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Sample records for thickness direction strain

  1. Dynamic tensile stress–strain characteristics of carbon/epoxy laminated composites in through-thickness direction

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    Nakai Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of strain rate up to approximately ε̇ = 102/s on the tensile stress–strain properties of unidirectional and cross-ply carbon/epoxy laminated composites in the through-thickness direction is investigated. Waisted cylindrical specimens machined out of the laminated composites in the through-thickness direction are used in both static and dynamic tests. The dynamic tensile stress–strain curves up to fracture are determined using the split Hopkinson bar (SHB. The low and intermediate strain-rate tensile stress–strain relations up to fracture are measured on an Instron 5500R testing machine. It is demonstrated that the ultimate tensile strength and absorbed energy up to fracture increase significantly, while the fracture strain decreases slightly with increasing strain rate. Macro- and micro-scopic examinations reveal a marked difference in the fracture surfaces between the static and dynamic tension specimens.

  2. Direct stamping of silver nanoparticles toward residue-free thick electrode

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    Jiseok Kim, Kevin Wubs, Byeong-Soo Bae and Woo Soo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct stamping of functional materials has been developed for cost-effective and process-effective manufacturing of nano/micro patterns. However, there remain several challenging issues like the perfect removal of the residual layer and realization of high aspect ratio. We have demonstrated facile fabrication of flexible strain sensors that have microscale thick interdigitated capacitors with no residual layer by a simple direct stamping with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. Polyurethane (PU prepolymer was utilized as an adhesive layer to transfer AgNPs more efficiently during the separation step of the flexible stamp from directly stamped AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed residue-free transfer of microscale thick interdigitated electrodes onto two different flexible substrates (elastomeric and brittle for the application to highly sensitive strain sensors.

  3. XRD measurement of mean thickness, thickness distribution and strain for illite and illite-smectite crystallites by the Bertaut-Warren-Averbach technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drits, Victor A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Środoń, Jan

    1998-01-01

    A modified version of the Bertaut-Warren-Averbach (BWA) technique (Bertaut 1949, 1950; Warren and Averbach 1950) has been developed to measure coherent scattering domain (CSD) sizes and strains in minerals by analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. This method is used to measure CSD thickness distributions for calculated and experimental XRD patterns of illites and illite-smectites (I-S). The method almost exactly recovers CSD thickness distributions for calculated illite XRD patterns. Natural I-S samples contain swelling layers that lead to nonperiodic structures in the c* direction and to XRD peaks that are broadened and made asymmetric by mixed layering. Therefore, these peaks cannot be analyzed by the BWA method. These difficulties are overcome by K-saturation and heating prior to X-ray analysis in order to form 10-Å periodic structures. BWA analysis yields the thickness distribution of mixed-layer crystals (coherently diffracting stacks of fundamental illite particles). For most I-S samples, CSD thickness distributions can be approximated by lognormal functions. Mixed-layer crystal mean thickness and expandability then can be used to calculate fundamental illite particle mean thickness. Analyses of the dehydrated, K-saturated samples indicate that basal XRD reflections are broadened by symmetrical strain that may be related to local variations in smectite interlayers caused by dehydration, and that the standard deviation of the strain increases regularly with expandability. The 001 and 002 reflections are affected only slightly by this strain and therefore are suited for CSD thickness analysis. Mean mixed-layer crystal thicknesses for dehydrated I-S measured by the BWA method are very close to those measured by an integral peak width method.

  4. Variation of Drying Strains between Tangential and Radial Directions in Asian White Birch

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    Zongying Fu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood disks of 30 mm in thickness cut from white birch (Betula platyphylla Suk logs were dried at a constant temperature (40 °C. The drying strains including practical shrinkage strain, elastic strain, viscoelastic creep strain and mechano-sorptive creep were measured both tangentially and radially. The effects of moisture content and radial position on each strain were also discussed qualitatively. Overall, the difference of the practical shrinkage strain between the tangential and radial directions was proportional to the distance from the pith. The tangential elastic strain and viscoelastic creep strain were higher than these strains in a radial direction, and they all decreased with the decrease of moisture content. Additionally, there were opposite mechano-sorptive creep between tangential and radial directions.

  5. Stresses and strains in thick perforated orthotropic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Alshaya; John Hunt; R. Rowlands

    2016-01-01

    Stress and strain concentrations and in-plane and out-of-plane stress constraint factors associated with a circular hole in thick, loaded orthotropic composite plates are determined by three-dimensional finite element method. The plate has essentially infinite in-plane geometry but finite thickness. Results for Sitka Spruce wood are emphasized, although some for carbon...

  6. Thickness-Dependent Strain Effect on the Deformation of the Graphene-Encapsulated Au Nanoparticles

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    Shuangli Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The strain effect on graphene-encapsulated Au nanoparticles is investigated. A finite-element calculation is performed to simulate the strain distribution and morphology of the monolayer and multilayer graphene-encapsulated Au nanoparticles, respectively. It can be found that the inhomogeneous strain and deformation are enhanced with the increasing shrinkage of the graphene shell. Moreover, the strain distribution and deformation are very sensitive to the layer number of the graphene shell. Especially, the inhomogeneous strain at the interface between the graphene shell and encapsulated Au nanoparticles is strongly tuned by the graphene thickness. For the mono- and bilayer graphene-encapsulated Au nanoparticles, the dramatic shape transformation can be observed. However, with increasing the graphene thickness further, there is hardly deformation for the encapsulated Au nanoparticles. These simulated results indicate that the strain and deformation can be designed by the graphene layer thickness, which provides an opportunity to engineer the structure and morphology of the graphene-encapsulated nanoparticles.

  7. Critical thickness and strain relaxation in molecular beam epitaxy-grown SrTiO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianqi; Ganguly, Koustav; Marshall, Patrick; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat

    2013-01-01

    We report on the study of the critical thickness and the strain relaxation in epitaxial SrTiO 3 film grown on (La 0.3 Sr 0.7 )(Al 0.65 Ta 0.35 )O 3 (001) (LSAT) substrate using the hybrid molecular beam epitaxy approach. No change in the film's lattice parameter (both the in-plane and the out-of-plane) was observed up to a film thickness of 180 nm, which is in sharp contrast to the theoretical critical thickness of ∼12 nm calculated using the equilibrium theory of strain relaxation. For film thicknesses greater than 180 nm, the out-of-plane lattice parameter was found to decrease hyperbolically in an excellent agreement with the relaxation via forming misfit dislocations. Possible mechanisms are discussed by which the elastic strain energy can be accommodated prior to forming misfit dislocations leading to such anomalously large critical thickness

  8. Influence of strain on the growth of thick InGaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellmach, J.; Leyer, M.; Pristovsek, M.; Kneissl, M.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of high quality InGaN alloys is critical for a number of various optoelectronic device applications like LEDs and laser diodes. Nevertheless, the exact growth mechanisms of InGaN with high indium content is still not fully understood. In the present study the growth of thick InGaN layers was systematically investigated. InGaN films with thicknesses between ∝35 nm and ∝200 nm were grown on GaN templates with metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The group III partial pressures of 1.1 Pa for TMGa, 0.45 Pa for TMIn and the V/III-ratio of 1600 were kept constant. The growth temperature was varied between 750 C and 800 C. The growth of InGaN layer was characterized by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Up to temperatures of 790 C structural analysis by XRD showed two strained layers with different indium content. The formation of the layer structure was investigated by varying the growth times at 770 C. In the first 500 s (35 nm) a rough (rms=9 nm) and pseudomorphically strained InGaN layer with low indium content (4%) is formed. Between 500 s and 1000 s this strained layer becomes smoother (rms=3.4 nm). For thicknesses beyond the In content increases (8% at 84 nm) and reaches 11% at 200 nm. We propose that the transition from a first layer with a low indium content to a second layer with an higher indium content is due to a gradual release of strain

  9. In situ measurement using FBGs of process-induced strains during curing of thick glass/epoxy laminate plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    For large composite structures, such as wind turbine blades, thick laminates are required to withstand large in-service loads. During the manufacture of thick laminates, one of the challenges met is avoiding process-induced shape distortions and residual stresses. In this paper, embedded fibre...... Bragg grating sensors are used to monitor process-induced strains during vacuum infusion of a thick glass/epoxy laminate. The measured strains are compared with predictions from a cure hardening instantaneous linear elastic (CHILE) thermomechanical numerical model where different mechanical boundary...... conditions are employed. The accuracy of the CHILE model in predicting process-induced internal strains, in what is essentially a viscoelastic boundary value problem, is investigated. A parametric study is furthermore performed to reveal the effect of increasing the laminate thickness. The numerical model...

  10. Misfit strain-film thickness phase diagrams and related electromechanical properties of epitaxial ultra-thin lead zirconate titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Q.Y.; Mahjoub, R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Alpay, S.P. [Materials Science and Engineering Program and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Nagarajan, V., E-mail: nagarajan@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The phase stability of ultra-thin (0 0 1) oriented ferroelectric PbZr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (PZT) epitaxial thin films as a function of the film composition, film thickness, and the misfit strain is analyzed using a non-linear Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire thermodynamic model taking into account the electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The theoretical formalism incorporates the role of the depolarization field as well as the possibility of the relaxation of in-plane strains via the formation of microstructural features such as misfit dislocations at the growth temperature and ferroelastic polydomain patterns below the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transformation temperature. Film thickness-misfit strain phase diagrams are developed for PZT films with four different compositions (x = 1, 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7) as a function of the film thickness. The results show that the so-called rotational r-phase appears in a very narrow range of misfit strain and thickness of the film. Furthermore, the in-plane and out-of-plane dielectric permittivities {epsilon}{sub 11} and {epsilon}{sub 33}, as well as the out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33} for the PZT thin films, are computed as a function of misfit strain, taking into account substrate-induced clamping. The model reveals that previously predicted ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients due to misfit-strain-induced phase transitions are practically achievable only in an extremely narrow range of film thickness, composition and misfit strain parameter space. We also show that the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial ferroelectric films can be tailored through strain engineering and microstructural optimization.

  11. Effects of strain and thickness on the electronic and optical behaviors of two-dimensional hexagonal gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Somayeh

    2017-06-01

    The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory has been used to study effects of strain and thickness on the electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional GaN. The band gap of monolayer and bilayer GaN under compressive in-plane strain change from indirect to direct with bond length shortening. Also, the semiconductor to semimetal transition occurs for monolayer and bilayer GaN under in-plane tensile strain with bond length elongation. It is found that the tensile and compressive strains cause the red and blue shifts in the optical spectra, respectively, for both monolayer and bilayer GaN. Applying the perpendicular strain on the bilayer GaN by decreasing the inter layer distance leads to the shift of valence band maximum towards the Γ point in the band structure and shift of peak positions and variation of peak intensities in ε2(ω) spectrum. The results show that the n-layer GaN has an indirect band gap for n < 16. The results suggest that monolayer and multilayer GaN are good candidates for application in optoelectronics and flexible electronics.

  12. Conduction gap in graphene strain junctions: direction dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, M Chung; Nguyen, V Hung; Dollfus, P; Nguyen, Huy-Viet

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown in a recent study (Nguyen et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 165201) that unstrained/strained graphene junctions are promising candidates to improve the performance of graphene transistors which is usually hindered by the gapless nature of graphene. Although the energy bandgap of strained graphene still remains zero, the shift of Dirac points in the k-space due to strain-induced deformation of graphene lattice can lead to the appearance of a finite conduction gap of several hundred meV in strained junctions with a strain of only a few per cent. However, since it depends essentially on the magnitude of the Dirac point shift, this conduction gap strongly depends on the direction of applied strain and the transport direction. In this work, a systematic study of conduction-gap properties with respect to these quantities is presented and the results are carefully analyzed. Our study provides useful information for further investigations to exploit graphene-strained junctions in electronic applications and strain sensors. (paper)

  13. Thickness dependent properties of CMR Manganite thin films on lattice mismatched substrates: Distinguishing Strain and Interface Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anthony, III; Kolagani, Rajeswari; Bacharova, Ellisaveta; Yong, Grace; Smolyaninova, Vera; Schaefer, David; Mundle, Rajeh

    2007-03-01

    Epitaxial thin films of CMR manganite materials have been known to show thickness dependent electrical and magnetic properties on lattice mismatched substrates. Below a critical thickness, insulator-metal transition is suppressed. These effects have been largely attributed to the role of bi-axial lattice mismatch strain. Our recent results of epitaxial thin films of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO) on two substrates with varying degrees of compressive lattice mismatch indicate that, in addition to the effect of lattice mismatch strain, the thickness dependence of the properties are influenced by other factors possibly related to the nature of the film substrate interface and defects such as twin boundaries. We have compared the properties of LCMO films on (100) oriented LaAlO3 and (001) oriented NdCaAlO4 both of which induce compressive bi-axial strain. Interestingly, the suppression of the insulator-metal transition is less in films on NCAO which has a larger lattice mismatch. We will present results correlating the electrical and magneto transport properties with the structure and morphology of the films.

  14. Critical thickness and strain relaxation in high-misfit heteroepitaxial systems: PbTe1-xSex on PbSe (001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesauer, Karin; Springholz, G.

    2004-01-01

    Strain relaxation and misfit dislocation formation is investigated for the high-misfit PbTe 1-x Se x /PbSe (001) heteroepitaxial system in which the lattice mismatch varies from 0% to 5.5%. Because a two-dimensional (2D) layer growth prevails for all PbTe 1-x Se x ternary compositions, the lattice mismatch is relaxed purely by misfit dislocations. In addition, it is found that strain relaxation is not hindered by dislocation kinetics. Therefore, this material combination is an ideal model system for testing the equilibrium Frank-van der Merwe and Matthews-Blakeslee strain relaxation models. In our experiments, we find significantly lower values of the critical layer thickness as compared to the model predictions. This discrepancy is caused by the inappropriate description of the dislocation self-energies when the layer thickness becomes comparable to the dislocation core radius. To resolve this problem, a modified expression for the dislocation self-energy is proposed. The resulting theoretical critical thicknesses are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. In addition, a remarkable universal scaling behavior is found for the strain relaxation data. This underlines the breakdown of the current strain relaxation models

  15. Vibrational modes and strain in GaN/AlN quantum dot stacks: dependence on spacer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresneda, J.; Cros, A.; Llorens, J.M.; Garcia-Cristobal, A.; Cantarero, A. [Institut de Ciencia del Materials, Universitat de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Amstatt, B.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Daudin, B. [CEA-CNRS Group, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, DRFMC/SP2M/PSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2007-06-15

    We have investigated the influence of spacer thickness on the vibrational and strain characteristics of GaN/AlN quantum dot multilayers (QD). The Raman shift corresponding to the E{sub 2h} vibrational mode related to the QDs has been analyzed for AlN thicknesses ranging from 4.4 nm to 13 nm, while the amount of GaN deposited in each layer remained constant from sample to sample. It is shown that there is a rapid blue shift of the GaN vibrational mode with spacer thickness when its value is smaller than 7 nm while it remains almost constant for thicker spacers. A rapid increase of the Raman line-width in the thicker samples is also observed. The experimental behavior is discussed in comparison with the results of a theoretical model for the strain in the QDs. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Effect of aggregate type, casting, thickness and curing condition on restrained strain of mass concrete

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    Pongsak Choktaweekarn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element analysis is used for computing temperature and restrained strain inmass concrete. The model takes into account time, material properties, and mix proportion dependent behavior of concrete.The hydration heat and thermal properties used in the finite element analysis are obtained from our previously proposedadiabatic temperature rise model and are used as the input in the analysis. The analysis was done by varying size of massconcrete (especially thickness and the casting method in order to explain their effect on temperature and restrained strain inmass concrete. The casting methods used in the analysis are continuous and discontinuous casting. The discontinuouscasting consists of layer casting and block casting. Different types of aggregate were used in the analysis for studying theeffect of thermal properties of aggregate on temperature and restrained strain in mass concrete. Different conditions of curing(insulation and normal curing were also studied and compared. It was found from the analytical results that the maximumtemperature increases with the increase of the thickness of structure. The use of layer casting is more effective for thermalcracking control of mass concrete. The insulation curing method is preferable for mass concrete. Aggregate with low coefficientof thermal expansion is beneficial to reduce the restrained strain.

  17. Direct observation of strain in InAs quantum dots and cap layer during molecular beam epitaxial growth using in situ X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, Kenichi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru, E-mail: kamiya@toyota-ti.ac.jp [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Suzuki, Hidetoshi [Faculty of Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Koto 1-1-1, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-11-14

    Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping. The difference observed is attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer under limited supply of In. Photoluminescence (PL) wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing, which affects both the strain induced in the QDs and the barrier heights. The PL wavelength also varies with the cap layer thickness. A large redshift occurs by reducing the cap thickness. The in situ XRD observation reveals that this is a result of reduced strain. We demonstrate how such information about strain can be applied for designing and preparing novel device structures.

  18. Direct observation of strain in InAs quantum dots and cap layer during molecular beam epitaxial growth using in situ X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Kenichi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2015-01-01

    Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping. The difference observed is attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer under limited supply of In. Photoluminescence (PL) wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing, which affects both the strain induced in the QDs and the barrier heights. The PL wavelength also varies with the cap layer thickness. A large redshift occurs by reducing the cap thickness. The in situ XRD observation reveals that this is a result of reduced strain. We demonstrate how such information about strain can be applied for designing and preparing novel device structures

  19. Effect of the Strain Rate on the Tensile Properties of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seunghun; Park, Jiyoun; Choi, Ildong; Park, Sung Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the strain rate at a range of 10‒4 ⁓ 3 × 10"2s"-1 on the tensile characteristics of a rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied. The normal tensile specimens were tested using a high rate hydraulic testing machine. Specimens were machined from four sheets with different thicknesses, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mm, along three directions, 0°, 45°, and 90° to the rolling direction. The results revealed that all the specimens had a positive strain rate sensitivity of strength, that is, the strength increased with increasing strain rate. This is the same tendency as other automotive steels have. Our results suggest that the AZ31 magnesium alloy has better collision characteristics at high strain rates because of improved strength with an increasing strain rate. Ductility decreased with an increasing strain rate with a strain rate under 1 s"-1, but it increased with an increasing strain rate over 1 s"-1. The mechanical properties of the AZ31 magnesium alloy depend on the different microstructures according to the thickness. Two and 3 mm thickness specimens with a coarse and non-uniform grain structure exhibited worse mechanical properties while the 1.5 mm thickness specimens with a fine and uniform grain structure had better mechanical properties. Specimens machined at 0° and 45° to the rolling direction had higher absorbed energy than that of the 90° specimen. Thus, we demonstrate it is necessary to choose materials with proper thickness and machining direction for use in automotive applications.

  20. Change in muscle thickness under contracting conditions following return to sports after a hamstring muscle strain injury—A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Nagano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the change in hamstring muscle thickness between contracting and relaxing conditions following a return to sports after a hamstring muscle strain and thereby evaluate muscle function. Six male track and field sprinters participated in this study. All had experienced a prior hamstring strain injury that required a minimum of 2 weeks away from sport participation. Transverse plane scans were performed at the following four points on the affected and unaffected sides under contracting and relaxing conditions: proximal biceps femoris long head, proximal semitendinosus, middle biceps femoris long head, and middle semitendinosus. The results demonstrated an increase in the thickness of the middle biceps femoris long head and middle semitendinosus regions on the unaffected side with contraction, whereas the affected side did not show a significant increase. The proximal semitendinosus muscle thickness was increased with contraction on both the unaffected and the affected sides. By contrast, the proximal biceps femoris muscle thickness did not show a significant increase on both sides. The results of this study show that evaluation of muscle thickness during contraction may be useful for assessing the change in muscle function after a hamstring muscle strain injury.

  1. Effect of the Strain Rate on the Tensile Properties of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seunghun; Park, Jiyoun; Choi, Ildong [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Hyuk [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The effect of the strain rate at a range of 10‒4 ⁓ 3 × 10{sup 2}s{sup -}1 on the tensile characteristics of a rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied. The normal tensile specimens were tested using a high rate hydraulic testing machine. Specimens were machined from four sheets with different thicknesses, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mm, along three directions, 0°, 45°, and 90° to the rolling direction. The results revealed that all the specimens had a positive strain rate sensitivity of strength, that is, the strength increased with increasing strain rate. This is the same tendency as other automotive steels have. Our results suggest that the AZ31 magnesium alloy has better collision characteristics at high strain rates because of improved strength with an increasing strain rate. Ductility decreased with an increasing strain rate with a strain rate under 1 s{sup -}1, but it increased with an increasing strain rate over 1 s{sup -}1. The mechanical properties of the AZ31 magnesium alloy depend on the different microstructures according to the thickness. Two and 3 mm thickness specimens with a coarse and non-uniform grain structure exhibited worse mechanical properties while the 1.5 mm thickness specimens with a fine and uniform grain structure had better mechanical properties. Specimens machined at 0° and 45° to the rolling direction had higher absorbed energy than that of the 90° specimen. Thus, we demonstrate it is necessary to choose materials with proper thickness and machining direction for use in automotive applications.

  2. Engineering of nearly strain-free ZnO films on Si(1 1 1) by tuning AlN buffer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan; Galeckas, Augustinas; Lee, In-Hwan; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.

    2012-01-01

    ZnO properties were investigated as a function of AlN buffer layer thickness (0–100 nm) in ZnO/AlN/Si(1 1 1) structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. A significant improvement of ZnO film crystallinity by tuning AlN buffer thickness was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, topography and photoluminescence measurements. An optimal AlN buffer layer thickness of 50 nm is defined, which allows for growth of nearly strain-free ZnO films. The presence of free excitons at 10 K suggests high crystal quality for all ZnO samples grown on AlN/Si(1 1 1) templates. The intensities of neutral and ionized donor bound exciton lines are found to correlate with the in-plane and out-of-plane strain in the films, respectively.

  3. Engineering of nearly strain-free ZnO films on Si(1 1 1) by tuning AlN buffer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan, E-mail: vishnukanthan.venkatachalapathy@smn.uio.no [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Galeckas, Augustinas [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Lee, In-Hwan [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Centre for Advanced Materials Development (RCAMD), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu. [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    ZnO properties were investigated as a function of AlN buffer layer thickness (0-100 nm) in ZnO/AlN/Si(1 1 1) structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. A significant improvement of ZnO film crystallinity by tuning AlN buffer thickness was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, topography and photoluminescence measurements. An optimal AlN buffer layer thickness of 50 nm is defined, which allows for growth of nearly strain-free ZnO films. The presence of free excitons at 10 K suggests high crystal quality for all ZnO samples grown on AlN/Si(1 1 1) templates. The intensities of neutral and ionized donor bound exciton lines are found to correlate with the in-plane and out-of-plane strain in the films, respectively.

  4. Role of experimental resolution in measurements of critical layer thickness for strained-layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental measurements of critical layer thicknesses (CLT's) in strained-layer epitaxy are considered. Finite experimental resolution can have a major effect on measured CLT's and can easily lead to spurious results. The theoretical approach to critical layer thicknesses of J. W. Matthews [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 126 (1975)] has been modified in a straightforward way to predict the apparent critical thickness for an experiment with finite resolution in lattice parameter. The theory has also been modified to account for the general empirical result that fewer misfit dislocations are generated than predicted by equilibrium calculation. The resulting expression is fit to recent x-ray diffraction data on InGaAs/GaAs and SiGe/Si. The results suggest that CLT's in these systems may not be significantly larger than predicted by equilibrium theory, in agreement with high-resolution measurements

  5. Vibration of Elastic Functionally Graded Thick Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration behaviors of functionally graded rings were investigated theoretically. The material graded in the thickness direction according to the power law rule and the rings were assumed to be in plane stress and plane strain states. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the kinetic relation of von Kárman type, the frequency equation for free vibration of functionally graded ring was derived. The derived results were verified by those in literatures which reveals that the present theory can be appropriate to predict the free vibration characteristics for quite thick rings with the radius-to-thickness ratio from 60 down to 2.09. Comparison between the plane stress case and the plane strain case indicates a slight difference. Meanwhile, the effects of the structural dimensional parameters and the material inhomogeneous parameter are examined. It is interesting that the value of the logarithmic form of vibration frequency is inversely proportional to the logarithmic form of the radius-to-thickness ratio or the mean radius.

  6. Increasing the critical thickness of InGaAs quantum wells using strain-relief technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Marquis

    The advantages of optical communication through silica fiber have made long-distance electrical communication through copper wire obsolete. The two windows of operation for long-haul optical communication are centered around the wavelengths of 1.3 mum and 1.55 mum, which have minimal amounts of signal attenuation and dispersion. Benefits of optical communications within these windows include low system costs, high bandwidth, and high system reliability which have encouraged the development of emitters and receivers at these relatively long wavelengths. Long-wavelength semiconductor lasers are typically fabricated on InP substrates, but their performance suffers greatly with increases in operating temperature. Laser diodes on GaAs substrates are not as sensitive to operating temperature due to quantum-well active regions with relative deep potential barriers, but critical thickness limits the wavelength ceiling to 1.1 mum. Strain-relief technologies are currently being investigated to enable long-wavelength lasers with deeper potential wells leading to a corresponding increase in characteristic temperatures. Having a larger lattice constant than GaAs enables ternary InGaAs substrates to increase the 1.1-mum wavelength ceiling. Extending this ceiling to one of the optical communication windows could enable high-characteristic-temperature, long-wavelength lasers. Broad-area and buried-heterostructure lasers have demonstrated the potential of ternary substrates to increase characteristic temperatures and emission wavelengths. Wavelengths as long as 1.15 mum and characteristic temperatures as high as 145 K have been achieved. Reduced-area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition involves the deposition of strained materials on isolated islands. Due to the discontinuous nature of reduced-area epitaxy, strained materials are allowed to expand near the mesa edges, decreasing the overall strain in the structure. Laser diodes using this technology have been successfully

  7. Measurement of the residual stress distribution in a thick pre-stretched aluminum plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. X.; Li, X. Q.; M, S.; Zhang, Y. C.; Gong, Y. D.

    2008-12-01

    Thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plates are widely used in aircraft, while machining distortion caused by initial residual stress release in thick plates is a common and serious problem. To reduce the distortion, the residual stress distribution in thick plate must be measured. According to the characteristics of the thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plate, based the elastic mechanical theory, this article deduces the modified layer-removal strain method adapting two different strain situations, which are caused by tensile and compressive stress. To validate this method, the residual stresses distribution along the thick direction of plate 2D70T351 is measured by this method, it is shown that the new method deduced in this paper is simple and accurate, and is very useful in engineering.

  8. Micromechanical modeling of stress-induced strain in polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga by directional solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yuping; Shi, Tao; Teng, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A micromechanical model of directional solidification Ni–Mn–Ga is developed. • The stress–strain curves in different directions are tested. • The martensite Young’s moduli in different directions are predicted. • The macro reorientation strains in different directions are investigated. - Abstract: Polycrystalline ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni–Mn–Ga produced by directional solidification possess unique properties. Its compressive stress–strain behaviors in loading–unloading cycle show nonlinear and anisotropic. Based on the self-consistent theory and thermodynamics principle, a micromechanical constitutive model of polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga by directional solidification is developed considering the generating mechanism of the macroscopic strain and anisotropy. Then, the stress induced strains at different angles to solidification direction are calculated, and the results agree well with the experimental data. The predictive curves of martensite Young’s modulus and macro reorientation strain in different directions are investigated. It may provide theoretical guidance for the design and use of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

  9. Comparison of Measured Residual Stress in an Extra Thick Multi-pass Weld Using Neutron Diffraction Method and Inherent Strain Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, JeongUng; An, GyuBaek; Woo, Wan Chuck

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of large-scale containership, a large amount of high-strength steels with extra thick plates is being extensively used. The welding stress existing in the extra thick welded plates has a significant effect on the integrity of the component in terms of brittle fracture and fatigue behavior. It has been reported that welding residual stress distribution in an extra thick plate can affect the propagation path of the crack. Therefore, it is important to measure the distribution of welding residual stresses for the reliable design of the welded structures. So far various researches have been carried out for the determination of residual stresses on the surface of steels. In this paper, the total residual stresses in the 70 mm thick multipass FACW butt joint were measured by integrating initial stress into ISM. Concretely, two methods named as initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM were employed to determine the total residual stresses. Furthermore, the distributions of residual stresses were compared with the results of the Neutron Diffraction Method(NDM). In order to measure the three dimensional residual stresses in the welded joint with initial stresses existing before welding, initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM were developed. The residual stresses in 70 mm-thick butt joint by flux cored arc welding were carried out with a good accuracy using the two developed methods. The residual stresses in welded joint using both initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM agreed well with the results measured by Neutron Diffraction Method. This suggests that the integrated ISM is a reliable method for residual stress measurement if initial stress existed

  10. Strain-free GaN thick films grown on single crystalline ZnO buffer layer with in situ lift-off technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Minegishi, T.; Lee, W. H.; Goto, H.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Ha, J. S.; Goto, T.; Hanada, T.; Cho, M. W.; Yao, T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain-free freestanding GaN layers were prepared by in situ lift-off process using a ZnO buffer as a sacrificing layer. Thin Zn-polar ZnO layers were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates, which was followed by the growth of Ga-polar GaN layers both by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The MBE-grown GaN layer acted as a protecting layer against decomposition of the ZnO layer and as a seeding layer for GaN growth. The ZnO layer was completely in situ etched off during growth of thick GaN layers at low temperature by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Hence freestanding GaN layers were obtained for the consecutive growth of high-temperature GaN thick layers. The lattice constants of freestanding GaN agree with those of strain-free GaN bulk. Extensive microphotoluminescence study indicates that strain-free states extend throughout the high-temperature grown GaN layers

  11. Polycrystalline Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on r-plane sapphire: Effect of film thickness on strain and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin, E. A.; Holland, A. S.; Ghorbani, K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Simon, W. K.; Safari, A.; Wang, J. Y.

    2006-10-01

    Polycrystalline Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) films grown on r-plane sapphire exhibit strong variation of in-plane strain over the thickness range of 25-400nm. At a critical thickness of ˜200nm, the films are strain relieved; in thinner films, the strain is tensile, while compressive strain was observed in the 400nm film. Microwave properties of the films were measured from 1to20GHz by the interdigital capacitor method. A capacitance tunability of 64% was observed in the 200nm film, while thinner films showed improved Q factor. These results demonstrate the possibility of incorporating frequency agile BST-based devices into the silicon on sapphire process.

  12. Performance Analysis and Experimental Validation of the Direct Strain Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasios Iliopoulos; John G. Michopoulos; John C. Hermanson

    2013-01-01

    Direct Strain Imaging accomplishes full field measurement of the strain tensor on the surface of a deforming body, by utilizing arbitrarily oriented engineering strain measurements originating from digital imaging. In this paper an evaluation of the method’s performance with respect to its operating parameter space is presented along with a preliminary...

  13. Dielectric oil-based polymer actuator for improved thickness strain and breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Min Sung; Yamamoto, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) have been increasingly investigated as alternative actuators to conventional ones. However, DEAs suffer from high rates of premature failure. Therefore, this study proposes a dielectric oil-based polymer actuator, also called a Dielectric liquid actuator (DLA), to compensate for the drawbacks of DEAs. DLA was experimentally compared with conventional DEAs. Results showed that DLA successfully prevented thermal runaway at defects in the electrode and excessive thinning of the film, resulting in increased breakdown voltage. Consequently, premature failure was inhibited, and the performance was improved. The breakdown voltages of DLA and DEA were 6000 and 2000 V, respectively, and their maximum thickness strains were 49.5% and 37.5%, respectively

  14. Dielectric oil-based polymer actuator for improved thickness strain and breakdown voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Min Sung; Yamamoto, Akio [Dept. of Precision Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) have been increasingly investigated as alternative actuators to conventional ones. However, DEAs suffer from high rates of premature failure. Therefore, this study proposes a dielectric oil-based polymer actuator, also called a Dielectric liquid actuator (DLA), to compensate for the drawbacks of DEAs. DLA was experimentally compared with conventional DEAs. Results showed that DLA successfully prevented thermal runaway at defects in the electrode and excessive thinning of the film, resulting in increased breakdown voltage. Consequently, premature failure was inhibited, and the performance was improved. The breakdown voltages of DLA and DEA were 6000 and 2000 V, respectively, and their maximum thickness strains were 49.5% and 37.5%, respectively.

  15. An analytical method for calculating stresses and strains of ATF cladding based on thick walled theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Hak Sung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, an analytical method based on thick walled theory has been studied to calculate stress and strain of ATF cladding. In order to prescribe boundary conditions of the analytical method, two algorithms were employed which are called subroutine 'Cladf' and 'Couple' of FRACAS, respectively. To evaluate the developed method, equivalent model using finite element method was established and stress components of the method were compared with those of equivalent FE model. One of promising ATF concepts is the coated cladding, which take advantages such as high melting point, a high neutron economy, and low tritium permeation rate. To evaluate the mechanical behavior and performance of the coated cladding, we need to develop the specified model to simulate the ATF behaviors in the reactor. In particular, the model for simulation of stress and strain for the coated cladding should be developed because the previous model, which is 'FRACAS', is for one body model. The FRACAS module employs the analytical method based on thin walled theory. According to thin-walled theory, radial stress is defined as zero but this assumption is not suitable for ATF cladding because value of the radial stress is not negligible in the case of ATF cladding. Recently, a structural model for multi-layered ceramic cylinders based on thick-walled theory was developed. Also, FE-based numerical simulation such as BISON has been developed to evaluate fuel performance. An analytical method that calculates stress components of ATF cladding was developed in this study. Thick-walled theory was used to derive equations for calculating stress and strain. To solve for these equations, boundary and loading conditions were obtained by subroutine 'Cladf' and 'Couple' and applied to the analytical method. To evaluate the developed method, equivalent FE model was established and its results were compared to those of analytical model. Based on the

  16. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Wiel, H.J. van de; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  17. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.; Van de Wiel, H.J.; Groen, W.A.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2011-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  18. Role of scaffold network in controlling strain and functionalities of nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aiping; Hu, Jia-Mian; Lu, Ping; Yang, Tiannan; Zhang, Wenrui; Li, Leigang; Ahmed, Towfiq; Enriquez, Erik; Weigand, Marcus; Su, Qing; Wang, Haiyan; Zhu, Jian-Xin; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Chen, Long-Qing; Yarotski, Dmitry; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-06-01

    Strain is a novel approach to manipulating functionalities in correlated complex oxides. However, significant epitaxial strain can only be achieved in ultrathin layers. We show that, under direct lattice matching framework, large and uniform vertical strain up to 2% can be achieved to significantly modify the magnetic anisotropy, magnetism, and magnetotransport properties in heteroepitaxial nanoscaffold films, over a few hundred nanometers in thickness. Comprehensive designing principles of large vertical strain have been proposed. Phase-field simulations not only reveal the strain distribution but also suggest that the ultimate strain is related to the vertical interfacial area and interfacial dislocation density. By changing the nanoscaffold density and dimension, the strain and the magnetic properties can be tuned. The established correlation among the vertical interface-strain-properties in nanoscaffold films can consequently be used to tune other functionalities in a broad range of complex oxide films far beyond critical thickness.

  19. Variations of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness according to the torsion direction of optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Chan Yun; Kim, Na Rae

    2014-02-20

    To examine the relationship between the optic disc torsion and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness through a comparison with the macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer complex (GCIPL) thickness measured by Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ninety-four eyes of 94 subjects with optic disc torsion and 114 eyes of 114 subjects without optic disc torsion were enrolled prospectively. The participants underwent fundus photography and OCT imaging in peripapillary RNFL mode and macular GCIPL mode. The participants were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of optic disc torsion. The eyes with optic disc torsion were further divided into supranasal torsion and inferotemporal torsion groups according to the direction of optic disc torsion. The mean RNFL and GCIPL thicknesses for the quadrants and subsectors were compared. The superior and inferior peak locations of the RNFL were also measured according to the torsion direction. The temporal RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in inferotemporal torsion, whereas the GCIPL thickness at all segments was unaffected. The inferotemporal optic torsion had more temporally positioned superior peak locations of the RNFL than the nontorsion and supranasal-torted optic disc. Thickening of the temporal RNFL with a temporal shift in the superior peak within the eyes with inferotemporal optic disc torsion can lead to interpretation errors. The ganglion cell analysis algorithm can assist in differentiating eyes with optic disc torsion.

  20. Neutron methods for the direct determination of the magnetic induction in thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhevnikov, S.V., E-mail: kozhevn@nf.jinr.ru [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ott, F. [CEA, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); CNRS, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Radu, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We review different neutron methods which allow extracting directly the value of the magnetic induction in thick films: Larmor precession, Zeeman spatial beam-splitting and neutron spin resonance. Resulting parameters obtained by the neutron methods and standard magnetometry technique are presented and compared. The possibilities and specificities of the neutron methods are discussed. - Highlights: • We present neutron methods for investigations of the thick magnetic films. • It is the methods for the direct determination of the magnetic induction. • Magnetic induction in bulk, at single interface and in a single domain. • It is Larmor precession, Zeeman spatial beam-splitting and neutron spin resonance. • These methods are complementary to polarized neutron reflectometry.

  1. Measurement of the through thickness compression of a battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shutian; Huang, Xiaosong; Xiao, Xinran

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical integrity of the separator is critical to the reliable operation of a battery. Due to its minimal thickness, compression experiments with a single/a few layers of separator are difficult to perform. In this work, a capacitance based displacement set-up has been developed for the measurement of the through thickness direction (TTD) compression stress-strain behavior of the separator and the investigation of its interaction with the electrode. The experiments were performed for a stack of two layers of Celgard 2400 separator, NMC cathode, and separator/NMC cathode/separator stack in both dry and wet (i.e. submersed in dimethyl carbonate DMC) conditions. The experimental results reveal that the separator compression modulus can be significantly affected by the presence of DMC. The iso-stress based rule of mixtures was used to compute the compressive stress-strain curve for the stack from that of the separator and NMC layer. The computed curve agreed with the experimental curve reasonably well up to about 0.16 strain but deviated significantly to a softer response at higher strains. The results suggest that, in the stack, the TTD compressive deformation of the separator is influenced by the NMC cathode.

  2. A study of strain in thin epitaxial films of yttrium silicide on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michelle F.; Martínez-Miranda, L. J.; Santiago-Avilés, J. J.; Graham, W. R.; Siegal, M. P.

    1994-02-01

    We present the results of an x-ray diffraction analysis of epitaxial yttrium silicide films grown on Si(111), with thicknesses ranging from 14 to 100 Å. The macroscopic strain along the out-of-plane direction for films containing pits or pinholes follows the trend observed previously in films of thicknesses up to 510 Å. The out-of-plane lattice parameter decreases linearly with film thickness. We show preliminary evidence that pinhole-free films do not follow the above trend, and that strain in these films has the opposite sign than in films with pinholes. Finally, our results also indicate that the mode of growth, coupled to the interfacial thermal properties of the films, affects the observed value for the strain in the films.

  3. A study of strain in thin epitaxial films of yttrium silicide on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, M.F.; Martinez-Miranda, L.J.; Santiago-Aviles, J.J.; Graham, W.R.; Siegal, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of an x-ray diffraction analysis of epitaxial yttrium silicide films grown on Si(111), with thicknesses ranging from 14 to 100 A. The macroscopic strain along the out-of-plane direction for films containing pits or pinholes follows the trend observed previously in films of thicknesses up to 510 A. The out-of-plane lattice parameter decreases linearly with film thickness. We show preliminary evidence that pinhole-free films do not follow the above trend, and that strain in these films has the opposite sign than in films with pinholes. Finally, our results also indicate that the mode of growth, coupled to the interfacial thermal properties of the films, affects the observed value for the strain in the films

  4. Variation in the strain anisotropy of Zircaloy with temperature and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Worswick, D.

    1984-04-01

    Strain anisotropy was investigated at temperatures in the range 293 to 1117K in circular tensile specimens prepared from rolled Zircaloy-2 plate so that their tensile axes were parallel to and transverse to the rolling direction. The strain anisotropy factor for both types of specimen increased markedly in the high alpha phase region above 923K reaching a maximum at circa 1070K. Above this temperature in the alpha-plus-beta phase region the strain anisotropy decreased rapidly as the proportion of beta phase increased and was almost non-existent at 1173K. The strain anisotropy was markedly strain dependent, particularly in the high alpha phase region. The study was extended to Zircaloy-4 pressurized water reactor (PWR) 17 x 17 type fuel rod tubing specimens which were strained under biaxial conditions using cooling conditions which promoted uniform diametral strain over most of their lengths (circa 250 mm). In these circumstances the strain anisotropy is manifest by a reduction in length. Measurement of this change along with that in diameter and wall thickness produced data from which the strain anisotropy factor was calculated. The results, although influenced by additional factors discussed in the paper, were similar to those observed in the uniaxial Zircaloy-2 tensile tests. (author)

  5. Analysis of residual transverse stresses in a thick UD glass/polyester pultruded profile using hole drilling with strain gage and digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Onur; Baran, Ismet; Ersoy, Nuri; Akkerman, Remko

    2018-05-01

    Process induced stresses inherently exist in fiber reinforced polymer composites particularly in thick parts due to the presence of non-uniform cure, shrinkage and thermal expansion/contraction during manufacturing. In order to increase the reliability and the performance of the composite materials, process models are developed to predict the residual stress formation. The accuracy of the process models is dependent on the geometrical (micro to macro), material and process parameters as well as the numerical implementation. Therefore, in order to have reliable process modelling framework, there is a need for validation and if necessary calibration of the developed models. This study focuses on measurement of the transverse residual stresses in a relatively thick pultruded profile (20×20 mm) made of glass/polyester. Process-induced residual stresses in the middle of the profile are examined with different techniques which have never been applied for transverse residual stresses in thick unidirectional composites. Hole drilling method with strain gage and digital image correlation are employed. Strain values measured from measurements are used in a finite element model (FEM) to simulate the hole drilling process and predict the residual stress level. The measured released strain is found to be approximately 180 μm/m from the strain gage. The tensile residual stress at the core of the profile is estimated approximately as 7-10 MPa. Proposed methods and measured values in this study will enable validation and calibration of the process models based on the residual stresses.

  6. Thickness dependent ferromagnetism in thermally decomposed NiO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravikumar, Patta; Kisan, Bhagaban; Perumal, Alagarsamy, E-mail: perumal@iitg.ernet.in

    2016-11-15

    We report the effects of film thickness, annealing temperature and annealing environments on thermal decomposition behavior and resulting magnetic properties of NiO (t=50–300 nm) thin films. All the NiO films were prepared directly on thermally oxidized Si at ambient temperature using magnetron sputtering technique and post annealed at different temperatures (T{sub A}) under vacuum and oxygen atmospheres. As-deposited films exhibit face centered cubic structure with large lattice constant due to strain induced during sputtering process. With increasing T{sub A}, the lattice constant decreases due to the release of strain and thickness dependent thermal decomposition reaction of NiO into Ni has been observed for the NiO films annealed at 500 °C under vacuum condition. As a result, the antiferromagnetic nature of the as-deposited NiO films transforms into ferromagnetic one with dominant thickness dependent ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. In addition, the existence of both Ni and NiO phases in the annealed NiO films shows noticeable exchange bias under field cooling condition. The behavior of thermal decomposition was not observed for the NiO films annealed under oxygen condition which results in no detectable change in the magnetic properties. The observed results are discussed on the basis of thickness dependent thermal decomposition in NiO films with increasing T{sub A} and changing annealing conditions. - Highlights: • Preparation of highly strained single layer NiO films with different thicknesses. • Study the effects of annealing under different environments on crystal structure. • Understanding the origin of thickness dependent thermal decomposition reaction. • Investigate the role of thermal decomposition reaction on the magnetic properties. • Study the interaction between NiO and Ni phases on the exchange bias mechanism.

  7. Effects of tibial plateau angle and spacer thickness applied during in vitro canine total knee replacement on three-dimensional kinematics and collateral ligament strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katherine M; Foutz, Timothy L; Johnsen, Kyle J; Budsberg, Steven C

    2014-09-01

    To quantify the 3-D kinematics and collateral ligament strain of stifle joints in cadaveric canine limbs before and after cranial cruciate ligament transection followed by total knee replacement (TKR) involving various tibial plateau angles and spacer thicknesses. 6 hemi-pelvises collected from clinically normal nonchondrodystrophic dogs (weight range, 25 to 35 kg). Hemi-pelvises were mounted on a modified Oxford knee rig that allowed 6 degrees of freedom of the stifle joint but prevented mechanical movement of the hip and tarsal joints. Kinematics and collateral ligament strain were measured continuously while stifle joints were flexed. Data were again collected after cranial cruciate ligament transection and TKR with combinations of 3 plateau angles (0°, 4°, and 8°) and spacer thicknesses (5, 7, and 9 mm). Presurgical (ie, normal) stifle joint rotations were comparable to those previously documented for live dogs. After TKR, kinematics recorded for the 8°, 5-mm implant most closely resembled those of unaltered stifle joints. Decreasing the plateau angle and increasing spacer thickness altered stifle joint adduction, internal rotation, and medial translation. Medial collateral ligament strain was minimal in unaltered stifle joints and was unaffected by TKR. Lateral collateral ligament strain decreased with steeper plateau angles but returned to a presurgical level at the flattest plateau angle. Among the constructs tested, greatest normalization of canine stifle joint kinematics in vitro was achieved with the steepest plateau angle paired with the thinnest spacer. Furthermore, results indicated that strain to the collateral ligaments was not negatively affected by TKR.

  8. Method and apparatus for ultrasonic characterization through the thickness direction of a moving web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Theodore; Hall, Maclin S.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the caliper and/or the ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web of material using ultrasonic pulses generated by a rotatable wheel ultrasound apparatus. The apparatus includes a first liquid-filled tire and either a second liquid-filled tire forming a nip or a rotatable cylinder that supports a thin moving web of material such as a moving web of paper and forms a nip with the first liquid-filled tire. The components of ultrasonic transit time through the tires and fluid held within the tires may be resolved and separately employed to determine the separate contributions of the two tire thicknesses and the two fluid paths to the total path length that lies between two ultrasonic transducer surfaces contained within the tires in support of caliper measurements. The present invention provides the benefit of obtaining a transit time and caliper measurement at any point in time as a specimen passes through the nip of rotating tires and eliminates inaccuracies arising from nonuniform tire circumferential thickness by accurately retaining point-to-point specimen transit time and caliper variation information, rather than an average obtained through one or more tire rotations. Morever, ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web may be determined independent of small variations in the wheel axle spacing, tire thickness, and liquid and tire temperatures.

  9. Ion Diffusion-Directed Assembly Approach to Ultrafast Coating of Graphene Oxide Thick Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Weiwei; Yao, Weiquan; Jiang, Yanqiu; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2017-10-24

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly approach has been widely used to fabricate multilayer coatings on substrates with multiple cycles, whereas it is hard to access thick films efficiently. Here, we developed an ion diffusion-directed assembly (IDDA) strategy to rapidly make multilayer thick coatings in one step on arbitrary substrates. To achieve multifunctional coatings, graphene oxide (GO) and metallic ions were selected as the typical building blocks and diffusion director in IDDA, respectively. With diffusion of metallic ions from substrate to negatively charged GO dispersion spontaneously (i.e., from high-concentration region to low-concentration region), GO was assembled onto the substrate sheet-by-sheet via sol-gel transformation. Because metallic ions with size of subnanometers can diffuse directionally and freely in the aqueous dispersion, GO was coated on the substrate efficiently, giving rise to films with desired thickness up to 10 μm per cycle. The IDDA approach shows three main merits: (1) high efficiency with a μm-scale coating rate; (2) controllability over thickness and evenness; and (3) generality for substrates of plastics, metals and ceramics with any shapes and morphologies. With these merits, IDDA strategy was utilized in the efficient fabrication of functional graphene coatings that exhibit outstanding performance as supercapacitors, electromagnetic interference shielding textiles, and anticorrosion coatings. This IDDA approach can be extended to other building blocks including polymers and colloidal nanoparticles, promising for the scalable production and application of multifunctional coatings.

  10. Synthesis of thick diamond films by direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Jin Zeng Sun; Bai Yi Zhen; Lu Xian Yi

    2002-01-01

    The method of direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition has been established. A long-time stable glow discharge at large discharge current and high gas pressure has been achieved by using a hot cathode in the temperature range from 1100 degree C to 1500 degree C and non-symmetrical configuration of the poles, in which the diameter of the cathode is larger than that of anode. High-quality thick diamond films, with a diameter of 40-50 mm and thickness of 0.5-4.2 mm, have been synthesized by this method. Transparent thick diamond films were grown over a range of growth rates between 5-10 mu m/h. Most of the thick diamond films have thermal conductivities of 10-12 W/K centre dot cm. The thick diamond films with high thermal conductivity can be used as a heat sink of semiconducting laser diode array and as a heat spreading and isolation substrate of multichip modules. The performance can be obviously improved

  11. The Influence of Forming Directions and Strain Rate on Dynamic Shear Properties of Aerial Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Meng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic shear properties under high strain rate are an important basis for studying the dynamic mechanical properties and microscopic mechanisms of materials. Dynamic impact shear tests of aerial aluminum alloy 7050-T7451 in rolling direction (RD, transverse direction (TD and normal direction (ND were performed at a range of strain rates from 2.5 × 104 s−1 to 4.5 × 104 s−1 by High Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB. The influence of different forming directions and strain rates on the dynamic shear properties of material and the microstructure evolution under dynamic shear were emphatically analyzed. The results showed that aluminum alloy 7050-T7451 had a certain strain rate sensitivity and positive strain rate strengthening effect, and also the material had no obvious strain strengthening effect. Different forming directions had a great influence on dynamic shear properties. The shear stress in ND was the largest, followed by that in RD, and the lowest was that in TD. The microstructure observation showed that the size and orientation of the grain structure were different in three directions, which led to the preferred orientation of the material. All of those were the main reasons for the difference of dynamic shear properties of the material.

  12. Neutron Diffraction Residual Strain Tensor Measurements Within The Phase IA Weld Mock-up Plate P-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has worked with NRC and EPRI to apply neutron and X-ray diffraction methods to characterize the residual stresses in a number of dissimilar metal weld mockups and samples. The design of the Phase IA specimens aimed to enable stress measurements by several methods and computational modeling of the weld residual stresses. The partial groove in the 304L stainless steel plate was filled with weld beads of Alloy 82. A summary of the weld conditions for each plate is provided in Table 1. The plates were constrained along the long edges during and after welding by bolts with spring-loaded washers attached to the 1-inch thick Al backing plate. The purpose was to avoid stress relief due to bending of the welded stainless steel plate. The neutron diffraction method was one of the methods selected by EPRI for non-destructive through thickness strain and stress measurement. Four different plates (P-3 to P-6) were studied by neutron diffraction strain mapping, representing four different welding conditions. Through thickness neutron diffraction strain mappings at NRSF2 for the four plates and associated strain-free d-zero specimens involved measurement along seven lines across the weld and at six to seven depths. The mountings of each plate for neutron diffraction measurements were such that the diffraction vector was parallel to each of the three primary orthogonal directions of the plate: two in-plane directions, longitudinal and transverse, and the direction normal to the plate (shown in left figure within Table 1). From the three orthogonal strains for each location, the residual stresses along the three plate directions were calculated. The principal axes of the strain and stress tensors, however, need not necessarily align with the plate coordinate system. To explore this, plate P-5 was selected for examination of the possibility that the principal axes of strain are not along the sample coordinate system axes. If adequate data could

  13. Direct evidence of strain transfer for InAs island growth on compliant Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marçal, L. A. B.; Magalhães-Paniago, R.; Malachias, Angelo, E-mail: angeloms@fisica.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Richard, M.-I. [European Synchrotron (ESRF), ID01 beamline, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Aix-Marseille University, IM2NP-CNRS, Faculté des Sciences de St Jérôme, 13397 Marseille (France); Cavallo, F. [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Lagally, M. G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Schmidt, O. G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW-Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Schülli, T. Ü. [European Synchrotron (ESRF), ID01 beamline, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Deneke, Ch. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia (LNNano/CNPEM), C.P. 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas (Brazil)

    2015-04-13

    Semiconductor heteroepitaxy on top of thin compliant layers has been explored as a path to make inorganic electronics mechanically flexible as well as to integrate materials that cannot be grown directly on rigid substrates. Here, we show direct evidences of strain transfer for InAs islands on freestanding Si thin films (7 nm). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements using a beam size of 300 × 700 nm{sup 2} can directly probe the strain status of the compliant substrate underneath deposited islands. Using a recently developed diffraction mapping technique, three-dimensional reciprocal space maps were reconstructed around the Si (004) peak for specific illuminated positions of the sample. The strain retrieved was analyzed using continuous elasticity theory via Finite-element simulations. The comparison of experiment and simulations yields the amount of strain from the InAs islands, which is transferred to the compliant Si thin film.

  14. Tuning metal-insulator behavior in LaTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures integrated directly on Si(100) through control of atomic layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Chen, Tongjie; Lim, Zheng Hui; Conlin, Patrick; Hensley, Ricky; Chrysler, Matthew; Su, Dong; Chen, Hanghui; Kumah, Divine P.; Ngai, Joseph H.

    2018-05-01

    We present electrical and structural characterization of epitaxial LaTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures integrated directly on Si(100). By reducing the thicknesses of the heterostructures, an enhancement in carrier-carrier scattering is observed in the Fermi liquid behavior, followed by a metal to insulator transition in the electrical transport. The insulating behavior is described by activated transport, and its onset occurs near an occupation of 1 electron per Ti site within the SrTiO3, providing evidence for a Mott driven transition. We also discuss the role that structure and gradients in strain could play in enhancing the carrier density. The manipulation of Mott metal-insulator behavior in oxides grown directly on Si opens the pathway to harnessing strongly correlated phenomena in device technologies.

  15. Asymmetric, compressive, SiGe epilayers on Si grown by lateral liquid-phase epitaxy utilizing a distinction between dislocation nucleation and glide critical thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew J.; Quitoriano, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    Uniaxially strained Si1-xGex channels have been proposed as a solution for high mobility channels in next-generation MOSFETS to ensure continued device improvement as the benefits from further miniaturisation are diminishing. Previously proposed techniques to deposit uniaxially strained Si1-xGex epilayers on Si (0 0 1) substrates require multiple deposition steps and only yielded thin strips of uniaxially strained films. A lateral liquid-phase epitaxy (LLPE) technique was developed to deposit a blanket epilayer of asymmetrically strained Si97.4Ge2.6 on Si in a single step, where the epilayer was fully strained in the growth direction and 31% strain-relaxed in the orthogonal direction. The LLPE technique promoted the glide of misfit dislocations, which nucleated in a region with an orthogonal misfit dislocation network, into a region where the dislocation nucleation was inhibited. This created an array of parallel misfit dislocations which were the source of the asymmetric strain. By observing the thicknesses at which the dislocation network transitions from orthogonal to parallel and at which point dislocation glide is exhausted, the separate critical thicknesses for dislocation nucleation and dislocation glide can be determined.

  16. Stress and strain provide positional and directional cues in development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behruz Bozorg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenesis of organs necessarily involves mechanical interactions and changes in mechanical properties of a tissue. A long standing question is how such changes are directed on a cellular scale while being coordinated at a tissular scale. Growing evidence suggests that mechanical cues are participating in the control of growth and morphogenesis during development. We introduce a mechanical model that represents the deposition of cellulose fibers in primary plant walls. In the model both the degree of material anisotropy and the anisotropy direction are regulated by stress anisotropy. We show that the finite element shell model and the simpler triangular biquadratic springs approach provide equally adequate descriptions of cell mechanics in tissue pressure simulations of the epidermis. In a growing organ, where circumferentially organized fibers act as a main controller of longitudinal growth, we show that the fiber direction can be correlated with both the maximal stress direction and the direction orthogonal to the maximal strain direction. However, when dynamic updates of the fiber direction are introduced, the mechanical stress provides a robust directional cue for the circumferential organization of the fibers, whereas the orthogonal to maximal strain model leads to an unstable situation where the fibers reorient longitudinally. Our investigation of the more complex shape and growth patterns in the shoot apical meristem where new organs are initiated shows that a stress based feedback on fiber directions is capable of reproducing the main features of in vivo cellulose fiber directions, deformations and material properties in different regions of the shoot. In particular, we show that this purely mechanical model can create radially distinct regions such that cells expand slowly and isotropically in the central zone while cells at the periphery expand more quickly and in the radial direction, which is a well established growth pattern

  17. Stress and strain provide positional and directional cues in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorg, Behruz; Krupinski, Pawel; Jönsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The morphogenesis of organs necessarily involves mechanical interactions and changes in mechanical properties of a tissue. A long standing question is how such changes are directed on a cellular scale while being coordinated at a tissular scale. Growing evidence suggests that mechanical cues are participating in the control of growth and morphogenesis during development. We introduce a mechanical model that represents the deposition of cellulose fibers in primary plant walls. In the model both the degree of material anisotropy and the anisotropy direction are regulated by stress anisotropy. We show that the finite element shell model and the simpler triangular biquadratic springs approach provide equally adequate descriptions of cell mechanics in tissue pressure simulations of the epidermis. In a growing organ, where circumferentially organized fibers act as a main controller of longitudinal growth, we show that the fiber direction can be correlated with both the maximal stress direction and the direction orthogonal to the maximal strain direction. However, when dynamic updates of the fiber direction are introduced, the mechanical stress provides a robust directional cue for the circumferential organization of the fibers, whereas the orthogonal to maximal strain model leads to an unstable situation where the fibers reorient longitudinally. Our investigation of the more complex shape and growth patterns in the shoot apical meristem where new organs are initiated shows that a stress based feedback on fiber directions is capable of reproducing the main features of in vivo cellulose fiber directions, deformations and material properties in different regions of the shoot. In particular, we show that this purely mechanical model can create radially distinct regions such that cells expand slowly and isotropically in the central zone while cells at the periphery expand more quickly and in the radial direction, which is a well established growth pattern in the meristem.

  18. Strain-dependent magnetism and electrical conductivity of La1-xSrxCoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeneli, Orkidia

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effects of epitaxial strain and film thickness on the lattice structure, microstructure, magnetization and electrical conduction of La 1-x Sr x CoO 3 (LSCO) (x=0.18 and 0.30) thin films have been studied using thickness-dependent film series on several types of single-crystalline substrates. Alternatively, the direct effect of strain has been probed using a piezoelectric substrate. La 0.7 Sr 0.3 CoO 3 is a ferromagnetic metal, whereas La 0.82 Sr 0.18 CoO 3 is at the phase boundary between the ferromagnetic metal and an insulating spin glass phase. Epitaxial biaxial strain in La 1-x Sr x CoO 3 (x=0.18-0.3) films is known to reduce the ferromagnetic double exchange interactions. It has further been suggested for the control of the crystal field splitting of the Co ions which may be utilized to manipulate the spin state. The LSCO (x = 0.18 and 0.30) films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on substrates of LaAlO 3 , SrTiO 3 , (PbMg 1/3 Nb 2/3 O 3 ) 0.72 (PbTiO 3 ) 0.28 (PMN-PT) and (LaAlO 3 ) 0.3 (Sr 2 TaAlO 6 ) 0.7 (LSAT), which provide different strain states and, in the case of PMN-PT, a reversibly controllable strain. Thickness-dependent series of La 0.82 Sr 0.18 CoO 3 on SrTiO 3 and LaAlO 3 as well as of La 0.7 Sr 0.3 CoO 3 on LSAT have been studied. The lattice parameters of the epitaxially grown films were determined from X-ray diffraction measurements (Bragg-Brentano method and reciprocal space mapping). Large tensile strains of 2% can be achieved in thicker films of up to 100 nm. On the other hand, the films under larger tensile strain have cracks and reveal ordered superstructures in HRTEM images which are tentatively attributed to ordered oxygen vacancies. The Curie temperature and the magnetic moment of the x=0.18 films increases towards larger film thickness in qualitative agreement with the joined effects of strain relaxation and finite thickness on magnetic ordering. In order to separate the direct strain effect from the

  19. Dependence on the growth direction of the strain in AlGaSb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R; Gayou, V L; Orduna-Diaz, A [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Momox-Beristain, E [FC-BUAP, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Salazar-Hernandez, B [CIICAp-UAEM, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Rodriguez, A G, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.m [IICO-UASLP, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    High resolution x-ray diffraction profiles were obtained from Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb layers grown on (001) and (111) GaSb substrates. The out of plane lattice parameter, was estimated directly from the symmetrical diffractions for (001) and (111) alloys. These results show that all the layers are strained, and those grown on (001) GaSb are slightly more strained than the corresponding layers grown on (111) GaSb. This difference is explained by the dependence of the strain ratio on growth direction. The out of plane lattice parameter as a function of Al content is higher than the corresponding bulk lattice parameter of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb layers obtained with Vegard's law. Also, the perpendicular and the in-plane lattice parameter expected for pseudomorphic alloys, was estimated from the strain ratios, assuming an elastic deformation and using the EDX alloy composition to interpolate the elastic constants C{sub ij}. This estimation also shows that almost all the layers are fully strained.

  20. Thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy and domains in amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} thin films grown on PET flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhenhua, E-mail: tangzhenhua1988@163.com [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Ni, Hao [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); College of science, China university of petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266580 China (China); Lu, Biao [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zheng, Ming [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Huang, Yong-An [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lu, Sheng-Guo, E-mail: sglu@gdut.edu.cn [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Minghua [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education (Xiangtan University), Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Gao, Ju [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-03-15

    The amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} (CoFeB) films (5–200 nm in thickness) were grown on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using the DC magnetron-sputtering method. The thickness dependence of structural and magnetic properties of flexible CoFeB thin films was investigated in detail. The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strain as a function of thickness was obtained in flexible CoFeB thin films, and a critical thickness of ~150 nm for in-plane magnetic anisotropy was observed. Moreover, the domains and the uniaxial anisotropy as a function of angular direction of applied magnetic field were characterized. The results show potential for designing CoFeB-based flexible spintronic devices in which the physical parameters could be tailored by controlling the thickness of the thin film. - Graphical abstract: The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strain as a function of thickness was obtained in flexible CoFeB thin films, and a critical thickness of ~150 nm for in-plane magnetic anisotropy was observed. Moreover, the domains and the uniaxial anisotropy as a function of angular direction of applied magnetic field were characterized. - Highlights: • The thickness effect on the magnetic properties in amorphous CoFeB thin films grown on flexible substrates was investigated. • The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strains was observed. • A critical thickness of ~ 150 nm for the flexible CoFeB thin film on PET substrate was obtained.

  1. Effect of shear strain on the deflection of a clamped magnetostrictive film-substrate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Zhenghui; Ming Li; Bo Zou; Xia Luo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of in-plane shear strain of a clamped bimorph on the deflection produced by magnetization of the film is investigated. The deflection is found by minimizing the Gibbs free energy with respect to four parameters, strains and curvatures along x and y directions at the interface, by assuming that the curvature in the y direction varies as a function of aspect ratio w/l along x. A set of standard linear equations of four parameters are obtained and the deflection is expressed in terms of the four parameters by solving the equations using Cramer rules. The inconsistencies pointed out by previous authors are also reviewed. For actuators made of thick and short clamped film-substrate system, the in-plane shear deformation should not be omitted. The present calculation model can give a relatively simple and accurate prediction of deflection for thick and short specimens of aspect ratio w/l<10, which supports the results obtained by finite element modeling. - Highlights: → We model the deflection of a thick magnetostrictive film-substrate cantilever plate. → Total stress along z from magnetic field is not zero without external force. → Effect of in-plane shear strain in calculating deflection examined. → Analytical solution of deflection obtained by assuming a curvature function. → Shear strain for short cantilever film-substrate plate considered.

  2. Strain and stress tensors of rolled uranium plate by Rietveld refinement of TOF neutron-diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzar, D.; Popa, N.C.; Vogel, S.

    2010-01-01

    We report the complete macroscopic average strain and stress tensors for a cold-rolled uranium plate, based on the neutron TOF measurements. Both tensors were determined by the least-squares refinement of the interplanar spacings of 19 Bragg reflections. Based on the pole figures, as determined by GSAS, a triclinic sample symmetry of the uranium plate was assumed. Strain and stress are tensile in both the transverse and rolling directions and very small in the normal direction (through the thickness of the plate). Shear strain and stress components are compressive and of significant magnitude.

  3. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  4. Cyclic stress at mHz frequencies aligns fibroblasts in direction of zero strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Faust

    Full Text Available Recognition of external mechanical signals is vital for mammalian cells. Cyclic stretch, e.g. around blood vessels, is one such signal that induces cell reorientation from parallel to almost perpendicular to the direction of stretch. Here, we present quantitative analyses of both, cell and cytoskeletal reorientation of umbilical cord fibroblasts. Cyclic strain of preset amplitudes was applied at mHz frequencies. Elastomeric chambers were specifically designed and characterized to distinguish between zero strain and minimal stress directions and to allow accurate theoretical modeling. Reorientation was only induced when the applied stretch exceeded a specific amplitude, suggesting a non-linear response. However, on very soft substrates no mechanoresponse occurs even for high strain. For all stretch amplitudes, the angular distributions of reoriented cells are in very good agreement with a theory modeling stretched cells as active force dipoles. Cyclic stretch increases the number of stress fibers and the coupling to adhesions. We show that changes in cell shape follow cytoskeletal reorientation with a significant temporal delay. Our data identify the importance of environmental stiffness for cell reorientation, here in direction of zero strain. These in vitro experiments on cultured cells argue for the necessity of rather stiff environmental conditions to induce cellular reorientation in mammalian tissues.

  5. Analysis of heterogeneities in strain and microstructure in aluminum alloy and magnesium processed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Subrata, E-mail: subrata.panda@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mass Structures (DAMAS), Ile du Saulcy, Metz F-57045 (France); Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3 UMR 7239), Ile du Saulcy, Metz F-57045 (France); Toth, Laszlo S., E-mail: laszlo.toth@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mass Structures (DAMAS), Ile du Saulcy, Metz F-57045 (France); Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3 UMR 7239), Ile du Saulcy, Metz F-57045 (France); Fundenberger, Jean-Jacques, E-mail: jean-jacques.fundenberger@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mass Structures (DAMAS), Ile du Saulcy, Metz F-57045 (France); Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3 UMR 7239), Ile du Saulcy, Metz F-57045 (France); Perroud, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.perroud@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mass Structures (DAMAS), Ile du Saulcy, Metz F-57045 (France); Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3 UMR 7239), Ile du Saulcy, Metz F-57045 (France); and others

    2017-01-15

    Two distinct bulk light metals were opted to study the shear strain evolution and associated heterogeneities in texture/microstructure development during torsional straining by high pressure torsion (HPT): a face centered cubic Al alloy (A5086) and a hexagonal commercial purity Mg. Relatively thick disk samples - four times thicker than usually employed in HPT process - were processed to 180° and 270° rotations. With the help of X-ray tomography, the shear strain gradients were examined in the axial direction. The results showed strongly localized shear deformation in the middle plane of the disks in both materials. These gradients involved strong heterogeneities in texture, microstructure and associated hardness, in particular through the thickness direction at the periphery of the disk where the interplay between significant strain hardening and possible dynamic recrystallization could occur. - Highlights: •HPT processing was conducted on bulk specimens thicker than the usual thin-disks. •The Al alloy (A5086) and commercial purity magnesium samples were compared. •Distributions of strain and microhardness were evaluated in the radial and axial direction. •Plastic deformation is highly localized in the middle plane at outer edge in both materials. •Different DRX rates governed the differences in microstructure and hardening behavior.

  6. Direct coordinate-free derivation of the compatibility equation for finite strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhak, E. I.

    2014-07-01

    The compatibility equation for the Cauchy-Green tensor field (squared tensor of pure extensionwith respect to the reference configuration) is directly derived from the well-known relation expressing this tensor via the vector field determining the mapping (transformation) of the reference configuration into the actual one. The derivation is based on the use of the apparatus of coordinatefree tensor calculus and does not apply any notions and relations of Riemannian geometry at all. The method is illustrated by deriving the well-known compatibility equation for small strains. It is shown that when the obtained compatibility equation for finite strains is linearized, it becomes the compatibility equation for small strains which indirectly confirms its correctness.

  7. Observation of in-plane asymmetric strain relaxation during crystal growth and growth interruption in InGaAs/GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Shimomura, Kenichi; Kamiya, Itaru; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2012-01-01

    In-plane asymmetric strain relaxation in lattice-mismatched InGaAs/GaAs(001) heteroepitaxy is studied by in situ three-dimensional X-ray reciprocal space mapping. Repeating crystal growth and growth interruptions during measurements allows us to investigate whether the strain relaxation is limited at a certain thickness or saturated. We find that the degree of relaxation during growth interruption depends on both the film thickness and the in-plane directions. Significant lattice relaxation is observed in rapid relaxation regimes during interruption. This is a clear indication that relaxation is kinetically limited. In addition, relaxation along the [110] direction can saturate more readily than that along the [1-bar10] direction. We discuss this result in terms of the interaction between orthogonally aligned dislocations. (author)

  8. Biaxial direct tensile tests in a large range of strain rates. Results on a ferritic nuclear steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Montagnani, M.; Pizzinato, E.V.; Solomos, G.; Viaccoz, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    2000-09-01

    Constitutive equations are usually calibrated only trough the experimental results obtained by means of unixial tests because of the lack of adequate biaxial experimental data especially at high strain rate conditions. These data are however important for the validation of analytical models and also for the predictions of mechanical behaviour of real structures subjected to multiaxial loading by numerical simulations. In this paper some developments are shown concerning biaxial cruciform specimens and different experimental machines allowing biaxial tests in a large range of strain rates. This experimental campaign has also allowed study of the influence of changing the strain paths. Diagrams of equivalent stress versus straining direction and also equivalent plastic fracture strain versus straining direction are shown. (orig.)

  9. Effects of stress on the oxide layer thickness and post-oxidation creep strain of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Young Ku

    1986-01-01

    Effects of compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and its subsequent relief on oxidation rate and post-oxidation creep characteristics of zircaloy-4 were investigated by oxidation studies in steam with and without applied tensile stress and by creep testing at 700 deg C in high purity argon. The thickness of oxide layer increased with the magnitude of tensile stress applied during oxidation at 650 deg C in steam whereas similar phenomenon was not observed during oxidation at 800 deg C. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C in steam without applied stress exhibited higher creep strain than that shown by unoxidized specimens when creep-tested in argon. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C steam under the applied stress of 8.53MPa and oxidized at 800 deg C under the applied stress of 0 and 8.53MPa exhibited lower strain than that shown by unoxidized specimen. The above experimental results were accounted for on the basis of interactions among applied stress during oxidation, compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and elasticity of zircaloy-4 matrix. (Author)

  10. Critical thickness of high structural quality SrTiO3 films grown on orthorhombic (101) DyScO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegalski, M. D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Schlom, D. G.; Fong, D. D.; Eastman, J. A.; Fuoss, P. H.; Streiffer, S. K.; Heeg, T.; Schubert, J.; Tian, W.; Nelson, C. T.; Pan, X. Q.; Hawley, M. E.; Bernhagen, M.; Reiche, P.; Uecker, R.

    2008-01-01

    Strained epitaxial SrTiO 3 films were grown on orthorhombic (101) DyScO 3 substrates by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. The epitaxy of this substrate/film combination is cube on cube with a pseudocubic out-of-plane (001) orientation. The strain state and structural perfection of films with thicknesses ranging from 50 to 1000 A were examined using x-ray scattering. The critical thickness at which misfit dislocations was introduced was between 350 and 500 A. These films have the narrowest rocking curves (full width at half maximum) ever reported for any heteroepitaxial oxide film (0.0018 deg.). Only a modest amount of relaxation is seen in films exceeding the critical thicknesses even after postdeposition annealing at 700 deg. C in 1 atm of oxygen. The dependence of strain relaxation on crystallographic direction is attributed to the anisotropy of the substrate. These SrTiO 3 films show structural quality more typical of semiconductors such as GaAs and silicon than perovskite materials; their structural relaxation behavior also shows similarity to that of compound semiconductor films

  11. Influence of anisotropic strain relaxation on the magnetoresistance properties of epitaxial Fe3O4 (110) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofin, R. G. S.; Wu, Han-Chun; Ramos, R.; Arora, S. K.; Shvets, I. V.

    2015-11-01

    We studied Fe3O4 (110) films grown epitaxially on MgO (110) substrates using oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The films with thickness of 30-200 nm showed anisotropic in-plane partial strain relaxation. Magneto resistance (MR) measurements with current and magnetic field along ⟨001⟩ direction showed higher MR compared to ⟨1 ¯ 10 ⟩ direction. Maximum value of MR was measured at Verwey transition temperature for both directions. We explain the observed anisotropy in the MR on the basis of the effects of anisotropic misfit strain, and the difference between the density of antiferromagnetically coupled antiphase boundaries formed along ⟨001⟩ and ⟨1 ¯ 10 ⟩ crystallographic directions, suggesting the dependence of spin polarisation on the anisotropic strain relaxation along the said crystallographic directions.

  12. Tungsten thick coatings for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, B.; Pizzuto, A.; Orsini, A.; Libera, S.; Visca, E.; Bertamini, L.; Casadei, F.; Severini, E.; Montanari, R.; Litunovsky, N.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the R and D activity was to realize thick W coatings on CuCrZr hollow bars and to test the mock ups with respect to thermal fatigue. Eight mock ups provided of 4 mm thick W coating were finally manufactured. The bonding integrity between coating and substrate was checked by means of an Ultrasonic apparatus. Characterisation of coatings was performed in order to assess microstructure, impurity content, density, tensile strength, adhesion strength, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient. Macroscopic residual strain measurements were performed by means of 'hole drilling' technique. The activities performed demonstrated the feasibility of thick Tungsten coatings on geometries with more complex residual strain distribution. These coatings are reliable armour of medium heat flux plasma facing component. (author)

  13. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, N. F. I.; Hasran, U. A.; Kamarudin, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell.

  14. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, N F I; Hasran, U A; Kamarudin, S K

    2015-01-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell. (paper)

  15. Self-Poling of BiFeO3 Thick Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, Evgeniya; Sadl, Matej; Ursic, Hana; Daniels, John; Malic, Barbara; Bencan, Andreja; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rojac, Tadej

    2016-08-03

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is difficult to pole because of the combination of its high coercive field and high electrical conductivity. This problem is particularly pronounced in thick films. The poling, however, must be performed to achieve a large macroscopic piezoelectric response. This study presents evidence of a prominent and reproducible self-poling effect in few-tens-of-micrometer-thick BiFeO3 films. Direct and converse piezoelectric measurements confirmed that the as-sintered BiFeO3 thick films yield d33 values of up to ∼20 pC/N. It was observed that a significant self-poling effect only appears in cases when the films are heated and cooled through the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition (Curie temperature TC ∼ 820 °C). These self-poled films exhibit a microstructure with randomly oriented columnar grains. The presence of a compressive strain gradient across the film thickness cooled from above the TC was experimentally confirmed and is suggested to be responsible for the self-poling effect. Finally, the macroscopic d33 response of the self-poled BiFeO3 film was characterized as a function of the driving-field frequency and amplitude.

  16. Some elevated temperature tensile and strain-controlled fatigue properties for a 9%Cr1Mo steel heat treated to simulate thick section material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, S.J.; Jacques, S.

    Current interest has been expressed in the usage of thick section 9%Cr1%Mo steel, particularly for UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) steam generator tubeplates. This paper presents the results of some preliminary mechanical property test work on a single cast of the steel, heat treated to simulate heavy ruling sections encompassing thicknesses likely to be met in the CDFR context. The microstructures of the simulated thick section material were found to remain predominantly as tempered martensite even at the slowest transformation cooling rates used (50 deg. C/h). The effect of microstructure is reflected in the elevated temperature proof stress, tensile strength and strain-controlled fatigue endurance which were found to be comparable with the properties established for thin section normalised and tempered 9%Cr1%Mo steel. These results are extremely encouraging and, taken in conjunction with the results from other simulation work on this material, further demonstrate the potential of thick section 9%Cr1%Mo steel. (author)

  17. Anisotropic strain relaxation in (Ba0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2005-05-01

    We have studied the evolution of anisotropic epitaxial strains in ⟨110⟩-oriented (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 paraelectric (m3m) thin films grown on orthorhombic (mm2) ⟨100⟩-oriented NdGaO3 by high-resolution x-ray diffractometry. All the six independent components of the three-dimensional strain tensor were measured in films with 25-1200-nm thickness, from which the principal stresses and strains were obtained. Pole figure analysis indicated that the epitaxial relations are [001]m3m‖[001]mm2 and [1¯10]m3m‖[010]mm2 in the plane of the film, and [110]m3m‖[100]mm2 along the growth direction. The dislocation system responsible for strain relief along [001] has been determined to be ∣b ∣(001)=3/4∣b∣. Strain relief along the [1¯10] direction, on the other hand, has been determined to be due to a coupled mechanism given by ∣b∣(1¯10)=∣b∣ and ∣b∣(1¯10)=√3 /4∣b∣. Critical thicknesses, as determined from nonlinear regression using the Matthews-Blakeslee equation, for misfit dislocation formation along [001] and [1¯10] direction were found to be 5 and 7 nm, respectively. The residual strain energy density was calculated as ˜2.9×106J/m3 at 25 nm, which was found to relax an order of magnitude by 200 nm. At 200 nm, the linear dislocation density along [001] and [1¯10] are ˜6.5×105 and ˜6×105cm-1, respectively. For films thicker than 600 nm, additional strain relief occurred through surface undulations, indicating that this secondary strain-relief mechanism is a volume effect that sets in upon cooling from the growth temperature.

  18. Critical thickness of high structural quality SrTiO{sub 3} films grown on orthorhombic (101) DyScO{sub 3}.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegalski, M. D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Nelson, C. T.; Schlom, D. G.; Fong, D. D.; Eastman, J. A.; Fuoss, P. H.; Streiffer, S. K.; Heeg, T.; Schubert, J.; Tian, W.; Pan, X. Q.; Hawley, M. E.; Bernhagen, M.; Reiche, P.; Uecker, R.; Pennsylvania State Univ.; Forschungszentrum Julich; Univ. Michigan; LANL; Max-Born-Strabe

    2008-12-01

    Strained epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films were grown on orthorhombic (101) DyScO{sub 3} substrates by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. The epitaxy of this substrate/film combination is cube on cube with a pseudocubic out-of-plane (001) orientation. The strain state and structural perfection of films with thicknesses ranging from 50 to 1000 {angstrom} were examined using x-ray scattering. The critical thickness at which misfit dislocations was introduced was between 350 and 500 {angstrom}. These films have the narrowest rocking curves (full width at half maximum) ever reported for any heteroepitaxial oxide film (0.0018{sup o}). Only a modest amount of relaxation is seen in films exceeding the critical thicknesses even after postdeposition annealing at 700 C in 1 atm of oxygen. The dependence of strain relaxation on crystallographic direction is attributed to the anisotropy of the substrate. These SrTiO{sub 3} films show structural quality more typical of semiconductors such as GaAs and silicon than perovskite materials; their structural relaxation behavior also shows similarity to that of compound semiconductor films.

  19. Evolution of microstructure, strain and physical properties in oxide nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aiping; Weigand, Marcus; Bi, Zhenxing; Zhang, Wenrui; Lü, Xuejie; Dowden, Paul; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Wang, Haiyan; Jia, Quanxi

    2014-06-24

    We, using LSMO:ZnO nanocomposite films as a model system, have studied the effect of film thickness on the physical properties of nanocomposites. It shows that strain, microstructure, as well as magnetoresistance strongly rely on film thickness. The magnetotransport properties have been fitted by a modified parallel connection channel model, which is in agreement with the microstructure evolution as a function of film thickness in nanocomposite films on sapphire substrates. The strain analysis indicates that the variation of physical properties in nanocomposite films on LAO is dominated by strain effect. These results confirm the critical role of film thickness on microstructures, strain states, and functionalities. It further shows that one can use film thickness as a key parameter to design nanocomposites with optimum functionalities.

  20. Thickness dependence of the strain, band gap and transport properties of epitaxial In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown on Y-stabilised ZrO{sub 2}(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K H L; Oropeza, F E; Egdell, R G [Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Lazarov, V K [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Veal, T D; McConville, C F [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Walsh, A, E-mail: Russell.egdell@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Kathleen Lonsdale Materials Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-24

    Epitaxial films of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been grown on Y-stabilised ZrO{sub 2}(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy over a range of thicknesses between 35 and 420 nm. The thinnest films are strained, but display a 'cross-hatch' morphology associated with a network of misfit dislocations which allow partial accommodation of the lattice mismatch. With increasing thickness a 'dewetting' process occurs and the films break up into micron sized mesas, which coalesce into continuous films at the highest coverages. The changes in morphology are accompanied by a progressive release of strain and an increase in carrier mobility to a maximum value of 73 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The optical band gap in strained ultrathin films is found to be smaller than for thicker films. Modelling of the system, using a combination of classical pair-wise potentials and ab initio density functional theory, provides a microscopic description of the elastic contributions to the strained epitaxial growth, as well as the electronic effects that give rise to the observed band gap changes. The band gap increase induced by the uniaxial compression is offset by the band gap reduction associated with the epitaxial tensile strain.

  1. Band structure of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires along the [110] direction modulated by external uniaxial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xihong; Tang Fu; Logan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Strain modulated electronic properties of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires along the [110] direction were reported, on the basis of first principles density-functional theory calculations. In particular, the energy dispersion relationship of the conduction/valence band was explored in detail. At the Γ point, the energy levels of both bands are significantly altered by applied uniaxial strain, which results in an evident change of the band gap. In contrast, for the K vectors far away from Γ, the variation of the conduction/valence band with strain is much reduced. In addition, with a sufficient tensile strain (∼1%), the valence band edge shifts away from Γ, which indicates that the band gap of the Si/Ge core-shell nanowires experiences a transition from direct to indirect. Our studies further showed that effective masses of charge carriers can also be tuned using the external uniaxial strain. The effective mass of the hole increases dramatically with tensile strain, while strain shows a minimal effect on tuning the effective mass of the electron. Finally, the relation between strain and the conduction/valence band edge is discussed thoroughly in terms of site-projected wavefunction characters.

  2. New strain measurement method at axial tensile test of thin films through direct imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong-Eun [Department of Automotive Engineering, Seoul National Uinversity of Technolgy, 172 Gongneung-2 Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun-Hyub [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Tongmyong University, 535, Yongdang-Dong, Nam-Gu, Busan 608-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong-Joong [School of Mechanical Eng., Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhyubpark@korea.com

    2008-09-07

    This paper proposes a new method for measuring strain during a tensile test of the specimen with micrometre size through direct imaging. A specimen was newly designed for adoption of direct imaging which was the main contribution of the proposed system. The structure of the specimen has eight indicators that make it possible to adopt direct imaging and it is fabricated using the same process of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices to guarantee the feasibility of the tensile test. We implemented a system for non-contact in situ measurement of strain with the specimen, the image-based displacement measurement system. Extension of the gauge length in the specimen could be found robustly by computing the positions of the eight rectangular-shape indicators on the image. Also, for an easy setup procedure, the region of interest was found automatically through the analysis of the edge projection profile along the horizontal direction. To gain confidence in the reliability of the system, the tensile test for the Al-3%Ti thin film was performed, which is widely used as a material in MEMS devices. Tensile tests were performed and displacements were measured using the proposed method and also the capacitance type displacement sensor for comparison. It is demonstrated that the new strain measurement system can be effectively used in the tensile test of the specimen at microscale with easy setup and better accuracy.

  3. Tattoo-Like Strain Gauges Based on Silicon Nano-Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nanshu

    2012-02-01

    This talk reports the in vivo measurement of tissue deformation through adhesive-free, conformable lamination of a tattoo-like elastic strain gauge consisted of piezoresistive silicon nano-membranes strategically integrated with tissue-like elastomeric substrates. The mechanical deformation in soft tissues cannot yet be directly quantified due to the lack of enabling tools. While stiff strain gauges for structural health monitoring have long existed, biological tissues are soft, curvilinear and highly deformable in contrast to civil or aerospace structures. An ultra-thin, ultra-soft, tattoo-like strain gauge that can conform to the convoluted surface of human body and stay attached during locomotion will be able to directly quantify tissue deformation without affecting the mechanical behavior of the tissue. While single crystalline silicon is known to have the highest gauge factor and best elastic response, it is intrinsically stiff and brittle. To achieve strain gauges with high compliance, high stretchability and reasonable sensitivity, single crystalline silicon nano-membranes will be transfer-printed onto polymeric support through carefully engineered stamps. The thickness and length of the Si strip will be chosen according to theoretical and numerical mechanics analysis which takes into account for the tradeoff between stretchability and sensitivity.

  4. A novel asymptotic expansion homogenization analysis for 3-D composite with relieved periodicity in the thickness direction

    KAUST Repository

    Nasution, Muhammad Ridlo Erdata

    2014-06-01

    A new asymptotic expansion homogenization analysis is proposed to analyze 3-D composite in which thermomechanical and finite thickness effects are considered. Finite thickness effect is captured by relieving periodic boundary condition at the top and bottom of unit-cell surfaces. The mathematical treatment yields that only 2-D periodicity (i.e. in in-plane directions) is taken into account. A unit-cell representing the whole thickness of 3-D composite is built to facilitate the present method. The equivalent in-plane thermomechanical properties of 3-D orthogonal interlock composites are calculated by present method, and the results are compared with those obtained by standard homogenization method (with 3-D periodicity). Young\\'s modulus and Poisson\\'s ratio obtained by present method are also compared with experiments whereby a good agreement is particularly found for the Young\\'s modulus. Localization analysis is carried out to evaluate the stress responses within the unit-cell of 3-D composites for two cases: thermal and biaxial tensile loading. Standard finite element (FE) analysis is also performed to validate the stress responses obtained by localization analysis. It is found that present method results are in a good agreement with standard FE analysis. This fact emphasizes that relieving periodicity in the thickness direction is necessary to accurately simulate the real free-traction condition in 3-D composite. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A novel asymptotic expansion homogenization analysis for 3-D composite with relieved periodicity in the thickness direction

    KAUST Repository

    Nasution, Muhammad Ridlo Erdata; Watanabe, Naoyuki; Kondo, Atsushi; Yudhanto, Arief

    2014-01-01

    A new asymptotic expansion homogenization analysis is proposed to analyze 3-D composite in which thermomechanical and finite thickness effects are considered. Finite thickness effect is captured by relieving periodic boundary condition at the top and bottom of unit-cell surfaces. The mathematical treatment yields that only 2-D periodicity (i.e. in in-plane directions) is taken into account. A unit-cell representing the whole thickness of 3-D composite is built to facilitate the present method. The equivalent in-plane thermomechanical properties of 3-D orthogonal interlock composites are calculated by present method, and the results are compared with those obtained by standard homogenization method (with 3-D periodicity). Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio obtained by present method are also compared with experiments whereby a good agreement is particularly found for the Young's modulus. Localization analysis is carried out to evaluate the stress responses within the unit-cell of 3-D composites for two cases: thermal and biaxial tensile loading. Standard finite element (FE) analysis is also performed to validate the stress responses obtained by localization analysis. It is found that present method results are in a good agreement with standard FE analysis. This fact emphasizes that relieving periodicity in the thickness direction is necessary to accurately simulate the real free-traction condition in 3-D composite. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A strain-isolation design for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Ming; Chen, Wei-Qiu; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Kim, Yun-Soung; Huang, Yong-Gang; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Kang, Zhan; Rogers, John A.

    2010-12-01

    Stretchable electronics represents a direction of recent development in next-generation semiconductor devices. Such systems have the potential to offer the performance of conventional wafer-based technologies, but they can be stretched like a rubber band, twisted like a rope, bent over a pencil, and folded like a piece of paper. Isolating the active devices from strains associated with such deformations is an important aspect of design. One strategy involves the shielding of the electronics from deformation of the substrate through insertion of a compliant adhesive layer. This paper establishes a simple, analytical model and validates the results by the finite element method. The results show that a relatively thick, compliant adhesive is effective to reduce the strain in the electronics, as is a relatively short film.

  7. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ende, D A; Van de Wiel, H J; Groen, W A; Van der Zwaag, S

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical failure or depolarization, especially at elevated temperatures. In this work, three kinds of ceramic–polymer composite piezoelectric materials were evaluated and compared against state-of-the-art piezoelectric materials. The new composites are unstructured and structured composites containing granular lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles or PZT fibers in a polyurethane matrix. The composites were used to build energy harvesting patches which were attached to a tire and tested under simulated rolling conditions. The energy density of the piezoelectric ceramic–polymer composite materials is initially not as high as that of the reference materials (a macro-fiber composite and a polyvinylidene fluoride polymer). However, the area normalized power output of the composites after temperature and strain cycling is comparable to that of the reference devices because the piezoelectric ceramic–polymer composites did not degrade during operation. (paper)

  8. Development of nondestructive hybrid measuring method for three-dimensional residual stress distribution of thick welded joint. Hybrid measuring method of inherent strain method and neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakacho, Keiji; Kasahara, Norifumi; Tamura, Ryota

    2012-01-01

    The measuring methods of the residual stress are classified into destructive one and nondestructive one. The inherent strain method (ISM) is destructive one. The neutron diffraction method (NDM) is nondestructive one. But the measurable depth is limited within about 20 mm and the method cannot measure the weld zone, without destruction of the object. So, in this study, the hybrid measuring method has been developed, by combining the ISM and the NDM. The theory of the hybrid method is the same as the ISM. In the analysis, the strains measured by the NDM without destruction are used. This hybrid measuring method is a true nondestructive measuring method for a thick welded joint. The applicability of the hybrid method has been verified by simulation, using a butt welded joint of thick pipes. In the simulation, the reliable order of the strains measured by the present NDM is very important, and was considered as 10 micro. The measurable regions by the present NDM were assumed. Under the above conditions, the data (the residual elastic strains assumed to be measured by the NDM) were made, and used in the ISM. As a result of such simulation, it has been cleared that the estimated residual stress has very high accuracy, if enough data are used. The required number of data is less than the ISM. (author)

  9. Strain localization band width evolution by electronic speckle pattern interferometry strain rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Institut Charles Delaunay-LASMIS, Universite de technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)], E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel; Montay, Guillaume [Institut Charles Delaunay-LASMIS, Universite de technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, electronic speckle pattern interferometry strain rate measurements are used to quantify the width of the strain localization band, which occurs when a sheet specimen is submitted to tension. It is shown that the width of this band decreases with increasing strain. Just before fracture, this measured width is about five times wider than the shear band and the initial sheet thickness.

  10. Directed evolution of Oenococcus oeni strains for more efficient malolactic fermentation in a multi-stressor wine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiao; Sumby, Krista M; Sundstrom, Joanna F; Grbin, Paul R; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2018-08-01

    High concentrations of ethanol, low pH, the presence of sulfur dioxide and some polyphenols have been reported to inhibit Oenococcus oeni growth, thereby negatively affecting malolactic fermentation (MLF) of wine. In order to generate superior O. oeni strains that can conduct more efficient MLF, despite these multiple stressors, a continuous culture approach was designed to directly evolve an existing ethanol tolerant O. oeni strain, A90. The strain was grown for ∼350 generations in a red wine-like environment with increasing levels of stressors. Three strains were selected from screening experiments based on their completion of fermentation in a synthetic wine/wine blend with 15.1% (v/v) ethanol, 26 mg/L SO 2 at pH 3.35 within 160 h, while the parent strain fermented no more than two thirds of l-malic acid in this medium. These superior strains also fermented faster and/or had a larger population in four different wines. A reduced or equivalent amount of the undesirable volatile, acetic acid, was produced by the optimised strains compared to a commercial strain in Mouvedre and Merlot wines. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using directed evolution as a tool to generate more efficient MLF starters tailored for wines with multiple stressors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. X-ray reciprocal space mapping of dislocation-mediated strain relaxation during InGaAs/GaAs(001) epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2011-01-01

    Dislocation-mediated strain relaxation during lattice-mismatched InGaAs/GaAs(001) heteroepitaxy was studied through in situ x-ray reciprocal space mapping (in situ RSM). At the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8, a hybrid system of molecular beam epitaxy and x-ray diffractometry with a two-dimensional detector enabled us to perform in situ RSM at high-speed and high-resolution. Using this experimental setup, four results in terms of film properties were simultaneously extracted as functions of film thickness. These were the lattice constants, the diffraction broadenings along in-plane and out-of-plane directions, and the diffuse scattering. Based on correlations among these results, the strain relaxation processes were classified into four thickness ranges with different dislocation behavior. In addition, the existence of transition regimes between the thickness ranges was identified. Finally, the dominant dislocation behavior corresponding to each of the four thickness ranges and transition regimes was noted.

  12. Strain transfer through film-substrate interface and surface curvature evolution during a tensile test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Han, Meidong; Goudeau, Philippe; Bourhis, Eric Le; Renault, Pierre-Olivier; Wang, Shibin; Li, Lin-an

    2018-03-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests on polyimide-supported thin metal films are performed to respectively study the macroscopic strain transfer through an interface and the surface curvature evolution. With a dual digital image correlation (DIC) system, the strains of the film and the substrate can be simultaneously measured in situ during the tensile test. For the true strains below 2% (far beyond the films' elastic limit), a complete longitudinal strain transfer is present irrespective of the film thickness, residual stresses and microstructure. By means of an optical surface profiler, the three-dimensional (3D) topography of film surface can be obtained during straining. As expected, the profile of the specimen center remains almost flat in the tensile direction. Nevertheless, a relatively significant curvature evolution (of the same order with the initial curvature induced by residual stresses) is observed along the transverse direction as a result of a Poisson's ratio mismatch between the film and the substrate. Furthermore, finite element method (FEM) has been performed to simulate the curvature evolution considering the geometric nonlinearity and the perfect strain transfer at the interface, which agrees well with the experimental results.

  13. Direct Strain and Slope and Slope Measurement Using 2D DSPSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandach, W.; Molimard, J.; Picart, P.

    2011-01-01

    Large variety of optical full-field measurement techniques are being developed and applied to solve mechanical problems. Since each technique possesses its own merits, it is important to know the capabilities and limitations of such techniques. Among these optical full-field methods, interferometry techniques take an important place. They are based on illumination with coherent light (laser). In shearing interferometry the difference of the out of-plane displacement in two neighboring object points is directly measured. Since object displacement does not result in interferometry fringes, the method is suited for localization of strain concentrations and is indeed used in industry for this purpose. DSPSI possesses the advantage over conventional out-of-plane displacement-sensitive interferometry, that only a single difference of the unwrapped phase map is required to obtain flexural strains, thereby relieving problems with noise and reduction in the field of view. A first work in this domain (DSPSI) [1] was made in 1973, later recent studies emerged to provide a quantitative system of measurements [2]. This work aims to present the results of strain and slope measurements using digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry (DSPSI). (author)

  14. Mathematical Model of Stress-Strain State of Curved Tube of Non-Circular Cross-Section with Account of Technological Wall Thickness Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirogov, S. P.; Ustinov, N. N.; Smolin, N. I.

    2018-05-01

    A mathematical model of the stress-strain state of a curved tube of a non-circular cross-section is presented, taking into account the technological wall thickness variation. On the basis of the semi-membrane shell theory, a system of linear differential equations describing the deformation of a tube under the effect of pressure is obtained. To solve the boundary value problem, the method of shooting is applied. The adequacy of the proposed mathematical model is verified by comparison with the experimental data and the results of the calculation of tubes by the energy method.

  15. Mems-based pzt/pzt bimorph thick film vibration energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We describe fabrication and characterization of a significantly improved version of a MEMS-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. The main advantage of bimorph vibration energy harvesters is that strain energy is not lost in mechanical...... support materials since only PZT is strained, and thus it has a potential for significantly higher output power. An improved process scheme for the energy harvester resulted in a robust fabrication process with a record high fabrication yield of 98.6%. Moreover, the robust fabrication process allowed...... a high pressure treatment of the screen printed PZT thick films prior to sintering, improving the PZT thick film performance and harvester power output reaches 37.1 μW at 1 g....

  16. THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF AN INFINITELY LONG ELASTIC ARRAYS OF DIFFERENT WIDTHS AND LIMITED THICKNESS ON THE HARD GROUND WHEN THEY HAVE FLAT DEFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Badalakha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of solving several problems of a flat deformation of elastic infinitely long massifs of different width and limited thickness. Various cases of conditions at the massif/base contact. The relationships between stressed and strained states previously suggested by the author, which differ from the generalized Hooke’s law, are used in the solutions.

  17. DNA-microarrays identification of Streptococcus mutans genes associated with biofilm thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldman Mark

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A biofilm is a complex community of microorganisms that develop on surfaces in diverse environments. The thickness of the biofilm plays a crucial role in the physiology of the immobilized bacteria. The most cariogenic bacteria, mutans streptococci, are common inhabitants of a dental biofilm community. In this study, DNA-microarray analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes associated with the thickness of S. mutans biofilms. Results Comparative transcriptome analyses indicated that expression of 29 genes was differentially altered in 400- vs. 100-microns depth and 39 genes in 200- vs. 100-microns biofilms. Only 10 S. mutans genes showed differential expression in both 400- vs. 100-microns and 200- vs. 100-microns biofilms. All of these genes were upregulated. As sucrose is a predominant factor in oral biofilm development, its influence was evaluated on selected genes expression in the various depths of biofilms. The presence of sucrose did not noticeably change the regulation of these genes in 400- vs. 100-microns and/or 200- vs. 100-microns biofilms tested by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression profile of selected biofilm thickness associated genes in the luxS- mutant strain. The expression of those genes was not radically changed in the mutant strain compared to wild-type bacteria in planktonic condition. Only slight downregulation was recorded in SMU.2146c, SMU.574, SMU.609, and SMU.987 genes expression in luxS- bacteria in biofilm vs. planktonic environments. Conclusion These findings reveal genes associated with the thickness of biofilms of S. mutans. Expression of these genes is apparently not regulated directly by luxS and is not necessarily influenced by the presence of sucrose in the growth media.

  18. Möbius semiconductor nanostructures and deformation potential strain effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of Möbius nanostructures is presented with focus on (1) the accuracy of the approximate differential-geometry formalism by Gravesen and Willatzen and (2) to assess the influence of bending-induced strain on Schrödinger equation eigenstates in semiconductor Möbius structures....... The differential-geometry model assumed complete confinement of a quantum-mechanical particle to a zero-thickness Möbius structure where the shape was computed based on minimization of elastic bending energy only and imposing the relevant boundary conditions. In the latter work, while bending was accounted...... for in finding the shape of the Möbius structure it was, for simplicity, neglected altogether in determining the direct strain influence on electronic eigenstates. However, as is well-known, deformation-potential strain effects In many semiconductor materials can lead to important changes in not only the energy...

  19. Axial strain in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Rieger, Torsten; Gruetzmacher, Detlev; Ion Lepsa, Mihail [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum, 52425 Juelich (Germany); JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Bussone, Genziana [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany); ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-01-28

    We study the axial strain relaxation in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Besides a gradual strain relaxation of the shell material, we find a significant strain in the GaAs core, increasing with shell thickness. This strain is explained by a saturation of the dislocation density at the core-shell interface. Independent measurements of core and shell lattice parameters by x-ray diffraction reveal a relaxation of 93% in a 35 nm thick InAs shell surrounding cores of 80 nm diameter. The compressive strain of -0.5% compared to bulk InAs is accompanied by a tensile strain up to 0.9% in the GaAs core.

  20. Estimation of creep life of thick welded joints using a simple model. Creep characteristics in thick welded joint and their improvements. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakacho, Keiji; Yamazaki, Masayoshi

    2001-01-01

    The information of the creep behavior of the thick welded joint is very important to secure the safety of the elevated temperature vessels like the nuclear reactors. The creep behavior of the thick welded point is very complex, thence it is difficult to practice the experiment or the theoretical analysis. A simple accurate model for theoretical analysis was developed in the first study. The simple model is constructed of several one-dimensional finite elements which can analyze three-dimensional creep behavior under a assumption. The model is easy to treat, and needs only a little labor and computation time to simulate the creep curve and local strain of the thick welded joint. In this second study, the capability of the model is expanded to estimate the creep life of the thick welded joint. New model can easily estimate the time of the rupture of the thick welded joint. It is verified comparing the result with the experimental one that the model can accurately predict the creep life. The histories of the local strains to the rupture time may be observed in the simulation by using the model. The information will be useful to improve the creep characteristics of the joints. (author)

  1. Measurement of illite particle thickness using a direct Fourier transform of small-angle X-ray scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chao; Rice, James A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Lin, Jar-Shyong

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that interstratified illite-smectite (I-S) minerals are composed of aggregates of fundamental particles. Many attempts have been made to measure the thickness of such fundamental particles, but each of the methods used suffers from its own limitations and uncertainties. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can be used to measure the thickness of particles that scatter X-rays coherently. We used SAXS to study suspensions of Na-rectorite and other illites with varying proportions of smectite. The scattering intensity (I) was recorded as a function of the scattering vector, q = (4 /) sin(/2), where  is the X-ray wavelength and  is the scattering angle. The experimental data were treated with a direct Fourier transform to obtain the pair distance distribution function (PDDF) that was then used to determine the thickness of illite particles. The Guinier and Porod extrapolations were used to obtain the scattering intensity beyond the experimental q, and the effects of such extrapolations on the PDDF were examined. The thickness of independent rectorite particles (used as a reference mineral) is 18.3 Å. The SAXS results are compared with those obtained by X-ray diffraction peak broadening methods. It was found that the power-law exponent (α) obtained by fitting the data in the region of q = 0.1-0.6 nm-1 to the power law (I = I0q-α) is a linear function of illite particle thickness. Therefore, illite particle thickness could be predicted by the linear relationship as long as the thickness is within the limit where α <4.0.

  2. Ultrasensitive tunability of the direct bandgap of 2D InSe flakes via strain engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Tianmeng; Wu, Meng; Cao, Ting; Chen, Yanwen; Sankar, Raman; Ulaganathan, Rajesh K.; Chou, Fangcheng; Wetzel, Christian; Xu, Cheng-Yan; Louie, Steven G.; Shi, Su-Fei

    2018-04-01

    InSe, a member of the layered materials family, is a superior electronic and optical material which retains a direct bandgap feature from the bulk to atomically thin few-layers and high electronic mobility down to a single layer limit. We, for the first time, exploit strain to drastically modify the bandgap of two-dimensional (2D) InSe nanoflakes. We demonstrated that we could decrease the bandgap of a few-layer InSe flake by 160 meV through applying an in-plane uniaxial tensile strain to 1.06% and increase the bandgap by 79 meV through applying an in-plane uniaxial compressive strain to 0.62%, as evidenced by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The large reversible bandgap change of ~239 meV arises from a large bandgap change rate (bandgap strain coefficient) of few-layer InSe in response to strain, ~154 meV/% for uniaxial tensile strain and ~140 meV/% for uniaxial compressive strain, representing the most pronounced uniaxial strain-induced bandgap strain coefficient experimentally reported in 2D materials. We developed a theoretical understanding of the strain-induced bandgap change through first-principles DFT and GW calculations. We also confirmed the bandgap change by photoconductivity measurements using excitation light with different photon energies. The highly tunable bandgap of InSe in the infrared regime should enable a wide range of applications, including electro-mechanical, piezoelectric and optoelectronic devices.

  3. Free-Standing Organic Transistors and Circuits with Sub-Micron Thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kenjiro; Sekine, Tomohito; Shiwaku, Rei; Morimoto, Takuya; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    The realization of wearable electronic devices with extremely thin and flexible form factors has been a major technological challenge. While substrates typically limit the thickness of thin-film electronic devices, they are usually necessary for their fabrication and functionality. Here we report on ultra-thin organic transistors and integrated circuits using device components whose substrates that have been removed. The fabricated organic circuits with total device thicknesses down to 350 nm have electrical performance levels close to those fabricated on conventional flexible substrates. Moreover, they exhibit excellent mechanical robustness, whereby their static and dynamic electrical characteristics do not change even under 50% compressive strain. Tests using systematically applied compressive strains reveal that these free-standing organic transistors possess anisotropic mechanical stability, and a strain model for a multilayer stack can be used to describe the strain in this sort of ultra-thin device. These results show the feasibility of ultimate-thin organic electronic devices using free-standing constructions. PMID:27278828

  4. Maximizing Tensile Strain in Germanium Nanomembranes for Enhanced Optoelectronic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Perez, Jose Roberto

    Silicon, germanium, and their alloys, which provide the leading materials platform of microelectronics, are extremely inefficient light emitters because of their indirect fundamental energy band gap. This basic materials property has so far hindered the development of group-IV photonic-active devices, including light emitters and diode lasers, thereby significantly limiting our ability to integrate electronic and photonic functionalities at the chip level. Theoretical studies have predicted that tensile strain in Ge lowers the direct energy band gap relative to the indirect one, and that, with sufficient strain, Ge becomes direct-band gap, thus enabling facile interband light emission and the fabrication of Group IV lasers. It has, however, not been possible to impart sufficient strain to Ge to reach the direct-band gap goal, because bulk Ge fractures at much lower strains. Here it is shown that very thin sheets of Ge(001), called nanomembranes (NMs), can be used to overcome this materials limitation. Germanium nanomembranes (NMs) in the range of thicknesses from 20nm to 100nm were fabricated and then transferred and mounted to a flexible substrate [a polyimide (PI) sheet]. An apparatus was developed to stress the PI/NM combination and provide for in-situ Raman measurements of the strain as a function of applied stress. This arrangement allowed for the introduction of sufficient biaxial tensile strain (>1.7%) to transform Ge to a direct-band gap material, as determined by photoluminescence (PL) measurements and theory. Appropriate shifts in the emission spectrum and increases in PL intensities were observed. The advance in this work was nanomembrane fabrication technology; i.e., making thin enough Ge sheets to accept sufficiently high levels of strain without fracture. It was of interest to determine if the strain at which fracture ultimately does occur can be raised, by evaluating factors that initiate fracture. Attempts to assess the effect of free edges (enchant

  5. Image Quality Enhancement Using the Direction and Thickness of Vein Lines for Finger-Vein Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ho Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the increased emphasis placed on the protection of privacy, biometric recognition systems using physical or behavioural characteristics such as fingerprints, facial characteristics, iris and finger-vein patterns or the voice have been introduced in applications including door access control, personal certification, Internet banking and ATM machines. Among these, finger-vein recognition is advantageous in that it involves the use of inexpensive and small devices that are difficult to counterfeit. In general, finger-vein recognition systems capture images by using near infrared (NIR illumination in conjunction with a camera. However, such systems can face operational difficulties, since the scattering of light from the skin can make capturing a clear image difficult. To solve this problem, we proposed new image quality enhancement method that measures the direction and thickness of vein lines. This effort represents novel research in four respects. First, since vein lines are detected in input images based on eight directional profiles of a grey image instead of binarized images, the detection error owing to the non-uniform illumination of the finger area can be reduced. Second, our method adaptively determines a Gabor filter for the optimal direction and width on the basis of the estimated direction and thickness of a detected vein line. Third, by applying this optimized Gabor filter, a clear vein image can be obtained. Finally, the further processing of the morphological operation is applied in the Gabor filtered image and the resulting image is combined with the original one, through which finger-vein image of a higher quality is obtained. Experimental results from application of our proposed image enhancement method show that the equal error rate (EER of finger-vein recognition decreases to approximately 0.4% in the case of a local binary pattern-based recognition and to approximately 0.3% in the case of a wavelet transform

  6. Thickness-controlled direct growth of nanographene and nanographite film on non-catalytic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Yang, Liu; Hu, Zhiting; Zhang, Jiazhen; Huang, Chunlai; Sun, Liaoxin; Wang, Lin; Wei, Dacheng; Chen, Gang; Lu, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been broadly employed for large-scale production of high-quality graphene. However, a following transfer process to targeted substrates is needed, which is incompatible with current silicon technology. We here report a new CVD approach to form nanographene and nanographite films with accurate thickness control directly on non-catalytic substrates such as silicon dioxide and quartz at 800 °C. The growth time is as short as a few seconds. The approach includes using 9-bis(diethylamino)silylanthracene as the carbon source and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) controlling system. The structure of the formed nanographene and nanographite films were characterized using atomic force microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The nanographite film exhibits a transmittance higher than 80% at 550 nm and a sheet electrical resistance of 2000 ohms per square at room temperature. A negative temperature-dependence of the resistance of the nanographite film is also observed. Moreover, the thickness of the films can be precisely controlled via the deposition cycles using an ALD system, which promotes great application potential for optoelectronic and thermoelectronic-devices.

  7. A direct current potential drop method for evaluating oxide film thickness formed in high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Hideya; Ishibashi, Ryo; Saka, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    To establish an evaluation technique for oxide film thickness in-situ, the applicability of a four-point-probe direct current potential drop method is discussed in this study. Several samples of JIS SUS316L stainless steel with different oxide film thickness were prepared after immersing them in oxygenated pure water at 288°C for different periods. The oxide film thickness was measured by cross sectional observation using a transmission electron microscope. Potential drop on the oxide surface was measured every second during an acquisition period of about 20 s while a constant current was being injected into the sample simultaneously. This kind of measurement was repeatedly carried out at several arbitrary contact positions on the surface of the same sample. The measurement results showed that the potential drop slightly changed during the acquisition period and the tendency varied at the different contact positions. Multiple measurements at different contact positions revealed that the tendency could be categorized into two general types: the decreasing potential drop and the increasing potential drop, defined by the overall trend of the potential drop during the acquisition time. It was found that the ratio of contact positions with a decreasing potential drop tendency to all the contact positions of measurement tended to increase as applied current increased. This tendency depended on the oxide film thickness. The threshold value of applied current was found to correlate well with the oxide film thickness when the occurrence rate of decreasing potential drop ranged from 70 to 90% showing the best correlation at 70%. (author)

  8. Direct linear measurement of root dentin thickness and dentin volume changes with post space preparation: A cone-beam computed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb Yakub Shaikh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the present study was direct linear measurement of dentin thickness and dentin volume changes for post space preparation with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: Ten maxillary central incisors were scanned, before and after root canal and post space preparation, with Orthophos XG three-dimensional hybrid unit. Thirteen axial section scans of each tooth from orifice to apex and dentin thickness for buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal were measured using proprietary measuring tool and thereafter subjected to statistical analysis. Furthermore, dentin volume was evaluated using ITK-SNAP software. Results: There was statistically significant difference between the dentin thickness in pre- and postinstrumentation (paired t-test and also between different groups (one-way ANOVA. In the shortest post length of 4.5mm the post space preparation resulted in 2.17% loss of hard tissue volume, where as 11mm longest post length post space preparation resulted in >40% loss of hard tissue volume. Conclusion: CBCT axial section scan for direct measurements of root dentin thickness can be guideline before and after post space preparation for selection of drill length and diameter.

  9. Effect of misfit strains on fourth and sixth order permittivity in (Ba0.60,Sr0.40)TiO3 films on orthorhombic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Bellotti, J.

    2006-03-01

    The in-plane dielectric response of [110] oriented Ba0.60Sr0.40TiO3 epitaxial films grown on [100] NdGaO3 is used to determine the field induced polarization at 10GHz. The nonlinear polarization curve is used to determine the linear and nonlinear permittivity terms for the in-plane principal directions, [001] and [1¯10]. Studied films are in the thickness range of 75-1200nm, and clearly show the influences that drive tunability down with increasing residual strain. The variation of the tunability, along the [001] direction, proves to be less sensitive to residual strain then the [1¯10] direction, although [1¯10] is capable of greater tunability at low residual strains.

  10. Semi-exact solution of non-uniform thickness and density rotating disks. Part II: Elastic strain hardening solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojjati, M.H.; Jafari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical solutions for the elastic-plastic stress distribution in rotating annular disks with uniform and variable thicknesses and densities are obtained under plane stress assumption. The solution employs a technique called the homotopy perturbation method. A numerical solution of the governing differential equation is also presented based on the Runge-Kutta's method for both elastic and plastic regimes. The analysis is based on Tresca's yield criterion, its associated flow rule and linear strain hardening. The results of the two methods are compared and generally show good agreement. It is shown that, depending on the boundary conditions used, the plastic core may contain one, two or three different plastic regions governed by different mathematical forms of the yield criterion. Four different stages of elastic-plastic deformation occur. The expansion of these plastic regions with increasing angular velocity is obtained together with the distributions of stress and displacement

  11. Direct measurement of conformational strain energy in protofilaments curling outward from disassembling microtubule tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Jonathan W; Geyer, Elisabeth A; Bailey, Megan E; Rice, Luke M; Asbury, Charles L

    2017-06-19

    Disassembling microtubules can generate movement independently of motor enzymes, especially at kinetochores where they drive chromosome motility. A popular explanation is the 'conformational wave' model, in which protofilaments pull on the kinetochore as they curl outward from a disassembling tip. But whether protofilaments can work efficiently via this spring-like mechanism has been unclear. By modifying a previous assay to use recombinant tubulin and feedback-controlled laser trapping, we directly demonstrate the spring-like elasticity of curling protofilaments. Measuring their mechanical work output suggests they carry ~25% of the energy of GTP hydrolysis as bending strain, enabling them to drive movement with efficiency similar to conventional motors. Surprisingly, a β-tubulin mutant that dramatically slows disassembly has no effect on work output, indicating an uncoupling of disassembly speed from protofilament strain. These results show the wave mechanism can make a major contribution to kinetochore motility and establish a direct approach for measuring tubulin mechano-chemistry.

  12. Tunable gaps and enhanced mobilities in strain-engineered silicane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Oscar D.; Mishra, Rohan; Windl, Wolfgang; Goldberger, Joshua E.

    2014-01-01

    The recent demonstration of single-atom thick, sp 3 -hybridized group 14 analogues of graphene enables the creation of materials with electronic structures that are manipulated by the nature of the covalently bound substituents above and below the sheet. These analogues can be electronically derived from isolated (111) layers of the bulk diamond lattice. Here, we perform systematic Density Functional Theory calculations to understand how the band dispersions, effective masses, and band gaps change as the bulk silicon (111) layers are continuously separated from each other until they are electronically isolated, and then passivated with hydrogen. High-level calculations based on HSE06 hybrid functionals were performed on each endpoint to compare directly with experimental values. We find that the change in the electronic structure due to variations in the Si-H bond length, Si-Si-Si bond angle, and most significantly the Si-Si bond length can tune the nature of the band gap from indirect to direct with dramatic effects on the transport properties. First-principles calculations of the phonon-limited electron mobility predict a value of 464 cm 2 /Vs for relaxed indirect band gap Si-H monolayers at room temperature. However, for 1.6% tensile strain, the band gap becomes direct, which increases the mobility significantly (8 551 cm 2 /Vs at 4% tensile strain). In total, this analysis of Si-based monolayers suggests that strain can change the nature of the band gap from indirect to direct and increase the electron mobility more than 18-fold

  13. MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon-Hun; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jong Hack; Kim, Nam Hyuk; Kim, Min Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hyunseok [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon, 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    100 nm InN layer was grown on sapphire c-plane using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Low temperature (LT) GaN layer was grown on InN layer to protect InN layer from direct exposure to hydrogen flow during high temperature (HT) GaN growth and/or abrupt decomposition. Subsequently, thick HT GaN layer (2.5 {mu}m thick) was grown at 1000 {sup o}C on LT GaN/InN/sapphire template. Microstructure of epilayer-substrate interface was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the high angle annular dark field TEM image, the growth of columnar structured LT GaN and HT GaN with good crystallinity was observed. Though thickness of InN interlayer is assumed to be about 100 nm based on growth rate, it was not clearly shown in TEM image due to the InN decomposition. The lattice parameters of GaN layers were measured by XRD measurement, which shows that InN interlayer reduces the compressive strain in GaN layer. The relaxation of compressive strain in GaN layer was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. As shown in the PL spectra, red shift of GaN band edge peak was observed, which indicates the reduction of compressive strain in GaN epilayer.

  14. In situ diagnostic of water distribution in thickness direction of MEA by neutron imaging. Focused on characteristics of water distribution in gas diffusion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaki, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Kobo, Norio; Shinohara, Kazuhiko; Boillat, Pierre; Kramer, Denis; Scherer, Gunther G.; Lehmann, Eberhard H.

    2008-01-01

    The mass transfer characteristics of gas diffusion layer (GDL) are closely related to cell performance in PEFC. In this study, In situ diagnostic of water distribution in thickness direction of MEA by Neutron Imaging has been carried out for three MEAs with different GDLs on cathode side as well as I-V characteristics. It was confirmed that this method is useful for analyzing water distribution in thickness direction of MEA. The relationship between I-V characteristics and liquid water distribution has been studied. (author)

  15. Highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented, direct-gap GeSn crystallized on amorphous SiO{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haofeng; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented direct-gap Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} thin films (0.074 < x < 0.085) crystallized on amorphous SiO{sub 2} towards 3D photonic integration. Due to a much smaller Poisson's ratio for (111) vs. (100) orientation, 0.44% thermally induced biaxial tensile strain reduces the direct-gap by 0.125 eV towards enhanced direct-gap semiconductor properties, twice as effective as the tensile strain in Ge(100) films. Correspondingly, the optical response is extended to λ = 2.8 μm. A dilatational deformation potential of a = −12.8 ± 0.8 eV is derived. These GeSn films also demonstrate high thermal stability, offering both excellent direct-gap optoelectronic properties and fabrication/operation robustness for integrated photonics.

  16. Microstructure and strain distribution in freestanding Si membrane strained by Si{sub x}N{sub y} deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Hongye, E-mail: qgaohongye@msn.com [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Hata, Satoshi; Nakashima, Hideharu [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Wang Dong; Nakashima, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-09-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Strain is introduced by deposition of amorphous Si{sub x}N{sub y} to improve the carrier mobility for a relatively large-size freestanding semiconductor film, which can be used for the fabrication of relatively large devices such like a bipolar junction transistor. However, standard Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction cannot provide sufficient lateral resolution to the strain in a relatively long (x {mu}m in length) and thin (x nm in thickness) freestanding semiconductor film. {yields} In present research, strain in a bridge-shaped freestanding Si membrane (FSSM) was measured by convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) and finite element method (FEM). Compressive strain distribution was shown in three dimensions (3D) in FSSM, where no threading dislocation or stacking fault was found. Relaxation of the strain in FSSM in 3D was discussed based on a comparison of the strain magnitudes in FSSM as measured by CBED and FEM. - Abstract: Strain in a bridge-shaped freestanding Si membrane (FSSM) induced by depositing an amorphous Si{sub x}N{sub y} layer was measured by convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED). CBED results show that the strain magnitude depends negatively on the FSSM thickness. FEM is a supplement of the result of CBED due to the relaxation of TEM samples during fabricating. The FEM analysis results ascertain the strain property in three dimensions, and show that the strain magnitude depends negatively on the length of FSSM, and the magnitude of the compressive strain in FSSM increases as the position is closer to the upper Si/Si{sub x}N{sub y} interface.

  17. Influence of strain and metal thickness on metal-MoS₂ contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Wissam A

    2014-09-07

    MoS2 and other transition metal dichalcogenides are considered as potential materials in many applications including future electronics. A prerequisite for these applications is to understand the nature of the MoS2 contact with different metals. We use semi-local density functional theory in conjunction with dispersion corrections to study the heterostructures composed of Pd and Pt monolayers with (111) orientation grown pseudomorphically on MoS2(001). The interface properties are mapped as a function of the number of deposited overlayers, as well as a function of tensile and compressive strains. Although we show that the dependence of the contacts on strain can be fully explained using the d-band model, we find that their evolution with the number of deposited metal layers is markedly different between Pd and Pt, and at variance with the d-band model. Specifically, the Pt/MoS2 heterostructures show an anomalous large stability with the deposition of two metal monolayers for all investigated strains, while Pd/MoS2 exhibits a similar behavior only for compressive strains. It is shown that the results can be rationalized by accounting for second-nearest-neighbor effect that couples MoS2 with the subsurface metal layers. The underpinnings of this behavior are attributed to the larger polarizability and cohesive energy of Pt compared to Pd, that leads to a larger charge-response in the subsurface layers.

  18. Contact problems of a rectangular block on an elastic layer of finite thickness: Part II: The thick layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.B.; Kuipers, M.

    1970-01-01

    We consider a layer of finite thickness loaded in plane strain by a stamp with a straight horizontal base, which is smooth and rigid. The stamp is pressed vertically into the layer and is slightly rotated by an external moment load subsequently. Two cases are considered successively: the lower side

  19. Directly Printable Flexible Strain Sensors for Bending and Contact Feedback of Soft Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elgeneidy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully printable sensorized bending actuator that can be calibrated to provide reliable bending feedback and simple contact detection. A soft bending actuator following a pleated morphology, as well as a flexible resistive strain sensor, were directly 3D printed using easily accessible FDM printer hardware with a dual-extrusion tool head. The flexible sensor was directly welded to the bending actuator’s body and systematically tested to characterize and evaluate its response under variable input pressure. A signal conditioning circuit was developed to enhance the quality of the sensory feedback, and flexible conductive threads were used for wiring. The sensorized actuator’s response was then calibrated using a vision system to convert the sensory readings to real bending angle values. The empirical relationship was derived using linear regression and validated at untrained input conditions to evaluate its accuracy. Furthermore, the sensorized actuator was tested in a constrained setup that prevents bending, to evaluate the potential of using the same sensor for simple contact detection by comparing the constrained and free-bending responses at the same input pressures. The results of this work demonstrated how a dual-extrusion FDM printing process can be tuned to directly print highly customizable flexible strain sensors that were able to provide reliable bending feedback and basic contact detection. The addition of such sensing capability to bending actuators enhances their functionality and reliability for applications such as controlled soft grasping, flexible wearables, and haptic devices.

  20. Effects of hydrostatic strain on eigenstates of Möbius strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we theoretically investigate the allowed energies and associate wave-functions for Möbius strips with varying thicknesses. We show that the induced strain in fabricating these Möbius strips will have an pronounced impact on the energies and wave-functions for thick strips, while f...... for thin strips the impact of strain is negligible. We furthermore, show that a simpler strain free approximate theory base on differential geometry is in excellent agreement with detailed finite element calculations. © 2011 IEEE....

  1. 241-SY-101 strain concentration factor development via nonlinear analysis. Volume 1 of 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The 241-SY-101 waste storage tank at the Hanford-Site has been known to accumulate and release significant quantities of hydrogen gas. An analysis was performed to assess the tank's structural integrity when subjected to postulated hydrogen deflagration loads. The analysis addressed many nonlinearities and appealed to a strain-based failure criteria. The model used to predict the global response of the tank was not refined enough to confidently predict local peak strains. Strain concentration factors were applied at structural discontinuities that were based on steel-lined reinforced-concrete containment studies. The discontinuities included large penetrations, small penetrations, springline geometries, stud/liner connections, and the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness transition. The only tank specific strain concentration factor applied in the evaluation was for the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness change in the dome. Review of the tank drawings reveals the possibility that a 4 inches Sch. 40 pipe penetrates the dome thickness transition region. It is not obvious how to combine the strain concentration factors for a small penetration with that of a thickness transition to arrive at a composite strain concentration factor. It is the goal of this effort to make an approximate determination of the relative significance of the 4 inch penetration and the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch thickness transition in the 241-SY-101 dome geometry. This is accomplished by performing a parametric study with three general finite-element models. The first represents the thickness transition only, the second represents a 4 inch penetration only, and the third combines the thickness transition with a penetration model

  2. Strain-enhanced optical absorbance of topological insulator films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brems, Mathias Rosdahl; Paaske, Jens; Lunde, Anders Mathias

    2018-01-01

    Topological insulator films are promising materials for optoelectronics due to a strong optical absorption and a thickness-dependent band gap of the topological surface states. They are superior candidates for photodetector applications in the THz-infrared spectrum, with a potential performance...... thickness, the surface-state band gap, and thereby the optical absorption, can be effectively tuned by the application of uniaxial strain epsilon(zz), leading to a divergent band-edge absorbance for epsilon(zz) greater than or similar to 6%. Shear strain breaks the crystal symmetry and leads...

  3. Direct investigation of (sub-) surface preparation artifacts in GaAs based materials by FIB sectioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belz, Jürgen; Beyer, Andreas; Torunski, Torsten; Stolz, Wolfgang; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-04-15

    The introduction of preparation artifacts is almost inevitable when producing samples for (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). These artifacts can be divided in extrinsic artifacts like damage processes and intrinsic artifacts caused by the deviations from the volume strain state in thin elastically strained material systems. The reduction and estimation of those effects is of great importance for the quantitative analysis of (S)TEM images. Thus, optimized ion beam preparation conditions are investigated for high quality samples. Therefore, the surface topology is investigated directly with atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the actual TEM samples. Additionally, the sectioning of those samples by a focused ion beam (FIB) is used to investigate the damage depth profile directly in the TEM. The AFM measurements show good quantitative agreement of sample height modulation due to strain relaxation to finite elements simulations. Strong indications of (sub-) surface damage by ion beams are observed. Their influence on high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging is estimated with focus on thickness determination by absolute intensity methods. Data consolidation of AFM and TEM measurements reveals a 3.5 nm surface amorphization, negligible surface roughness on the scale of angstroms and a sub-surface damage profile in the range of up to 8.0 nm in crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs) and GaAs-based ternary alloys. A correction scheme for thickness evaluation of absolute HAADF intensities is proposed and applied for GaAs based materials. - Highlights: • The damage by Ar-ion milling during TEM sample preparation is investigated directly. • After FIB sectioning damage and deep disorder of c-GaAs is seen in cross-section. • The influence of such disorder on conventional ADF measurements is estimated. • A correction for HAADF measurements is proposed with focus on thickness estimations.

  4. Conduction band structure and electron mobility in uniaxially strained Si via externally applied strain in nanomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Feng [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Euaruksakul, Chanan; Himpsel, F J; Lagally, Max G [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Liu Zheng; Liu Feng, E-mail: lagally@engr.wisc.edu [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2011-08-17

    Strain changes the band structure of semiconductors. We use x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the change in the density of conduction band (CB) states when silicon is uniaxially strained along the [1 0 0] and [1 1 0] directions. High stress can be applied to silicon nanomembranes, because their thinness allows high levels of strain without fracture. Strain-induced changes in both the sixfold degenerate {Delta} valleys and the eightfold degenerate L valleys are determined quantitatively. The uniaxial deformation potentials of both {Delta} and L valleys are directly extracted using a strain tensor appropriate to the boundary conditions, i.e., confinement in the plane in the direction orthogonal to the straining direction, which correspond to those of strained CMOS in commercial applications. The experimentally determined deformation potentials match the theoretical predictions well. We predict electron mobility enhancement created by strain-induced CB modifications.

  5. Critical thickness of atomically ordered III-V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, R. M.; McMahon, W. E.; Guthrey, H. L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    The critical thickness model is modified with a general boundary energy that describes the change in bulk energy as a dislocation regularly alters the atomic structure of an ordered material. The model is evaluated for dislocations gliding through CuPt-ordered GaInP and GaInAs, where the boundary energy is negative and the boundary is stable. With ordering present, the critical thickness is significantly lowered and remains finite as the mismatch strain approaches zero. The reduction in critical thickness is most significant when the order parameter is greatest and the amount of misfit energy is low. The modified model is experimentally validated for low-misfit GaInP epilayers with varying order parameters using in situ wafer curvature and ex situ cathodoluminescence. With strong ordering, relaxation begins at a lower thickness and occurs at a greater rate, which is consistent with a lower critical thickness and increased glide force. Thus, atomic ordering is an important consideration for the stability of lattice-mismatched devices.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Goatpox Virus Strain Gorgan Obtained Directly from a Commercial Live Attenuated Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijs, Elisabeth; Vandenbussche, Frank; Haegeman, Andy; Al-Majali, Ahmad; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of the complete genome sequence of the goatpox virus strain Gorgan, which was obtained directly from a commercial live attenuated vaccine (Caprivac, Jordan Bio-Industries Centre). PMID:27738031

  7. Strain relaxation studies of the Fe3O4/MgO (100) heteroepitaxial system grown by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, K; Arora, S K; Shvets, I V

    2004-01-01

    Detailed strain relaxation studies of epitaxial magnetite, Fe 3 O 4 , films on MgO(100) substrates grown by magnetron sputtering reveal the accommodation of strain up to 600 nm thickness, a thickness far above the critical thickness (t c ) predicted by theoretical models. The results are in agreement with the suggestion that the excess strain in Fe 3 O 4 /MgO (100) heteroepitaxy is accommodated by the presence of antiphase boundaries. The compressive strain generated by the antiphase boundaries compensates for the tensile strain within the growth islands, allowing the film to remain fully coherent with the substrate. Contrary to earlier findings, magnetization decreases with an increase in the film thickness. This vindicates the view that the structure of the antiphase boundaries depends on the growth conditions

  8. MoO3 Thickness, Thermal Annealing and Solvent Annealing Effects on Inverted and Direct Polymer Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Wantz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Several parameters of the fabrication process of inverted polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on titanium oxide as an electron selective layer and molybdenum oxide as a hole selective layer were tested in order to achieve efficient organic photovoltaic solar cells. Thermal annealing treatment is a common process to achieve optimum morphology, but it proved to be damageable for the performance of this kind of inverted solar cells. We demonstrate using Auger analysis combined with argon etching that diffusion of species occurs from the MoO3/Ag top layers into the active layer upon thermal annealing. In order to achieve efficient devices, the morphology of the bulk heterojunction was then manipulated using the solvent annealing technique as an alternative to thermal annealing. The influence of the MoO3 thickness was studied on inverted, as well as direct, structure. It appeared that only 1 nm-thick MoO3 is enough to exhibit highly efficient devices (PCE = 3.8% and that increasing the thickness up to 15 nm does not change the device performance. 

  9. Influence of ceramic dental crown coating substrate thickness ratio on strain energy release rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnulhadi, K.; Daud, R.; Mat, F.; Noor, S. N. F. M.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Sulaiman, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the analysis of coating substrate thickness ratio effect on the crown coating fracture behaviour. The bi-layer material is examined under four point bending with pre-crack at the bottom of the core material by using finite element. Three different coating thickness of core/substrate was tested which is 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. The fracture parameters are analysed based on bilayer and homogenous elastic interaction. The result shows that the ratio thickness of core/veneer provided a significant effect on energy release rate.

  10. Aluminum-thin-film packaged fiber Bragg grating probes for monitoring the maximum tensile strain of composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jooeun; Kim, Mihyun; Choi, Ki-Sun; Hwang, Tae-Kyung; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2014-06-10

    In this paper, new fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor probes are designed to intermittently detect the maximum tensile strain of composite materials, so as to evaluate the structural health status. This probe is fabricated by two thin Al films bonded to an FBG optical fiber and two supporting brackets, which are fixed on the surface of composite materials. The residual strain of the Al packaged FBG sensor probe is induced by the strain of composite materials. This residual strain can indicate the maximum strain of composite materials. Two types of sensor probes are prepared-one is an FBG with 18 μm thick Al films, and the other is an FBG with 36 μm thick Al films-to compare the thickness effect on the detection sensitivity. These sensor probes are bonded on the surfaces of carbon fiber reinforced plastics composite specimens. In order to determine the strain sensitivity between the residual strain of the FBG sensor probe and the maximum strain of the composite specimen, tensile tests are performed by universal testing machine, under the loading-unloading test condition. The strain sensitivities of the probes, which have the Al thicknesses of 18 and 36 μm, are determined as 0.13 and 0.23, respectively.

  11. Methodology to measure strains at high temperatures using electrical strain gages with free filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanazio Filho, Nelson N.; Gomes, Paulo T. Vida; Scaldaferri, Denis H.B.; Silva, Luiz L. da; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental methodology used for strains measuring at high temperatures is show in this work. In order to do the measurements, it was used electric strain gages with loose filaments attached to a stainless steel 304 beam with specific cements. The beam has triangular shape and a constant thickness, so the strain is the same along its length. Unless the beam surface be carefully prepared, the strain gage attachment is not efficient. The showed results are for temperatures ranging from 20 deg C to 300 deg C, but the experimental methodology could be used to measure strains at a temperature up to 900 deg C. Analytical calculations based on solid mechanics were used to verify the strain gage electrical installation and the measured strains. At a first moment, beam deformations as a temperature function were plotted. After that, beam deformations with different weighs were plotted as a temperature function. The results shown allowed concluding that the experimental methodology is trustable to measure strains at temperatures up to 300 deg C. (author)

  12. Dual beam x-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The apparatus and method for continuous measurement of thickness of a sheet at a rolling mill or the like without contacting the sheet are described. A system directing radiation through the sheet in two energy bands and providing a measure of change in composition of the material as it passes the thickness gauging station is included. A system providing for changing the absorption coefficient of the material in the thickness measurement as a function of the change in composition so that the measured thickness is substantially independent of variations in composition is described

  13. A novel rapid direct haemagglutination-inhibition assay for measurements of humoral immune response against non-haemagglutinating Fowlpox virus strains in vaccinated chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambura, Philemon N; Mzula, Alexanda

    2017-10-01

    Fowlpox (FP) is a serious disease in chickens caused by Fowlpox virus (FPV). One method currently used to control FPV is vaccination followed by confirmation that antibody titres are protective using the indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). The direct haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is not done because most FPV strains do not agglutinate chicken red blood cells (RBCs). A novel FPV strain TPV-1 which agglutinates chicken RBCs was discovered recently and enabled a direct HI assay to be conducted using homologous sera. This study is therefore aimed at assessing the direct HI assay using a recently discovered novel haemagglutinating FPV strain TPV-1 in chickens vaccinated with a commercial vaccine containing a non-haemagglutinating FPV.Chicks vaccinated with FPV at 1 day-old had antibody geometric mean titres (GMT) of log 2 3.7 at 7 days after vaccination and log 2 8.0 at 28 days after vaccination when tested in the direct HI. Chickens vaccinated at 6 weeks-old had antibody geometric mean titres (GMT) of log 2 5.0 at 7 days after vaccination and log 2 8.4 at 28 days after vaccination when tested in the direct HI. The GMT recorded 28 days after vaccination was slightly higher in chickens vaccinated at 6-week-old than in chicks vaccinated at one-day-old. However, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). All vaccinated chickens showed "takes". No antibody response to FPV and "takes" were detected in unvaccinated chickens (GMT 0.05). These findings indicate that a simple and rapid direct HI assay using the FPV TPV-1 strain as antigen may be used to measure antibody levels in chickens vaccinated with non-haemagglutinating strains of FPV, and that the titres are comparable to those obtained by indirect IHA.

  14. Structural integrity of whipping pipes following a postulated circumferential break - a contribution to determining strain levels acceptable under faulted conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charalambus, B.; Labes, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is postulated that a break of a thin-walled pipe does not cause a subsequent break in the pipe in the vicinity of a plastic hinge even when the wall is weakened by a 60 circumferential crack of a depth of 30% of the wall thickness on the tension side. This pipe behavior is the result of plastic buckling in the compression side and applies to pipes of diameter-to-thickness ratio larger than 20. For this type of pipe, the axial strains decrease with increasing diameter-to-thickness ratio in the tension side. As the pipe is only loaded in one direction, there is no cyclic behavior that can trigger a subsequent break. (orig.)

  15. Strain Anomalies during an Earthquake Sequence in the South Iceland Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnadottir, T.; Haines, A. J.; Geirsson, H.; Hreinsdottir, S.

    2017-12-01

    The South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) accommodates E-W translation due to oblique spreading between the North American/Hreppar microplate and Eurasian plate, in South Iceland. Strain is released in the SISZ during earthquake sequences that last days to years, at average intervals of 80-100 years. The SISZ is currently in the midst of an earthquake sequence that started with two M6.5 earthquakes in June 2000, and continued with two M6 earthquakes in May 2008. Estimates of geometric strain accumulation, and seismic strain release in these events indicate that they released at most only half of the strain accumulated since the last earthquake cycle in 1896-1912. Annual GPS campaigns and continuous measurements during 2001-2015 were used to calculate station velocities and strain rates from a new method using the vertical derivatives of horizontal stress (VDoHS). This new method allows higher resolution of strain rates than other (older) approaches, as the strain rates are estimated by integrating VDoHS rates obtained by inversion rather than differentiating interpolated GPS velocities. Estimating the strain rates for eight 1-2 year intervals indicates temporal and spatial variation of strain rates in the SISZ. In addition to earthquake faulting, the strain rates in the SISZ are influenced by anthropogenic signals due to geothermal exploitation, and magma movements in neighboring volcanoes - Hekla and Eyjafjallajökull. Subtle signals of post-seismic strain rate changes are seen following the June 2000 M6.5 main shocks, but interestingly, much larger strain rate variations are observed after the two May 2008 M6 main shocks. A prominent strain anomaly is evident in the epicentral area prior to the May 2008 earthquake sequence. The strain signal persists over at least 4 years in the epicentral area, leading up to the M6 main shocks. The strain is primarily extension in ESE-WNW direction (sub-parallel to the direction of plate spreading), but overall shear across the N

  16. Growth optimization for thick crack-free GaN layers on sapphire with HVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, E.; Hennig, Ch.; Kissel, H.; Sonia, G.; Zeimer, U.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Conditions for optimized growth of thick GaN layers with crack-free surfaces by HVPE are reported. It was found that a 1:1 mixture of H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} as carrier gas leads to the lowest density of cracks in the surface. Crack formation also depends on the properties of the GaN/sapphire templates used. Best results have been obtained for 5 {mu}m thick GaN/sapphire templates grown by MOVPE with medium compressive strain {epsilon}{sub zz} of about 0.05%. But there is no simple dependence of the crack formation on the strain status of the starting layer indicating that the HVPE growth of GaN can itself introduce strong tensile strain. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Symmetry analysis of strain, electric and magnetic fields in the Bi2Se3-class of topological insulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brems, Mathias Rosdahl; Paaske, Jens; Lunde, Anders Mathias

    2018-01-01

    velocity. The spin-momentum locking of strained Bi2Se3 is shown to be modified. Hence, strain control can be used to manipulate the spin degree of freedom via the spin–orbit coupling. We show that for a thin film of Bi2Se3 the SS band gap induced by coupling between the opposite surfaces changes opposite...... to the bulk band gap under strain. Tuning the SS band gap by strain, gives new possibilities for the experimental investigation of the thickness dependent gap and optimization of optical properties relevant for, e.g., photodetector and energy harvesting applications. We finally derive analytical expressions...... analytically the effects of strain on the electronic structure of Bi2Se3. For the most experimentally relevant surface termination we analytically derive the surface state (SS) spectrum, revealing an anisotropic Dirac cone with elliptical constant energy contours giving rise to a direction-dependent group...

  18. Strain engineering on transmission carriers of monolayer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Feng; Hu, Junsong; Zhang, Ping; Yin, Jiuren; Tang, Xianqiong; Jiang, Yong; Wu, Bozhao; Ding, Yanhuai

    2017-11-22

    The effects of uniaxial strain on the structure, band gap and transmission carriers of monolayer phosphorene were investigated by first-principles calculations. The strain induced semiconductor-metal as well as direct-indirect transitions were studied in monolayer phosphorene. The position of CBM which belonged to indirect gap shifts along the direction of the applied strain. We have concluded the change rules of the carrier effective mass when plane strains are applied. In band structure, the sudden decrease of band gap or the new formation of CBM (VBM) causes the unexpected change in carrier effective mass. The effects of zigzag and armchair strain on the effective electron mass in phosphorene are different. The strain along zigzag direction has effects on the electrons effective mass along both zigzag and armchair direction. By contrast, armchair-direction strain seems to affect only on the free electron mass along zigzag direction. For the holes, the effective masses along zigzag direction are largely affected by plane strains while the effective mass along armchair direction exhibits independence in strain processing. The carrier density of monolayer phosphorene at 300 K is calculated about [Formula: see text] cm -2 , which is greatly influenced by the temperature and strain. Strain engineering is an efficient method to improve the carrier density in phosphorene.

  19. Tensile-strain effect of inducing the indirect-to-direct band-gap transition and reducing the band-gap energy of Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaoka, Takeshi, E-mail: inaoka@phys.u-ryukyu.ac.jp; Furukawa, Takuro; Toma, Ryo; Yanagisawa, Susumu [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    By means of a hybrid density-functional method, we investigate the tensile-strain effect of inducing the indirect-to-direct band-gap transition and reducing the band-gap energy of Ge. We consider [001], [111], and [110] uniaxial tensility and (001), (111), and (110) biaxial tensility. Under the condition of no normal stress, we determine both normal compression and internal strain, namely, relative displacement of two atoms in the primitive unit cell, by minimizing the total energy. We identify those strain types which can induce the band-gap transition, and evaluate the critical strain coefficient where the gap transition occurs. Either normal compression or internal strain operates unfavorably to induce the gap transition, which raises the critical strain coefficient or even blocks the transition. We also examine how each type of tensile strain decreases the band-gap energy, depending on its orientation. Our analysis clearly shows that synergistic operation of strain orientation and band anisotropy has a great influence on the gap transition and the gap energy.

  20. Self-heating forecasting for thick laminate specimens in fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuerta, F.; Westphal, T.; Nijssen, R. P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Thick laminate sections can be found from the tip to the root in most common wind turbine blade designs. Obtaining accurate and reliable design data for thick laminates is subject of investigations, which include experiments on thick laminate coupons. Due to the poor thermal conductivity properties of composites and the material self-heating that occurs during the fatigue loading, high temperature gradients may appear through the laminate thickness. In the case of thick laminates in high load regimes, the core temperature might influence the mechanical properties, leading to premature failures. In the present work a method to forecast the self-heating of thick laminates in fatigue loading is presented. The mechanical loading is related with the laminate self-heating, via the cyclic strain energy and the energy loss ratio. Based on this internal volumetric heat load a thermal model is built and solved to obtain the temperature distribution in the transient state. Based on experimental measurements of the energy loss factor for 10mm thick coupons, the method is described and the resulting predictions are compared with experimental surface temperature measurements on 10 and 30mm UD thick laminate specimens.

  1. Finite Difference Solution of Elastic-Plastic Thin Rotating Annular Disk with Exponentially Variable Thickness and Exponentially Variable Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic-plastic stresses, strains, and displacements have been obtained for a thin rotating annular disk with exponentially variable thickness and exponentially variable density with nonlinear strain hardening material by finite difference method using Von-Mises' yield criterion. Results have been computed numerically and depicted graphically. From the numerical results, it can be concluded that disk whose thickness decreases radially and density increases radially is on the safer side of design as compared to the disk with exponentially varying thickness and exponentially varying density as well as to flat disk.

  2. Direct and vicarious violent victimization and juvenile delinquency: an application of general strain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Cochran, John K; Mieczkowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Using a national probability sample of adolescents (12–17), this study applies general strain theory to how violent victimization, vicarious violent victimization, and dual violent victimization affect juvenile violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the mediating effect and moderating effect of depression, low social control, and delinquent peer association on the victimization–delinquency relationship is also examined. Based on SEM analyses and contingency tables, the results indicate that all three types of violent victimization have significant and positive direct effects on violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the expected mediating effects and moderating effects are also found. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  3. Direct Synthesis of 7 nm Thick Zinc(II)-Benzimidazole-Acetate Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Feng; Kumar, Prashant; Xu, Wenqian; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2018-01-09

    Two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising candidates for high performance gas sepa-ration membranes. Currently, MOF nanosheets are mostly fabricated through delamination of layered MOFs, which often re-sults in a low yield of intact free-standing nanosheets. In this work, we present a direct synthesis method for zinc(II)-benzimidazole-acetate (Zn(Bim)OAc) MOF nanosheets. The obtained nanosheets have a lateral dimension of 600 nm when synthesized at room temperature. By adjusting the synthesis temperature, the morphology of obtained nanosheets can be readily tuned from nanosheets to nanobelts. A thickness of 7 nm is determined for Zn(Bim)OAc using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, which makes these nanosheets promising building blocks of gas sepa-ration membranes.

  4. Impact of thickness on the structural properties of high tin content GeSn layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, J.; Hartmann, J. M.; Gassenq, A.; Milord, L.; Pauc, N.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.

    2017-09-01

    We have grown various thicknesses of GeSn layers in a 200 mm industrial Reduced Pressure - Chemical Vapor Deposition cluster tool using digermane (Ge2H6) and tin tetrachloride (SnCl4). The growth pressure (100 Torr) and the F(Ge2H6)/F(SnCl4) mass-flow ratio were kept constant, and incorporation of tin in the range of 10-15% was achieved with a reduction in temperature: 325 °C for 10% to 301 °C for 15% of Sn. The layers were grown on 2.5 μm thick Ge Strain Relaxed Buffers, themselves on Si(0 0 1) substrates. We used X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy to measure the Sn concentration, the strain state, the surface roughness and thickness as a function of growth duration. A dramatic degradation of the film was seen when the Sn concentration and layer thickness were too high resulting in rough/milky surfaces and significant Sn segregation.

  5. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Houwman, Evert P; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-10-10

    Thin films of PbZr 0 . 52 Ti 0 . 48 O 3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca 2 Nb 3 O 10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO 3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain and ultra-low strain hysteresis. The observed increase of the piezoelectric coefficient with increasing film thickness is attributed to the reduction of clamping, because of the increasingly less dense columnar microstructure (more separation between the grains) with across the film thickness. A very large piezoelectric coefficient (490 pm/V) and a high piezoelectric strain (~0.9%) are obtained in 4-µm-thick film under an applied electric field of 200 kV/cm, which is several times larger than in usual PZT ceramics. Further very low strain hysteresis (H≈2-4%) is observed in 4 to 5 µm thick films. These belong to the best values demonstrated so far in piezoelectric films. Fatigue testing shows that the piezoelectric properties are stable up to 10 10 cycles. The growth of high quality PZT films with very large strain and piezoelectric coefficients, very low hysteresis and with long-term stability on a technologically important substrate as glass is of great significance for the development of practical piezo driven microelectromechanical actuator systems.

  6. Strain profile and polarization enhancement in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, F.Z.; Donner, W.; Aspelmeyer, M.; Noheda, B.; Xi, X.X.; Moss, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of spontaneous polarization to epitaxial strain for both 10 and 50 nm thick Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BSTO) ferroelectric thin films has been studied. Crystal truncation rod (CTR) profiles in the 00L directions at different wavelengths, and grazing incidence diffraction (GID) in the 0K0 direction on a single crystal have been recorded. Modeling of the CTR data gives a detailed picture of the strain and provides clear evidence of the film out-of-plane expansion at the surface, an increase of the polarization, as well as a contraction at the interface. GID data confirm the fitting of the CTR, showing an in-plane expansion of the BSTO film at the interface and a contraction at the surface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Thickness dependence of voltage-driven magnetization switching in FeCo/PI/piezoelectric actuator heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, B. S.; Guo, X. B.; Wu, K.; Li, D.; Zuo, Y. L.; Xi, L.

    2016-03-01

    Strain mediated magnetization switching of ferromagnetic/substrate/piezoelectric actuator heterostructures has become a hot issue due to the advantage of low-power consumption. In this work, Fe65Co35 thin films were deposited on a flexible polyamides (PI) substrate, which has quite low Young’s module (~4 GPa for PI as compared to ~180 GPa for Si) and benefits from complete transfer of the strain from the piezoelectric actuator to magnetic thin films. A complete 90° transition of the magnetic easy axis was realized in 50 nm thick FeCo films under the voltage of 70 V, while a less than 90° rotation angle of the magnetic easy axis direction was observed in other samples, which was ascribed to the distribution of the anisotropy field and/or the orthogonal misalignment between stress induced anisotropy and original uniaxial anisotropy. A model considering two uniaxial anisotropies with orthogonal arrangement was used to quantitatively understand the observed results and the linear-like voltage dependent anisotropy field, especially for 10 nm FeCo films, in which the switching mechanism along the easy axis direction can be explained by the domain wall depinning model. It indicates that the magnetic domain-wall movement velocity may be controlled by strain through tuning the energy barrier of the pinning in heterostructures. Moreover, voltage-driven 90° magnetization switching with low-power consumption was achieved in this work.

  8. Thickness dependence of voltage-driven magnetization switching in FeCo/PI/piezoelectric actuator heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, B S; Guo, X B; Wu, K; Li, D; Zuo, Y L; Xi, L

    2016-01-01

    Strain mediated magnetization switching of ferromagnetic/substrate/piezoelectric actuator heterostructures has become a hot issue due to the advantage of low-power consumption. In this work, Fe 65 Co 35 thin films were deposited on a flexible polyamides (PI) substrate, which has quite low Young’s module (∼4 GPa for PI as compared to ∼180 GPa for Si) and benefits from complete transfer of the strain from the piezoelectric actuator to magnetic thin films. A complete 90° transition of the magnetic easy axis was realized in 50 nm thick FeCo films under the voltage of 70 V, while a less than 90° rotation angle of the magnetic easy axis direction was observed in other samples, which was ascribed to the distribution of the anisotropy field and/or the orthogonal misalignment between stress induced anisotropy and original uniaxial anisotropy. A model considering two uniaxial anisotropies with orthogonal arrangement was used to quantitatively understand the observed results and the linear-like voltage dependent anisotropy field, especially for 10 nm FeCo films, in which the switching mechanism along the easy axis direction can be explained by the domain wall depinning model. It indicates that the magnetic domain-wall movement velocity may be controlled by strain through tuning the energy barrier of the pinning in heterostructures. Moreover, voltage-driven 90° magnetization switching with low-power consumption was achieved in this work. (paper)

  9. X-ray study of strain relaxation in heteroepitaxial AlGaAs layers annealed under high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak-Misiuk, J.; Adamczewska, J.; Kozanecki, A.; Kuritsyn, D.; Glukhanyuk, W.; Trela, J.; Misiuk, A.; Reginski, K.; Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of treatment at up to 1270 K under hydrostatic argon pressure, up to 1.2 GPa, on strain relaxation of AlGaAs layers was investigated by X-ray diffraction and related methods. The 1.5 μm thick AlGaAs layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy method on 001 oriented semi-insulating GaAs substrate at 950 K. An increase of intensity of X-ray diffuse scattering, originating from hydrostatic pressure-induced misfit dislocations, was observed for all treated samples. For the samples treated at 920 K during 1 h under 0.6 GPa, the diffuse scattering was confined to the [110] crystallographic direction, perpendicular to the direction of dislocations. For the samples treated at 1.2 GPa, a different behaviour is observed, namely the diffuse scattering extends along all azimuthal directions, indicating that dislocations are created in both [110] and [1 - 10] directions. The change of strain after the treatment was most pronounced for the samples treated at 1.2 GPa for 1 h at 920 K. (author)

  10. Characterization of plastic strains and crystallographic properties surrounding defects in steam generator tubes by orientation imaging microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehockey, E.M.; Brennenstuhl, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) has become a valuable technique for characterizing grain boundary structure, texture, and grain size distribution, which govern material susceptibility to degenerative effects (e.g. IGSCC). Methods recently developed, by Kinectrics, have extended OIM capabilities toward mapping and quantifying residual plastic strains in materials. OIM is applied in the present work to characterize the distribution of plastic strains, that accumulate in CANDU steam generator tubing during installation and service potentially undermining the performance, reliability, and fitness-for-service of these components. Plastic strain that evolves in response to roller-expansion was characterized in simulated roll joints constructed from Alloy 600 tubing. Results underscore the effect of over-rolling in generating intense gradients with broad variations in strain that extend significant distances through the wall thickness. Of greater relevance is the orientation of these gradients in the transverse direction, relative to the tube axis and potential for the development of abnormal grain growth during post-expansion heat treatments. The magnitude and distribution of strain measured by OIM are remarkably consistent with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) predictions offering compelling evidence as to the reliability of the OIM technique. OIM offers superior resolution than can be practically achieved with FEA having particular relevance in identifying highly localized concentrations of strain surrounding metallurgical defects that can serve as precursors to stress-related degenerative effects (e.g. IGSCC). The spatial distribution of residual plastic strain was also characterized within the context of localized texture, and grain size morphology surrounding (OD) 'pits' and indentations found in ex-service Monel 400 and Alloy 800 SG tubes, respectively. An absence of strain surrounding these surface defects suggests their propensity for promoting more deleterious

  11. Strain localisation in mechanically layered rocks beneath detachment zones: insights from numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Le Pourhiet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have designed a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations aimed at assessing how the orientation of mechanical layering in rocks controls the orientation of shear bands and the depth of penetration of strain in the footwall of detachment zones. Two parametric studies are presented. In the first one, the influence of stratification orientation on the occurrence and mode of strain localisation is tested by varying initial dip of inherited layering in the footwall with regard to the orientation of simple shear applied at the rigid boundary simulating a rigid hanging wall, all scaling and rheological parameter kept constant. It appears that when Mohr–Coulomb plasticity is being used, shear bands are found to localise only when the layering is being stretched. This corresponds to early deformational stages for inital layering dipping in the same direction as the shear is applied, and to later stages for intial layering dipping towards the opposite direction of shear. In all the cases, localisation of the strain after only γ=1 requires plastic yielding to be activated in the strong layer. The second parametric study shows that results are length-scale independent and that orientation of shear bands is not sensitive to the viscosity contrast or the strain rate. However, decreasing or increasing strain rate is shown to reduce the capacity of the shear zone to localise strain. In the later case, the strain pattern resembles a mylonitic band but the rheology is shown to be effectively linear. Based on the results, a conceptual model for strain localisation under detachment faults is presented. In the early stages, strain localisation occurs at slow rates by viscous shear instabilities but as the layered media is exhumed, the temperature drops and the strong layers start yielding plastically, forming shear bands and localising strain at the top of the shear zone. Once strain localisation has occured, the deformation in the shear band becomes

  12. A novel multivariate approach using science-based calibration for direct coating thickness determination in real-time NIR process monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möltgen, C-V; Herdling, T; Reich, G

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrates an approach, using science-based calibration (SBC), for direct coating thickness determination on heart-shaped tablets in real-time. Near-Infrared (NIR) spectra were collected during four full industrial pan coating operations. The tablets were coated with a thin hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) film up to a film thickness of 28 μm. The application of SBC permits the calibration of the NIR spectral data without using costly determined reference values. This is due to the fact that SBC combines classical methods to estimate the coating signal and statistical methods for the noise estimation. The approach enabled the use of NIR for the measurement of the film thickness increase from around 8 to 28 μm of four independent batches in real-time. The developed model provided a spectroscopic limit of detection for the coating thickness of 0.64 ± 0.03 μm root-mean square (RMS). In the commonly used statistical methods for calibration, such as Partial Least Squares (PLS), sufficiently varying reference values are needed for calibration. For thin non-functional coatings this is a challenge because the quality of the model depends on the accuracy of the selected calibration standards. The obvious and simple approach of SBC eliminates many of the problems associated with the conventional statistical methods and offers an alternative for multivariate calibration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling of Mechanical Behavior at High Strain Rate of Ti-6al-4v Manufactured By Means of Direct Metal Laser Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Gianluca; Bonora, Nicola; Gentile, Domenico; Ruggiero, Andrew; Testa, Gabriel; Gubbioni, Simone

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V obtained by additive manufacturing technique was investigated, also considering the build direction. Dog-bone shaped specimens and Taylor cylinders were machined from rods manufactured by means of the EOSSINT M2 80 machine, based on Direct Metal Laser Sintering technique. Tensile tests were performed at strain rate ranging from 5E-4 s-1 to 1000 s-1 using an Instron electromechanical machine for quasistatic tests and a Direct-Tension Split Hopkinson Bar for dynamic tests. The mechanical strength of the material was described by a Johnson-Cook model modified to account for stress saturation occurring at high strain. Taylor cylinder tests and their corresponding numerical simulations were carried out in order to validate the constitutive model under a complex deformation path, high strain rates, and high temperatures.

  14. A structural strain method for low-cycle fatigue evaluation of welded components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, P.; Pei, X.; Xing, S.; Kim, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new structural strain method is presented to extend the early structural stress based master S–N curve method to low cycle fatigue regime in which plastic deformation can be significant while an elastic core is still present. The method is formulated by taking advantage of elastically calculated mesh-insensitive structural stresses based on nodal forces available from finite element solutions. The structural strain definition is consistent with classical plate and shell theory in which a linear through-thickness deformation field is assumed a priori in both elastic or elastic–plastic regimes. With considerations of both yield and equilibrium conditions, the resulting structural strains are analytically solved if assuming elastic and perfectly plastic material behavior. The formulation can be readily extended to strain-hardening materials for which structural strains can be numerically calculated with ease. The method is shown effective in correlating low-cycle fatigue test data of various sources documented in the literature into a single narrow scatter band which is remarkable consistent with the scatter band of the existing master S–N curve adopted ASME B and PV Code since 2007. With this new method, some of the inconsistencies of the pseudo-elastic structural stress procedure in 2007 ASME Div 2 Code can now be eliminated, such as its use of Neuber's rule in approximating structural strain beyond yield. More importantly, both low cycle and high cycle fatigue behaviors can now be treated in a unified manner. The earlier mesh-insensitive structural stress based master S–N curve method can now be viewed as an application of the structural strain method in high cycle regime, in which structural strains are linearly related to traction-based structural stresses according to Hooke's law. In low-cycle regime, the structural strain method characterizes fatigue damage directly in terms of structural strains that satisfy linear through-thickness

  15. A methodology to obtain strain indicators under deep drawing multiaxial stresses. Application to DC-05 electro galvanized steel (UNE in ISO 10130)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, V.; Catalayud, A.; Ferrer, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this work a methodology to investigate deep drawing quality steel sheets deformation tendency under multiaxial deep drawing stresses has been proposed. the method consists in assaying a sheet in a wedge die in order to order to introduce a pure shear estate in the material 0 degree centigree, 45 degree centigree and 90 degree centigree rolling directions are selected in the assays, and transversal strain is the variable considered in them. a strain coefficient 0/% has been defined in order to evaluate thickness variations in the test. almost no changes in thickness have been registered and this indicates that strain carried out in the test is similar to that taking place in deep drawing. The stress necessary for practice a certain plastic deformation is obtained too and a potential function between them is formulated. Indicators presented in this work are compared to anisotropy and strength coefficients obtained in normalized tensile tests. these results allow us to justify the steel behaviour in the cup deep drawing processes related to ear forming. (Author) 11 refs

  16. Spontaneous orientation-tuning driven by the strain variation in self-assembled ZnO-SrRuO3 heteroepitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yuanmin; Liu, Ruirui; Zhan, Qian; Chang, Wei Sea; Yu, Rong; Wei, Tzu-Chiao; He, Jr-Hau; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Heteroepitaxial ZnO and SrRuO 3 were grown on SrTiO 3 (111) substrates and formed a self-assembled wurtzite-perovskite nanostructure. Spontaneous orientation-tuning of the SrRuO 3 pillars was observed, with the growth direction changing from [111] SRO to [011] SRO as the film thickness increased, which is attributed to a misfit strain transition from the biaxial strain imposed by the SrTiO 3 substrate to the vertical strain provided by the ZnO matrix. The [011]-SrRuO 3 and [0001]-ZnO combination presents a favorable matching in the nanocomposite films, resulting in higher charge carrier mobility. This vertically integrated configuration and regulation on the crystallographic orientations are expected to be employed in designing multi-functional nanocomposite systems for applications in electronic devices

  17. Spontaneous orientation-tuning driven by the strain variation in self-assembled ZnO-SrRuO3 heteroepitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Yuanmin

    2015-11-09

    Heteroepitaxial ZnO and SrRuO3 were grown on SrTiO3 (111) substrates and formed a self-assembled wurtzite-perovskite nanostructure. Spontaneous orientation-tuning of the SrRuO3 pillars was observed, with the growth direction changing from [111]SRO to [011]SRO as the film thickness increased, which is attributed to a misfit strain transition from the biaxial strain imposed by the SrTiO3 substrate to the vertical strain provided by the ZnO matrix. The [011]-SrRuO3 and [0001]-ZnO combination presents a favorable matching in the nanocomposite films, resulting in higher charge carrier mobility. This vertically integrated configuration and regulation on the crystallographic orientations are expected to be employed in designing multi-functional nanocomposite systems for applications in electronic devices.

  18. Spontaneous orientation-tuning driven by the strain variation in self-assembled ZnO-SrRuO3 heteroepitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Yuanmin; Chang, Wei Sea; Yu, Rong; Liu, Ruirui; Wei, Tzu-Chiao; He, Jr-Hau; Chu, Ying-Hao; Zhan, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Heteroepitaxial ZnO and SrRuO3 were grown on SrTiO3 (111) substrates and formed a self-assembled wurtzite-perovskite nanostructure. Spontaneous orientation-tuning of the SrRuO3 pillars was observed, with the growth direction changing from [111]SRO to [011]SRO as the film thickness increased, which is attributed to a misfit strain transition from the biaxial strain imposed by the SrTiO3 substrate to the vertical strain provided by the ZnO matrix. The [011]-SrRuO3 and [0001]-ZnO combination presents a favorable matching in the nanocomposite films, resulting in higher charge carrier mobility. This vertically integrated configuration and regulation on the crystallographic orientations are expected to be employed in designing multi-functional nanocomposite systems for applications in electronic devices.

  19. Influence of flow direction and flow rate on the initial adhesion of seven Listeria monocytogenes strains to fine polished stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovager, Anne; Whitehead, Kathryn; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The effects of flow direction and shear stress on the adhesion of different strains of Listeria monocytogenes to fine polished stainless steel under liquid flow conditions were investigated. Furthermore, the relationship between cell surface properties and cell size and the initial adhesion rate...... (IAR) was studied. A method, including fluorescence microscopy and a flow perfusion system, was developed and used to examine the real-time initial cell adhesion of different L. monocytogenes species in situ to opaque surfaces under flow conditions. The results demonstrated that shear stress...... was the determining factor for the initial adhesion of L. monocytogenes under flow conditions. The flow direction in relation to the orientation of surface features (the scratches) could be disregarded. IARs were dependent on the shear stress and strain type. The strain EGDe, which had the lowest IAR, had the largest...

  20. Identification of an Actual Strain-Induced Effect on Fast Ion Conduction in a Thin-Film Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junsung; Jang, Ho Won; Ji, Hoil; Kim, Hyoungchul; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Son, Ji-Won; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2018-05-09

    Strain-induced fast ion conduction has been a research area of interest for nanoscale energy conversion and storage systems. However, because of significant discrepancies in the interpretation of strain effects, there remains a lack of understanding of how fast ionic transport can be achieved by strain effects and how strain can be controlled in a nanoscale system. In this study, we investigated strain effects on the ionic conductivity of Gd 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9-δ (100) thin films under well controlled experimental conditions, in which errors due to the external environment could not intervene during the conductivity measurement. In order to avoid any interference from perpendicular-to-surface defects, such as grain boundaries, the ionic conductivity was measured in the out-of-plane direction by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. With varying film thickness, we found that a thicker film has a lower activation energy of ionic conduction. In addition, careful strain analysis using both reciprocal space mapping and strain mapping in transmission electron microscopy shows that a thicker film has a higher tensile strain than a thinner film. Furthermore, the tensile strain of thicker film was mostly developed near a grain boundary, which indicates that intrinsic strain is dominant rather than epitaxial or thermal strain during thin-film deposition and growth via the Volmer-Weber (island) growth mode.

  1. Structure, surface morphology and electrical properties of evaporated Ni thin films: Effect of substrates, thickness and Cu underlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmous, M.; Layadi, A.; Guittoum, A.; Souami, N.; Mebarki, M.; Menni, N.

    2014-01-01

    Series of Ni thin films have been deposited by thermal evaporation onto glass, Si(111), Cu, mica and Al 2 O 3 substrates with and without a Cu underlayer. The Ni thicknesses, t, are in the 4 to 163 nm range. The Cu underlayer has also been evaporated with a Cu thickness equal to 27, 52 and 90 nm. The effects of substrate, the Ni thickness and the Cu underlayer on the structural and electrical properties of Ni are investigated. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy was used to probe the Ni/Substrate and Ni–Cu underlayer interfaces and to measure both Ni and Cu thicknesses. The texture, the strain and the grain size values were derived from X-ray diffraction experiments. The surface morphology is studied by means of a Scanning Electron Microscope. The electrical resistivity is measured by the four point probe. The Ni films grow with the <111> texture on all substrates. The Ni grain sizes D increase with increasing thickness for the glass, Si and mica substrates and decrease for the Cu one. The strain ε is positive for low thickness, decreases in magnitude and becomes negative as t increases. With the Cu underlayer, the growth mode goes through two phases: first, the stress (grain size) increases (decreases) up to a critical thickness t Cr , then stress is relieved and grain size increases. All these results will be discussed and correlated. - Highlights: • The structural and electrical properties of evaporated Ni thin films are studied. • The effect of thickness, substrates and Cu underlayer is investigated. • Texture, grain size, strain and surface morphology are discussed. • Growth modes are described as a function of Ni thickness

  2. The influence of lay-up and thickness on composite impact damage and compression strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, E. G.; Obrien, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of composite stacking sequence, thickness, and percentage of zero-degree plies on the size, shape, and distribution of delamination through the laminate thickness and on residual compression strength following impact were studied. Graphite/epoxy laminates were impacted with an 0.5 inch diameter aluminum sphere at a specific low or high velocity. Impact damage was measured nondestructively by ultrasonic C-scans and X-radiography and destructively by the deply technique, and compression strength tests were performed. It was found that differences in compression failure strain due to stacking sequence were small, while laminates with very low percentages of zero-degree plies had similar failure loads but higher failure strains than laminates with higher percentages of zero-degree plies. Failure strain did not correlate with planar impact damage area, and delaminations in impact regions were associated with matrix cracking.

  3. THE STUDY OF DIRECTED FERMENTATION PROCESS USING STRAINS OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FOR OBTAINING VEGETABLE PRODUCTS OF STABLE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kondratenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the process of directed fermentation of whitehead cabbage variety ‘Slava’, using strains of lactic acid bacteria and their consortium with the degree of their mutual influence. As strains of lactic acid bacteria, we have chosen the following: VCR 536 Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum VKM V-578. To obtain comparable results, all experiments were performed on model mediums. For the first time we studied the dynamics of changes in quality indicators at the process of directed fermentation using strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB including their consortiums. The mathematical model developed adequately describes the degree of destruction of glucose and fructose in the fermentation process. The raw material was undergone to homogenization and sterilization with the aim to create optimal conditionsfor the development of the target microorganisms and to detect the degree of  restruction of fructose and glucose by different strains of microorganisms. The mathematical model developed adequately described the degree of destruction of fructose and glucose in the treatment process. The use of a consortium of lactic acid bacteria (L. plantarum+L. casei to this culture medium is shown to be impractical. The addition of fructose in quantity 0.5% to weight of the model medium enabled to intensify significantly the process of white cabbage fermentation.

  4. In-situ strain monitoring in liquid containers of LNG transporting carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Cheol; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport carriers are exposed to a risk by the repeated bump in the LNG container during the vessel traveling over the wave in ocean. The liquid inside the container, especially when it was not fully contained, make a strong bump onto the insulation panel of the tank wall. The insulation panel consists of several layers of thick polyurethane foam (PUF) to maintain the LNG below the cryogenic temperature, -162°C. Due to the repeated shock on the PUF, a crack could be developed on the tank wall causing a tremendous disaster for LNG carriers. To prevent the accidental crack on the tank, a continuous monitoring of the strain imposed on the PUF is recommended. In this work, a fiber-optic Bragg grating was imbedded inside the PUF for monitoring the strain parallel to the impact direction. The optical fiber sensor with a small diameter of 125 μm was suitable to be inserted in the PUF through a small hole drilled after the PUF was cured. In-situ monitoring of the strain producing the change of Bragg reflection wavelength, a high speed wavelength interrogation method was employed by using an arrayed waveguide grating. By dropping a heavy mass on the PUF, we measured the strain imposed on the insulation panel.

  5. Three dimensional Free Vibration and Transient Analysis of Two Directional Functionally Graded Thick Cylindrical Panels Under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zafarmand

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this paper three dimensional free vibration and transient response of a cylindrical panel made of two directional functionally graded materials (2D-FGMs based on three dimensional equations of elasticity and subjected to internal impact loading is considered. Material properties vary through both radial and axial directions continuously. The 3D graded finite element method (GFEM based on Rayleigh-Ritz energy formulation and Newmark direct integration method has been applied to solve the equations in space and time domains. The fundamental normalized natural frequency, time history of displacements and stresses in three directions and velocity of radial stress wave propagation for various values of span angel of cylindrical panel and different power law exponents have been investigated. The present results show that using 2D-FGMs leads to a more flexible design than conventional 1D-FGMs. The GFEM solution have been compared with the results of an FG thick hollow cylinder and an FG curved panel, where a good agreement between them is observed.

  6. A search for strain gradients in gold thin films on substrates using x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, O. S.; Munkholm, A.; Brennan, S.; Nix, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The high strengths of gold thin films on silicon substrates have been studied with particular reference to the possible effect of strain gradients. Wafer curvature/thermal cycling measurements have been used to study the strengths of unpassivated, oxide-free gold films ranging in thickness from 0.1 to 2.5 μm. Films thinner than about 1 μm in thickness appear to be weakened by diffusional relaxation effects near the free surface and are not good candidates for the study of strain gradient plasticity. Our search for plastically induced strain gradients was thus limited to thicker films with correspondingly larger grain sizes. Three related x-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the elastic strains in these films. The standard d hkl vs sin2 Ψ technique has been used to find the average strain through the thickness of the films. The results are consistent with wafer curvature measurements. We have also measured a number of d hkl 's as a function of penetration depth to construct depth-dependent d hkl vs sin2 Ψ plots. These data show that the residual elastic strain is essentially independent of depth in the film. Finally, a new technique for sample rotation has been used to measure the d hkl 's for a fixed set of grains in the film as a function of penetration depth. Again, no detectable gradient in strain has been observed. These results show that the high strengths of unpassivated gold films relative to the strength of bulk gold cannot be rationalized on the basis of strain gradients through the film thickness. However, a sharp gradient in strain close to the film substrate interface cannot be ruled out. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  7. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain–reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. - Author-Highlights: • We derive a simple dynamic scattering formalism for dark field electron holography based on a perturbative two-beam theory. • The formalism facilitates the projection of 3D strain fields by a simple weighting integral. • The weighted projection depends analytically on the diffraction order, the excitation error and the specimen thickness. • The weighting integral formalism represents an important prerequisite towards the development of tomographic strain reconstruction techniques

  8. METALLICITY GRADIENTS OF THICK DISK DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Zhao Gang, E-mail: carrell@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-12-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution of the Galactic thick disk using F, G, and K dwarf stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 8. Using the large sample of dwarf stars with proper motions and spectroscopically determined stellar parameters, metallicity gradients in the radial direction for various heights above the Galactic plane and in the vertical direction for various radial distances from the Galaxy center have been found. In particular, we find a vertical metallicity gradient of -0.113 {+-} 0.010 (-0.125 {+-} 0.008) dex kpc{sup -1} using an isochrone (photometric) distance determination in the range 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc, which is the vertical height range most consistent with the thick disk of our Galaxy. In the radial direction, we find metallicity gradients between +0.02 and +0.03 dex kpc{sup -1} for bins in the vertical direction between 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc. Both of these results agree with similar values determined from other populations of stars, but this is the first time a radial metallicity gradient for the thick disk has been found at these vertical heights. We are also able to separate thin and thick disk stars based on kinematic and spatial probabilities in the vertical height range where there is significant overlap of these two populations. This should aid further studies of the metallicity gradients of the disk for vertical heights lower than those studied here but above the solar neighborhood. Metallicity gradients in the thin and thick disks are important probes into possible formation scenarios for our Galaxy and a consistent picture is beginning to emerge from results using large spectroscopic surveys, such as the ones presented here.

  9. Welding deformation analysis based on improved equivalent strain method to cover external constraint during cooling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Jun Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, external restraints imposed normal to the plate during the cooling stage were determined to be effective for reduction of the angular distortion of butt-welded or fillet-welded plate. A welding analysis model under external force during the cooling stage was idealized as a prismatic member subjected to pure bending. The external restraint was represented by vertical force on both sides of the work piece and bending stress forms in the transverse direction. The additional bending stress distribution across the plate thickness was reflected in the improved inherent strain model, and a set of inherent strain charts with different levels of bending stress were newly calculated. From an elastic linear FE analysis using the inherent strain values taken from the chart and comparing them with those from a 3D thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis, welding deformation can be calculated.

  10. On the influence of cloud fraction diurnal cycle and sub-grid cloud optical thickness variability on all-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Min; Zhang, Zhibo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how cloud fraction diurnal cycle and sub-grid cloud optical thickness variability influence the all-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF). We focus on the southeast Atlantic region where transported smoke is often observed above low-level water clouds during burning seasons. We use the CALIOP observations to derive the optical properties of aerosols. We developed two diurnal cloud fraction variation models. One is based on sinusoidal fitting of MODIS observations from Terra and Aqua satellites. The other is based on high-temporal frequency diurnal cloud fraction observations from SEVIRI on board of geostationary satellite. Both models indicate a strong cloud fraction diurnal cycle over the southeast Atlantic region. Sensitivity studies indicate that using a constant cloud fraction corresponding to Aqua local equatorial crossing time (1:30 PM) generally leads to an underestimated (less positive) diurnal mean DARF even if solar diurnal variation is considered. Using cloud fraction corresponding to Terra local equatorial crossing time (10:30 AM) generally leads overestimation. The biases are a typically around 10–20%, but up to more than 50%. The influence of sub-grid cloud optical thickness variability on DARF is studied utilizing the cloud optical thickness histogram available in MODIS Level-3 daily data. Similar to previous studies, we found the above-cloud smoke in the southeast Atlantic region has a strong warming effect at the top of the atmosphere. However, because of the plane-parallel albedo bias the warming effect of above-cloud smoke could be significantly overestimated if the grid-mean, instead of the full histogram, of cloud optical thickness is used in the computation. This bias generally increases with increasing above-cloud aerosol optical thickness and sub-grid cloud optical thickness inhomogeneity. Our results suggest that the cloud diurnal cycle and sub-grid cloud variability are important factors

  11. Influence of strain and metal thickness on metal-MoS{sub 2} contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidi, Wissam A., E-mail: alsaidi@pitt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

    2014-09-07

    MoS{sub 2} and other transition metal dichalcogenides are considered as potential materials in many applications including future electronics. A prerequisite for these applications is to understand the nature of the MoS{sub 2} contact with different metals. We use semi-local density functional theory in conjunction with dispersion corrections to study the heterostructures composed of Pd and Pt monolayers with (111) orientation grown pseudomorphically on MoS{sub 2}(001). The interface properties are mapped as a function of the number of deposited overlayers, as well as a function of tensile and compressive strains. Although we show that the dependence of the contacts on strain can be fully explained using the d-band model, we find that their evolution with the number of deposited metal layers is markedly different between Pd and Pt, and at variance with the d-band model. Specifically, the Pt/MoS{sub 2} heterostructures show an anomalous large stability with the deposition of two metal monolayers for all investigated strains, while Pd/MoS{sub 2} exhibits a similar behavior only for compressive strains. It is shown that the results can be rationalized by accounting for second-nearest-neighbor effect that couples MoS{sub 2} with the subsurface metal layers. The underpinnings of this behavior are attributed to the larger polarizability and cohesive energy of Pt compared to Pd, that leads to a larger charge-response in the subsurface layers.

  12. Effect of the thickness of the anode electrode catalyst layers on the performance in direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Dean E.; Olah, George A.; Prakash, G. K. Surya

    2017-06-01

    For the large scale fuel cell manufacture, the catalyst loading and layer thickness are critical factors affecting the performance and cost of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The influence of catalyst layer thicknesses at the anode of a PEM based direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has been investigated. Catalysts were applied with the drawdown method with varied thicknesses ranging from 1 mil to 8 mils (1 mil = 25.4 μm) with a Pt/Ru anode loading of 0.25 mg cm-2 to 2.0 mg cm-2. The MEAs with the thicker individual layers (8 mils and 4 mils) performed better overall compared to the those with the thinner layers (1 mil and painted). The peak power densities for the different loading levels followed an exponential decrease of Pt/Ru utilization at the higher loading levels. The highest power density achieved was 49 mW cm-2 with the 4 mil layers at 2.0 mg cm-2 catalyst loading whereas the highest normalized power density was 116 mW mg-1 with the 8 mil layers at 0.25 mg cm-2 loading. The 8 mil drawdowns displayed a 50% and 23% increase in normalized power density compared to the 1 mil drawdowns at 0.25 mg cm-2 and 0.5 mg cm-2 loadings, respectively.

  13. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  14. Strain profile and polarization enhancement in Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, F.Z. [Physics Department, St John' s University, 8000 Utopia Pkwy, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States); Donner, W. [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Aspelmeyer, M. [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Noheda, B. [Department of Chemical Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Xi, X.X. [Physics Department, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, 1900 N.13th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States); Moss, S.C. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, 617 Science and Research Building 1, Houston, Texas 77204-5005 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The sensitivity of spontaneous polarization to epitaxial strain for both 10 and 50 nm thick Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BSTO) ferroelectric thin films has been studied. Crystal truncation rod (CTR) profiles in the 00L directions at different wavelengths, and grazing incidence diffraction (GID) in the 0K0 direction on a single crystal have been recorded. Modeling of the CTR data gives a detailed picture of the strain and provides clear evidence of the film out-of-plane expansion at the surface, an increase of the polarization, as well as a contraction at the interface. GID data confirm the fitting of the CTR, showing an in-plane expansion of the BSTO film at the interface and a contraction at the surface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Direct production of feruloyl oligosaccharides and hemicellulase inducement and distribution in a newly isolated Aureobasidium pullulans strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-hong; Gu, Zhen-xin

    2014-02-01

    Studies were carried out to screen and identify strains that are able to directly produce ferulic oligosaccharides (FOs) from wheat bran (WB). The inducement and distribution of hemicellulases from strain 2012, which was identified as a non-melanin secreting strain of Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans), were also determined. In a 60 g/L WB solution, A. pullulans could produce 545 nmol/L FOs, 64.12 IU/mL xylanase and 0.14 IU/mL ferulic acid esterase (FAE). A. pullulans was cultivated in media with WB, glucose, xylose, sucrose, lactose or xylan as the carbon source, and hemicellulases were mainly induced by xylan and WB and inhibited by glucose and sucrose. Xylanase and FAE were mainly present in the culture filtrate, xylosidase in the hyphal filaments and arabinofuranosidase was a membrane-bound enzyme. The yield of FOs was positively correlated to the hemicellulases activity, and significantly positively (P < 0.05) correlated to the xylanase activity (r = 0.992).

  16. Retinal sensitivity and choroidal thickness in high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaben, Ahmad; Zapata, Miguel Á; Garcia-Arumi, Jose

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the association between choroidal thickness in the macular area and retinal sensitivity in eyes with high myopia. This investigation was a transversal study of patients with high myopia, all of whom had their retinal sensitivity measured with macular integrity assessment microperimetry. The choroidal thicknesses in the macular area were then measured by optical coherence tomography, and statistical correlations between their functionality and the anatomical structuralism, as assessed by both types of measurements, were analyzed. Ninety-six eyes from 77 patients with high myopia were studied. The patients had a mean age ± standard deviation of 38.9 ± 13.2 years, with spherical equivalent values ranging from -6.00 diopter to -20.00 diopter (8.74 ± 2.73 diopter). The mean central choroidal thickness was 159.00 ± 50.57. The mean choroidal thickness was directly correlated with sensitivity (r = 0.306; P = 0.004) and visual acuity but indirectly correlated with the spherical equivalent values and patient age. The mean sensitivity was not significantly correlated with the macular foveal thickness (r = -0.174; P = 0.101) or with the overall macular thickness (r = 0.103; P = 0.334); furthermore, the mean sensitivity was significantly correlated with visual acuity (r = 0.431; P < 0.001) and the spherical equivalent values (r = -0.306; P = 0.003). Retinal sensitivity in highly myopic eyes is directly correlated with choroidal thickness and does not seem to be associated with retinal thickness. Thus, in patients with high myopia, accurate measurements of choroidal thickness may provide more accurate information about this pathologic condition because choroidal thickness correlates to a greater degree with the functional parameters, patient age, and spherical equivalent values.

  17. Direct measurements of the velocity and thickness of ''explosively'' propagating buried molten layers in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Pennycook, S.J.; Withrow, S.P.; Mashburn, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous infrared (1152 nm) and visible (633 nm) reflectivity measurements with nanosecond resolution were used to study the initial formation and subsequent motion of pulsed KrF laser-induced ''explosively'' propagating buried molten layers in ion implantation-amorphized silicon. The buried layer velocity decreases with depth below the surface, but increases with KrF laser energy density; a maximum velocity of about 14 m/s was observed, implying an undercooling-velocity relationship of approx. 14 K/(m/s). Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to form a direct chemical image of implanted Cu ions transported by the buried layer and showed that the final buried layer thickness was <15 nm

  18. Direct ethanol production from lignocellulosic sugars and sugarcane bagasse by a recombinant Trichoderma reesei strain HJ48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Chen, Dong; Wei, Yutuo; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Zhenchong; Chen, Ying; Huang, Ribo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome shuffling. The results show that the shuffled strain HJ48 can efficiently convert lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, it was able to produce ethanol directly from sugarcane bagasse, demonstrating that the shuffled strain HJ48 is a suitable microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing.

  19. Residual stress measurements in thick structural weldments by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohms, C.; Youtsos, A.G.; Idsert, P. v.d.; Timke, T.

    2000-01-01

    Welding residual stresses in large structural components are a major concern with respect to their performance and lifetime. In large structures reasonable thermal stress relief treatment is usually impossible due to the component size. On the other hand, prediction of welding stresses by numerical modelling has not yet proven to be generally reliable, while the experimental determination of such stresses remains a demanding task. At the high flux reactor (HFR), Petten, a new residual stress diffractometer has been installed recently capable of handling of components up to 1000 kg - the large component neutron diffraction facility (LCNDF). It has facilitated residual stress measurements in two large welded components, of which results are presented here. The first component represents a bi-metallic weld in form of a pipe of 25 mm wall thickness. Three dimensional measurements of residual stress are discussed in detail. The second specimen is a 66 mm wall thickness austenitic steel nuclear piping weld. Results on relief of strain within the weld through post weld heat treatment (PWHT) are presented. Additionally results obtained earlier at former CRNL (CAN) on a section of a thick nuclear piping weld are presented in order to illustrate the variation in the reference lattice parameter trough the weld and the heat affected zone (HAZ). These results clearly show the necessity to determine the reference parameters for each location in all measurement directions by means of measurements in small coupons free of macro-stresses. (orig.)

  20. Hip fracture and anthropometric variations: dominance among trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight during sideways fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Roychowdhury, Amit; Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture depends on various anthropometric parameters such as trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight. The objective was to evaluate the responses to the variations in anthropometric parameters during sideways fall, and to identify the most dominant parameter among them. Seven finite element models were developed having anthropometric variations in trochanteric soft tissue thickness (5-26 mm), body height (1.70-1.88 m), and body weight (63-93.37 kg). These were simulated for sideways fall with ANSYS-LS-DYNA® code. Significant effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness variation was found on 'normalized peak impact force with respect to the body weight' (p=0.004, r²=0.808) and strain ratio (p=0.083, r²=0.829). But, variation in body height was found to be less significant on normalized peak impact force (p=0.478, r²=0.105) and strain ratio (p=0.292, r²=0.217). Same was true for the variation in body weight on normalized peak impact force (p=0.075, r²=0.456) and strain ratio (p=0.857, r²=0.007). The risk factor for fracture was also well correlated to the strain ratio for the inter-trochanteric zone (pfractures are clinically observed to happen. Trochanteric soft tissue thickness was found likely to be the most dominant parameter over body height and body weight, signifying that a slimmer elderly person, taller or shorter, with less trochanteric soft tissue thickness should be advised to take preventive measures against hip fracture under sideways fall. © 2013.

  1. Porosity of porcine bladder acellular matrix: impact of ACM thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Walid; Chen, Jun; Erdeljan, Petar; Shemtov, Oren; Courtman, David; Khoury, Antoine; Yeger, Herman

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to examine the porosity of bladder acellular matrix (ACM) using deionized (DI) water as the model fluid and dextran as the indicator macromolecule, and to correlate the porosity to the ACM thickness. Porcine urinary bladders from pigs weighing 20-50 kg were sequentially extracted in detergent containing solutions, and to modify the ACM thickness, stretched bladders were acellularized in the same manner. Luminal and abluminal ACM specimens were subjected to fixed static DI water pressure (10 cm); and water passing through the specimens was collected at specific time interval. While for the macromolecule porosity testing, the diffusion rate and direction of 10,000 MW fluoroescein-labeled dextrans across the ACM specimens mounted in Ussing's chambers were measured. Both experiments were repeated on the thin stretched ACM. In both ACM types, the fluid porosity in both directions did not decrease with increased test duration (3 h); in addition, the abluminal surface was more porous to fluid than the luminal surface. On the other hand, when comparing thin to thick ACM, the porosity in either direction was higher in the thick ACM. Macromolecule porosity, as measured by absorbance, was higher for the abluminal thick ACM than the luminal side, but this characteristic was reversed in the thin ACM. Comparing thin to thick ACM, the luminal side in the thin ACM was more porous to dextran than in the thick ACM, but this characteristic was reversed for the abluminal side. The porcine bladder ACM possesses directional porosity and acellularizing stretched urinary bladders may increase structural density and alter fluid and macromolecule porosity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 970-974, 2003

  2. Low temperature perovskite crystallization of highly tunable dielectric Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thick films deposited by ion beam sputtering on platinized silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. H.; Guigues, B.; Defaÿ, E.; Dubarry, C.; Aïd, M.

    2009-02-01

    Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) thick films with thickness up to 1 μm were deposited on Pt-coated silicon substrates by ion beam sputtering, followed by an annealing treatment. It is demonstrated that pure well-crystallized perovskite phase could be obtained in thick BST films by a low temperature process (535 °C). The BST thick films show highly tunable dielectric properties with tunability (at 800 kV/cm) up to 51.0% and 66.2%, respectively, for the 0.5 and 1 μm thick films. The relationship between strains and dielectric properties was systematically investigated in the thick films. The results suggest that a comparatively larger tensile thermal in-plane strain (0.15%) leads to the degradation in dielectric properties of the 0.5 μm thick film; besides, strong defect-related inhomogeneous strains (˜0.3%) make the dielectric peaks smearing and broadening in the thick films, which, however, preferably results in high figure-of-merit factors over a wide operating temperature range. Moreover, the leakage current behavior in the BST thick films was found to be dominated by the space-charge-limited-current mechanism, irrespective of the film thickness.

  3. Low temperature perovskite crystallization of highly tunable dielectric Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thick films deposited by ion beam sputtering on platinized silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X. H.; Defaye, E.; Aied, M.; Guigues, B.; Dubarry, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 (BST) thick films with thickness up to 1 μm were deposited on Pt-coated silicon substrates by ion beam sputtering, followed by an annealing treatment. It is demonstrated that pure well-crystallized perovskite phase could be obtained in thick BST films by a low temperature process (535 deg. C). The BST thick films show highly tunable dielectric properties with tunability (at 800 kV/cm) up to 51.0% and 66.2%, respectively, for the 0.5 and 1 μm thick films. The relationship between strains and dielectric properties was systematically investigated in the thick films. The results suggest that a comparatively larger tensile thermal in-plane strain (0.15%) leads to the degradation in dielectric properties of the 0.5 μm thick film; besides, strong defect-related inhomogeneous strains (∼0.3%) make the dielectric peaks smearing and broadening in the thick films, which, however, preferably results in high figure-of-merit factors over a wide operating temperature range. Moreover, the leakage current behavior in the BST thick films was found to be dominated by the space-charge-limited-current mechanism, irrespective of the film thickness

  4. Study of the effect of varying core diameter, shell thickness and strain velocity on the tensile properties of single crystals of Cu-Ag core-shell nanowire using molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jit; Das, D. K.

    2018-01-01

    Core-shell type nanostructures show exceptional properties due to their unique structure having a central solid core of one type and an outer thin shell of another type which draw immense attention among researchers. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are carried out on single crystals of copper-silver core-shell nanowires having wire diameter ranging from 9 to 30 nm with varying core diameter, shell thickness, and strain velocity. The tensile properties like yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and Young's modulus are studied and correlated by varying one parameter at a time and keeping the other two parameters constant. The results obtained for a fixed wire size and different strain velocities were extrapolated to calculate the tensile properties like yield strength and Young's modulus at standard strain rate of 1 mm/min. The results show ultra-high tensile properties of copper-silver core-shell nanowires, several times than that of bulk copper and silver. These copper-silver core-shell nanowires can be used as a reinforcing agent in bulk metal matrix for developing ultra-high strength nanocomposites.

  5. Design of Strain-Compensated Epitaxial Layers Using an Electrical Circuit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujofsa, Tedi; Ayers, John E.

    2017-12-01

    The design of heterostructures that exhibit desired strain characteristics is critical for the realization of semiconductor devices with improved performance and reliability. The control of strain and dislocation dynamics requires an understanding of the relaxation processes associated with mismatched epitaxy, and the starting point for this analysis is the equilibrium strain profile, because the difference between the actual strain and the equilibrium value determines the driving force for dislocation glide and relaxation. Previously, we developed an electrical circuit model approach for the equilibrium analysis of semiconductor heterostructures, in which an epitaxial layer may be represented by a stack of subcircuits, each of which involves an independent current source, a resistor, an independent voltage source, and an ideal diode. In this work, we have applied the electrical circuit model to study the strain compensation mechanism and show that, for a given compositionally uniform device layer with fixed mismatch and layer thickness, a buffer layer may be designed (in terms of thickness and mismatch) to tailor the strain in the device layer. A special case is that in which the device layer will exhibit zero residual strain in equilibrium (complete strain compensation). In addition, the application of the electrical circuit analogy enables the determination of exact expressions for the residual strain characteristics of both the buffer and device layers in the general case where the device layer may exhibit partial strain compensation. On the basis of this framework, it is possible to develop design equations for the tailoring of the strain in a device layer grown on a uniform composition buffer.

  6. Tailoring the strain in Si nano-structures for defect-free epitaxial Ge over growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaumseil, P; Yamamoto, Y; Schubert, M A; Capellini, G; Skibitzki, O; Zoellner, M H; Schroeder, T

    2015-09-04

    We investigate the structural properties and strain state of Ge nano-structures selectively grown on Si pillars of about 60 nm diameter with different SiGe buffer layers. A matrix of TEOS SiO2 surrounding the Si nano-pillars causes a tensile strain in the top part at the growth temperature of the buffer that reduces the misfit and supports defect-free initial growth. Elastic relaxation plays the dominant role in the further increase of the buffer thickness and subsequent Ge deposition. This method leads to Ge nanostructures on Si that are free from misfit dislocations and other structural defects, which is not the case for direct Ge deposition on these pillar structures. The Ge content of the SiGe buffer is thereby not a critical parameter; it may vary over a relatively wide range.

  7. Spontaneous orientation-tuning driven by the strain variation in self-assembled ZnO-SrRuO{sub 3} heteroepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuanmin; Liu, Ruirui; Zhan, Qian, E-mail: qzhan@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Material Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chang, Wei Sea [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500 (Malaysia); Yu, Rong [National Center for Electron Microscopy in Beijing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wei, Tzu-Chiao [Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); He, Jr-Hau [Electrical Engineering Program, King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (Saudi Arabia); Chu, Ying-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 105, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-09

    Heteroepitaxial ZnO and SrRuO{sub 3} were grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (111) substrates and formed a self-assembled wurtzite-perovskite nanostructure. Spontaneous orientation-tuning of the SrRuO{sub 3} pillars was observed, with the growth direction changing from [111]{sub SRO} to [011]{sub SRO} as the film thickness increased, which is attributed to a misfit strain transition from the biaxial strain imposed by the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate to the vertical strain provided by the ZnO matrix. The [011]-SrRuO{sub 3} and [0001]-ZnO combination presents a favorable matching in the nanocomposite films, resulting in higher charge carrier mobility. This vertically integrated configuration and regulation on the crystallographic orientations are expected to be employed in designing multi-functional nanocomposite systems for applications in electronic devices.

  8. Strain-induced Weyl and Dirac states and direct-indirect gap transitions in group-V materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Glenn; Sanvito, Stefano; O'Regan, David D.

    2017-12-01

    We perform comprehensive density-functional theory calculations on strained two-dimensional phosphorus (P), arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in the monolayer, bilayer, and bulk α-phase, from which we compute the key mechanical and electronic properties of these materials. Specifically, we compute their electronic band structures, band gaps, and charge-carrier effective masses, and identify the qualitative electronic and structural transitions that may occur. Moreover, we compute the elastic properties such as the Young’s modulus Y; shear modulus G; bulk modulus B ; and Poisson ratio ν and present their isotropic averages of as well as their dependence on the in-plane orientation, for which the relevant expressions are derived. We predict strain-induced Dirac states in the monolayers of As and Sb and the bilayers of P, As, and Sb, as well as the possible existence of Weyl states in the bulk phases of P and As. These phases are predicted to support charge velocities up to 106 m {{\\text{s}}-1} and, in some highly anisotropic cases, permit one-dimensional ballistic conductivity in the puckered direction. We also predict numerous band gap transitions for moderate in-plane stresses. Our results contribute to the mounting evidence for the utility of these materials, made possible by their broad range in tuneable properties, and facilitate the directed exploration of their potential application in next-generation electronics.

  9. Probabilistic analysis of structures involving random stress-strain behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, H. R.; Thacker, B. H.; Harren, S. V.

    1991-01-01

    The present methodology for analysis of structures with random stress strain behavior characterizes the uniaxial stress-strain curve in terms of (1) elastic modulus, (2) engineering stress at initial yield, (3) initial plastic-hardening slope, (4) engineering stress at point of ultimate load, and (5) engineering strain at point of ultimate load. The methodology is incorporated into the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress code for probabilistic structural analysis. The illustrative problem of a thick cylinder under internal pressure, where both the internal pressure and the stress-strain curve are random, is addressed by means of the code. The response value is the cumulative distribution function of the equivalent plastic strain at the inner radius.

  10. Influence of compressive load conditions and thickness on the two-way shape memory behavior in tube-shaped NiTi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Young Ik; Shin, Dong Kil; Lee, Jung Ju; Lee, Chang Ho

    2012-01-01

    The two-way shape memory behavior of Ni 55 Ti 45 was investigated to develop a tube-shaped NiTi actuator which could generate a large amount of force. The two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) was induced by thermal cycling under various amounts of constant compressive stress. Six specimens with the same outer diameter and different thickness were used to apply the TWSME to an actuator. A fast saturation tendency of the recovery strain was shown through training at each level of constant stress, after which the two-way shape memory strain was quantitatively measured during thermal cycling for each level of applied stress. From the results, the maximum two-way strain value was obtained after training at a constant level of stress and then decreased thereafter. In addition, the two-way strain was found to depend on the thickness of the tube-shaped specimen. All specimens could be divided into two groups depending on the rate of increase in the two-way strain. After two-way strain was obtained, the two-way recovery stress was measured to verify the performance of the sample as an actuator. The results showed that the two-way recovery stress behavior was similar to the two-way strain; if the optimal thickness of the specimen and the stress applied for training are used for the development of the TWSME, tube-shaped NiTi using the TWSME can replace one-way shape memory alloys. (paper)

  11. Strain hardening rate sensitivity and strain rate sensitivity in TWIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bintu, Alexandra [TEMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Vincze, Gabriela, E-mail: gvincze@ua.pt [TEMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Picu, Catalin R. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lopes, Augusto B. [CICECO, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Grácio, Jose J. [TEMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Barlat, Frederic [Materials Mechanics Laboratory, Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    TWIP steels are materials with very high strength and exceptional strain hardening capability, parameters leading to large energy absorption before failure. However, TWIP steels also exhibit reduced (often negative) strain rate sensitivity (SRS) which limits the post-necking deformation. In this study we demonstrate for an austenitic TWIP steel with 18% Mn a strong dependence of the twinning rate on the strain rate, which results in negative strain hardening rate sensitivity (SHRS). The instantaneous component of SHRS is large and negative, while its transient is close to zero. The SRS is observed to decrease with strain, becoming negative for larger strains. Direct observations of the strain rate dependence of the twinning rate are made using electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction, which substantiate the proposed mechanism for the observed negative SHRS.

  12. Strain hardening rate sensitivity and strain rate sensitivity in TWIP steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bintu, Alexandra; Vincze, Gabriela; Picu, Catalin R.; Lopes, Augusto B.; Grácio, Jose J.; Barlat, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    TWIP steels are materials with very high strength and exceptional strain hardening capability, parameters leading to large energy absorption before failure. However, TWIP steels also exhibit reduced (often negative) strain rate sensitivity (SRS) which limits the post-necking deformation. In this study we demonstrate for an austenitic TWIP steel with 18% Mn a strong dependence of the twinning rate on the strain rate, which results in negative strain hardening rate sensitivity (SHRS). The instantaneous component of SHRS is large and negative, while its transient is close to zero. The SRS is observed to decrease with strain, becoming negative for larger strains. Direct observations of the strain rate dependence of the twinning rate are made using electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction, which substantiate the proposed mechanism for the observed negative SHRS

  13. Reusable bi-directional 3ω sensor to measure thermal conductivity of 100-μm thick biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubner, Sean D.; Choi, Jeunghwan; Wehmeyer, Geoff; Waag, Bastian; Mishra, Vivek; Natesan, Harishankar; Bischof, John C.; Dames, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the thermal conductivity (k) of biological tissues is important for cryopreservation, thermal ablation, and cryosurgery. Here, we adapt the 3ω method—widely used for rigid, inorganic solids—as a reusable sensor to measure k of soft biological samples two orders of magnitude thinner than conventional tissue characterization methods. Analytical and numerical studies quantify the error of the commonly used "boundary mismatch approximation" of the bi-directional 3ω geometry, confirm that the generalized slope method is exact in the low-frequency limit, and bound its error for finite frequencies. The bi-directional 3ω measurement device is validated using control experiments to within ±2% (liquid water, standard deviation) and ±5% (ice). Measurements of mouse liver cover a temperature ranging from -69 °C to +33 °C. The liver results are independent of sample thicknesses from 3 mm down to 100 μm and agree with available literature for non-mouse liver to within the measurement scatter.

  14. Relaxation of Thick-Walled Cylinders and Spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottosen, N.

    1982-01-01

    Using the nonlinear creep law proposed by Soderberg, (1936) closed-form solutions are derived for the relaxation of incompressible thick-walled spheres and cylinders in plane strain. These solutions involve series expressions which, however, converge very quickly. By simply ignoring these series...... expressions, extremely simple approximate solutions are obtained. Despite their simplicity these approximations possess an accuracy that is superior to approximations currently in use. Finally, several physical aspects related to the relaxation of cylinders and spheres are discussed...

  15. Relationship of endometrial thickness detected by transvaginal sonography with the results of endometrial biopsy & hysteroscopic directed biopsy in post menopausal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Dastjerdi M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-menopausal hemorrhage is one of the most common complains in gynecologic clinics. More than 60% of these cases have abnormal findings in diagnostic work ups. There is contraversy about the best diagnostic method for evaluating post-menopausal hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of Trans-Vaginal Ultrasonography and compare its result to ones derived from direct endometrial biopsy and Hysteroscopy findings.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, menopausal women who attended the outpatient clinic of Arash Hospital, Tehran University of medical Sciences, from April 2005 to March 2006 with the complain of hemorrhage were evaluated. In all of these patients, after getting informed consent, Trans-Vaginal Ultrasonography, Dilatation and Curettage and Hysteroscopy were performed.Results: The total number of 90 women was recruited to the study with the age range of 41-80 years. The mean age of participants was 53.84 ± 6 years and 4.3 ± 5.1 years had passed from their menopause. The mean thickness of endometrium, measured by Trans Vaginal ultrasonography was 6.25 ± 3.7 millimeter. In the biopsy derived specimens, the most finding pathological presentation was atrophy (48.9% and the Proliferative endometrium had the second prevalence (36.7%. Atrophy (44.4% and Proliferative endometrium (33.3% were the most prevalent finding in Hysteroscopy. There was a significant difference in endometrial thickness between groups of different pathological findings. A significant difference in endometrial thickness was also seen between groups with different Hysteroscopic finding. By grouping the data according to endometrial thickness, it became evident that endometrial thickness can predict the outcome of endometrial biopsy and Hysteroscopic finding efficiently. We used ROC curves to find the best grouping threshold for endometrial thickness to achieve the best sensitivity and specificity.Conclusion: Measuring the endometrial

  16. TOSGAGETM-8000A series X-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    X-ray thickness gauges are widely used for online measurement of the thickness of plates in a steel roiling line. As the thickness of the steel has a direct effect on the yield rate of the rolling line, thickness gauge measurement data are necessary for accuracy and reliability. In recent years, there have also been increasing requirements for rapid delivery, flexible interface specifications, and low cost. To meet these market requirements. Toshiba has developed the TOSGAGE TM -8000A series X-ray thickness gauge, which is the first release of a new series of measuring instruments for rolling applications with a new interface and employing an industrial computer for data processing. (author)

  17. Effect of large compressive strain on low field electrical transport in La0.88Sr0.12MnO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Ravikant; Gaur, Anurag; Siwach, P K; Varma, G D; Kaur, A; Singh, H K

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of large in-plane compressive strain on the electrical transport in La 0.88 Sr 0.12 MnO 3 in thin films. For achieving large compressive strain, films have been deposited on single crystal LaAlO 3 (LAO, a = 3.798 A) substrate from a polycrystalline bulk target having average in-plane lattice parameter a av = (a b + b b )/2 = 3.925 A. The compressive strain was further relaxed by varying the film thickness in the range ∼6-75 nm. In the film having least thickness (∼6 nm) large increase (c = 3.929 A) in the out-of-plane lattice parameter is observed which gradually decreases towards the bulk value (c bulk = 3.87 A) for ∼75 nm thick film. This shows that the film having the least thickness is under large compressive strain, which partially relaxes with increasing film thickness. The T IM of the bulk target ∼145 K goes up to ∼235 K for the ∼6 nm thin film and even for partially strain relaxed ∼75 nm thick film T IM is as high as ∼200 K. This enhancement in T IM is explained in terms of suppression of Jahn-Teller distortion of the MnO 6 octahedra by the large in-plane compressive strain. We observe a large enhancement in the low field magnetoresistance (MR) just below T IM in the films having partial strain relaxation. Thick films of 6 and 20 nm have MR ∼14% at 3 kOe that almost doubles in 35 nm film to ∼27%. Similar enhancement is also obtained in the case of the temperature coefficient of resistivity. The near doubling of low field MR is explained in terms of delocalization of weakly localized carriers around T IM by small magnetic fields

  18. Mechanical and electrical strain response of a piezoelectric auxetic PZT lattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Tobias; Eichhorn, Franziska; Han, Guifang; Ebert, Kathrin; Wegener, Moritz; Roosen, Andreas; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Greil, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional auxetic lattice structure was fabricated from a PZT piezoceramic. Tape casted and sintered sheets with a thickness of 530 μm were laser cut into inverted honeycomb lattice structure with re-entrant cell geometry (θ = -25°) and poling direction oriented perpendicular to the lattice plane. The in-plane strain response upon applying an uniaxial compression load as well as an electric field perpendicular to the lattice plane were analyzed by a 2D image data detection analysis. The auxetic lattice structure exhibits orthotropic deformation behavior with a negative in-plane Poisson’s ratio of -2.05. Compared to PZT bulk material the piezoelectric auxetic lattice revealed a strain amplification by a factor of 30-70. Effective transversal coupling coefficients {{d}al}31 of the PZT lattice exceeding 4 × 103 pm V-1 were determined which result in an effective hydrostatic coefficient {{d}al}h 66 times larger than that of bulk PZT.

  19. Characteristics of the thick, compound refractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, Richard H.; Feinstein, Joseph; Beguiristain, H. Raul; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Cremer, Jay T.

    2003-01-01

    A compound refractive lens (CRL), consisting of a series of N closely spaced lens elements each of which contributes a small fraction of the total focusing, can be used to focus x rays or neutrons. The thickness of a CRL can be comparable to its focal length, whereupon a thick-lens analysis must be performed. In contrast with the conventional optical lens, where the ray inside the lens follows a straight line, the ray inside the CRL is continually changing direction because of the multiple refracting surfaces. Thus the matrix representation for the thick CRL is quite different from that for the thick optical lens. Principal planes can be defined such that the thick-lens matrix can be converted to that of a thin lens. For a thick lens the focal length is greater than for a thin lens with the same lens curvature, but this lengthening effect is less for the CRL than for the conventional optical lens

  20. Dark field electron holography for strain measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beche, A., E-mail: armand.beche@fei.com [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rouviere, J.L. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Barnes, J.P.; Cooper, D. [CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2011-02-15

    Dark field electron holography is a new TEM-based technique for measuring strain with nanometer scale resolution. Here we present the procedure to align a transmission electron microscope and obtain dark field holograms as well as the theoretical background necessary to reconstruct strain maps from holograms. A series of experimental parameters such as biprism voltage, sample thickness, exposure time, tilt angle and choice of diffracted beam are then investigated on a silicon-germanium layer epitaxially embedded in a silicon matrix in order to obtain optimal dark field holograms over a large field of view with good spatial resolution and strain sensitivity. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Step by step explanation of the dark field electron holography technique. {yields} Presentation of the theoretical equations to obtain quantitative strain map. {yields} Description of experimental parameters influencing dark field holography results. {yields} Quantitative strain measurement on a SiGe layer embedded in a silicon matrix.

  1. Multishell structure formation in Ni nanowire under uniaxial strain along <0 0 1> crystallographic direction: A molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Li, E-mail: wanglihxf@sdu.edu.c [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Shandong University at Weihai, 180 Wenhuaxi Road, Weihai 264209 (China); Peng Chuanxiao [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Gong Jianhong [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Shandong University at Weihai, 180 Wenhuaxi Road, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations based upon embedded-atom-method potential are employed to explore the fracture behavior of Ni nanowire along <0 0 1> crystallographic direction at temperature of 300 K. We find the formation of (5,5) multishell structure (MS), which is transformed from (6,5) MS at the necking region of nanowire under the strain rate of 0.02%ps{sup -1}. A reorientation transformation from <0 0 1> to <1 1 0> is first detected before formation of (6,5) MS. The formed (5,5) MS is more stable and can be tensioned longer as lower strain rate is loaded.

  2. Thick brane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Minamitsuji, Masato; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive review on thick brane solutions and related topics. Such models have attracted much attention from many aspects since the birth of the brane world scenario. In many works, it has been usually assumed that a brane is an infinitely thin object; however, in more general situations, one can no longer assume this. It is also widely considered that more fundamental theories such as string theory would have a minimal length scale. Many multidimensional field theories coupled to gravitation have exact solutions of gravitating topological defects, which can represent our brane world. The inclusion of brane thickness can realize a variety of possible brane world models. Given our understanding, the known solutions can be classified into topologically non-trivial solutions and trivial ones. The former class contains solutions of a single scalar (domain walls), multi-scalar, gauge-Higgs (vortices), Weyl gravity and so on. As an example of the latter class, we consider solutions of two interacting scalar fields. Approaches to obtain cosmological equations in the thick brane world are reviewed. Solutions with spatially extended branes (S-branes) and those with an extra time-like direction are also discussed.

  3. Critical thickness for strain relaxation of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (x ≤ 0.17) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Ge(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Qian; Dong, Yuan; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2015-06-08

    We investigated the critical thickness (h{sub c}) for plastic relaxation of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} films with various Sn mole fraction x (x ≤ 0.17) and different thicknesses were grown on Ge(001). The strain relaxation of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} films and the h{sub c} were investigated by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and reciprocal space mapping. It demonstrates that the measured h{sub c} values of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers are as much as an order of magnitude larger than that predicted by the Matthews and Blakeslee (M-B) model. The People and Bean (P-B) model was also used to predict the h{sub c} values in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}/Ge system. The measured h{sub c} values for various Sn content follow the trend, but slightly larger than that predicted by the P-B model.

  4. Strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2012-04-17

    Density functional theory calculations (DFT) are used to investigate the strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of biaxially strained (parallel to the (001), (110) and (111) planes) and uniaxially strained (along the [001], [110] and [111] directions) germanium (Ge). It is calculated that a moderate uniaxial strain parallel to the [111] direction can efficiently transform Ge to a direct bandgap material with a bandgap energy useful for technological applications. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander I.; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Dimoulas, Athanasios Dimoulas

    2012-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations (DFT) are used to investigate the strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of biaxially strained (parallel to the (001), (110) and (111) planes) and uniaxially strained (along the [001], [110] and [111] directions) germanium (Ge). It is calculated that a moderate uniaxial strain parallel to the [111] direction can efficiently transform Ge to a direct bandgap material with a bandgap energy useful for technological applications. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Effect of Processing Parameters on Thickness of Columnar Structured Silicon Wafers Directly Grown from Silicon Melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seok Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain optimum growth conditions for desired thickness and more effective silicon feedstock usage, effects of processing parameters such as preheated substrate temperatures, time intervals, moving velocity of substrates, and Ar gas blowing rates on silicon ribbon thickness were investigated in the horizontal growth process. Most of the parameters strongly affected in the control of ribbon thickness with columnar grain structure depended on the solidification rate. The thickness of the silicon ribbon decreased with an increasing substrate temperature, decreasing time interval, and increasing moving velocity of the substrate. However, the blowing of Ar gas onto a liquid layer existing on the surface of solidified ribbon contributed to achieving smooth surface roughness but did not closely affect the change of ribbon thickness in the case of a blowing rate of ≥0.65 Nm3/h because the thickness of the solidified layer was already determined by the exit height of the reservoir.

  7. Nanoscale strain engineering of graphene and graphene-based devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N-C Yeh; C-C Hsu; M L Teague; J-Q Wang; D A Boyd; C-C Chen

    2016-01-01

    Structural distortions in nano-materials can induce dramatic changes in their electronic properties. This situation is well manifested in graphene, a two-dimensional honeycomb structure of carbon atoms with only one atomic layer thickness. In particular, strained graphene can result in both charging effects and pseudo-magnetic fields, so that controlled strain on a perfect graphene lattice can be tailored to yield desirable electronic properties. Here, we describe the theoretical foundation for strain-engineering of the electronic properties of graphene, and then provide experimental evidence for strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields and charging effects in monolayer graphene. We further demonstrate the feasibility of nano-scale strain engineering for graphene-based devices by means of theoretical simula-tions and nano-fabrication technology.

  8. Prediction of crack growth direction by Strain Energy Sih's Theory on specimens SEN under tension-compression biaxial loading employing Genetic Algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-MartInez R; Lugo-Gonzalez E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa G; Hernandez-Gomez L H; Romero-Angeles B; Torres-San Miguel Ch

    2011-01-01

    Crack growth direction has been studied in many ways. Particularly Sih's strain energy theory predicts that a fracture under a three-dimensional state of stress spreads in direction of the minimum strain energy density. In this work a study for angle of fracture growth was made, considering a biaxial stress state at the crack tip on SEN specimens. The stress state applied on a tension-compression SEN specimen is biaxial one on crack tip, as it can observed in figure 1. A solution method proposed to obtain a mathematical model considering genetic algorithms, which have demonstrated great capacity for the solution of many engineering problems. From the model given by Sih one can deduce the density of strain energy stored for unit of volume at the crack tip as dW = [1/2E(σ 2 x + σ 2 y ) - ν/E(σ x σy)]dV (1). From equation (1) a mathematical deduction to solve in terms of θ of this case was developed employing Genetic Algorithms, where θ is a crack propagation direction in plane x-y. Steel and aluminium mechanical properties to modelled specimens were employed, because they are two of materials but used in engineering design. Obtained results show stable zones of fracture propagation but only in a range of applied loading.

  9. Strain relaxation of germanium-tin (GeSn) fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuye; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Wei; Lei, Dian; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Dong, Yuan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Shengqiang; Tan, Chuan Seng; Gong, Xiao; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2018-02-01

    Strain relaxation of biaxially strained Ge1-xSnx layer when it is patterned into Ge1-xSnx fin structures is studied. Ge1-xSnx-on-insulator (GeSnOI) substrate was realized using a direct wafer bonding (DWB) technique and Ge1-xSnx fin structures were formed by electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning and dry etching. The strain in the Ge1-xSnx fins having fin widths (WFin) ranging from 1 μm down to 80 nm was characterized using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Raman measurements show that the strain relaxation increases with decreasing WFin. Finite element (FE) simulation shows that the strain component in the transverse direction relaxes with decreasing WFin, while the strain component along the fin direction remains unchanged. For various Ge1-xSnx fin widths, transverse strain relaxation was further extracted using micro-Raman spectroscopy, which is consistent with the simulation results.

  10. Analysis of tensile strain enhancement in Ge nano-belts on an insulator surrounded by dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wei-Fang; Li Cheng; Huang Shi-Hao; Lin Guang-Yang; Wang Chen; Yan Guang-Ming; Huang Wei; Lai Hong-Kai; Chen Song-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Ge nano-belts with large tensile strain are considered as one of the promising materials for high carrier mobility metal—oxide—semiconductor transistors and efficient photonic devices. In this paper, we design the Ge nano-belts on an insulator surrounded by Si 3 N 4 or SiO 2 for improving their tensile strain and simulate the strain profiles by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The width and thickness parameters of Ge nano-belts on an insulator, which have great effects on the strain profile, are optimized. A large uniaxial tensile strain of 1.16% in 50-nm width and 12-nm thickness Ge nano-belts with the sidewalls protected by Si 3 N 4 is achieved after thermal treatments, which would significantly tailor the band gap structures of Ge-nanobelts to realize the high performance devices. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. Misfit strain relaxation in (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 epitaxial thin films on orthorhombic NdGaO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2006-07-01

    Strain relaxation in (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 (BST) thin films on ⟨110⟩ orthorhombic NdGaO3 substrates is investigated by x-ray diffractometry. Pole figure analysis indicates a [010]BST∥[1¯10]NGO and [001]BST∥[001]NGO in-plane and [100]BST∥[100]NGO out-of-plane epitaxial relationship. The residual strains are relaxed at h ˜200nm, and for h >600nm, films are essentially strain free. Two independent dislocations mechanisms operate to relieve the anisotropic misfit strains along the principal directions. The critical thickness for misfit dislocation formation along [001] and [010] are 11 and 15nm, respectively. Stress analysis indicates deviation from linear elasticity for h <200. The films with 10

  12. Modeling and characterization of through-the-thickness properties of 3D woven composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartranft, Dru; Pravizi-Majidi, Azar; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    1995-01-01

    The through-the-thickness properties of three-dimensionally (3D) woven carbon/epoxy composites have been studied. The investigation aimed at the evaluation and development of test methodologies for the property characterization in the thickness direction, and the establishment of fiber architectures were studied: layer-to-layer Angle Interlock, through-the-thickness Orthogonal woven preform with surface pile was also designed and manufactured for the fabrication of tensile test coupons with integrated grips. All the preforms were infiltrated by the resin transfer molding technique. The microstructures of the composites were characterized along the warp and fill (weft) directions to determine the degree of yarn undulations, yarn cross-sectional shapes, and microstructural dimensions. These parameters were correlated to the fiber architecture. Specimens were designed and tested for the direct measurement of the through-the-thickness tensile, compressive and shear properties of the composites. Design optimization was conducted through the analysis of the stress fields within the specimen coupled with experimental verification. The experimentally-derived elastic properties in the thickness direction compared well with analytical predictions obtained from a volume averaging model.

  13. Performance evaluation of compounding and directional beamforming techniques for carotid strain imaging using plane wave transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    2014-01-01

    Carotid strain imaging in 3D is not possible with conventional focused imaging, because the frame rate is too low. Plane wave ultrasound provides sufficiently high frame rates, albeit at t he cost of image quality, especially in the off - axis direction due to the lack of focusing . Multiple...... techniques have been developed to cope with the low off - axis image quality when performing 2D (and in future 3D) motion estimation: cross correlation with directional beamforming (with or without RF (coherent) compounding) and displacement compounding. This study compares the precision of these techniques...... with RF compounding and 2D displacement compounding with θ = ~20 ° per formed equally and best with a relative root - mean - squared error of ~2% with respect to the analytical solution . The mean and standard deviation of the estimated motion direction for 2D displacement compounding with θ = 20 ° was 0...

  14. Development of design method of thick rubber bearings for three-dimensional base isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabana, Shuichi; Matuda, Akihiro

    2000-01-01

    Thick rubber bearings as 3-dimensional base isolators have been developed to reduce both horizontal and vertical seismic loads especially for equipment in Fast Breeder Reactors. In this report, a design method of thick rubber bearings is presented. To consider nonlinearity of vertical stiffness affected by vertical stress in the design of thick rubber bearings, Lindley's evaluation method of vertical stiffness is modified as an explicit form of vertical stress. We confirm that the presented method is efficient for design of the thick rubber bearings from comparing between test results and predicted values. Furthermore, rubber bearing tests are conducted with 1/3 scale models to evaluate mechanical properties of thick rubber bearings including ultimate limits. In the tests, horizontal and vertical characteristics of 1/3 scale model are compared with those of 1/6 scale model to discuss scale effect of test specimen. Ultimate limits such as failure shear strain of thick rubber bearings are obtained under various loading conditions. From the test results, we confirm that full scale thick rubber bearing to satisfy requirements is feasible. (author)

  15. High resolution x-ray diffraction study of the substrate temperature and thickness dependent microstructure of reactively sputtered epitaxial ZnO films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2017-08-24

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on c-sapphire by reactive sputtering of zinc target in Ar-O2 mixture. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to obtain lateral and vertical coherence lengths, crystallite tilt and twist, micro-strain and densities of screw and edge dislocations in epilayers of different thickness (25 - 200 nm) and those grown at different temperatures (100 - 500 °C). phgr-scans indicate epitaxial growth in all the cases, although epilayers grown at lower substrate temperatures (100 °C and 200 °C) and those of smaller thickness (25 nm and 50 nm) display inferior microstructural parameters. This is attributed to the dominant presence of initially grown strained 2D layer and subsequent transition to an energetically favorable mode. With increase in substrate temperature, the transition shifts to lower thickness and growth takes place through the formation of 2D platelets with intermediate strain, over which 3D islands grow. Consequently, 100 nm thick epilayers grown at 300 °C display the best microstructural parameters (micro-strain ~1.2 x 10-3, screw and edge dislocation densities ~1.5 x 1010 cm-2 and ~2.3 x 1011 cm-2, respectively). A marginal degradation of microstructural parameters is seen in epilayers grown at higher substrate temperatures, due to the dominance of 3D hillock type growth.

  16. High resolution x-ray diffraction study of the substrate temperature and thickness dependent microstructure of reactively sputtered epitaxial ZnO films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra; Kumar, Ravi; Ganguli, Tapas; Major, Syed S

    2017-01-01

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on c-sapphire by reactive sputtering of zinc target in Ar-O2 mixture. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to obtain lateral and vertical coherence lengths, crystallite tilt and twist, micro-strain and densities of screw and edge dislocations in epilayers of different thickness (25 - 200 nm) and those grown at different temperatures (100 - 500 °C). phgr-scans indicate epitaxial growth in all the cases, although epilayers grown at lower substrate temperatures (100 °C and 200 °C) and those of smaller thickness (25 nm and 50 nm) display inferior microstructural parameters. This is attributed to the dominant presence of initially grown strained 2D layer and subsequent transition to an energetically favorable mode. With increase in substrate temperature, the transition shifts to lower thickness and growth takes place through the formation of 2D platelets with intermediate strain, over which 3D islands grow. Consequently, 100 nm thick epilayers grown at 300 °C display the best microstructural parameters (micro-strain ~1.2 x 10-3, screw and edge dislocation densities ~1.5 x 1010 cm-2 and ~2.3 x 1011 cm-2, respectively). A marginal degradation of microstructural parameters is seen in epilayers grown at higher substrate temperatures, due to the dominance of 3D hillock type growth.

  17. Narrow photoluminescence peak from Ge(Si) islands embedded between tensile-strained Si layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaleev, Mikhail; Novikov, Alexey; Baydakova, Nataliya; Yablonskiy, Artem; Drozdov, Yuriy; Lobanov, Dmitriy; Krasilnik, Zakhary [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Oleg [Physical-Technical Research Institute, Nizhny Novgorod State University, pr. Gagarina 23, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    The influence of thickness of the strained Si layers, measurement temperature and optical pumping power on width of the photoluminescence line from Ge(Si) self-assembled nanoislands grown on relaxed SiGe/Si(001) buffer layers and embedded between tensile-stained Si layers was studied. This line appears due to the II-type optical transition between the holes localized in islands and the electrons confined in tensile-strained Si layers under and above the islands. The possibility of tuning the photoluminescence line width by changing the strained Si layer thicknesses under and above the islands is showed. The decrease of the photoluminescence line width from Ge(Si) islands down to values comparable with width of the PL line from InAs/GaAs quantum dots was achieved due to the quantum confinement of electrons in thin strained Si layers and taking into account of the higher diffusion-induced smearing of strained Si layer above the islands. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Symmetry analysis of strain, electric and magnetic fields in the Bi2Se3-class of topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdahl Brems, Mathias; Paaske, Jens; Lunde, Anders Mathias; Willatzen, Morten

    2018-05-01

    Based on group theoretical arguments we derive the most general Hamiltonian for the Bi2Se3-class of materials including terms to third order in the wave vector, first order in electric and magnetic fields, first order in strain and first order in both strain and wave vector. We determine analytically the effects of strain on the electronic structure of Bi2Se3. For the most experimentally relevant surface termination we analytically derive the surface state (SS) spectrum, revealing an anisotropic Dirac cone with elliptical constant energy contours giving rise to a direction-dependent group velocity. The spin-momentum locking of strained Bi2Se3 is shown to be modified. Hence, strain control can be used to manipulate the spin degree of freedom via the spin–orbit coupling. We show that for a thin film of Bi2Se3 the SS band gap induced by coupling between the opposite surfaces changes opposite to the bulk band gap under strain. Tuning the SS band gap by strain, gives new possibilities for the experimental investigation of the thickness dependent gap and optimization of optical properties relevant for, e.g., photodetector and energy harvesting applications. We finally derive analytical expressions for the effective mass tensor of the Bi2Se3 class of materials as a function of strain and electric field.

  19. Probing the Optical Properties and Strain-Tuning of Ultrathin Mo1- xW xTe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ozgur Burak; Datye, Isha M; Mleczko, Michal J; Sze Cheung, Karen; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Bruma, Alina; Kalish, Irina; Davydov, Albert V; Pop, Eric; Heinz, Tony F

    2018-04-11

    Ultrathin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have recently been extensively investigated to understand their electronic and optical properties. Here we study ultrathin Mo 0.91 W 0.09 Te 2 , a semiconducting alloy of MoTe 2 , using Raman, photoluminescence (PL), and optical absorption spectroscopy. Mo 0.91 W 0.09 Te 2 transitions from an indirect to a direct optical band gap in the limit of monolayer thickness, exhibiting an optical gap of 1.10 eV, very close to its MoTe 2 counterpart. We apply tensile strain, for the first time, to monolayer MoTe 2 and Mo 0.91 W 0.09 Te 2 to tune the band structure of these materials; we observe that their optical band gaps decrease by 70 meV at 2.3% uniaxial strain. The spectral widths of the PL peaks decrease with increasing strain, which we attribute to weaker exciton-phonon intervalley scattering. Strained MoTe 2 and Mo 0.91 W 0.09 Te 2 extend the range of band gaps of TMDC monolayers further into the near-infrared, an important attribute for potential applications in optoelectronics.

  20. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain-reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stretchable Complementary Split Ring Resonator (CSRR-Based Radio Frequency (RF Sensor for Strain Direction and Level Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyun Eom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a stretchable radio frequency (RF sensor to detect strain direction and level. The stretchable sensor is composed of two complementary split ring resonators (CSRR with microfluidic channels. In order to achieve stretchability, liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium, EGaIn and Ecoflex substrate are used. Microfluidic channels are built by Ecoflex elastomer and microfluidic channel frames. A three-dimensional (3D printer is used for fabrication of microfluidic channel frames. Two CSRR resonators are designed to resonate 2.03 GHz and 3.68 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the +x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 3.68 GHz to 3.13 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the −x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 2.03 GHz to 1.78 GHz. Therefore, we can detect stretched length and direction from independent variation of two resonant frequencies.

  2. Nondestructive testing technology for measurement coatings thickness on material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingtai; Wu Lunqiang; Zhang Lianping

    2008-01-01

    The principle, applicability range, advantage and disadvantage of electromagnetic, eddy current method, β backscatter method and XRF methods for nondestructive testing coating thickness of material have been reviewed. The relevant apparatus and manufacturers have been summarized. And the application and developmental direction of manufacturers for nondestructive testing coatings thickness has been foreshowed. (authors)

  3. Direct observation of crystal texture by neutron diffraction topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimitsu, Hiroshi

    1982-02-01

    This document reports the development and the applications of the neutron diffraction topography (NDT), which have been carried out at JAERI in these 10 years. This describes how the substructure of Cu-5%Ge single crystal of large-scale (3 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length) was revealed by the NDT-observation. It was discovered that the specimen crystal was made up from the layer-substructures parallel to (001) and to the [110] growth direction, and that each (001) layer-substructure mentioned above was further subdivided into the central thin sublayer parallel to (001) and thick plates of [100] and [010] directions, attached symmetrically to both sides of the central (001) sublayer with regular intervals. The model of the substructure described above was supported by the calculation of the diffraction intensities. The model of the layer-substructure described above, on the other hand, suggested a simple mechanism of crystal growth of the specimen. This document also reports the NDT-observation of the three-dimensional distribution of the lattice strains within a hot-pressed Ge single crystal, and the equal thickness fringes and the coherent boundaries of a twinned Si crystal. The powerfulness and the reliability of the NDT-technique were thus demonstrated. (author)

  4. Thickness and strain effects on the thermoelectric transport in nanostructured Bi2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Singh, Nirpendra

    2014-01-01

    The structural stability, electronic structure, and thermal transport properties of one to six quintuple layers (QLs) of Bi2Se3 are investigated by van der Waals density functional theory and semi-classical Boltzmann theory. The bandgap amounts to 0.41 eV for a single QL and reduces to 0.23 eV when the number of QLs increases to six. A single QL has a significantly higher thermoelectric figure of merit (0.27) than the bulk material (0.10), which can be further enhanced to 0.30 by introducing 2.5% compressive strain. Positive phonon frequencies under strain indicate that the structural stability is maintained.

  5. Thickness and strain effects on the thermoelectric transport in nanostructured Bi2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir

    2014-01-23

    The structural stability, electronic structure, and thermal transport properties of one to six quintuple layers (QLs) of Bi2Se3 are investigated by van der Waals density functional theory and semi-classical Boltzmann theory. The bandgap amounts to 0.41 eV for a single QL and reduces to 0.23 eV when the number of QLs increases to six. A single QL has a significantly higher thermoelectric figure of merit (0.27) than the bulk material (0.10), which can be further enhanced to 0.30 by introducing 2.5% compressive strain. Positive phonon frequencies under strain indicate that the structural stability is maintained.

  6. Magnetism and Raman Spectroscopy of Pristine and Hydrogenated TaSe2 Monolayer tuned by Tensile and Pure Shear Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sugata; Simpson, Jeffrey; Einstein, T. L.; Walker, Angela R. Hight

    2D-materials with controllable optical, electronic and magnetic properties are desirable for novel nanodevices. Here we studied these properties for both pristine and hydrogenated TaSe2 (TaSe2-H) monolayer (ML) in the framework of DFT using the PAW method. We considered uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain, as well as shear strain along the basal planes in the range between 1% and 16%. Previous theoretical works (e.g.) considered only symmetrical biaxial tensile. Pristine ML is ferromagnetic for uniaxial tensile strain along ◯ or ŷ. For tensile strain in ŷ, the calculated magnetic moments of the Ta atoms are twice those for the same strain in ◯. Under pure shear strain (expansion along ŷ and compression along ◯), a pristine ML is ferromagnetic, but becomes non-magnetic when the strain directions are interchanged. Due to carrier-mediated double-exchange, the pristine ML is ferromagnetic when the Se-Ta-Se bond angle is < 82° and the ML thickness is < 3.25Å. We find that all Raman-active phonon modes show obvious red-shifting due to bond elongation and the E2 modes degeneracy is lifted as strain increases. For a TaSe2-H ML, the same trends were observed. Results show the ability to tune the properties of 2D-materials.

  7. Analytical stiffness matrices with Green-Lagrange strain measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    Separating the dependence on material and stress/strain state from the dependence on initial geometry, we obtain analytical secant and tangent stiffness matrices. For the case of a linear displacement triangle with uniform thickness and uniform constitutive behaviour closed-form results are listed...... a solution based on Green-Lagrange strain measure. The approach is especially useful in design optimization, because analytical sensitivity analysis then can be performed. The case of a three node triangular ring element for axisymmetric analysis involves small modifications and extension to four node...

  8. Biological assay of attenuated strain NADL-2 and virulent strain NADL-8 of porcine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeling, W L; Pejsak, Z; Paul, P S

    1984-11-01

    Attenuated strain NADL-2 and virulent strain NADL-8 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) were titrated in vivo and in vitro under similar conditions to provide a better understanding of some of the factors involved in virulence of PPV in causing maternal reproductive failure of swine. Both strains cause fetal death when they are injected directly into fetal fluids, but only strain NADL-8 does so when administered to pregnant swine. The strains were tested for their hemagglutinating activity (HA), median cell culture infective dose (CCID50), median fetal infective dose (FID50), and median fetal lethal dose (FLD50). The FID50 and FLD50 were determined by injecting virus directly into the amniotic fluid of fetuses in utero at 44 +/- 2 days of gestation and collecting the fetuses 15 +/- 1 days later. Both strains had an HA titer of 64, suggesting that there is a similar number of virions in stock preparations. However, other measurements differed markedly. The CCID50, FID50, and FLD50 were 10(5.5), 10(3.5), and 10(0.5), respectively, for strain NADL-2, and 10(4.5), 10(7.7), and 10(6.3), respectively, for strain NADL-8. Collectively, the values indicate that more than 10,000 times as much strain NADL-2 would need to reach the conceptus transplacentally to establish infection. These observations may help to explain the different consequences of oronasal exposure of pregnant swine to these strains of PPV.

  9. Strain dependent microstructural modifications of BiCrO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Vijayanandhini, E-mail: kvnandhini@gmail.com [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); CNRS, University of Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Arredondo, Miryam; Johann, Florian; Hesse, Dietrich [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Labrugere, Christine [CNRS, University of Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); CeCaMA, University of Bordeaux, ICMCB, F-33600 Pessac (France); Maglione, Mario [CNRS, University of Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Vrejoiu, Ionela [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2013-10-31

    Strain-dependent microstructural modifications were observed in epitaxial BiCrO{sub 3} (BCO) thin films fabricated on single crystalline substrates, utilizing pulsed laser deposition. The following conditions were employed to modify the epitaxial-strain: (i) in-plane tensile strain, BCO{sub STO} [BCO grown on buffered SrTiO{sub 3} (001)] and in-plane compressive strain, BCO{sub NGO} [BCO grown on buffered NdGaO{sub 3} (110)] and (ii) varying BCO film thickness. A combination of techniques like X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to analyse the epitaxial growth quality and the microstructure of BCO. Our studies revealed that in the case of BCO{sub STO}, a coherent interface with homogeneous orthorhombic phase is obtained only for BCO film with thicknesses, d < 50 nm. All the BCO{sub STO} films with d ≥ 50 nm were found to be strain-relaxed with an orthorhombic phase showing 1/2 <100> and 1/4 <101> satellite reflections, the latter oriented at 45° from orthorhombic diffraction spots. High angle annular dark field scanning TEM of these films strongly suggested that the satellite reflections, 1/2 <100> and 1/4 <101>, originate from the atomic stacking sequence changes (or “modulated structure”) as reported for polytypes, without altering the chemical composition. The unaltered stoichiometry was confirmed by estimating both valency of Bi and Cr cations by surface and in-depth XPS analysis as well as the stoichiometric ratio (1 Bi:1 Cr) using scanning TEM–energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In contrast, compressively strained BCO{sub NGO} films exhibited monoclinic symmetry without any structural modulations or interfacial defects, up to d ∼ 200 nm. Our results indicate that both the substrate-induced in-plane epitaxial strain and the BCO film thickness are the crucial parameters to stabilise a homogeneous BCO phase in an epitaxially grown film. - Highlights: • Phase pure

  10. Creep characteristics in thick welded joints and their improvements. 2. Applicability of a simple model for creep analysis of thick welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakacho, Keiji; Ueda, Yukio; Kinugawa, Junichi; Yamazaki, Masayoshi

    1997-01-01

    Reliable predictions of the creep behavior of thick welded joints are very important to secure the safety of elevated temperature vessels like nuclear reactors. Creep behavior is very complex, thus it is difficult to perform the experiment and conduct the theoretical analysis. A simple accurate model for theoretical analysis was developed in the first report. The simple model is constructed of seven one-dimensional finite elements which can analyze not only one-dimensional stress creep behavior but also the three-dimensional situation. The simple model is verified by comparing the analyzed results with the experimental ones in this report. The model is easy to treat, and needs only a little labor and computation time to predict the creep curve and the local strain for a thick welded joint. (author)

  11. Flexoelectricity induced increase of critical thickness in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hao; Hong Jiawang; Zhang Yihui; Li Faxin; Pei Yongmao; Fang Daining

    2012-01-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the coupling between polarization and strain/stress gradients in insulating crystals. In this paper, using the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach, we found that flexoelectricity could increase the theoretical critical thickness in epitaxial BaTiO 3 thin films, below which the switchable spontaneous polarization vanishes. This increase is remarkable in tensile films while trivial in compressive films due to the electrostriction caused decrease of potential barrier, which can be easily destroyed by the flexoelectricity, between the ferroelectric state and the paraelectric state in tensile films. In addition, the films are still in a uni-polar state even below the critical thickness due to the flexoelectric effect.

  12. Flexoelectricity induced increase of critical thickness in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hao [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hong Jiawang; Zhang Yihui [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Faxin [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pei Yongmao, E-mail: peiym@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang Daining, E-mail: fangdn@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the coupling between polarization and strain/stress gradients in insulating crystals. In this paper, using the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach, we found that flexoelectricity could increase the theoretical critical thickness in epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films, below which the switchable spontaneous polarization vanishes. This increase is remarkable in tensile films while trivial in compressive films due to the electrostriction caused decrease of potential barrier, which can be easily destroyed by the flexoelectricity, between the ferroelectric state and the paraelectric state in tensile films. In addition, the films are still in a uni-polar state even below the critical thickness due to the flexoelectric effect.

  13. Strain-induced alignment and phase behavior of blue phase liquid crystals confined to thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose A; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Ye; de Pablo, Juan J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2017-12-06

    We report on the influence of surface confinement on the phase behavior and strain-induced alignment of thin films of blue phase liquid crystals (BPs). Confining surfaces comprised of bare glass, dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] ammonium chloride (DMOAP)-functionalized glass, or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated glass were used with or without mechanically rubbing to influence the azimuthal anchoring of the BPs. These experiments reveal that confinement can change the phase behavior of the BP films. For example, in experiments performed with rubbed-PVA surfaces, we measured the elastic strain of the BPs to change the isotropic-BPII phase boundary, suppressing formation of BPII for film thicknesses incommensurate with the BPII lattice. In addition, we observed strain-induced alignment of the BPs to exhibit a complex dependence on both the surface chemistry and azimuthal alignment of the BPs. For example, when using bare glass surfaces causing azimuthally degenerate and planar anchoring, BPI oriented with (110) planes of the unit cell parallel to the contacting surfaces for thicknesses below 3 μm but transitioned to an orientation with (200) planes aligned parallel to the contacting surfaces for thicknesses above 4 μm. In contrast, BPI aligned with (110) planes parallel to confining surfaces for all other thicknesses and surface treatments, including bare glass with uniform azimuthal alignment. Complementary simulations based on minimization of the total free energy (Landau-de Gennes formalism) confirmed a thickness-dependent reorientation due to strain of BPI unit cells within a window of surface anchoring energies and in the absence of uniform azimuthal alignment. In contrast to BPI, BPII did not exhibit thickness-dependent orientations but did exhibit orientations that were dependent on the surface chemistry, a result that was also captured in simulations by varying the anchoring energies. Overall, the results in this paper reveal that the orientations

  14. Nucleation and strain-stabilization during organic semiconductor thin film deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wan, Jing; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Bouffard, Nicole; Sun, Richard; Headrick, Randall L

    2016-09-07

    The nucleation mechanisms during solution deposition of organic semiconductor thin films determine the grain morphology and may influence the crystalline packing in some cases. Here, in-situ optical spectromicroscopy in reflection mode is used to study the growth mechanisms and thermal stability of 6,13-bis(trisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene thin films. The results show that the films form in a supersaturated state before transforming to a solid film. Molecular aggregates corresponding to subcritical nuclei in the crystallization process are inferred from optical spectroscopy measurements of the supersaturated region. Strain-free solid films exhibit a temperature-dependent blue shift of optical absorption peaks due to a continuous thermally driven change of the crystalline packing. As crystalline films are cooled to ambient temperature they become strained although cracking of thicker films is observed, which allows the strain to partially relax. Below a critical thickness, cracking is not observed and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements confirm that the thinnest films are constrained to the lattice constants corresponding to the temperature at which they were deposited. Optical spectroscopy results show that the transition temperature between Form I (room temperature phase) and Form II (high temperature phase) depends on the film thickness, and that Form I can also be strain-stabilized up to 135 °C.

  15. Genotyping of Leptospira directly in urine samples of cattle demonstrates a diversity of species and strains in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamond, C; Pestana, C P; Medeiros, M A; Lilenbaum, W

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Leptospira in urine samples of cattle by direct sequencing of the secY gene. The validity of this approach was assessed using ten Leptospira strains obtained from cattle in Brazil and 77 DNA samples previously extracted from cattle urine, that were positive by PCR for the genus-specific lipL32 gene of Leptospira. Direct sequencing identified 24 (31·1%) interpretable secY sequences and these were identical to those obtained from direct DNA sequencing of the urine samples from which they were recovered. Phylogenetic analyses identified four species: L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. noguchii, and L. santarosai with the most prevalent genotypes being associated with L. borgpetersenii. While direct sequencing cannot, as yet, replace culturing of leptospires, it is a valid additional tool for epidemiological studies. An unexpected finding from this study was the genetic diversity of Leptospira infecting Brazilian cattle.

  16. Rapid Measurement of Nanoparticle Thickness Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz-Boon, Hadas; Rossouw, Chris J.; Dwyer, Christian; Etheridge, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    A method to measure the thickness of a single-crystal nanoparticle in the direction parallel to the incident beam from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF-STEM) images is reported, providing a map of thickness versus position across the nanoparticle—a ‘thickness profile’ image. The method is rapid and hence suitable for surveying large numbers of nanoparticles. The method measures the intensity scattered to a characterised ADF detector and compares this to the incident beam intensity, to obtain a normalized ADF image. The normalised intensity is then converted to thickness via dynamical ADF image simulations. The method is accurate within 10% and the precision is dominated primarily by ‘shot noise’. Merits and limitations of this method are discussed. A method to calibrate the response function of the ADF detector without external equipment is also described, which is applicable to the entire range of gain and background settings. -- Highlights: ► A method is developed to convert ADF-STEM images to ‘thickness profile’ images. ► It is applicable in particles survey, facets determination and discrete tomography. ► A method to calibrate the response of the ADF detector is described. ► The response in analysed across a range of conditions. ► Dynamical ADF image simulations are presented, demonstrating intensity vs. thickness dependence.

  17. Analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of Gaussian-doped strained-Si-on-insulator MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Gopal; Kumar, Sanjay; Goel, Ekta; Kumar, Mirgender; Jit, S.; Dubey, Sarvesh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of short-channel fully-depleted (FD) strained-Si-on-insulator (SSOI) MOSFETs having vertical Gaussian-like doping profile in the channel. The subthreshold current and subthreshold swing have been derived using the parabolic approximation method. In addition to the effect of strain on silicon layer, various other device parameters such as channel length (L), gate-oxide thickness (t ox ), strained-Si channel thickness (t s-Si ), peak doping concentration (N P ), project range (R p ) and straggle (σ p ) of the Gaussian profile have been considered while predicting the device characteristics. The present work may help to overcome the degradation in subthreshold characteristics with strain engineering. These subthreshold current and swing models provide valuable information for strained-Si MOSFET design. Accuracy of the proposed models is verified using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two-dimensional (2D) device simulator from SILVACO. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Effect of axial tibial torque direction on ACL relative strain and strain rate in an in vitro simulated pivot landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youkeun K; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries most frequently occur under the large loads associated with a unipedal jump landing involving a cutting or pivoting maneuver. We tested the hypotheses that internal tibial torque would increase the anteromedial (AM) bundle ACL relative strain and strain rate more than would the corresponding external tibial torque under the large impulsive loads associated with such landing maneuvers. Twelve cadaveric female knees [mean (SD) age: 65.0 (10.5) years] were tested. Pretensioned quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit forces maintained an initial knee flexion angle of 15°. A compound impulsive test load (compression, flexion moment, and internal or external tibial torque) was applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3D knee loads and tibofemoral kinematics. AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3 mm DVRT. In this repeated measures experiment, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the null hypotheses with p < 0.05 considered significant. The mean (±SD) peak AM-ACL relative strains were 5.4 ± 3.7% and 3.1 ± 2.8% under internal and external tibial torque, respectively. The corresponding mean (± SD) peak AM-ACL strain rates reached 254.4 ± 160.1%/s and 179.4 ± 109.9%/s, respectively. The hypotheses were supported in that the normalized mean peak AM-ACL relative strain and strain rate were 70 and 42% greater under internal than under external tibial torque, respectively (p = 0.023, p = 0.041). We conclude that internal tibial torque is a potent stressor of the ACL because it induces a considerably (70%) larger peak strain in the AM-ACL than does a corresponding external tibial torque. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  19. Quantitative description of a high Jc Nb-Ti superconductor during its final optimization strain. I. Microstructure, Tc, Hc2, and resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meingast, C.; Lee, P.J.; Larbalestier, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A most important step in the critical current density (J c ) optimization of Nb-Ti is the large final drawing strain, in which α-Ti precipitates, initially approximately equiaxed and 100--200 nm in diameter, are drawn into ribbons, whose thickness (1--2 nm) is less than the superconducting coherence length [ξ (4.2 K)∼5 nm]. Using transmission electron microscopy, the precipitate thickness, spacing, cross-sectional area, and circumference were measured over the whole final drawing strain range. Each of these parameters was found to have a simple power dependence on the wire diameter. T c , H c2 , and the resistivity (ρ n ) were also change considerably during the refinement of the precipitates. Directly after precipitation, T c increased, and (dH c2 /dT) T c and ρ n were reduced from the single-phase values. Drawing the wire returned these parameters to their single-phase values, as the precipitate thickness was reduced to less than ξ. This observation explains a long-standing peculiarity in this system, namely that the optimum H c2 of high J c conductors occurs for a composition close to Nb 46 wt.% Ti, even when the precipitation of 18 vol % of α-Ti shifts the matrix composition to a Nb-rich composition of theoretically lower H c2

  20. Thickness effect on the microstructure, morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathap, P; Revathi, N; Subbaiah, Y P Venkata; Reddy, K T Ramakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of ZnS with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 600 nm have been deposited on glass substrates by close spaced thermal evaporation. All the films were grown at the same deposition conditions except the deposition time. The effect of thickness on the physical properties of ZnS films has been studied. The experimental results indicated that the thickness affects the structure, lattice strain, surface morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films significantly. The films deposited at a thickness of 100 nm showed hexagonal structure whereas films of thickness 300 nm or more showed cubic structure. However, coexistence of both cubic and hexagonal structures was observed in the films of 200 nm thickness. The surface roughness of the films showed an increasing trend at higher thicknesses of the films. A blue-shift in the energy band gap along with an intense UV emission band was observed with the decrease of film thickness, which are ascribed to the quantum confinement effect. The behaviour of optical constants such as refractive index and extinction coefficient were analysed. The variation of refractive index and extinction coefficient with thickness was explained on the basis of the contribution from the packing density of the layers. The electrical resistivity as well as the activation energy were evaluated and found to decrease with the increase of film thickness. The thickness had a significant influence on the optical band gap as well as the luminescence intensity

  1. Morphogenesis and Biomechanics of Engineered Skin Cultured Under Uniaxial Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani N; Powell, Heather M

    2012-04-01

    Split-thickness autograft is the standard wound treatment for full-thickness burns. In large burns, sparse availability of uninjured skin prevents rapid closure of the wound, resulting in increased scar tissue formation or mortality. Tissue-engineered skin (ES) offers promise when autografts are not available. ES, constructed from a polymeric scaffold and skin cells, has been shown to reduce donor site area required to permanently close wounds, mortality, and morbidity from scarring but cannot restore all skin functions. Current generations of ES are orders of magnitude weaker than normal human skin, leading to difficulty in surgical application, greater susceptibility to mechanical damage during fabrication and application, and less elasticity and strength once engrafted. Previous studies to improve ES biomechanics focus on altering the scaffolding material, which resulted in modest improvements but often inhibited proper skin development. As the skin is naturally under static strain, adding these mechanical cues to the culture environment is hypothesized to improve ES biomechanics. ES was cultured under applied static strains ranging from 0% to 40% strain for a total of 10 days. Strain magnitudes of 10% and 20% strain resulted in significantly stronger ES than unstrained controls, showed upregulation of many genes encoding structural extracellular matrix proteins, and exhibited increased epidermal cell proliferation and differentiation. Enhanced biomechanical properties of ES can allow for facile surgical application and less damage during dressing changes. These findings suggest that mechanical cues play a significant role in skin development and should be further explored.

  2. Strain dependent magnetic properties of LSMO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajapat, C.L.; Gupta, N.; Singh, M.R.; Mishra, P.K.; Gupta, S.K.; Ravikumar, G.; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, Surendra; Basu, S.; Roul, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite manganites exhibiting colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) are ideal candidates for growth of epitaxial multilayers with oxide high temperature superconductors owing to their structural similarity and comparable growth conditions. They are widely employed in studies on superconductor/ferromagnet-superlattices. Among the manganites, La 2/3 Sr 1/3 MnO 3 (LSMO) has one of the highest FM transition temperatures (above 300K). Magnetic properties of films that are dependent on strain (such as coercivity) can be tuned by varying deposition conditions, by using different substrates and varying thickness of films in nano range. Lattice mismatch between LSMO with STO and MgO substrates are 0.6% and 8% respectively. This mismatch produces tensile strain in LSMO films and changes its magnetic properties. We study the change in magnetic properties of epitaxial LSMO thin films on MgO (100) and STO (100) substrates with varying thickness to change the strain in the film. LSMO films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition

  3. Controllable spin-charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, Marcos R. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Qu, Fanyao [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance of ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.

  4. NMR studies of interfaces, strain and anisotropy in Co/Cu multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, T.; Riedi, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    59 Co NMR studies of multilayers are able to give three direct pieces of information: (i) the crystal phase of Co, fcc (217.4 MHz), hcp (220-228 MHz) and in exotic cases bcc (198 MHz) for films measured at T= 4.2 K, (ii) the nature of the interfaces from low frequency satellite lines, and (iii) the strain state deduced from small changes in the line positions. Extensive studies of Co/Cu multilayer interfacial structures as a function of deposition technique, layer thickness, substrate/buffer layer structure and annealing temperature have been undertaken. This work has shed new light on the relationship between interfacial structure and magnetoresistance and in particular has demonstrated that flat, atomic scale, interfaces lead to greater magnetoresistance. The difference between the Co and Cu lattice constant results in an extensive, tensile in-plane strain developing in Co layers provided that some epitaxial registry is present. Information on strain effects can be obtained from the position and width of the NMR lines. The magnetic anisotropy field can be determined by measuring the field dependence of the enhancement effect due to electronic magnetisation. This provides unique insight into the distribution of magnetic anisotropy within the Co layers, as the enhancement can be investigated independently for each NMR line and, hence, provides environment specific information on magnetic anisotropy at the interfaces and in the interior of the layers

  5. Prediction of crack growth direction by Strain Energy Sih's Theory on specimens SEN under tension-compression biaxial loading employing Genetic Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-MartInez R; Lugo-Gonzalez E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa G; Hernandez-Gomez L H; Romero-Angeles B; Torres-San Miguel Ch, E-mail: rrodriguezm@ipn.mx, E-mail: urrio332@hotmail.com, E-mail: guiurri@hotmail.com, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.com, E-mail: romerobeatriz98@hotmail.com, E-mail: napor@hotmail.com [INSTITUTO POLITECNICO NACIONAL Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-07-19

    Crack growth direction has been studied in many ways. Particularly Sih's strain energy theory predicts that a fracture under a three-dimensional state of stress spreads in direction of the minimum strain energy density. In this work a study for angle of fracture growth was made, considering a biaxial stress state at the crack tip on SEN specimens. The stress state applied on a tension-compression SEN specimen is biaxial one on crack tip, as it can observed in figure 1. A solution method proposed to obtain a mathematical model considering genetic algorithms, which have demonstrated great capacity for the solution of many engineering problems. From the model given by Sih one can deduce the density of strain energy stored for unit of volume at the crack tip as dW = [1/2E({sigma}{sup 2}{sub x} + {sigma}{sup 2}{sub y}) - {nu}/E({sigma}{sub x}{sigma}{sub y})]dV (1). From equation (1) a mathematical deduction to solve in terms of {theta} of this case was developed employing Genetic Algorithms, where {theta} is a crack propagation direction in plane x-y. Steel and aluminium mechanical properties to modelled specimens were employed, because they are two of materials but used in engineering design. Obtained results show stable zones of fracture propagation but only in a range of applied loading.

  6. Continuous thickness control of extruded pipes with assistance of microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breil, J.

    1983-06-01

    Because of economic and quality securing reasons a constant wall thickness of extruded pipes in circumference and extrusion direction is an important production aim. Therefore a microcomputer controlled system was developed, which controls die centering with electric motors. The control of wall thickness distribution; was realized with two conceptions: a dead time subjected control with a rotating on line wall thickness measuring instrument and an adaptive control with sensors in the pipe die. With a PI-algorithm excentricities of 30% of the wall thickness could be controlled below a trigger level of 2% within three dead times. (orig.) [de

  7. Strain-engineering of the topological insulator HgTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leubner, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the control of strain in HgTe thin-film crystals. A major task was the experimental control of the strain in the HgTe films. This was achieved by a new epitaxial approach and confirmed by cristallographic analysis and magneto-transport measurements. In this work, strain was induced in thin films by means of coherent epitaxy on substrate crystals. In principle, compressive strain can be achieved by using an appropriate Cd 1-x Zn x Te substrate. This concept was modified and applied in this work. Epilayers have been fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The growth of thick buffer layers of CdTe on GaAs:Si was established as an alternative to commercial CdTe and Cd 0.96 Zn 0.04 Te substrates. Residual strain was found in the buffer layers, and was attributed to a combination of finite layer thickness and mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients of CdTe and GaAs. CdTe-Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 Te strained-layer-superlattices have been grown by a combination of MBE and atomic-layer epitaxy (ALE), and have been analyzed by HRXRD. The crystal quality has been found to degrade with increasing Zn-fraction. HgTe quantum wells (QWs) sandwiched in between CdHgTe barriers have been fabricated in a similar fashion on superlattices and conventional CdTe and Cd 0.96 Zn 0.04 Te substrates. We have determined the QW thickness with an accuracy of ±0.5 nm by an analysis of the beating patterns in the thickness fringes of HRXRD measurements and X-ray reflectometry measurements. We have, for the first time, induced compressive strain in HgTe QWs by an epitaxial technique (i.e. the effective lattice constant of the superlattice is lower compared to the lattice constant of HgTe). The problem of the lattice mismatch between superlattice and barriers has been circumvented by using CdHgTe-ZnHgTe superlattices instead of CdHgTe as a barrier material. Furthermore, the growth of compressively strained HgTe bulk layers (with a thickness of at least 50 nm) was

  8. Strain-engineering of the topological insulator HgTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leubner, Philipp

    2017-07-24

    The subject of this thesis is the control of strain in HgTe thin-film crystals. A major task was the experimental control of the strain in the HgTe films. This was achieved by a new epitaxial approach and confirmed by cristallographic analysis and magneto-transport measurements. In this work, strain was induced in thin films by means of coherent epitaxy on substrate crystals. In principle, compressive strain can be achieved by using an appropriate Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te substrate. This concept was modified and applied in this work. Epilayers have been fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The growth of thick buffer layers of CdTe on GaAs:Si was established as an alternative to commercial CdTe and Cd{sub 0.96}Zn{sub 0.04}Te substrates. Residual strain was found in the buffer layers, and was attributed to a combination of finite layer thickness and mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients of CdTe and GaAs. CdTe-Cd{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Te strained-layer-superlattices have been grown by a combination of MBE and atomic-layer epitaxy (ALE), and have been analyzed by HRXRD. The crystal quality has been found to degrade with increasing Zn-fraction. HgTe quantum wells (QWs) sandwiched in between CdHgTe barriers have been fabricated in a similar fashion on superlattices and conventional CdTe and Cd{sub 0.96}Zn{sub 0.04}Te substrates. We have determined the QW thickness with an accuracy of ±0.5 nm by an analysis of the beating patterns in the thickness fringes of HRXRD measurements and X-ray reflectometry measurements. We have, for the first time, induced compressive strain in HgTe QWs by an epitaxial technique (i.e. the effective lattice constant of the superlattice is lower compared to the lattice constant of HgTe). The problem of the lattice mismatch between superlattice and barriers has been circumvented by using CdHgTe-ZnHgTe superlattices instead of CdHgTe as a barrier material. Furthermore, the growth of compressively strained HgTe bulk layers (with a

  9. Full reflector thickness and isolation thickness on neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tomohiro; Naito, Yoshitaka; Komuro, Yuichi.

    1988-08-01

    A method to determine ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'', which is utilized for criticality safety evaluation on nuclear fuel facilities, was proposed in this paper. Firstly, a calculation was tryed to obtain the two kinds of thicknesses from the result of criticality calculations for a specific case. Then, two simple equations which calculates the two kinds of thicknesses were made from the relation between reflector (or isolator) thickness and k eff , and one-group diffusion theory. Finally, we proposed a new method to determine the thicknesses. From the method we proposed, ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'' can be obtain using the equations and migration length of the reflector (or isolator) and infinite and effective multiplication factor of the fuel. (author)

  10. Influence of leaf vein density and thickness on hydraulic conductance and photosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.) during water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Muhammad Adnan; Zhu, Guanglong; Hafeez, Abdul; Wahid, Muhammad Atif; Shaban, Muhammad; Li, Yong

    2016-11-16

    The leaf venation architecture is an ideal, highly structured and efficient irrigation system in plant leaves. Leaf vein density (LVD) and vein thickness are the two major properties of this system. Leaf laminae carry out photosynthesis to harvest the maximum biological yield. It is still unknown whether the LVD and/or leaf vein thickness determines the plant hydraulic conductance (K plant ) and leaf photosynthetic rate (A). To investigate this topic, the current study was conducted with two varieties under three PEG-induced water deficit stress (PEG-IWDS) levels. The results showed that PEG-IWDS significantly decreased A, stomatal conductance (g s ), and K plant in both cultivars, though the IR-64 strain showed more severe decreases than the Hanyou-3 strain. PEG-IWDS significantly decreased the major vein thickness, while it had no significant effect on LVD. A, g s and K plant were positively correlated with each other, and they were negatively correlated with LVD. A, g s and K plant were positively correlated with the inter-vein distance and major vein thickness. Therefore, the decreased photosynthesis and hydraulic conductance in rice plants under water deficit conditions are related to the decrease in the major vein thickness.

  11. Some properties of Cerenkov radiation due to the finite thickness of the radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzev, A.P.; Frank, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of Cerenkov radiation are analyzed for a small radiator thickness. It is shown that the directionality of the radiation, its threshold properties, and also the dependence on the electron energy and radiator thickness differ substantially from the well known characteristics of Cerenkov radiation corresponding to the case of an unlimited particle trajectory in an extended medium. We have experimentally studied the directionality and energy characteristics of radiation excited by electrons in a mica target of thickness 12 400 A at wavelength 4000 A. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculations

  12. Surgical Management of the Thick-Skinned Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard E; Hrisomalos, Emily N

    2018-02-01

    When executed properly, open structure rhinoplasty can dramatically improve the consistency, durability, and quality of the cosmetic surgical outcome. Moreover, in expert hands, dramatic transformations in skeletal architecture can be accomplished with minimal risk and unparalleled control, all while preserving nasal airway function. While skeletal enhancements have become increasingly more controlled and precise, the outer skin-soft tissue envelope (SSTE) often presents a formidable obstacle to a satisfactory cosmetic result. In noses with unusually thick skin, excessive skin volume and characteristically hostile healing responses frequently combine to obscure or sometimes even negate cosmetic skeletal modifications and taint the surgical outcome. For this challenging patient subgroup, care must be taken to optimize the SSTE using a graduated treatment strategy directed at minimizing skin thickness and controlling unfavorable healing responses. When appropriate efforts are implemented to manage thick nasal skin, cosmetic outcomes are often substantially improved, sometimes even negating the ill-effects of thick skin altogether. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Dynamical x-ray diffraction studies of interfacial strain in superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.M.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hamm, R.A.; Panish, M.B.; Ritter, D.; Mancrander, A.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on dynamical X-ray diffraction studies that have been carried out for lattice-matched InGaAs/InP superlattices grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. The (400) X-ray satellite pattern, which is predominantly affected by the strain modulation, was analyzed. The strain and thickness of the actual layers including the presence of strained interfacial regions were determined

  14. Strain Dependence of Photoluminescense of Individual Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pavel N.; Leeuw, Tonya K.; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, Bruce; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated strain dependence of photoluminescense (PL) spectra of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Nanotubes were sparsely dispersed in a thin PMMA film applied to acrylic bar, and strained in both compression and extension by bending this bar in either direction in a homebuilt four-point bending rig. The average surface strain was measured with high accuracy by a resistive strain gage applied on top of the film. The near infrared imaging and spectroscopy were performed on the inverted microscope equipped with high numerical aperture reflective objective lens and InGaAs CCD cameras. PL was excited with a diode laser at either 658, 730 or 785 nm, linearly polarized in the direction of the strain. We were able to measure (n,m) types and orientation of individual nanotubes with respect to strain direction and strain dependence of their PL maxima. It was found that PL peak shifts with respect to the values measured in SDS micelles are a sum of three components. First, a small environmental shift due to difference in the dielectric constant of the surrounding media, that is constant and independent of the nanotube type. Second, shift due to isotropic compression of the film during drying. Third, shifts produced by the uniaxial loading of the film in the experiment. Second and third shifts follow expression based on the first-order expansion of the TB hamiltonian. Their magnitude is proportional to the nanotube chiral angle and strain, and direction is determined by the nanotube quantum number. PL strain dependence measured for a number of various nanotube types allows to estimate TB carbon-carbon transfer integral.

  15. Rat Strain Ontology: structured controlled vocabulary designed to facilitate access to strain data at RGD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Rajni; Munzenmaier, Diane H; Worthey, Elizabeth A; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary; Jacob, Howard J

    2013-11-22

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD) ( http://rgd.mcw.edu/) is the premier site for comprehensive data on the different strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). The strain data are collected from various publications, direct submissions from individual researchers, and rat providers worldwide. Rat strain, substrain designation and nomenclature follow the Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains, instituted by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. While symbols and names aid in identifying strains correctly, the flat nature of this information prohibits easy search and retrieval, as well as other data mining functions. In order to improve these functionalities, particularly in ontology-based tools, the Rat Strain Ontology (RS) was developed. The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) reflects the breeding history, parental background, and genetic manipulation of rat strains. This controlled vocabulary organizes strains by type: inbred, outbred, chromosome altered, congenic, mutant and so on. In addition, under the chromosome altered category, strains are organized by chromosome, and further by type of manipulations, such as mutant or congenic. This allows users to easily retrieve strains of interest with modifications in specific genomic regions. The ontology was developed using the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) file format, and is organized on the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure. Rat Strain Ontology IDs are included as part of the strain report (RS: ######). As rat researchers are often unaware of the number of substrains or altered strains within a breeding line, this vocabulary now provides an easy way to retrieve all substrains and accompanying information. Its usefulness is particularly evident in tools such as the PhenoMiner at RGD, where users can now easily retrieve phenotype measurement data for related strains, strains with similar backgrounds or those with similar introgressed regions. This

  16. Photoreflectance study of strained GaAsN/GaAs T-junction quantum wires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klangtakai, Pawinee; Sanorpim, Sakuntam; Onabe, Kentaro

    2011-12-01

    Strained GaAsN T-junction quantum wires (T-QWRs) with different N contents grown on GaAs by two steps metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy in [001] and [110] directions, namely QW1 and QW2 respectively, have been investigated by photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. Two GaAsN T-QWRs with different N contents were formed by T-intersection of (i) a 6.4-nm-thick GaAs0.89N0.011 QW1 and a 5.2-nm-thick GaAs0.968N0.032 QW2 and (ii) a 5.0-nm-thick GaAs0.985N0.015 QW1 and a 5.2-nm-thick GaAs0.968N0.032 QW2. An evidence of a one-dimensional structure at T-intersection of the two QWs on the (001) and (110) surfaces was established by PR resonances associated with extended states in all the QW and T-QWR samples. It is found that larger lateral confinement energy than 100 meV in both of [001] and [110] directions were achieved for GaAsN T-QWRs. With increasing temperature, the transition energy of GaAsN T-QWRs decreases with a faster shrinking rate compared to that of bulk GaAs. Optical quality of GaAsN T-QWRs is found to be affected by the N-induced band edge fluctuation, which is the unique characteristic of dilute III-V-nitrides.

  17. Experimental Determination and Numerical Modelling of Process Induced Strains and Residual Stresses in Thick Glass/Epoxy Laminate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    dependency on temperature and cure degree. Model predictions are compared to experimentally determined in-situ strains, determined using FBG sensors. It was found that both models offer good approximations of internal strain build-up. A general shortcoming is the lack of capturing rate-dependent effects...

  18. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  19. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  20. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhead, S. D., E-mail: S.Rhead@warwick.ac.uk; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Shah, V. A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Reparaz, J. S. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sotomayor Torres, C. M. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-04-28

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

  1. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhead, S. D.; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R.; Shah, V. A.; Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Reparaz, J. S.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge

  2. The epitaxial growth and interfacial strain study of VO{sub 2}/MgF{sub 2} (001) films by synchrotron based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.L. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection of Jiangsu Province, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Chen, S. [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Liu, Q.H. [Science and Technology on Electro-optical Information Security Control Laboratory, Tianjin 300300 (China); Liao, G.M.; Chen, Y.L.; Ren, H. [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Zou, C.W., E-mail: czou@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)

    2016-09-05

    High quality VO{sub 2} films with different thickness were epitaxially grown on MgF{sub 2} (001) substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy method. The evolution of interfacial strain was investigated by synchrotron based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. By adjusting the incidence angles, the penetration depth of X-ray in VO{sub 2} film could be controlled and the thickness-depend lattice distortion in the epitaxial VO{sub 2} film was investigated. Due to the lattice mismatching, the pronounced tensile strain was observed in ultra-thin VO{sub 2} film. As the film thickness increasing, the interfacial strain relaxed gradually and became fully relaxed for thick VO{sub 2} films. Combined with the electric transport measurement, it was revealed that the phase transition temperature of ultra-thin VO{sub 2} film decreased greatly. The effect of interfacial strain induced phase transition modulation and the intrinsic mechanism was systematically discussed. - Highlights: • We prepared high quality VO{sub 2} epitaxial films on MgF{sub 2} (001) substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy method. • Synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was employed to detect evolution of strain along depth profile. • Based on a classic band structure model, the mechanism of strain controlled phase transition of VO{sub 2} was discussed.

  3. Asymmetric transmission of acoustic waves in a layer thickness distribution gradient structure using metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-San Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an innovative asymmetric transmission design using alternate layers of water and metamaterial with complex mass density. The directional transmission behavior of acoustic waves is observed numerically inside the composite structure with gradient layer thickness distribution and the rectifying performance of the present design is evaluated. The layer thickness distributions with arithmetic and geometric gradients are considered and the effect of gradient thickness on asymmetric wave propagation is systematically investigated using finite element simulation. The numerical results indicate that the maximum pressure density and transmission through the proposed structure are significantly influenced by the wave propagation direction over a wide range of audible frequencies. Tailoring the thickness of the layered structure enables the manipulation of asymmetric wave propagation within the desired frequency range. In conclusion, the proposed design offers a new possibility for developing directional-dependent acoustic devices.

  4. Post-impact fatigue of cross-plied, through-the-thickness reinforced carbon/epoxy composites. M.S. Thesis - Clemson Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdinak, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    , ply cracking and fiber bundle failures, typically 45 deg from impact load direction. During the initial 97 percent of fatigue life, delaminations, ply cracks and fiber bundle failures primarily grew at and near the impact site. During the final 3 percent of life, damage grew rapidly transverse to the loading direction as a through-the-thickness transverse shear failure. The stress-strain response was typically linear during the initial 50 percent of life, and stiffness dropped about 20 percent during this period. During the next 47 percent of life, stiffness dropped about 34 percent, and the stress-strain response was no longer linear. The stiffness decreased about 23 percent during the final 3 percent of life. These trends were typical of all the materials tested. Therefore, by monitoring stiffness loss, fatigue failure could be accurately anticipated.

  5. Effect of double layer thickness on magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic BaTiO3-Bi0.95Gd0.05FeO3 multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenberger, S.; Lazenka, V.; Temst, K.; Selle, S.; Patzig, C.; Höche, T.; Grundmann, M.; Lorenz, M.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of double-layer thickness and partial substitution of Bi3+ by Gd3+ is demonstrated for multiferroic BaTiO3–BiFeO3 2–2 heterostructures. Multilayers of 15 double layers of BaTiO3 and Bi0.95Gd0.05FeO3 were deposited onto (0 0 1) oriented SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition with various double layer thicknesses. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed a systematic strain tuning with layer thickness via coherently strained interfaces. The multilayers show increasingly enhanced magnetoelectric coupling with reduced double layer thickness. The maximum magnetoelectric coupling coefficient was measured to be as high as 50.8 V cm‑1 Oe‑1 in 0 T DC bias magnetic field at room temperature, and 54.9 V cm‑1 Oe‑1 above 3 T for the sample with the thinnest double layer thickness of 22.5 nm. This enhancement is accompanied by progressively increasing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and compressive out-of-plane strain. To understand the origin of the enhanced magnetoelectric coupling in such multilayers, the temperature and magnetic field dependency of is discussed. The magnetoelectric performance of the Gd3+ substituted samples is found to be slightly enhanced when compared to unsubstituted BaTiO3–BiFeO3 multilayers of comparable double-layer thickness.

  6. Experimental Characterization of Stress- and Strain-Dependent Stiffness in Grouted Rock Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Won; Chong, Song-Hun; Cho, Gye-Chun

    2018-03-29

    Grouting of fractured rock mass prior to excavation results in grout-filled discontinuities that govern the deformation characteristics of a site. The influence of joint characteristics on the properties of grouted rocks is important in assessing the effects of grouting on jointed rock mass. However, grouting remains a predominantly empirical practice and the effects of grouting on rock joint behavior and material properties have yet to be accurately assessed. Granular materials, including jointed rocks, typically display nonlinear strain-dependent responses that can be characterized by the shear modulus degradation curve. In this study, the effects of grouting on the strain-dependent shear stiffness of jointed rock mass were investigated at the small-strain (below 10 -5 ) and mid-strain (10 -5 to 10 -3 ) ranges using the quasi-static resonant column test and rock mass dynamic test devices. The effects of curing time, axial stress, initial joint roughness, and grouted joint thickness were examined. The results show that (1) grouting of rock joints leads to decreased stress sensitivity and increased small-strain shear stiffness for all tested samples; (2) the grouted rock samples display similar modulus degradation characteristics as the applied grout material; (3) the initial joint roughness determines the stress-dependent behaviors and general stiffness range of the jointed and grouted rocks, but the strain-dependent behaviors are dependent on the properties of the grout material; (4) increased grouted joint thickness results in larger contribution of the grout properties in the overall grouted rock mass.

  7. A study on creep properties of laminated rubber bearings. Pt. 1. Creep properties and numerical simulations of thick rubber bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Akihiro; Yabana, Shuichi

    2000-01-01

    In this report, to evaluate creep properties and effects of creep deformation on mechanical properties of thick rubber bearings for three-dimensional isolation system, we show results of compression creep test for rubber bearings of various rubber materials and shapes and development of numerical simulation method. Creep properties of thick rubber bearings were obtained from compression creep tests. The creep strain shows steady creep that have logarithmic relationships between strain and time and accelerated creep that have linear relationships. We make numerical model of a rubber material with nonlinear viscoelastic constitutional equations. Mechanical properties after creep loading test are simulated with enough accuracy. (author)

  8. Out-of-plane strain effect on silicon-based flexible FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Sevilla, Galo T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. We report out-of-plane strain effect on silicon based flexible FinFET, with sub 20 nm wide fins and hafnium silicate based high-κ gate dielectric. Since ultra-thin inorganic solid state substrates become flexible with reduced thickness, flexing induced strain does not enhance performance. However, detrimental effects arise as the devices are subject to various out-of-plane stresses (compressive and tensile) along the channel length.

  9. Out-of-plane strain effect on silicon-based flexible FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-06-21

    Summary form only given. We report out-of-plane strain effect on silicon based flexible FinFET, with sub 20 nm wide fins and hafnium silicate based high-κ gate dielectric. Since ultra-thin inorganic solid state substrates become flexible with reduced thickness, flexing induced strain does not enhance performance. However, detrimental effects arise as the devices are subject to various out-of-plane stresses (compressive and tensile) along the channel length.

  10. Cutting work in thick section cryomicrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubermann, A J; Riley, W D; Beeuwkes, R

    1977-09-01

    The forces during cryosectioning were measured using miniature strain gauges attached to a load cell fitted to the drive arm of the Porter-Blum MT-2 cryomicrotome. Work was calculated and the data normalized to a standard (1 mm X 1 mm X 0.5 micrometer) section. Thermal energy generated was also calculated. Five parameters were studied: cutting angle, thickness, temperature, hardness, and block shape. Force patterns could be divided into three major groups thought to represent cutting (Type I), large fracture planes greater than 10 micrometer in length (Type II), and small fracture planes less than 10 micrometer in length (Type III). Type I and Type II produced satisfactory sections. Work in cutting ranged from an average of 78.4 muJ to 568.8 muJ. Cutting angle and temperature had the greatest effect on sectioning. Heat generated would be sufficient to cause through-section melting for 0.5 micrometer thick sections assuming the worst possible case, namely that all heat went into the section without loss. Presence of a Type II pattern (large fracture pattern) is thought to be presumptive evidence against thawing.

  11. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  12. Effect of strain field on displacement cascade in tungsten studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, N., E-mail: ning.gao@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Z.G., E-mail: zhgwang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao, X. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, W.H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cui, M.H.; Pang, L.L.; Zhu, Y.B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Using atomistic methods, the coupling effect of strain field and displacement cascade in body-centered cubic (BCC) tungsten is directly simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at different temperatures. The values of the hydrostatic and uniaxial (parallel or perpendicular to primary knock-on atom (PKA) direction) strains are from −2% to 2% and the temperature is from 100 to 1000 K. Because of the annealing effect, the influence of strain on radiation damage at low temperature has been proved to be more significant than that at high temperature. When the cascade proceeds under the hydrostatic strain, the Frenkel Pair (FP) production, the fraction of defect in cluster and the average size of the defect cluster, all increase at tensile state and decrease at compressive state. When the cascade is under uniaxial strain, the effect of strain parallel to PKA direction is less than the effect of hydrostatic strain, while the effect of strain perpendicular to PKA direction can be negligible. Under the uniaxial strain along 〈1 1 1〉 direction, the SIA and SIA cluster is observed to orientate along the strain direction at tensile state and the uniaxial compressive strain with direction perpendicular to 〈1 1 1〉 has led to the similar preferred nucleation. All these results indicate that under irradiation, the tensile state should be avoided for materials used in nuclear power plants.

  13. Life Stress, Strain, and Deviance Across Schools: Testing the Contextual Version of General Strain Theory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinwu; Liu, Jianhong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Anquan

    2017-08-01

    General Strain Theory delineates different types of strain and intervening processes from strain to deviance and crime. In addition to explaining individual strain-crime relationship, a contextualized version of general strain theory, which is called the Macro General Strain Theory, has been used to analyze how aggregate variables influence aggregate and individual deviance and crime. Using a sample of 1,852 students (Level 1) nested in 52 schools (Level 2), the current study tests the Macro General Strain Theory using Chinese data. The results revealed that aggregate life stress and strain have influences on aggregate and individual deviance, and reinforce the individual stress-deviance association. The current study contributes by providing the first Macro General Strain Theory test based on Chinese data and offering empirical evidence for the multilevel intervening processes from strain to deviance. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Precision of hyaline cartilage thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, K.; Buckwalter, K.; Helvie, M.; Niklason, L.; Martel, W. (Univ. of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-05-01

    Measurement of cartilage thickness in vivo is an important indicator of the status of a joint as the various degenerative and inflammatory arthritides directly affect the condition of the cartilage. In order to assess the precision of thickness measurements of hyaline articular cartilage, we undertook a pilot study using MR imaging, plain radiography, and ultrasonography (US). We measured the cartilage of the hip and knee joints in 10 persons (4 healthy volunteers and 6 patients). The joints in each patient were examined on two separate occasions using each modality. In the hips a swell as the knee joints, the most precise measuring method was plain film radiography. For radiographs of the knees obtained in the standing position, the coefficient of variation was 6.5%; in the hips this figure was 6.34%. US of the knees and MR imaging of the hips were the second best modalities in the measurement of cartilage thickness. In addition, MR imaging enabled the most complete visualization of the joint cartilage. (orig.).

  15. Micromagnetic Simulation of Strain-Assisted Current-Induced Magnetization Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of substrate misfit strain on the current-induced magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions by combining micromagnetic simulation with phase-field microelasticity theory. Our results indicate that the positive substrate misfit strain can decrease the critical current density of magnetization switching by pushing the magnetization from out-of-plane to in-plane directions, while the negative strain pushes the magnetization back to the out-of-plane directions. The magnetic domain evolution is obtained to demonstrate the strain-assisted current-induced magnetization switching.

  16. Mechanical and electronic properties of monolayer and bilayer phosphorene under uniaxial and isotropic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting; Han, Yang; Dong, Jinming

    2014-11-14

    The mechanical and electronic properties of both the monolayer and bilayer phosphorenes under either isotropic or uniaxial strain have been systematically investigated using first-principles calculations. It is interesting to find that: 1) Under a large enough isotropic tensile strain, the monolayer phosphorene would lose its pucker structure and transform into a flat hexagonal plane, while two inner sublayers of the bilayer phosphorene could be bonded due to its interlayer distance contraction. 2) Under the uniaxial tensile strain along a zigzag direction, the pucker distance of each layer in the bilayer phosphorene can exhibit a specific negative Poisson's ratio. 3) The electronic properties of both the monolayer and bilayer phosphorenes are sensitive to the magnitude and direction of the applied strains. Their band gaps decrease more rapidly under isotropic compressive strain than under uniaxial strain. Also, their direct-indirect band gap transitions happen at the larger isotropic tensile strains compared with that under uniaxial strain. 4) Under the isotropic compressive strain, the bilayer phosphorene exhibits a transition from a direct-gap semiconductor to a metal. In contrast, the monolayer phosphorene initially has the direct-indirect transition and then transitions to a metal. However, under isotropic tensile strain, both the bilayer and monolayer phosphorene show the direct-indirect transition and, finally, the transition to a metal. Our numerical results may open new potential applications of phosphorene in nanoelectronics and nanomechanical devices by external isotropic strain or uniaxial strain along different directions.

  17. A new attempt of measurement film thickness by x-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, Masao; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    In order to make film thickness measurements independent from the property or the structure of the film materials or the substrate, it is needed to adopt instead of directly utilizing the X-ray diffraction intensity, or attenuation information obtained from the substrate or film material, other new methods for measurement. Among the information obtained by X-ray diffraction, if intensity is excluded, others are F.W.H.M. and diffraction angle, only. If it is possible to investigate the film thickness dependency of the diffraction angle, it should be possible to measure the film thickness by diffraction angle. However, since diffraction angle has no film thickness dependency, it cannot be used directly for measurement. However, if we consider the principle of the X-ray diffractometer method, although it may be very slight, the substrate will be eccentric from the revolving center of the goniometer on account of the thickness of the film. If eccentricity occurs, this will cause changes in the diffraction angle. If we set the radius of the goniometer as R, diffraction angle θ, and the eccentricity from the revolving center of the specimen surface X, the deflection angle Δ2θ of 2θ may be expressed by Δ2θ = -2X · COSθ/R Thus, if X is caused by the film thickness, and by measuring the Δ2θ, it will be possible to measure the film thickness. As a result of the experiment, it was found that X-ray diffraction method can be used for the measurement of the film thickness of a few microns or above by utilizing the eccentricity caused by the film thickness. Especially it has the advantage of being able to measure thick films that X-rays will not penetrate, without being influenced by the chemical structure of the film or the substrates. (author)

  18. Triaxial MEMS accelerometer with screen printed PZT thick film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Almind, Ninia Sejersen; Brodersen, Simon Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    . In this work integration of a screen printed piezoelectric PZT thick film with silicon MEMS technology is shown. A high bandwidth triaxial accelerometer has been designed, fabricated and characterized. The voltage sensitivity is 0.31 mV/g in the vertical direction, 0.062 mV/g in the horizontal direction...

  19. Effect of bladder wall thickness on miniature pneumatic artificial muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Thomas E; Kothera, Curt S; Wereley, Norman M

    2015-09-28

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators known for their high power to weight ratio, natural compliance and light weight. Due to these advantages, PAMs have been used for orthotic devices and robotic limbs. Small scale PAMs have the same advantages, as well as requiring greatly reduced volumes with potential application to prostheses and small scale robotics. The bladder of a PAM affects common actuator performance metrics, specifically: blocked force, free contraction, hysteresis, and dead-band pressure. This paper investigates the effect that bladder thickness has on static actuation performance of small scale PAMs. Miniature PAMs were fabricated with a range of bladder thicknesses to quantify the change in common actuator performance metrics specifically: blocked force, free contraction, and dead-band pressure. These PAMs were then experimentally characterized in quasi-static conditions, where results showed that increasing bladder wall thickness decreases blocked force and free contraction, while dead-band pressure increases. A nonlinear model was then applied to determine the structure of the stress-strain relationship that enables accurate modeling and the minimum number of terms. Two nonlinear models are compared and the identified parameters are analyzed to study the effect of the bladder thickness on the model.

  20. Effect of exercise on thicknesses of mature hyaline cartilage, calcified cartilage, and subchondral bone of equine tarsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquille, Carolyne A; Blunden, Antony S; Dyson, Sue J; Parkin, Tim D H; Goodship, Allen E; Murray, Rachel C

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To investigate effects of exercise on hyaline cartilage (HC), calcified cartilage (CC), and subchondral bone (SCB) thickness patterns of equine tarsi. SAMPLE POPULATION-30 tarsi from cadavers of horses with known exercise history. PROCEDURES-Tarsi were assigned to 3 groups according to known exercise history as follows: pasture exercise only (PE tarsi), low-intensity general-purpose riding exercise (LE tarsi), and high-intensity elite competition riding exercise (EE tarsi). Osteochondral tissue from distal tarsal joints underwent histologic preparation. Hyaline cartilage, CC, and SCB thickness were measured at standard sites at medial, midline, and lateral locations across joints with a histomorphometric technique. RESULTS-HC, CC, and SCB thickness were significantly greater at all sites in EE tarsi, compared with PE tarsi; this was also true when LE tarsi were compared with PE tarsi. At specific sites, HC, CC, and SCB were significantly thicker in EE tarsi, compared with LE tarsi. Along the articular surface of the proximal aspect of the third metatarsal bone, SCB was thickest in EE tarsi and thinnest in LE tarsi; increases were greatest at sites previously reported to undergo peak strains and osteochondral damage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Increased exercise was associated with increased HC, CC, and SCB thickness in mature horses. At sites that undergo high compressive strains, with a reported predisposition to osteoarthritic change, there was increased CC and SCB thickness. These results may provide insight into the interaction between adaptive response to exercise and pathological change.

  1. Phenotypic and genomic comparisons of highly vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains developed from multiple clinical MRSA strains by in vitro mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Tabuchi, Fumiaki; Matsuo, Miki; Tatsuno, Keita; Sato, Tomoaki; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Kaito, Chikara; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Moriya, Kyoji; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-11-25

    The development of vancomycin (VCM) resistance in Staphylococcus aureus threatens global health. Studies of the VCM-resistance mechanism and alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. We mutagenized S. aureus laboratory strains and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with ethyl methanesulfonate, and isolated mutants that exhibited high resistance to VCM (minimum inhibitory concentration = 32 μg/ml). These VCM-resistant strains were sensitive to linezolid and rifampicin, and partly to arbekacin and daptomycin. Beta-lactams had synergistic effects with VCM against these mutants. VCM-resistant strains exhibited a 2-fold increase in the cell wall thickness. Several genes were commonly mutated among the highly VCM-resistant mutants. These findings suggest that MRSA has a potential to develop high VCM resistance with cell wall thickening by the accumulation of mutations.

  2. Model-independent determination of the strain distribution for a SiGe/Si superlattice using X-ray diffractometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, A.Y.; Stevenson, A.W.; Hashizume, H.

    1996-01-01

    The strain distribution in a Si 0.9 Ge 0.l/Si superlattice is determined from x-ray diffractometry data with a 25 Angstroms depth resolution. A logarithmic dispersion relation is used to determine the phase of the structure factor with information available a priori on the sample structure. Phase information is obtained from the observed reflection intensity via a logarithmic Hilbert transform and the a priori information is used to select the zeros to be included in the solution. The reconstructed lattice strain profile clearly resolves SiGe and Si layers of 90 - 160 Angstroms thickness alternately stacked on a silicon substrate. The SiGe layer is found to have a lattice spacing in the surface-normal direction significantly smaller than predicted by Vegard's law. The result is supported by very good agreement of the simulated rocking curve profile with the observation. 18 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  3. TU-F-18C-02: Increasing Amorphous Selenium Thickness in Direct Conversion Flat-Panel Imagers for Contrast-Enhanced Dual-Energy Breast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaduto, DA; Hu, Y-H; Zhao, W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Contrast-enhanced (CE) breast imaging using iodinated contrast agents requires imaging with x-ray spectra at energies greater than those used in mammography. Optimizing amorphous selenium (a-Se) flat panel imagers (FPI) for this higher energy range may increase lesion conspicuity. Methods: We compare imaging performance of a conventional FPI with 200 μm a-Se conversion layer to a prototype FPI with 300 μm a-Se layer. Both detectors are evaluated in a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration prototype digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system using low-energy (W/Rh 28 kVp) and high-energy (W/Cu 49 kVp) x-ray spectra. Detectability of iodinated lesions in dual-energy images is evaluated using an iodine contrast phantom. Effects of beam obliquity are investigated in projection and reconstructed images using different reconstruction methods. The ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio is used as a figure-of-merit to predict the optimal a-Se thickness for CE lesion detectability without compromising conventional full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and DBT performance. Results: Increasing a-Se thickness from 200 μm to 300 μm preserves imaging performance at typical mammographic energies (e.g. W/Rh 28 kVp), and improves the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for high energy (W/Cu 49 kVp) by 30%. While the more penetrating high-energy x-ray photons increase geometric blur due to beam obliquity in the FPI with thicker a-Se layer, the effect on lesion detectability in FBP reconstructions is negligible due to the reconstruction filters employed. Ideal observer SNR for CE objects shows improvements in in-plane detectability with increasing a-Se thicknesses, though small lesion detectability begins to degrade in oblique projections for a-Se thickness above 500 μm. Conclusion: Increasing a-Se thickness in direct conversion FPI from 200 μm to 300 μm improves lesion detectability in CE breast imaging with virtually no cost to conventional FFDM and DBT. This work was partially

  4. Thickness-dependent piezoelectric behaviour and dielectric properties of lanthanum modified BiFeO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Biasotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bi0.85La0.15FeO3 (BLFO thin films were deposited on Pt(111/Ti/SiO2 /Si substrates by the soft chemical method. Films with thicknesses ranging from 140 to 280 nm were grown on platinum coated silicon substrates at 500°C for 2 hours. The X-ray diffraction analysis of BLFO films evidenced a hexagonal structure over the entire thickness range investigated. The grain size of the film changes as the number of the layers increases, indicating thickness dependence. It is found that the piezoelectric response is strongly influenced by the film thickness. It is shown that the properties of BiFeO3 thin films, such as lattice parameter, dielectric permittivity, piezoeletric coefficient etc., are functions of misfit strains.

  5. Influence of strain on band structure of semiconductor nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Nevena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the mechanical strain on the electronic structure of the asymmetric (In,GaAs/GaAs quantum well is considered. Both the direct influence of strain on the orbital part of the electronic structure and an indirect influence through the strain dependent Rashba and Dresselhaus Hamiltonians are taken into account. The analyzed quantum well is taken to have a triangular shape, and is oriented along the direction. For this direction, there exists both the intrinsic and strain-induced spin-orbit interaction. For all analyzed types of spin-orbit interaction, subband splittings depend linearly on the in-plane wave vector. On the other hand, the electronic structure for the Rashba type of the strain-induced spin-orbit interaction shows isotropic dependence in the k-space, while the electronic structure due to the Dresselhaus type shows anisotropy. Furthermore, the Rashba strain-induced spin-orbit interaction increases subband splitting, while the effect of the Dresselhaus Hamiltonian on the electronic structure is opposite to the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction for certain polar angles.

  6. Design and characterization of thick InxGa1-xAs metamorphic buffer layers grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, K. L.; Zutter, B. T.; Wood, A. W.; Babcock, S. E.; Kuech, T. F.

    2014-03-01

    Thick InxGa1-xAs metamorphic buffer layers (MBLs) grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were studied. Relationships between MBL properties and growth parameters such as grading rate, cap layer thickness, final xInAs, and deposition temperature (TD) were explored. The MBLs were characterized by measurement of in-plane residual strain (ɛ¦¦), surface etch pit density (EPD), and surface roughness. Capping layer thickness had a strong effect on strain relaxation, with thickly capped samples exhibiting the lowest ɛ¦¦. EPD was higher in samples with thicker caps, reflecting their increased relaxation through dislocation generation. ɛ¦¦ and EPD were weakly affected by the grading rate, making capping layer thickness the primary structural parameter which controls these properties. MBLs graded in discrete steps had similar properties to MBLs with continuous grading. In samples with identical thickness and 10-step grading style, ɛ¦¦ increased almost linearly with final xInAs, while total relaxation stayed relatively constant. Relaxation as a function of xInAs could be described by an equilibrium model in which dislocation nucleation is impeded by the energy of the existing dislocation array. EPD was constant from xInAs = 0 to 0.24 then increased exponentially, which is related to the increased dislocation interaction and blocking seen at higher dislocation densities. RMS roughness increased with xInAs above a certain strain rate (0.15%/µm) samples grown below this level possessed large surface hillocks and high roughness values. The elimination of hillocks at higher values of xInAs is attributed to increased density of surface steps and is related to the out-of-plane component of the burgers vector of the dominant type of 60° dislocation. TD did not affect ɛ¦¦ for samples with a given xInAs. EPD tended to increase with TD, indicating dislocation glide likely is impeded at higher temperatures.

  7. Graphene spin diode: Strain-modulated spin rectification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yunhua; Wang, B., E-mail: stslyl@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology, School of Physics and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Liu, Yulan, E-mail: stslyl@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2014-08-04

    Strain effects on spin transport in a ferromagnetic/strained/normal graphene junction are explored theoretically. It is shown that the spin-resolved Fermi energy range can be controlled by the armchair direction strain because the strain-induced pseudomagnetic field suppresses the current. The spin rectification effect for the bias reversal occurs because of a combination of ferromagnetic exchange splitting and the broken spatial symmetry of the junction. In addition, the spin rectification performance can be tuned remarkably by manipulation of the strains. In view of this strain-modulated spin rectification effect, we propose that the graphene-based ferromagnetic/strained/normal junction can be used as a tunable spin diode.

  8. Experimental Characterization of Stress- and Strain-Dependent Stiffness in Grouted Rock Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Won Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Grouting of fractured rock mass prior to excavation results in grout-filled discontinuities that govern the deformation characteristics of a site. The influence of joint characteristics on the properties of grouted rocks is important in assessing the effects of grouting on jointed rock mass. However, grouting remains a predominantly empirical practice and the effects of grouting on rock joint behavior and material properties have yet to be accurately assessed. Granular materials, including jointed rocks, typically display nonlinear strain-dependent responses that can be characterized by the shear modulus degradation curve. In this study, the effects of grouting on the strain-dependent shear stiffness of jointed rock mass were investigated at the small-strain (below 10−5 and mid-strain (10−5 to 10−3 ranges using the quasi-static resonant column test and rock mass dynamic test devices. The effects of curing time, axial stress, initial joint roughness, and grouted joint thickness were examined. The results show that (1 grouting of rock joints leads to decreased stress sensitivity and increased small-strain shear stiffness for all tested samples; (2 the grouted rock samples display similar modulus degradation characteristics as the applied grout material; (3 the initial joint roughness determines the stress-dependent behaviors and general stiffness range of the jointed and grouted rocks, but the strain-dependent behaviors are dependent on the properties of the grout material; (4 increased grouted joint thickness results in larger contribution of the grout properties in the overall grouted rock mass.

  9. Creep Modeling in a Composite Rotating Disc with Thickness Variation in Presence of Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state creep response in a rotating disc made of Al-SiC (particle composite having linearly varying thickness has been carried out using isotropic/anisotropic Hoffman yield criterion and results are compared with those using von Mises yield criterion/Hill's criterion ignoring difference in yield stresses. The steady-state creep behavior has been described by Sherby's creep law. The material parameters characterizing difference in yield stresses have been used from the available experimental results in literature. Stress and strain rate distributions developed due to rotation have been calculated. It is concluded that the stress and strain distributions got affected from the thermal residual stress in an isotropic/anisotropic rotating disc, although the effect of residual stress on creep behavior in an anisotropic rotating disc is observed to be lower than those observed in an isotropic disc. Thus, the presence of residual stress in composite rotating disc with varying thickness needs attention for designing a disc.

  10. Loess Thickness Variations Across the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Mingan

    2018-01-01

    The soil thickness is very important for investigating and modeling soil-water processes, especially on the Loess Plateau of China with its deep loess deposit and limited water resources. A digital elevation map (DEM) of the Loess Plateau and neighborhood analysis in ArcGIS software were used to generate a map of loess thickness, which was then validated by 162 observations across the plateau. The generated loess thickness map has a high resolution of 100 m × 100 m. The map indicates that loess is thick in the central part of the plateau and becomes gradually shallower in the southeast and northwest directions. The areas near mountains and river basins have the shallowest loess deposit. The mean loess thickness is the deepest in the zones with 400-600-mm precipitation and decreases gradually as precipitation varies beyond this range. Our validation indicates that the map just slightly overestimates loess thickness and is reliable. The loess thickness is mostly between 0 and 350 m in the Loess Plateau region. The calculated mean loess thickness is 105.7 m, with the calibrated value being 92.2 m over the plateau exclusive of the mountain areas. Our findings provide very basic data of loess thickness and demonstrate great progress in mapping the loess thickness distribution for the plateau, which are valuable for a better study of soil-water processes and for more accurate estimations of soil water, carbon, and solute reservoirs in the Loess Plateau of China.

  11. Thick epitaxial CdTe films grown by close space sublimation on Ge substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q; Haliday, D P; Tanner, B K; Brinkman, A W [Department of Physics, University of Durham. Science Site, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Cantwell, B J; Mullins, J T; Basu, A [Durham Scientific Crystals Ltd., NetPark, Thomas Wright Way, Sedgefield, County Durham, TS21 3FD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Q.Z.Jiang@durham.ac.uk

    2009-01-07

    This paper reports, for the first time, the successful growth of 200 {mu}m thick CdTe films on mis-oriented Ge(1 0 0) substrates by a cost-effective optimized close space sublimation method. It is found that, as the thickness increases to a few hundred micrometres, subgrains are formed probably as a result of the large density of dislocations and strain within the initial interfacial layers. The films are of high quality (x-ray rocking curve width {approx}100 arcsec) and high resistance ({approx}10{sup 9} {omega} cm), and are thus candidates for x-ray and {gamma}-ray detectors. (fast track communication)

  12. Direct amplification, sequencing and profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis strains in single and mixed infection clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J Joseph

    Full Text Available Sequencing bacterial genomes from DNA isolated directly from clinical samples offers the promise of rapid and precise acquisition of informative genetic information. In the case of Chlamydia trachomatis, direct sequencing is particularly desirable because it obviates the requirement for culture in mammalian cells, saving time, cost and the possibility of missing low abundance strains. In this proof of concept study, we developed methodology that would allow genome-scale direct sequencing, using a multiplexed microdroplet PCR enrichment technology to amplify a 100 kb region of the C. trachomatis genome with 500 1.1-1.3 kb overlapping amplicons (5-fold amplicon redundancy. We integrated comparative genomic data into a pipeline to preferentially select conserved sites for amplicon design. The 100 kb target region could be amplified from clinical samples, including remnants from diagnostics tests, originating from the cervix, urethra and urine, For rapid analysis of these data, we developed a framework for whole-genome based genotyping called binstrain. We used binstrain to estimate the proportion of SNPs originating from 14 C. trachomatis reference serotype genomes in each sample. Direct DNA sequencing methods such as the one described here may have an important role in understanding the biology of C. trachomatis mixed infections and the natural genetic variation of the species within clinically relevant ecological niches.

  13. Development of a piping thickness monitoring system using equipotential switching direct current potential drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyung Ha, Ryu; Na Young, Lee; Il Soon, Hwang

    2007-01-01

    As nuclear power plants age, low alloy steel piping undergoes wall thickness reduction due to Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Persisting pipe rupture accidents prompted thinned pipe management programs. As a consequence extensive inspection activities are made based on the Ultrasonic Technique (UT). As the inspection points increase, time is needed to cover required inspection areas. In this paper, we present the Wide Range Monitoring (WiRM) concept with Equipotential Switching Direct Current Potential Drop (ES-DCPD) method by which FAC-active areas can be screened for detailed UT inspections. To apply ES-DCPD, we developed an electric resistance network model and electric field model based on Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to verify its feasibility. Experimentally we measured DCPD of the pipe elbow and confirmed the validity using UT inspections. For a more realistic validation test, we designed a high temperature flow test loop with environmental parameters turned for FAC simulation in the laboratory. Using electrochemical monitoring of water chemistry and local flow velocity prediction by computational fluid dynamic model, FAC rate is estimated. Based on the FAC prediction model and the simulation loop test, we plan to demonstrate the applicability of ES-DCPD in the PWR secondary environment. (authors)

  14. Effects of strain on the magnetic and transport properties of the epitaxial La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarifi, M.; Kameli, P.; Ehsani, M.H.; Ahmadvand, H.; Salamati, H.

    2016-01-01

    The epitaxial strain can considerably modify the physical properties of thin films compared to the bulk. This paper reports the effects of substrate-induced strain on La 0.5 Ca 0.5 MnO 3 (LCMO) thin films, grown on (100) SrTiO 3 (STO) and LaAlO 3 (LAO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. Transport and magnetic properties were found to be strongly dependent on strain type. It is also shown that compressive (tensile) strain leads to the increase (decrease) in the magnetization of the films. Moreover, it was observed that all LCMO films deposited on both LAO and STO substrates behave as an insulator, but LCMO/LAO thin films with compressive strain have lower resistivity than LCMO/STO thin films with tensile strain. Applying magnetic field to LCMO/STO thin films with thickness of 25 and 50 nm leads to very small change in the resistivity, while the effects of magnetic field on the sample with thickness of 125 nm leads to an insulator–metal transition. For LCMO/LAO thin films, the magnetic field has a strong impact on the resistivity of samples. The results show that the magnetoresistance (MR) is enhanced by increasing film thickness for LCMO/LAO samples, due to the relatively stronger phase separation. For LCMO/STO thin films MR is drastically decreased by reduction of film thickness, which is attributed to the enhancement of the charge–orbital order (CO–O) accompanying the complex spin order (the so-called CE type). The changes of the antiferromagnetic structure from the CE to C type and the enhancement of the CE type could be attributed to the in-plane compressive and tensile strain, respectively. - Highlights: • Epitaxial La 0.5 Ca 0.5 MnO 3 thin films, grown on (100) SrTiO 3 and LaAlO 3 substrates. • The compressive strain leads to the increase in the magnetization of the films. • The tensile strain leads to the decrease in the magnetization of the films. • The magnetoresistance is enhanced by increasing film thickness.

  15. Strain-dependence of the structure and ferroic properties of epitaxial Ni1−xTi1−yO3 thin films grown on sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Tamas; Droubay, Timothy C.; Bowden, Mark E.; Stephens, Sean A.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Colby, Robert J.; Hu, Dehong; Shelton, William A.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization-induced weak ferromagnetism has been predicted a few years back in compounds MTiO 3 (M = Fe, Mn, Ni) (Fennie, 2008). We set out to stabilize this metastable, distorted perovskite structure by growing NiTiO 3 epitaxially on sapphire Al 2 O 3 (001) substrate, and to control the polar and magnetic properties via strain. Epitaxial Ni 1−x Ti 1−y O 3 films of different Ni/Ti ratios and thicknesses were deposited on Al 2 O 3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures, and characterized using several techniques. The effect of film thickness, deposition temperature, and film stoichiometry on lattice strain, film structure, and physical properties was investigated. Our structural data from x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that substrate-induced strain has a marked effect on the structure and crystalline quality of the films. Physical property measurements reveal a dependence of the Néel transition and lattice polarization on strain, and highlight our ability to control the ferroic properties in NiTiO 3 thin films by film stoichiometry and thickness. - Highlights: • NiTiO 3 epitaxial thin films with LiNbO 3 -type structure by pulsed laser deposition. • Strain varied by film thickness, stoichiometry, and synthesis temperature. • Systematic study of the effect of strain on film structure and physical properties. • Manipulation of ferroic properties by strain confirmed

  16. Hierarchy and scaling behavior of multi-rank domain patterns in ferroelectric K0.9Na0.1NbO3 strained films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Dorothee; Schmidbauer, Martin; Hanke, Michael; Schwarzkopf, Jutta

    2018-01-01

    The formation process of a ferroelectric multi-rank domain pattern in the thickness range of 7-52 nm is investigated for monoclinic K0.9Na0.1NbO3 strained epitaxial films on (110) NdScO3 substrates. Although the elastic strain energy density is degenerated for two pseudocubic orientations, a distinctive hierarchy of domain evolution is observed with exclusive in-plane a1a2 domains for very thin films and the retarded onset of a ferroelectric MC phase at larger film thickness. This is accompanied by a thickness dependent transformation from stripe domains to a herringbone pattern and, eventually, for the thickest film, to a checkerboard-like structure. These transformations in the domain arrangement and width are correlated to energetic aspects as depolarization field and anisotropic strain relaxation in the film. While for the MC domains plastic strain relaxation is throughout observed, the a1a2 domains show a two-step strain relaxation mechanism starting with an in-plane elastic shearing, which is followed by plastic lattice relaxation. Our results highlight a pathway for engineering and patterning of periodic ferroelectric domain structures.

  17. New positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques for thick materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, F.A.; Wells, D.P.; Harmon, J.F.; Kwofie, J.; Erikson, G.; Roney, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) has developed new techniques for positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) by using highly penetrating γ-rays to create positrons inside the material via pair production. Two sources of γ-rays have been employed. Bremsstrahlung beams from small-electron linacs (6 MeV) were used to generate positrons inside the material to perform Doppler-broadening spectroscopy. A 2 MeV proton beam was used to obtain coincident γ-rays from 27 Al target and enable lifetime and Doppler-broadening spectroscopy. This technique successfully measured stress/strain in thick samples, and showed promise to extend PAS into a variety of applications

  18. Strain-dependent diffusion behavior of H within tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Wenyi; He, Haiyan; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Rui; Chen, Junling; Pan, Bicai

    2014-01-01

    The diffusion behaviors of H in tungsten, a promising material serving as the first wall facing the plasma in nuclear reactors, under either biaxial strain or isotropic strain are theoretically studied. We find that under the isotropic strain, an individual H atom may diffuse along all pathways, and under the biaxial strain, it preferably migrates along the direction perpendicular to the loaded strain. Moreover, in the case of either the isotropic or the biaxial strain, the loaded compressive strain weakens the diffusion of H, while the loaded tensile strain enhances the diffusion of H in bulk W.

  19. Strain-dependent diffusion behavior of H within tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Wenyi; He, Haiyan [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu, Changsong [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Ding, Rui; Chen, Junling [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Pan, Bicai, E-mail: bcpan@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-06-15

    The diffusion behaviors of H in tungsten, a promising material serving as the first wall facing the plasma in nuclear reactors, under either biaxial strain or isotropic strain are theoretically studied. We find that under the isotropic strain, an individual H atom may diffuse along all pathways, and under the biaxial strain, it preferably migrates along the direction perpendicular to the loaded strain. Moreover, in the case of either the isotropic or the biaxial strain, the loaded compressive strain weakens the diffusion of H, while the loaded tensile strain enhances the diffusion of H in bulk W.

  20. Si Complies with GaN to Overcome Thermal Mismatches for the Heteroepitaxy of Thick GaN on Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsunori; Choi, Woojin; Chen, Renjie; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2017-10-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of lattice mismatched materials has advanced through the epitaxy of thin coherently strained layers, the strain sharing in virtual and nanoscale substrates, and the growth of thick films with intermediate strain-relaxed buffer layers. However, the thermal mismatch is not completely resolved in highly mismatched systems such as in GaN-on-Si. Here, geometrical effects and surface faceting to dilate thermal stresses at the surface of selectively grown epitaxial GaN layers on Si are exploited. The growth of thick (19 µm), crack-free, and pure GaN layers on Si with the lowest threading dislocation density of 1.1 × 10 7 cm -2 achieved to date in GaN-on-Si is demonstrated. With these advances, the first vertical GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors on Si substrates with low leakage currents and high on/off ratios paving the way for a cost-effective high power device paradigm on an Si CMOS platform are demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. In situ real-time x-ray reciprocal space mapping during InGaAs/GaAs growth for understanding strain relaxation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sai, Akihisa; Lee, Jong-Han; Kamiya, Itaru; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masamitsu; Fujikawa, Seiji; Arafune, Koji

    2009-01-01

    In situ real-time X-ray diffraction measurements during In 0.12 Ga 0.88 As/GaAs(001) epitaxial growth are performed for the first time to understand the strain relaxation mechanisms in a lattice-mismatched system. The high resolution reciprocal space maps of 004 diffraction obtained at interval of 6.2 nm thickness enable transient behavior of residual strain and crystal quality to be observed simultaneously as a function of InGaAs film thickness. From the evolution of these data, five thickness ranges with different relaxation processes and these transition points are determined quantitatively, and the dominant dislocation behavior in each phase is deduced. (author)

  2. Temperature dependence of microstructure and strain evolution in strained ZnO films on Al2O3(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Kyu-Mann

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the temperature dependence of the growth mode and microstructure evolution in highly mismatched sputter-grown ZnO/Al 2 O 3 (0001) heteroepitaxial films. The growth mode was studied by real-time synchrotron x-ray scattering. We find that the growth mode changes from a two-dimensional (2D) layer to a 3D island in the early growth stage with temperature (300-600 deg. C), in sharp contrast to the reported transition from three dimensions to two dimensions in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. At around 400 deg. C intermediate 2D platelets nucleate in the early stage, which act as nucleation cores of 3D islands and transform to a misaligned state during further growth. Meanwhile, at high temperature (above 500 deg. C), the spinel structure of ZnAl 2 O 4 grows in the early stage, and it undergoes a transition to wurtzite-ZnO (w-ZnO) with thickness. The spinel formation is presumably driven by high temperature and large incident energy of impacting atoms during sputtering. The results of the strain evolution as functions of temperature and thickness during growth suggest that the surface diffusion is a major factor determining the microstructural properties in the strained ZnO/Al 2 O 3 (0001) heteroepitaxy

  3. Characterising the loading direction sensitivity of 3D woven composites: Effect of z-binder architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr

    2016-08-29

    Three different architectures of 3D carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) were tested in quasi-static uniaxial tension. Mechanical tests (tensile in on-axis of warp and weft directions as well as 45 degrees off-axis) were carried out with the aim to study the loading direction sensitivity of these 3D woven composites. The z-binder architecture (the through-thickness reinforcement) has an effect on void content, directional fibre volume fraction, mechanical properties (on-axis and off-axis), failure mechanisms, energy absorption and fibre rotation angle in off-axis tested specimens. Out of all the examined architectures, 3D orthogonal woven composites (ORT) demonstrated a superior behaviour, especially when they were tested in 45 degrees off-axis direction, indicated by high strain to failure (similar to 23%) and high translaminar energy absorption (similar to 40 MJ/m(3)). The z-binder yarns in ORT architecture suppress the localised damage and allow larger fibre rotation during the fibre

  4. Effects of particles thickness and veneer reiforced layer in the properties of oriented strand boards OSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effects of particle thickness and veneer reinforced layer on the physical and mechanicalproperties of OSB made of Pinus taeda L. The boards were manufactured with particle thickness of 0.4, 0.7 and 1.0 mm and phenolformaldehyderesin in the proportion of 6% of solid content. To the veneer reinforced layer was used veneer from Pinus taeda with 2.0mm of thickness. The increase in the slenderness (length/thickness ratio of thins particles, results in the higher values of MOE andMOR in the cross direction. The increase in the particles thickness contributed to higher values of the board internal bond. Thedifferent particles thickness did not clearly affected on the physical properties of OSB. The veneer reinforced layer results in the higheraverage values of MOE and MOR in the cross direction. All of the results of MOE and MOR obtained for boards with differentthickness attend tominimum values required per CSA 0437 (CSA, 1993. For the internal bond, the results were satisfactory to boardsmanufactured with particles thickness of 0.7 and 1.0 mm. According to the results the main conclusions were: (i The increase in theparticles thickness contributed to lower values of MOE and MOR, and higher values of the board internal bond; (ii the veneerreinforced layer increased MOE and MOR values in the cross direction.

  5. Magnetic resonance studies of the Mg acceptor in thick free-standing and thin-film GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvanut, Mary Ellen

    Mg, the only effective p-type dopant for the nitrides, substitutes for Ga and forms an acceptor with a defect level of about 0.16 eV. The magnetic resonance of such a center should be highly anisotropic, yet early work employing both optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies revealed a defect with a nearly isotropic g-tensor. The results were attributed to crystal fields caused by compensation and/or strain typical of the heteroepitaxially grown films. The theory was supported by observation of the expected highly anisotropic ODMR signature in homoepitaxially grown films in which dislocation-induced non-uniform strain and compensation are reduced. The talk will review EPR measurements of thin films and describe new work which takes advantage of the recently available thick free-standing GaN:Mg substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and high nitrogen pressure solution growth (HNPS). Interestingly, the films and HVPE substrates exhibit characteristically different types of EPR signals, and no EPR response could be induced in the HNPS substrates, with or without illumination. In the heteroepitaxial films, a curious angular dependent line-shape is observed in addition to the nearly isotropic g-tensor characteristic of the Mg-related acceptor. On the other hand, the free-standing HVPE crystals reveal a clear signature of a highly anisotropic shallow acceptor center. Comparison with SIMS measurements implies a direct relation to the Mg impurity, and frequency-dependent EPR studies demonstrate the influence of the anisotropic crystal fields. Overall, the measurements of the thick free-standing crystals show that the Mg acceptor is strongly affected by the local environment. The ODMR was performed by Evan Glaser, NRL and the free-standing Mg-doped HVPE crystals were grown by Jacob Leach, Kyma Tech. The work at UAB is supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1308446.

  6. Strain-controlled nonvolatile magnetization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geprägs, S.; Brandlmaier, A.; Brandt, M. S.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate different approaches towards a nonvolatile switching of the remanent magnetization in single-crystalline ferromagnets at room temperature via elastic strain using ferromagnetic thin film/piezoelectric actuator hybrids. The piezoelectric actuator induces a voltage-controllable strain along different crystalline directions of the ferromagnetic thin film, resulting in modifications of its magnetization by converse magnetoelastic effects. We quantify the magnetization changes in the hybrids via ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. These measurements demonstrate a significant strain-induced change of the magnetization, limited by an inefficient strain transfer and domain formation in the particular system studied. To overcome these obstacles, we address practicable engineering concepts and use a model to demonstrate that a strain-controlled, nonvolatile magnetization switching should be possible in appropriately engineered ferromagnetic/piezoelectric actuator hybrids.

  7. Lactobacillus reuteri increases mucus thickness and ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, D; Liu, H; Schreiber, O; Roos, S; Phillipson, M; Holm, L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether two Lactobacillus reuteri strains (rat-derived R2LC and human-derived ATCC PTA 4659 (4659)) could protect mice against colitis, as well as delineate the mechanisms behind this protection. Mice were given L. reuteri R2LC or 4659 by gavage once daily for 14 days, and colitis was induced by addition of 3% DSS (dextran sulphate sodium) to drinking water for the last 7 days of this period. The severity of disease was assessed through clinical observations, histological evaluation and ELISA measurements of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines from colonic samples. Mucus thickness was measured in vivo with micropipettes, and tight junction protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Colitis severity was significantly reduced by L. reuteri R2LC or 4659 when evaluated both clinically and histologically. The inflammation markers MPO, IL-1β, IL-6 and mKC (mouse keratinocyte chemoattractant) were increased by DSS and significantly reduced by the L. reuteri strains. The firmly adherent mucus thickness was reduced by DSS, but significantly increased by L. reuteri in both control and DSS-treated mice. Expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 was significantly increased in the bottom of the colonic crypts by L. reuteri R2LC. These results demonstrate that each of the two different L. reuteri strains, one human-derived and one-rat-derived, protects against colitis in mice. Mechanisms behind this protection could at least partly be explained by the increased mucus thickness as well as a tightened epithelium in the stem cell area of the crypts. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Next-generation site-directed transgenesis in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae: self-docking strains expressing germline-specific phiC31 integrase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Meredith

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes have a devastating impact on global health and the situation is complicated due to difficulties with both existing control measures and the impact of climate change. Genetically modified mosquitoes that are refractory to disease transmission are seen as having great potential in the delivery of novel control strategies. The Streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase system has been successfully adapted for site-directed transgene integration in a range of insects, thus overcoming many limitations due to size constraints and random integration associated with transposon-mediated transformation. Using this technology, we previously published the first site-directed transformation of Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria. Mosquitoes were initially engineered to incorporate the phiC31 docking site at a defined genomic location. A second phase of genetic modification then achieved site-directed integration of an anti-malarial effector gene. In the current publication we report improved efficiency and utility of the phiC31 integrase system following the generation of Anopheles gambiae self-docking strains. Four independent strains, with docking sites at known locations on three different chromosome arms, were engineered to express integrase under control of the regulatory regions of the nanos gene from Anopheles gambiae. The resulting protein accumulates in the posterior oocyte to provide integrase activity at the site of germline development. Two self-docking strains, exhibiting significantly different levels of integrase expression, were assessed for site-directed transgene integration and found to demonstrate greatly improved survival and efficiency of transformation. In the fight against malaria, it is imperative to establish a broad repertoire of both anti-malarial effector genes and tissue-specific promoters to regulate their expression, enabling those offering maximum effect with minimum fitness

  9. Strain-induced friction anisotropy between graphene and molecular liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meng; To, Quy-Dong; Léonard, Céline; Monchiet, Vincent; Vo, Van-Hoang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the friction behavior of molecular liquids with anisotropically strained graphene. Due to the changes of lattice and the potential energy surface, the friction is orientation dependent and can be computed by tensorial Green-Kubo formula. Simple quantitative estimations are also proposed for the zero-time response and agree reasonably well with the molecular dynamics results. From simulations, we can obtain the information of structures, dynamics of the system, and study the influence of strain and molecular shapes on the anisotropy degree. It is found that unilateral strain can increase friction in all directions but the strain direction is privileged. Numerical evidences also show that nonspherical molecules are more sensitive to strain and give rise to more pronounced anisotropy effects.

  10. Strain effect on the phase diagram of Ba-122

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Kazumasa [IFW Dresden (Germany); Nagoya University (Japan); Grinenko, Vadim; Kurth, Fritz; Efremov, Dmitriy; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Engelmann, Jan; Aswartham, Saicharan; Wurmehl, Sabine; Moench, Ingolf; Huehne, Ruben [IFW Dresden (Germany); Langer, Marco; Erbe, Manuela; Haenisch, Jens; Holzapfel, Bernhard [IFW Dresden (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Ichinose, Ataru; Tsukada, Ichiro [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Nagasaka (Japan); Ahrens, Eike [TU Dresden (Germany); Ikuta, Hiroshi [Nagoya University (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Thin films offer a possibility for tuning superconducting (SC) properties without external pressure or chemical doping. In-plane strain controls the Neel temperature of the antiferromagnetic (AF) transition and the SC transition temperature or even induce superconductivity in the parent compound. We studied the electronic and magnetic properties of Co, Ru, and P doped Ba-122 thin films in different strain states. We have found that the strain shifts nearly rigidly the whole phase diagram including the AF region and the SC dome in the direction of higher or lower substitution levels depending on the direction of strain (i.e. compressive or tensile). In particular, we found that the strain affects the band structure similarly as Co doping despite that the crystal structure changes differently. As a result tensile or compressive strain acts as additional el or h doping, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of Strain-Life Fatigue Curve Estimation Methods and Their Application to a Direct-Quenched High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, M.; Ghafouri, M.; Rohani Raftar, H. R.; Björk, T.

    2018-03-01

    Methods to estimate the strain-life curve, which were divided into three categories: simple approximations, artificial neural network-based approaches and continuum damage mechanics models, were examined, and their accuracy was assessed in strain-life evaluation of a direct-quenched high-strength steel. All the prediction methods claim to be able to perform low-cycle fatigue analysis using available or easily obtainable material properties, thus eliminating the need for costly and time-consuming fatigue tests. Simple approximations were able to estimate the strain-life curve with satisfactory accuracy using only monotonic properties. The tested neural network-based model, although yielding acceptable results for the material in question, was found to be overly sensitive to the data sets used for training and showed an inconsistency in estimation of the fatigue life and fatigue properties. The studied continuum damage-based model was able to produce a curve detecting early stages of crack initiation. This model requires more experimental data for calibration than approaches using simple approximations. As a result of the different theories underlying the analyzed methods, the different approaches have different strengths and weaknesses. However, it was found that the group of parametric equations categorized as simple approximations are the easiest for practical use, with their applicability having already been verified for a broad range of materials.

  12. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Ho [Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology.

  13. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Han, Seung Ho

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology

  14. Assessment of the growth/etch back technique for the production of Ge strain-relaxed buffers on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, J. M.; Aubin, J.

    2018-04-01

    Thick Ge layers grown on Si(0 0 1) are handy for the production of GeOI wafers, as templates for the epitaxy of III-V and GeSn-based heterostructures and so on. Perfecting their crystalline quality would enable to fabricate suspended Ge micro-bridges with extremely high levels of tensile strain (for mid IR lasers). In this study, we have used a low temperature (400 °C)/high temperature (750 °C) approach to deposit with GeH4 various thickness Ge layers in the 0.5 μm - 5 μm range. They were submitted afterwards to short duration thermal cycling under H2 (in between 750 °C and 875-890 °C) to lower the Threading Dislocation Density (TDD). Some of the thickest layers were partly etched at 750 °C with gaseous HCl to recover wafer bows compatible with device processing later on. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) showed that the layers were slightly tensile-strained, with a 104.5-105.5% degree of strain relaxation irrespective of the thickness. The surface was cross-hatched, with a roughness slightly decreasing with the thickness, from 2.0 down to 0.8 nm. The TDD (from Omega scans in XRD) decreased from 8 × 107 cm-2 down to 107 cm-2 as the Ge layer thickness increased from 0.5 up to 5 μm. The lack of improvement when growing 5 μm thick layers then etching a fraction of them with HCl over same thickness layers grown in a single run was at variance with Thin Solid Films 520, 3216 (2012). Low temperature HCl defect decoration confirmed those findings, with (i) a TDD decreasing from slightly more 107 cm-2 down to 5 × 106 cm-2 as the Ge layer thickness increased from 1.3 up to 5 μm and (ii) no TDD hysteresis between growth and growth then HCl etch-back.

  15. Variation in the strain anisotropy of Zircaloy with temperature and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Worswick, D.

    1984-01-01

    The strong crystallographic texture which is developed during the fabrication of zirconium-based alloys causes pronounced anisotropy in their mechanical properties, particularly deformation. The tendency for circular-section tension specimens with a high concentration of basal poles in one direction to become elliptical when deformed in tension has been used in this study to provide quantitative data on the effects of both strain and temperature on strain anisotropy. Tension tests were carried out over a temperature range of 293 to 1193 K on specimens machined from Zircaloy-2 plate. The strain anisotropy was found to increase markedly at temperatures over 923 K, reaching a maximum in the region of 1070 K. The strain anisotropy increased with increasing strain in this temperature region. The study was extended to Zircaloy-4 pressurized-water reactor fuel cladding by carrying out tube swelling tests and evaluating the axial deformation produced. Although scatter in the test results was higher than that exhibited in the tension tests, the general trend in the data was similar. The effects of the strain anisotropy observed are discussed in relation to the effects of temperature on the ductility of Zircaloy fuel cladding tubes during postulated largebreak loss-of-coolant accidents

  16. Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Julie N.

    Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the strain in the material. The amount of strain is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of strained pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates strained pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic strain, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of strained material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for strained pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the strained metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after strain aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the strained and 9% anisotropy in the strain aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw

  17. High resolution x-ray scattering studies of strain in epitaxial thin films of yttrium silicide grown on silicon (111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marthinez-Miranda, L.J.; Santiago-Aviles, J.J.; Siegal, M.P.; Graham, W.R.; Heiney, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have used high resolution grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS) to study the in- plane and out-of-plane structure of epitaxial YSi 2-x films grown on Si(111), with thicknesses ranging from 85 Angstrom to 510 Angstrom. Their results indicate that the films are strained, and that film strain increases as a function of thickness, with lattice parameters varying from a = 3.846 Angstrom/c = 4.142 Angstrom for the 85 Angstrom film to a = 3.877 Angstrom/c = 4.121 Angstrom for the 510 Angstrom film. The authors correlate these results with an increase in pinhole areal coverage as a function of thickness. In addition, the authors' measurements show no evidence for the existence of ordered silicon vacancies in the films

  18. Effect of Glass Thickness on Performance of Flat Plate Solar Collectors for Fruits Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Bakari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of thickness of glazing material on the performance of flat plate solar collectors. Performance of solar collector is affected by glaze transmittance, absorptance, and reflectance which results into major heat losses in the system. Four solar collector models with different glass thicknesses were designed, constructed, and experimentally tested for their performances. Collectors were both oriented to northsouth direction and tilted to an angle of 10° with the ground toward north direction. The area of each collector model was 0.72 m2 with a depth of 0.15 m. Low iron (extra clear glass of thicknesses 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm was used as glazing materials. As a control, all collector performances were analysed and compared using a glass of 5 mm thickness and then with glass of different thickness. The results showed that change in glass thickness results into variation in collector efficiency. Collector with 4 mm glass thick gave the best efficiency of 35.4% compared to 27.8% for 6 mm glass thick. However, the use of glass of 4 mm thick needs precautions in handling and during placement to the collector to avoid extra costs due to breakage.

  19. Strain relaxation of CdTe on Ge studied by medium energy ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillet, J.C., E-mail: jean-christophe.pillet@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, Département Optique et Photonique, F38054 Grenoble (France); Pierre, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, Service de Caractérisation des Matériaux et Composants, F38054 Grenoble (France); Jalabert, D. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-INAC/UJF-Grenoble 1 UMR-E, SP2M, LEMMA, Minatec Grenoble F-38054 (France)

    2016-10-01

    We have used the medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) technique to assess the strain relaxation in molecular-beam epitaxial (MBE) grown CdTe (2 1 1)/Ge (2 1 1) system. A previous X-ray diffraction study, on 10 samples of the same heterostructure having thicknesses ranging from 25 nm to 10 μm has allowed the measurement of the strain relaxation on a large scale. However, the X-ray diffraction measurements cannot achieve a stress measurement in close proximity to the CdTe/Ge interface at the nanometer scale. Due to the huge lattice misfit between the CdTe and Ge, a high degree of disorder is expected at the interface. The MEIS in channeling mode is a good alternative in order to profile defects with a high depth resolution. For a 21 nm thick CdTe layer, we observed, at the interface, a high density of Cd and/or Te atoms moved from their expected crystallographic positions followed by a rapid recombination of defects. Strain relaxation mechanisms in the vicinity of the interface are discussed.

  20. Analysis of Shrinkage on Thick Plate Part using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection moulding is the most widely used processes in manufacturing plastic products. Since the quality of injection improves plastic parts are mostly influenced by process conditions, the method to determine the optimum process conditions becomes the key to improving the part quality. This paper presents a systematic methodology to analyse the shrinkage of the thick plate part during the injection moulding process. Genetic Algorithm (GA method was proposed to optimise the process parameters that would result in optimal solutions of optimisation goals. Using the GA, the shrinkage of the thick plate part was improved by 39.1% in parallel direction and 17.21% in the normal direction of melt flow.

  1. Lattice strain measurements on sandstones under load using neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischbutter, A.; Neov, D.; Scheffzük, Ch.; Vrána, M.; Walther, K.

    2000-11-01

    Neutron diffraction methods (both time-of-flight- and angle-dispersive diffraction) are applied to intracrystalline strain measurements on geological samples undergoing uniaxial increasing compressional load. The experiments were carried out on Cretaceous sandstones from the Elbezone (East Germany), consisting of >95% quartz which are bedded but without crystallographic preferred orientation of quartz. From the stress-strain relation the Young's modulus for our quartz sample was determined to be (72.2±2.9) GPa using results of the neutron time-of-flight method. The influence of different kinds of bedding in sandstones (laminated and convolute bedding) could be determined. We observed differences of factor 2 (convolute bedding) and 3 (laminated bedding) for the elastic stiffness, determined with angle dispersive neutron diffraction (crystallographic strain) and with strain gauges (mechanical strain). The data indicate which geological conditions may influence the stress-strain behaviour of geological materials. The influence of bedding on the stress-strain behaviour of a laminated bedded sandstone was indicated by direct residual stress measurements using neutron time-of-flight diffraction. The measurements were carried out six days after unloading the sample. Residual strain was measured for three positions from the centre to the periphery and within two radial directions of the cylinder. We observed that residual strain changes from extension to compression in a different manner for two perpendicular directions of the bedding plane.

  2. Carotid intima-media thickness and elastic properties of aortas in normotensive children of hypertensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ali; Kosger, Pelin; Ozdemir, Gokmen; Sahin, Fezan Mutlu; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2015-09-01

    A significant correlation between hypertension history and high blood pressure has been observed with regard to age, race and gender. Investigating carotid intima-media thickness and aortic stiffness prior to the development of hypertension in children of hypertensive parents enabled us to evaluate these patients for subclinical atherosclerosis. We compared carotid intima-media thickness, aortic strain, distensibility, stiffness indices and elastic modulus in 67 normotensive children whose parents had a diagnosis of essential hypertension and 39 normotensive children with no parental history of hypertension. Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, average blood pressure and pulse pressure (P>0.05), systolic blood pressures were higher among patients 15 years and older in the study group. No significant differences were noted between the control and study groups regarding interventricular septal thickness, left-ventricular posterior wall thickness, left-ventricular systolic and diastolic diameter and aortic annulus diameter (P>0.05). The left atrium diameter was larger in the study group compared with that in the control group, mainly because of the values of the 15-year-old and older children (P=0.01). The mean, maximum and minimum values of carotid intima-media thickness were significantly different in the study group compared with the control group among all age groups (Pchildren of hypertensive parents compared with the control group (P=0.014, P=0.001, respectively). Although there were no differences between the study and control groups regarding aortic strain, aortic distensibility, elastic modulus and stiffness indices (P>0.05), aortic distensibility was lower, and aortic stiffness indices were higher among children 15 years and older in the study group. An increase in the carotid intima-media thickness in all age groups and a decrease in aortic elastic properties in

  3. Effect of Thickness Stress in Stretch-Bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Emmens, W.C.; Huetink, Han; Barlat, F; Moon, Y.H.; Lee, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    In any situation where a strip is pulled over a curved tool, locally a contact stress acts on the strip in thickness direction. This contact stress changes the stress state in the material, which will influence the deformation. One effect is that the yield stress in the plane of the strip is

  4. Estimation of sand dune thickness using a vertical velocity profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif A.

    2004-01-01

    Previous field and mathematical studies have shown that sand dunes may have vertical velocity profiles (i.e. continuous increase of velocity with depth). Therefore, computing the dunes thickness using conventional seismic refraction methods that assume a vertically homogeneous layer will likely produce some errors. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of the vertical velocity profile in a sand dune on the process of thickness estimation using seismic refraction data. First, the time distance (T-X) data of the direct wave in the dune is calculated using a vertical velocity profile, V (z), derived from Hertz-Mindlin contact theory. Then the thickness is estimated from the calculated T-X data, intercept time and velocity of the refractor at the dune's base assuming a constant velocity in the dune. The error in the estimated thickness due to the constant-velocity assumption increases with increasing thickness and decreasing porosity of the dune. For sand dunes with porosities greater than 0.2 and thickness less than 200 meter, the error is less than 15%. (author)

  5. Effects of strain on the magnetic and transport properties of the epitaxial La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, M.; Kameli, P.; Ehsani, M. H.; Ahmadvand, H.; Salamati, H.

    2016-12-01

    The epitaxial strain can considerably modify the physical properties of thin films compared to the bulk. This paper reports the effects of substrate-induced strain on La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 (LCMO) thin films, grown on (100) SrTiO3 (STO) and LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. Transport and magnetic properties were found to be strongly dependent on strain type. It is also shown that compressive (tensile) strain leads to the increase (decrease) in the magnetization of the films. Moreover, it was observed that all LCMO films deposited on both LAO and STO substrates behave as an insulator, but LCMO/LAO thin films with compressive strain have lower resistivity than LCMO/STO thin films with tensile strain. Applying magnetic field to LCMO/STO thin films with thickness of 25 and 50 nm leads to very small change in the resistivity, while the effects of magnetic field on the sample with thickness of 125 nm leads to an insulator-metal transition. For LCMO/LAO thin films, the magnetic field has a strong impact on the resistivity of samples. The results show that the magnetoresistance (MR) is enhanced by increasing film thickness for LCMO/LAO samples, due to the relatively stronger phase separation. For LCMO/STO thin films MR is drastically decreased by reduction of film thickness, which is attributed to the enhancement of the charge-orbital order (CO-O) accompanying the complex spin order (the so-called CE type). The changes of the antiferromagnetic structure from the CE to C type and the enhancement of the CE type could be attributed to the in-plane compressive and tensile strain, respectively.

  6. Strain engineering of perovskite thin films using a single substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janolin, P-E; Guiblin, N; Dkhil, B; Anokhin, A S; Mukhortov, V M; Golovko, Yu I; Gui, Z; Bellaiche, L; Ravy, S; El Marssi, M; Yuzyuk, Yu I

    2014-01-01

    Combining temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and first-principles-based effective Hamiltonian calculations, we show that varying the thickness of (Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 )TiO 3 (BST) thin films deposited on the same single substrate (namely, MgO) enables us to change not only the magnitude but also the sign of the misfit strain. Such previously overlooked control of the strain allows several properties of these films (e.g. Curie temperature, symmetry of ferroelectric phases, dielectric response) to be tuned and even optimized. Surprisingly, such desired control of the strain (and of the resulting properties) originates from an effect that is commonly believed to be detrimental to functionalities of films, namely the existence of misfit dislocations. The present study therefore provides a novel route to strain engineering, as well as leading us to revisit common beliefs. (fast track communication)

  7. Electromodulation spectroscopy of direct optical transitions in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers under hydrostatic pressure and built-in strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybała, F.; Żelazna, K.; Maczko, H.; Gladysiewicz, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Kudrawiec, R., E-mail: robert.kudrawiec@pwr.wroc.pl [Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Lin, H.; Chen, R.; Shang, C.; Huo, Y.; Kamins, T. I.; Harris, J. S. [Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4075 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers of various Sn concentration (1.5%, 3%, 6% Sn) and Ge{sub 0.97}Sn{sub 0.03} layers with built-in compressive (ε = −0.5%) and tensile (ε = 0.3%) strain are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and studied by electromodulation spectroscopy (i.e., contactless electroreflectance and photoreflectance (PR)). In order to obtain unstrained GeSn layers and layers with different built-in in-plane strains, virtual InGaAs substrates of different compositions are grown prior to the deposition of GeSn layers. For unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers, the pressure coefficient for the direct band gap transition is determined from PR measurements at various hydrostatic pressures to be 12.2 ± 0.2 meV/kbar, which is very close to the pressure coefficient for the direct band gap transition in Ge (12.9 meV/kbar). This suggests that the hydrostatic deformation potentials typical of Ge can be applied to describe the pressure-induced changes in the electronic band structure of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloys with low Sn concentrations. The same conclusion is derived for the uniaxial deformation potential, which describes the splitting between heavy-hole (HH) and light-hole (LH) bands as well as the strain-related shift of the spin-orbit (SO) split-off band. It is observed that the HH, LH, and SO related transitions shift due to compressive and tensile strain according to the Bir-Pikus theory. The dispersions of HH, LH, and SO bands are calculated for compressive and tensile strained Ge{sub 0.97}Sn{sub 0.03} with the 8-band kp Hamiltonian including strain effects, and the mixing of HH and LH bands is discussed. In addition, the dispersion of the electronic band structure is calculated for unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers (3% and 6% Sn) at high hydrostatic pressure with the 8-band kp Hamiltonian, and the pressure-induced changes in the electronic band structure are discussed.

  8. A microfabricated strain gauge array on polymer substrate for tactile neuroprostheses in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beygi, M; Mutlu, S; Güçlü, B

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present the design, microfabrication and characterization of a tactile sensor system which can be used for sensory neuroprostheses in rats. The sensor system consists of an array of 2  ×  7 cells, each of which has a series combination of four strain gauges. Each group of four strain gauges is placed around a square membrane with a size of 2.5  ×  2.5 mm 2 . Unlike most common tactile sensors based on silicon substrates, we used 3D-printed polylactic acid as a substrate, because it is not brittle, and under local extremes, it would prevent the catastrophic failure of all cells. The strain gauges were fabricated by depositing and patterning a 50 nm thick aluminum (Al) film on a polyimide sheet with a thickness of 0.125 mm. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer was bonded on the top surface of the PI membrane. The PDMS layer was prepared in two different thicknesses, 1.2 and 1.7 mm, to investigate its effect on the static response of the sensor. The sensitivity and the maximum allowable force, corresponding to the maximum deformation of 0.9 mm at the center of each cell, changed based on the thickness of the PDMS layer. Sensor cells operated linearly up to 3 N with an average sensitivity of 200 mΩ N −1 (0.7 Ω mm −1 ) for 1.2 mm thick PDMS. These values changed to 4 N and 70 mΩ N −1 (0.3 Ω mm −1 ), respectively, for 1.7 mm thick PDMS. The nonlinearity was less than 3%. The cells had low cross-talk (∼5 mΩ N −1 and 0.02 Ω mm −1 ) relative to the average sensitivity. Additionally, the dynamic response of the sensor was characterized at several frequencies by using a vibrotactile stimulation system previously designed for psychophysics experiments. The sensor was also tested inside the rat conditioning chamber to demonstrate the relevant signals in a tactile neuroprosthesis. (paper)

  9. A microfabricated strain gauge array on polymer substrate for tactile neuroprostheses in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beygi, M.; Mutlu, S.; Güçlü, B.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we present the design, microfabrication and characterization of a tactile sensor system which can be used for sensory neuroprostheses in rats. The sensor system consists of an array of 2  ×  7 cells, each of which has a series combination of four strain gauges. Each group of four strain gauges is placed around a square membrane with a size of 2.5  ×  2.5 mm2. Unlike most common tactile sensors based on silicon substrates, we used 3D-printed polylactic acid as a substrate, because it is not brittle, and under local extremes, it would prevent the catastrophic failure of all cells. The strain gauges were fabricated by depositing and patterning a 50 nm thick aluminum (Al) film on a polyimide sheet with a thickness of 0.125 mm. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer was bonded on the top surface of the PI membrane. The PDMS layer was prepared in two different thicknesses, 1.2 and 1.7 mm, to investigate its effect on the static response of the sensor. The sensitivity and the maximum allowable force, corresponding to the maximum deformation of 0.9 mm at the center of each cell, changed based on the thickness of the PDMS layer. Sensor cells operated linearly up to 3 N with an average sensitivity of 200 mΩ N-1 (0.7 Ω mm-1) for 1.2 mm thick PDMS. These values changed to 4 N and 70 mΩ N-1 (0.3 Ω mm-1), respectively, for 1.7 mm thick PDMS. The nonlinearity was less than 3%. The cells had low cross-talk (~5 mΩ N-1 and 0.02 Ω mm-1) relative to the average sensitivity. Additionally, the dynamic response of the sensor was characterized at several frequencies by using a vibrotactile stimulation system previously designed for psychophysics experiments. The sensor was also tested inside the rat conditioning chamber to demonstrate the relevant signals in a tactile neuroprosthesis.

  10. Strain-engineered band parameters of graphene-like SiC monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Harihar; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Using full-potential density functional theory (DFT) calculations we show that the band gap and effective masses of charge carriers in SiC monolayer (ML-SiC) in graphene-like two-dimensional honeycomb structure are tunable by strain engineering. ML-SiC was found to preserve its flat 2D graphene-like structure under compressive strain up to 7%. A transition from indirect-to-direct gap-phase is predicted to occur for a strain value lying within the interval (1.11 %, 1.76%). In both gap-phases band gap decreases with increasing strain, although the rate of decrease is different in the two gap-phases. Effective mass of electrons show a non-linearly decreasing trend with increasing tensile strain in the direct gap-phase. The strain-sensitive properties of ML-SiC, may find applications in future strain-sensors, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and nano-optomechanical systems (NOMS) and other nano-devices

  11. Strain Relaxation and Vacancy Creation in Thin Platinum Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, W.; Chakravarty, S.; Schmidt, H.; Baehtz, C.; Leitenberger, W.; Bruns, M.; Kobler, A.; Kuebel, C.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron based combined in situ x-ray diffractometry and reflectometry is used to investigate the role of vacancies for the relaxation of residual stress in thin metallic Pt films. From the experimentally determined relative changes of the lattice parameter a and of the film thickness L the modification of vacancy concentration and residual strain was derived as a function of annealing time at 130 deg. C. The results indicate that relaxation of strain resulting from compressive stress is accompanied by the creation of vacancies at the free film surface. This proves experimentally the postulated dominant role of vacancies for stress relaxation in thin metal films close to room temperature.

  12. Effect of epoxy impregnation on strain distribution of materials in Bi2223 superconducting coils by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xinzhe, E-mail: xinzhe.jin@riken.jp [Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Osamura, Kozo [Research Institute for Applied Sciences, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8202 (Japan); Machiya, Shutaro [Daido University, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8530 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kentaro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Shobu, Takahisa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Hideaki [Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)

    2015-11-25

    Synchrotron X-rays have been used to observe strain distributions in composite materials such as superconducting wires with a thickness of less than about 2 mm. In applications that employ wound coils of superconducting wire, it is necessary to understand the strain distribution within the coiled wire. Superconducting wires such as Bi2223 and REBCO wires approximately 4–5 mm wide are commercially available. Coiled wires of this width are too thick to easily measure using conventional X-ray techniques, especially the inner strain, because the penetration depth tends to be around 2 mm. Therefore, the beam penetration must be improved, and it is known that the penetration depth of an X-ray beam depends upon the beam energy, beam intensity, measurement material, and measurement method. In this study, we used a white X-ray diffractometer at SPring-8 to develop a method of observing the strain distribution in Bi2223 superconducting coils winded by a 4.5 mm wide Bi2223 wire. We successfully observed a clear (400) peak of the Bi2223 phase by an appropriate measurement condition, and then observed the strains of each material in the Bi2223 coils with and without epoxy impregnation. This is the first time that we have obtained the strain of a Bi2223 phase in coiled wire using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Further synchrotron-based study of superconducting coils will be useful in the development of advanced high-field magnets. The appropriate measurement method and the obtained measurement results are presented in this paper. - Highlights: • We successfully obtained clear peaks of Bi2223 phase in 4.5 mm thick coils. • The strain behaviors of materials in the coil correspond to a three turn cycle model. • A uniform strain distribution of the Bi2223 phase was obtained by epoxy impregnation.

  13. Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetization at the interfacesof highly spin-polarized manganite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-08-18

    We have probed the nature of magnetism at the surface of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films. The spin polarization of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films is not intrinsically suppressed at all surfaces and interfaces but is highly sensitive to both the epitaxial strain state as well as the substrate orientation. Through the use of soft x-ray spectroscopy, the magnetic properties of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces have been investigated and compared to bulk magnetometry and resistivity measurements. The magnetization of (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces are more bulk-like as a function of thickness whereas the magnetization at the (001)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface is suppressed significantly below a layer thickness of 20 nm. Such findings are correlated with the biaxial strain state of the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films; for a given film thickness it is the tetragonal distortion of (001) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} that severely impacts the magnetization, whereas the trigonal distortion for (111)-oriented films and monoclinic distortion for (110)-oriented films have less of an impact. These observations provide evidence that surface magnetization and thus spin polarization depends strongly on the crystal surface orientation as well as epitaxial strain.

  14. Direct measurement of wall slip and slip layer thickness of non-Brownian hard-sphere suspensions in rectangular channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesinghausen, Steffen; Weiffen, Rene; Schmid, Hans-Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Wall slip is a long-known phenomenon in the field of rheology. Nevertheless, the origin and the evolution are not completely clear yet. Regarding suspensions, the effect becomes even more complicated, because different mechanisms like pure slip or slip due to particle migration have to be taken into account. Furthermore, suspensions themselves show many flow anomalies and the isolation of slip is complicated. In order to develop working physical models, further insight is necessary. In this work, we measured experimentally the wall slip velocities of different highly filled suspensions in a rectangular slit die directly with respect to the particle concentration and the particle size. The slip velocities were obtained using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. The suspensions consisting of a castor oil-cinnamon oil blend and PMMA particles were matched in terms of refractive indexes to appear transparent. Hereby, possible optical path lengths larger than 15 mm were achieved. The slip velocities were found to be in a quadratic relation to the wall shear stress. Furthermore, the overall flow rate as well as the particle concentration has a direct influence on the slip. Concerning the shear stress, there seem to be two regions of slip with different physical characteristics. Furthermore, we estimated the slip layer thickness directly from the velocity profiles and propose a new interpretation. The PIV technique is used to investigate the viscosity and implicit the concentration profile in the slit die. It is shown that the particle migration process is quite fast.

  15. Strain-balanced InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Den Broeck, D. M.; Hosalli, A. M.; Bedair, S. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Bharrat, D.; El-Masry, N. A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures suffer from a high amount of compressive strain in the InGaN wells and the accompanied piezoelectric field resulting in both a blue shift in emission and a reduction of emission intensity. We report the growth of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN “strain-balanced” multiple quantum wells (SBMQWs) grown on thick In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N templates for x > y by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. SBMQWs consist of alternating layers of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N wells and GaN barriers under compressive and tensile stress, respectively, which have been lattice matched to a thick In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N template. Growth of the In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N template is also detailed in order to achieve thick, relaxed In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N grown on GaN without the presence of V-grooves. When compared to conventional In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN MQWs grown on GaN, the SBMQW structures exhibit longer wavelength emission and higher emission intensity for the same InN mole fraction due to a reduction in the well strain and piezoelectric field. By matching the average lattice constant of the MQW active region to the lattice constant of the In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N template, essentially an infinite number of periods can be grown using the SBMQW growth method without relaxation-related effects. SBMQWs can be utilized to achieve longer wavelength emission in light emitting diodes without the use of excess indium and can be advantageous in addressing the “green gap.”.

  16. Reversible axial-strain effect in Y-Ba-Cu-O coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheggour, N [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Ekin, J W [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Thieme, C L H [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Xie, Y-Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Selvamanickam, V [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Feenstra, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The recently discovered reversible strain effect in Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) coated conductors contrasts with the general understanding that the effect of strain on the critical-current density J{sub c} in practical high-temperature superconductors is determined only by crack formation in the ceramic component. Instead of having a constant J{sub c} as a function of strain before an irreversible drop when cracks form in the superconductor, J{sub c} in YBCO coated conductors can decrease or increase reversibly with strain over a significant strain range up to an irreversible strain limit. This reversible effect is present in samples fabricated either with rolling-assisted biaxially textured Ni-W substrates or with ion-beam-assisted deposition on Hastalloy substrates. The reversibility of J{sub c} with strain is observed for thin as well as thick YBCO films, and at two very different temperatures (76 and 4 K). The reversible effect is dependent on temperature and magnetic field, thus indicating its intrinsic nature. We also report an enhancement of the irreversible strain limit {epsilon}{sub irr} where the reversible strain effect ends and YBCO cracking starts. The value of {epsilon}{sub irr} increases from about 0.4% to more than 0.5% when YBCO coated conductors are fabricated with an additional Cu protection layer.

  17. Reversible axial-strain effect in Y-Ba-Cu-O coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheggour, N; Ekin, J W; Thieme, C L H; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V; Feenstra, R

    2005-01-01

    The recently discovered reversible strain effect in Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) coated conductors contrasts with the general understanding that the effect of strain on the critical-current density J c in practical high-temperature superconductors is determined only by crack formation in the ceramic component. Instead of having a constant J c as a function of strain before an irreversible drop when cracks form in the superconductor, J c in YBCO coated conductors can decrease or increase reversibly with strain over a significant strain range up to an irreversible strain limit. This reversible effect is present in samples fabricated either with rolling-assisted biaxially textured Ni-W substrates or with ion-beam-assisted deposition on Hastalloy substrates. The reversibility of J c with strain is observed for thin as well as thick YBCO films, and at two very different temperatures (76 and 4 K). The reversible effect is dependent on temperature and magnetic field, thus indicating its intrinsic nature. We also report an enhancement of the irreversible strain limit ε irr where the reversible strain effect ends and YBCO cracking starts. The value of ε irr increases from about 0.4% to more than 0.5% when YBCO coated conductors are fabricated with an additional Cu protection layer

  18. On the determination of representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials using instrumented indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Kunkun; Chang, Li; Zheng, Bailin; Tang, Youhong; Wang, Hongjian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method to convert indentation load–depth curve into representative stress–strain curve is presented. • Representative stress–strain curves of six metals are obtained using finite element analysis. • Different representative strain definitions are compared using finite element method. • Representative stress–strain curve of molybdenum films is obtained by nanoindentation tests. - Abstract: In this study, attempts have been made to estimate the representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials from indentation tests using an iterative method. Finite element analysis was performed to validate the method. The results showed that representative stress–strain relations of metallic materials using the present method were in a good agreement with those from tensile tests. Further, this method was extended to predict representative stress–strain relation of ultra-thin molybdenum films with a thickness of 485 nm using nanoindentation. Yielding strength and strain hardening exponent of the films were therefore obtained, which showed a good agreement with the published data

  19. Effects of strain on the magnetic and transport properties of the epitaxial La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarifi, M. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kameli, P., E-mail: kameli@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M.H. [Department of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadvand, H.; Salamati, H. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The epitaxial strain can considerably modify the physical properties of thin films compared to the bulk. This paper reports the effects of substrate-induced strain on La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO) thin films, grown on (100) SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) and LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. Transport and magnetic properties were found to be strongly dependent on strain type. It is also shown that compressive (tensile) strain leads to the increase (decrease) in the magnetization of the films. Moreover, it was observed that all LCMO films deposited on both LAO and STO substrates behave as an insulator, but LCMO/LAO thin films with compressive strain have lower resistivity than LCMO/STO thin films with tensile strain. Applying magnetic field to LCMO/STO thin films with thickness of 25 and 50 nm leads to very small change in the resistivity, while the effects of magnetic field on the sample with thickness of 125 nm leads to an insulator–metal transition. For LCMO/LAO thin films, the magnetic field has a strong impact on the resistivity of samples. The results show that the magnetoresistance (MR) is enhanced by increasing film thickness for LCMO/LAO samples, due to the relatively stronger phase separation. For LCMO/STO thin films MR is drastically decreased by reduction of film thickness, which is attributed to the enhancement of the charge–orbital order (CO–O) accompanying the complex spin order (the so-called CE type). The changes of the antiferromagnetic structure from the CE to C type and the enhancement of the CE type could be attributed to the in-plane compressive and tensile strain, respectively. - Highlights: • Epitaxial La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thin films, grown on (100) SrTiO{sub 3} and LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. • The compressive strain leads to the increase in the magnetization of the films. • The tensile strain leads to the decrease in the magnetization of the films. • The magnetoresistance is enhanced by

  20. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  1. Elasto-optics in double-coated optical fibers induced by axial strain and hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Ching; Lee, Haw-Long; Chou, Huann-Ming

    2002-04-01

    Stresses, microbending loss, and refractive-index changes induced simultaneously by axial strain and hydrostatic pressure in double-coated optical fibers are analyzed. The lateral pressure and normal stresses in the optical fiber, primary coating, and secondary coating are derived. Also presented are the microbending loss and refractive-index changes in the glass fiber. The normal stresses are affected by axial strain, hydrostatic pressure, material properties, and thickness of the primary and secondary coatings. It is found that microbending loss decreases with increasing thickness, the Young's modulus, and the Poisson's ratio of the secondary coating but increases with the increasing Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the primary coating. Similarly, changes in refractive index in the glass fiber decrease with the increasing Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the secondary coating but increase with the increasing Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the primary coating. Therefore, to minimize microbending loss induced simultaneously by axial strain and hydrostatic pressure in the glass fiber, the polymeric coatings should be suitably selected. An optimal design procedure is also indicated.

  2. Strain engineering of Dirac cones in graphyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Kumar, Ashok; Pandey, Ravindra, E-mail: pandey@mtu.edu [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Si, Mingsu [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-05-26

    6,6,12-graphyne, one of the two-dimensional carbon allotropes with the rectangular lattice structure, has two kinds of non-equivalent anisotropic Dirac cones in the first Brillouin zone. We show that Dirac cones can be tuned independently by the uniaxial compressive strain applied to graphyne, which induces n-type and p-type self-doping effect, by shifting the energy of the Dirac cones in the opposite directions. On the other hand, application of the tensile strain results into a transition from gapless to finite gap system for the monolayer. For the AB-stacked bilayer, the results predict tunability of Dirac-cones by in-plane strains as well as the strain applied perpendicular to the plane. The group velocities of the Dirac cones show enhancement in the resistance anisotropy for bilayer relative to the case of monolayer. Such tunable and direction-dependent electronic properties predicted for 6,6,12-graphyne make it to be competitive for the next-generation electronic devices at nanoscale.

  3. Wide bandgap, strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions on InP substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, M. P.; Yakes, M. K.; Schmieder, K. J.; Affouda, C. A.; Walters, R. J.; González, M.; Bennett, M. F.; Herrera, M.; Delgado, F. J.; Molina, S. I.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the electrical performance of strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions with varying designs is presented. Strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions comprising compressively strained InAlAs wells and tensile-strained InAlAs barriers were grown on InP substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The use of InAlAs enables InP-based tunnel junction devices to be produced using wide bandgap layers, enabling high electrical performance with low absorption. The impact of well and barrier thickness on the electrical performance was investigated, in addition to the impact of Si and Be doping concentration. Finally, the impact of an InGaAs quantum well at the junction interface is presented, enabling a peak tunnel current density of 47.6 A/cm 2 to be realized.

  4. Wide bandgap, strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions on InP substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumb, M. P. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Yakes, M. K.; Schmieder, K. J.; Affouda, C. A.; Walters, R. J. [US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); González, M.; Bennett, M. F. [Sotera Defense Solutions, Annapolis Junction, Maryland 20701 (United States); US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Herrera, M.; Delgado, F. J.; Molina, S. I. [University of Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2016-05-21

    In this work, the electrical performance of strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions with varying designs is presented. Strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions comprising compressively strained InAlAs wells and tensile-strained InAlAs barriers were grown on InP substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The use of InAlAs enables InP-based tunnel junction devices to be produced using wide bandgap layers, enabling high electrical performance with low absorption. The impact of well and barrier thickness on the electrical performance was investigated, in addition to the impact of Si and Be doping concentration. Finally, the impact of an InGaAs quantum well at the junction interface is presented, enabling a peak tunnel current density of 47.6 A/cm{sup 2} to be realized.

  5. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality: A clinically relevant porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders H; Rose, Lloyd F; Fletcher, John L; Wu, Jesse C; Leung, Kai P; Chan, Rodney K

    2017-02-01

    Current standard of care for full-thickness burn is excision followed by autologous split-thickness skin graft placement. Skin grafts are also frequently used to cover surgical wounds not amenable to linear closure. While all grafts have potential to contract, clinical observation suggests that antecedent thermal injury worsens contraction and impairs functional and aesthetic outcomes. This study evaluates the impact of antecedent full-thickness burn on split-thickness skin graft scar outcomes and the potential mediating factors. Full-thickness contact burns (100°C, 30s) were created on the backs of anesthetized female Yorkshire Pigs. After seven days, burn eschar was tangentially excised and covered with 12/1000th inch (300μm) split-thickness skin graft. For comparison, unburned wounds were created by sharp excision to fat before graft application. From 7 to 120days post-grafting, planimetric measurements, digital imaging and biopsies for histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression were obtained. At 120days post-grafting, the Observer Scar Assessment Scale, colorimetry, contour analysis and optical graft height assessments were performed. Twenty-nine porcine wounds were analyzed. All measured metrics of clinical skin quality were significantly worse (pskin graft quality, likely by multiple mechanisms including burn-related inflammation, microscopically inadequate excision, and dysregulation of tissue remodeling. A valid, reliable, clinically relevant model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin replacement therapy has been demonstrated. Future research to enhance quality of skin replacement therapies should be directed toward modulation of inflammation and assessments for complete excision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of the thickness of thin films by backscattered protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaniego, L.E.Q.

    1976-07-01

    The method of backscattered protons has been used to measure the thickness of thin films. A monoenergetic beam of protons is directed on the film to be measured and the backscattered protons are detected with a particle detector. The film thickness is calculated from the energy spectrum of the protons. In the case of films consisting of several layers of elements with well separated atomic masses, it is possible to separate the spectra of protons scattered from the different elements, permitting a measurement of the thicknesses of the different layers. The method consists of calculating the energy loss of the protons throughout their trajectory, from the point of incidence on the film to the final detection. Thicknesses were measured for the following film combinations: gold on mylar, chromium on mylar, gold on chromium on mylar, and pure mylar. (Author) [pt

  7. Elastic-plastic behaviour of thick-walled containers considering plastic compressibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, J.; Frosch, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the elastic-plastic behaviour of thick-walled pressure vessels with internal and external pressure is studied. To describe the mechanical behaviour of isotropic, plastic compressible materials we use a plastic potential which is a single-valued function of the principle stresses. For cylinders and spheres an analytic expression for the computation of stresses and residual stresses is specified. Afterwards the strains are calculated by using the finite difference method. Some examples will high-light the influence of the plastic compressibility on the behaviour of pressure vessels. (orig.) [de

  8. Bond-Length Distortions in Strained Semiconductor Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woicik, J.C.; Pellegrino, J.G.; Steiner, B.; Miyano, K.E.; Bompadre, S.G.; Sorensen, L.B.; Lee, T.; Khalid, S.

    1997-01-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements performed at In-K edge have resolved the outstanding issue of bond-length strain in semiconductor-alloy heterostructures. We determine the In-As bond length to be 2.581±0.004 Angstrom in a buried, 213 Angstrom thick Ga 0.78 In 0.22 As layer grown coherently on GaAs(001). This bond length corresponds to a strain-induced contraction of 0.015±0.004 Angstrom relative to the In-As bond length in bulk Ga 1-x In x As of the same composition; it is consistent with a simple model which assumes a uniform bond-length distortion in the epilayer despite the inequivalent In-As and Ga-As bond lengths. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. The magnetic transition temperature tuned by strain in YMn0.9Ru0.1O3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial orthorhombic YMn0.9Ru0.1O3 films with different thickness have been grown on (001-SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD. The crystal structure is well investigated by X-ray Diffraction. It is found that the out-of-plane parameter c slowly increases with decreasing thickness of samples because of the tensile strain between the films and substrates along c axis. The lengths of in-plane Mn-O bonds expand with the enhancement of strains, which is proved by Raman scatting. The magnetic measurements reveal that there exist two magnetic transition temperatures TN1 and TN2. The TN1 is close to that of orthorhombic YMnO3 bulk. With decreasing thickness of the films, TN1 keeps almost constant because of the small stain along c-axis. TN2, however, obviously increases from 117 K to 134 K, which could be related to the expansion of in-plane Mn-O bonds. Results show that the magnetic transition temperature of YMn0.9Ru0.1O3 films can be sensitively manipulated by the strain of the films.

  10. Cleaved-edge overgrowth of aligned quantum dots on strained layers of InGaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, D.; Lyon, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strain aligned InAs quantum dots were grown on the cleaved edges of first growth samples containing strained In x Ga (1-x) As layers of varying thickness and indium fraction. The formation of the cleaved-edge quantum dots was observed by means of atomic force microscopy. 100% linear alignment of InAs quantum dots over the InGaAs strain layers of the first growth sample is demonstrated. Linear density of the aligned dots was found to depend on the properties of the underlying InGaAs strain layers. Vertical alignment of an additional InAs quantum dot layer over the buried, linearly aligned, initial dot layer was observed for thin GaAs spacer layers

  11. UV-Photoreflectance and Raman Characterization of Strain Relaxation in Si on Silicon-Germanium Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current, Michael; Chism, Will; Yoo, Woo Sik; Vartanian, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Photoreflectance (PR), using a uv (374 nm) diode laser probe beam, and Raman spectroscopy, using a multi-wavelength Ar + laser coupled to a high-resolution multi-wavelength spectrometer, were used to characterize the strain relaxation of Si top layers grown on a graded and relaxed SiGe buffer stack with a final Ge concentration of 20%. The Si top layer thicknesses ranged from 1.6 to 18 nm. Considerable radial variation in the strain relaxation was seen in all sampled wafers, highlighting the need for rapid, local strain characterization. Strong correlation between shift in the Si layer dielectric response, measured by uv-PR, and the Si top layer strain, measured by Raman, is reported.

  12. Mechanisms of large strain, high strain rate plastic flow in the explosively driven collapse of Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olney, K L; Chiu, P H; Nesterenko, V F; Higgins, A; Serge, M; Weihs, T P; Fritz, G; Stover, A; Benson, D J

    2014-01-01

    Ni-Al laminates have shown promise as reactive materials due to their high energy release through intermetallic reaction. In addition to the traditional ignition methods, the reaction may be initiated in hot spots that can be created during mechanical loading. The explosively driven thick walled cylinder (TWC) technique was performed on two Ni-Al laminates composed of thin foil layers with different mesostructues: concentric and corrugated. These experiments were conducted to examine how these materials accommodate large plastic strain under high strain rates. Finite element simulations of these specimens with mesostuctures digitized from the experimental samples were conducted to provide insight into the mesoscale mechanisms of plastic flow. The dependence of dynamic behaviour on mesostructure may be used to tailor the hot spot formation and therefore the reactivity of the material system.

  13. Strain features and condition assessment of orthotropic steel deck cable-supported bridges subjected to vehicle loads by using dense FBG strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiyin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Shunlong; Li, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Strain is a direct indicator of structural safety. Therefore, strain sensors have been used in most structural health monitoring systems for bridges. However, until now, the investigation of strain response has been insufficient. This paper conducts a comprehensive study of the strain features of the U ribs and transverse diaphragm on an orthotropic steel deck and proposes a statistical paradigm for crack detection based on the features of vehicle-induced strain response by using the densely distributed optic fibre Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors. The local feature of strain under vehicle load is highlighted, which enables the use of measurement data to determine the vehicle loading event and to make a decision regarding the health status of a girder near the strain sensors via technical elimination of the load information. Time-frequency analysis shows that the strain contains three features: the long-term trend item, the short-term trend item, and the instantaneous vehicle-induced item (IVII). The IVII is the wheel-induced strain with a remarkable local feature, and the measured wheel-induced strain is only influenced by the vehicle near the FBG sensor, while other vehicles slightly farther away have no effect on the wheel-induced strain. This causes the local strain series, among the FBG strain sensors in the same transverse locations of different cross-sections, to present similarities in shape to some extent and presents a time delay in successive order along the driving direction. Therefore, the strain series induced by an identical vehicle can be easily tracked and compared by extracting the amplitude and calculating the mutual ratio to eliminate vehicle loading information, leaving the girder information alone. The statistical paradigm for crack detection is finally proposed, and the detection accuracy is then validated by using dense FBG strain sensors on a long-span suspension bridge in China.

  14. Effect of iron on vanadium (001) strained surface magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzain, M; Al-Barwani, M; Gismelseed, A; Al-Rawas, A; Yousif, A; Widatallah, H; Bouziane, K; Al-Omari, I, E-mail: elzain@squ.edu.o [Department of Physics, College Of Science, Box 36, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2010-03-01

    The magnetism of the vanadium (001) surface has been a controversial subject on both theoretical and experiment fronts. Both strongly ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases were reported. We have used the first principle full-potential linearized-augmented plane waves (FP-LAPW) as implemented in WIEN2k package to study the magnetic properties of strained surfaces of vanadium films as a function of film thickness. We found that for films thicker than about 11 monolayers, the magnetism of the strained surfaces converge to a constant value of about 0.15{mu}{sub B}. Introduction of Fe monolayers and impurities at the centre of the films affects the magnetic structure of thin films but has no influence on the surface magnetism of thicker films. For Fe monolayers positioned at the centre of thick films, the Fe atoms maintain magnetic moment of order 0.86{mu}{sub B}, a quadruple splitting of order -0.3 mm/s and a small negative isomer shift, while an Fe impurity has vanishing hyperfine fields and magnetic moment. In addition we have varied the location of the Fe monolayer and impurity within the V films and found that their position affects the surface magnetism.

  15. Effect of thickness on magnetic phase coexistence and electrical transport in Nd0.51Sr0.49MnO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.; Singh, M.P.; Fournier, P.; Siwach, P.K.; Singh, H.K.; Kaur, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the impact of the film thickness on the coexistence of various magnetic phases and its link to the magnetoresistance of Nd 0.51 Sr 0.49 MnO 3 thin films. These epitaxial films are deposited on LaAlO 3 (001) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. Films with thicknesses of approximately 30 nm are found to be under full compressive strain while those with thicknesses ∝100 nm and beyond exhibit the presence of both strained and relaxed phases, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction studies. Both films exhibit multiple magnetic transitions controlled by strong electron correlations and phase coexistence. These films also display insulator-metal transitions (IMT) and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) under moderate magnetic fields. Among the two set of films, only the 30-nm films show a weak signature of charge ordering at T∼50 K. Even at temperatures much lower than the IMT, the 30-nm films show huge magnetoresistance (MR) ∝80%. This suggests presence of softened charge-ordered insulating (COI) clusters that are transformed into ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) ones by the external magnetic field. In the 100-nm films, the corresponding MR is suppressed to less than 20%. Our study demonstrates that the softening of the COI phase is induced by the combined effect of the in-plane compressive strain and a slight reduction in Sr concentration. (orig.)

  16. Effect of the quantum well thickness on the performance of InGaN photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redaelli, L.; Mukhtarova, A.; Valdueza-Felip, S.; Ajay, A.; Durand, C.; Eymery, J.; Monroy, E. [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-CNRS Group «Nanophysique et semiconducteurs», CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Bougerol, C.; Himwas, C. [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-CNRS Group «Nanophysique et semiconducteurs», Institut Néel-CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Faure-Vincent, J. [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-09-29

    We report on the influence of the quantum well thickness on the effective band gap and conversion efficiency of In{sub 0.12}Ga{sub 0.88}N/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells. The band-to-band transition can be redshifted from 395 to 474 nm by increasing the well thickness from 1.3 to 5.4 nm, as demonstrated by cathodoluminescence measurements. However, the redshift of the absorption edge is much less pronounced in absorption: in thicker wells, transitions to higher energy levels dominate. Besides, partial strain relaxation in thicker wells leads to the formation of defects, hence degrading the overall solar cell performance.

  17. Methods for determining the wall thickness variation of tubular heaters used in thermalhydraulic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubizolles, G.; Garnier, J.; Groeneveld, D.; Tanase, A.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel bundle simulators used in thermalhydraulic studies typically consist of bundles of directly heated tubes. It is usually assumed that the heater tubes have a uniform circumferential heat flux distribution. In practice, this heat flux distribution is never exactly uniform because of wall thickness variations and bore eccentricity. Ignoring the non-uniformity in wall thickness can lead to under-estimating the local heat transfer coefficients. During nucleate boiling tests in a 5x5 PWR-type bundle subassembly at CEA-Grenoble, a sinusoidal temperature distribution was observed around the inside circumference of the heater rods. These heater rods were equipped with high-accuracy sliding thermocouple probes that permit the detailed measurement of the internal wall temperature distribution, both axially and circumferentially. The sinusoidal temperature distribution strongly suggests a variation in wall thickness. A methodology was subsequently derived to determine the circumferential wall thickness variation. The method is based on the principle that for directly heated fuel-element simulators, the nucleate boiling wall superheat at high pressures is nearly uniform around the heater rod circumference. The results show wall thickness variations of up to ±4% which was confirmed by subsequent ultrasonic wall-thickness measurements performed after bundle disassembly. Non-uniformities in circumferential temperature distributions were also observed during parallel thermalhydraulic tests at the University of Ottawa (UofO) on an electrically heated tube cooled internally by R-134a and equipped with fixed thermocouples on the outside. From the measured wall temperatures and knowledge of the inside heat transfer coefficient or wall temperature distribution, the variations in wall thickness and surface heat flux to the coolant were evaluated by solving conduction equations using three separate sets of data (1) single phase heat transfer data, (2) nucleate boiling data, and (3

  18. Multiferroic Properties of o-LuMnO3 Controlled by b-Axis Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Y. W.; Huang, S. W.; Hu, Y.; Rettig, L.; Alberca, A.; Shimamoto, K.; Scagnoli, V.; Lippert, T.; Schneider, C. W.; Staub, U.

    2014-10-01

    Strain is a leading candidate for controlling magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroics. Here, we use x-ray diffraction to study the coupling between magnetic order and structural distortion in epitaxial films of the orthorhombic (o-) perovskite LuMnO3. An antiferromagnetic spin canting in the E-type magnetic structure is shown to be related to the ferroelectrically induced structural distortion and to a change in the magnetic propagation vector. By comparing films of different orientations and thicknesses, these quantities are found to be controlled by b-axis strain. It is shown that compressive strain destabilizes the commensurate E-type structure and reduces its accompanying ferroelectric distortion.

  19. Nonpolar ZnO film growth and mechanism for anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, P.; Budai, J.D.; Narayan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction, we investigated the strain relaxation mechanisms for nonpolar (1 1 -2 0) a-plane ZnO epitaxy on (1 -1 0 2) r-plane sapphire, where the in-plane misfit ranges from -1.5% for the [0 0 0 1]ZnO-parallel [1 -1 0 -1]sapphire to -18.3% for the [-1 1 0 0]ZnO-parallel [-1 -1 2 0]sapphire direction. For the large misfit [-1 1 0 0]ZnO direction the misfit strains are fully relaxed at the growth temperature, and only thermal misfit and defect strains, which cannot be relaxed fully by slip dislocations, remain on cooling. For the small misfit direction, lattice misfit is not fully relaxed at the growth temperature. As a result, additive unrelaxed lattice and thermal misfit and defect strains contribute to the measured strain. Our X-ray diffraction measurements of lattice parameters show that the anisotropic in-plane biaxial strain leads to a distortion of the hexagonal symmetry of the ZnO basal plane. Based on the anisotropic strain relaxation observed along the orthogonal in-plane [-1 1 0 0] and [0 0 0 1]ZnO stress directions and our HRTEM investigations of the interface, we show that the plastic relaxation occurring in the small misfit direction [0 0 0 1]ZnO by dislocation nucleation is incomplete. These results are consistent with the domain-matching paradigm of a complete strain relaxation for large misfits and a difficulty in relaxing the film strain for small misfits.

  20. Direct transmission electron microscopy observations of martensitic transformations in Ni-rich NiTi single crystals during in situ cooling and straining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, A.; Dziaszyk, S.; Frenzel, J.; Somsen, Ch.; Dlouhy, A.; Eggeler, G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate martensitic transformations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in compression aged Ni-rich NiTi single crystals with one family of Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates. Small cylinders from a Ni-rich NiTi single crystal with a Ni content of 51.0 at.% were compression aged at 550 deg. C in the [1 1 1] B2 direction for different aging times. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) investigations show that a three-step martensitic transformation (three DSC peaks on cooling from the high temperature regime) can be observed for aging times of 4 ks. In situ cooling TEM investigations reveal that the first peak on cooling is associated with a transformation from B2 to R-phase, starting from all precipitate/matrix interfaces. On further cooling, the B19'-phase appears and grows along precipitate/matrix interfaces (second step). With further decreasing temperature, the remaining R-phase between the precipitates transforms to B19' (third peak). In situ TEM straining experiments of B2 above the martensitic start temperature reveal that first some microstructural regions directly transform in microscopic burst like events from B2 to B19'. On further straining, the B19'-phase grows along precipitate/matrix interfaces. However, no formation of R-phase precedes the formation of stress-induced B19'

  1. Temperature and strain registration by fibre-optic strain sensor in the polymer composite materials manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveenko; Kosheleva; Shardakov; Voronkov

    2018-04-01

    The presence of process-induced strains induced by various manufacturing and operational factors is one of the characteristics of polymer composite materials (PCM). Conventional methods of registration and evaluation of process-induced strains can be laborious, time-consuming and demanding in terms of technical applications. The employment of embedded fibre-optic strain sensors (FOSS) offers a real prospect of measuring residual strains. This paper demonstrates the potential for using embedded FOSS for recording technological strains in a PCM plate. The PCM plate is manufactured from prepreg, using the direct compression-moulding method. In this method, the prepared reinforcing package is placed inside a mould, heated, and then exposed to compaction pressure. The examined technology can be used for positioning FOSS between the layers of the composite material. Fibre-optic sensors, interacting with the material of the examined object, make it possible to register the evolution of the strain process during all stages of polymer-composite formation. FOSS data were recorded with interrogator ASTRO X 327. The obtained data were processed using specially developed algorithms.

  2. Cells as strain-cued automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian N.; Snead, Malcolm L.

    2016-02-01

    We argue in favor of representing living cells as automata and review demonstrations that autonomous cells can form patterns by responding to local variations in the strain fields that arise from their individual or collective motions. An autonomous cell's response to strain stimuli is assumed to be effected by internally-generated, internally-powered forces, which generally move the cell in directions other than those implied by external energy gradients. Evidence of cells acting as strain-cued automata have been inferred from patterns observed in nature and from experiments conducted in vitro. Simulations that mimic particular cases of pattern forming share the idealization that cells are assumed to pass information among themselves solely via mechanical boundary conditions, i.e., the tractions and displacements present at their membranes. This assumption opens three mechanisms for pattern formation in large cell populations: wavelike behavior, kinematic feedback in cell motility that can lead to sliding and rotational patterns, and directed migration during invasions. Wavelike behavior among ameloblast cells during amelogenesis (the formation of dental enamel) has been inferred from enamel microstructure, while strain waves in populations of epithelial cells have been observed in vitro. One hypothesized kinematic feedback mechanism, "enhanced shear motility", accounts successfully for the spontaneous formation of layered patterns during amelogenesis in the mouse incisor. Directed migration is exemplified by a theory of invader cells that sense and respond to the strains they themselves create in the host population as they invade it: analysis shows that the strain fields contain positional information that could aid the formation of cell network structures, stabilizing the slender geometry of branches and helping govern the frequency of branch bifurcation and branch coalescence (the formation of closed networks). In simulations of pattern formation in

  3. Influence of strain relaxation in axial [Formula: see text] nanowire heterostructures on their electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Oliver; Krause, Thilo; Kaganer, Vladimir; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Hanke, Michael; Brandt, Oliver

    2017-05-26

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the influence of elastic strain relaxation on the built-in electrostatic potentials and the electronic properties of axial [Formula: see text] nanowire (NW) heterostructures. Our simulations reveal that for a sufficiently large ratio between the thickness of the [Formula: see text] disk and the diameter of the NW, the elastic relaxation leads to a significant reduction of the built-in electrostatic potential in comparison to a planar system of similar layer thickness and In content. In this case, the ground state transition energies approach constant values with increasing thickness of the disk and only depend on the In content, a behavior usually associated to that of a quantum well free of built-in electrostatic potentials. We show that the structures under consideration are by no means field-free, and the built-in potentials continue to play an important role even for ultrathin NWs. In particular, strain and the resulting polarization potentials induce complex confinement features of electrons and holes, which depend on the In content, shape, and dimensions of the heterostructure.

  4. Thickness-Dependent Surfactant Behavior in Trilayer Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Wang, Jin

    2010-03-01

    The ability for thin liquid films to wet and remain thermodynamically stable on top of one another is a fundamental challenge in developing high quality paints, coatings, adhesives, and other industrial products. Since intermolecular interactions and interfacial energies dominate in the film thickness regime from tens to hundreds of nanometers, it is desirable to tune these long-range and short-range forces in a simple, controllable manner. Starting from an unstable model homopolymer bilayer (poly(styrene)/poly(4-vinylpyridine)), we demonstrate that sandwiching an additional homopolymer layer (poly(4-bromostyrene)) between the two layers can provide needed surfactancy. As the thickness of this center layer is increased, the full trilayer transitions from unstable (thin) to stable (moderate) to unstable (thick). We experimentally show using x-ray standing waves generated via total external reflection (TER-XSW), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) that this behavior can be directly attributed to the autophobic dewetting phenomenon, in which the surfactant layer is thin enough to remain stable but thick enough to shield the neighboring layers, highlighting a general approach to stabilizing multilayer systems.

  5. Spin-dependent delay time and Hartman effect in asymmetrical graphene barrier under strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattari, Farhad; Mirershadi, Soghra

    2018-01-01

    We study the spin-dependent tunneling time, including group delay and dwell time, in a graphene based asymmetrical barrier with Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the presence of strain, sandwiched between two normal leads. We find that the spin-dependent tunneling time can be efficiently tuned by the barrier width, and the bias voltage. Moreover, for the zigzag direction strain although the oscillation period of the dwell time does not change, the oscillation amplitude increases by increasing the incident electron angle. It is found that for the armchair direction strain unlike the zigzag direction the group delay time at the normal incidence depends on the spin state of electrons and Hartman effect can be observed. In addition, for the armchair direction strain the spin polarization increases with increasing the RSOI strength and the bias voltage. The magnitude and sign of spin polarization can be manipulated by strain. In particular, by applying an external electric field the efficiency of the spin polarization is improved significantly in strained graphene, and a fully spin-polarized current is generated.

  6. Characterization of oriented cracks with differential strain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegfried, R.; Simmons, G.

    1978-01-01

    Linear strain of a rock sample as a function of hydrostatic pressure can be measured with a precision of 2 x 10 -6 . Such high-precision data for three orthogonal directions allow calculation of the distribution function for the porosity due to cracks closing completely at a given pressure. Such data for at least six independent directions yield the zero-pressure strain tensor due to cracks closing completely at a given pressure. The principal values and axes of this tensor distribution function provide information about the orientation of cracks as a function of closure pressure. In this manuscript we first develop the mathematical basis for the technique and then illustrate it with differential strain data for two samples, the Westerly (Rhode Island) granite and the Twin Sisters (Washington) dunite. Strain tensor calculations reveal that each of these samples has a different type of anisotropic crack distribution

  7. The NRL 2011 Airborne Sea-Ice Thickness Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozena, J. M.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2011-12-01

    In March of 2011, the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed a study focused on the estimation of sea-ice thickness from airborne radar, laser and photogrammetric sensors. The study was funded by ONR to take advantage of the Navy's ICEX2011 ice-camp /submarine exercise, and to serve as a lead-in year for NRL's five year basic research program on the measurement and modeling of sea-ice scheduled to take place from 2012-2017. Researchers from the Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and NRL worked with the Navy Arctic Submarine Lab (ASL) to emplace a 9 km-long ground-truth line near the ice-camp (see Richter-Menge et al., this session) along which ice and snow thickness were directly measured. Additionally, US Navy submarines collected ice draft measurements under the groundtruth line. Repeat passes directly over the ground-truth line were flown and a grid surrounding the line was also flown to collect altimeter, LiDAR and Photogrammetry data. Five CRYOSAT-2 satellite tracks were underflown, as well, coincident with satellite passage. Estimates of sea ice thickness are calculated assuming local hydrostatic balance, and require the densities of water, ice and snow, snow depth, and freeboard (defined as the elevation of sea ice, plus accumulated snow, above local sea level). Snow thickness is estimated from the difference between LiDAR and radar altimeter profiles, the latter of which is assumed to penetrate any snow cover. The concepts we used to estimate ice thickness are similar to those employed in NASA ICEBRIDGE sea-ice thickness estimation. Airborne sensors used for our experiment were a Reigl Q-560 scanning topographic LiDAR, a pulse-limited (2 nS), 10 GHz radar altimeter and an Applanix DSS-439 digital photogrammetric camera (for lead identification). Flights were conducted on a Twin Otter aircraft from Pt. Barrow, AK, and averaged ~ 5 hours in duration. It is challenging to directly compare results from the swath LiDAR with the

  8. Occipital bone thickness: Implications on occipital-cervical fusion. A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghooni, Kourosh; Boese, Chrisoph K; Siewe, Jan; Röllinghoff, Marc; Eysel, Peer; Scheyerer, Max J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to create a map of the occipital bone using a cadaveric morphometric analysis. Twelve heads, from seven male and five female cadavers, were studied. The thickness of the occipital bone was measured with a digital vernier caliper within a coordinate system. The maximum thickness of the occipital bone could be measured at the external occipital protuberance (mean 15.4 mm; range 9-29.3 mm). All male individuals had higher bone thickness around this point. Further lateral a steady decrease of bone thickness could be observed. Same could be observed in craniocaudal direction. However, values above the superior nuchal line were on average thicker than below. The measurements demonstrated a great individual variability of bone thickness of the occipital bone. The results emphasize the role of preoperative planning for the feasibility of placement of an occipital screw. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thickness-dependent a_1/a_2 domain evolution in ferroelectric PbTiO_3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.; Zhu, Y.L.; Tang, Y.L.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, S.R.; Wang, Y.J.; Ma, X.L.

    2017-01-01

    Ferroelectric a_1/a_2 domain structure has great potentials in high dielectric capacitors and tunable microwave devices. Understanding its structure is crucial to better control the domain configurations for future applications. In this paper, PbTiO_3 thin films with variant thicknesses are deposited on (110)-oriented GdScO_3 substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and investigated by using conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Cs-corrected Scanning TEM. Contrast analysis and electron diffractions reveal that PbTiO_3 films are domain oriented consisting of a_1/a_2 and a/c domain structure. The a_1/a_2 domains are found to distribute periodically and its width increases with increasing film thickness following square root rule. Cs-corrected STEM imaging demonstrates that the domain walls of a_1/a_2 domain structure have the rotation characteristic of 90° ferroelastic domain wall. The interchange of a_1/a_2 domains induces the formation of vertex domains composed of two 90° and one 180° domain walls. Strains are mainly concentrated on the domain walls. The formation of this complex domain configuration is discussed in terms of the effect of the misfit strain, film thickness and cooling rate. These results provide novel information about a_1/a_2 domain structures and are expected to shed some light on modulating a_1/a_2 ferroelectric domain patterns in the design of ferroelectric-based devices.

  10. Increased endometrial thickness in women with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, J; Auslender, R; Goldstein, S; Kohan, R; Stolar, Z; Abramovici, H

    2000-09-01

    We noticed an increase in endometrial thickness in women with hypertension who were treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the endometrium of hypertensive women is thicker than that of healthy women and to determine whether endometrial thickening in hypertensive women is directly related to the antihypertensive beta-blocker treatment. We compared 3 groups of postmenopausal patients as follows: (1) women with a history of essential hypertension treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers; (2) women with a history of hypertension treated with a combination of medications that did not include beta-blockers; and (3) healthy women without hypertension. All patients were interviewed and examined, blood tests were performed, and endometrial thickness in the anterior-posterior diameter was measured by vaginal ultrasonography. Among the exclusion criteria were diabetes or an abnormal fasting blood glucose level, obesity, hormonal medication or replacement hormonal therapy during the previous 6 months, and a history of hormonal disturbances, infertility, or polycystic ovary syndrome. Of 45 hypertensive women enrolled in the study, 22 were treated with a beta-blocker combination medication and 23 were treated with other antihypertensive medications. They were compared with 25 healthy women. There was no statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness between women treated with medications, including beta-blockers, and those who were treated with other hypotensive agents. Twenty percent of women with hypertension and none of the healthy women had endometrium >5 mm thick (P infinity). Twenty percent of hypertensive postmenopausal women were found to have increased endometrial thickness. However, we were unable to substantiate an association between the type of treatment administered, whether beta-blockers were included, and the increase in endometrial thickness.

  11. Inverse Funnel Effect of Excitons in Strained Black Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo San-Jose

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of strain on the properties and dynamics of Wannier excitons in monolayer (phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus (BP, a promising two-dimensional material for optoelectronic applications due to its high mobility, mechanical strength, and strain-tunable direct band gap. We compare the results to the case of molybdenum disulphide (MoS_{2} monolayers. We find that the so-called funnel effect, i.e., the possibility of controlling exciton motion by means of inhomogeneous strains, is much stronger in few-layer BP than in MoS_{2} monolayers and, crucially, is of opposite sign. Instead of excitons accumulating isotropically around regions of high tensile strain like in MoS_{2}, excitons in BP are pushed away from said regions. This inverse funnel effect is moreover highly anisotropic, with much larger funnel distances along the armchair crystallographic direction, leading to a directional focusing of exciton flow. A strong inverse funnel effect could enable simpler designs of funnel solar cells and offer new possibilities for the manipulation and harvesting of light.

  12. Choroidal thickness in Malaysian eyes with full-thickness macular holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Y Tan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare choroidal thickness at the macula in eyes with unilateral idiopathic full-thickness macular holes(FTMHwith that of unaffected fellow eyes, and eyes of normal control patients.METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Thirty patients with unilateral idiopathic FTMH and thirty age, sex, and race-matched controls were recruited. Axial lengths were measured using laser interferometry. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images were obtained using Heidelberg spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea, and at 1 mm and 2 mm nasally, temporally, superiorly and inferiorly from the center of the fovea. Statistical analysis was performed using independent and paired t-tests, chi-square tests, and Pearson correlation tests(PRESULTS: The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 201.0±44.0 μm in the FTMH group, 225.3±51.4 μm in the fellow eye group and 262.3±70.3 μm in the control group. The choroid was thinner in FTMH eyes at all locations when compared to control eyes(PPP>0.05. Choroidal thickness was generally highest subfoveally and lowest nasally. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age(r=-0.278, P=0.032, and axial length(r=-0.328, P=0.011.CONCLUSION: Choroidal thickness is lower in both eyes of patients with unilateral FTMH compared to healthy control eyes.

  13. Direct comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking and 2D/3D echocardiography speckle tracking for evaluation of global left ventricular strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obokata, Masaru; Nagata, Yasufumi; Wu, Victor Chien-Chia; Kado, Yuichiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Otsuji, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Masaaki

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) feature tracking (FT) with steady-state free precession (SSFP) has advantages over traditional myocardial tagging to analyse left ventricular (LV) strain. However, direct comparisons of CMRFT and 2D/3D echocardiography speckle tracking (2/3DEST) for measurement of LV strain are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and reliability of CMRFT and 2D/3DEST for measurement of global LV strain. We enrolled 106 patients who agreed to undergo both CMR and 2D/3DE on the same day. SSFP images at multiple short-axis and three apical views were acquired. 2DE images from three levels of short-axis, three apical views, and 3D full-volume datasets were also acquired. Strain data were expressed as absolute values. Feasibility was highest in CMRFT, followed by 2DEST and 3DEST. Analysis time was shortest in 3DEST, followed by CMRFT and 2DEST. There was good global longitudinal strain (GLS) correlation between CMRFT and 2D/3DEST (r = 0.83 and 0.87, respectively) with the limit of agreement (LOA) ranged from ±3.6 to ±4.9%. Excellent global circumferential strain (GCS) correlation between CMRFT and 2D/3DEST was observed (r = 0.90 and 0.88) with LOA of ±6.8-8.5%. Global radial strain showed fair correlations (r = 0.69 and 0.82, respectively) with LOA ranged from ±12.4 to ±16.3%. CMRFT GCS showed least observer variability with highest intra-class correlation. Although not interchangeable, the high GLS and GCS correlation between CMRFT and 2D/3DEST makes CMRFT a useful modality for quantification of global LV strain in patients, especially those with suboptimal echo image quality. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Ultrathin epidermal strain sensor based on an elastomer nanosheet with an inkjet-printed conductive polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsu, Yuma; Yamagishi, Kento; Kato, Akira; Matsumoto, Yuya; Tsukune, Mariko; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G.; Takeoka, Shinji; Fujie, Toshinori

    2017-08-01

    To minimize the interference that skin-contact strain sensors cause natural skin deformation, physical conformability to the epidermal structure is critical. Here, we developed an ultrathin strain sensor made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) inkjet-printed on a polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene (SBS) nanosheet. The sensor, whose total thickness and gauge factor were ˜1 µm and 0.73 ± 0.10, respectively, deeply conformed to the epidermal structure and successfully detected the small skin strain (˜2%) while interfering minimally with the natural deformation of the skin. Such an epidermal strain sensor will open a new avenue for precisely detecting the motion of human skin and artificial soft-robotic skin.

  15. Thickness and roughness measurements of nano thin films by interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sabzalipour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the standard optical interference fringes approach, by measuring shift of the interference fringes due to step edge of thin film on substrate, thickness of the layer has already been measured. In order to improve the measurement precision of this popular method, the interference fringes intensity curve was extracted and analyzed before and after the step preparation. By this method, one can measure a few nanometers films thickness. In addition, using the interference fringes intensity curve and its fluctuations, the roughness of surface is measured within a few nanometers accuracy. Comparison of our results with some direct methods of thickness and roughness measurements, i.e. using surface profilemeter and atomic force microscopy confirms the accuracy of the suggested improvements.

  16. Direct fabrication of integrated 3D Au nanobox arrays by sidewall deposition with controllable heights and thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Nam-Goo; Lee, Bong Kuk; Kanki, Teruo; Lee, Hea Yeon; Kawai, Tomoji; Tanaka, Hidekazu, E-mail: h-tanaka@sanken.osaka-u.ac.j [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2009-09-30

    This paper provides a unique strategy for controlling integrated hollow nanostructure arrays such as boxes or pillars at the nanometer scale. The key merit of this technique is that it can overcome resolution limits by sidewall deposition and deposit various materials using a sputtering method. The sputtering method can be replaced by other dry deposition techniques such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for complex functional materials. Furthermore, it can produce low-cost large-area fabrication and high reproducibility using the NIL (nanoimprint lithograph) process. The fabrication method consists of a sequence of bilayer spin-coating, UV-NIL, RIE (reactive ion etching), sputtering, ion milling and piranha cleaning processes. By changing the deposition time and molds, various thicknesses and shapes can be fabricated, respectively. Furthermore, the fabricated Au box nanostructure has a bending zone of the top layer and a {approx}17 nm undercut of the bottom layer as observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope). The sidewall thickness was changed from 12 to 61 nm by controlling the deposition time, and was investigated to understand the relationship with blanket thicknesses and geometric effects. The calculated sidewall thickness matched well with experimental results. Using smaller hole-patterned molds, integrated nanobox arrays, with inner squares measuring {approx}160 nm, and nanopillar arrays, with inside pores measuring {approx}65 nm, were fabricated under the same conditions.

  17. Strain engineering of WS2, WSe2, and WTe2

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin

    2014-01-01

    We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of WS2, WSe2, and WTe2 monolayers, taking into account the strong spin orbit coupling. A transition from a direct to an indirect band gap is achieved for compressive strain of 1% for WS2, 1.5% for WSe2, and 2% for WTe 2, while the nature of the band gap remains direct in the case of tensile strain. The size of the band gap passes through a maximum under compressive strain and decreases monotonically under tensile strain. A strong spin splitting is found for the valence band in all three compounds, which is further enhanced by tensile strain. The mobility of the electrons grows along the series WS2 < WSe2 < WTe2. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  18. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  19. Direct restoration modalities of fractured central maxillary incisors: A multi-levels validated finite elements analysis with in vivo strain measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davide, Apicella; Raffaella, Aversa; Marco, Tatullo; Michele, Simeone; Syed, Jamaluddin; Massimo, Marrelli; Marco, Ferrari; Antonio, Apicella

    2015-12-01

    To quantify the influence of fracture geometry and restorative materials rigidity on the stress intensity and distribution of restored fractured central maxillary incisors (CMI) with particular investigation of the adhesive interfaces. Ancillary objectives are to present an innovative technology to measure the in vivo strain state of sound maxillary incisors and to present the collected data. A validation experimental biomechanics approach has been associated to finite element analysis. FEA models consisted of CMI, periodontal ligament and the corresponding alveolar bone process. Three models were created representing different orientation of the fracture planes. Three different angulations of the fracture plane in buccal-palatal direction were modeled: the fracture plane perpendicular to the long axis in the buccal-palatal direction (0°); the fracture plane inclined bucco-palatally in apical-coronal direction (-30°); the fracture plane inclined palatal-buccally in apical-coronal direction (+30°). First set of computing runs was performed for in vivo FE-model validation purposes. In the second part, a 50N force was applied on the buccal aspect of the CMI models. Ten patients were selected and subjected to the strain measurement of CMI under controlled loading conditions. The main differences were noticed in the middle and incisal thirds of incisors crowns, due to the presence of the incisal portion restoration. The stress intensity in -30° models is increased in the enamel structure close to the restoration, due to a thinning of the remaining natural tissues. The rigidity of the restoring material slightly reduces such phenomenon. -30° model exhibits the higher interfacial stress in the adhesive layer with respect to +30° and 0° models. The lower stress intensity was noticed in the 0° models, restoration material rigidity did not influenced the interfacial stress state in 0° models. On the contrary, material rigidity influenced the interfacial stress state

  20. Pseudomagnetic fields and triaxial strain in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomagnetic fields, which can result from nonuniform strain distributions, have received much attention in graphene systems due to the possibility of mimicking real magnetic fields with magnitudes of greater than 100 T. We examine systems with such strains confined to finite regions ("pseudoma......Pseudomagnetic fields, which can result from nonuniform strain distributions, have received much attention in graphene systems due to the possibility of mimicking real magnetic fields with magnitudes of greater than 100 T. We examine systems with such strains confined to finite regions......-binding calculations of single pseudomagnetic dots in extended graphene sheets confirm these predictions, and are also used to study the effect of rotating the strain direction with respect to the underlying graphene lattice, and varying the size of the pseudomagnetic dot....

  1. Engineering the quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene with uniaxial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, G. S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, M. R. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Qu, F. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    We theoretically investigate the manipulation of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in graphene by means of the uniaxial strain. The values of Chern number and Hall conductance demonstrate that the strained graphene in presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling and exchange field, for vanishing intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, possesses non-trivial topological phase, which is robust against the direction and modulus of the strain. Besides, we also find that the interplay between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit couplings results in a topological phase transition in the strained graphene. Remarkably, as the strain strength is increased beyond approximately 7%, the critical parameters of the exchange field for triggering the quantum anomalous Hall phase transition show distinct behaviors—decrease (increase) for strains along zigzag (armchair) direction. Our findings open up a new platform for manipulation of the QAHE by an experimentally accessible strain deformation of the graphene structure, with promising application on novel quantum electronic devices with high efficiency.

  2. Engineering the quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene with uniaxial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, G. S.; Guassi, M. R.; Qu, F.

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the manipulation of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in graphene by means of the uniaxial strain. The values of Chern number and Hall conductance demonstrate that the strained graphene in presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling and exchange field, for vanishing intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, possesses non-trivial topological phase, which is robust against the direction and modulus of the strain. Besides, we also find that the interplay between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit couplings results in a topological phase transition in the strained graphene. Remarkably, as the strain strength is increased beyond approximately 7%, the critical parameters of the exchange field for triggering the quantum anomalous Hall phase transition show distinct behaviors—decrease (increase) for strains along zigzag (armchair) direction. Our findings open up a new platform for manipulation of the QAHE by an experimentally accessible strain deformation of the graphene structure, with promising application on novel quantum electronic devices with high efficiency

  3. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopata, R.G.P.; Nillesen, M.M.; Verrijp, C.N.; Singh, S.K.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Wetten, H.B. van; Thijssen, J.M.; Kapusta, L.; Korte, C.L. de

    2010-01-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to

  4. Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization of laminated composite structures including failure criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This work extends the Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization approach to structural optimization problems where strength considerations in the form of failure criteria are taken into account for laminated composite structures. It takes offset in the density approaches applied for stress...... constrained topology optimization of single-material problems and develops formulations for multi-material topology optimization problems applied for laminated composite structures. The method can be applied for both stress- and strain-based failure criteria. The large number of local constraints is reduced...

  5. Clinical feasibility and validation of 3D principal strain analysis from cine MRI: comparison to 2D strain by MRI and 3D speckle tracking echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriano, Alessandro; Heydari, Bobak; Narous, Mariam; Exner, Derek V; Mikami, Yoko; Attwood, Monica M; Tyberg, John V; Lydell, Carmen P; Howarth, Andrew G; Fine, Nowell M; White, James A

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) strain analysis is constrained by geometry-dependent reference directions of deformation (i.e. radial, circumferential, and longitudinal) following the assumption of cylindrical chamber architecture. Three-dimensional (3D) principal strain analysis may overcome such limitations by referencing intrinsic (i.e. principal) directions of deformation. This study aimed to demonstrate clinical feasibility of 3D principal strain analysis from routine 2D cine MRI with validation to strain from 2D tagged cine analysis and 3D speckle tracking echocardiography. Thirty-one patients undergoing cardiac MRI were studied. 3D strain was measured from routine, multi-planar 2D cine SSFP images using custom software designed to apply 4D deformation fields to 3D cardiac models to derive principal strain. Comparisons of strain estimates versus those by 2D tagged cine, 2D non-tagged cine (feature tracking), and 3D speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) were performed. Mean age was 51 ± 14 (36% female). Mean LV ejection fraction was 66 ± 10% (range 37-80%). 3D principal strain analysis was feasible in all subjects and showed high inter- and intra-observer reproducibility (ICC range 0.83-0.97 and 0.83-0.98, respectively-p analysis is feasible using routine, multi-planar 2D cine MRI and shows high reproducibility with strong correlations to 2D conventional strain analysis and 3D STE-based analysis. Given its independence from geometry-related directions of deformation this technique may offer unique benefit for the detection and prognostication of myocardial disease, and warrants expanded investigation.

  6. Thick-Walled Cylinder Theory Applied on a Conical Wedge Anchorage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennitz, Anders; Grip, Niklas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2011-01-01

    for further development of the anchorage.In this paper, we derive and examine an analytical model for the internal stresses and strains within the anchorage for a prescribed presetting distance. This model is derived from the theory of thick walled cylinders under the assumptions regarding plane stress...... and axial symmetry. We simplify the resulting system of ten nonlinear equations and derive a method for solving them numerically. A comparison of plotted results for three different angles on the wedge’s outer surface and six different presetting distances follows.These results are also compared to both axi...

  7. Visualization of nanocrystal breathing modes at extreme strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Erzsi; Wittenberg, Joshua S.; Miller, Timothy A.; Lutker, Katie; Quirin, Florian; Lemke, Henrik; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Matthieu; Robinson, Joseph; Wen, Haidan; Sokolowski-Tinten, Klaus; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2015-03-01

    Nanoscale dimensions in materials lead to unique electronic and structural properties with applications ranging from site-specific drug delivery to anodes for lithium-ion batteries. These functional properties often involve large-amplitude strains and structural modifications, and thus require an understanding of the dynamics of these processes. Here we use femtosecond X-ray scattering techniques to visualize, in real time and with atomic-scale resolution, light-induced anisotropic strains in nanocrystal spheres and rods. Strains at the percent level are observed in CdS and CdSe samples, associated with a rapid expansion followed by contraction along the nanosphere or nanorod radial direction driven by a transient carrier-induced stress. These morphological changes occur simultaneously with the first steps in the melting transition on hundreds of femtosecond timescales. This work represents the first direct real-time probe of the dynamics of these large-amplitude strains and shape changes in few-nanometre-scale particles.

  8. Strain characterization of fin-shaped field effect transistors with SiGe stressors using nanobeam electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Wook; Byeon, Dae-Seop; Jang, Hyunchul; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ko, Dae-Hong; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    This study undertook strain analysis on fin-shaped field effect transistor structures with epitaxial Si 1−x Ge x stressors, using nano-beam electron diffraction and finite elements method. Combining the two methods disclosed dynamic strain distribution in the source/drain and channel region of the fin structure, and the effects of dimensional factors such as the stressor thickness and fin width, offering valuable information for device design.

  9. Strain characterization of fin-shaped field effect transistors with SiGe stressors using nanobeam electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun-Wook; Byeon, Dae-Seop; Jang, Hyunchul; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ko, Dae-Hong, E-mail: dhko@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hoo-Jeong, E-mail: hlee@skku.edu [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-25

    This study undertook strain analysis on fin-shaped field effect transistor structures with epitaxial Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} stressors, using nano-beam electron diffraction and finite elements method. Combining the two methods disclosed dynamic strain distribution in the source/drain and channel region of the fin structure, and the effects of dimensional factors such as the stressor thickness and fin width, offering valuable information for device design.

  10. Strain and crystalline defects in epitaxial GaN layers studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chierchia, Rosa

    2007-07-01

    This thesis treats strain and dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers. The mosaic structure of metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)-grown GaN layers was studied in dependence on the grain diameter utilizing high-resolution XRD. Different models for the defect structure were analyzed, the edge type TD densities were calculated under the assumption that the dislocations are not randomly distributed but localized at the grain boundaries. Moreover, in situ measurements have shown that the layers are under tension in the c-plane when a nucleation layer is used. The second part of this thesis treats a particular approach to reduce dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers, i.e. maskless pendeo epitaxial growth of MOVPE GAN layers. FE simulations assuming the strain to be completely induced during cooling of the structures after growth agree only partly with experimental data. The strain state of single layers and stripes of GaN grown on SiC was studied to exploit the evolution of the strain in the different phases of the PE growth. The biaxial compressive stress, due to the lattice mismatch between the GaN layer and the AlN nucleation layer is plastically relieved before overgrowth. Temperature dependent measurements show a linear reduction of the wing tilt with increasing temperature varying from sample to sample. Bent TDs have been observed in TEM images of maskless PE samples. Stress induced from the mismatch between the AlN buffer layer and the GaN also contributes to the remaining part of the wing tilt not relieved thermally. It has to be noted that the rest tilt value varies from sample to sample at the growth temperature. In fact some of the data indicate that the wing tilt decreases with increasing V/III ratio. In the last Chapter the application of X-ray techniques for the analysis of strain and composition in layers of inhomogeneous composition is explored. In the first part of the Chapter the strain state and the Al content of AlGaN buffer layers grown directly on (0001

  11. Strain-induced recovery of electronic anisotropy in 90°-twisted bilayer phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiafeng; Luo, Qiangjun; Jia, Lei; Zhang, Z. Y.; Shi, H. G.; Yang, D. Z.; Si, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that anisotropy determines the preferred transport direction of carriers. To manipulate the anisotropy is an exciting topic in two-dimensional materials, where the carriers are confined within individual layers. In this work, it is found that uniaxial strain can tune the electronic anisotropy of the 90°-twisted bilayer phosphorene. In this unique bilayer structure, the zigzag direction of one layer corresponds to the armchair one of the other layer and vice versa. Owing to this complementary structure, the directional (zigzag or armchair) deformation response to strain of one layer is opposite to that of the other layer, where the in-plane positive Poisson's ratio plays a key role. As a result, the doubly degenerate highest valence bands split, followed by a recovery of anisotropy. More interestingly, such an anisotropy, namely, the ratio of the effective mass along the Γ \\text- X direction to that along the Γ \\text- Y direction, reaches as high as 6 under a small strain of 1%, and keeps nearly unchanged up to a strain of 3%. In addition, high anisotropy only holds for hole carriers as the conduction band is insensitive to strain. These findings should shed new light on the design of semiconducting devices, where the hole acts as the transport carrier.

  12. Effect of GaAs interlayer thickness variations on the optical properties of multiple InAs QD structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.Y.; Park, K.W.; Kim, J.M.; Lee, Y.T.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) with vertically stacked structure are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and the effects of GaAs interlayer thickness variation on optical properties are studied. The growth conditions are optimized by in-situ RHEED, AFM, and PL measurement. The five InAs QD layers are embedded in GaAs and Al0.3Ga0.7As layer. The PL intensity is increased with increasing GaAs interlayer thickness. The thin GaAs interlayer has strain field, the strain-induced intermixing of indium atoms in the InAs QDs (blue-shift) can overcompensate for the effect on the increased QD size (red-shift) (H. Heidemeyer et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1544 (2002); T. Nakaoka et al. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 150 (2004)[1, 2], respectively). For the interlayer thickness larger than about 7 nm, the blue-shifts are correlated to the dominant high-energy excited state transitions due to the successive state filling of the ground and higher excited states in the QDs. The energy separation of double PL peaks, originated from two different excited states, was kept at around 50 meV at room temperature. A possible mechanism concerning this phenomenon is also discussed. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Piezoelectric strained layer semiconductor lasers and integrated modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The properties, benefits and limitations of strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum well lasers and modulators grown on (111)B GaAs have been studied. Particular interest in this material system arose from the predicted increase in critical layer thickness, which would facilitate semiconductor lasers emitting beyond 1 μm. However, the recent discovery of a new type of misfit dislocation indicates that the critical layer thickness in this system is closer to that of (001) orientated structures. Photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy presented in this study support this predicted reduction of the critical layer thickness and the resulting limitations on the emission wavelength. The absence of 3D growth in this system may however be advantageous when high reproducibility and reliable lasing operation beyond 1 μm are required. The piezoelectric field originating from strained growth on substrate orientations other than (001) was studied and its influence on transition energies and absorptive behaviour were investigated. The piezoelectric constant was found to show significant temperature dependence and, as also indicated in earlier studies, its value is smaller then the linearly interpolated value. When the effects of indium segregation on the transition energies is considered, the reduction is significantly smaller. Good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained using 86% of the value linearly interpolated between the binaries at room temperature and 82% at low temperature. Broad area lasers were fabricated emitting at lasing wavelengths of up to 1.08 μm with threshold current densities as low as 80 A/cm 2 at room temperature under continuous wave operation. Increasing the indium composition and strain within the limit of strain relaxation was demonstrated to improve device performance significantly. Furthermore, ridge waveguide lasers were fabricated exhibiting monomode emission at wavelengths up to 1.07 μm with a threshold current of 19 mA at

  14. Effect of CT Specimen Thickness on the Mechanical Characteristics at the Crack Tip of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Ni-based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinghao, Cui; He, Xue; Lingyan, Zhao

    2017-12-01

    It’s important to obtain accurate stress corrosion crack(SCC) growth rate for quantitative life prediction of components in nuclear power plants. However, the engineering practice shows that the crack tip constraint effect has a great influence on the mechanical properties and crack growth rate of SCC at crack tip. To study the influence of the specimen thickness on the crack tip mechanical properties of SCC, the stress, strain and C integral at creep crack tip are analyzed under different specimens thickness. Results show that the cracked specimen is less likely to crack due to effect of crack tip constraint. When the thickness ratio B/W is larger than 0.1, the crack tip constraint is almost ineffective. Value of C integral is the largest when B/W is 0.25. Then specimen thickness has little effect on the value of C integral. The effect of specimen thickness on the value of C integral is less significant at higher thickness ratio.

  15. Strain in the mesoscale kinetic Monte Carlo model for sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Tikare, V.

    2014-01-01

    anisotropic strains for homogeneous powder compacts with aspect ratios different from unity. It is shown that the line direction biases shrinkage strains in proportion the compact dimension aspect ratios. A new algorithm that corrects this bias in strains is proposed; the direction for collapsing the column...... densification by vacancy annihilation removes an isolated pore site at a grain boundary and collapses a column of sites extending from the vacancy to the surface of sintering compact, through the center of mass of the nearest grain. Using this algorithm, the existing published kMC models are shown to produce...

  16. Highly Efficient Spin-to-Charge Current Conversion in Strained HgTe Surface States Protected by a HgCdTe Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, P.; Thomas, C.; Fu, Y.; Vila, L.; Haas, B.; Jouneau, P.-H.; Gambarelli, S.; Meunier, T.; Ballet, P.; Attané, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    We report the observation of spin-to-charge current conversion in strained mercury telluride at room temperature, using spin pumping experiments. We show that a HgCdTe barrier can be used to protect the HgTe from direct contact with the ferromagnet, leading to very high conversion rates, with inverse Edelstein lengths up to 2.0 ±0.5 nm . The influence of the HgTe layer thickness on the conversion efficiency is found to differ strongly from what is expected in spin Hall effect systems. These measurements, associated with the temperature dependence of the resistivity, suggest that these high conversion rates are due to the spin momentum locking property of HgTe surface states.

  17. Discussion on accuracy of weld residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction. Influence of strain free reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Akita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    It is required to evaluate a strain-free reference, α 0 , to perform accurate stress measurement using neutron diffraction. In this study, accuracy of neutron stress measurement was quantitatively discussed from α 0 evaluations on a dissimilar metal butt-weld between a type 304 austenitic stainless steel and an A533B low alloy ferritic steel. A strain-free standard specimen and a sliced specimen with 10 mm thickness taken from the dissimilar metal butt-weld were utilized. In the lattice constant evaluation using the standard specimen, average lattice constant derived from multiple hkl reflections was evaluated as the stress-free reference with cancelling out an intergranular strain. Comparing lattice constant distributions in each reflection with average lattice constant distribution in the standard specimen, αFe211 and γFe311 reflections were judged as a suitable reflection for neutron strain measurement to reduce intergranular strain effects. Residual stress distribution in the sliced specimen evaluated using α 0 measured here exhibited higher accuracy than that measured using strain gauges. On the other hand, α 0 distributions were evaluated using the sliced specimen under the plane-stress condition. Existence of slight longitudinal residual stresses near the weld center decreased accuracy of the α 0 evaluations, which means that it is required to optimize the thickness of the sliced specimen for accurate α 0 evaluation under plane strain condition. As a conclusion of this study, it was confirmed that procedures of accurate α 0 evaluation, optimization of the measurement condition, and multiple evaluations on the results play an important role to improve accuracy of the residual stress measurement using neutron diffraction. (author)

  18. A new strain based brick element for plate bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Belounar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a new three-dimensional brick finite element by the use of the strain based approach for the linear analysis of plate bending. The developed element has the three essential external degrees of freedom (U, V and W at each of the eight corner nodes as well as at the centroidal node. The displacement field of the developed element is based on assumed functions for the various strains satisfying the compatibility equations and the static condensation technique is used for the internal node. The performance of this element is evaluated on several problems related to thick and thin plate bending in linear analysis. The obtained results show the good performances and accuracy of the present element.

  19. Contact problems of a rectangular block on an elastic layer of finite thickness. Part I: The thin layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.B.; Kuipers, M.

    1969-01-01

    We consider a layer of finite thickness loaded in plane strain by a stamp with a straight horizontal base, which is smooth and rigid. The stamp is pressed vertically into the layer and is slightly rotated by an external moment load subsequently. Two cases are considered successively: the lower side

  20. Creep deformation behavior of weld metal and heat affected zone on 316FR steel thick plate welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Hiromichi; Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kinugawa, Junichi; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Monma, Yoshio; Nakazawa, Takanori

    1999-01-01

    Using hot-rolled 316FR stainless plate (50 mm thick) and 16Cr-8Ni-2Mo filler wire, a narrow-gap welded joint was prepared by GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process. In addition to conventional round bar specimens of base metals and weld metal, full-thickness joint specimens were prepared for creep test. Creep tests were conducted at 550degC in order to examine creep deformation and rupture behavior in the weld metal of the welded joint. Creep strain distribution on the surface of the joint specimen was measured by moire interferometry. In the welded joint, creep strength of the weld metal zone apart from the surface was larger than that in the vicinity of the surface due to repeating heat cycles during welding. Creep strain and creep rate within the HAZ adjacent to the weld metal zone were smaller than those within the base metal zone. Creep rate of the weld metal zone in the welded joint was smaller than that of the weld metal specimen due to the restraint of the hardened HAZ adjacent to the zone. The full-thickness welded joint specimens showed longer lives than weld metal specimens, though the lives of the latter was shorter than those of the base metal (undermatching). In the full-thickness welded joint specimen, crack started from the last pass layer of the weld metal zone and fracture occurred at the zone. From the results mentioned above, in order to evaluate the creep properties of the welded joint correctly, it is necessary to conduct the creep test using the full-thickness welded joint specimen which includes the weakest zones of the weld metal, the front and back sides of the plate. (author)

  1. Study on residual stress across the pipes' thickness using outer surface rapid heating. Development of pipe outer surface irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takahiro; Terasaki, Toshio

    2009-01-01

    The new process called L-SIP (outer surface irradiated Laser Stress Improvement Process) is developed to improve the tensile residual stress of the inner surface near the butt welded joints of pipes in the compression stress. The temperature gradient occurs in the thickness of pipes in heating the outer surface rapidly by laser beam. By the thermal expansion difference between the inner surface and the outer surface, the compression plastic strain generates near the outer surface and the tensile plastic strain generates near the inner surface of pipes. The compression stress occurs near the inner surface of pipes by the plastic deformation. In this paper, the theoretical equation which calculates residual stress distribution from the inherent strain distribution in the thickness of pipes is derived. And, the relation between the distribution of temperature and the residual stress in the thickness is examined for various pipes size. (1) By rapidly heating from the outer surface, the residual stress near the inner surface of the pipe is improved to the compression stress. (2) Pipes size hardly affects the distribution of the residual stress in the stainless steel pipes for piping (JISG3459). (3) The temperature rising area from the outside is smaller, the area of the compression residual stress near the inner surface becomes wider. (author)

  2. Paleaostress/strain study and its implications for the geodynamic history of the Jabal Akhdar Dome (Oman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Andreas; Amrouch, Khalid; Mattern, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Field observations, including oolite-, styolite, fracture analyses combined with laboratory measurements using calcite twin analysis show a ductile-to-brittle multiple-phase deformation history of the Arabian carbonate platform, ranging from Late Cretaceous to Neogene times. The Arabian carbonate platform, belonging to a passive continental margin since the Late Permian, was the site of the obduction of Tethyan oceanic lithosphere (Semail Ophiolite) during the Late Cretaceous, caused by the northward drift of Africa (Hanna, 1995). After or during the obduction, large parts of the entire nape pile composed of the Arabian platform and the Hawasina/Semail nappes, where folded and exhumed. This led to the exhumation of the Jabal Akhdar Dome. Our oolite samples from the Jabal Akhdar Dome and from below the ophiolite thrust reveal the strain ellipsoid related to the obduction. This strain ellipsoid shows components of pure and simple shear. In the latter case the longest axes of the strain ellipsoid are parallelly oriented to the direction of obduction (NE to SW), which is in good agreement with the direction of obduction as depicted by Hacker et al. (1996) for the study area. The pure-shear component (flattening) is interpreted to be a result of the overburden of the up to 7 km thick oceanic lithosphere. The oolites that are located approximately 200 m below the ophiolite thrust contact provide evidence for ductile deformation during the Late Cretaceous. These results are compared with strain and stress tensors obtained from styolites, calcite twins and fracture analyses, derived from the uppermost part of the Arabian platform of the Jabal Akhdar Dome. Our results show a complex and detailed structural deformation of the post-obduction history of the Jabal Akhdar Dome, including its folding and exhumation. Hanna, S. (1995) Field guide to the Geology of Oman. Ruwi (Historical Association of Oman. 178 pp. Hacker, B.R., Mosenfelder, J.L. & Gnos, E. (1996) Rapid emplacement

  3. Strain rate effects on the mechanical properties and fracture mode of skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Michael; Tovar, Nick; Yoo, Daniel [Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University College of Dentistry (United States); Sobieraj, Micheal [Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Joint Diseases (United States); Gupta, Nikhil [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, NYU-Poly (United States); Branski, Ryan C. [Dept of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine (United States); Coelho, Paulo G., E-mail: pc92@nyu.edu [Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University College of Dentistry (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the mechanical response of beagle sartorius muscle fibers under strain rates that increase logarithmically (0.1 mm/min, 1 mm/min and 10 mm/min), and provide an analysis of the fracture patterns of these tissues via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Muscle tissue from dogs' sartorius was excised and test specimens were sectioned with a lancet into sections with nominal length, width, and thickness of 7, 2.5 and 0.6 mm, respectively. Trimming of the tissue was done so that the loading would be parallel to the direction of the muscle fiber. Samples were immediately tested following excision and failures were observed under the SEM. No statistically significant difference was observed in strength between the 0.1 mm/min (2.560 ± 0.37 MPa) and the 1 mm/min (2.702 ± 0.55 MPa) groups. However, the 10 mm/min group (1.545 ± 0.50 MPa) had a statistically significant lower strength than both the 1 mm/min group and the 0.1 mm/min group with p < 0.01 in both cases. At the 0.1 mm/min rate the primary fracture mechanism was that of a shear mode failure of the endomysium with a significant relative motion between fibers. At 1 mm/min this continues to be the predominant failure mode. At the 10 mm/min strain rate there is a significant change in the fracture pattern relative to other strain rates, where little to no evidence of endomysial shear failure nor of significant motion between fibers was detected.

  4. Strain-softening behavior of an Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy during warm deformation and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Huadong; Zhang Zhihao; Yang Qiang; Xie Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy exhibits strain-softening behavior after large deformation. → The decrease of the order degree is responsible for the strain-softening behavior. → The strain-softening behavior of Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy can be applied in cold rolling. → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm is fabricated by cold rolling. - Abstract: An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was compressed at a temperature below its recrystallization temperature. The Vickers hardness and structure of the alloy before and after deformation were investigated. The results showed that with an increase in the degree of deformation, Vickers hardness of the alloy initially increased rapidly and then decreased slowly, indicating that the alloy had a strain-softening behavior after a large deformation. Meanwhile, the work-hardening exponent of the alloy decreased significantly. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the decrease of the order degree was responsible for the strain-softening behavior of the deformed alloy. Applying its softening behavior, the Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was rolled at 400 deg. C and then at room temperature. An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm was fabricated. The surface of the strip was bright and had no obvious edge cracks.

  5. Mesoscopic Strains Maps in Woven Composite Laminas During Off-axis Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletto G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of woven carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites is influenced by the complex architecture of the reinforcement phase. Computational (i.e. finite element based approaches have been used increasingly to model not only the global laminate stiffness, but also damage evolution and laminate strength. The modeling combines the identification of the architectural unit cell (UC, the selection of suitable constitutive models of the different phases, the creation of a fine discretization of the UC in finite elements, the application of an incremental solution procedure that solves iteratively for the stresses and strains in the UC, [1]. The experimental validation of computational models is carried out mainly at the macroscopical level, i.e. simulation of the macroscopic stress-strain curve. Damage, however, is a localized, straindependent phenomenon and therefore only accurate strain distribution within the UC (at the mesolevel can identify critical conditions in terms of damage location, extension and evolution. The validation of computational damage procedures is a key task and full-field optical strain analysis methods appear the ideal instrument. However, only limited examples of direct finte element method (FEM vs experimental strain correlation are found because of the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of some techniques and the complexity and applicative difficulty of others. The aim of the present paper is to present the application of the digital image correlation (DIC technique, [2], to the full-field strain analysis at the mesoscopic level (i.e. within the UC of a woven CFRP lamina when the direction of loading forms an angle to the material direction. The material under consideration is a woven carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite. Orthogonal yarns, each made of of several thousand fibers, are woven according the twill-weave architecture is shown in Fig. 1a. Single-ply laminas were manufactured and tested to

  6. Strained superlattices and magnetic tunnel junctions based on doped manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yafeng Lu

    2001-01-01

    In the first part of this work the effect of biaxial strain on the structure and transport properties of doped manganites has been studied to explore the relevance of Jahn-Teller electron-lattice interaction for the CMR phenomenon in these materials. A series of high quality, coherently strained La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with different modulation periods have been fabricated on (001) SrTiO 3 and NdGaO 3 substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. A detailed structural characterization was performed by high-angle X-ray diffraction (HAXRD) and low-angle X-ray reflectivity (LAXRR). The fabricated superlattices are very flat, show excellent structural coherence and very small mosaic spread (0.2 ∝0.03 ). The in-plane coherency strain could be varied by changing the thickness ratio of the constituent layers allowing for a systematic variation of the resulting lattice distortion of La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 . By the in-plane coherency strain the out-of-plane lattice constant could be continuously adjusted by varying the relative thickness of the SrTiO 3 and La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 layers: the c-axis lattice constant of La 2/3 Ba 1/3 MnO 3 was found to vary from 3.910 A to 3.975 A due to a compressive in-plane strain, whereas the c-axis constant of La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 was found to change from 3.87 A to 3.79A due to tensile in-plane strain. The strain results in a biaxial distortion ε bi of La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 that strongly affects the electrical transport properties and the magnetoresistance. Our measurements show that there is a clear correlation between ε bi and the temperature T p corresponding to the maximum in the resistivity versus temperature curves as well as the measured magnetoresistance in the two systems. In the second part of this work we have investigated the spin-dependent tunneling in trilayer structures of La 2/3 Ba 1/3 MnO 3 /SrTiO 3 /La 2/3 Ba 1/3 MnO 3 . (orig.)

  7. Analysis of the thickness-dependent electrical characteristics in pentacene field-effect devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Hyunji; Choi, Jongsun; Zhang, Xue; Park, Jiho; Baang, Sungkeun; Park, Jaehoon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the important relationship among the capacitance-voltage (C - V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, the output currents of pentacene based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and the semiconductor layer's thickness. The effect of the semiconductor layer's thickness on the effective channel capacitance, when the MIS capacitors are fully accumulated with sufficient negative bias, was observed to be directly correlated with the magnitude of the saturated output current. The variation in accumulation capacitance of MIS capacitors due to changes in layer thickness is shown to indicate the existence of a channel capacitance. This determines the output currents in the saturation region. Furthermore, the accumulation capacitance appears to decrease notably when the thickness of the pentacene layer is reduced below 20 nm.

  8. Analysis of the thickness-dependent electrical characteristics in pentacene field-effect devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Hyunji; Choi, Jongsun [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Xue; Park, Jiho; Baang, Sungkeun; Park, Jaehoon [Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, we report on the important relationship among the capacitance-voltage (C - V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, the output currents of pentacene based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and the semiconductor layer's thickness. The effect of the semiconductor layer's thickness on the effective channel capacitance, when the MIS capacitors are fully accumulated with sufficient negative bias, was observed to be directly correlated with the magnitude of the saturated output current. The variation in accumulation capacitance of MIS capacitors due to changes in layer thickness is shown to indicate the existence of a channel capacitance. This determines the output currents in the saturation region. Furthermore, the accumulation capacitance appears to decrease notably when the thickness of the pentacene layer is reduced below 20 nm.

  9. Shear banding in large strain plasticity - Influence of specimen dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Marzena; Wcisło, Balbina; Pamin, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals with numerical analysis of shear banding which occurs in an elongated rectangular plate for a large strain elastic-plastic material model. It is focused on the influence of plate size proportions and finite element mesh density on numerical results. The discussion is limited to isothermal conditions and ideal plasticity. First a plain strain case is computed for different lengths of the plate, then simulations are repeated for plane stress for which different thicknesses of the plate are considered. Most of the computations are performed for three finite element meshes to verify discretization sensitivity of the results. The simulations are performed using AceGen and AceFEM packages for Wolfram Mathematica.

  10. Transport properties through graphene grain boundaries: strain effects versus lattice symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung Nguyen, V.; Hoang, Trinh X.; Dollfus, P.; Charlier, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    As most materials available at the macroscopic scale, graphene samples usually appear in a polycrystalline form and thus contain grain boundaries. In the present work, the effect of uniaxial strain on the electronic transport properties through graphene grain boundaries is investigated using atomistic simulations. A systematic picture of transport properties with respect to the strain and lattice symmetry of graphene domains on both sides of the boundary is provided. In particular, it is shown that strain engineering can be used to open a finite transport gap in all graphene systems where the two domains are arranged in different orientations. This gap value is found to depend on the strain magnitude, on the strain direction and on the lattice symmetry of graphene domains. By choosing appropriately the strain direction, a large transport gap of a few hundred meV can be achieved when applying a small strain of only a few percents. For a specific class of graphene grain boundary systems, strain engineering can also be used to reduce the scattering on defects and thus to significantly enhance the conductance. With a large strain-induced gap, these graphene heterostructures are proposed to be promising candidates for highly sensitive strain sensors, flexible electronic devices and p-n junctions with non-linear I-V characteristics.

  11. Composite Thickness Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbine Blade with Fixed outer Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjølund, Jonas Heidemann; Lund, Erik

    2017-01-01

    With the objective of mass minimization, a 73-m offshore wind turbine blade is optimized using a gradient based approach on a Finite Element (FE) model. Constant loads and a fixed outer geometry are assumed. Plies of the same material and same orientation are grouped together in plygroups. The th....... The thicknesses of the plygroups are chosen as design variables. Manufacturing constraints such as ply-drops are taken into account using linear constraints. Structural constraints include buckling, tip displacement and max. strain failure indices....

  12. Research on the novel FBG detection system for temperature and strain field distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-chao; Yang, Jin-hua

    2017-10-01

    In order to collect the information of temperature and strain field distribution information, the novel FBG detection system was designed. The system applied linear chirped FBG structure for large bandwidth. The structure of novel FBG cover was designed as a linear change in thickness, in order to have a different response at different locations. It can obtain the temperature and strain field distribution information by reflection spectrum simultaneously. The structure of novel FBG cover was designed, and its theoretical function is calculated. Its solution is derived for strain field distribution. By simulation analysis the change trend of temperature and strain field distribution were analyzed in the conditions of different strain strength and action position, the strain field distribution can be resolved. The FOB100 series equipment was used to test the temperature in experiment, and The JSM-A10 series equipment was used to test the strain field distribution in experiment. The average error of experimental results was better than 1.1% for temperature, and the average error of experimental results was better than 1.3% for strain. There were individual errors when the strain was small in test data. It is feasibility by theoretical analysis, simulation calculation and experiment, and it is very suitable for application practice.

  13. An experimental study on the mechanical properties of rat brain tissue using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2014-07-01

    There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be employed to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. It is worth knowing that an optimize stress-strain definition of the brain tissue at different loading directions may have implications for neuronavigation and surgery simulation through haptic devices. This study is aimed to conduct a comparative study on different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain and to recommend a specific definition when testing brain tissues. Prepared cylindrical samples are excised from the parietal lobes of rats' brains and experimentally tested by applying load on both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are used to determine the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain. The highest non-linear stress-strain relation is observed for the Almansi-Hamel strain definition and it may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. The Green-St. Venant strain definition fails to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and triggers an underestimation of the elastic modulus. The results suggest the application of the true stress-true strain definition for characterization of the brain tissues mechanics since it gives more accurate measurements of the tissue's response using the instantaneous values.

  14. Auxetic Mechanical Metamaterials to Enhance Sensitivity of Stretchable Strain Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Liu, Zhiyuan; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Qi, Dianpeng; Leow, Wan Ru; Yang, Hui; Yu, Jiancan; Chen, Geng; Liu, Yaqing; Wan, Changjin; Liu, Zhuangjian; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Stretchable strain sensors play a pivotal role in wearable devices, soft robotics, and Internet-of-Things, yet these viable applications, which require subtle strain detection under various strain, are often limited by low sensitivity. This inadequate sensitivity stems from the Poisson effect in conventional strain sensors, where stretched elastomer substrates expand in the longitudinal direction but compress transversely. In stretchable strain sensors, expansion separates the active materials and contributes to the sensitivity, while Poisson compression squeezes active materials together, and thus intrinsically limits the sensitivity. Alternatively, auxetic mechanical metamaterials undergo 2D expansion in both directions, due to their negative structural Poisson's ratio. Herein, it is demonstrated that such auxetic metamaterials can be incorporated into stretchable strain sensors to significantly enhance the sensitivity. Compared to conventional sensors, the sensitivity is greatly elevated with a 24-fold improvement. This sensitivity enhancement is due to the synergistic effect of reduced structural Poisson's ratio and strain concentration. Furthermore, microcracks are elongated as an underlying mechanism, verified by both experiments and numerical simulations. This strategy of employing auxetic metamaterials can be further applied to other stretchable strain sensors with different constituent materials. Moreover, it paves the way for utilizing mechanical metamaterials into a broader library of stretchable electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Modifying the Electronic Properties of Nano-Structures Using Strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamba, V K; Engles, D

    2012-01-01

    We used density-functional theory based Non equilibrium green function simulations to study the effects of strain and quantum confinement on the electronic properties of Germanium and Silicon NWs along the [110] direction, such as the energy gap and the effective masses of the electron and hole. The diameters of the NWs being studied in a range of 3-20 Å. On basis of our calculation we conclude that the Ge [110] NWs possess a direct band gap, while Si [110] NWs possess indirect band gap at nanoscale. The band gap is almost a linear function of strain when the diameter of Ge NWs D 15 Å; and for Si it is linear in behaviour. On doping silicon wire we found that the bandgap shows parabolic behaviour for change in strain. We also concluded that the band gap and the effective masses of charge carries (i.e. electron and hole) changes by applying the strain to the NWs. Our results suggested that strain can be used to tune the band structures of NWs, which may help in de sign of future nanoelectronic devices.

  16. Direct Index Method of Beam Damage Location Detection Based on Difference Theory of Strain Modal Shapes and the Genetic Algorithms Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Zhenming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural damage identification is to determine the structure health status and analyze the test results. The three key problems to be solved are as follows: the existence of damage in structure, to detect the damage location, and to confirm the damage degree or damage form. Damage generally changes the structure physical properties (i.e., stiffness, mass, and damping corresponding with the modal characteristics of the structure (i.e., natural frequencies, modal shapes, and modal damping. The research results show that strain mode can be more sensitive and effective for local damage. The direct index method of damage location detection is based on difference theory, without the modal parameter of the original structure. FEM numerical simulation to partial crack with different degree is done. The criteria of damage location detection can be obtained by strain mode difference curve through cubic spline interpolation. Also the genetic algorithm box in Matlab is used. It has been possible to identify the damage to a reasonable level of accuracy.

  17. The creep of multi-layered moderately thick shells of revolution under asymmetrical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezono, S.; Migita, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the present paper the authors study the creep deformation of the multi-layered thick shells of revolution under asymmetrical loads. The equations of equilibrium and the strain-displacement relations are derived from the Reissner-Naghdi theory (1941, 1957) for elastic shells where a consideration on the effect of shear deformation is given. In the theory of creep it is assumed that in a given increment of time the total strain increments are composed of an elastic part and a part due to creep. The elastic strains are proportional to the stresses by Hooke's law. For the constitutive equations in the creep range, McVetty's equation modified by Arrhenius' equation for thermal effect is employed. The basic differential equations on the creep problems derived for the incremental values with respect to time are numerically solved by a finite difference method and the solutions at any time are obtained by summation of the incremental values. Resultant forces and resultant moments are given from numerical integration of the stresses by Simpson's 1/3 rules. (orig./GL)

  18. THICK-DISK EVOLUTION INDUCED BY THE GROWTH OF AN EMBEDDED THIN DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, Alvaro; Helmi, Amina; Kazantzidis, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    We perform collisionless N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the structural and kinematical properties of simulated thick disks induced by the growth of an embedded thin disk. The thick disks used in the present study originate from cosmologically common 5:1 encounters between initially thin primary disk galaxies and infalling satellites. The growing thin disks are modeled as static gravitational potentials and we explore a variety of growing-disk parameters that are likely to influence the response of thick disks. We find that the final thick-disk properties depend strongly on the total mass and radial scale length of the growing thin disk, and much less sensitively on its growth timescale and vertical scale height as well as the initial sense of thick-disk rotation. Overall, the growth of an embedded thin disk can cause a substantial contraction in both the radial and vertical direction, resulting in a significant decrease in the scale lengths and scale heights of thick disks. Kinematically, a growing thin disk can induce a notable increase in the mean rotation and velocity dispersions of thick-disk stars. We conclude that the reformation of a thin disk via gas accretion may play a significant role in setting the structure and kinematics of thick disks, and thus it is an important ingredient in models of thick-disk formation.

  19. Radiography of large-volume thick-walled structures using transportable high-energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanek, J.; Gross, E.

    1994-01-01

    Carried by a Renault Saviem truck, the ORION 4 MeV linear accelerator manufactured by the French company CGR MeV proved to be well suited for quality control of welded joints of heavy thick-walled facilities performed directly in the manufacturing plant halls or at the construction sites, as well as for radiographic testing of steel and concrete structures. The operating principles and parameters of the accelerator are given. Steel up to 200 mm thick and concrete up to 550 mm thick can be inspected. Dosimetric data show that the use of the accelerator is radiologically safe. (Z.S.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  20. Family Conflict as a Mediator of Caregiver Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Andrew; Li, Wei; Dalvi, Tapashi B.

    2006-01-01

    The present study used structural equation modeling to examine the potential mediating effect of family conflict on caregiver strain in a randomly drawn household sample of 650 adults with primary care responsibility for an adult age 50 or older with a mental disability. Caregiver strain was directly influenced by the conflict, disagreements, and…

  1. Influence of specimen thickness on the fatigue behavior of notched steel plates subjected to laser shock peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Alejo, V.; Rubio-González, C.; Vázquez-Jiménez, C. A.; Banderas, J. A.; Gómez-Rosas, G.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of specimen thickness on the fatigue crack initiation of 2205 duplex stainless steel notched specimens subjected to laser shock peening (LSP) was investigated. The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of LSP on flat components with different thicknesses. For the LSP treatment a Nd:YAG pulsed laser operating at 10 Hz with 1064 nm of wavelength was used; pulse density was 2500 pulses/cm2. The LSP setup was the waterjet arrangement without sample coating. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth was determined by the hole drilling method. Notched specimens 2, 3 and 4 mm thick were LSP treated on both faces and then fatigue loading was applied with R = 0.1. Experimental fatigue lives were compared with life predictions from finite element simulation. A good comparison of the predicted and experimental fatigue lives was observed. LSP finite element simulation helps in explaining the influence of thickness on fatigue lives in terms of equivalent plastic strain distribution variations associated with the change in thickness. It is demonstrated that specimen size effect is an important issue in applying LSP on real components. Reducing the specimen thickness, the fatigue life improvement induced by LSP is significantly increased. Fatigue life extension up to 300% is observed on thin specimens with LSP.

  2. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-01-01

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [es

  3. Transparent conductive-polymer strain sensors for touch input sheets of flexible displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Seiichi; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Muraki, Masato; Iwase, Eiji; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2010-01-01

    A transparent conductive polymer-based strain-sensor array, designed especially for touch input sheets of flexible displays, was developed. A transparent conductive polymer, namely poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), was utilized owing to its strength under repeated mechanical bending. PEDOT:PSS strain sensors with a thickness of 130 nm exhibited light transmittance of 92%, which is the same as the transmittance of ITO electrodes widely used in flat panel displays. We demonstrated that the sensor array on a flexible sheet was able to sustain mechanical bending 300 times at a bending radius of 5 mm. The strain sensor shows a gauge factor of 5.2. The touch point on a flexible sheet could be detected from histograms of the outputs of the strain sensors when the sheet was pushed with an input force of 5 N. The touch input could be detected on the flexible sheet with a curved surface (radius of curvature of 20 mm). These results show that the developed transparent conductive polymer-based strain-sensor array is applicable to touch input sheets of mechanically bendable displays.

  4. Strain detection in crystalline heterostructures using bidimensional blocking patterns of channelled particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Cubero, A.; David-Bosne, E.; Wahl, U.; Miranda, P.; da Silva, M. R.; Correia, J. G.; Lorenz, K.

    2018-03-01

    Strain is a critical parameter affecting the growth and the performance of many semiconductor systems but, at the same time, the accurate determination of strain profiles in heterostructures can be challenging, especially at the nanoscale. Ion channelling/blocking is a powerful technique for the detection of the strain state of thin films, normally carried out through angular scans with conventional particle detectors. Here we report the novel application of position sensitive detectors for the evaluation of the strain in a series of AlInN/GaN heterostructures with different compositions and thicknesses. The tetragonal strain is varied from compressive to tensile and analysed through bidimensional blocking patterns. The results demonstrate that strain can be correctly quantified when compared to Monte Carlo channelling simulations, which are essential because of the presence of ion steering effects at the interface between the layer and the substrate. Despite this physical limitation caused by ion steering, our results show that full bidimensional patterns can be applied to detect fingerprints and enhance the accuracy for most critical cases, in which the angular shift associated to the lattice distortion is below the critical angle for channelling.

  5. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-06

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Estimation of the Thickness and the Material Combination of the Thermal Stress Control Layer (TSCL) for the Stellite21 Hardfaced STD61 Hot Working Tool Steel Using Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Na-Ra; Ahn, Dong-Gyu; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    The research on a thermal stress control layer (TSCL) begins to undertake to reduce residual stress and strain in the vicinity of the joined region between the hardfacing layer and the base part. The goal of this paper is to estimate the material combination and the thickness of TSCL for the Stellite21 hardfaced STD61 hot working tool steel via three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). TSCL is created by the combination of Stellite21 and STD61. The thickness of TSCL ranges from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm. The influence of the material combination and the thickness of TSCL on temperature, thermal stress and thermal strain distributions of the hardfaced part have been investigated. The results of the investigation have been revealed that a proper material combination of TSCL is Stellite21 of 50 % and STD61 of 50 %, and its appropriate thickness is 1.0 mm

  7. In Vivo Tibial Cartilage Strains in Regions of Cartilage-to-Cartilage Contact and Cartilage-to-Meniscus Contact in Response to Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Betty; Lad, Nimit K; Collins, Amber T; Ganapathy, Pramodh K; Utturkar, Gangadhar M; McNulty, Amy L; Spritzer, Charles E; Moorman, Claude T; Sutter, E Grant; Garrett, William E; DeFrate, Louis E

    2017-10-01

    There are currently limited human in vivo data characterizing the role of the meniscus in load distribution within the tibiofemoral joint. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the strains experienced in regions of articular cartilage covered by the meniscus to regions of cartilage not covered by the meniscus. It was hypothesized that in response to walking, tibial cartilage covered by the meniscus would experience lower strains than uncovered tibial cartilage. Descriptive laboratory study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knees of 8 healthy volunteers was performed before and after walking on a treadmill. Using MRI-generated 3-dimensional models of the tibia, cartilage, and menisci, cartilage thickness was measured in 4 different regions based on meniscal coverage and compartment: covered medial, uncovered medial, covered lateral, and uncovered lateral. Strain was defined as the normalized change in cartilage thickness before and after activity. Within each compartment, covered cartilage before activity was significantly thinner than uncovered cartilage before activity ( P meniscus experiences lower strains than uncovered cartilage in the medial compartment. These findings provide important baseline information on the relationship between in vivo tibial compressive strain responses and meniscal coverage, which is critical to understanding normal meniscal function.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of thick-film piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate ceramic resonators by tape-casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Sun, Yingying; Wang, Qing-Ming; Zhong, Youliang; Ou, Ming; Jiang, Zhishui; Tian, Wei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, thick-film piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic resonators with thicknesses down to tens of micrometers have been fabricated by tape-casting processing. PZT ceramic resonators with composition near the morphotropic phase boundary and with different dopants added were prepared for piezoelectric transducer applications. Material property characterization for these thick-film PZT resonators is essential for device design and applications. For the property characterization, a recently developed normalized electrical impedance spectrum method was used to determine the electromechanical coefficient and the complex piezoelectric, elastic, and dielectric coefficients from the electrical measurement of resonators using thick films. In this work, nine PZT thick-film resonators have been fabricated and characterized, and two different types of resonators, namely thickness longitudinal and transverse modes, were used for material property characterization. The results were compared with those determined by the IEEE standard method, and they agreed well. It was found that depending on the PZT formulation and dopants, the relative permittivities ε(T)(33)/ε(0) measured at 2 kHz for these thick-films are in the range of 1527 to 4829, piezoelectric stress constants (e(33) in the range of 15 to 26 C/m(2), piezoelectric strain constants (d(31)) in the range of -169 × 10(-12) C/N to -314 × 10(-12) C/N, electromechanical coupling coefficients (k(t)) in the range of 0.48 to 0.53, and k(31) in the range of 0.35 to 0.38. The characterization results shows tape-casting processing can be used to fabricate high-quality PZT thick-film resonators, and the extracted material constants can be used to for device design and application.

  9. Thickness determination of large-area films of yttria-stabilized zirconia produced by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, N.; Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    of the attenuation for various values of film thickness with the program CASINO. These results have been compared with direct measurements in the SEM of the film thickness on a cross-section on one of the wafers. The results of these measurements demonstrate the ability of this technique to accurately determine...

  10. Measuring autogenous strain of concrete with corrugated moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    A reliable technique to quantify autogenous strain is a prerequisite to numerical modeling in stress calculations for high performance concrete. The introducing of a special kind of corrugated tube mould helps to transforming volume strain measurement into liner strain measurement in horizontal...... direction for fluid concrete, which not only realizes the continuous monitoring of the autogenous shrinkage since casting, but also effectively eliminates the disturbance resulting from gravity, temperature variation and mould restraint on measuring results. Based on this measuring technique, this paper...

  11. The Distribution of Macular Thickness and Its Determinants in a Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Yekta, AbbasAli; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2017-10-01

    To determine the distribution of macular thickness in a healthy Iranian population aged 45-69 years and its association with certain determinants. All participants underwent optometric examinations including measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, objective refraction by retinoscopy, and subjective refraction. Subsequently, all participants underwent slit-lamp biomicroscopy followed by fundus examination through direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging under pupil dilation. Mean central macular thickness was 255.4 µm (95% confidence interval, CI, 254.5-256.3 µm), average inner macular thickness was 316.5 µm (95% CI 315.9-317.1 µm), average outer macular thickness was 275.3 µm (95% CI 274.8-275.8 µm), and overall average thickness was 278.6 µm (95% CI 278.1-279.1 µm). A linear multiple regression model showed that all indexes were significantly larger in male participants (p < 0.001). Central macular thickness increased with age (coef = 0.25, p < 0.001) while overall, inner and outer macular thickness decreased with age (coef = -0.18, -0.15, -0.19, respectively, all p < 0.001). Central and inner macular thickness had a positive correlation (coef = 3.8, 2.6, respectively, both p < 0.001) and outer macular thickness had a negative correlation (coef = -1.6, p < 0.001) with axial length. Age, sex, refractive error, axial length, and keratometry were found to be associated with macular thickness. These factors should be taken into account when interpreting macular thickness measurements with spectral-domain OCT.

  12. Effect of plastic strain on the evolution of crystallographic texture in Zircaloy-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, R.G. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA)); Lucas, G.E. (California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA)); Pelloux, R.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1984-09-01

    The evolution of crystallographic texture during plastic deformation was investigated in Zircaloy-2 using X-ray and metallographic techniques. Inverse pole figures, the resolved fraction of basal poles, and the volume fraction of twinned material, were determined as a function of plastic strain for several strain paths and initial textures at 298 K and 623 K. Incremental transverse platic strain ratios (R) were measured as a function of plastic strain. Texture rotation occurs early in the deformation process, after as little as 1.5% plastic strain. For compressive plastic strains, the resolved fraction of basal poles increases in the direction parallel to the strain axis. For tensile plastic strains, the resolved fraction of basal poles decreases in the direction parallel to the strain axis. The rate of change of the resolved fraction of basal poles with plastic strain is a function of the initial resolved fraction of basal poles. The texture rotation can be explained by considering the operating of the principal tensile twinning systems, (10anti 12), .

  13. Studies on strain relaxation of La{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} film by normal and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiou [Hangzhou Dianzi University, Institute of Materials Physics, Hangzhou (China); Tan, Weishi [Hunan City University, College of Communication and Electronic Engineering, Yiyang (China); Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Department of Applied Physics, Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China); Liu, Hao [Suzhou Institute of Industrial Technology, Department of Electronic and Communication Engineering, Suzhou (China); Cao, Mengxiong; Wang, Xingyu; Ma, Chunlin [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Department of Applied Physics, Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China); Jia, Quanjie [The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Perovskite manganite La{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} (LBMO) films were deposited on (001)-oriented single-crystal SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction techniques were applied to characterize the crystal structure and lattice strain of LBMO films. The in-plane and out-of-plane growth orientations of LBMO films with respect to substrate surface have been studied. The epitaxial orientation relationship LBMO (001) [100] //STO (001) [100] exists at the LBMO/STO interface. The lattice strain of LBMO film begins to relax with the thickness of LBMO film up to 12 nm. When the thickness is further increased up to 43 nm, the film is in fully strain-relaxed state. Jahn-Teller strain plays an important role in LBMO/STO system. The mechanism for strain relaxation is in accordance with that of tetragonal distortion. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of Bacterial Cellulose Production among Different Strains and Fermented Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalili Tabaii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different carbon sources on bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus (PTCC 1734 and two newly isolated strains (from vinegar under static culture conditions was studied. The production of bacterial cellulose was examined in modified Hestrin-Shramm medium by replacing D-glucose with other carbon sources. The results showed that the yield and characteristics of bacterial cellulose were influenced by the type of carbon source. Glycerol gave the highest yield in all of the studied strains (6%, 9.7% and 3.8% for S, A2 strain and Gluconacetobacter xylinus (PTCC 1734, respectively. The maximum dry bacterial cellulose weight in the glycerol containing medium is due to A2 strain (1.9 g l-1 in comparison to Gluconacetobacter xylinus as reference strain (0.76 g l-1. Although all of the studied strains were in Gluconacetobacter family, each used different sugars for maximum production after glycerol (mannitol and fructose for two newly isolated strains and glucose for Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The maximum moisture content was observed when sucrose and food-grade sucrose were used as carbon source. Contrary to expectations, while the maximum thickness of bacterial cellulose membrane was attained when glycerol was used, bacterial cellulose from glycerol had less moisture content than the others. The oxidized cellulose showed antibacterial activities, which makes it as a good candidate for food-preservatives.

  15. Stress strain flow curves for Cu-OFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, Rolf; Hallgren, Josefin

    2009-04-01

    Stress strain curves of oxygen free copper alloyed with phosphorus Cu-OFP have been determined in compression and tension. The compression tests were performed at room temperature for strain rates between 10 -5 and 10 -3 1/s. The tests in tension covered the temperature range 20 to 175 deg C for strain rates between 10 -7 and 5x10 -3 1/s. The results in compression and tension were close for similar strain rates. A model for stress strain curves has been formulated using basic dislocation mechanisms. The model has been set up in such a way that fitting of parameters to the curves is avoided. By using a fundamental creep model as a basis a direct relation to creep data has been established. The maximum engineering flow stress in tension is related to the creep stress giving the same strain rate. The model reproduces the measured flow curves as function of temperature and strain rate in the investigated interval. The model is suitable to use in finite-element computations of structures in Cu-OFP

  16. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  17. Critical thickness for Nb nanofilm on sapphire substrate: a critical analysis using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arun; Subramaniam, Anandh

    2009-01-01

    Full text: On growth beyond critical thickness, interfacial misfit dislocations partially relax the misfit strains, in epitaxially grown nanofilms. In this study the stress state and growth of nanofilms is simulated using Finite Element Method (FEM); by imposing stress-free strains, corresponding to the lattice mismatch between Nb nanofilm and Sapphire substrate. On growth of the Nb nanofilm, a triangular network of edge misfit dislocations nucleates at the (0001) Al2ο3 || (111) Nb , interface. Using a combined simulation of a coherently strained nanofilm and an edge dislocation, the equilibrium criterion for the nucleation of an edge dislocation is determined. Theoretical analyses in literature use only the component of the Burger's vector parallel to the interface, which is an erroneous description of the stress state and energetics of the system. In this investigation the full interfacial edge dislocation is simulated using standard commercially available software and comparisons are made with results available in literature to bring out the utility of the methodology

  18. Consumer perceptions of strain differences in Cannabis aroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery N Gilbert

    Full Text Available The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado. We show that consumers perceive differences among strains, that the strains form distinct clusters based on odor similarity, and that strain aroma profiles are linked to perceptions of potency, price, and smoking interest.

  19. Consumer perceptions of strain differences in Cannabis aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVerdi, Joseph A.

    2018-01-01

    The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado. We show that consumers perceive differences among strains, that the strains form distinct clusters based on odor similarity, and that strain aroma profiles are linked to perceptions of potency, price, and smoking interest. PMID:29401526

  20. Strain induced ionic conductivity enhancement in epitaxial Ce0.9Gd0.1O22d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kant, K. Mohan; Esposito, Vincenzo; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    -plane ionic conductivity in CGO epitaxial thin films. The ionic conductivity is found to increase with decrease in buffer layer thickness. The tailored ionic conductivity enhancement is explained in terms of close relationships among epitaxy, strain, and ionic conductivity....

  1. Structural heredity influence upon principles of strain wave hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiricheck, A. V.; Barinov, S. V.; Yashin, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    It was established experimentally that by penetration of a strain wave through material hardened not only the technological modes of processing, but also a technological heredity - the direction of the fibers of the original macrostructure have an influence upon the diagram of microhardness. By penetration of the strain wave along fibers, the degree of hardening the material is less, however, a product is hardened throughout its entire section mainly along fibers. In the direction of the strain waves across fibers of the original structure of material, the degree of material hardening is much higher, the depth of the hardened layer with the degree of hardening not less than 50% makes at least 3 mm. It was found that under certain conditions the strain wave can completely change the original structure of the material. Thus, a heterogeneously hardened structure characterized by the interchange of harder and more viscous areas is formed, which is beneficial for assurance of high operational properties of material.

  2. Band-to-band tunneling in Γ valley for Ge source lateral tunnel field effect transistor: Thickness scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Rastogi, Priyank; Yadav, Chandan; Agarwal, Amit; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2017-07-01

    The direct and indirect valleys in Germanium (Ge) are separated by a very small offset, which opens up the prospect of direct tunneling in the Γ valley of an extended Ge source tunnel field effect transistor (TFET). We explore the impact of thickness scaling of extended Ge source lateral TFET on the band to band tunneling (BTBT) current. The Ge source is extended inside the gate by 2 nm to confine the tunneling in Ge only. We observe that as the thickness is scaled, the band alignment at the Si/Ge heterojunction changes significantly, which results in an increase in Ge to Si BTBT current. Based on density functional calculations, we first obtain the band structure parameters (bandgap, effective masses, etc.) for the Ge and Si slabs of varying thickness, and these are then used to obtain the thickness dependent Kane's BTBT tunneling parameters. We find that electrostatics improves as the thickness is reduced in the ultra-thin Ge film ( ≤ 10 nm). The ON current degrades as we scale down in thickness; however, the subthreshold slope ( S S AVG ) improves remarkably with thickness scaling due to subsurface BTBT. We predict that 8 nm thin devices offer the best option for optimized ON current and S S AVG .

  3. Dependence of the optical conductivity on the uniaxial and biaxial strains in black phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. H.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wang, G. X.; Zhang, C.

    2018-06-01

    By using the Kubo formula, the optical conductivity of strained black phosphorene was studied. The anisotropic band dispersion gives rise to an orientation dependent optical conductivity. The energy gap can be tuned by the uniaxial and biaxial strains which can be observed from the interband optical conductivity polarized along the armchair (x ) direction. The preferential conducting direction is along the x direction. The dependence of the intraband optical conductivity along the zigzag (y ) direction on the Fermi energy and strain exhibits increasing or decreasing monotonously. However, along the x direction this dependence is complicated which originates from the carriers' inverse-direction movements obtained by two types of the nearest phosphorus atom interactions. The modification of the biaxial strain on the energy structure and optical-absorption property is more effective. The imaginary part of the total optical conductivity (Im σ ) can be negative around the threshold of the interband optical transition by modifying the chemical potential. Away from this frequency region, Im σ exhibits positive value. It can be used in the application of the surface plasmon propagations in multilayer dielectric structures.

  4. Thick filament mechano-sensing is a calcium-independent regulatory mechanism in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, L; Brunello, E; Yan, Z; Irving, M

    2016-10-31

    Recent X-ray diffraction studies on actively contracting fibres from skeletal muscle showed that the number of myosin motors available to interact with actin-containing thin filaments is controlled by the stress in the myosin-containing thick filaments. Those results suggested that thick filament mechano-sensing might constitute a novel regulatory mechanism in striated muscles that acts independently of the well-known thin filament-mediated calcium signalling pathway. Here we test that hypothesis using probes attached to the myosin regulatory light chain in demembranated muscle fibres. We show that both the extent and kinetics of thick filament activation depend on thick filament stress but are independent of intracellular calcium concentration in the physiological range. These results establish direct control of myosin motors by thick filament mechano-sensing as a general regulatory mechanism in skeletal muscle that is independent of the canonical calcium signalling pathway.

  5. Epitaxial strain and its relaxation at the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guozhen, E-mail: guozhen.liu@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Research Center for Solid State Physics and Materials, School of Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Lei, Qingyu; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Xi, Xiaoxing [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Li, Qun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Long-Qing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Winkler, Christopher; Sloppy, Jennifer; Taheri, Mitra L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    A series of LaAlO{sub 3} thin films with different thicknesses were deposited by pulsed laser deposition at temperatures from 720 °C to 800 °C. The results from grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and reciprocal space mapping indicate that a thin layer of LaAlO{sub 3} adjacent to the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate remains almost coherently strained to the substrate, while the top layer starts to relax quickly above a certain critical thickness, followed by a gradual relaxation at larger film thickness when they are grown at lower temperatures. The atomic force microscopy results show that the fast relaxation is accompanied by the formation of cracks on the film surface. This can be ascribed to the larger energy release rate when compared with the resistance of LaAlO{sub 3} to cracking, according to calculations from the Griffith fracture theory. For films grown at 720 °C, a drop in sheet resistance by two orders of magnitude is observed when the top layer starts to relax, indicating a relationship between the strain and the conductivity of the two-dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface. The strain engineered by growth temperature provides a useful tool for the manipulation of the electronic properties of oxide heterointerfaces.

  6. Frequency Invariability of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O₃ Antiferroelectric Thick-Film Micro-Cantilevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kun; Jin, Xuechen; Meng, Jiang; Li, Xiao; Ren, Yifeng

    2018-05-13

    Micro-electromechanical systems comprising antiferroelectric layers can offer both actuation and transduction to integrated technologies. Micro-cantilevers based on the (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O₃ (PLZT) antiferroelectric thick film are fabricated by the micro-nano manufacturing process, to utilize the effect of phase transition induced strain and sharp phase switch of antiferroelectric materials. When micro-cantilevers made of antiferroelectric thick films were driven by sweep voltages, there were two resonant peaks corresponding to the natural frequency shift from 27.8 to 27.0 kHz, before and after phase transition. This is the compensation principle for the PLZT micro-cantilever to tune the natural frequency by the amplitude modulation of driving voltage, rather than of frequency modulation. Considering the natural frequency shift about 0.8 kHz and the frequency tuning ability about 156 Hz/V before the phase transition, this can compensate the frequency shift caused by increasing temperature by tuning only the amplitude of driving voltage, when the ultrasonic micro-transducer made of antiferroelectric thick films works for such a long period. Therefore, antiferroelectric thick films with hetero-structures incorporated into PLZT micro-cantilevers not only require a lower driving voltage (no more than 40 V) than rival bulk piezoelectric ceramics, but also exhibit better performance of frequency invariability, based on the amplitude modulation.

  7. Grain tracing and strain determination in a Be compact tension specimen using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.; Green, R.; Garcia, M.D.; Satyam, P.V.; Yun, W.B.; Maser, J.; Kai, Z.; Lai, B.; Sinha, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    X-ray synchrotron radiation of high (11 KeV) energy and high flux (10 10 photons per square centimeter per second) has been used to measure strains and polycrystallinity in 6-mm thick polycrystalline beryllium compact tension (CT) specimens at and around the crack tip (for fatigue-precracked sample) or at chevron notch point under load or no-load conditions. The authors demonstrated the feasibility strain field mapping as well as determining the polycrystallinity at or near the points of maximum load in beryllium CT specimens. The experimental techniques and results will be discussed

  8. In-plane microwave dielectric properties of paraelectric barium strontium titanate thin films with anisotropic epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Bellotti, J. A.

    2005-08-01

    In-plane dielectric properties of ⟨110⟩ oriented epitaxial (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 thin films in the thickness range from 25-1200nm have been investigated under the influence of anisotropic epitaxial strains from ⟨100⟩ NdGaO3 substrates. The measured dielectric properties show strong residual strain and in-plane directional dependence. Below 150nm film thickness, there appears to be a phase transition due to the anisotropic nature of the misfit strain relaxation. In-plane relative permittivity is found to vary from as much as 500-150 along [11¯0] and [001] respectively, in 600nm thick films, and from 75 to 500 overall. Tunability was found to vary from as much as 54% to 20% in all films and directions, and in a given film the best tunability is observed along the compressed axis in a mixed strain state, 54% along [11¯0] in the 600nm film for example.

  9. Elastic strain engineering of quantum dot excitonic emission in nanomembranes and optical resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Plumhof, Johannes; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden (Germany); Singh, Ranber; Zander, Tim; Bester, Gabriel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We study the effect of an external biaxial stress on the light emission of single InGaAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots (QD) embedded in a 200 nm-thick-membrane. Reversible and bi-directional spectral tuning of QD excitonic emission is demonstrated via a simple electro-mechanical device. The most intriguing finding is that biaxial strain is a reliable tool to engineer the QD electronic structure and reach color coincidence between exciton and biexciton emission, providing a vital prerequisite for the generation of polarization entangled photon pairs through a time reordering strategy. The physical origin of this new phenomenon is discussed based on the empirical pseudopotential calculations. With similar technique we study the effect of biaxial stress on single QDs embedded in microring resonators. The microrings can be reversibly stretched or squeezed, resulting in a controllable engineering of both QD emissions and optical modes. Our results open up a new tuning strategy to study cQED with semiconductor quantum dots.

  10. Critical current densities in thick yttrium-barium cuprate (1-2-3) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryvkina, G.G.; Gorlanov, S.F.; Vedernikov, G.E.; Telegin, A.B.; Ryabin, V.A.; Khodos, M.Ya.

    1993-01-01

    The study of critical current densities j c of oxide superconductors and their thick films is a very important practical task because the value of j c is one of the main criteria for their utilization in modern cryoelectronics. For most devices based on the Josephson effect, the value of j c ∼ 10 2 - 10 3 A/cm 2 is acceptable, which is easily attainable for polycrystalline thick films obtained by stenciling. The study of the current-transport phenomenon involves a number of difficulties, especially for direct current, because both the sample itself and the lead-in contacts are resistance-heated during the measurements, which, in turn, results in lower values of the j c . Measurements with pulsed currents allow one to lower the power that is applied to the sample; the heat that is released in the sample is reduced, in comparison to measurements with direct current, by a factor of the pulsed-current duty cycle. In addition, measurements with direct current detects only the appearance of resistance; it provides no information on the rest of the transition from the normal to the superconductive state, i.e., on the so-called 'tail' of the transition. In this work, the authors studied critical current densities of thick HTSC yttrium-barium cuprate films of the 1-2-3 composition using pulsed current

  11. Ellipsometry measurements of thickness of oxide and water layers on spherical and flat silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Netterfield, R.; Wielunski, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Ellipsometry has been used to measure the thickness of oxide layers on single crystal silicon surfaces, both flat and spherical and also to measure the extent of adsorption of moisture on the surface as a function of partial water vapour pressure. The measurements form part of an international collaborative project to make a precise determination of the Avogadro constant (ΔN A /N A -8 ) which will then be used to obtain an absolute definition of the kilogram, rather than one in terms of an artefact. Typically the native oxide layer on a cleaned silicon wafer is about 2 nm thick. On a polished sphere this oxide layer is typically 8 to 10 nm thick, the increased thickness being attributed to parameters related to the polishing process. Ellipsometry measurements on an 89 mm diameter polished silicon sphere at both VUW and CSIRO indicated a SiO 2 layer at 7 to 10 nm thick. It was observed that this thickness varied regularly. The crystal orientation of the sphere was determined using electron patterns generated from an electron microscope and the oxide layer was then measured through 180 arcs of great circles along (110) and (100) planes. It was observed that the thickness varied systematically with orientation. The minimum thickness was 7.4 nm at the axis (softest direction in silicon) and the greatest thickness was 9.5 nm at the axis (hardest direction in silicon). This is similar to an orientation dependent cubic pattern which has been observed to be superimposed on polished silicon spheres. At VUW, the sphere was placed in an evacuated bell jar and the ellipsometry signal was observed as the water vapour pressure was progressively increased up to saturation. The amount of water vapour adsorbed at saturation was one or two monolayers, indicating that the sphere does not wet

  12. A new measurement method of coatings thickness based on lock-in thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Yu; Meng, Xiang-bin; Ma, Yong-chao

    2016-05-01

    Coatings have been widely used in modern industry and it plays an important role. Coatings thickness is directly related to the performance of the functional coatings, therefore, rapid and accurate coatings thickness inspection has great significance. Existing coatings thickness measurement method is difficult to achieve fast and accurate on-site non-destructive coatings inspection due to cost, accuracy, destruction during inspection and other reasons. This paper starts from the introduction of the principle of lock-in thermography, and then performs an in-depth study on the application of lock-in thermography in coatings inspection through numerical modeling and analysis. The numerical analysis helps explore the relationship between coatings thickness and phase, and the relationship lays the foundation for accurate calculation of coatings thickness. The author sets up a lock-in thermography inspection system and uses thermal barrier coatings specimens to conduct an experiment. The specimen coatings thickness is measured and calibrated to verify the quantitative inspection. Experiment results show that the lock-in thermography method can perform fast coatings inspection and the inspection accuracy is about 95%. Therefore, the method can meet the field testing requirements for engineering projects.

  13. Effect of thickness on optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.S.; Gouda, M.E.; El-Shaarawy, M.G.; Salem, A.M.; Abd El-Ghany, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on the structure and optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS film has been studied. SnS films with different thicknesses in the range 152–585 nm were deposited onto clean glass substrates at room temperature. X-ray diffraction study revealed that SnS films of thickness ≥ 283 nm are crystalline, whereas films of lower thickness exhibit poor crystalline with more amorphous background. The crystalline nature of the lower film thickness has been confirmed using transmission electron microscope and the corresponding electron diffraction pattern. The thicker film samples showed nearly stoichiometric chemical composition; however, thinner samples are deficient in S and rich in Sn. The optical property of the deposited films has been investigated in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The refractive index increases notably with increasing film thickness. The refractive index for the investigated film thicknesses are adequately described by the effective-single-oscillator model. The static refractive index and the static dielectric constant have been calculated. Analysis of the optical absorption coefficient revealed the presence of direct optical transition and the corresponding band gap values were found to decrease as the film thickness increases. - Highlights: ► X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of SnS films. ► Transmission electron microscope confirms the crystalline state of SnS films. ► The refractive index increases notably with increasing the film thickness. ► The optical band gap of SnS films decreases with increasing film thickness

  14. Strain and texture evolution of ED-rotated cubes during quasi-static and dynamic tensile testing of Al-Mg-Si-profiles in the as-extruded T1-temper condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathiesen, R.H.; Forbord, B.; Mardalen, J.; Furu, T.; Lange, H.I.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used to study through-thickness deformation response in extruded Al-Mg-Si-profiles during tensile testing, in terms of micro- and mesoscopic distributions and dynamical evolution of elastic strains and grain rotations. Local averaging with analysis at intermediate length scales reveals strongly inhomogeneous through-profile elastic strains, caused by the presence of three distinct microstructure regions and the compatibility relations that apply at their interfaces. Variations in elastic strains at characteristic microstructure lengths are found to be large; typically 1σ Gaussian spreads for the different ε ij -components of the elastic strain tensor are minimal and of the order 1.0 x 10 -3 in the central profile region at low stresses. The spread increases with the tensile loads, but even more dramatically with decreasing distance to the surfaces where maximum 1σ spreads up to 6-7 x 10 -3 are encountered. The evolution and distribution of certain texture components have been analysed, showing grain rotations to be a non-negligible part of the deformation response that activates at quite modest plastic deformations. Inhomogeneous strain response at local and intermediate length scales together with the strain and texture component relations that apply across the microstructure region boundaries are found to be decisive to surface roughening. All together, the results point in the direction that strain and texture evolution should be considered together in order to provide a more complete description of microstructure mechanics in metals

  15. Stress strain tensors with their application to x-ray stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the method of obtaining the formulas of stress-strain tensor that express the directional dependence of stress-strain, that is, how these values change in response to coordinate transformation, and clarifies the preconditions for supporting both formulas. The two conversion formulas are both the second order of tensor, and the formula of strain tensor not only does not use the relational expression of stress and strain at all, but also is obtained completely independently of the formula of stress tensor. Except for the condition that the strain is very small (elastic deformation) in the conversion formula of strain, both formulas unconditionally come into effect. In other words, both formulas hold true even in the isotropic elastic body or anisotropic elastic body. It was shown that the conversion formula of strain can be derived from the conversion formula of stress using the formula of Hooke for isotropic elastic body. From these three-dimensional expressions, the two-dimensional stress-strain coordinate conversion formula that is used for Mohr's stress-strain circle was derived. It was shown that these formulas hold true for three-dimensional stress condition with stress-strain components in the three-axial direction that are not plane stress nor plane strain condition. In addition, as an application case of this theory, two-dimensional and three-dimensional X-ray stress measurements that are effective for residual stress measurement were shown. (A.O.)

  16. Static and dynamic through thickness lamina properties of thick laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thick laminates are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of self-heating, the scaling effect, and the manufacturing

  17. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; YANG Ke

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the MSS dis-tribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteris-tics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide lots of theoretic references to the surrounding rocks' stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc.

  18. In situ ice and structure thickness monitoring using integrated and flexible ultrasonic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q; Wu, K-T; Kobayashi, M; Jen, C-K; Mrad, N

    2008-01-01

    Two types of ultrasonic sensors are presented for in situ capability development of ice detection and structure thickness measurement. These piezoelectric film based sensors have been fabricated by a sol–gel spray technique for aircraft environments and for temperatures ranging from −80 to 100 °C. In one sensor type, piezoelectric films of thickness greater than 40 µm are deposited directly onto the interior of a 1.3 mm thick aluminum (Al) alloy control surface (stabilizer) of an aircraft wing structure as integrated ultrasonic transducers (UTs). In the other sensor type, piezoelectric films are coated onto a 50 µm thick polyimide membrane as flexible UTs. These were subsequently glued onto similar locations at the same control surfaces. In situ monitoring of stabilizer outer skin thickness was performed. Ice build-up ranging from a fraction of 1 mm to less than 1.5 mm was also detected on a 3 mm thick Al plate. Measurements using these ultrasonic sensors agreed well with those obtained by a micrometer. Tradeoffs of these two approaches are presented

  19. The Peculiarities of Strain Relaxation in GaN/AlN Superlattices Grown on Vicinal GaN (0001) Substrate: Comparative XRD and AFM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchuk, Andrian V; Kryvyi, Serhii; Lytvyn, Petro M; Li, Shibin; Kladko, Vasyl P; Ware, Morgan E; Mazur, Yuriy I; Safryuk, Nadiia V; Stanchu, Hryhorii V; Belyaev, Alexander E; Salamo, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    Superlattices (SLs) consisting of symmetric layers of GaN and AlN have been investigated. Detailed X-ray diffraction and reflectivity measurements demonstrate that the relaxation of built-up strain in the films generally increases with an increasing number of repetitions; however, an apparent relaxation for subcritical thickness SLs is explained through the accumulation of Nagai tilt at each interface of the SL. Additional atomic force microscopy measurements reveal surface pit densities which appear to correlate with the amount of residual strain in the films along with the appearance of cracks for SLs which have exceeded the critical thickness for plastic relaxation. These results indicate a total SL thickness beyond which growth may be limited for the formation of high-quality coherent crystal structures; however, they may indicate a growth window for the reduction of threading dislocations by controlled relaxation of the epilayers.

  20. Job strain in nursing homes-Exploring the impact of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David

    2018-04-01

    To explore the association between nursing home managers' leadership, job strain and social support as perceived by direct care staff in nursing homes. It is well known that aged care staff experience high levels of job strain, and that aged care staff experiencing job strain are exposed to increased risk for adverse health effects. Leadership styles have been associated with job strain in the literature; however, the impact of perceived leadership on staff job strain and social support has not been clarified within nursing home contexts. This study had a cross-sectional design. Participating staff (n = 3,605) completed surveys which included questions about staff characteristics, valid and reliable measures of nursing home managers' leadership, perceived job strain and social support. Statistical analyses of correlations and multiple regression analysis with interaction terms were conducted. Nursing home managers' leadership were significantly associated with lower level of job strain and higher level of social support among direct care staff. A multiple regression analysis including an interaction term indicated individual and joint effects of nursing home managers' leadership and social support on job strain. Nursing home managers' leadership and social support were both individually and in combination associated with staff perception of lesser job strain. Thus, nursing home managers' leadership are beneficial for the working situation and strain of staff. Promoting a supporting work environment through leadership is an important implication for nursing home managers as it can influence staff perception of job strain and social support within the unit. By providing leadership, offering support and strategies towards a healthy work environment, nursing home managers can buffer adverse health effects among staff. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sleep monitoring sensor using flexible metal strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Jinyong; Kim, Kunnyun

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a sleep monitoring sensor based on a flexible metal strain gauge. As quality of life has improved, interest in sleep quality, and related products, has increased. In this study, unlike a conventional single sensor based on a piezoelectric material, a metal strain gauge-based array sensor based on polyimide and nickel chromium (NiCr) is applied to provide movement direction, respiration, and heartbeat data as well as contact-free use by the user during sleeping. Thin-film-type resistive strain gage sensors are fabricated through the conventional flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) process, which is very useful for commercialization. The measurement of movement direction and respiratory rate during sleep were evaluated, and the heart rate data were compared with concurrent electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An algorithm for analyzing sleep data was developed using MATLAB, and the error rate was 4.2% when compared with ECG for heart rate.

  2. Burial stress and elastic strain of carbonate rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Burial stress on a sediment or sedimentary rock is relevant for predicting compaction or failure caused by changes in, e.g., pore pressure in the subsurface. For this purpose, the stress is conventionally expressed in terms of its effect: “the effective stress” defined as the consequent elastic...... strain multiplied by the rock frame modulus. We cannot measure the strain directly in the subsurface, but from the data on bulk density and P‐wave velocity, we can estimate the rock frame modulus and Biot's coefficient and then calculate the “effective vertical stress” as the total vertical stress minus...... the product of pore pressure and Biot's coefficient. We can now calculate the elastic strain by dividing “effective stress” with the rock frame modulus. By this procedure, the degree of elastic deformation at a given time and depth can be directly expressed. This facilitates the discussion of the deformation...

  3. STEM Analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans muscle thick filaments: evidence for microdifferentiated substructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, S. A.; Haner, M.; Ortiz, I.; Aebi, U.; Epstein, H. F.

    2001-01-01

    In the thick filaments of body muscle in Caenorhabditis elegans, myosin A and myosin B isoforms and a subpopulation of paramyosin, a homologue of myosin heavy chain rods, are organized about a tubular core. As determined by scanning transmission electron microscopy, the thick filaments show a continuous decrease in mass-per-length (MPL) from their central zones to their polar regions. This is consistent with previously reported morphological studies and suggests that both their content and structural organization are microdifferentiated as a function of position. The cores are composed of a second distinct subpopulation of paramyosin in association with the alpha, beta, and gamma-filagenins. MPL measurements suggest that cores are formed from seven subfilaments containing four strands of paramyosin molecules, rather than the two originally proposed. The periodic locations of the filagenins within different regions and the presence of a central zone where myosin A is located, implies that the cores are also microdifferentiated with respect to molecular content and structure. This differentiation may result from a novel "induced strain" assembly mechanism based upon the interaction of the filagenins, paramyosin and myosin A. The cores may then serve as "differentiated templates" for the assembly of myosin B and paramyosin in the tapering, microdifferentiated polar regions of the thick filaments.

  4. Frequency characteristics of the MIM thick film capacitors fabricated by laser micro-cladding electronic pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Yu; Li Xiangyou [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Sci and Tech, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zeng Xiaoyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Sci and Tech, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei (China)], E-mail: xyzeng@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2008-05-25

    With rapid development of the electronic industry, how to respond the market requests quickly, shorten R and D prototyping fabrication period, and reduce the cost of the electronic devices have become a challenge work, which need flexible manufacturing methods. In this work, two direct write processing methods, direct material deposition by microPen and Nd:YAG laser micro-cladding, are integrated with CAD/CAM technology for the hybrid fabrication of passive electronic components. Especially, the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) type thick film capacitors are fabricated on ceramic substrates by this method. A basic two-step procedure of laser micro-cladding electronic pastes (LMCEPs) process for the thick film pattern preparation is presented. For a better understanding of the MIM thick film capacitor characterization, equivalent circuit models at low-frequency and high-frequency domains are introduced, respectively. The frequency characteristics tests up to 1.8 GHz of capacitance stability, equivalent series resistance (ESR), equivalent series inductance (ESL) and impendence are performed, and the results show good DC voltage stability (<2.48%), good frequency stability (<2.6%) and low dissipation factor (<0.6%) of the MIM thick film capacitors, which may get application to megahertz regions. The further developments of the LMCEP process for fabricating MIM thick film capacitors are also investigated.

  5. Frequency characteristics of the MIM thick film capacitors fabricated by laser micro-cladding electronic pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yu; Li Xiangyou; Zeng Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    With rapid development of the electronic industry, how to respond the market requests quickly, shorten R and D prototyping fabrication period, and reduce the cost of the electronic devices have become a challenge work, which need flexible manufacturing methods. In this work, two direct write processing methods, direct material deposition by microPen and Nd:YAG laser micro-cladding, are integrated with CAD/CAM technology for the hybrid fabrication of passive electronic components. Especially, the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) type thick film capacitors are fabricated on ceramic substrates by this method. A basic two-step procedure of laser micro-cladding electronic pastes (LMCEPs) process for the thick film pattern preparation is presented. For a better understanding of the MIM thick film capacitor characterization, equivalent circuit models at low-frequency and high-frequency domains are introduced, respectively. The frequency characteristics tests up to 1.8 GHz of capacitance stability, equivalent series resistance (ESR), equivalent series inductance (ESL) and impendence are performed, and the results show good DC voltage stability (<2.48%), good frequency stability (<2.6%) and low dissipation factor (<0.6%) of the MIM thick film capacitors, which may get application to megahertz regions. The further developments of the LMCEP process for fabricating MIM thick film capacitors are also investigated

  6. Strain Influence on the Oxygen Electrocatalysis of the (100)-Oriented Epitaxial La 2 NiO 4+δ Thin Films at Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Dongkyu; Grimaud, Alexis; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Mezghani, Khaled; Habib, Mohamed A.; Feng, Zhenxing; Hong, Wesley T.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Ruddlesden-Popper materials such as La2NiO4+δ (LNO) have high activities for surface oxygen exchange kinetics promising for solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen permeation membranes. Here we report the synthesis of the (100)tetragonal-oriented epitaxial LNO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The surface oxygen exchange kinetics determined from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were found to increase with decreasing film thickness from 390 to 14 nm. No significant change of the surface chemistry with different film thicknesses was observed using ex situ auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Increasing volumetric strains in the LNO films at elevated temperatures determined from in situ high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) were correlated with increasing surface exchange kinetics and decreasing film thickness. Volumetric strains may alter the formation energy of interstitial oxygen and influence on the surface oxygen exchange kinetics of the LNO films. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Strain Influence on the Oxygen Electrocatalysis of the (100)-Oriented Epitaxial La 2 NiO 4+δ Thin Films at Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Dongkyu

    2013-09-19

    Ruddlesden-Popper materials such as La2NiO4+δ (LNO) have high activities for surface oxygen exchange kinetics promising for solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen permeation membranes. Here we report the synthesis of the (100)tetragonal-oriented epitaxial LNO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The surface oxygen exchange kinetics determined from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were found to increase with decreasing film thickness from 390 to 14 nm. No significant change of the surface chemistry with different film thicknesses was observed using ex situ auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Increasing volumetric strains in the LNO films at elevated temperatures determined from in situ high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) were correlated with increasing surface exchange kinetics and decreasing film thickness. Volumetric strains may alter the formation energy of interstitial oxygen and influence on the surface oxygen exchange kinetics of the LNO films. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. The effect of plastic strain on the evolution of crystallographic texture in Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, R.G.; Lucas, G.E.; Pelloux, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of crystallographic texture during plastic deformation was investigated in Zircaloy-2 using X-ray and metallographic techniques. Inverse pole figures, the resolved fraction of basal poles, and the volume fraction of twinned material, were determined as a function of plastic strain for several strain paths and initial textures at 298 K and 623 K. Incremental transverse platic strain ratios (R) were measured as a function of plastic strain. Texture rotation occurs early in the deformation process, after as little as 1.5% plastic strain. For compressive plastic strains, the resolved fraction of basal poles increases in the direction parallel to the strain axis. For tensile plastic strains, the resolved fraction of basal poles decreases in the direction parallel to the strain axis. The rate of change of the resolved fraction of basal poles with plastic strain is a function of the initial resolved fraction of basal poles. The texture rotation can be explained by considering the operating of the principal tensile twinning systems, [10anti 12], . (orig.)

  9. The effect of plastic strain on the evolution of crystallographic texture in Zircaloy-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, R. G.; Lucas, G. E.; Pelloux, R. M.

    1984-09-01

    The evolution of crystallographic texture during plastic deformation was investigated in Zircaloy-2 using X-ray and metallographic techniques. Inverse pole figures, the resolved fraction of basal poles, and the volume fraction of twinned material, were determined as a function of plastic strain for several strain paths and initial textures at 298 K and 623 K. Incremental transverse platic strain ratios ( R) were mesured as a function of plastic strain. Texture rotation occurs early in the deformation process, after as little as 1.5% plastic strain. For compressive plastic strains, the resolved fraction of basal poles increases in the direction parallel to the strain axis. For tensile plastic strains, the resolved fraction of basal poles decreases in the direction parallel to the strain axis. The rate of change of the resolved fraction of basal poles with plastic strain is a function of the initial resolved fraction of basal poles. The texture rotation can be explained by considering the operation of the principal tensile twinning systems, {101¯2}.

  10. Stress Analysis of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Leaflets Under Dynamic Loading: Effect of Reduced Tissue Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mostafa; Azadani, Ali N

    2017-07-01

    In order to accommodate transcatheter valves to miniaturized catheters, the leaflet thickness must be reduced to a value which is typically less than that of surgical bioprostheses. The study aim was to use finite-element simulations to determine the impact of the thickness reduction on stress and strain distribution. A 23 mm transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) was modelled based on the Edwards SAPIEN XT (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA). Finite-element (FE) analysis was performed using the ABAQUS/Explicit solver. An ensemble-averaged transvalvular pressure waveform measured from in-vitro tests conducted in a pulse duplicator was applied to the leaflets. Through a parametric study, uniform TAV leaflet thickness was reduced from 0.5 to 0.18 mm. By reducing leaflet thickness, significantly higher stress values were found in the leaflet's fixed edge during systole, and in the commissures during diastole. Through dynamic FE simulations, the highest stress values were found during systole in the leaflet fixed edge. In contrast, at the peak of diastole high-stress regions were mainly observed in the commissures. The peak stress was increased by 178% and 507% within the leaflets after reducing the thickness of 0.5 mm to 0.18 mm at the peak of systole and diastole, respectively. The study results indicated that, the smaller the leaflet thickness, the higher the maximum principal stress. Increased mechanical stress on TAV leaflets may lead to accelerated tissue degeneration. By using a thinner leaflet, TAV durability may not atch with that of surgical bioprostheses.

  11. Direct bandgap silicon: tensile-strained silicon nanocrystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůsová, Kateřina; Hapala, Prokop; Valenta, J.; Jelínek, Pavel; Cibulka, Ondřej; Ondič, Lukáš; Pelant, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2014), "1300042-1"-"1300042-9" ISSN 2196-7350 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GPP204/12/P235; GA ČR GAP204/10/0952 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon nanocrystals * badstructure * light emission * direct bandgap * surface capping Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  12. Through thickness property variations in a thick plate AA7050 friction stir welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaday, Clinton T.; Moore, Matthew A.; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, moderately thick (32 mm) AA7050 plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW). Various methods were used to characterize the welded joints, including nugget grain size measurements at different locations through the thickness, micro-hardness indentation through nugget, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and heat affected zone (HAZ) at different cross section heights, and residual stress measurement using the cut compliance method with full thickness and partial thickness specimens. All testing results are consistent with the presence of a strong gradient in peak temperature through the plate thickness during FSW.

  13. Quantification of gravity-induced skin strain across the breast surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Amy; Mills, Chris; Haake, Steve; Norris, Michelle; Scurr, Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Quantification of the magnitude of skin strain in different regions of the breast may help to estimate possible gravity-induced damage whilst also being able to inform the selection of incision locations during breast surgery. The aim of this study was to quantify static skin strain over the breast surface and to estimate the risk of skin damage caused by gravitational loading. Fourteen participants had 21 markers applied to their torso and left breast. The non-gravity breast position was estimated as the mid-point of the breast positions in water and soybean oil (higher and lower density than breast respectively). The static gravity-loaded breast position was also measured. Skin strain was calculated as the percentage extension between adjacent breast markers in the gravity and non-gravity loaded conditions. Gravity induced breast deformation caused peak strains ranging from 14 to 75% across participants, with potentially damaging skin strain (>60%) in one participant and skin strains above 30% (skin resistance zone) in a further four participants. These peak strain values all occurred in the longitudinal direction in the upper region of the breast skin. In the latitudinal direction, smaller-breasted participants experienced greater strain on the outer (lateral) breast regions and less strain on the inner (medial) breast regions, a trend which was reversed in the larger breasted participants (above size 34D). To reduce tension on surgical incisions it is suggested that preference should be given to medial latitudinal locations for smaller breasted women and lateral latitudinal locations for larger breasted women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic-speckle profilometer for online measurements of coating thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamshilin, A A [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Semenov, D V [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nippolainen, E [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Miridonov, S [Optics Department, CICESE, Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada km 107, C.P. 22860, A.P. 360, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Online control of thickness of as-deposited coatings is of great importance because it directly affects the quality of protective coatings. We present a novel approach that enables online, real-time and non-contact measurements thickness of thermally sprayed coatings. The proposed technique uses dynamic speckles generated by rapidly deflecting laser beam. Within 10 ms the system can scan 500 times a small area of the deposited layer thus resulting in measurement accuracy of 5 microns irrespectively of the layer roughness. In comparison with traditional optical triangulation technique of distance measurements, our system has following advantages: (i) much simpler optical scheme that includes conventional photodiode to measure the scattered light, (ii) much simpler electronics for real-time data processing, (iii) much higher speed of measurements.

  15. Dynamic-speckle profilometer for online measurements of coating thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamshilin, A A; Semenov, D V; Nippolainen, E; Miridonov, S

    2007-01-01

    Online control of thickness of as-deposited coatings is of great importance because it directly affects the quality of protective coatings. We present a novel approach that enables online, real-time and non-contact measurements thickness of thermally sprayed coatings. The proposed technique uses dynamic speckles generated by rapidly deflecting laser beam. Within 10 ms the system can scan 500 times a small area of the deposited layer thus resulting in measurement accuracy of 5 microns irrespectively of the layer roughness. In comparison with traditional optical triangulation technique of distance measurements, our system has following advantages: (i) much simpler optical scheme that includes conventional photodiode to measure the scattered light, (ii) much simpler electronics for real-time data processing, (iii) much higher speed of measurements

  16. Strain effects in the common-cation II-VI heterostructures: case of ZnS/ZnSe superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Tit, N

    2003-01-01

    The electronic band-structures of the strained-layer ZnS/ZnSe (001) superlattices (SLs) have been investigated using the sp sup 3 s* tight-binding method, which includes the strain and spin-orbit effects. The SL band-structures are studied versus the biaxial strain, layer thickness, and band offsets. The results suggest that the common-cation II-VI heterojunction exhibit a vanishingly small conduction-band offset (CBO). It is shown that the SL valence-band top state is always a heavy-hole localized within ZnSe slabs; whereas the conduction-band edge state (electron) is sensitive to the biaxial strain (or VBO). To assess the strain effects, we considered three differently strained SLs corresponding to the three substrates: (i) ZnSe; (ii) ZnS sub 0 sub . sub 5 Se sub 0 sub . sub 5; and (iii) ZnS.