration of conductive microstructures using a soft-lithography approach while preserving O2 plasma bonding properties of PDMS substrate and avoiding a cumbersome alignment procedure. Here, we first performed numerical simulations to demonstrate the advantage of such thick C-PDMS electrodes over a coplanar electrode configuration. It is well established that dielectrophoretic force ([Formula: see text]) decreases quickly as the distance from the electrode surface increases resulting in coplanar configuration to a low trapping efficiency at high flow rate. Here, we showed quantitatively that by using electrodes as thick as a microchannel height, it is possible to extend the DEP force influence in the whole volume of the channel compared to coplanar electrode configuration and maintaining high trapping efficiency while increasing the throughput. This model was then used to numerically optimize a thick C-PDMS electrode configuration in terms of trapping efficiency. Then, optimized microfluidic configurations were fabricated and tested at various flow rates for the trapping of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. We reached trapping efficiencies of 97% at 20 μl/h and 78.7% at 80 μl/h, for 100 μm thick electrodes. Finally, we applied our device to the separation and localized trapping of CTCs (MDA-MB-231) from a red blood cells sample (concentration ratio of 1:10).

  3. Sonographic Measurement of AP Diameter and Wall Thickness of the Gallbladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.K.; Lee, J. S.; Huh, S. J.; Baek, I. S.

    1982-01-01

    Call bladder size and wall thickness are important in the assessment of the pathologic condition. Authors have measured AP diameter of gallbladder and evaluated the change of all thickness between fasting and postprandial state. The results were as follows: 1. The mean of AP diameter was 2.18+0.49cm 2. The wall thickness was 2.7+0.6mm in fasting state and 3.3+0.8mm after meal. 3. The increase of wall thickness after fat meal was significant statistically(p<.001)

  4. Effect of iron catalyst thickness on vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest straightness for CNT-MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulton, Kellen; Jensen, Brian D; Morrill, Nicholas B; Konneker, Adam M; Vanfleet, Richard R; Allred, David D; Davis, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of iron catalyst thickness on the straightness of growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for microelectromechanical systems fabricated using the CNT-templated-microfabrication (CNT-M) process. SEM images of samples grown using various iron catalyst thicknesses show that both straight sidewalls and good edge definition are achieved using an iron thickness between 7 and 8 nm. Below this thickness, individual CNTs are well aligned, but the sidewalls of CNT forests formed into posts and long walls are not always straight. Above this thickness, the CNT forest sidewalls are relatively straight, but edge definition is poor, with significantly increased sidewall roughness. The proximity of a device or feature to other regions of iron catalyst also affects CNT growth. By using an iron catalyst thickness appropriate for straight growth, and by adding borders of iron around features or devices, a designer can greatly improve straightness of growth for CNT-MEMS. (paper)

  5. Technical Note: Cortical thickness and density estimation from clinical CT using a prior thickness-density relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, Ludovic; Hazrati Marangalou, Javad; Rietbergen, Bert van; Río Barquero, Luis Miguel del; Lenthe, G. Harry van

    2016-01-01

    density estimation errors to increase with voxel size was observed and was more pronounced for thin cortices. Using clinical CT data for 19 of the 23 samples, mean errors of 0.18 ± 0.24 mm for the cortical thickness and 15 ± 106 mg/cm"3 for the density were found. The case-control study showed that osteoporotic patients had a thinner cortex and a lower cortical density, with average differences of −0.8 mm and −58.6 mg/cm"3 at the proximal femur in comparison with age-matched controls (p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: This method might be a promising approach for the quantification of cortical bone thickness and density using clinical routine imaging techniques. Future work will concentrate on investigating how this approach can improve the estimation of mechanical strength of bony structures, the prevention of fracture, and the management of osteoporosis.

  6. Technical Note: Cortical thickness and density estimation from clinical CT using a prior thickness-density relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbert, Ludovic, E-mail: ludohumberto@gmail.com [Galgo Medical, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Hazrati Marangalou, Javad; Rietbergen, Bert van [Orthopaedic Biomechanics, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Río Barquero, Luis Miguel del [CETIR Centre Medic, Barcelona 08029 (Spain); Lenthe, G. Harry van [Biomechanics Section, KU Leuven–University of Leuven, Leuven 3001 (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    cortical thickness and density estimation errors to increase with voxel size was observed and was more pronounced for thin cortices. Using clinical CT data for 19 of the 23 samples, mean errors of 0.18 ± 0.24 mm for the cortical thickness and 15 ± 106 mg/cm{sup 3} for the density were found. The case-control study showed that osteoporotic patients had a thinner cortex and a lower cortical density, with average differences of −0.8 mm and −58.6 mg/cm{sup 3} at the proximal femur in comparison with age-matched controls (p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: This method might be a promising approach for the quantification of cortical bone thickness and density using clinical routine imaging techniques. Future work will concentrate on investigating how this approach can improve the estimation of mechanical strength of bony structures, the prevention of fracture, and the management of osteoporosis.

  7. Choroidal thickness in Chinese patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Libin; Chen, Lanlan; Qiu, Xiujuan; Jiang, Ran; Wang, Yaxing; Xu, Liang; Lai, Timothy Y Y

    2016-08-31

    Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) is one of the most common types of ischemic optic neuropathy. Several recent studies suggested that abnormalities of choroidal thickness might be associated with NA-AION. The main objective of this case-control study was to evaluate whether choroidal thickness is an ocular risk factor for the development of NA-AION by evaluating the peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses in affected Chinese patients. Forty-four Chinese patients with unilateral NA-AION were recruited and compared with 60 eyes of 60 normal age and refractive-error matched control subjects. Peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Choroidal thicknesses of eyes with NA-AION and unaffected fellow eyes were compared with normal controls. Choroidal thicknesses of NA-AION eyes with or without optic disc edema were also compared. The correlation between choroidal thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, logMAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and the mean deviation (MD) of Humphrey static perimetry in NA-AION eyes were analyzed. The peripapillary choroidal thicknesses at the nasal, nasal inferior and temporal inferior segments in NA-AION eyes with optic disc edema were significantly thicker compared with that of normal subjects (P optic disc edema and normal eyes (all P > 0.05). No significant correlation between choroidal thickness and RNFL thickness, logMAR BCVA and perimetry MD was found in eyes affected by NA-AION (all P > 0.05). Increase in peripapillary choroid thickness in some segments was found in NA-ION eyes with optic disc edema. However, our findings do not support the hypothesis that choroidal thickness is abnormal in Chinese patients with NA-AION compared with normal subjects with similar age and refractive error status.

  8. Thickness-Dependent Surfactant Behavior in Trilayer Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Wang, Jin

    2010-03-01

    The ability for thin liquid films to wet and remain thermodynamically stable on top of one another is a fundamental challenge in developing high quality paints, coatings, adhesives, and other industrial products. Since intermolecular interactions and interfacial energies dominate in the film thickness regime from tens to hundreds of nanometers, it is desirable to tune these long-range and short-range forces in a simple, controllable manner. Starting from an unstable model homopolymer bilayer (poly(styrene)/poly(4-vinylpyridine)), we demonstrate that sandwiching an additional homopolymer layer (poly(4-bromostyrene)) between the two layers can provide needed surfactancy. As the thickness of this center layer is increased, the full trilayer transitions from unstable (thin) to stable (moderate) to unstable (thick). We experimentally show using x-ray standing waves generated via total external reflection (TER-XSW), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) that this behavior can be directly attributed to the autophobic dewetting phenomenon, in which the surfactant layer is thin enough to remain stable but thick enough to shield the neighboring layers, highlighting a general approach to stabilizing multilayer systems.

  9. Surgical Management of the Thick-Skinned Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard E; Hrisomalos, Emily N

    2018-02-01

    When executed properly, open structure rhinoplasty can dramatically improve the consistency, durability, and quality of the cosmetic surgical outcome. Moreover, in expert hands, dramatic transformations in skeletal architecture can be accomplished with minimal risk and unparalleled control, all while preserving nasal airway function. While skeletal enhancements have become increasingly more controlled and precise, the outer skin-soft tissue envelope (SSTE) often presents a formidable obstacle to a satisfactory cosmetic result. In noses with unusually thick skin, excessive skin volume and characteristically hostile healing responses frequently combine to obscure or sometimes even negate cosmetic skeletal modifications and taint the surgical outcome. For this challenging patient subgroup, care must be taken to optimize the SSTE using a graduated treatment strategy directed at minimizing skin thickness and controlling unfavorable healing responses. When appropriate efforts are implemented to manage thick nasal skin, cosmetic outcomes are often substantially improved, sometimes even negating the ill-effects of thick skin altogether. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with <10cm resolution. A Trimble Geo7X differential GPS with Zephyr antenna, along with a local base station, was used to precisely measure marked ground control points to scale the photogrammetric surface model. Measurements of debris thickness along the exposed cliffline were made from this scaled model, assuming that the ice surface at the debris-ice boundary is horizontal, and these data are compared to 50 manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  11. Choroidal thickness in traumatic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Eo, Doo-Ri; Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2017-12-01

    To examine the choroidal thickness in patients with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) Methods: Patients with unilateral traumatic optic neuropathy over a period of 4 years were included in this study. Horizontal and vertical enhanced-depth imaging (EDI) from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans of the fovea were obtained in patients with unilateral TON within 2 weeks of injury. The main outcome measure was the choroidal thickness at nine locations. The choroidal thickness was compared between affected and unaffected eyes in the TON group, and the mean difference in the choroidal thickness in both eyes was compared between TON and control groups. A total of 16 patients and 20 control subjects were included. The choroidal thickness at horizontal, vertical and average subfoveal, inner temporal, and outer inferior locations was significantly thicker (13-23%) in affected eyes than in unaffected fellow eyes (p = 0.042, 0.046, 0.024, 0.013, 0.018, and 0.027, respectively). The mean difference value between choroidal thickness measurements in both eyes was significantly larger in the TON group than in the control group at the horizontal, vertical and average subfoveal, inner temporal, inner nasal, inner superior, inner inferior, and outer superior locations (p = 0.001, 0.011,  0.05). Eyes affected by TON showed a regionally thicker choroid than unaffected fellow eye. This thick choroid might be due to impaired blood circulation and vascular remodeling of the optic nerve head and choroid. These results help to better understand the pathophysiology of TON.

  12. Effect of buffer thickness on the retardation of radionuclide release from the high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kang, Chul Hyung; Han, Kyung Won

    2000-12-01

    The radionuclide release from buffer in the high-level waste repository to the surrounding host rock was assessed, and the effect of the radial buffer thickness on the release rate was analyzed. The total release rates decrease sharply with increasing radial buffer thickness up to 0.25 m, and decrease moderately at the buffer thickness between 0.25 m and 0.5 m. But increasing the radial buffer thickness beyond 0.5 m has little effect in reducing radionuclide release. Therefore a radial buffer thickness between 0.25 m and 0.5 m is sufficient based on the viewpoint of radionuclide retention

  13. Evaluation of various hot mix asphalt pavement thicknesses over rubblized concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In 1999, the Wisconsin DOT constructed two test sections as part of a rubblized PCC pavement project on I-39 to evaluate whether : increased HMA thickness could extend the pavement system's service life. Design thicknesses of the control and test sec...

  14. Study on fluidity of squeeze cast AZ91D magnesium alloy with different wall thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rectangular cross-section specimens with different section thicknesses were prepared to study the influences of pouring temperature, mould temperature and squeeze velocity on the fluidity of squeeze cast AZ91D magnesium alloy by means of orthogonal test design method. The results show that pouring temperature, mould temperature and squeeze velocity can significantly affect the fluidity of magnesium alloy specimens with wall thickness no more than 4 mm, and the pouring temperature is the most influential factor on the fluidity of specimens with wall thickness of 1, 2 and 3 mm, while mould temperature is the one for specimens with wall thickness of 4 mm. Increasing pouring temperature between 700 °C and 750 °C is beneficial to the fluidity of AZ91D magnesium alloy, and increasing mould temperature significantly enhances the filling ability of thick (3 and 4 mm section castings. The fluidity of squeeze cast magnesium alloy increases with the increase of wall thickness. It is not recommended to produce magnesium alloy casting with wall thickness of smaller than 3 mm by squeeze cast process due to the poor fluidity. The software DPS was used to generate the regression model, and linear regression equations of the fluidity of squeeze cast AZ91D with different wall thicknesses are obtained using the test results.

  15. Preparation and thickness profile of endothelial keratoplasty lenticules from donated whole eyes with previous photorefractive keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: PRK donor whole eyes are potential sources for preparation of microkeratome-assisted thin endothelial keratoplasty lenticules with a high endothelial cell count. Although an asymmetric and significant increase in thickness was present at the peripheral cornea, neither attachment nor clarity of transplanted lenticules was affected by variations in thickness of precut corneas.

  16. Effects of particles thickness and veneer reiforced layer in the properties of oriented strand boards OSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effects of particle thickness and veneer reinforced layer on the physical and mechanicalproperties of OSB made of Pinus taeda L. The boards were manufactured with particle thickness of 0.4, 0.7 and 1.0 mm and phenolformaldehyderesin in the proportion of 6% of solid content. To the veneer reinforced layer was used veneer from Pinus taeda with 2.0mm of thickness. The increase in the slenderness (length/thickness ratio of thins particles, results in the higher values of MOE andMOR in the cross direction. The increase in the particles thickness contributed to higher values of the board internal bond. Thedifferent particles thickness did not clearly affected on the physical properties of OSB. The veneer reinforced layer results in the higheraverage values of MOE and MOR in the cross direction. All of the results of MOE and MOR obtained for boards with differentthickness attend tominimum values required per CSA 0437 (CSA, 1993. For the internal bond, the results were satisfactory to boardsmanufactured with particles thickness of 0.7 and 1.0 mm. According to the results the main conclusions were: (i The increase in theparticles thickness contributed to lower values of MOE and MOR, and higher values of the board internal bond; (ii the veneerreinforced layer increased MOE and MOR values in the cross direction.

  17. Thickness filters for gradient based multi-material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new gradient based method for performing discrete material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures. The novelty in the new method lies in the application of so-called casting constraints, or thickness filters in this context, to control the thickness...... variation throughout the laminate. The filters replace the layerwise density variables with a single continuous through-the-thickness design variable. Consequently, the filters eliminate the need for having explicit constraints for preventing intermediate void through the thickness of the laminate....... Therefore, the filters reduce both the number of constraints and design variables in the optimization problem. Based upon a continuous approximation of a unit step function, the thickness filters are capable of projecting discrete 0/1 values to the underlying layerwise or ”physical” density variables which...

  18. Effect of thickness on optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.S.; Gouda, M.E.; El-Shaarawy, M.G.; Salem, A.M.; Abd El-Ghany, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on the structure and optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS film has been studied. SnS films with different thicknesses in the range 152–585 nm were deposited onto clean glass substrates at room temperature. X-ray diffraction study revealed that SnS films of thickness ≥ 283 nm are crystalline, whereas films of lower thickness exhibit poor crystalline with more amorphous background. The crystalline nature of the lower film thickness has been confirmed using transmission electron microscope and the corresponding electron diffraction pattern. The thicker film samples showed nearly stoichiometric chemical composition; however, thinner samples are deficient in S and rich in Sn. The optical property of the deposited films has been investigated in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The refractive index increases notably with increasing film thickness. The refractive index for the investigated film thicknesses are adequately described by the effective-single-oscillator model. The static refractive index and the static dielectric constant have been calculated. Analysis of the optical absorption coefficient revealed the presence of direct optical transition and the corresponding band gap values were found to decrease as the film thickness increases. - Highlights: ► X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of SnS films. ► Transmission electron microscope confirms the crystalline state of SnS films. ► The refractive index increases notably with increasing the film thickness. ► The optical band gap of SnS films decreases with increasing film thickness

  19. Influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of piezoelectric bimorph mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libu, M.; Susanth, S.; Vasanthakumari, K. G.; Dileep Kumar, C. J.; Raghu, N.

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric based bimorph mirrors (PBM) find extensive use in focusing of x-ray beams. Many optical instruments require use of PBM whose radii of curvature can be tuned precisely. The 100 mm and 300 mm PBMs were fabricated with varying piezoelectric to fused silica plate thicknesses. The radii of curvature of free standing mirrors were measured as a function of voltage and it was found to decrease with increasing voltage. For a given piezoelectric plate thickness, as the fused silica thickness increases, the radii of curvature was found to increase owing to increase in stiffness of the mirror. On the other hand, for a given fused silica plate thickness, when the piezoelectric plate thickness is increased, the radii of curvature are decreased for a given electric field, due to increase in generated force. This study brings out the influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of PBM.

  20. Influence of target thickness on the release of radioactive atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillot, Julien, E-mail: guillotjulien@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 8608 – Université Paris Sud – Université Paris Saclay, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Roussière, Brigitte [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 8608 – Université Paris Sud – Université Paris Saclay, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine [Physique de la Matière Condensée Ecole Polytechnique/CNRS UMR 7643 – Université Paris Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Barré-Boscher, Nicole; Borg, Elie; Martin, Julien [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 8608 – Université Paris Sud – Université Paris Saclay, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, intense exotic beams are needed in order to study nuclei with very short half-life. To increase the release efficiency of the fission products, all the target characteristics involved must be improved (e.g. chemical composition, dimensions, physicochemical properties such as grain size, porosity, density…). In this article, we study the impact of the target thickness. Released fractions measured from graphite and uranium carbide pellets are presented as well as Monte-Carlo simulations of the Brownian motion.

  1. The Thick Market Effect on Local Unemployment Rate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Li Gan; Qinghua Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies how the thick market effect influences local unemployment rate fluctuations. The paper presents a model to demonstrate that the average matching quality improves as the number of workers and firms increases. Unemployed workers accumulate in a city until the local labor market reaches a critical minimum size, which leads to cyclical fluctuations in the local unemployment rates. Since larger cities attain the critical market size more frequently, they have shorter unemploymen...

  2. A database of worldwide glacier thickness observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner-Roer, I.; Naegeli, K.; Huss, M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in glacier research is to assess the total ice volume and its global distribution. Over the past few decades the compilation of a world glacier inventory has been well-advanced both in institutional set-up and in spatial coverage. The inventory is restricted to glacier...... the different estimation approaches. This initial database of glacier and ice caps thickness will hopefully be further enlarged and intensively used for a better understanding of the global glacier ice volume and its distribution....... surface observations. However, although thickness has been observed on many glaciers and ice caps around the globe, it has not yet been published in the shape of a readily available database. Here, we present a standardized database of glacier thickness observations compiled by an extensive literature...... review and from airborne data extracted from NASA's Operation IceBridge. This database contains ice thickness observations from roughly 1100 glaciers and ice caps including 550 glacier-wide estimates and 750,000 point observations. A comparison of these observational ice thicknesses with results from...

  3. Uncertainty estimation of ultrasonic thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassir Yassen, Abdul Razak Daud; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail; Abdul Aziz Jemain

    2009-01-01

    The most important factor that should be taken into consideration when selecting ultrasonic thickness measurement technique is its reliability. Only when the uncertainty of a measurement results is known, it may be judged if the result is adequate for intended purpose. The objective of this study is to model the ultrasonic thickness measurement function, to identify the most contributing input uncertainty components, and to estimate the uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement results. We assumed that there are five error sources significantly contribute to the final error, these sources are calibration velocity, transit time, zero offset, measurement repeatability and resolution, by applying the propagation of uncertainty law to the model function, a combined uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement was obtained. In this study the modeling function of ultrasonic thickness measurement was derived. By using this model the estimation of the uncertainty of the final output result was found to be reliable. It was also found that the most contributing input uncertainty components are calibration velocity, transit time linearity and zero offset. (author)

  4. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Macintosh

    Full Text Available Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD. Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the

  5. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  6. East European “BigBang” Revisiting East Asia? – Why Chinese “Gradual Transition” Can End Up with “Shock Therapy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Karpov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian “shock therapy” policies in 1990 and 1992 respectively were in fact forced deregulation packages aimed at preventing total macroeconomic and institutional collapse. Some important features of these packages were contrary to neo-classical prescriptions, since the “shock therapists” operated in unprecedented setting of imploding “command economy”. This setting as such never was a subject of neo-liberal theoreticians before it became empirical reality. Marxist-Leninist single party-state regimes are prone to macroeconomic implosion, since the socio-economic actors they create during forced “transition to market” prefer neither “plan” nor “market”, but a grey “no-man’s land” between the two. This position allows them to “privatize the profits” and to “nationalize the costs”, contributing to accumulation of tremendous macroeconomic imbalances on the aggregate systemic level. It also creates socio-economic, political and institutional impasse of financial deleveraging, which may eventually turn into a forced “big-bang” package amidst systemic implosion. Chinese “gradual transition” – with all singularities – still fits quite well into this dynamic empirical pattern. Sharp decline in the Chinese growth rate since spring 201 3 was a man-made phenomenon. The leadership intends to deregulate interest rates and upgrade financial discipline of scared investors, making them to withdraw money from the state and non-state assets. The overall systemic setting increases the chances of financial deleveraging in China to turn eventually into a forced “big-bang” upheaval.

  7. Tungsten thick coatings for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, B.; Pizzuto, A.; Orsini, A.; Libera, S.; Visca, E.; Bertamini, L.; Casadei, F.; Severini, E.; Montanari, R.; Litunovsky, N.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the R and D activity was to realize thick W coatings on CuCrZr hollow bars and to test the mock ups with respect to thermal fatigue. Eight mock ups provided of 4 mm thick W coating were finally manufactured. The bonding integrity between coating and substrate was checked by means of an Ultrasonic apparatus. Characterisation of coatings was performed in order to assess microstructure, impurity content, density, tensile strength, adhesion strength, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient. Macroscopic residual strain measurements were performed by means of 'hole drilling' technique. The activities performed demonstrated the feasibility of thick Tungsten coatings on geometries with more complex residual strain distribution. These coatings are reliable armour of medium heat flux plasma facing component. (author)

  8. Study on Improving Thickness Uniformity of Microfluidic Chip Mold in the Electroforming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroformed microfluidic chip mold faces the problem of uneven thickness, which decreases the dimensional accuracy of the mold, and increases the production cost. To fabricate a mold with uniform thickness, two methods are investigated. Firstly, experiments are carried out to study how the ultrasonic agitation affects the thickness uniformity of the mold. It is found that the thickness uniformity is maximally improved by about 30% after 2 h electroforming under 200 kHz and 500 W ultrasonic agitation. Secondly, adding a second cathode, a method suitable for long-time electroforming is studied by numerical simulation. The simulation results show that with a 4 mm width second cathode used, the thickness uniformity is improved by about 30% after 2 h of electroforming, and that with electroforming time extended, the thickness uniformity is improved more obviously. After 22 h electroforming, the thickness uniformity is increased by about 45%. Finally, by comparing two methods, the method of adding a second cathode is chosen, and a microfluidic chip mold is made with the help of a specially designed second cathode. The result shows that the thickness uniformity of the mold is increased by about 50%, which is in good agreement with the simulation results.

  9. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 (micro)m, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  10. Terahertz Mapping of Microstructure and Thickness Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Donald J.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Winfree, William P.

    2010-01-01

    A noncontact method has been devised for mapping or imaging spatial variations in the thickness and microstructure of a layer of a dielectric material. The method involves (1) placement of the dielectric material on a metal substrate, (2) through-the-thickness pulse-echo measurements by use of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range with a raster scan in a plane parallel to the substrate surface that do not require coupling of any kind, and (3) appropriate processing of the digitized measurement data.

  11. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Marshall

    2010-09-20

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  12. Geologic thickness data: Candidate repository horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Fairchild, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    This data package contains information on the thickness of the Umtanum, McCoy Canyon, Cohassett, and Rocky Coulee flows and their intraflow structures in 20 boreholes and 2 surface sections in the Pasco Basin. Thickness data are for total flow, flow top, entablature, and colonnade (or just flow top and dense interior in some cases). Summary figures which contain descriptions and footages are included. SD-BWI-DP-011, Rev. 2 replaces SD-BWI-DP-011, Rev. A-0 in its entirety. (Rev. A-0 replaced Rev. 0-0.) 5 refs

  13. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  14. Compressive strength of thick composite panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how much the compressive strength of thick composite panels is reduced due to delaminations and to investigate under which conditions a delamination will grow. Understanding of this is essential in order to move forward the design limits used in the structu......The aim of this study is to investigate how much the compressive strength of thick composite panels is reduced due to delaminations and to investigate under which conditions a delamination will grow. Understanding of this is essential in order to move forward the design limits used...

  15. Process simulations for manufacturing of thick composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, Evan A.

    The availability of manufacturing simulations for composites can significantly reduce the costs associated with process development. Simulations provide a tool for evaluating the effect of processing conditions on the quality of parts produced without requiring numerous experiments. This is especially significant in parts that have troublesome features such as large thickness. The development of simulations for thick walled composites has been approached by examining the mechanics of resin flow and fiber deformation during processing, applying these evaluations to develop simulations, and evaluating the simulation with experimental results. A unified analysis is developed to describe the three-dimensional resin flow and fiber preform deformation during processing regardless of the manufacturing process used. It is shown how the generic governing evaluations in the unified analysis can be applied to autoclave molding, compression molding, pultrusion, filament winding, and resin transfer molding. A comparison is provided with earlier models derived individually for these processes. The evaluations described for autoclave curing were used to produce a one-dimensional cure simulation for autoclave curing of thick composites. The simulation consists of an analysis for heat transfer and resin flow in the composite as well as bleeder plies used to absorb resin removed from the part. Experiments were performed in a hot press to approximate curing in an autoclave. Graphite/epoxy laminates of 3 cm and 5 cm thickness were cured while monitoring temperatures at several points inside the laminate and thickness. The simulation predicted temperatures fairly closely, but difficulties were encountered in correlation of thickness results. This simulation was also used to study the effects of prepreg aging on processing of thick composites. An investigation was also performed on filament winding with prepreg tow. Cylinders were wound of approximately 12 mm thickness with pressure

  16. Effects of buffer thickness on ATW blanket performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W. S.; Mercatali, L.; Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for liquid metal cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) systems, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using 840 MWt liquid metal cooled ATW designs, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performance have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performance parameters have been estimated by a series of calculations using the MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance variation are studied by investigating the low-energy ( and lt; 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. For investigating irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. Results for the liquid-metal-cooled designs show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable. Investigation of the impact of the proton beam energy on the target and buffer design shows that for a given blanket power level, a lower beam energy (0.6 GeV versus 1 GeV) results in a higher irradiation damage to the beam window. This trend occurs because of the increase in the beam intensity required to maintain the power level

  17. Effects of Buffer Thickness on ATW Blanket Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Mercatali, L.; Taiwo, T.A.; Hill, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for liquid metal cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) systems, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using 840 MWt liquid metal cooled ATW designs, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performance have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performance parameters have been estimated by a series of calculations using the MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance variation are studied by investigating the low-energy (< 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. For investigating irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. Results for the liquid-metal-cooled designs show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable. Investigation of the impact of the proton beam energy on the target and buffer design shows that for a given blanket power level, a lower beam energy (0.6 GeV versus 1 GeV) results in a higher irradiation damage to the beam window. This trend occurs because of the increase in the beam intensity required to maintain the power level. (authors)

  18. Effect of length to thickness ratio on free vibration analysis of thick fiber reinforced plastic skew cross-ply laminate with circular cutout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividya, K.; Reddy, Ch. Kishore; Sumanth, Ch. Mohan; Krishnaiah, P. Gopala; Kishan, V. Mallikharjuna

    2018-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the free vibration analysis of a thick four-layered symmetric cross-ply skew laminated composite plate with a circular cutout. Three dimensional finite element models (FEM) which use the elasticity theory for the determination of stiffness matrices are modeled in ANSYS software to evaluate first five natural frequencies of the laminate. The variations of the first five natural frequencies with respect to length to thickness ratio (S) for different diameter to length ratios (d/l) are presented. It is observed that, the natural frequencies decreases with increase of thickness ratio(S).

  19. Extension and statistical analysis of the GACP aerosol optical thickness record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Li, Jing; Rossow, William B.; Liu, Li; Cairns, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The primary product of the Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP) is a continuous record of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the oceans. It is based on channel-1 and -2 radiance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments flown on successive National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) platforms. We extend the previous GACP dataset by four years through the end of 2009 using NOAA-17 and -18 AVHRR radiances recalibrated against MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiance data, thereby making the GACP record almost three decades long. The temporal overlap of over three years of the new NOAA-17 and the previous NOAA-16 record reveals an excellent agreement of the corresponding global monthly mean AOT values, thereby confirming the robustness of the vicarious radiance calibration used in the original GACP product. The temporal overlap of the NOAA-17 and -18 instruments is used to introduce a small additive adjustment to the channel-2 calibration of the latter resulting in a consistent record with increased data density. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the newly extended GACP record shows that most of the volcanic AOT variability can be isolated into one mode responsible for ~ 12% of the total variance. This conclusion is confirmed by a combined PCA analysis of the GACP, MODIS, and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) AOTs during the volcano-free period from February 2000 to December 2009. We show that the modes responsible for the tropospheric AOT variability in the three datasets agree well in terms of correlation and spatial patterns. A previously identified negative AOT trend which started in the late 1980s and continued into the early 2000s is confirmed. Its magnitude and duration indicate that it was caused by changes in tropospheric aerosols. The latest multi-satellite segment of the GACP record shows that this trend tapered off, with no noticeable AOT change after 2002. This

  20. Methadone Detoxification Versus Traditional Gradual Decrease in the Consumed Amount of Refined Opium Dross (Shireh: The Preferred Method for Controlling Withdrawal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Farsinejad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of methadone detoxification with traditional method of gradual decrement in the abused amount of the refined opium dross (Shireh to control withdrawal syndrome in Shireh-addicted patients. Methods: In this study, two groups of Shireh addicts were compared. The first group was treated by methadone and the second group by gradual decrement in the amount of consumed Shireh. Those experiencing the adverse effects of the treatment were excluded from the study. Methadone dose was calculated based on the amount of the Shireh consumed and detoxification was performed during a 21-day period. In the second group, the amount of the consumed Shireh was gradually decreased within 21 days and some of the withdrawal symptoms were selected as indicators for patient evaluation. Results: A total of 35 patients (16 versus 19 patients in the first and second groups were evaluated. Their mean age was 43 ± 4 years and all were male. A statistically significant difference was found between these two groups in terms of severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms within the first five days and their duration after the 21st day of the onset of detoxification (P< 0.05. Conclusion: In comparison with methadone detoxification, traditional method of gradually decreasing the consumed amount of Shireh controls the severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms better in the course of detoxification.