WorldWideScience

Sample records for thickened drinks food

  1. Rheological characteristics of cold thickened beverages containing xanthan gum-based food thickeners used for dysphagia diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun M; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2015-01-01

    Cold beverages are commonly thickened with commercial gum-based food thickeners for consumption by patients with dysphagia. In this study, the rheological properties of a thickened water and five thickened beverages (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, whole milk, and a sport drink) that were prepared with four commercial instant xanthan gum-based thickeners (coded A-D) were investigated at a 3% thickener concentration. All thickened samples showed high shear-thinning behavior with yield stress at the serving temperature of 8°C. The magnitudes of apparent viscosity (ηa,50), consistency index (K), storage modulus (G'), and loss modulus (G'') of the thickened beverages, except for water, with food thickener A were significantly higher compared with other thickeners (B, C, and D) (Pbeverages were observed at 1-hour storage, and at longer times their K values, except for milk, remained approximately constant. Rheological parameters demonstrated statistically significant differences in flow and dynamic behaviors between the cold thickened beverages prepared with the xanthan gum-based food thickeners (Pfood thickener, and storage time. In particular, appropriately selecting a commercial food thickener for preparing thickened beverages seems to be of importance for managing dysphagia. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies of food thickeners in Nigeria for contamination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... Food thickeners or thickening agents are used in food to absorb the fluid of the ... used in beverages, gravies, sauces and stews. The use of food ... Furthermore, it has also not been possible to develop effective management.

  3. Effect of Human Saliva on the Consistency of Thickened Drinks for Individuals with Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallons, Katleen J. R.; Helmens, Harold J.; Oudhuis, A. A. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thickening of foods and fluids is commonly used in the management of dysphagia to reduce the risk of aspiration. The use of starch-based thickeners is established. However, the use of gums in thickeners is gaining interest as they are resistant to salivary amylase, which may promote safer swallowing. Aims: To compare the effect of…

  4. Rheological characterization of modified foodstuffs with food grade thickening agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ocampo, I.; Aguayo-Vallejo, JP; Ascanio, G.; Córdova-Aguilar, MS

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a rheological characterization in terms of shear and extensional properties of whole milk, modified with food grade thickening agents (xanthan and carboxymethyl cellulose) with the purpose of being utilized in dysphagia treatment. Shear viscosity of the thickened fluids (2% wt. of xanthan and CMC) were measured in a stress-controlled rheometer and for extensional viscosity, a custom-built orifice flowmeter was used, with elongation rates from 20 to 3000 s-1. Such elongation-rate values represent the entire swallowing process, including the pharyngeal and esophageal phases. The steady-state shear and extensional flow curves were compared with the flow curve of a pudding consistency BaSO4 suspension (α=05), typically used as a reference fluid for the specialized commercial dysphagia products. The modified fluids presented non-Newtonian behavior in both, shear and extensional flows, and the comparison with the reference fluid show that the thickened milk prepared here, can be safely used for consumption by patients with severe dysphagia.

  5. Crushed tablets: does the administration of food vehicles and thickened fluids to aid medication swallowing alter drug release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Yady J; Lee, Danielle J; Islam, Faiza; Nissen, Lisa M; Cichero, Julie A Y; Stokes, Jason R; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of co-administered vehicles on in vitro dissolution in simulated gastric fluid of crushed immediate release tablets as an indicator for potential drug bioavailability compromise. Release and dissolution of crushed amlodipine, atenolol, carbamazepine and warfarin tablets were tested with six foods and drinks that are frequently used in the clinical setting as mixers for crushed medications (water, orange juice, honey, yoghurt, strawberry jam and water thickened with Easythick powder) in comparison to whole tablets. Five commercial thickening agents (Easythick Advanced, Janbak F, Karicare, Nutilis, Viscaid) at three thickness levels were tested for their effect on the dissolution of crushed atenolol tablets. Atenolol dissolution was unaffected by mixing crushed tablets with thin fluids or food mixers in comparison to whole tablets or crushed tablets in water, but amlodipine was delayed by mixing with jam. Mixing crushed warfarin and carbamazepine tablets with honey, jam or yoghurt caused them to resemble the slow dissolution of whole tablets rather than the faster dissolution of crushed tablets in water or orange juice. Crushing and mixing any of the four medications with thickened water caused a significant delay in dissolution. When tested with atenolol, all types of thickening agents at the greatest thickness significantly restricted dissolution, and products that are primarily based on xanthan gum also delayed dissolution at the intermediate thickness level. Dissolution testing, while simplistic, is a widely used and accepted method for comparing drug release from different formulations as an indicator for in vivo bioavailability. Thickened fluids have the potential to retard drug dissolution when used at the thickest levels. These findings highlight potential clinical implications of the addition of these agents to medications for the purpose of dose delivery and indicate that further investigation of thickened fluids and their

  6. [Effect of food thickener on disintegration and dissolution of magnesium oxide tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Yuya; Tsubouchi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Rie; Kojima, Chikako; Yoneshima, Mihoko; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that magnesium oxide tablets are excreted in a non-disintegrated state in the stool of patients when the tablets are administered after being immersed in a food thickener. Therefore we examined whether immersion in a food thickener affects the pharmacological effect in patients taking magnesium oxide tablets, and whether immersion affects its disintegration and solubility. The mean dosage (1705 mg/d) was higher for patients who took tablets after immersion in a food thickener than for those who took non-immersed tablets (1380 mg/d). The disintegration time and dissolution rate of the immersed tablets were lower than those of non-immersed tablets in vitro. Furthermore, components that constitute the food thickener and differences in composition concentrations differentially affect the disintegration and solubility of magnesium oxide tablets. This suggests that commercially available food thickeners are likely to be associated with changes in the degradation of magnesium oxide tablets, and they therefore should be carefully used in certain clinical situations.

  7. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  8. [Effect of Food Thickeners on the Disintegration, Dissolution, and Drug Activity of Rapid Oral-disintegrating Tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Kohda, Yukinao; Kudo, Kenzo

    2018-01-01

     For patients with dysphagia in medical facilities and nursing homes, food thickeners are routinely used to aid the ingestion of medicines such as tablets. However, some types of thickeners affect the disintegration and dissolution of tablets, such as rapidly-disintegrating magnesium oxide tablets and donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets. Additionally, delayed disintegration and dissolution of tablets affect a drug's efficacy. As an example, with Voglibose orally disintegrating tablets, marked differences are observed in changes in glucose levels during glucose tolerance testing. When using food thickeners to aid tablet ingestion, it is therefore necessary to select a product that has little effect on drug disintegration, dissolution, and activity.

  9. Unexpected Rheological Behavior of Hydrophobic Associative Shellac-based Oligomeric Food Thickener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianan; Li, Kun; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Ma, Jinju; Liu, Lanxiang; Sun, Yanlin; Zhang, Hong; Li, Kai

    2018-06-07

    The sodium shellac constituting of "surfactant" monomer, which is sensitive to shear stress, exhibits shear-thickening behavior at low concentration (5 wt%), and reacts with H+ to retain the transient high viscosity under shear, is introduced in this study. The appearance of the sodium shellac with different concentrations in aqueous mode also could be described. The steady-shear flow test proved that under high shear rate, sodium shellac suspension could change from Newtonian fluid to continuous shear thickening of non-Newtonian fluid. Dynamic oscillation test suggested that the sodium shellac solution at low concentration (0.1 and 1 wt%) under low shear rate represented classic viscous fluid behavior (G´´G´), and the solution at high concentration (5, 10 and 15 wt%) represented the classic the elastic gel behavior (G´´G´). Moreover, high shear rate caused a cross-linking point between G´´and G´ curve; at the low concentration, this could be the gel point and at high concentration, it could be attributed to the broken of gel. All of these transforming points were relating to the interaction between the sodium clusters. This interaction should be the hydrophobic association between the particles. In order to prove phenomenon, classic hydrophilic polymer PEO was employed as the disrupting factor to the hydrophobic association. As expected, the shear-thickening behavior vanished after mixing with PEO, which verified our assumption. On the other hand, the high viscosity of the suspension under shear could be retained by reaction with H+ to solidify the transient hydroclusters under shear, meanwhile, sodium shellac had great potential as the functional shear-thickener which could modify the rheological property of the polymer with carboxyl groups, e.g. pectin, alginate or polyacrylic acid. Thus, this natural and green thicker has great potential in food, medical gel, green adhesive, or cosmetic products.

  10. European Food and Drink Wholesalers and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose- The aim of this paper is to review and reflect on the sustainability agendas and achievements reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Design/Methodology/Approach- The paper begins with a short introduction to corporate sustainability, sustainability reporting and food and drinks wholesaling within Europe and the empirical material for the paper is drawn from reports and information posted on the leading food and drinks wholesalers' corporate websites. Findings- There are marked variations in the extent to which Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers reported and provided information on their sustainability agendas and achievements. These agendas and achievements embraced a wide range of environmental, social and economic issues but the reporting process had a number of weaknesses that undermine its transparency and credibility. The authors also argue that the leading food and drinks wholesalers' definitions of, and commitments to, sustainability are principally driven by business imperatives as by any fundamental concern to maintain the viability and integrity of natural and social capital. More critically the authors argue that this approach is couched within existing business models centred on continuing growth and consumption Limitations- The paper is a preliminary review of the sustainability agendas and achievements publicly reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Originality- The role of Europe's wholesale sector in addressing sustainability has received scant attention in the academic literature and this paper will interest academics and students in business management and marketing and employees and executives working in the distribution sector of the economy.

  11. Development of International Terminology and Definitions for Texture-Modified Foods and Thickened Fluids Used in Dysphagia Management: The IDDSI Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A Y; Lam, Peter; Steele, Catriona M; Hanson, Ben; Chen, Jianshe; Dantas, Roberto O; Duivestein, Janice; Kayashita, Jun; Lecko, Caroline; Murray, Joseph; Pillay, Mershen; Riquelme, Luis; Stanschus, Soenke

    2017-04-01

    Dysphagia is estimated to affect ~8% of the world's population (~590 million people). Texture-modified foods and thickened drinks are commonly used to reduce the risks of choking and aspiration. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) was founded with the goal of developing globally standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids applicable to individuals with dysphagia of all ages, in all care settings, and all cultures. A multi-professional volunteer committee developed a dysphagia diet framework through systematic review and stakeholder consultation. First, a survey of existing national terminologies and current practice was conducted, receiving 2050 responses from 33 countries. Respondents included individuals with dysphagia; their caregivers; organizations supporting individuals with dysphagia; healthcare professionals; food service providers; researchers; and industry. The results revealed common use of 3-4 levels of food texture (54 different names) and ≥3 levels of liquid thickness (27 different names). Substantial support was expressed for international standardization. Next, a systematic review regarding the impact of food texture and liquid consistency on swallowing was completed. A meeting was then convened to review data from previous phases, and develop a draft framework. A further international stakeholder survey sought feedback to guide framework refinement; 3190 responses were received from 57 countries. The IDDSI Framework (released in November, 2015) involves a continuum of 8 levels (0-7) identified by numbers, text labels, color codes, definitions, and measurement methods. The IDDSI Framework is recommended for implementation throughout the world.

  12. Chemical safety of food and drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M; Heijden, C.A. van der [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1992-07-01

    Food and drinking water are major sources of human exposure to a large number of chemicals added intentionally for technological reasons or present unintentionally due to contamination. On the other hand, there is a public demand for an essentially risk-free supply of food and drinking water. The concern over the presence of chemicals in the human diet received further emphasis through the development of toxicological and analytical methodology with increased sensitivity over the years. In order to minimize the potential health hazards to the consumers, standards have been established which indicate levels of consumption that are - according to scientific evidence - considered safe and which, consequently, permit control measures to be taken. In this context, public perception of a particular risk, may not always be in line with what might be considered a 'real' risk. Thus, while in the public opinion risk associated with smoking or over-nutrition might be accepted or underestimated, certain food chemical related risks may not be accepted and are sometimes perceived as alarmingly high.

  13. Chemical safety of food and drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.; Heijden, C.A. van der

    1992-01-01

    Food and drinking water are major sources of human exposure to a large number of chemicals added intentionally for technological reasons or present unintentionally due to contamination. On the other hand, there is a public demand for an essentially risk-free supply of food and drinking water. The concern over the presence of chemicals in the human diet received further emphasis through the development of toxicological and analytical methodology with increased sensitivity over the years. In order to minimize the potential health hazards to the consumers, standards have been established which indicate levels of consumption that are - according to scientific evidence - considered safe and which, consequently, permit control measures to be taken. In this context, public perception of a particular risk, may not always be in line with what might be considered a 'real' risk. Thus, while in the public opinion risk associated with smoking or over-nutrition might be accepted or underestimated, certain food chemical related risks may not be accepted and are sometimes perceived as alarmingly high

  14. Food Grade Grease Berbahan Baku Minyak Sawit Crude Palm Oil (Cpo Off Grade Dengan Variasi Konsentrasi Thickening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martanto Totok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food grade grease (FGG is a kind of lubricant made from vegetable oil. Food Grease isconsidered safe for healthy and it does not pollute the environment so that it can be veryimportant for particular industries such as pharmaceutical, animal feeding, cosmetic, andespecially food industry. This study is aiming at obtaining optimum basic formulation ofthickening agent (LiOH that can produce qualified food grade grease. It is a kind of factorialexperimental study by using complete random sampling. Based on Fisher test, the treatmentshows a different result significantly. Then, it is continued by conducting Duncan’s MultipleRange Test (DMRT. 2% of activated charcoal is the best treatment because it results FFAscore, lower water content, and the bright yellow color that is shown by the score of 5.48%,0.0498 %, and 3 % that successively obtained. The treatment on thickening agent (LiOH(P1 and the revious one (L1 are the best treatment which produce qualified food gradegrease, corrosion resistance value 12.0, dropping point 130C, lubricating texture value 1,pH value 9.45, water content 0.19%, and ash content value 0.76%.

  15. More than Food and Drink: Careers in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    In restaurants, the food's the thing. But the drinks, presentation, service, and ambiance are important, too. And it's up to restaurant workers to provide diners with a square meal that's well rounded. The hard work of the kitchen, bar, and dining-room staff gets food and drink from menu to mouth. Some of the more visible workers may include…

  16. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth / ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  17. Sectoral Innovation Watch Food and Drinks Sector. Final Sector Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F. van der

    2011-01-01

    The food and drinks manufacturing industry is a diverse and complex sector. There are ample possibilities for performance improvement and innovation in the food and drinks industry as well as a variety of challenges ranging from a lack of financial and human resources, fragmented consumer interests

  18. Comparison of the rheological properties of ready-to-serve and powdered instant food-thickened beverages at different temperatures for dysphagic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Bernice; Rachal, Corryn

    2007-07-01

    Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, affects an estimated 15 million Americans. Its management may include use of instant food thickener (IFT) to modify beverage consistency to minimize the risk of aspiration and prevent dehydration. However, inconsistencies with the desired viscosity of these thickened liquids occur both within and across product lines for both ready-to-serve commercially packaged prethickened (CPPT) and IFT-thickened beverages. To examine the rheological property differences between CPPT and similar IFT-thickened beverages, and to assess the stability of these products at two temperature ranges using three viscosity measurement techniques. The rheological properties of five CPPT and IFT-thickened beverages at both nectar- and honey-like consistencies were evaluated at 10 degrees C (50 degrees F) and 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) using the line spread, funnel, and viscometry methods. One-way analysis of variance was used for data analysis. When a significant difference was observed, Tukey's test was used to separate the means. Each viscosity measurement technique showed the CPPT nectar- and honey-like consistency beverages were significantly more viscous (Pbeverages at nectar and honey consistencies were almost always more viscous than the National Dysphagia Diet Task Force-defined standards, whereas the IFT-thickened beverages were more frequently within those standards. A reevaluation of the viscosity of CPPT beverages with reference to the National Dysphagia Diet Task Force set standard ranges needs to be considered. A strong need also exists for development of a standard protocol on product labels that includes the expected rheological properties of CPPT and IFT-thickened beverages. To the clinicians, especially registered dietitians, it is an important clinical consideration to recognize that CPPT products may be thicker than IFT-thickened products and also may be more viscous than the National Dysphagia Diet Task Force-defined standards.

  19. The color red reduces snack food and soft drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genschow, Oliver; Reutner, Leonie; Wänke, Michaela

    2012-04-01

    Based on evidence that the color red elicits avoidance motivation across contexts (Mehta & Zhu, 2009), two studies investigated the effect of the color red on snack food and soft drink consumption. In line with our hypothesis, participants drank less from a red labeled cup than from a blue labeled cup (Study 1), and ate less snack food from a red plate than from a blue or white plate (Study 2). The results suggest that red functions as a subtle stop signal that works outside of focused awareness and thereby reduces incidental food and drink intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A portrait of food and drink in commercial TV series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Bradley S; Rosaen, Sarah F; Worrell, Tracy R; Salmon, Charles T; Volkman, Julie E

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the content and presentation of food and drink on fictional, commercial television. It provides the first comparison of food and drink consumption across different television program genres designated for different age groups. Data originated with a random sample of 50 taped episodes of children's shows, 50 episodes of "tween" programs (shows targeted for 9- to 14-year-olds), 40 episodes of afternoon soaps, and 50 episodes of prime time shows. The choice of TV series was based solely on the strength of Nielsen audience ratings. The study coded the foods for nutritional content and the drinks for alcoholic/nonalcoholic content, how they were used, and in what context. Findings indicate that foods were more commonly offered and consumed on children's shows, and that problematic foods (defined as oils, solid fats, and foods with added sugars) were significantly more prevalent in youth-oriented shows than in adult-oriented shows. Although there was only a negligible presence of alcohol on children's shows, the average hourly use of alcohol on the tween shows matched that of the adult programs; therefore, alcohol was as common in the shows directed at young audiences as in shows for adults. Negative outcomes were largely absent from food and drink behaviors on these TV series.

  1. Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Requirements for the protection of people from the harmful consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation, for the safety of radiation sources and for the protection of the environment are established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. GSR Part 3 requires that the regulatory body or other relevant authority establish specific reference levels for exposure due to radionuclides in commodities, including food and drinking water. The reference level is based on an annual effective dose to the representative person that generally does not exceed a value of about 1 mSv. International standards have been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission for levels of radionuclides contained in food traded internationally that contains, or could potentially contain, radioactive substances as a consequence of a nuclear or radiological emergency. International standards have also been developed by the WHO for radionuclides contained in drinking water, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. These international standards provide guidance and criteria in terms of levels of individual radiation dose, levels of activity concentration of specific radionuclides, or both. The criteria derived in terms of levels of activity concentration in the various international standards differ owing to a number of factors and assumptions underlying the common objective of protecting public health in different circumstances. This publication considers the various international standards to be applied at the national level for the assessment of levels of radionuclides in food and in drinking water in different circumstances for the purposes of control, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. It collates and provides an overview of the different criteria used in assessing and

  2. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... would jeopardize the good health and well-being of the animals. (b) Marine mammals being transported in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section 3.115 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...

  3. Is maternal food security a predictor of food and drink intake among toddlers in Oregon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Barradas, Danielle T; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; May, Ashleigh L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity has detrimental effects on the mental, physical, and behavioral health of developing children. Few studies, however, have sought to determine whether associations exist between food insecurity and intake of vegetables, fresh or canned fruit, candy or cookies, French fries, fast food, water, milk, fruit juices, fruit drinks, soda, and sports drinks. To identify independent associations that exist between maternal food insecurity and food and drink intake among toddlers, population-based data from the 2006-2008 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System follow-back survey (Oregon PRAMS-2) of 1,522 mothers of 2-year-old children were analyzed. Maternal food insecurity was defined as mothers' report of eating less because of lack of money for food. Typical weekly child food and drink intake was examined using polytomous logistic regression: 0-1 days/week, 2-3 days/week, and 4-7 days/week. Maternal food insecurity prevalence was 11.7 %. Compared to toddlers of food secure mothers, toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed vegetables (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for 4-7 days/week = 0.31; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.12, 0.79) and fruit (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 0.25; 95 % CI 0.08, 0.75) fewer days of the week. Toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed soda (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 3.21; 95 % CI 1.12, 9.14) more days of the week. Maternal food insecurity is associated with weekly intake of certain foods and drinks. Among toddlers, consumption of fewer vegetables and fruit, and more soda may help explain the link between food insecurity and poor health.

  4. GAMBARAN JENIS DAN JUMLAH KONSUMSI FAST FOOD DAN SOFT DRINK PADA MAHASISWA OBESITAS DI UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanti, Rut; Jafar, Nurhaedar; Syam, Aminuddin

    2013-01-01

    Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink dapat menyebabkan kelebihan berat badan dan obesitas.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran jenis dan jumlah zat gizi makro dari konsumsi fast food dan soft drink pada mahasiswa yang obesitas.Jenis penelitian adalah deskriptif, dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei-Juni 2013 di Universitas Hasanuddin dengan jumlah responden 60 orang. Instrument penelitian adalah kuesioner identitas diri dan food frekuensiSemiQuantitatif fast food dan soft drink, food pictur...

  5. Systematic review and evidence based recommendations on texture modified foods and thickened liquids for adults (above 17 years) with oropharyngeal dysphagia - An updated clinical guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Kjærsgaard, Annette; Hansen, Tina

    2017-01-01

    /chin down (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.01-1.37). No evidence was identified for review question 2. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the quality of the evidence, assessment of the risk benefit ratio, and perceived patient preferences a weak recommendation against the use of texture modified liquids and good clinical practice......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) has significant consequences for both the person with dysphagia and the society. An often-used treatment for OD is the recommendation of the texture of food and liquids. This recommendation seems to be based more on best practice than on evidence from...... a systematic review of existing scientific evidence. The aim of this paper was to report the result of an up-date of an original national guideline focussing on whether thickened liquids (review question 1) and modified foods (review question 2) are beneficial for adults above 17 years with OD in relation...

  6. Occupational safety and health in the food and drink industries.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoda S

    1993-01-01

    Chapter 5 examines "Safety and health issues in respect of women workers in the food and drink industries". The paper provides information on the impact of technological progress in the sector; identifies the general hazards encountered; describes the injuries and diseases suffered by workers and concentrates on the most common approaches adopted for their prevention; and concludes by emphasizing the importance of adopting a tripartite approach to the solution of safety and health problems.

  7. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 [Docket No. FDA-2009-F-0525] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid AGENCY...) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to...

  8. Are there good reasons for fluoride labelling of food and drink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, F V; Maguire, A

    2018-02-23

    This opinion piece highlights the importance of controlling systemic fluoride intake from food and drink in early childhood to minimise risk of dental fluorosis whilst maximising caries prevention; the wide range of fluoride contents found in a study of commercially-available food and drinks; and the need for comprehensive fluoride labelling on food and drink products in the UK, particularly those used by infants and young children.

  9. Factors affecting food handling Practices among food handlers of Dangila town food and drink establishments, North West Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Food borne diseases are major health problems in developed and developing countries including Ethiopia. The problem is more noticeable in developing countries due to prevailing poor food handling and sanitation practices, inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory systems, lack of financial resources to invest on safer equipments, and lack of education for food handlers. Methods The objective of this study was to assess food handling practice and associated factors among food handlers working in food and drinking establishments of Dangila town, North West Ethiopia. Cross-sectional quantitative study design was conducted among 406 food handlers working in 105 food and drink establishments from July to August 2013 in Dangila town. Data were collected using face to face interview with pretested structured questionnaire and physical observation. Result The mean age of the respondents was 22.7 ± 4.2 years of which 62.8% of the food handlers were females. Two hundred thirteen (52.5%) of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status (AOR = 7.52, 95% CI, 1.45-38.97), monthly income (AOR = 0.395, 95% CI, 0.25-0.62), knowledge about food handling (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.05-2.73), existence of shower facility (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI, 1.12-3.21) and separate dressing room (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI, 1.11-3.49) were found to be significantly associated with good food handling Practices. Conclusion Above half of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status, monthly income, knowledge status, existence of shower facility, existence of separate dressing room and presence of insect and rodent were factors associated with food handling Practices. PMID:24908104

  10. In vitro inhibition of phenolsulphotransferase by food and drink constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, C; Glover, V; Sandler, M

    1987-07-15

    Several natural and synthetic food and drink constituents were tested in vitro for their inhibitory actions on phenolsulphotransferase P and M (PST P, PST M) and monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO A, MAO B). Cyanidin 3-rutinoside, a simple anthocyanin, (+)-catechin, a flavanol, and carmoisine, a synthetic food colorant, were found to be particularly potent, reversible inhibitors of PST P. All inhibited this enzyme by 100% at a concentration of 5 microM and had an IC50 in the microM range. The effects of these compounds on PST M and MAO A and B were less pronounced. There was a considerable difference in the inhibitory ability of different purified anthocyanins but all were selective for PST P. Several other phenolic food colorants were also found to be specific inhibitors of PST P, though less potent in their actions. Tartrazine, a non-phenolic food colorant, had little effect. The phenolic extracts from two red wines were also found selectively to inhibit PST P in vitro, suggesting that it is within this fraction that these inhibitors are to be found. PST is an important enzyme involved in the inactivation of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous phenols. If such a degree of inhibition were to occur in vivo, potentially toxic concentrations of some phenolic substrates might result.

  11. The Transaction Footprints of Scottish Food And Drink SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copus Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey approach to measuring the “transaction footprints” of rural small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. Combined with a graphical presentation of results, this contributes to the evidence base on the roles of local and global linkages. Findings suggest that the food and drink industry of Scotland is relatively localised in its input and sales interaction pattern, although substantial variations, associated with product specialisms, remoteness/accessibility, input purchasing and marketing strategies, exist. Localised SMEs have weathered the recession slightly better, but more outward-looking in firms tend to have greater optimism about the future. Transaction footprint analysis should be viewed as component of an ongoing process of re-mapping the network infrastructure of the rural economy, alongside analysis of untraded interdependencies, and institutional networks in the realm of governance.

  12. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (≥85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 [Docket No. FDA-2008-F-0151] (formerly Docket No. 2007F-0478) Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in...

  14. Nutrition policy, food and drinks at school and after school care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Poùlsen, J

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the paper is to describe food and drinks available in food stands or cantina at Danish schools and food and drinks provided at after school care institutions in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The survey was performed in 1999 and self-administered postal questionnaires were...... have access to milk at school and they can choose between milk with low and high content of fat. Vending machines are rare at schools and are not present at all at after school care institutions. Only 10% of schools offer children sugared carbonated drinks at food stands. Fruit is available daily in 35......% of schools, at food stands, and in 18% of the schools, fruit is available on prescription. In after school care institutions, sweets and sugared carbonated drinks are rare. However, juice is served daily in 47% of after school care institutions. Most schools run the food stand at school for profit...

  15. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 [Docket No. FDA-2008-F-0151] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate... and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and...

  16. The school food environment associations with adolescent soft drink and snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2008-09-01

    Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption. However, research exploring the associations between school environments and specific eating behaviors is sparse. Associations of the availability of canteen food and drinks, the presence of food stores around schools, and individual cognitions (attitudes, norms, modeling, perceived behavioral control, and intentions) with soft drink and snack consumption were examined in a cross-sectional study (2005-2006) among 1,293 adolescents aged 12-15 years. Soft drink and snack consumption and related cognitions were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. The presence of food stores and the distance to the nearest food store were calculated within a 500-meter buffer around each school. Data on the availability of soft drinks and snacks in school canteens were gathered by observation. In 2007, multilevel regression models were run to analyze associations and mediation pathways between cognitions, environmental factors, and behaviors. Adolescents' attitudes, subjective norms, parental and peer modeling, and intentions were positively associated with soft drink and snack consumption. There was an inverse association between the distance to the nearest store and the number of small food stores with soft drink consumption. These effects were mediated partly by cognitions. This study provided little evidence for associations of environmental factors in the school environment with soft drink and snack consumption. Individual cognitions appeared to be stronger correlates of intake than physical school-environmental factors. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemsup, Rachada; Neesanan, Naiyana

    2011-08-01

    Plastic is widely used in daily life especially as food and drink containers. If these containers are used inappropriately, some chemicals such as bisphenol A, phthalate, and styrene from plastic may accumulate and impair organ function. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks among parents and health personnel. 100 parents and 100 health personnel from Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health are included in the present study. The questionnaires which contained 6 parts measuring knowledge, attitudes and practices about plastic containers for food and drinks are used to collect the data. There are no differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers between parents and health personnel. Even though, 80 percent of participants usually use plastic containers for food and drinks, their knowledge about plastic is inadequate. Parents and health personnel are aware of health effects of plastic containers, but they do not know how to use and purchase plastics properly.

  18. Viscosity of Dysphagia-Oriented Cold-Thickened Beverages: Effect of Setting Time at Refrigeration Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although extensive literature is available on the viscosity of thickened beverages with food thickeners, no attempt has been made to study the effect of setting time on the viscosity of pudding-like cold-thickened beverages with xanthan gum (XG)-based thickeners by using a rheometer. In particular, it is of considerable practical…

  19. Exposure to Food Advertising On Television: Associations With Children's Fast Food and Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Andreyeva; Inas Rashad Kelly; Jennifer L. Harris

    2011-01-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food adve...

  20. Interpretations of the Concept of Sustainability Amongst the UK’s Leading Food and Drink Wholesalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this paper is to provide an exploratory review of the interpretations of the concept of sustainability amongst the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers, as revealed by the sustainability agendas and achievements reported on their corporate websites. Design/Methodology/Approach – The paper begins with short introductions to sustainability, corporate sustainability and sustainability reporting, and food and drinks wholesaling within the UK. The empirical material for the paper is drawn from reports and information posted on the leading food and drinks wholesalers’ corporate websites. Findings and implications – There are marked variations in the extent to which the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers reported and provided information on their sustainability agendas and achievements. These agendas and achievements embraced a wide range of environmental, social and economic issues, but the reporting process had a number of weaknesses that undermined its transparency and credibility. The authors also argue that the leading food and drinks wholesalers’ definitions of, and commitments to, sustainability are principally driven by business imperatives as by any fundamental concern to maintain the viability and integrity of natural and social capital. Limitations – The paper is a preliminary review of the sustainability agendas and achievements publicly reported by the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers. Originality – Within the food and drinks supply chain, wholesalers have a pivotal role at the interface between producers, manufacturers, retail and service providers, and as such they can play in promoting sustainability. However, the role of the UK’s wholesale sector in addressing sustainability has received scant attention in the academic literature, so this paper will interest academics and students in business management and marketing.

  1. Commercial WWW Site Appeal: How Does It Affect Online Food and Drink Consumers' Purchasing Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gregory K.; Manning, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on an online survey of consumer attitudes toward online storefronts marketing barbecue sauce, cheese, olive oil, potato chips, and other specialty food products. The relationship between consumer attitudes toward Web sites and the likelihood of purchase, as well as demographic factors related to online food and drink buying, are described.…

  2. Sectoral Innovation Foresight. Food and Drinks sector. Final Report. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F.A. van der

    2010-01-01

    Although food and drinks are essential for human life, the food and beverage industry is generally perceived as low-to-mid-technology sector as measured on common indicators for innovativeness and supported by CIS4 data. In principal, however, there exist many innovation possibilities within the

  3. Systematic literature review of the effects of food and drink advertising on food and drink-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S D H; Tanner, L M; Adams, J

    2013-04-01

    A large body of research confirms that food advertising affects the food preferences and behaviour of children. The impact of food advertising on adults is less clear. We conducted a systematic review exploring the effects of advertising of food and non-alcoholic drinks (referred to as 'food' throughout) on food-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations. We searched seven electronic databases, grey literature sources, and references and citations of included material for experimental studies written in English investigating the effects of commercial food advertising on the food-related behaviours, attitudes and beliefs of adults aged 16 years and over. Nine studies, rated moderate to poor quality, were included in the review; all were from developed countries and explored the impact of televised food advertising. Overall, the results did not show conclusively whether or not food advertising affects food-related behaviour, attitudes or beliefs in adults, but suggest that the impact varies inconsistently within subgroups, including gender, weight and existing food psychology. The identification of a small number of relevant studies, none of which were high quality, and with substantial heterogeneity, highlights the need for further research. Future studies investigating longer term outcomes, diverse advertising formats, and in countries with different levels of economic development will be of particular value. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Hubungan Konsumsi Fast Food dan Soft Drink terhadap Siswa Obesitas dan Tidak Obesitas di SMAN 4 Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Nadya, Kezya

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has become pandemic throughout the world and was declared by the world health organization (WHO) as the most chronic health problems. Obesity is a problem that is troubling among adolescents. One of the factors that can influence obesity is the availability of unhealthy food and drink, that is Fast Food and Soft Drink. The aim of the research was to investigate the realitionship between Fast Food and Soft Drink comsumption and the insidence of obesity and non obesity in student in ...

  5. Children's Food and Drink Purchasing Behaviour "Beyond the School Gate": The Development of a Survey Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Wendy J; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Masson, Lindsey F; Bromley, Catherine; Craig, Leone; McNeill, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Many children eat a diet which supplies a higher than recommended amount of nonmilk extrinsic sugars and saturated fatty acids. The school setting is often targeted for nutrition intervention as many children consume food at school. In Scotland, attempts have been made to improve the nutritional content of food in schools and attention has now turned to food and drink available "beyond the school gate." This paper describes the development of a module on food and drink purchasing behaviour. The Food Purchasing Module was designed to collect data, for the first time, from a representative sample of children aged 8-16 years about food and drinks purchased on the way to/from school, during break time/free periods, and at lunchtime, from outlets around schools. Cognitive testing of the module highlighted that younger children find self-completion questionnaires problematic. Older children have fewer problems with self-completion questionnaires but many do not follow question routing, which has implications for the delivery of future surveys. Development of this survey module adds much needed evidence about effectively involving children in surveys. Further research exploring food and drinks purchased beyond the school gate is needed to continue to improve the nutritional quality of children's diets.

  6. 'I saw Santa drinking soda!' Advertising and children's food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioutas, E D; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I

    2015-05-01

    The influence of advertising on children's food preferences is well documented in the research literature. In this study we aim to examine the ways in which food advertising propels children's consumer behaviour and to investigate how food advertising affects the frequency of unhealthy food consumption. Data were drawn from a sample of elementary school children in the region of Thessaly (Greece). Three scales were used to measure children's lifestyle patterns, food consumption frequencies, and their response to advertising. Univariate and inferential statistics were used to answer the research questions. The analysis revealed that a significant proportion of children (47.4%) frequently consume unhealthy foods. Children who have little understanding of the persuasive intent of advertising rate advertised foods as healthier and more nutritious. The frequency of unhealthy food consumption is influenced by the entertaining dimension of advertising and the level of the motivational arousal after children's exposure to food advertisements. Food advertising impels children's consumer behaviour through four different modes. First, advertising engenders expectations, which raise purchase motivation. Second, the purchase of advertised foods is accompanied by positive feelings (happiness, satisfaction). Third, the entertaining dimension of advertising generates pleasant mood, which positively predisposes the evaluation of advertised foods. Fourth, children do not always possess the ability to recognize the persuasive nature of advertising. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Restaurant foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and obesity risk among young African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Palmer, Julie R

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21-39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995-2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of > or = 2 times/week compared with or = 2 drinks/day compared with obesity among young African American women.

  8. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars—A Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diep H. Ha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No at age 6–9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars. Household income quartiles, mother’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6–9 months. Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2–3.1 and 1.8 (1.2–2.6 against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2–2.3. The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5–0.8. Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars.

  9. Combined effects of food deprivation and food frequency on the amount and temporal distribution of schedule-induced drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, José Luis; Pellón, Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    Under intermittent food schedules animals develop temporally organized behaviors throughout interfood intervals, with behaviors early in the intervals (interim) normally occurring in excess. Schedule-induced drinking (a prototype of interim, adjunctive behavior) is related to food deprivation and food frequency. This study investigated the interactions that resulted from combining different food-deprivation levels (70%, 80% or 90% free-feeding weights) with different food-occurrence frequencies (15-, 30- or 60-s interfood intervals) in a within-subjects design. Increases in food deprivation and food frequency generally led to increased licking, with greater differences due to food deprivation as interfood intervals became shorter. Distributions of licking were modestly shifted to later in the interfood interval as interfood intervals lengthened, a result that was most marked under 90% food deprivation, which also resulted in flatter distributions. It would therefore appear that food deprivation modulates the licking rate and the distribution of licking in different ways. Effects of food deprivation and food frequency are adequately explained by a theory of adjunctive behavior based on delayed food reinforcement, in contrast to alternative hypotheses. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Comparing sugary drinks in the food retail environment in six NYC neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Sacks, Rachel; Van Wye, Gretchen

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a national public health concern linked to numerous chronic health conditions among Americans of all age groups. Evidence suggests that discretionary calories from sugary drink consumption have been a significant contributor to excess caloric intake among both children and adults. Research has established strong links between retail food environments and purchasing habits of consumers, but little information exists on the sugary drink retail environment in urban neighborhoods. The objective of this assessment was to compare various aspects of the sugary drink retail environment across New York City (NYC) neighborhoods with disparate self-reported sugary drink consumption patterns. In-store retail audits were conducted at 883 corner stores, chain pharmacies, and grocery stores in 12 zip codes throughout NYC. Results showed that among all beverage types assessed, sugary drinks had the most prominent presence in the retail environment overall, which was even more pronounced in higher-consumption neighborhoods. In higher- versus lower-consumption neighborhoods, the mean number of sugary drink varieties available at stores was higher (11.4 vs. 10.4 varieties), stores were more likely to feature sugary drink advertising (97 vs. 89 %) and advertising at multiple places throughout the store (78 vs. 57 %), and several sugary drinks, including 20-oz Coke® or Pepsi®, were less expensive ($1.38 vs. $1.60). These results, all statistically significant, indicate that neighborhoods characterized by higher levels of sugary drink consumption expose shoppers to sugary drinks to a greater extent than lower-consumption neighborhoods. This builds upon evidence documenting the association between the environment and individual behavior.

  11. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lunchtime Food and Drink Purchasing: Young People's Practices, Preferences and Power within and beyond the School Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W. J.; Danesi, G.; Kapetanaki, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights factors that influence young people aged 13-15 years when purchasing food or drink within or beyond the school catering service. The paper draws from a qualitative study of secondary schools in Scotland, which varied in terms of relative socio-economic deprivation and density of food and drink businesses within a 10-min walk.…

  13. Factors associated with sanitary conditions of food and drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Food borne illness has been a global challenge and it persisted as a ... an absence of sanitary facilities for waste management was major cause. ... inspection on the establishments to promote and ensure proper hygiene and ...

  14. Food and drink purchasing habits out of school at lunchtime: a national survey of secondary school pupils in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Wills, Wendy J; Masson, Lindsey F; Craig, Leone C A; Bromley, Catherine; McNeill, Geraldine

    2015-08-04

    Food and drink purchasing habits of pupils out of school at lunchtime may be contributing to poor dietary intakes and overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to identify the places from which purchases were made, types of food and drinks purchased and, the reasons for purchasing food or drinks out of school. A survey of the food and drinks purchasing habits of secondary school pupils (11-16 yrs) out of school at lunchtime was conducted in Scotland in 2010. A face-to-face interview and a self-completion questionnaire was designed to identify the food outlets used at lunchtime, types of food and drinks purchased and pupils' reasons for purchasing food or drinks out of school. Height and weight were measured and BMI centiles used to classify pupils as normal weight, overweight or obese. Results were compared by age group, sex, BMI group and level of socio-economic deprivation. Of the 612 pupils who completed the survey, 97 % reported having access to places selling food or drinks out of school at lunchtime, and of these 63 % made purchases. A higher proportion of pupils from more deprived areas reported purchasing food or drinks out of school, but the proportion making purchases did not differ significantly by sex or BMI group. Supermarkets were the outlets from which pupils reported most often making purchases, with fewer purchasing food or drinks from fast food takeaways, and this did not differ significantly by socio-economic deprivation. Reasons for making purchases included availability of preferred food and drinks, some of which are restricted for sale in schools, and social reasons, such as wanting to be with friends. Sandwiches and non-diet soft drinks were items most commonly purchased, followed by confectionery and diet soft drinks. However, less than 10 % of all the secondary school pupils reported purchasing these foods every day. Supermarkets, not just fast food outlets, should be considered when developing strategies to improve the dietary

  15. Energy drinks, caffeine, junk food, breakfast, depression and academic attainment of secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Richards, Gareth

    2018-06-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed, and concerns have been raised about possible negative outcomes. The aim of the present research was to examine associations between consumption of energy drinks, caffeine and junk food, and academic attainment in a sample of UK secondary school students. A total of 3071 students agreed to participate in the study; 2677 completed the survey on one occasion (52.4% female, 47.6% male; approximately 20% of the sample from each school year) and 1660 (49.6% female, 50.4% male) completed the survey a second time, approximately six months later. The academic attainment measure was based on Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 grades for Maths and English. In the cross-sectional analyses, logistic regressions showed that consumption of energy drinks was associated with a greater likelihood of being in the low academic achievement group. This was not found for other sources of caffeine. The effect of energy drinks was still significant when demographic, academic and health/lifestyle variables were covaried. However, inclusion of an unhealthy diet variable (junk food) removed the significant effect of energy drinks. Similar observations were made in the longitudinal study, with the poorer attainment of those who consumed energy drinks reflecting breakfast omission and depression. The present findings indicate that consumption of energy drinks is associated with an increased likelihood of poor academic attainment that reflects energy drink consumption being part of an unhealthy diet or being associated with skipping breakfast rather than a more specific effect, such as being a source of caffeine. Although the current study extends previous research by utilising a longitudinal design, intervention studies are now required to better answer questions relating to causality and direction of effect.

  16. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...... government departments and agencies, emergency services, radiation protection experts, the agriculture and food production sectors, industry and others who may be affected. The handbooks include management options for application in the different phases of an incident. Sources of contamination considered...

  17. Action needed to combat food and drink companies' social media marketing to adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon

    2013-05-01

    Reports have shown how behavioural marketing through social media sites is heavily dominated by soft drink and fast food franchises, with additional concern arising due to the direct targeting of this marketing at 13 to 17-year-olds. Dr Simon Williams from Northwestern University, Chicago, USA suggests ways in which the medical community can tackle this threat to public health.

  18. Sectoral Innovation Performance in the Food and Drinks Sector. Final Report. Task 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.

    2010-01-01

    Food and drinks manufacturing is a very complex sector with a lot of possibilities for improvement and innovation, but also with a variety of challenges in regard to financial and human resources, fragmented consumer interests and concerns, regulations, costs and a balancing act between novelty and

  19. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food and drinking water from a thorium-rich area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lauria, Dejanira da; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Godoy, Maria Luisa D.P.; Santos, Eliane E.; Hacon, Sandra S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on a survey of uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides in food and drinking water from the thorium-rich (monazite-bearing) region of Buena, which is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The radionuclide concentration values in the food and drinking water from Buena reached values higher than 100-fold the international reference values. The daily intake of radionuclides by the local population is similar to that of another high background radiation area in Brazil, but the intake is higher than that of residents from a normal background radiation area. Approximately 58 % of the food consumed by Buena inhabitants is produced locally. Based on that figure, locally produced food and the dilution of total radionuclides in the diet of residents caused by food importation are both highly relevant to a population's intake of radionuclides. The concentration values for 210 Pb and the radium isotopes in drinking water from Buena are among the highest values to be reported in the literature. 228 Ra is the most important radionuclide ingested with both food and water among the inhabitants of Buena. (orig.)

  20. The level of Escherichia coli contamination in foods and drinks sold at canteens campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Susanna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial contamination is a common phenomenon in foods served in campus canteens and my cause physical illness which will affect academic activity. The aim of this study was to rank the level of Escherichia coli contamination in food and drink in campus canteens.Methods: Forty nine (49 foods and 24 types of drink were examined using conventional agar broth method for calculation of most probable number (MPN. The steps of the mothod were presumptive test for coliforms, fecal coliforms and E. coli, confirmes test for coliforms, fecal coli and E. coli and then completed test for E. coli. An analysis for contamination by E. coli in meals, utensils, and on the hands of the server was also undertaken. The data analyzed in percentage and rank all type of foods and drinks, also rank based on the location.Results: Almost all type of meals was contaminated. Meals with chili sauce were the most risky from the contamination of E. coli (90.15 %, then followed by dry meals (38.89%, while the wet meals were the the most unrisky meals. In  drinks, the highest was lacy juice, followed by jambu (guava juice, then Sirsak and Orange juices on the third rank, while the mango juice was the lowest contamination. Melon juice, cappucino and fruit-coctail did not have E. coli  contamination.Conclusion: The contamination in the top three rank of contamination could be from the utensils used and foodhandler. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:66-70Keywords: campus, canteen, drink, Escherichia coli, food

  1. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent...... of concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were......, but the associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  2. Radium-226 levels in Italian drinking waters and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastinu, G.G.; Santaroni, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    Levels of 226 Ra in Italian waters and foods were measured. Results were similar to those found in other countries, except for some mineral waters with 226 Ra concentrations above 1 pCi/liter andup to 19 pCi/liter. No difinite correlation was found between the 226 Ra concentrations measured and the high natural background radiation levels determined in central Italy in previous work

  3. NutriNet: A Deep Learning Food and Drink Image Recognition System for Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgec, Simon; Koroušić Seljak, Barbara

    2017-06-27

    Automatic food image recognition systems are alleviating the process of food-intake estimation and dietary assessment. However, due to the nature of food images, their recognition is a particularly challenging task, which is why traditional approaches in the field have achieved a low classification accuracy. Deep neural networks have outperformed such solutions, and we present a novel approach to the problem of food and drink image detection and recognition that uses a newly-defined deep convolutional neural network architecture, called NutriNet. This architecture was tuned on a recognition dataset containing 225,953 512 × 512 pixel images of 520 different food and drink items from a broad spectrum of food groups, on which we achieved a classification accuracy of 86 . 72 % , along with an accuracy of 94 . 47 % on a detection dataset containing 130 , 517 images. We also performed a real-world test on a dataset of self-acquired images, combined with images from Parkinson's disease patients, all taken using a smartphone camera, achieving a top-five accuracy of 55 % , which is an encouraging result for real-world images. Additionally, we tested NutriNet on the University of Milano-Bicocca 2016 (UNIMIB2016) food image dataset, on which we improved upon the provided baseline recognition result. An online training component was implemented to continually fine-tune the food and drink recognition model on new images. The model is being used in practice as part of a mobile app for the dietary assessment of Parkinson's disease patients.

  4. The influence of different food and drink on tics in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Buddensiek, Nadine; Geomelas, Menedimos; Emrich, Hinderk M

    2008-04-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by waxing and waning motor and vocal tics. Because standard medication often remains unsatisfactory, many patients seek alternative medicine. The aim of this study was to increase experience about the influence of food and drinks in TS. A standardized questionnaire was sent to 887 people recruited from our Tourette outpatient clinic and the German TS self-aid group. Respondents should assess whether 32 different foods influenced their tics. Two hundred twenty-four questionnaires could be used for analyses. A significant positive correlation (tic deterioration) was found for caffeine- and theine-containing drinks such as coke (ptic improvement) was not found. Results from this first survey investigating the influence of special foods and drinks on tics demonstrated that 34% and 47% of responders, respectively, assessed that coffee and coke deteriorate tics. It, therefore, can be speculated that caffeine may further stimulate an already overactive dopaminergic system in TS and thus increases tics. However, from these preliminary data, no further general recommendations regarding special diets and food restrictions can be made.

  5. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Methods Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collec...

  6. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  7. Thickened infant formula: What to know

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvatore, Silvia; Savino, Francesco; Singendonk, Maartje; Tabbers, Merit; Benninga, Marc A.; Staiano, Annamaria; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics of thickened formulas to aid health care providers manage infants with regurgitations. The indications, properties, and efficacy of different thickening agents and thickened formulas on regurgitation and gastroesophageal reflux in

  8. Study on dose calculation method for operational intervention Level. Evaluation of the intake of foods and drinks for OIL6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    In the guideline for nuclear disaster countermeasures, the operational intervention level (OIL) is an index for decision making of protective measures to be applied in an urgent protective action planning zone (UPZ) and in the zone immediately outside it, for the period starting several hours after a general emergency is declared to within a week after this. In this guideline, the initialization value of OIL6 is set as the protective measure index for intake of foods and drinks. OIL is observed by using actual measurement values in a nuclear emergency, and OIL6 is the measured activity concentration of radioactive materials (Bq/kg) in foods and drinks. On the other hand, the IAEA sets the generic criteria for protective measures from the viewpoint of the radiation effects to the human body. Therefore, it has been necessary to prepare an expression for the OIL6 dose and a dose conversion factor in order to confirm whether the dose does not exceed the generic criteria from the annual intake data of foods and drinks in Japan when contaminated foods and drinks are consumed continuously for 1 year. In this work, we examined the problem about the uncertainty of the annual intake data of foods and drinks. We took the annual intake data of foods and drinks for OIL6 based on the national health and nutrition survey results by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and we calculated a OIL6 dose when foods and drinks were contaminated at the same level as the initialization value of the restricted consumption of foods and drinks, taking into account the influences for age, gender and local area. As a result, we found the 95% upper limit value of the intake data of foods and drinks for OIL6 obtained by this study could be used. The OIL6 intake data of foods and drinks prepared by previous studies were underestimating vegetables and cereals, etc. The OIL6 dose was sufficiently below IAEA generic criteria, and the intake data of foods and drinks between the local areas had no

  9. Determination of the elements found in milk powder, infant food and soft drink by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood; Abdul Wahab Abdullah; Md Soot Haji Ahmad

    1987-01-01

    Three groups of drink and food samples such as milk powder infant food and light drink marketed around Kajand and Kuala Lumpur towns were analysed for their elemental contents using the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. 17 elements (Al, As, Br, Cl, Ca, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Ti, V, Zn, Fe, Au and Co) were detected. Some of the elements detected are shown on the label of the tin or package and the concentrations given lie within the range mentioned. (author)

  10. Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink sebagai faktor risiko obesitas pada remaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Rafiony

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, obesity has become health problem which was frequently associated with an increased occurrence of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity was marked by a shift in eating pattern composition containing high fat, cholesterol, but low in fiber such as consumption of fast food and soft drinks. The imbalance of nutrient intake was one of the risk factors for the emergence of obesity in adolescents. Obesity in adolescents at risk of becoming obese in adulthood and potentially can lead to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases Objective: This study aimed to find out the prevalence of obesity and to investigate risk factors for energy intake and frequency of consumption of fast food and soft drinks on the incidence of obesity in high school students in Pontianak. Method: This research was an observational study which involves case-control design. The samples in this study are 160 students consisting of 80 obese high school teenagers and 80 non-obese high school teenagers. The choice for a subject of research used proportional stratified random sampling. Measurement of obesity status subject was taken by the measurement of weight and height based on the reference standard WHO / NCHS. It also involves data intake of fast food and soft drinks based on interviews with SQFFQ. Data were analyzed by chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of obesity in high school teenagers in Pontianak was 9.29%. The bivariate test result showed no association  between total  energy intake of fast food and obesity (p0.05. There was a relationship between the frequency of total  fast food and of the local fast food consumption with obesity (p0.05. Multivariable analysis showed that the total energy intake was the most dominant factor to the onset of obesity (p<0.05; OR=5.27; 95% CI: 1.64-16.97. Conclusion

  11. Children's Food and Drink Purchasing Behaviour “Beyond the School Gate”: The Development of a Survey Module

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Wendy J.; Macdiarmid, Jennie I.; Masson, Lindsey F.; Bromley, Catherine; Craig, Leone; McNeill, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Many children eat a diet which supplies a higher than recommended amount of nonmilk extrinsic sugars and saturated fatty acids. The school setting is often targeted for nutrition intervention as many children consume food at school. In Scotland, attempts have been made to improve the nutritional content of food in schools and attention has now turned to food and drink available “beyond the school gate.” This paper describes the development of a module on food and drink purchasing behaviour. T...

  12. Is food store type associated with the consumption of ultra-processed food and drink products in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Priscila Pereira; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Costa, Janaína Calu; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2018-01-01

    To analyse the association between food store type and the consumption of ultra-processed products in Brazil. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55 970 Brazilian households. Food stores were grouped into nine categories. Foods and drinks were grouped according to characteristics of food processing. The contribution of each food store type to the total energy acquired from each food processing group, and according to quintiles of consumption of ultra-processed products, was estimated. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify a pattern of food store usage. Linear regression models were performed to estimate the relationship between the purchase pattern and the consumption of ultra-processed products. In line with their larger market share, supermarkets accounted for 59 % of total energy and participated most in acquisition for three food groups, with emphasis on ultra-processed products (60·4 % of energy). The participation of supermarkets in total purchase tended to increase in populations with higher consumption of ultra-processed products, while the participation of small markets and small producers tended to decrease. The purchase pattern characterized by use of traditional retail (street fairs and vendors, small markets, small farmers, butcheries) was associated with a smaller consumption of ultra-processed products. Food policies and interventions aiming to reduce the consumption of ultra-processed products should consider the influence of supermarkets on the consumption of these products. A purchase pattern based on traditional retail constitutes an important tool for promoting healthy eating in Brazil.

  13. Alcohol Drinking and Low Nutritional Value Food Eating Behavior of Sports Bettors in Gambling Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Hibai; Estévez, Ana; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of sports betting advertising has become a major concern for gambling regulators, particularly since the legalization of online gambling in many European jurisdictions. Although the composition of gambling advertisement narratives has received some limited attention, nothing is known regarding how betting advertisements (often referred to as "adverts" or "commercials") might be associating gambling with other potentially risky behaviors. The present paper examines the representation of alcohol drinking and low nutritional value food eating in sports betting advertising. By means of a mixed-methods approach to content analysis, a sample of British and Spanish soccer betting adverts was analyzed ( N  = 135). The results suggest that betting advertising aligns drinking alcohol with sports culture and significantly associates emotionally charged sporting situations such as watching live games or celebrating goals with alcohol. Additionally, alcohol drinking is more frequent in betting adverts with a higher number of characters, linking friendship bonding and alcohol drinking (especially beer) in the context of sports gambling.

  14. Lack of awareness among future medical professionals about the risk of consuming hidden phosphate-containing processed food and drinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Shutto

    Full Text Available Phosphate toxicity is an important determinant of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, particularly those undergoing hemodialysis treatments. CKD patients are advised to take a low phosphate-containing diet, and are additionally prescribed with phosphate-lowering drugs. Since these patients usually seek guidance from their physicians and nurses for their dietary options, we conducted a survey to determine the levels of awareness regarding the high phosphate content in commercially processed food and drinks among medical and nursing students at the Hirosaki University School of Medicine in Japan. For this survey, 190 medical and nursing students (average age 21.7±3 years were randomly selected, and provided with a list of questions aimed at evaluating their awareness of food and drinks containing artificially added phosphate ingredients. While 98.9% of these students were aware of the presence of sugar in commercially available soda drinks, only 6.9% were aware of the presence of phosphate (phosphoric acid. Similarly, only 11.6% of these students were aware of the presence of phosphate in commercially processed food, such as hamburgers and pizza. Moreover, around two thirds of the surveyed students (67.7% were unaware of the harmful effects of unrestricted consumption of phosphate-containing food and drinks. About 28% of the surveyed students consume such "fast food" once a week, while 40% drink at least 1∼5 cans of soda drinks/week. After realizing the potential long-term risks of consuming excessive phosphate-containing food and drinks, 40.5% of the survey participants considered reducing their phosphate intake by minimizing the consumption of commercially processed "fast food" items and soda drinks. Moreover, another 48.4% of students showed interest in obtaining more information on the negative health effects of consuming excessive amounts of phosphate. This survey emphasizes the need for educational initiative to raise

  15. Multichannel thickener of flotation tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratenko, A F; Shuliko, A N; Zinchenko, A F

    1983-04-01

    A multichannel thickener of flotation tailings developed by Ukrniiugleobogashchenie is described. Tailings with solid content ranging from 40 to 60 g/l are mixed with flocculation reagents (quantity ratio from 60 to 70 g/l) in a turbulent mixer: waste water with tailings fed to the mixer is divided into three streams, flocculation reagents are batched in stages with each water stream. After turbulent mixing, water, tailings and reagent are fed to the settling chamber. Settling chamber (dimensions 2.4 x 1.5 x 1.0 m) is divided into a number of channels by settling surfaces of 0.35 m/sup 2/ each, inclined at an angle of 55 degrees. Distance between the surfaces is 50 mm. The thickener has a total settling surface of 18.7 m/sup 2/. Water with tailings flows upwards, cleaned water is removed by a separating system and settled tailings move downward and accumulate in the compacting chamber (dimensions 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.9 m). From the compacting chamber thickened slurry with solid content from 90 to 150 g/l is removed by a hydraulic system. During performance testing in some plants preparing coal difficult to wash, thickening efficiency amounted to 100%. The results of performance testing are shown in two tables. Factors which influence thickener productivity are evaluated. (In Russian)

  16. Factors associated with problem drinking among women employed in food and recreational facilities in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongi, Aika S; Baisley, Kathy; Ao, Trong Thanh-Hoang; Chilongani, Joseph; Aguirre-Andreasen, Aura; Francis, Suzanna C; Shao, John; Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania. We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18-44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs. Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ≥ 1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10-2.23; aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34-3.00) and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56; aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-2.18), in the past 3 months. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV infection.

  17. Factors associated with problem drinking among women employed in food and recreational facilities in northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aika S Mongi

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania.We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18-44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs.Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ≥ 1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10-2.23;aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34-3.00 and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56;aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-2.18, in the past 3 months.These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV

  18. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  19. Texture Adaption in Dysphagia: Acceptability Differences Between Thickened and Naturally Thick Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschke, Marco; Seehafer, Peggy

    The aim of the study was to investigate differences in the acceptability between thickened and naturally viscous beverages. This was an exploratory, cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty-eight healthy volunteers rated overall liking/disliking of a selection of each of three thickened drinks and three beverages of natural viscosity pre- and postconsumption. Mean ratings were subjected to statistical analysis done with t tests. Although all naturally thick beverages evoked good expectations, there were significant differences in expected acceptance of thickened fluids concerning the kind of beverage. Postconsumption of naturally thick beverages were rated significantly better than thickened. The findings suggest an alternative offer of naturally thick drinks and waiver of thickening water when viscosity adaption is needed. The sufficient and safe oral fluid intake in dysphagia requires compliance to dietetic recommendations. Naturally thick beverages can contribute to increase the appeal of texture-modified diet.

  20. Food and drinking water hygiene and intestinal protozoa in deployed German soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert G; Wiemer, Dorothea F; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L; Müller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M

    2013-03-01

    This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8-12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls.

  1. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H

    2016-10-13

    A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collected from 68,043 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 15.09 ± 1.72 years), were analyzed. Questionnaires were administered to collect information related to dietary behavior including energy drink intake and junk food consumption. Single item measures of sleep dissatisfaction, stress, depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt were also administered. Associations between energy drink intake and sleep dissatisfaction, perceived severe stress, persistent depressive mood, and suicidality were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from demographic and lifestyle factors could be controlled for statistically. Energy drink intake was significantly associated with sleep dissatisfaction (adjusted odd ratios [AORs] = 1.64 and 1.25), severe stress (AORs = 2.23 and 1.38), depressive mood (AOR = 2.59 and 1.51), suicidal ideation (AORs = 3.14 and 1.43), suicide plan (AORs = 4.65 and 1.78), and suicide attempt (AORs = 6.79 and 1.91), with a higher risk for more frequent use of energy drinks (≥5 times/wk) than for less frequent use (1-4 times/wk). The detrimental effect of energy drinks on mental health was particularly prominent in frequent junk food consumers. Our data suggest that energy drink intake had detrimental effects related to stress, sleep dissatisfaction, mood, and suicidality, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional study design

  2. Children's Food and Drink Purchasing Behaviour “Beyond the School Gate”: The Development of a Survey Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Wendy J.; Macdiarmid, Jennie I.; Masson, Lindsey F.; McNeill, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Many children eat a diet which supplies a higher than recommended amount of nonmilk extrinsic sugars and saturated fatty acids. The school setting is often targeted for nutrition intervention as many children consume food at school. In Scotland, attempts have been made to improve the nutritional content of food in schools and attention has now turned to food and drink available “beyond the school gate.” This paper describes the development of a module on food and drink purchasing behaviour. The Food Purchasing Module was designed to collect data, for the first time, from a representative sample of children aged 8–16 years about food and drinks purchased on the way to/from school, during break time/free periods, and at lunchtime, from outlets around schools. Cognitive testing of the module highlighted that younger children find self-completion questionnaires problematic. Older children have fewer problems with self-completion questionnaires but many do not follow question routing, which has implications for the delivery of future surveys. Development of this survey module adds much needed evidence about effectively involving children in surveys. Further research exploring food and drinks purchased beyond the school gate is needed to continue to improve the nutritional quality of children's diets. PMID:24959546

  3. Activity concentrations and population dose from radium-226 in food and drinking water in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenchuan Kuo; Shuying Lai; Chingchung Huang; Yuming Lin

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the radioactivity of 226 Ra in environmental samples in Taiwan. Fish, pork, rice, flour, chicken, vegetable, milk, fruit, egg and water samples were collected and pretreated by radiochemical procedure to extract the 226 Ra, and the activity concentrations of 226 Ra were determined using a liquid scintillation counter. The 226 Ra content of groundwater was 12.0 mBq 1 -1 . The 226 Ra contents of the food ranged from 0.02 Bq kg -1 fresh to 0.17 Bq kg -1 fresh. The annual internal dose from ingestion of 226 Ra from food and drinking water per caput was evaluated to be 7.5 μSv. (author)

  4. Bisphenol A in soft drinks and canned foods and data evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Karzi, Vasiliki; Vakonaki, Elena; Goumenou, Marina; Kavvalakis, Matthaios; Stivaktakis, Polychronis; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Rizos, Apostolos K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most common industrial chemicals and known to exert endocrine disruption activity. The aim of this study was the quantification of BPA in food stuffs on the Greek market. The applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and recovery. About 41.7% of the canned solid phase samples, 25.0% of the canned liquid phase samples and 43.8% of the soft drinks were positive. Mean BPA concentrations (range) were 33.4 ± 4.4 ng/g (4.90 ± 0.64-66.0 ± 8.6 ng/g) in canned solid phase, 2.70 ± 0.08 ng/ml (1.90 ± 0.06-3.50 ± 0.11 ng/ml) in canned liquid phase and 2.30 ± 0.18 ng/ml (0.40 ± 0.03-10.2 ± 0.8 ng/ml) in soft drinks. The results of this study are comparable with those reported in the literature according to which higher concentrations of BPA were detected in the solid fraction of canned food compared to their liquid fraction.

  5. Effect of foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel after erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késsia Suênia Fidelis de MESQUITA-GUIMARÃES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrialised foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel previously eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl. The crowns of one hundred two specimens were subjected to an erosive challenge with HCl and randomly divided into six groups (n = 17: Chocolate Milk (Toddynho® - Pepsico - negative control; Petit Suisse Yogurt (Danoninho® - Danone; Strawberry Yogurt (Vigor; Apple puree (Nestlé; Fermented Milk (Yakult® - Yakult; and Home Squeezed Style Orange Juice (del Valle - positive control. The 28-day immersion cycles for the test products were performed twice daily and were interspersed with exposure of the test substrate to artificial saliva. Measurements of enamel surface microhardness (SMH were performed initially, after immersion in HCl and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experimentation. A two-way ANOVA, according to a split-plot design, followed by the sum of squares decomposition and Tukey’s test, revealed a significant effect for the interaction between Foods and Drinks and Length of Exposure (p < 0.00001. Orange juice resulted in greater mineral loss of enamel after 28 days. None of the test products was associated with recovery of tooth enamel microhardness.

  6. Consumer support for healthy food and drink vending machines in public places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrad, Amy M; Louie, Jimmy Chun-Yu; Milosavljevic, Marianna; Kelly, Bridget; Flood, Victoria M

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of introducing vending machines for healthier food into public places, and to examine the effectiveness of two front-of-pack labelling systems in the vending machine context. A survey was conducted with 120 students from a university and 120 employees, patients and visitors of a hospital in regional NSW, Australia. Questions explored vending machine use, attitudes towards healthier snack products and price, and the performance of front-of-pack labelling formats for vending machine products. Most participants viewed the current range of snacks and drinks as "too unhealthy" (snacks 87.5%; drinks 56.7%). Nuts and muesli bars were the most liked healthier vending machine snack. Higher proportions of participants were able to identify the healthier snack in three of the five product comparisons when products were accompanied with any type of front-of-pack label (all pvending machines. Front-of-pack label formats on vending machines may assist consumers to identify healthier products. Public settings, such as universities and hospitals, should support consumers to make healthy dietary choices by improving food environments. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Simultaneous HPLC determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in food, drinks, and herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srdjenovic, Branislava; Djordjevic-Milic, Vukosava; Grujic, Nevena; Injac, Rade; Lepojevic, Zika

    2008-02-01

    A rapid and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is developed for the separation and determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. The chromatography is performed on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column (4.6x150 mm i.d., 5-microm particle size) at 25 degrees C, with a mobile phase of water-THF (0.1% THF in water, pH 8)-acetonitrile (90:10, v/v). The flow rate is 0.8 mL/min, and detection is by UV at 273 nm. This method permits the simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in food, drinks, and herbal products with detection limits of 0.07-0.2 mg/L and recoveries of 100.20-100.42%. Correlation coefficients, for the calibration curves in the linear range of 0.2-100 mg/L, are greater than 0.9999 for all compounds. The within- and between-day precision is determined for both retention times and peak area. The data suggests that the proposed HPLC method can be used for routine quality control of food, drinks, and herbal products.

  8. Nutritional labelling for healthier food or non-alcoholic drink purchasing and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; King, Sarah E; Marteau, Theresa M; Prevost, A T; Bignardi, Giacomo; Roberts, Nia W; Stubbs, Brendon; Hollands, Gareth J; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-01-01

    Background Nutritional labelling is advocated as a means to promote healthier food purchasing and consumption, including lower energy intake. Internationally, many different nutritional labelling schemes have been introduced. There is no consensus on whether such labelling is effective in promoting healthier behaviour. Objectives To assess the impact of nutritional labelling for food and non-alcoholic drinks on purchasing and consumption of healthier items. Our secondary objective was to explore possible effect moderators of nutritional labelling on purchasing and consumption. Search methods We searched 13 electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to 26 April 2017. We also handsearched references and citations and sought unpublished studies through websites and trials registries. Selection criteria Eligible studies: were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs/Q-RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies; compared a labelled product (with information on nutrients or energy) with the same product without a nutritional label; assessed objectively measured purchasing or consumption of foods or non-alcoholic drinks in real-world or laboratory settings. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion and extracted study data. We applied the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. We pooled studies that evaluated similar interventions and outcomes using a random-effects meta-analysis, and we synthesised data from other studies in a narrative summary. Main results We included 28 studies, comprising 17 RCTs, 5 Q-RCTs and 6 ITS studies. Most (21/28) took place in the USA, and 19 took place in university settings, 14 of which mainly involved university students or staff. Most (20/28) studies assessed the impact of labelling on menus or menu boards, or nutritional labelling placed on, or adjacent to, a range of foods or drinks from

  9. Energy drink consumption in Italian university students: food habits and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, V; Diolordi, L; Pirrone, M; Donini, L M; Del Balzo, V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consumption of ED (Energy drink) among young people, both alone and in association with alcohol, as well as the food habits and lifestyle of ED consumers. An anonymous closed-ended questionnaire, was administered to a sample of students. The questionnaire is composed of 30 questions with multiple answers. The students, who come from different regions in Italy, were enrolled at two Italian Universities: Rome and Cagliari. T-test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed and chi-square test was used to compare observed and expected frequencies. The sample was composed by 618 females and 389 males and revealed statistically significant differences related to the gender in terms of lifestyle and food habits. About 2/3 of the sample has consumed ED at least once. ED consumers in the total sample accounted for 655 students (65,0%). The 41.3% of the females and the 58,8% of males were ED consumers. Habitual consumers represent the 15,8% of the ED consumers, while occasional consumers the 84,2 %. Habitual and occasional consumers show statistically significant differences both for the lifestyle and the food habits. The 72.1% of ED consumers drink ED in association with alcohol (ED-based cocktails). Our results suggest that would be recommended to inform consumers about the side effects related to an excessive use of ED, particularly when combined with alcohol: indeed, this combination is known to have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, on the nervous system, leading in particular to sleeping disorders.

  10. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, P J; Templeton, D M; Rasmussen, S N; Andersen, K E; Grandjean, P

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water. In the second experiment, a stable nickel isotope, 61Ni, was given in drinking water to 20 nickel-sensitized women and 20 age-matched controls, both groups having vesicular hand eczema of the pompholyx type. Nine of 20 nickel allergic eczema patients experienced aggravation of hand eczema after nickel administration, and three also developed a maculopapular exanthema. No exacerbation was seen in the control group. The course of nickel absorption and excretion in the allergic groups did not differ and was similar to the pattern seen in the first study, although the absorption in the women was less. A sex-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions

  11. Nutritional labelling for healthier food or non-alcoholic drink purchasing and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; King, Sarah E; Marteau, Theresa M; Prevost, A T; Bignardi, Giacomo; Roberts, Nia W; Stubbs, Brendon; Hollands, Gareth J; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-02-27

    Nutritional labelling is advocated as a means to promote healthier food purchasing and consumption, including lower energy intake. Internationally, many different nutritional labelling schemes have been introduced. There is no consensus on whether such labelling is effective in promoting healthier behaviour. To assess the impact of nutritional labelling for food and non-alcoholic drinks on purchasing and consumption of healthier items. Our secondary objective was to explore possible effect moderators of nutritional labelling on purchasing and consumption. We searched 13 electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to 26 April 2017. We also handsearched references and citations and sought unpublished studies through websites and trials registries. Eligible studies: were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs/Q-RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies; compared a labelled product (with information on nutrients or energy) with the same product without a nutritional label; assessed objectively measured purchasing or consumption of foods or non-alcoholic drinks in real-world or laboratory settings. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion and extracted study data. We applied the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. We pooled studies that evaluated similar interventions and outcomes using a random-effects meta-analysis, and we synthesised data from other studies in a narrative summary. We included 28 studies, comprising 17 RCTs, 5 Q-RCTs and 6 ITS studies. Most (21/28) took place in the USA, and 19 took place in university settings, 14 of which mainly involved university students or staff. Most (20/28) studies assessed the impact of labelling on menus or menu boards, or nutritional labelling placed on, or adjacent to, a range of foods or drinks from which participants could choose. Eight studies provided participants with only one labelled food

  12. Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Simpson, Emma; White, Martin

    2011-05-23

    Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9%) of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements), the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements). Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence of food and drink advertisements. Fewer differences were seen in

  13. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  14. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Guerrero-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile is the second world’s largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households’ consumption to changes in prices. Methods We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012–2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. Results We found an own price-elasticity of −1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. Conclusions The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  15. Relation between food and drinking habits, and skin autofluorescence and intima media thickness in subjects at high cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen, B. M.; Van Doormaal, J. J.; Mulder, G.; Volmer, M.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relations between food and drinking habits, and estimated exogenous advanced glycation end products (AGE) intake, skin autofluorescence (AF) as a marker of AGE accumulation, and intima media thickness (IMT). IMT of the carotid artery and skin AF were measured in 147 elderly

  16. The role of personal values in Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. A case study of healthy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pui Yee; Lusk, Karen; Mirosa, Miranda; Oey, Indrawati

    2014-02-01

    Differences in culture, language, and behavior between Chinese and Western consumers make entering the Chinese market a challenge. Chinese consumers may desire similar product features (e.g. brand name, quality, and flavor) to Western consumers but the value that consumers attach to the same product may differ cross-nationally. Besides values, an understanding of desired product attributes and the consequences linking to these values is also important. To the authors' knowledge, there is no published scientific research that investigates how personal values influence Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. The aim of this research was to identify the links among product attributes, consequences of these attributes, and personal values associated with healthy drink consumption decisions within the Chinese market. Specifically, this research employed means-end chain theory and used association pattern technique (APT) as the main data collection technique to identify these links. Focus groups (n=6) were held in Hangzhou, China to identify the important attributes and consequences involved in the consumption decisions of healthy drinks. These attributes and consequences along with Schwartz's 10 basic values were used to construct the matrices included in the APT survey. A total of 600 APT surveys were administered in six different companies in Hangzhou, with 570 returned. Construction of the hierarchical value map (HVM) identified four of Schwartz's personal values influencing Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions: security, hedonism, benevolence, and self-direction. Food safety was the foremost concern for Chinese consumers when choosing healthy drinks. Chinese consumers also sought a good tasting and nutritious drink that was good value for money. Results from this study provide food marketers with an in-depth understanding of Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions. Implications and recommendations are provided that will assist

  17. Trade and investment liberalization, food systems change and highly processed food consumption: a natural experiment contrasting the soft-drink markets of Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ron

    2016-06-02

    Free trade agreements (FTAs) can affect food environments and non-communicable disease risks through altering the availability of highly-processed foods. Few studies have quantified such effects. Using a natural experiment this paper quantifies changes in Peru's soft-drink market before/after entry into the US-Peru FTA, compared with Bolivia, a county with no such agreement. Difference-in-difference models were used to test for between country differences in the rate of per capita foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, soft-drink imports, the volumes of various soft-drinks sold, and the volumes of sugar from soft-drinks before/after FTA ratification (2006) and enforcement (2009). In Peru average per capita FDI-inflows rose from US$103.11 in the pre-ratification period to US$269.79 post-ratification, with little change in Bolivia. This corresponded with a 122 % increase in Peruvian soft-drink production. There was a significant between-country difference in FDI-inflows pre-/post-ratification (DID:1.07, 95 % CI:0.19-1.96; p = 0.01). Despite little difference in total per capita soft-drink sales volumes there was a significant between-country difference in per capita sugar from soft-drinks pre-/post enforcement (DID:-0.99, 95 % CI: -1.91-0.06; p = 0.03) with stagnated growth in Peru and continued growth in Bolivia. This resulted from stagnated sugar sweetened carbonates growth and increased bottled water, juice and sports & energy drinks growth in Peru, with continued carbonates growth in Bolivia. There was a significant between-country difference in per capita carbonates (DID: -1.44, 95 % CI: -2.52-0.36, p = 0.01) and bottled water (DID:0.63; 95 % CI: -0.01-1.26; p = 0.04) sales volumes. The FTA may have resulted in increased FDI-inflows and soft-drink production and also contributed to the diversification of soft drinks produced and sold in Peru with some positive (stagnated carbonates and increased bottled water) and some negative (increased

  18. Marketing techniques in television advertisements of food and drinks directed at children in Spain, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Flández, Karimen; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Moya-Geromini, María Ángeles; Bosqued-Estefanía, María José; López-Jurado, Lázaro; Damián, Javier

    2018-07-01

    To analyse marketing techniques used in television advertisements of food and drinks (AFDs) directed to children, and their nutritional quality. This is a cross-sectional study of television AFDs directed to children in Spain over 7 days in 2012. Primary appeal, persuasive and nutritional marketing techniques, and links to Internet were registered. The foods were classified according to their nutritional quality using an international codification system and the UK nutrient profile model. Frequency of AFDs using marketing techniques and percentages for unhealthy products were calculated. Taste and fun were the main primary appeals used. Persuasive and nutritional marketing techniques and links to Internet were used in 61%, 68.5% and 65.2% of AFDs, respectively. These techniques were more common during weekdays, enhanced protection time slots and on channels with particular appeal to children. More than two-thirds of AFDs using these techniques were for unhealthy products, reaching 96.2% of AFDs with premium offers and gifts. There is an extensive use of marketing techniques in television AFDs directed to children in Spain. Most products advertised were unhealthy, so stronger governmental regulations are required.

  19. Summary of principles for intervention in food and drinking water in a radiological emergency developed by several international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 it became clear that the guidelines on the management of the consequence of a nuclear accident were needed for action over long time scales and for dealing with the widespread radioactive contamination that affected many countries at distances far from the accident site. One of the major difficulties in area away from the site of a nuclear accident concerns decisions on the safety of contaminated food and drinking water. International organizations, ICRP, IAEA, WHO and several other organizations, have considered it appropriate to develop guidelines to assist national authorities in making decisions on the control of food in the event of widespread contamination by radionuclides in a radiological emergency. These guidelines and the recommendations for intervention in food and drinking water by WHO, ICRP and CEC are summarized, and the considerations and problems to adopt the guidelines are proposed in this paper. (author)

  20. Protecting New Zealand children from exposure to the marketing of unhealthy foods and drinks: a comparison of three nutrient profiling systems to classify foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Mackenzie, Tara; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2016-09-09

    Promotion of unhealthy foods and drinks is a significant, modifiable risk factor for child obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. We compared three accepted nutrient profiling systems: the Health Star Rating (HSR), the Ministry of Health Food and Beverage Classification System (FBCS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profiling Model, to identify the best system to protect New Zealand children from exposure to the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages. 13,066 packaged foods from the 2014 New Zealand Nutritrack database were classified as 'restricted' or 'not restricted' as per the WHO model; 'everyday/sometimes' or 'occasional' as per the FBCS model; and 'foods that met the criteria for all three systems or none of the systems, and the types of food products classified as 'restricted' under the WHO model but classified as 'everyday/sometimes' (FBCS model) or as having >3.5 stars, were determined. Under any of the three nutrient profiling systems, approximately one-third (29-39%) of New Zealand packaged foods would be permitted to be marketed to children. The WHO Model would permit marketing of 29% of products; the HSR system would permit 36%; and the FBCS system would permit 39%. The WHO Model restricts marketing of unhealthy foods more effectively than the other two systems. The HSR and FBCS systems would permit marketing of a number of food products of concern, particularly high-sugar breakfast cereals, fruit juices and ready meals. The WHO Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profiling Model should underpin the Advertising Standards Authority revised Children's Code for Advertising Food. The effectiveness of the new Code in reducing New Zealand children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods and drinks should be subject to evaluation by an independent body.

  1. Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental observations of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed...

  2. The Measurement of Thickened Liquids Used for the Management of Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T. M.; Torley, P. J.; Cichero, J. A. Y.

    2008-07-01

    Dysphagia is a condition where a person has difficulty in swallowing. This can lead to reduced dietary intake, dehydration and malnutrition and also aspiration of material into the lungs and asphyxiation. Using thickened fluids slow the act of swallowing and by doing so enhance safe swallowing. A common method of thickening drinks is to use a powdered thickener, but this can lead to problems in ensuring that the consistency of the degree of thickening appropriate to an individual is maintained by those making up the fiuids. There is also no assurance that the thickness of thickened liquids is consistent across commercial manufacturers. In this field viscosity is typically measured using a Line Spread Test, with the resulting viscosities being described by such terms as nectar- honey- or pudding-thick. This test is prone to many variations in operating conditions and so cannot provide accurate reproducible data. In this paper we have used conventional rheology (dynamic oscillatory using a couette cell) to provide quantitative measurement of the development in thickness of various beverages as a function of time. It was found fruit juices typically required less thickener and milk more to achieve the same thickness, but that the degree of thickening varied non-linearly with addition level.

  3. Food Sustainable Model Development: An ANP Approach to Prioritize Sustainable Factors in the Romanian Natural Soft Drinks Industry Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Cătalin Dobrea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The latest developments in natural soft drinks in the Romanian market signal significant changes in consumers’ perceptions of the sustainability concept. While the necessity of preserving natural resources and ensuring a decent level of healthiness seem to be steadily embraced by the Romanian society, the lack of long enough time series to acknowledge this shift render impossible a traditional econometric validation of these recent trends in economic thinking. The large number of European-funded projects for upgrading technology in the Romanian sector of natural soft drinks raises the question whether the learning by doing effect dispersed into the Romanian managers’ investment decision making from the perspective of both economic and food sustainability. This paper presents the construction and the evaluation of an Analytical Network Process (ANP market share model, which emerged from extended in-depth interviews with 10 managers of the main Romanian natural soft drinks producers. This model differs from traditional market share ANP ones since concepts like either food of economic sustainability were considered as significant driving factors. The coincidence between the estimated market share and the actual one, expressed by Saaty’s compatibility index, validate this model and offer comparative numerical weights’ of importance for food or economic sustainability.

  4. Junk food diet-induced obesity increases D2 receptor autoinhibition in the ventral tegmental area and reduces ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason B; Hendrickson, Linzy M; Garwood, Grant M; Toungate, Kelsey M; Nania, Christina V; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Similar to drugs of abuse, the hedonic value of food is mediated, at least in part, by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Prolonged intake of either high calorie diets or drugs of abuse both lead to a blunting of the DA system. Most studies have focused on DAergic alterations in the striatum, but little is known about the effects of high calorie diets on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Since high calorie diets produce addictive-like DAergic adaptations, it is possible these diets may increase addiction susceptibility. However, high calorie diets consistently reduce psychostimulant intake and conditioned place preference in rodents. In contrast, high calorie diets can increase or decrease ethanol drinking, but it is not known how a junk food diet (cafeteria diet) affects ethanol drinking. In the current study, we administered a cafeteria diet consisting of bacon, potato chips, cheesecake, cookies, breakfast cereals, marshmallows, and chocolate candies to male Wistar rats for 3-4 weeks, producing an obese phenotype. Prior cafeteria diet feeding reduced homecage ethanol drinking over 2 weeks of testing, and transiently reduced sucrose and chow intake. Importantly, cafeteria diet had no effect on ethanol metabolism rate or blood ethanol concentrations following 2g/kg ethanol administration. In midbrain slices, we showed that cafeteria diet feeding enhances DA D2 receptor (D2R) autoinhibition in VTA DA neurons. These results show that junk food diet-induced obesity reduces ethanol drinking, and suggest that increased D2R autoinhibition in the VTA may contribute to deficits in DAergic signaling and reward hypofunction observed with obesity.

  5. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children’s Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany J. Johnson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars.

  6. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children's Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brittany J; Bell, Lucinda K; Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Rangan, Anna M; Golley, Rebecca K

    2017-12-01

    Interventions are required to reduce children's consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2-18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars.

  7. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children’s Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Golley, Rebecca K.

    2017-01-01

    Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars. PMID:29194425

  8. Healthy nutrition and health-washing corporate discourses across three organizations in the fast food and soft drinks industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Stan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study inquires about the means by which corporate discourse formulates, invokes and challenges scientific research by examining three case studies of organizations in the fast food and soft drinks industry. Critical discourse analysis carried out on corporate sections dedicated to healthy lifestyles reveals all three explored discursive streams acknowledge customers’ changing needs and consumption patterns. They introduce healthy lifestyles up on the corporate agenda, as cornerstone for their identity and governance strategy of fast-food and soft drinks producers. As overall discursive pattern, corporate public relations jargon constantly employs disclaimers and generic terms such as “evolution”, “development”, “strategy”, “partnership”, “transparency”, without providing specific assessment criteria to map down the intended intervention. The article provides rhetoric illustrations enacted through omission, disclaimers, backgrounding and reframing effects. The overriding discursive rationale implies that healthy diets are still low-priority for leading food and drinks producers. The documented companies indicate in their PR communication two strategies of fighting against the scientifically proven negative impact of their traded products: the individual choice paradigm and the social compensation strategy or health-washing. The article highlights some of the inconsistencies of discourses on healthy food that apparently are counter-intuitive enough to undermine corporate interests, while such discourses peddle on the idea of sincerity, transparency and ethical conduct. All three case studied corporations strive to safeguard their threatened reputation across discursive practices by acknowledging their weaknesses as sign of honesty. Further reflection on critical discourse analysts’ mandate and implications for practice are explored.

  9. PEG and Thickeners: A Critical Interaction Between Polyethylene Glycol Laxative and Starch-Based Thickeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Brian J; Craft, Garrett; Harmon, Julie P; Ilkevitch, Alina; Nicoghosian, Jenik; Sheyner, Inna; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians commonly encounter dysphagia and constipation in a skilled nursing population. Increasing the viscosity of liquids, usually with a starch- or xanthan gum-based thickener, serves as a key intervention for patients with dysphagia. We report a newly identified and potentially dangerous interaction between polyethylene glycol 3350 laxative (PEG) and starch-thickened liquids. A patient requiring nectar-thickened liquids became constipated, and medical staff prescribed PEG for constipation. His nurse observed that the thickened apple juice immediately thinned to near-water consistency when PEG was added. She obtained the same results with thickened water and coffee. We quantified this phenomenon by isothermal rotational rheology. Results confirmed a precipitous loss of thickening when PEG was added to starch-based thickeners but not with xanthan gum-based thickeners. Clinicians and front-line staff should be aware of this potentially critical interaction between PEG- and starch-based thickeners. Although confirmatory studies are needed, our preliminary data suggest that PEG may be compatible with xanthan gum-- based thickeners. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Healthier choices in an Australian health service: a pre-post audit of an intervention to improve the nutritional value of foods and drinks in vending machines and food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin; Pond, Nicole; Davies, Lynda; Francis, Jeryl Lynn; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wiggers, John

    2013-11-25

    Vending machines and shops located within health care facilities are a source of food and drinks for staff, visitors and outpatients and they have the potential to promote healthy food and drink choices. This paper describes perceptions of parents and managers of health-service located food outlets towards the availability and labelling of healthier food options and the food and drinks offered for sale in health care facilities in Australia. It also describes the impact of an intervention to improve availability and labelling of healthier foods and drinks for sale. Parents (n = 168) and food outlet managers (n = 17) were surveyed. Food and drinks for sale in health-service operated food outlets (n = 5) and vending machines (n = 90) in health care facilities in the Hunter New England region of NSW were audited pre (2007) and post (2010/11) the introduction of policy and associated support to increase the availability of healthier choices. A traffic light system was used to classify foods from least (red) to most healthy choices (green). Almost all (95%) parents and most (65%) food outlet managers thought food outlets on health service sites should have signs clearly showing healthy choices. Parents (90%) also thought all food outlets on health service sites should provide mostly healthy items compared to 47% of managers. The proportion of healthier beverage slots in vending machines increased from 29% to 51% at follow-up and the proportion of machines that labelled healthier drinks increased from 0 to 26%. No outlets labelled healthier items at baseline compared to 4 out of 5 after the intervention. No changes were observed in the availability or labelling of healthier food in vending machines or the availability of healthier food or drinks in food outlets. Baseline availability and labelling of healthier food and beverage choices for sale in health care facilities was poor in spite of the support of parents and outlet managers for such initiatives. The intervention

  11. Thickened cortical bones in congenital neutropenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boechat, M.I.; Gormley, L.S.; O'Laughlin, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Congenital neutropenia is an uncommon entity which may be familial and has a wide spectrum of clinical expression. Three sisters with the severe form of the disease, that suffered from recurrent infections which lead to their demise are described. Review of their radiographs revealed the presence of cortical thickening of the bones. Although several syndroms with different bone abnormalities have been reported associated with neutropenia, the radiographic finding of thickened cortex in children with congenital neutropenia has not been previously described. (orig.)

  12. Thickened cortical bones in congenital neutropenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boechat, M.I.; Gormley, L.S.; O' Laughlin, B.J.

    1987-02-01

    Congenital neutropenia is an uncommon entity which may be familial and has a wide spectrum of clinical expression. Three sisters with the severe form of the disease, that suffered from recurrent infections which lead to their demise are described. Review of their radiographs revealed the presence of cortical thickening of the bones. Although several syndroms with different bone abnormalities have been reported associated with neutropenia, the radiographic finding of thickened cortex in children with congenital neutropenia has not been previously described.

  13. Consumption and correlates of sweet foods, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks among primary school children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Ali Saad R

    2017-10-01

    To assess the consumption of sweets, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks along with their correlates among primary school children.  Methods: A total of 725 children (7-12 years old) were randomly recruited from 10 elementary schools from Al-Baha city, Saudi Arabia in 2013, using a multi-stage stratified sampling technique and pre-tested validated questionnaire.  Results: Approximately 26.1% of children reported consuming sweets on daily basis, and 63.4% consumed sweets occasionally during the week. Approximately 56.3%children were reportedly drinking carbonated beverages weekly and 17.1% in daily basis. Weekly consumption of energy drinks was reported in 21.9% and daily consumption in 4.3% of the children. Daily sweets consumption was positively associated with children age (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5-9.5, p=0.035), consuming carbonated beverages (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.2-5.2, p less than 0.001), energy drinks (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.4, p=0.029), eating high fat food (OR= 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1 - 2.4, p=0.023), and inversely with children body mass index (BMI) (OR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-0.9, p less than 0.001). Consuming carbonated beverages on regular basis was positively associated with consuming energy drinks (OR=9.0, 95% CI: 4.0-21.0, p less than 0.001).  Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary choices were found to be prevalent at early age. Comprehensive intervention programs should be established to prevent unhealthy dietary choices and promote healthier dietary behaviors. Qualitative studies are needed for better understanding of children's dietary behaviors.

  14. Echocardiography: pericardial thickening and constrictive pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittger, I; Bowden, R E; Abrams, J; Popp, R L

    1978-09-01

    A total of 167 patients with pericardial thickening noted on M node echocardiography were studied retrospectively. After the echocardiogram, 72 patients underwent cardiac surgery, cardiac catheterization or autopsy for various heart diseases; 96 patients had none of these procedures. In 49 patients the pericardium was directly visualized at surgery or autopsy; 76 percent of these had pericardial thickening or adhesions. In another 8 percent, pericardial adhesions were absent, but no comment had been made about the appearance of the pericardium itself. In the remaining 16 percent, no comment had been made about the pericardium or percardial space. Cardiac catheterization in 64 patients revealed 24 with hemodynamic findings of constrictive pericarditis or effusive constrictive disease. Seven echocardiographic patterns consistent with pericardial adhesions or pericardial thickening are described and related when possible to the subsequent findings at heart surgery or autopsy. The clinical diagnoses of 167 patients with pericardial thickening are presented. The hemodynamic diagnosis of constrictive pericardial disease was associated with the echocardiographic finding of pericardial thickening, but there were no consistent echocardiographic patterns of pericardial thickening diagnostic of constriction. However, certain other echocardiographic abnormalities of left ventricular posterior wall motion and interventricular septal motion and a high E-Fo slope were suggestive of constriction.

  15. 'Food for thought': Advertising health food, drinks and supplements - what you can, can't and must say

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses specifically on investigating whether the draft Food Regulation would bear any relevance for the currently binding rules on the labelling and advertising of three categories of products: infant formula and follow-on formula, low gluten content foods and food intended for use in

  16. Microbiological quality of cooked foods and drinks sold in higher educational institutions around Yala, Pattani, and Narathiwat Provinces, Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalee, Abdullah D.; Sali, Khosiya; Hayeeyusoh, Nurainee; Hayeewangoh, Zubaidah; Thadah, Amporn

    2017-08-01

    Quality of cooked foods and drinks water sold within the vicinity of higher institutions located in Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces were randomly sampled and microbiologically evaluated. As to Thai National Food Safety Standard, various food menu and drinks were subjected to conventionally determining the bacterial index; Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform and fecal coliform as well as the detection of indicator organisms; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp. As for bacterial index, results showed that curry-type likes PSU-stir-fried liver (7.5x106 CFU/g), and and the lowest was PSU-Koleh chicken Roast (1.72x103 CFU/g). The highest and lowest counts of soup-type items were observed in YPH-KaengSom soup (1.9x107 CFU/g), and PSU-Palo soup (0.4x103 CFU/g), respectively. Higher bacterial counts were also found in YPH-spicy stir-fried chicken (7.5 x 106 CFU/g), and YPH-squid salad (2.2x107 CFU/g). For drinks, bacterial count ranged 2.0 x 103 to 8.3 x 103 CFU/g, and NRU-iced grape juice having the highest bacterial count (2.0x106 CFU/g). Overall, foods not complying to the Thai National Food Safety Standard of 1 x 103 CFU/g from higher to lower were those of soup, stir-fried, salad, fried, and curry categories with as much as 4:17 (23.53%), 4:21 (19.05%), 2:11 (18.18%), 2:16 (12.5%) and 1:12 (8.33%), respectively. As for Coliform and fecal coliform, the highest (>1100 MPN/g) and the lowest (0.34 MPN/g),were not much found in all food categories with percentages of 23.53, 24.00, 13.79, 9.10, and 47.37 for curry (4:17), soup (6:15), stir-fried (4:29), fried (2:22), and salad (9:19), respectively. However, indicator organisms were not detected in almost all food samples except PSU-chicken yellowish curry, NRU-chicken TongYam soup, NRU-Long-tail tuna soup, NRU-KaengSom soup, YPE-watery soup, NRU-stir-fried liver, NRU-omelets, NRU-fried chicken, YPE-crispy fish salad, and NRU-salted eggs salad, which showed the presence of E. coli, but not

  17. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pablo Diaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked to the total (t-As and inorganic (i-As arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9. Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1 by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  18. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  19. Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Methods All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. Results A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9% of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements, the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements. Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Conclusions Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence

  20. Microbial quality of soft drinks served by the dispensing machines in fast food restaurants and convenience stores in Griffin, Georgia, and surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial quality of the soft drinks served by fast food restaurants and gas station convenience stores in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas. The soft drinks were collected from the dispensing machines in 8 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2005 (n = 25) and in 10 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2006 (n = 43) and 2007 (n = 43). One hundred milliliters of each soft drink was filtered through a hydrophobic grid membrane filter. The remaining portion of the soft drink was kept at room temperature for 4 h before sampling in order to mimic the possible holding time between purchase and consumption. The membrane filters were sampled for total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds. The microbial counts in the 2006 samples were numerically higher than the counts in the 2007 samples except for the average lactic acid bacteria counts, and were either significantly or numerically higher than the counts in the 2005 samples. Soft drinks sampled after the 4-h holding period had relatively higher counts than those sampled initially, with a few exceptions. Some soft drinks had over 4 log CFU/100 ml of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast and mold cells. The study revealed the microbial quality of soft drinks served by dispensing machines in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas, emphasizing the importance of effective sanitizing practice in retail settings.

  1. Consumer wants and use of ingredient and nutrition information for alcoholic drinks: A cross-cultural study in six EU countries Food Quality and Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    2017-01-01

    In the EU, alcoholic beverages are exempt from Regulation 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers (FIC) that requires food labels to contain both ingredient information and information on key nutrients. We investigate to which extent consumers want and use information...... and the Netherlands. The results have implications for both marketers of alcoholic drinks and for policies regarding information provision....

  2. Further European initiatives and regulations concerning radiation protection: drinking water guideline, maximum permissible contamination in food products and feeding stuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundigl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection community has observed intensively the development of basic safety standards concerning protection against hazards of ionizing radiation. The new core part of the European radiation protection legislation is complemented by several specialized regulations relevant for radiation protection. Besides the existing regulations in the field of emergency protection the European Commission initiated a drinking water guideline that will be published in the near future. Furthermore the European commission approved a revised regulation concerning the maximum permissible contamination limits for food products and feeding stuff in case of a future nuclear accident. Together with the new radiation protection basic standards a new complete, coherent and modernized European regulation package will be accomplished.

  3. Food insecurity and its association with co-occurring postnatal depression, hazardous drinking, and suicidality among women in peri-urban South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewing, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark; le Roux, Ingrid M; Chopra, Mickey; Tsai, Alexander C

    2013-09-05

    Although the public health impacts of food insecurity and depression on both maternal and child health are extensive, no studies have investigated the associations between food insecurity and postnatal depression or suicidality. We interviewed 249 women three months after they had given birth and assessed food insecurity, postnatal depression symptom severity, suicide risk, and hazardous drinking. Multivariable Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to estimate the impact of food insecurity on psychosocial outcomes. Food insecurity, probable depression, and hazardous drinking were highly prevalent and co-occurring. More than half of the women (149 [59.8%]) were severely food insecure, 79 (31.7%) women met screening criteria for probable depression, and 39 (15.7%) women met screening criteria for hazardous drinking. Nineteen (7.6%) women had significant suicidality, of whom 7 (2.8%) were classified as high risk. Each additional point on the food insecurity scale was associated with increased risks of probable depression (adjusted risk ratio [ARR], 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), hazardous drinking (ARR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09), and suicidality (ARR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02-1.23). Evaluated at the means of the covariates, these estimated associations were large in magnitude. The study is limited by lack of data on formal DSM-IV diagnoses of major depressive disorder, potential sample selection bias, and inability to assess the causal impact of food insecurity. Food insecurity is strongly associated with postnatal depression, hazardous drinking, and suicidality. Programmes promoting food security for new may enhance overall psychological well-being in addition to improving nutritional status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COFFEEFLAVORED YOGURT WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF THICKENER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rocha dos Santos MATHIAS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt is a functional food that has great demand due to the consumer’s search for a healthier diet. In order to expand the consumer market of this product, many flavors are available, satisfying the most varied preferences. Besides the taste attribute, consistency and viscosity of yogurt are some of the main factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Therefore, this work is a study of the influence of concentration of thickener in coffee-flavored yogurt. The thickener agent used was gelatin. The rheological behavior (flow and viscosity curves of yogurts with and without addition of gelatin was compared with commercial yogurt, which contains another type of thickener (locust bean gum in its formulation. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained from rotational rheometer Thermo Haake Mars, with a range of shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve and 100 to 0.02 s-1 (descendent curve at a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and adjusted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and Ostwald-de-Waele. Were also carried out tests of thixotropy, by measuring the viscosity as a function of time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These curves were adjusted by the Weltman model. All samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behavior. The Herschel-Bulkley model was the best fit to the three samples tested. The Weltman’s model well described the thixotropy tests, except for the sample of commercial yogurt. The use of gelatin as a thickener showed protective character, reducing the structural break of the gel.

  5. Rheological Characterization and Cluster Classification of Iranian Commercial Foods, Drinks and Desserts to Recommend for Esophageal Dysphagia Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaraan, Azizollaah; Omaraee, Yasaman; Rastmanesh, Reza; Taheri, Negin; Fadavi, Ghasem; Fadaei, Morteza; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of dysphagia-oriented food products, rheological characterization of available food items is of importance for safe swallowing and adequate nutrient intake of dysphagic patients. In this way, introducing alternative items (with similar ease of swallow) is helpful to improve quality of life and nutritional intake of esophageal cancer dysphagia patients. The present study aimed at rheological characterization and cluster classification of potentially suitable foodstuffs marketed in Iran for their possible use in dysphagia diets. In this descriptive study, rheological data were obtained during January and February 2012 in Rheology Lab of National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute Tehran, Iran. Steady state and oscillatory shear parameters of 39 commercial samples were obtained using a Physica MCR 301 rheometer (Anton-Paar, GmbH, Graz, Austria). Matlab Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (R2012 a) was utilized for cluster classification of the samples. Using an extended list of rheological parameters and fuzzy logic methods, 39 commercial samples (drinks, main courses and desserts) were divided to 5 clusters and degree of membership to each cluster was stated by a number between 0 and 0.99. Considering apparent viscosity of foodstuffs as a single criterion for classification of dysphagia-oriented food products is shortcoming of current guidelines in dysphagia diets. Authors proposed to some revisions in classification of dysphagia-oriented food products and including more rheological parameters (especially, viscoelastic parameters) in the classification.

  6. The effect of packaging, branding and labeling on the experience of unhealthy food and drink: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    Extrinsic information, such as packaging, branding and labeling, can significantly alter our experience of food and drink through a process of 'sensation transfer', in which extrinsic attributes are transferred to our sensory perception of a product. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on sensation transfer for unhealthy food and drink and to investigate personal factors that may influence its occurrence. Seventy-eight studies in 69 articles, published between 1966 and 2014 were identified which evaluated sensation transfer. Sixty-five of the 78 studies found an effect of extrinsic information on taste and/or hedonic outcomes, providing strong evidence for sensation transfer. The majority of studies identified that specific extrinsic information influenced particular products or specific sensory outcomes. Study designs incorporating a measure of expectation allowed a tighter assessment of sensation transfer. The results of such studies confirm the hypothesis that these effects occur when extrinsic information elicits an expectation of product taste, which then forms a framework to guide sensory perception. These studies also support the hypothesis that where sensation transfer does not occur, this is likely due to a mismatch between the expectations elicited by the extrinsic information and the sensory characteristics being measured, or the failure of the extrinsic information to elicit an expectation of taste for that product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Minimising waste in the food and drink sector: using the business club approach to facilitate training and organisational development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Katherine; Miller, Linda; Smith, Ann; Tolliday, Jo

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the East Anglian Waste Minimisation in the Food And Drink Industry Project was to develop waste minimisation capability in food and drink sector companies by providing a structured training programme and consultancy support to participating members of a business club. The business club forum provided the structure within which interactive training and development sessions were delivered. Expertise and assistance in implementing waste minimisation and waste management programmes was given to member companies at their sites. The project resulted in pound 1,800,000 per annum of identified savings with pound 1,100,000 of verified savings already achieved. Training and development contributed fundamentally to these project outcomes and achievements. The structured training package used three different approaches or methods. Teaching and workshop sessions were used to present interactive training on waste minimisation practice. These were supplemented by interactive 'report-back' sessions where the 'project champions' presented progress reports to the club on waste minimisation at their sites. An overview of the business club approach is described, together with an account of the successes and challenges of applying a structured training and development programme and the barriers to waste minimisation that were overcome. Training effectiveness was measured according to reaction, learning, application and impact.

  8. Healthy Drinks for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinks (not including 100% fruit juice). If soda habits start when kids are little, chances are they ... Alternative to Water? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A Guide to Eating for Sports ...

  9. Color doppler sonography in thickened gallbladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Suk; Choi, Seok Jin; Seo, Chang Hae; Eun, Choong Ki

    1996-01-01

    The thickening of the gallbladder wall is a valuable finding for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, but may be seen in non-cholecystic disease as well as in acute or chronic cholecystitis. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of color Doppler sonography in differentiating the causes of thickened gallbladder wall. Ninety eight patients with thickened gallbladder wall(more than 3mm) which was not due to gallbladder cancer were prospectively evaluated with color Doppler sonography. Sixty-six cases, confirmed by pathologic reports and clinical records, were analyzed for correlation between thickened gallbladder wall and color flow signal according to the underlying causes. Of the 66 patients, 28 cases were cholecystitis and 38 cases had non-cholecystic causes such as liver cirrhosis, ascites, hepatitis, pancreatitis, renal failure, and hypoalbuminemia. Of the 28 patients with cholecystitis(12 acute, 16 chronic), 23(82%) had color Doppler flow signals in the thickened gallbladder wall. Of the 38 patients with non-cholecystic causes, eight(21%) had color Doppler flow signals. There was a statistically significant difference of color Doppler flow signals between the cholecystitis and non-cholecystic groups(p=0.0001). No significant difference of color Doppler flow signals was found between cases of acute and chronic cholecystitis. Of the 23 patients with color Doppler flow signals in 28 cases of cholecystitis, 18(78.3%) showed a linear pattern and five(21.7%) showed a spotty pattern. Of the eight patients with color Doppler flow signals in the 38 non-cholecystic cases, four(50%) showed a linear pattern and four(50%) showed a spotty pattern. In cholecystitis, a linear color Doppler flow signal pattern is a much more frequent finding than a spotty pattern. Color Doppler sonography is a useful and adequate method for determining whether a thickened gallbladder wall is the result of cholecystitis or has non-cholecystic causes

  10. Non-aqueous slurries used as thickeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, J C

    1982-04-07

    A non-aqueous slurry is described that is suitable for use as a thickener or viscosifier in oil or gas drilling, fracturing, flow diversion completion or workover fluids. The slurry comprises a water-soluble cellulose ether polymer, a water-insoluble liquid hydrocarbon, a non-ionic surfactant having an HLB of from 7 to 14, and an organo modified clay. There also is described a process for thickening or viscosifying a drilling, fracturing, flow diversion, completion or workover fluid. The use of the slurry prevents bumping during addition to aqueous fluids. (27 claims)

  11. ESTIMATION OF MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN THE DETERMINATION OF Fe CONTENT IN POWDERED TONIC FOOD DRINK USING GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Budiman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of uncertainty measurement in the determination of Fe content in powdered tonic food drink using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was carried out. The specification of measurand, source of uncertainty, standard uncertainty, combined uncertainty and expanded uncertainty from this measurement were evaluated and accounted. The measurement result showed that the Fe content in powdered tonic food drink sample was 569.32 µg/5g, with the expanded uncertainty measurement ± 178.20 µg/5g (coverage factor, k = 2, at confidende level 95%. The calibration curve gave the major contribution to the uncertainty of the final results.   Keywords: uncertainty, powdered tonic food drink, iron (Fe, graphite furnace AAS

  12. A rapid review examining purchasing changes resulting from fiscal measures targeted at high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Katharine E; Ells, Louisa J; McGowan, Victoria J; Machaira, Theodora; Targett, Victoria C; Allen, Rachel E; Tedstone, Alison E

    2017-12-15

    To aim of the review was to examine the most recent (2010 onwards) research evidence on the health and behavioural impacts, in adults and children, of fiscal strategies that target high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs). A pragmatic rapid review was undertaken using a systematic search strategy. The review was part of a programme of work to support policy development in relation to high sugar food and SSDs. A total of 11 primary research publications were included, describing evidence from France (n = 1), the Netherlands (n = 3), and the United States of America (n = 7), assessed through a variety of study designs, with the majority in adult populations (n = 10). The evidence reviewed focused on consumer behaviour outcomes and suggested that fiscal strategies can influence purchases of high sugar products. Although the majority of studies (n = 10), including three field studies, demonstrated that an increase in the price of high sugar foods and SSDs resulted in a decrease in purchases, eight studies were conducted in a laboratory or virtual setting which may not reflect real-life situations.Findings from this review support evidence from the broader literature that suggests that fiscal measures can be effective in influencing the purchasing of high sugar foods and SSDs.

  13. Sensory and rheological characteristics of thickened liquids differing concentrations of a xanthan gum-based thickener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeri; Hwang, Han-Im; Song, Ki-Won; Lee, Jeehyun

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and compare sensory characteristics of beverages and soups thickened with different concentrations of a xanthan gum-based thickener, and to examine, using rheological measurement, whether the viscosity of the thickened liquids conformed to the recommendations of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) Task Force. Beverages tested included water, apple juice, orange juice, soymilk, and Yakult. The thickening agent was added to samples at concentrations of 1, 2, or 3%. Addition of the thickening agent had a significant effect on the appearance, texture, and starchy flavor, which were evaluated by descriptive sensory evaluation. The reference standards of viscosity used in sensory descriptive analysis could be useful to practitioners who have to make dysphagia diets and need to learn to make them properly. In rheological measurement, viscosity of thickened liquids in stationary state would be perceived as higher compared to that while swallowing, because of the shear thinning property. This could lead to noncompliance of the medical advice or malnutrition. It is necessary to determine optimal proportion of xanthan gum-based thickener or uncover alternatives, which have shear thinning properties lower than those of xanthan gum, for the acceptance of dysphagia patients. There was no pudding-like viscosity as classified by NDD, when prepared following instructions. Future studies should include higher concentrations of thickener to find out the concentration of the thickener resulting in pudding-like viscosity as recommended by NDD. When a manufacturer modifies or develops a xanthan gum-based thickener, findings from this study can be utilized to understand sensory and rheological characteristics of thickened liquid. For practitioners who have to make dysphagia diets, the reference standards of viscosity used in sensory descriptive analysis could be helpful for deciding the viscosity level of thickened liquids based only on visual

  14. Protein-enriched familiar foods and drinks improve protein intake of hospitalized older patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Janne; Vasse, Emmelyne; Janssen, Nancy; Janse, André; de Roos, Nicole M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2017-05-18

    Adequate protein intake is important in preventing and treating undernutrition. Hospitalized older patients are recommended to consume 1.2-1.5 g of protein per kg body weight per day (g/kg/d) but most of them fail to do so. Therefore, we investigated whether a range of newly developed protein-enriched familiar foods and drinks were effective in increasing protein intake of hospitalized older patients. This randomized controlled trial involved 147 patients of ≥65 years (mean age: 78.5 ± 7.4 years). The control group (n = 80) received the standard energy and protein rich hospital menu. The intervention group (n = 67) received the same menu with various protein-enriched intervention products replacing regular products or added to the menu. Macronutrient intake on the fourth day of hospitalization, based on food ordering data, was compared between the two groups by using Independent T-tests and Mann Whitney U-tests. In the intervention group 30% of total protein was provided by the intervention products. The intervention group consumed 105.7 ± 34.2 g protein compared to 88.2 ± 24.4 g in the control group (p intervention group than in the control group reached a protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/d (79.1% vs 47.5%). Protein intake was significantly higher in the intervention group at breakfast, during the morning between breakfast and lunch, and at dinner. This study shows that providing protein-enriched familiar foods and drinks, as replacement of regular products or as additions to the hospital menu, better enables hospitalized older patients to reach protein intake recommendations. This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02213393. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among food handlers of food and drinking establishments in Aksum Town, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezehegn, Dejen; Abay, Mebrahtu; Tetemke, Desalegn; Zelalem, Hiwet; Teklay, Hafte; Baraki, Zeray; Medhin, Girmay

    2017-10-17

    Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high in developing countries and those parasites are major public health importance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and lack of access to clean water. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers in the Aksum Town of Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used among 400 randomly selected food handlers who were selected as respondents. Data were collected by face to face interviewer administered questionnaire supplemented with observational checklist. Fresh stool samples were collected from respondents and were examined microscopically for the presence of any of intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Multivariable logistic regression model using Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was fitted to analyze the independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infections. The mean age of the food handlers included in this study was 26.0 years. Of the total respondents, 72.5% were females, 63% have completed at least secondary school educational level. Five species of Intestinal Parasites (IPs) were identified. The overall prevalence of being infected with at least one intestinal parasite was 14.5%, 95% CI (11.3, 18.0). The odds of being positive for at least one intestinal parasitic infection was 12.3 times higher among food handlers who practice medical checkup every 9 months compared to those who have a medical checkup every 3 months. The odds of being positive for intestinal parasitic infection was 3 times higher among food handlers with no formal education compared to those who have a level of education secondary school and above. Food handlers who received food hygiene and safety training were 66

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among food handlers of food and drinking establishments in Aksum Town, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejen Gezehegn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high in developing countries and those parasites are major public health importance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and lack of access to clean water. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers in the Aksum Town of Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used among 400 randomly selected food handlers who were selected as respondents. Data were collected by face to face interviewer administered questionnaire supplemented with observational checklist. Fresh stool samples were collected from respondents and were examined microscopically for the presence of any of intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Multivariable logistic regression model using Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR and 95% Confidence Interval (CI was fitted to analyze the independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infections. Result The mean age of the food handlers included in this study was 26.0 years. Of the total respondents, 72.5% were females, 63% have completed at least secondary school educational level. Five species of Intestinal Parasites (IPs were identified. The overall prevalence of being infected with at least one intestinal parasite was 14.5%, 95% CI (11.3, 18.0. The odds of being positive for at least one intestinal parasitic infection was 12.3 times higher among food handlers who practice medical checkup every 9 months compared to those who have a medical checkup every 3 months. The odds of being positive for intestinal parasitic infection was 3 times higher among food handlers with no formal education compared to those who have a level of education secondary school and above. Food handlers who

  17. Formulation of lubricating grease using Beeswax thickener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, N.; Japar, A.; Aizudin, M.; Aziz, A.; Najib Razali, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The issues on environmental pollution has brought the industries to seek the alternative green solutions for lubricating grease formulation. The significant challenges in producing modified grease are in which considering the chosen thickener as one of the environmental friendly material. The main purposes of the current research were to formulate lubricant grease using different types of base oils and to study the effect of thickener on the formulated lubricant grease. Used oil and motor oil were used as the base oils for the grease preparation. Beeswax and Damar were used as thickener and additive. The grease is tested based on its consistency, stability and oil bleeding. The prepared greases achieved grease consistency of grade 2 and 3 except for grease with unfiltered used oil. Grease formulated with used oil and synthetic oil tend to harden and loss its lubricating ability under high temperature compared to motor oil’ grease. Grease modification using environmental friendly thickener were successfully formulated but it is considered as a low temperature grease as the beeswax have low melting point of 62°C-65°C.

  18. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of nickel in food and drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    EFSA received a request from the Hellenic Food Authority (EFET) for a scientific opinion on the risk to human health from the presence of nickel (Ni) in food, particularly in vegetables. The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) decided to extend the risk assessment also to drinking water. The reproductive and developmental toxicity in experimental animals was selected as the critical effect for the assessment of chronic effects of Ni. A tolerable daily intake of 2.8 µg ...

  19. An exploration and comparison of food and drink availability in homes in a sample of families of White and Pakistani origin within the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; Sahota, Pinki; Santorelli, Gillian; Hill, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of the types and quantities of foods and drinks available in family homes supports the development of targeted intervention programmes for obesity prevention or management, or for overall diet improvement. In the UK, contemporary data on foods that are available within family homes are lacking. The present study aimed to explore home food and drink availability in UK homes. An exploratory study using researcher-conducted home food availability inventories, measuring all foods and drinks within the categories of fruits, vegetables, snack foods and beverages. Bradford, a town in the north of the UK. Opportunistic sample of mixed ethnicity families with infants approximately 18 months old from the Born in Bradford birth cohort. All homes had at least one type of fruit, vegetable and snack available. Fresh fruits commonly available were oranges, bananas, apples, satsumas and grapes. Commonly available fresh vegetables included potatoes, cucumber, tomatoes and carrots. The single greatest non-fresh fruit available in homes was raisins. Non-fresh vegetables contributing the most were frozen mixed vegetables, tinned tomatoes and tinned peas. Ethnic differences were found for the availability of fresh fruits and sugar-sweetened beverages, which were both found in higher amounts in Pakistani homes compared with White homes. These data contribute to international data on availability and provide an insight into food availability within family homes in the UK. They have also supported a needs assessment of the development of a culturally specific obesity prevention intervention in which fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages are targeted.

  20. Occurrence, Genotyping, and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. in Drinking Water and Food Samples from Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Peng; Jiang, Yichao; Gong, Shaoying; Li, Ran; Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Xiujuan; Wang, Ziyuan; Kang, Huaibin; Ali, Md Aslam

    2018-02-23

    Cronobacter species (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) are emerging opportunistic bacterial pathogens that can infect both infants and adults. This study was conducted to isolate and genotype diverse Cronobacter species from drinking water, chilled fresh pork, powdered infant formula, instant noodles, cookies, fruits, vegetables, and dishes in Northeast China and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance and susceptibility of the isolates. Thirty-four Cronobacter strains were isolated and identified: 21 C. sakazakii isolates (61.8%), 10 C. malonaticus isolates (29.4%), 2 C. dublinensis isolates (5.9%), and 1 C. turicensis isolate (2.9%). These isolates were further divided into 15 sequence types (STs) by multilocus sequence typing. C. sakazakii ST4 (10 isolates, 29.4%), ST1 (3 isolates, 8.8%), and ST8 (3 isolates, 8.8%) and C. malonaticus ST7 (four isolates, 11.8%) were dominant. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicated that all 34 Cronobacter isolates were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, meropenem, tetracycline, piperacillin-tazobactam, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 88.2% were susceptible to chloramphenicol, and 67.6% were resistant to cephalothin. The results of this study enhance knowledge about genotyping and antibiotic resistance of these Cronobacter species and could be used to prevent potential hazards caused by these strains in drinking water and various food products.

  1. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bürge Aşçı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0–7.0, flow rate (1.0–1.4 mL/min, and mobile phase ratio (85–95% acetate buffer. Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS- 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r2>0.9962, accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%, precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%, limits of detection (LODs, and limits of quantification (LOQs parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10–0.19 μg/mL and 0.33–0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks.

  2. The Efficiency Of Message Codification Level in Print Advertisements: The case of food and drink products or service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Vladić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been our intention through this paper to evaluate the efficiency of chosen encoding messages in print ads forfood and drink, so we have conducted the survey with 28 respondents. The respondents have been asked to assesstheir own emotions to ads from questionnaire by using Self Assessment Manikin scale (SAM. Ads have beendivided into conventional and unconventional ads according to the classification based on the levels of codificationby Umberto Eco. The comparison of responses to these two types of advertisements through SAM results andconducted by ANOVA, shows significant differences in judgment of pleasure and judgment of arousal betweenconventional and unconventional group of ads. Post hoc analysis has shown which of the ads contributed to differencesbetween two groups. The results confirm the hypothesis that the print ads for the food and drink products orservice which are coded in the conventional manner provokes recipients better than the ads coded with dominanceof the tropological or topical content. The reason for that comes from the fact that appealing with the gastronomicicons on recipient cause the affective response of their innate instincts and tendencies .

  3. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  4. Hypertextuality, Complexity, Creativity: Using Linguistic Software Tools to Uncover New Information about the Food and Drink of Historic Mayans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Lema

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this essay on natural language I present a computer-supported study of words, sentences and hypertexts concerning bromatology (the study of food and drink in a XVI century Maya-Spanish Calepin—the most complete and extended dictionary ever written on the culture of the constructors of the wonderful and prestigious Mayan cities of Uxmal, Kalakmul, Chichén-Itzá (ARZÁPALO, 1995. For constructing a complex corpus, I apply concepts of the three-body and the fractal dimension theories (POINCARÉ, 1908; MANDELBROT, 1975. First, I register an initial body of text by simply searching via the find key for abbreviations of bromatology and botany already recorded by the citation word in the Calepin. Then, I arbitrarily shorten the Spanish form corresponding to tasty and gather it through the whole dictionary. This way I obtain three bodies of interpretative meaning, lexias (BARTHES, 2002. Second, I establish the second and the third dimensional hypertextual relations between the gleaned words or sentences of text as well as their co-occurrences by using the comprehensive linguistics software, Tropes, a lexical and content analysis mixed tool, which brings up the qualitative and quantitative data pertinent to the research. Third, to bring back the colonial Maya voices of the Calepin, I surf the Internet and add to both written bodies of text a third text composed of beautiful colored images presenting food, drinks and tasty dishes that are still enjoyed by the Maya today and have been appreciated for almost five centuries. Notwithstanding the above, neither one of the three bodies (corpora nested fractally one inside the other is exhaustive. Nonetheless, the study of their interrelations could lead to the deepening of our knowledge on the complex juxtaposition between Siglo de Oro and Maya languages and cultures in the Yucatán Peninsula. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202215

  5. Enteric bacteria of food ice and their survival in alcoholic beverages and soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Francesca, Nicola; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mahony, Jennifer; De Martino, Simone; Stucchi, Carlo; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levels of enteric bacteria in ice cubes produced in different environments (home-made, prepared in bars and pubs with ice machines and produced in industrial plants) and to determine their survival in different alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were found in almost all samples analysed. All industrial and the majority of home-made samples did not contain coliforms. Enterococci were not identified in domestic samples while they were detected in two industrial and three bar/pub samples. The samples collected from bars and pubs were characterized by the highest levels of enteric bacteria. Fourteen strains representing 11 species of eight bacterial genera were identified, some of which are known agents of human infections. The most numerous groups included Enterococcus and Stenotrophomonas. The survival of Enterococcus faecium ICE41, Pantoea conspicua ICE80 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ICE272, that were detected at the highest levels (100-400 CFU/100 mL thawed ice) in the ice cubes, was tested in six drinks and beverages characterized by different levels of alcohol, CO 2 , pH and the presence of antibacterial ingredients. The results showed a species-specific behaviour and, in general, a reduction of the microbiological risks associated with ice after its transfer to alcoholic or carbonated beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher...... than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded...... to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water...

  7. Science, LCM AND communication tools for harmonised enironmental and social sustainability in the european food and drink chain – the SENSE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aransson, Anna; Landquist, Birgit; Sonesson, Ulf

    This paper presents the first outcome of the SENSE project (HarmoniSed ENvironmental Sustainability in the European food and drink chain). In Work Package (WP) 1 of the SENSE project eight key environmental impact categories has been identified as the most relevant for food supply chains...... and for each category a life cycle impact assessment methodology has been chosen to be used in the rest of the project. The feasibility to regionalize the characterization factors has also been investigated...

  8. Food and drinking water safety: Can risk assessment help us to get our priorities right?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denner, W.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    Huge resources are devoted worldwide by governments and food producers to ensure that food and water are produced with due regard to the safety of consumers. This inevitably involves some form of risk assessment but in the field of food safety a formalised process of risk assessment has been slow to develop. An ad hoc mosaic or approaches has evolved which varies not only between countries but sometimes within countries as well. This may not be unexpected considering the vast variety of kinds of food hazards (table 1). Not only do food-related hazards themselves vary widely, so do the effects which they can cause. For example microorganisms can cause mild stomach upsets or death within a few hours depending upon the organism involved. For chemical contaminants in food the potential effects are usually less acute although no less serious. Many of the chemicals of concern are believed to be carcinogens whose effects might only be realised after many years of exposure. Nutritional imbalances may result in an increased risk from diseases, such as heart disease and cancer, which can also arise from other causes. In these latter examples it is often difficult to relate cause to effect even when extensive epidemiological evidence is available. It is important to understand the enormous diversity in possible food-related hazards before describing the assessment of risks associated with them. This great diversity makes it unlikely that any single approach to risk assessment can suit all situations. This means that making comparisons between risks from different hazards is extremely difficult. In fact trying to allocate resources in a logical way between all the different kinds of food-related hazards is a major problem in itself. For with finite resources there is always the danger of finding that focusing on one area of concern results in a potential risk elsewhere being neglected. The aim of this paper is to take a general look at some of the issues facing those with

  9. Food and drinking water safety: Can risk assessment help us to get our priorities right?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denner, W H.B. [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    Huge resources are devoted worldwide by governments and food producers to ensure that food and water are produced with due regard to the safety of consumers. This inevitably involves some form of risk assessment but in the field of food safety a formalised process of risk assessment has been slow to develop. An ad hoc mosaic or approaches has evolved which varies not only between countries but sometimes within countries as well. This may not be unexpected considering the vast variety of kinds of food hazards (table 1). Not only do food-related hazards themselves vary widely, so do the effects which they can cause. For example microorganisms can cause mild stomach upsets or death within a few hours depending upon the organism involved. For chemical contaminants in food the potential effects are usually less acute although no less serious. Many of the chemicals of concern are believed to be carcinogens whose effects might only be realised after many years of exposure. Nutritional imbalances may result in an increased risk from diseases, such as heart disease and cancer, which can also arise from other causes. In these latter examples it is often difficult to relate cause to effect even when extensive epidemiological evidence is available. It is important to understand the enormous diversity in possible food-related hazards before describing the assessment of risks associated with them. This great diversity makes it unlikely that any single approach to risk assessment can suit all situations. This means that making comparisons between risks from different hazards is extremely difficult. In fact trying to allocate resources in a logical way between all the different kinds of food-related hazards is a major problem in itself. For with finite resources there is always the danger of finding that focusing on one area of concern results in a potential risk elsewhere being neglected. The aim of this paper is to take a general look at some of the issues facing those with

  10. Food and drink sponsorship of children's sport in Australia: who pays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2011-06-01

    The creation of health promoting sports clubs may support the promotion and adoption of healthy behaviours by children. Sponsorship is one aspect of clubs, with potential influence on clubs and their participants. In particular, sponsorship influences brand awareness and attitudes, so that the sponsorship of children's sport by unhealthy food companies may contribute to food preferences and poor eating habits. This study aimed to determine the nature and extent of food and beverage sponsorship of children's sport. Sports clubs (n = 108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5-14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire was developed to determine the extent of sponsorship. Experts from different fields were approached (n = 10) to generate a consensus on the elements of sponsors that are more/less health promoting. The survey response rate was 99%. Of the 347 sponsors identified, 17% were food or beverage companies. Fifty percent of food company sponsorship arrangements did not meet criteria for healthy sponsors. For most clubs, less than a quarter of their income came from sponsorship. A considerable proportion of clubs with food company sponsors had the company's signage on players' uniforms (53%), distributed rewards using the company's name (24%) or gave vouchers to players for the company's products (29%). Any restriction of unhealthy food and beverage company sponsorship of children's sport may not result in major funding difficulties for clubs, as this funding represents a relatively small proportion of their income base, even though it provides major promotional opportunities to sponsors.

  11. Characterization of oils sands thickened tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.D.; Jeeravipoolvarn, S.; Donahue, R.; Ozum, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed the characterization of oils sands thickened tailings. The problem statement was defined as the fact that many laboratory procedures to characterize fine tailings do not take into account the extraction process, and instead use standardized laboratory tests. The purpose of this presentation was to demonstrate how different extraction processes affect the fine tailings geotechnical properties and water chemistry. Properties that were characterized included particle size analysis from hydrometer-sieve tests; per cent clay from methylene blue tests; per cent clay from mineralogy tests; Atterberg limits; water chemistry; and morphology by scanning electron microscopy. The presentation discussed the origin of fines (silt and clay) in tailings; where fine particles come from; tailings materials; mineralogy of tailings; the hydrometer-sieve test on fine tailings and thickened tailings; and the methylene blue test. It was concluded that the great majority of clay minerals in the tailings come from the clay-shale discontinuous seams and layers. For thickened tailings, the dispersed and non-dispersed hydrometer tests show considerable difference in the amount of clay size material. tabs., figs.

  12. Hunger, food and drink in Brazilian popular music: a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Vasconcelos, Mariana Perrelli; de Vasconcelos, Iris Helena Guedes

    2015-01-01

    The article reflects on how the themes of hunger, consumption of soft drinks and consumption of beans and rice are addressed in Brazilian popular music. We investigate the years of military dictatorship (1964-1985). The focus of the analysis is on the so-called protest song, a musical genre characterized by aesthetic, cultural, political, ideological and social criticism to military rule. The study of the ideology and philosophy of language of Mikhail Bakhtin is the theoretical reference; especially his concepts of "ideological sign" and "word." Analysis reveals that the protest song portrayed elements of the economic, political and social contexts and led to the diffusion of healthy or unhealthy eating habits or ideologies, contributing to the construction of the Brazilian dietary identity.

  13. Implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for staff and visitors in government-owned health facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jane; Lee, Amanda; Obersky, Natalie; Edwards, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports on a quality improvement activity examining implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for Queensland Health Facilities (A Better Choice). A Better Choice is a policy to increase supply and promotion of healthy foods and drinks and decrease supply and promotion of energy-dense, nutrient-poor choices in all food supply areas including food outlets, staff dining rooms, vending machines, tea trolleys, coffee carts, leased premises, catering, fundraising, promotion and advertising. An online survey targeted 278 facility managers to collect self-reported quantitative and qualitative data. Telephone interviews were sought concurrently with the twenty-five A Better Choice district contact officers to gather qualitative information. Public sector-owned and -operated health facilities in Queensland, Australia. One hundred and thirty-four facility managers and twenty-four district contact officers participated with response rates of 48.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Of facility managers, 78.4% reported implementation of more than half of the A Better Choice requirements including 24.6% who reported full strategy implementation. Reported implementation was highest in food outlets, staff dining rooms, tea trolleys, coffee carts, internal catering and drink vending machines. Reported implementation was more problematic in snack vending machines, external catering, leased premises and fundraising. Despite methodological challenges, the study suggests that policy approaches to improve the food and drink supply can be implemented successfully in public-sector health facilities, although results can be limited in some areas. A Better Choice may provide a model for improving food supply in other health and workplace settings.

  14. The effect of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act on food services and drinking places sales and numbers, 1998-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen-Qiang; Fisher, Monica A

    2013-11-27

    Philadelphia enacted its Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA) nearly 2 years before the statewide CIAA. In this study, we assessed the economic impact of CIAAs on 4 types of food services and drinking places and addressed the predominant limitation of previous pre-post ban studies, namely the lack of control for confounders and changes in secular trends over time. We analyzed data from Pennsylvania Department of Revenue Quarterly 1998-2011 taxable county-level revenue sales and number of food services and drinking places. Region-specific and type-specific adjusted sales and number of food services and drinking places accounted for consumer spending as a general economic indicator. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series methodology assessed changes in trend and level. Pennsylvania CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales or numbers except for an increase in sales in Philadelphia for limited-service eating places and in the surrounding 4 counties for special food services. Philadelphia CIAA was associated with an increase in adjusted numbers of full-service restaurants in Philadelphia and the rest of the state, special food services in Philadelphia, and drinking places in the rest of the state, and a decrease in the number of special food services in the surrounding counties. Philadelphia CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales except for an increase in special food services in the rest of the state. Overall, CIAAs had no negative business-related impact and, for the most part, suggest a positive impact on restaurant sales and numbers. Our results provide further support for comprehensive CIAA ordinance for restaurants.

  15. Intake of energy-dense snack foods and drinks among Dutch children aged 7-12 years: how many, how much, when, where and which?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    To describe the energy-dense snack food (EDSF) and energy-dense drink (EDD) consumption of children in the Netherlands and investigate subgroup differences. The amounts consumed, eating occasions, places of consumption and consumed types are reported. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data were used to describe the EDSF and EDD consumption. Subgroup differences concerning these intakes were identified with ANCOVA. Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. Children (n 860) aged 7-12 years. The mean number of EDSF events was 3·3 (sd 1·6) per day, yielding 1569·7 (sd 928·7) kJ. Average EDD consumption was 594·2 (sd 342·3) ml/d, yielding 737·2 (sd 495·9) kJ. Over 90 % of the children consumed more energy from non-core foods per day than recommended. Differences in EDSF and EDD consumption were found between several subgroups. Most importantly, we found higher intakes among older children and children with low educated mothers. Almost half of the EDSF events took place in the afternoon and at home. Cookies and sweets were consumed during half of the EDSF events. Almost one-third of the EDD were consumed in the afternoon. The majority of these drinks were consumed at home and most were soft drinks. The results demonstrate that snack food and drink consumption is highly prevalent among Dutch children. Health promotion efforts addressing these behaviours are warranted and the present study could accelerate these initiatives. Focusing on children with low educated parents and on snacking at home after school offers the greatest potential to reduce snack food and drink intakes.

  16. Comparison of nutrient profiling schemes for restricting the marketing of food and drink to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinsden, H; Lobstein, T

    2013-08-01

    The food and beverage industry have made voluntary pledges to reduce children's exposure to the marketing of energy-dense foods and beverages, and in 2012 announced the replacement of company-specific nutrient profiling schemes with uniform sets of criteria from 2013 (in the USA) and 2014 (in the European Union [EU]). To compare the proposed USA and EU nutrient profiling schemes and three government-led schemes, paying particular attention to the differences in sugar criteria. Food and beverage products permitted to be advertised in the USA under pre-2013 criteria were examined using five nutrient profiling schemes: the forthcoming USA and EU schemes and three government-approved schemes: the US Interagency Working Group (IWG) proposals, the United Kingdom Office of Communications (OfCom) regulations and the Danish Forum co-regulatory Code. Under the new USA and EU nutrient profiling schemes, 88 (49%) and 73 (41%) of a total of 178 products would be permitted to be advertised, respectively. The US IWG permitted 25 (14%) products; the Ofcom regulations permitted 65 (37%) and the Danish Code permitted 13 (7%). Government-led schemes are significantly more restrictive than industry-led schemes, primarily due to their tougher sugar criteria. The Danish Forum (93%) and USA IWG scheme (86%) are the most restrictive of the five examined. Further harmonization of nutrient profiling schemes is needed to reduce children's exposure to the promotion of energy-dense foods. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. Food Additives: "Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy". Health and the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    One in a series, this consumer education learning activity package teaches secondary students about food additives. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource booklet of background readings, and answer keys. Content taught…

  18. Young adults: beloved by food and drink marketers and forgotten by public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Kelly, Bridget; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Baur, Louise

    2016-12-01

    Young adults are a highly desirable target population for energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage marketing. But little research, resources, advocacy and policy action have been directed at this age group, despite the fact that young adults are gaining weight faster than previous generations and other population groups. Factors such as identity development and shifting interpersonal influences differentiate young adulthood from other life stages and influence the adoption of both healthy and unhealthy eating behaviours. EDNP food and beverage marketing campaigns use techniques to normalize brands within young adult culture, in particular through online social media. Young adults must be a priority population in future obesity prevention efforts. Stronger policies to protect young adults from EDNP food and beverage marketing may also increase the effectiveness of policies that are meant to protect younger children. Restrictions on EDNP food and beverage marketing should be extended to include Internet-based advertising and also aim to protect vulnerable young adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Drinking water treatment sludge as an effective additive for biogas production from food waste; kinetic evaluation and biomethane potential test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Nik, Mohammadali; Heidari, Ava; Ramezani Azghandi, Shamim; Asadi Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Younesi, Habibollah

    2018-07-01

    The effect of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) as a mixture additive, on biogas and methane production from food waste was studied. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with 5 concentrations of DWTS (0, 2, 6, 12, and 18 ppm) was carried out. It was found that DWTS can significantly enhance biogas and methane yield. The highest biogas (671 Nml/g VS) as well as methane yield (522 Nml/g VS) was observed when 6 mg/kg DWTS was added. This is equal to 65 and 58 percent increase in comparison with the control digester. The calculated lag time for methane was found to be in between 3.3 and 4.7 days. The DWTS also reduced the lag phase and retention time. The biogas experimental data was fitted with the modified Gompertz and the first-order kinetic models with R 2 higher than 0.994 and 0.949, respectively. The ratio of the experimental biogas production to the theoretical biogas production (ɛ) for control sample was 0.53 while for other samples containing additive were higher than 0.78. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Six Food Additives in drinks by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Q.

    2013-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the successful separation and determination of 6 synthetic food additives (aspartame, acesulfame potassium, benzoic acid, sodium saccharin, tartrazine and sunset yellow) was developed. A EclipseXDB-C18 column (250x4.6 mm I.D.; 5 micro m) was used and the mobile phase contained methanol and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 6.0) (30:70, v/v) was pumped at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min at room temperature. Successful separation conditions were obtained for all the compounds using an optimized gradient elution within 10 min. The diode array detector was used to monitor the food additives at 230 nm. The method was thoroughly validated, detection limits for all substances varied between 0.03 and 1.35 micro g/mg, the intra-day precision (as RSD) ranged from 1.57% to 4.72 %, the inter-day precision (as RSD) was between 2.05 % and 4.18 %. Satisfactory recoveries, ranging from 90.00 % to 109.87 %, were obtained. The proposed system was applied to drink samples. (author)

  1. The development and application of high-capacity thickening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhenwan; Song Yuejie

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of sedimentation theory and comparison between the high-capacity and conventional thickening techniques, the authors analyse the ways to increase capacity and to improve technological parameters of thickeners, describes the construction features, development, application, automatic control and test installations of high-capacity thickeners at home and abroad

  2. What can the food and drink industry do to help achieve the 5% free sugars goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Ashwell, Margaret; Arthur, Jenny; Bagley, Lindsey; Lennox, Alison; Rogers, Peter J; Stanner, Sara

    2017-07-01

    To contribute evidence and make recommendations to assist in achieving free sugars reduction, with due consideration to the broader picture of weight management and dietary quality. An expert workshop in July 2016 addressed options outlined in the Public Health England report 'Sugar reduction: The evidence for action' that related directly to the food industry. Panel members contributed expertise in food technology, public heath nutrition, marketing, communications, psychology and behaviour. Recommendations were directed towards reformulation, reduced portion sizes, labelling and consumer education. These were evaluated based on their feasibility, likely consumer acceptability, efficacy and cost. The panel agreed that the 5% target for energy from free sugars is unlikely to be achievable by the UK population in the near future, but a gradual reduction from average current level of intake is feasible. Progress requires collaborations between government, food industry, non-government organisations, health professionals, educators and consumers. Reformulation should start with the main contributors of free sugars in the diet, prioritising those products high in free sugars and relatively low in micronutrients. There is most potential for replacing free sugars in beverages using high-potency sweeteners and possibly via gradual reduction in sweetness levels. However, reformulation alone, with its inherent practical difficulties, will not achieve the desired reduction in free sugars. Food manufacturers and the out-of-home sector can help consumers by providing smaller portions. Labelling of free sugars would extend choice and encourage reformulation; however, government needs to assist industry by addressing current analytical and regulatory problems. There are also opportunities for multi-agency collaboration to develop tools/communications based on the Eatwell Guide, to help consumers understand the principles of a varied, healthy, balanced diet. Multiple strategies

  3. Drink lots of clean, safe water”: A food-based dietary guideline for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the literature that supports the importance of the food-based dietary guideline on water consumption. General recommendations for total daily water intake are between 2 and 3.7 l for women and men, 0.7 l for infants aged 0-6 months, 0.8 l for infants aged 7-12 months, 1.3 l for ...

  4. Why people drink shampoo? Food Imitating Products are fooling brains and endangering consumers for marketing purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Basso

    Full Text Available A Food Imitating Product (FIP is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release--e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers--and therefore save lives.

  5. Why people drink shampoo? Food Imitating Products are fooling brains and endangering consumers for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative) and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging) findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release--e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers--and therefore save lives.

  6. Exploring the opportunities for food and drink purchasing and consumption by teenagers during their journeys between home and school: a feasibility study using a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowburn, Gill; Matthews, Anne; Doherty, Aiden; Hamilton, Alex; Kelly, Paul; Williams, Julianne; Foster, Charlie; Nelson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using wearable cameras as a method to capture the opportunities for food and drink purchasing/consumption that young people encounter on their regular journeys to and from school. A qualitative study using multiple data-collection methods including wearable cameras, global positioning system units, individual interviews, food and drink purchase and consumption diaries completed by participants over four days, and an audit of food outlets located within an 800 m Euclidean buffer zone around each school. A community setting. Twenty-two students (fourteen girls and eight boys) aged 13-15 years recruited from four secondary schools in two counties of England. Wearable cameras offered a feasible and acceptable method for collecting food purchase and consumption data when used alongside traditional methods of data collection in a small number of teenagers. We found evidence of participants making deliberate choices about whether or not to purchase/consume food and drink on their journeys. These choices were influenced by priorities over money, friends, journey length, travel mode and ease of access to opportunities for purchase/consumption. Most food and drink items were purchased/consumed within an 800 m Euclidean buffer around school, with items commonly selected being high in energy, fat and sugar. Wearable camera images combined with interviews helped identify unreported items and misreporting errors. Wearable camera images prompt detailed discussion and generate contextually specific information which could offer new insights and understanding around eating behaviour patterns. The feasibility of scaling up the use of these methods requires further empirical work.

  7. Hydration and chemical ingredients in sport drinks: food safety in the European context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Soriano, José M; Martínez-Sanz, José M; Medina, Sonia; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-05-01

    Before, during and after physical activity, hydration is a limiting factor in athletic performance. Therefore, adequate hydration provides benefits for health and performance of athletes. Besides, hydration is associated to the intake of carbohydrates, protein, sodium, caffeine and other substances by different dietary aids, during the training and/or competition by athletes. These requirements have led to the development of different products by the food industry, to cover the nutritional needs of athletes. Currently in the European context, the legal framework for the development of products, substances and health claims concerning to sport products is incomplete and scarce. Under these conditions, there are many products with different ingredients out of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) control where claims are wrong due to no robust scientific evidence and it can be dangerous for the health. Further scientific evidence should be constructed by new clinical trials in order to assist to the Experts Commitees at EFSA for obtaining robust scientific opinions concerning to the functional foods and the individual ingredients for sport population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Pairings of ethanol sipper with food induces Pavlovian autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats: evidence of long-term retention and effects of sipper duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Sparta, Dennis R; Silberman, Yuval; Interlandi, Jeneen; Mynko, Alise; Patterson-Buckendahl, Patricia; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-01-01

    This study asks if repeated Pavlovian pairings of a sipper tube (conditioned stimulus, CS) with food (unconditioned stimulus, US) will induce Pavlovian autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs), consisting of drinking of either 6% ethanol or water from the sipper CS. This study also tests predictions derived from the autoshaping model by asking if sipper CS-directed drinking will be retained, despite the absence of training for several weeks, and, in addition, if drinking rate is a negative function of sipper CS duration. Autoshaping procedures, conducted in two daily sessions, consisted of the brief insertion of the sipper tube CS followed by the response-independent presentation of food US. For the Ethanol group (n = 8), the sipper CS contained 6% ethanol, whereas for the Water group (n = 8), the sipper CS contained tap water. Saccharin fading procedures were employed, whereas for both groups, during days 1-19, the sipper CS contained 0.1% saccharin, and thereafter across training days the concentration of saccharin was gradually reduced (0.07, 0.035, 0.0%). Following elimination of saccharin, both groups were maintained in their home cages during a 27-day retention interval, and then re-evaluated for autoshaping of drinking of unsweetened ethanol and water. Thereafter, across days, the duration of access to the sipper CS (5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 15.0 s) during each autoshaping trial was increased. Both groups increased drinking across the first 19 days of training with sipper CS-food US pairings, and, at 0.0% saccharin, the Ethanol group consumed 14.76 ml of 6% ethanol per day, resulting in a daily ethanol consumption of 2.77 g/kg. For both groups, daily levels of drinking before and after the 27-day retention interval were comparable, attesting to the durability of the acquired drinking effects. At each CS duration, the Ethanol group consumed more millilitres of fluid per day than did the Water group, and for the Ethanol group, peak drinking of 24.0 ml of 6% ethanol per

  9. Food preparation methods, drinking water source, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the high-risk area of Golestan, Northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Fazeltabar Malekshah, Akbar; Islami, Farhad; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoosh; Khoshnia, Masoud; Pourshams, Akram; Semnani, Shahriar; Marjani, Haji Amin; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Brennan, Paul; Taylor, Philip; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian; Dawsey, Sanford; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Cooking practices and water sources have been associated with an increased risk of cancer, mainly through exposure to carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nitrates. Using data from the Golestan case-control study, carried out between 2003 and 2007 in a high-risk region for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we sought to investigate the association between food preparation and drinking water sources and ESCC. Information on food preparation methods, sources of drinking water, and dietary habits was gathered from 300 cases and 571 controls matched individually for age, sex, and neighborhood using a structured questionnaire and a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for potential confounders and other known risk factors including socioeconomic status and smoking. More than 95% of the participants reported eating meat, mostly red meat. Red meat consumption above the 75th percentile increased the odds of ESCC by 2.82-fold (95% CI: 1.21-6.57). Fish intake was associated with a significant 68% decrease in ESCC odds (26%, 86%). Among meat eaters, ORs (95% CI) for frying meat (red or white) and fish were 3.34 (1.32-8.45) and 2.62 (1.24-5.5). Drinking unpiped water increased ESCC odds by 4.25 times (2.23-8.11). The OR for each 10-year increase in the duration of drinking unpiped water was 1.47 (1.22-1.78). Our results suggest roles for red meat intake, drinking water source, and food preparation methods in ESCC, even after adjusting for a large number of potential confounders.

  10. Associations of ultra-processed food and drink products with asthma and wheezing among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, B; Rezende, L; Machado, P; Gouveia, N; Levy, R

    2018-04-21

    Although both consumption of ultra-processed products and asthma are common during adolescence, the epidemiological evidence in regarding their association is unclear. We investigated the associations of ultra-processed products consumption with asthma and wheezing in a representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. We used data from a representative sample of 109,104 Brazilian adolescents enrolled in the National Survey of School Health, 2012. The consumption of ultra-processed products was based on the weekly consumption (0-2, 3-4, ≥5 days/week) of sweet biscuits, salty biscuits, ultra-processed meats, sweets/candies, soft drinks, and packaged snacks over the previous seven days. We also calculated an ultra-processed consumption score by adding partial scores corresponding to weekly frequency intake of each ultra-processed product. The ultra-processed consumption score ranged from 0 to 42, the higher score, the higher the intake of these products. Presence of wheezing in the previous 12 months and asthma at any time in the past were self-reported. The adjusted odds ratios of asthma comparing the extreme categories ranged from 1.08 (95% CI 1.03-1.13) for sweets/candies to 1.30 (1.21-1.40) for ultra-processed meats. Similar magnitude of associations was found for wheezing outcome. The ultra-processed consumption score was positively associated with presence of asthma and wheezing in a dose-response manner. The adjusted OR of asthma and wheezing comparing highest to lowest quintile of ultra-processed consumption score were 1.27 (95% CI 1.15-1.41) and 1.42 (1.35-1.50), respectively. The consumption of ultra-processed products was positively associated with the presence of asthma and wheezing in adolescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. A facile pollutant-free approach toward a series of nutritionally effective calcium phosphate nanomaterials for food and drink additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieru; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xianyan; Xu, Sanzhong; Zhang, Xinli; Gou, Zhongru

    2011-03-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems worldwide. Vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates and Ca-phosphate (CaP) minerals are important to human health and disease prevention. Herein we developed a simple wet-chemical method to prepare multinary nutrients-containing CaP nanomaterials in diluted apple, orange, and grape juices. The scanning electron microscopy observation shows that these nanomaterials are short plate-like CaP nanocrystals of 500 nm in length. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analyses confirm the different specific surface area and organic nutrient contents. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate there exist similar organic groups (i.e., COO-, HN-CO) but different CaP species in the precipitates. The dissolution test in vitro simulated stomach juice pH condition indicates that these inorganic-organic nanohybrid materials are multidoped by micronutrients (such as Zn, Sr, Mg, K, vitamin c) and can be readily dissolved in the weak acidic aqueous solutions. This highly efficient utilization of fruit juice to produce CaP-based micronutrient composites may minimize the adverse side effect, so that the nanomaterials are promising as functional food/drink additives. Thus, this novel approach is environmentally and biologically friendly to produce edible nutrients while production cost is attained.

  12. A facile pollutant-free approach toward a series of nutritionally effective calcium phosphate nanomaterials for food and drink additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jieru; Chen Xiaoyi; Yang Xianyan; Xu Sanzhong; Zhang Xinli; Gou Zhongru

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems worldwide. Vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates and Ca-phosphate (CaP) minerals are important to human health and disease prevention. Herein we developed a simple wet-chemical method to prepare multinary nutrients-containing CaP nanomaterials in diluted apple, orange, and grape juices. The scanning electron microscopy observation shows that these nanomaterials are short plate-like CaP nanocrystals of ∼500 nm in length. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analyses confirm the different specific surface area and organic nutrient contents. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate there exist similar organic groups (i.e., COO − , HN-CO) but different CaP species in the precipitates. The dissolution test in vitro simulated stomach juice pH condition indicates that these inorganic–organic nanohybrid materials are multidoped by micronutrients (such as Zn, Sr, Mg, K, vitamin c) and can be readily dissolved in the weak acidic aqueous solutions. This highly efficient utilization of fruit juice to produce CaP-based micronutrient composites may minimize the adverse side effect, so that the nanomaterials are promising as functional food/drink additives. Thus, this novel approach is environmentally and biologically friendly to produce edible nutrients while production cost is attained.

  13. The case to ban sugary food and drink from schools: these products are addictive, and kids will learn best without them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, S; Sundborn, G

    2014-03-01

    In New Zealand, schools have been a battleground as a setting to address the obesity epidemic, with successive governments enforcing, and then repealing laws to ban junk food from canteen menus. Just what is considered 'junk food' remains controversial, but recently sugar sweetened beverages have become a target of public health groups. The adverse health consequences of their intake have been the principal arguments to reduce their availability. Here, we argue that the advantages of reducing intake of sugar in schools are very likely to lead to educational and other social benefits. Indices of sugar intake have been associated with aggressive behaviour, attention deficit, dysphoria and suicidal thoughts in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies have also linked soft drink intake with impaired cognitive development. We believe that banning sugary drinks from schools will assist teachers and students to better achieve their learning goals, with a side effect of improving their health status.

  14. Zone peculiarities of natural conditions, affecting ran food stuffs and drinking water contamination with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of natural conditions on the USSR territory connected with peculiar types of soil on the behaviour of radionuclides fallen from stratosphere is considered. Characteristics of tundra, taiga partially-wooded steppe, step.oe, mountain and semi-desert zones are presented. Peculiarities of soils in different geographical zones of the USSR conditioned by various properties and compositions have a significant effect on 90 Sr and especially 137 Cs migration intensity from the soil into plants and organisms of animals through biological chains. The administration of radionuclides in the ration with food stuffs obtained on the surface of reservoirs where zonality low is also rightful, is studied. It is established that indexes of 90 Sr and 137 Cs buildup in tissues of hydrobionts are in reverse dependence on calcium and potassium content in water. Therefore, maximum levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs buildup in fish is characteristic of zones with the low content of these elements. The degree of water mineralization in ponds has a clear zonality which increases in the direction from the North to the South. The degree of pond well-drained nature is of great importance

  15. Effect of Time and Temperature on Thickened Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosa, Memorie M; Dodrill, Pamela

    2017-04-01

    Unlike adult populations, who primarily depend on liquids for hydration alone, infants rely on liquids to provide them with hydration and nutrition. Speech-language pathologists working within pediatric medical settings often identify dysphagia in patients and subsequently recommend thickened liquids to reduce aspiration risk. Caregivers frequently report difficulty attempting to prepare infant formula to the prescribed thickness. This study was designed to determine (1) the relationship between consistencies in modified barium swallow studies and thickened infant formulas and (2) the effects of time and temperature on the resulting thickness of infant formula. Prepackaged barium consistencies and 1 standard infant formula that was thickened with rice cereal and with 2 commercially available thickening agents were studied. Thickness was determined via a line spread test after various time and temperature conditions were met. There were significant differences between the thickened formula and barium test consistencies. Formula thickened with rice cereal separated over time into thin liquid and solid residue. Formula thickened with a starch-based thickening agent was thicker than the desired consistency immediately after mixing, and it continued to thicken over time. The data from this project suggest that nectar-thick and honey-thick infant formulas undergo significant changes in flow rates within 30 minutes of preparation or if refrigerated and then reheated after 3 hours. Additional empirical evidence is warranted to determine the most reliable methods and safest products for thickening infant formula when necessary for effective dysphagia management.

  16. Analytical application of solid contact ion-selective electrodes for determination of copper and nitrate in various food products and drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardak, Cecylia; Grabarczyk, Malgorzata

    2016-08-02

    A simple, fast and cheap method for monitoring copper and nitrate in drinking water and food products using newly developed solid contact ion-selective electrodes is proposed. Determination of copper and nitrate was performed by application of multiple standard additions technique. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed by comparing them using the anodic stripping voltammetry or spectrophotometry for the same samples. In each case, satisfactory agreement of the results was obtained, which confirms the analytical usefulness of the constructed electrodes.

  17. Haiti's food and drinking water: a review of toxicological health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzbord, J R; Emmanuel, E; Brown, D L

    2013-11-01

    The Republic of Haiti is a developing country in the Caribbean region with a history that challenges toxicologists, yet the historical panoply of toxicological hazards in Haiti has received little scholarly attention. The primary objectives of this paper are to review what is known about Haiti's current toxicological hazards, with a focus on chronic food-borne aflatoxin exposure and heavy metal contamination of water resources, and to compare these with previous large-scale, acute exposures to toxic substances: the 1995-1996 diethylene glycol (DEG) intoxications and the 2000-2001 ackee fruit poisonings. MEDLINE/PUBMED and the library website of Cornell University were searched using the terms "Haiti" and either "heavy metals," "aflatoxin", "diethylene glycol", or "ackee". The search was inclusive of articles from 1950 to 2012, and 15 out of the 37 returned were peer-reviewed articles offering original data or comprehensive discussion. One peer-reviewed article in press, two newspaper articles, two personal communications, and one book chapter from the personal databases of the authors were also referenced, making a total of 21 citations. Elevated concentrations of aflatoxins (greater than 20 μg/kg) were documented for staples of the Haitian food supply, most notably peanut butters and maize. Human exposure to aflatoxin was confirmed with analysis of aflatoxin blood biomarkers. The implications of aflatoxin exposure were reviewed in the light of Haiti's age-adjusted liver cancer risk - the highest in the Caribbean region. Measurement of heavy metals in Port-au-Prince ground water showed contamination of lead and chromium in excess of the US Environmental Protection Agency's 15 μg/L Action Level for lead and 100 μg/L Maximum Contamination Level Goal for total chromium. The DEG contamination of paracetamol (acetaminophen) containing products in 1995-1996 claimed the lives of 109 children and the 2000-2001 epidemic of ackee fruit poisoning resulted in 60 cases of

  18. Asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Kato, Katsuya; Usami, Ikuji; Sakai, Fumikazu; Tokuyama, Takeshi; Hayashi, Seiji; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    The clinical features of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) remain unclear. To clarify the association between radiological findings of DPT and respiratory function. Medical data from patients with asbestos-related DPT were collected, including their history of occupational or neighborhood asbestos exposure, initial symptoms, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea grade, smoking history, radiological findings, and respiratory function test results. There were 106 DPT patients between 2005 and 2010 [i.e. 103 men (97.2%) and 3 women (2.8%)]. The median age at diagnosis was 69 years (range 46-88). Patient occupations related to asbestos exposure included: asbestos product manufacturing (n = 17); the shipbuilding industry (n = 14); the construction industry (n = 13); heat insulation work (n = 12); plumbing, asbestos spraying, and electrical work (n = 7 each), and transportation and demolition work (n = 4 each). The median duration of asbestos exposure was 25 years (range 2-54), and the median latency period before the onset of DPT was 46 years (range 25-66). Involvement of the costophrenic angle (CPA) was also negatively correlated with the percent vital capacity (%VC; r = -0.448, p < 0.01). Pleural thickness and the craniocaudal and horizontal extension of pleural thickening, as determined by chest computed tomography (CT), were also negatively correlated with %VC (r = -0.226, p < 0.05; r = -0.409, p < 0.01, and r = -0.408, p < 0.01, respectively). DPT develops after a long latency period following occupational asbestos exposure and causes marked respiratory dysfunction. The extension of DPT should be evaluated by chest CT, and chest X-ray would be important for the evaluation of the involvement of the CPA.

  19. Study of shear thickening behavior in colloidal suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maleki Jirsaraee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the shear thickening behavior of the nano silica suspension (silica nanoparticles 12 nm in size suspended in ethylene glycol under steady shear. The critical shear rate for transition into shear thickening phase was determined at different concentrations and temperatures. The effect of temperature and concentration was studied on the shear thickening behavior. In silica suspension, it was observed that all the samples had a transition into shear thickening phase and also by increasing the temperature, critical shear rate increased and viscosity decreased. Our observations showed that movement in silica suspension was Brownian and temperature could cause a delay in transition into shear thickening phase. Yet, we observed that increasing the concentration would decrease critical shear rate and increase viscosity. Increasing temperature increased Brownian forces and increasing concentration increased hydrodynamic forces, confirming the contrast between these two forces for transition into shear thickening phase for the suspensions containing nano particles

  20. [Residual pleural thickening in tuberculous pleuritis. Associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, E; Alegre, J; Alemán, C; Vizcaya, S; Armadans, L; Segura, R M; Andreu, J; Iglesias, D; Fernández de Sevilla, T

    2000-10-01

    To study the factors related to the development of residual pleural thickening in pleural tuberculosis. We studied 39 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion. A chest X-ray was taken of each patient at the end of treatment. The patients' medical histories, pleural fluid findings and diagnostic chest films were evaluated. Residual pleural thickening was defined as thickening that was visibly greater than 2 mm in the lower side portion of the chest film. Residual pleural thickening developed in 26% of patients and was found mainly in men (RR = 3.86). In no patients with Löwenstein-Jensen cultures positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis did pleural complications develop. Residual pleural thickening is a common complication of tuberculous pleural effusion. Residual pleural thickening in tuberculous pleurisy occurs more often in men and older patients, and in cases in which pleural liquid culture is negative for M. tuberculosis.

  1. Sensory characteristics of liquids thickened with commercial thickeners to levels specified in the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jane Jun-Xin; Steele, Catriona M; Duizer, Lisa M

    2018-06-01

    Sensory characteristics are important for the acceptance of thickened liquids, but those of liquids thickened to the new standards put forth by the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) are unknown. This research sought to identify and rate the perception of important sensory properties of liquids thickened to levels specified in the IDDSI framework. Samples were made with water, with and without added barium sulfate, and were thickened with a cornstarch or xanthan gum based thickener. Samples were characterized using projective mapping/ultra-flash profiling to identify important sample attributes, and then with trained descriptive analysis panels to characterize those attributes in non-barium and barium thickened liquids. Three main groups of attributes were observed. Taste and flavor attributes decreased in intensity with increasing thickener. Thickener specific attributes included graininess and chalkiness for the cornstarch thickened samples, and slipperiness for the xanthan gum samples. Within the same type of thickener, ratings of thickness-related attributes (perceived viscosity, adhesiveness, manipulation, and swallowing) at different IDDSI levels were significantly different from each other. However, in non-barium samples, cornstarch samples were perceived as thicker than xanthan gum samples even though they had similar apparent viscosities at 50 s -1 . On the other hand, the two thickeners had similar perceived thickness in the barium samples even though the apparent viscosities of cornstarch samples were higher than those of the xanthan gum samples. In conclusion, IDDSI levels can be distinguished based on sensory properties, but these properties may be affected by the type of thickener and medium being thickened.

  2. Health, wellbeing and nutritional status of older people living in UK care homes: an exploratory evaluation of changes in food and drink provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Joanne

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food and drink are important determinants of physical and social health in care home residents. This study explored whether a pragmatic methodology including routinely collected data was feasible in UK care homes, to describe the health, wellbeing and nutritional status of care home residents and assess effects of changed provision of food and drink at three care homes on residents' falls (primary outcome, anaemia, weight, dehydration, cognitive status, depression, lipids and satisfaction with food and drink provision. Methods We measured health, wellbeing and nutritional status of 120 of 213 residents of six care homes in Norfolk, UK. An intervention comprising improved dining atmosphere, greater food choice, extended restaurant hours, and readily available snacks and drinks machines was implemented in three care homes. Three control homes maintained their previous system. Outcomes were assessed in the year before and the year after the changes. Results Use of routinely collected data was partially successful, but loss to follow up and levels of missing data were high, limiting power to identify trends in the data. This was a frail older population (mean age 87, 71% female with multiple varied health problems. During the first year 60% of residents had one or more falls, 40% a wound care visit, and 40% a urinary tract infection. 45% were on diuretics, 24% antidepressants, and 43% on psychotropic medication. There was a slight increase in falls from year 1 to year 2 in the intervention homes, and a much bigger increase in control homes, leading to a statistically non-significant 24% relative reduction in residents' rate of falls in intervention homes compared with control homes (adjusted rate ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.02, p = 0.06. Conclusions Care home residents are frail and experience multiple health risks. This intervention to improve food and drink provision was well received by residents, but effects on health

  3. Proposed actions for the US Food and Drug Administration to implement to minimize adverse effects associated with energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Colby, David A; Devine, Paige

    2014-07-01

    Energy drink sales are expected to reach $52 billion by 2016. These products, often sold as dietary supplements, typically contain stimulants. The Dietary Supplement Protection Act claims an exemplary public health safety record. However, in 2011 the number of emergency department visits related to consumption of energy drinks exceeded 20,000. Nearly half of these visits involved adverse effects occurring from product misuse. Political, social, economic, practical, and legal factors shape the landscape surrounding this issue. In this policy analysis, we examine 3 options: capping energy drink caffeine levels, creating a public education campaign, and increasing regulatory scrutiny regarding the manufacture and labeling of energy drinks. Increased regulatory scrutiny may be in order, especially in light of wrongful death lawsuits related to caffeine toxicity resulting from energy drink consumption.

  4. Energy consumption analysis of Spanish food and drink, textile, chemical and non-metallic mineral products sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Mainar-Toledo, M.D.; Scarpellini, Sabina; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides quantitative information for energy consumption from four different industry sectors based on an energy analysis obtained by means of in-situ energy audits and complementary information. The latter information was taken from Saving Strategy and Energy Efficiency in Spain (Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficiencia Energética en España 2004–2010, E4) documents and the 2009 Industrial Survey of Spain from the National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE). The results show an estimate of energy consumption for each sector, namely Spanish food, drink and tobacco (9.6%), textile (4.5%), chemical (14.7%), and non-metallic mineral products (24.3%), as well as the degree of inefficiency for each, obtained by means of a stochastic frontier production function model. These results are combined with the energy consumption analysis to identify potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption for all studied sectors. These energy saving opportunities are classified according to thermal or electrical energy consumption and percentage savings of the total energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► This study presents the analysis of four Spanish energy-consuming industrial sectors. ► The four selected sectors account for 33.0% of the total industrial SMEs. ► An audit was carried out in several factories from each analysed industrial sector. ► Stochastic Cobb-Douglas frontiers were used to estimate production frontiers. ► Potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption.

  5. Slurry explosive containing an improved thickening agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakazono, Y.; Otsuka, Y.

    1970-08-18

    A slurry explosive having stable physical properties and a thickening agent which when blended with a slurry explosive, maintains it in a uniform and stable state as a good suspended dispersion condition over a long period of time, are described. The slurry explosive has a composition consisting essentially of ammonium nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels, and water, 0.1 to 2.0% guar gum, not more than 0.3% of a borate or borates, and/or not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine, and 0.02 to 2.0% of an antimony compound or compounds, all percents being by weight. (6 claims)

  6. Responsible drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  7. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. The Roles of Research at Universities and Public Labs in Innovation Systems: a Perspective from the Italian Food and Drink industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maietta, Ornella Wanda

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to determine the role that R&D networking, through the collaboration of firms with universities, plays among the determinants of product and process innovation in the Italian food and drink industry and how geographical proximity to a university affects both R&D university-industry collaboration and innovation. The data are sourced from the 7th (1995-1997), 8th (1998-2000), 9th (2001-2003) and 10th (2004- 2006) waves of Capitalia survey. The approach is a trivara...

  9. Non-traumatic Thickening of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Hyun Jun; Park, Jin Gyoon; Song, Sang Gook [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of non-traumatic thickening of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to evaluate the associated lesions. Between January 2003 and August 2005, 44 knees of 44 patients who had thickened ACLs on MR images and had no history of knee trauma were analyzed retrospectively. The normal thickness of the ACL was measured on axial T2-weighted images of 40 healthy adult knees. The MR imaging findings of the thickened ACLs and associated lesions were analyzed. In 40 cases of healthy knees, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 3-6 mm. In 44 cases of non-traumatic thickening of the ACL, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 8-14 mm. There was an increased signal intensity and ill-defined border in all cases of thickened ACLs, linear low-signal intensity fibers parallel to the long axis of the thickened ACL (celery stalk appearance) in 24 cases, and entrapment in 10 cases. With respect to associated lesions, there was osteoarthritis in 40 cases, meniscal tears in 42 cases, and degeneration of the posterior cruciate ligament in 7 cases. Non-traumatic thickening of the ACL was associated with osteoarthritis and meniscal tears in almost all cases and showed increased signal intensity and ill-defined borders simulating acute ligamentous tears

  10. Observations of Drinking Water Access in School Food Service Areas Before Implementation of Federal and State School Water Policy, California, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Kumar; Hampton, Karla E.; Hecht, Kenneth; Grumbach, Jacob M.; Kimura, Amanda T.; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recent legislation requires schools to provide free drinking water in food service areas (FSAs). Our objective was to describe access to water at baseline and student water intake in school FSAs and to examine barriers to and strategies for implementation of drinking water requirements. Methods We randomly sampled 24 California Bay Area public schools. We interviewed 1 administrator per school to assess knowledge of water legislation and barriers to and ideas for policy implementation. We observed water access and students’ intake of free water in school FSAs. Wellness policies were examined for language about water in FSAs. Results Fourteen of 24 schools offered free water in FSAs; 10 offered water via fountains, and 4 provided water through a nonfountain source. Four percent of students drank free water at lunch; intake at elementary schools (11%) was higher than at middle or junior high schools (6%) and high schools (1%). In secondary schools when water was provided by a nonfountain source, the percentage of students who drank free water doubled. Barriers to implementation of water requirements included lack of knowledge of legislation, cost, and other pressing academic concerns. No wellness policies included language about water in FSAs. Conclusion Approximately half of schools offered free water in FSAs before implementation of drinking water requirements, and most met requirements through a fountain. Only 1 in 25 students drank free water in FSAs. Although schools can meet regulations through installation of fountains, more appealing water delivery systems may be necessary to increase students’ water intake at mealtimes. PMID:22765930

  11. Radium-226 in drinking water and terrestrial food chains: a review of parameters and an estimate of potential exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.P.; Etnier, E.L.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1983-04-01

    Environmental transport of 226 Ra from geological formations to drinking water and from soil to vegetation, meat and milk were quantitatively analyzed following a review of literature. Both natural and industrial sources were investigated. Particular attention was given to references specific for the phosphate-mining region of southwestern Florida. Literature sources have been interpreted to develop concentration factors describing terrestrial food-chain transport. Unweighted means and associated ranges of concentration factor values, representing averages of data collected over a variety of environmental conditions, soil types, and chemical forms, are also provided. Annual human exposure and 50-year dose commitments to bone, lung, liver, kidney and whole body were estimated by assuming mean concentration factors as well as annual food and water consumption rates

  12. Radium-226 in drinking water and terrestrial food chains: a review of parameters and an estimate of potential exposure and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Etnier, E.L.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1983-04-01

    Environmental transport of /sup 226/Ra from geological formations to drinking water and from soil to vegetation, meat and milk were quantitatively analyzed following a review of literature. Both natural and industrial sources were investigated. Particular attention was given to references specific for the phosphate-mining region of southwestern Florida. Literature sources have been interpreted to develop concentration factors describing terrestrial food-chain transport. Unweighted means and associated ranges of concentration factor values, representing averages of data collected over a variety of environmental conditions, soil types, and chemical forms, are also provided. Annual human exposure and 50-year dose commitments to bone, lung, liver, kidney and whole body were estimated by assuming mean concentration factors as well as annual food and water consumption rates.

  13. FOOD AND DRINKS BEFORE ISLAM AMONG TURKS İSLAMİYETTEN ÖNCE TÜRKLERDE YİYECEK VE İÇECEKLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami KILIÇ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eating and drinking are among indispensable needs for human beings to continue their existance. People usually acquire these needs from the geography they live. The facilities offered by geography are one of the important factors creating livelihood of people. Livelihoods of a society are generally effective to meet the needs of food and drinks. Consumption of foods is a necessity for the belief system of the society.As seen in all communities, eating and drinking practices among Turkish people are among important services to sustain their life. These activities, on the other hand, are not actions of ordinary. There is a certain manner of eating meal and setting the table. In this study, food and drinks are going to be studied in two headings among old Turks. The first of the study will be animal products and the second will be the vegetable foods. When the socia- economic life is considered, it has been observed that the meat has been provided from horses and sheep in Turkish socities. Koumiss is in an important consumption in drinks when compared with other drinks. Yeme ve içme, insanların varlığını devam ettirebilmesi için vazgeçilmez ihtiyaçları arasındadır. Bu ihtiyacı insanlar genelde yaşadıkları coğrafyadan temin ederler. Coğrafyanın sunmuş olduğu imkânlar, insanların geçim kaynaklarının oluşmasında önemli faktörlerden biridir. Bir toplumun geçim kaynakları da genel olarak yiyecek ve içecek ihtiyaçlarının karşılanmasında etkilidir. Bununla birlikte gıdaların tüketilmesi, toplumun sahip olduğu inanç sistemine uygun olmasını gerekli kılmaktadır.Bütün toplumlarda olduğu görüldüğü gibi Türklerde de yeme-içme uygulamaları hayatı devam ettirmenin önemli bir faaliyetidir. Ancak bu faaliyetler sadece sıradan bir eylem değildir. Sofranın kurulmasının, yemek yemenin bir usulü ve adabı bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmada eski Türklerdeki yiyecek ve içecekler iki ana başlık alt

  14. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  15. Process for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-10-25

    A process is described for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry, substantially aqueous. The composition consists essentially of a suspension of an inorganic oxygen salt for furnishing oxygen in a fluid matrix. This fluid matrix consists of a lower aliphatic glycol (ethylene, diethylene, propylene, dipropylene) thickened with one of the polysaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose) or mixtures of them. The composition should have a density below 1.8 g per cu cm. (5 claims)

  16. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  17. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  18. Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of steviolbioside synthesized from stevioside and its application in fruit drinks and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Sherine N; Massoud, Mona I; Abd El-Razek, Amal M; El-Faham, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Steviolbioside (Sb) was synthesized from stevioside and characterized by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) spectroscopy. The purity melting point, solubility, acute toxicity, heat stability and sensory properties of Sb were evaluated. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of low calorie fruit drinks and shortened cake prepared by replacing sugar with Sb were evaluated. Sb was stable in neutral or acidic aqueous solutions maintained at 100 °C for 2 h. The sweetness intensity rate of Sb was found to be about 44 and 18.51 times sweeter than 0.5% and 10% sucrose solution, respectively. Sb solutions had sweet taste without bitterness compared to stevioside. No significant differences between the organoleptic properties of cakes prepared using sugar and those prepared replacing sugar with 50% Sb were observed. All drinks replacing sugar with Sb at 66% level had the highest overall acceptability scores comparable to those prepared using sugar alone.

  19. Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks: Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Poothong, Somrutai; Koekkoek, Jacco; Lucattini, Luisa; Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haugen, Margaretha; Herzke, Dorte; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Cousins, Ian T; Leonards, Pim E G; Småstuen Haug, Line

    2017-10-01

    Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods. To assess human exposure to PFAAs through diet by different methods and compare the results. We studied the dietary exposure to PFAAs in 61 Norwegian adults (74% women, average age: 42 years) using three methods: i) by measuring daily PFAA intakes through a 1-day duplicate diet study (separately in solid and liquid foods), ii) by estimating intake after combining food contamination with food consumption data, as assessed by 2-day weighted food diaries and iii) by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). We used existing food contamination data mainly from samples purchased in Norway and if not available, data from food purchased in other European countries were used. Duplicate diet samples (n=122) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify 15 PFAAs (11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates). Differences and correlations between measured and estimated intakes were assessed. The most abundant PFAAs in the duplicate diet samples were PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS and the median total intakes were 5.6ng/day, 11ng/day and 0.78ng/day, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were higher in solid than liquid samples. PFOS was the main contributor to the contamination in the solid samples (median concentration 14pg/g food), while it was PFOA in the liquid samples (median concentrations: 0.72pg/g food). High intakes of fats, oils, and eggs were statistically significantly related to high intakes of PFOS and PFOA from solid foods. High intake of milk and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as food in paper container were related to high PFOA intakes from liquid foods. PFOA intakes derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly higher than

  20. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items. For use in reentry decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  1. Environmental and individual determinants of core and non-core food and drink intake in preschool-aged children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, L; Croker, H; Wardle, J; Cooke, L J

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to achieve healthier diets for children are likely to benefit from an understanding of the determinants. We examined environmental and individual predictors of children's intake of 'core' foods (fruit and vegetables) and 'non-core' foods (snacks and sweetened beverages). Predictors included parental intake, home availability, parental feeding styles (Encouragement and Monitoring) and children's food preferences. Based on research with older children, we expected intake of both food types to be associated with maternal intake, core foods to be more associated with children's preferences and non-core food intake more with the home environment. Primary caregivers (n=434) of children (2-5 years) from preschools and Children's Centres in London, UK, completed a self-report survey in 2008. Multiple regression analyses indicated children's fruit intake was associated with maternal fruit intake (B=0.29; P=0.000), children's liking for fruit (B=0.81; P=0.000) and a Monitoring style of parental feeding (B=0.13; P=0.021). Children's vegetable intake was similarly associated with maternal intake (B=0.39; P=0.000), children's liking for vegetables (B=0.77; P=0.000), Encouragement (B=0.19; P=0.021) and Monitoring (B=0.11; P=0.029). Non-core snack intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.25; P=0.029), Monitoring (B=-0.16; P=0.010), home availability (B=0.10; P=0.022) and television viewing (TV) (B=0.28; P=0.012). Non-core drink intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.32; P=0.000) and TV (B=0.20; P=0.019). Results indicate commonalities and differences in the predictors of core and non-core food intake, with only maternal intake being important across all types. Effective interventions to improve young children's diets may need to call on different strategies for different foods.

  2. Faction fights, student protests, and rebellion: the politics of beer-drinks and bad food in the Transkei, South Africa, 1955-63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This article examines two cases of conflict from the Transkei region of South Africa. In the first instance in 1955, young men caught up in a stick fight after drinking beer were arrested, tried, and convicted, and they received harsh sentences of six months of hard labor. In the second case in 1961, boys at an elite school in Umtata protested their poor food and lodging arrangements, set fire to the school library, and threatened to kill the headmaster. While they were convicted, their punishment of caning was considered a very light sentence. These two cases illuminate the emerging nature of youthful resistance to the inception of home rule that was later to give rise to the Bantustans, as well as the response by state officials seeking to cope with the enlarging rural opposition to the structures of apartheid. The paradox of the strikingly different sentences is examined and explained.

  3. Chlorohydrins of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) in canned foods and ready-to-drink coffees from the Japanese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Y; Hirata, K; Suzuki, K; Iida, K; Saito, K

    2001-02-01

    BADGE.2HCl and BFDGE.2HCl were determined in 28 samples of ready-to-drink canned coffee and 18 samples of canned vegetables (10 corn, 5 tomatoes and 3 others), all from the Japanese market. HPLC was used as the principal analytical method and GC-MS for confirmation of relevant LC fractions. BADGE.2HCl was found to be present in one canned coffee and five samples of corn, BFDGE.2HCl in four samples of canned tomatoes and in one canned corn. No sample was found which exceeded the 1 mg/kg limit of the EU for the BADGE chlorohydrins. However the highest concentration was found for the sum of BFDGE.2HCl anti BFDGE.HCl.H2O at a level of 1.5 mg/kg. A Beilstein test confirmed that all cans containing foods contaminated with BADGE.2HCl or BFDGE.2HCl had at lest one part coated with a PVC organosol.

  4. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10/17. Drinking patterns vary by age and gender As adolescents get older, they tend to drink ... in risky behavior, including drinking and driving, sexual activity (such as unprotected ... the risk of physical and sexual assault Underage youth who drink are ...

  5. Evaluation of compliance with the Spanish Code of self-regulation of food and drinks advertising directed at children under the age of 12 years in Spain, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Flández, K; Rico-Gómez, A; Moya-Geromin, M Á; Romero-Fernández, M; Bosqued-Estefania, M J; Damián, J; López-Jurado, L; Royo-Bordonada, M Á

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate compliance levels with the Spanish Code of self-regulation of food and drinks advertising directed at children under the age of 12 years (Publicidad, Actividad, Obesidad, Salud [PAOS] Code) in 2012; and compare these against the figures for 2008. Cross-sectional study. Television advertisements of food and drinks (AFD) were recorded over 7 days in 2012 (8am-midnight) of five Spanish channels popular to children. AFD were classified as core (nutrient-rich/low-calorie products), non-core (nutrient-poor/rich-calorie products) or miscellaneous. Compliance with each standard of the PAOS Code was evaluated. AFD were deemed to be fully compliant when it met all the standards. Two thousand five hundred and eighty-two AFDs came within the purview of the PAOS Code. Some of the standards that registered the highest levels of non-compliance were those regulating the suitability of the information presented (79.4%) and those prohibiting the use of characters popular with children (25%). Overall non-compliance with the Code was greater in 2012 than in 2008 (88.3% vs 49.3%). Non-compliance was highest for advertisements screened on children's/youth channels (92.3% vs. 81.5%; P < 0.001) and for those aired outside the enhanced protection time slot (89.3% vs. 86%; P = 0.015). Non-compliance with the PAOS Code is higher than for 2008. Given the lack of effectiveness of self-regulation, a statutory system should be adopted to ban AFD directed at minors, or at least restrict it to healthy products. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The diagnostic significance of thickening of extrapleural fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Weifeng; Pan Jixu; Liu Fugeng

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the role of thickening of extrapleural fat (EPF) in the diagnosis of pleural and/or para-pleural lung disease. Methods: 166 patients with pleural and/or para-pleural lung disease were studied by CT. Any EPF demonstrated would be near the diseased area, its thickness, and CT number were measured and compared with the CT number of the subcutaneous fat. The anterior thoracic wall of 50 normal subjects were also observed for the normal EPF appearances. Results: In normal group 28(56%) cases showed EPF, its thickness being 1-2 mm. In patient group 106(63.9%) cases showed EPF, among these 88 cases showed the thickness of EPF>2 mm. The mean thickness of the thickened EPF was 5.6 mm. Its mean CT number was -90.3 HU. Higher than that of the subcutaneous fat, the latter's mean CT number was -116.8HU. In this group, the causative disease included radiation lung injury, empyema, chronic lung tuberculosis, thickened and calcified pleura, calcified tuberculoma and lung injury, empyema, chronic lung tuberculosis, thickened and calcified pleura, calcified tuberculoma and lung fibrosis. In the remaining 18 cases, the thickness of EPF was less than 2 mm. No EPF was demonstrated in the other 60 patients. In the latter group the disease included carcinomatous effusion, pleural transudates, peripheral lung caner, thickened pleura, pleural metastasis, tuberculous pleural effusion, acute pneumonia and pleural fibroma. Conclusions: The thickening of EPF was mostly seen in chronic inflammatory and tuberculous diseases. This sign was helpful in differential diagnosis of pleural and/or parapleural lung disease

  7. Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2000-02-02

    The objective of this study was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO{sub 2}. Previously, fluoroacrylate homopolymers and fluorinated telechelic ionomers were shown to increase the viscosity of carbon dioxide by a factor of 3--4 at concentrations of 2--3 at concentrations of 4--5 wt%. This report details the findings for several new types of carbon dioxide thickening candidates. Hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, sulfonated hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, semifluorinated trialkyltin fluorides and small hydrogen-bounding compounds were evaluated.

  8. Kutadgu Bilig’de Yiyecek Ve İçecek Adları Names Of Food And Drink In "Knowledge For Wealth" (Kutadgu Bilig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Şebnem KOBYA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kutadgu Bilig written by Yusuf Has Hacib in the 11th century, tells about the path to be followed in order to be happy both in this life and hereafter. The work consists of dialogues of four characters. This characters are; Kün Todgı (Justice, Ay Toldı (Happiness, Ögdilmiş (Reason, and Odgurmış (Result. In the dialogues of these four characters, we come across with various cultural elements. The work is precious in terms of reflecting cultural properties as well as being important in terms of literature.Change in the life style of the settled Turks has also been reflected on their culture. Eating and drinking habits of Turks, who are engaged in livestock and agriculture, manifests difference in this sense. In human life, nutrition is the most important primary need. From primitive times on, food is the vital life source. Eating and drinking habits of each culture differs according to their life conditions. Concordantly, in Kutadgu Bilig, table set up, a part of culture, appears with names of food and drinks related to kitchen culture, as well as with given banquets.In this study, named of food and drinks are identified and their usage is determined. Nineteen food and eighteen drink names are identified in Kutadgu Bilig. Names of the identified food and drink names are given alphabetically. In some examples of the work, words are used which have the same meaning, but differently named. In the essay, this naming also takes part within alphabetic classification. Yusuf Has Hacib tarafından 11. yy’da yazılan Kutadgu Bilig, her iki dünyada da mutluluğa ulaşmak için izlenmesi gereken yolu anlatmaktadır. Eser, dört karakterin diyaloglarından oluşmaktadır. Bu karakterler şunlardır: Kün Togdı (Adalet, Ay Toldı (Mutluluk, Ögdülmiş (Akıl, Odgurmış (Akıbet. Bu dört karakter arasında geçen konuşmalarda, çeşitli kültür öğeleri ile karşılaşmaktayız. Eser, edebiyat bakımından önemli olduğu kadar kültür

  9. Understanding the impact of legislation on ‘reduction of disease risk’ claims on food and drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raats, Monique M.; Malcolm, Rosalind N.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    The Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC No. 1924/2006) has established a common framework for the regulation of nutrition and health claims used on foods across the European Union. This regulation aims to provide the European food industry opportunities for product innovation whilst...... protecting consumer interests with respect to controlling misleading advertising and promoting public health. However, in order to satisfy the approval of new health claims procedure particularly for new ‘reduction of disease risk’ claims [Article 14(1)(a) claims] , significant research activity is required...

  10. Evaluation of compliance with the self-regulation agreement of the food and drink vending machine sector in primary schools in Madrid, Spain, in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel A; Martínez-Huedo, María A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate compliance with the self-regulation agreement of the food and drink vending machine sector in primary schools in Madrid, Spain. Cross-sectional study of the prevalence of vending machines in 558 primary schools in 2008. Using the directory of all registered primary schools in Madrid, we identified the presence of machines by telephone interviews and evaluated compliance with the agreement by visiting the schools and assessing accessibility, type of publicity, the products offered and knowledge of the agreement. The prevalence of schools with vending machines was 5.8%. None of the schools reported knowledge of the agreement or of its nutritional guidelines, and most machines were accessible to primary school pupils (79.3%) and packed with high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense foods (58.6%). Compliance with the self-regulation agreement of the vending machines sector was low. Stricter regulation should receive priority in the battle against the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of implementation of a healthy food and drink supply strategy throughout the whole school environment in Queensland state schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, M; Lee, A; Bright, M; Turner, K; Edwards, R; Dawson, J; Miller, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of the Smart Choices healthy food and drink supply strategy for Queensland schools (Smart Choices) implementation across the whole school environment in state government primary and secondary schools in Queensland, Australia. Three concurrent surveys using different methods for each group of stakeholders that targeted all 1275 school Principals, all 1258 Parent and Citizens' Associations (P&Cs) and a random sample of 526 tuckshop convenors throughout Queensland. Nine hundred and seventy-three Principals, 598 P&Cs and 513 tuckshop convenors participated with response rates of 78%, 48% and 98%, respectively. Nearly all Principals (97%), P&Cs (99%) and tuckshop convenors (97%) reported that their school tuckshop had implemented Smart Choices. The majority of Principals and P&Cs reported implementation, respectively, in: school breakfast programs (98 and 92%); vending machine stock (94 and 83%); vending machine advertising (85 and 84%); school events (87 and 88%); school sporting events (81 and 80%); sponsorship and advertising (93 and 84%); fundraising events (80 and 84%); and sporting clubs (73 and 75%). Implementation in curriculum activities, classroom rewards and class parties was reported, respectively, by 97%, 86% and 75% of Principals. Respondents also reported very high levels of understanding of Smart Choices and engagement of the school community. The results demonstrated that food supply interventions to promote nutrition across all domains of the school environment can be implemented successfully.

  12. 3D cardiac wall thickening assessment for acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A.; Chan, B. T.; Lim, E.; Liew, Y. M.

    2017-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most severe form of coronary artery disease leading to localized myocardial injury and therefore irregularities in the cardiac wall contractility. Studies have found very limited differences in global indices (such as ejection fraction, myocardial mass and volume) between healthy subjects and AMI patients, and therefore suggested regional assessment. Regional index, specifically cardiac wall thickness (WT) and thickening is closely related to cardiac function and could reveal regional abnormality due to AMI. In this study, we developed a 3D wall thickening assessment method to identify regional wall contractility dysfunction due to localized myocardial injury from infarction. Wall thickness and thickening were assessed from 3D personalized cardiac models reconstructed from cine MRI images by fitting inscribed sphere between endocardial and epicardial wall. The thickening analysis was performed in 5 patients and 3 healthy subjects and the results were compared against the gold standard 2D late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images for infarct localization. The notable finding of this study is the highly accurate estimation and visual representation of the infarct size and location in 3D. This study provides clinicians with an intuitive way to visually and qualitatively assess regional cardiac wall dysfunction due to infarction in AMI patients.

  13. Extension of thickened and hot lithospheres: Inferences from laboratory modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirel, C.; Brun, J.P.; Sokoutis, D.

    2006-01-01

    The extension of a previously thickened lithosphere is studied through a series of analogue experiments. The models deformed in free and boundary-controlled gravity spreading conditions that simulate the development of wide rift-type and core complex-type structures. In models, the development of

  14. Computer simulations of shear thickening of concentrated dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, W.H.; Laven, J.; Stein, H.N.

    1995-01-01

    Stokesian dynamics computer simulations were performed on monolayers of equally sized spheres. The influence of repulsive and attractive forces on the rheological behavior and on the microstructure were studied. Under specific conditions shear thickening could be observed in the simulations, usually

  15. Shear thickening behavior of nanoparticle suspensions with carbon nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, Xiaofei; Yu, Kejing, E-mail: yukejing@gmail.com; Cao, Haijian; Qian, Kun [Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles (China)

    2013-07-15

    Suspensions comprised of silica nanoparticle (average diameter: 650 nm) and carbon nanofillers dispersed in polyethylene glycol were prepared and investigated. Rheological measurement demonstrated that the mixed suspensions showed a non-Newtonian flow profile, and the shear thickening effect was enhanced by the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (main range of diameter: 10-20 nm; length: 5-15 {mu}m; purity: >97 wt%) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNs) (average diameter: >50 nm; average length: 20 {mu}m; purity: >92 wt%). It suggested that better the aggregation effect of dispersed particles was, the more significant the shear thickening effect achieved. The results also revealed that the formation of large nanomaterials clusters could be suitable to explain the phenomena. Furthermore, the trend of shear thickening behavior of the silica suspension with CNTs was more striking than that of GNs. The physical reactions between those multi-dispersed phases had been described by the schematic illustrations in papers. Otherwise, a model was built to explain these behaviors, which could be attributed to the unique structures and inherent properties of these two different nanofillers. And the morphologies of the shear thickening fluid which were examined by transmission electron microscopy confirmed this mechanism.

  16. EFFECT OF THICKENERS ON THE TEXTURE OF STIRRED YOGURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. GONÇALVEZ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The effect of the addition of gelatin and starch on the rheological properties of sweetened plain stirred yogurt was studied by manufacturing six samples: two with gelatin (3000 and 6000 ppm, three with starch (1000, 5000, 10000 ppm and a sample without thickener (control. Rheological characterization of the samples was performed using a coaxial cylinder Haake VT500 viscometer. Yield stress ( and hysteresis were also determined. Syneresis (% was measured by centrifugation at 1100 rpm for 10 minutes. Sensory characterization was performed with a panel of trained sensory assessors, who evaluated the following texture attributes: viscosity, ropiness, creaminess and mouthfeel. All samples showed thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. Since the upward curve did not fit a unique model, it was divided in two regions. The first one fitted Herschel-Bulkley’s model. The addition of gelatine decreased flow behaviour index (n, whereas yield stress significantly increased with the addition of both thickeners. Gelatine was more efficient in reducing syneresis than starch. The addition of thickeners significantly increased all the studied sensory texture attributes. Non-oral and oral parameters were highly correlated witch each other and witch rheological parameters. KEYWORDS: Yogurt; texture; thickeners.

  17. Sensory texture analysis of thickened liquids during ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Edgar; Jenkins, Alicia; Mertz Garcia, Jane

    2017-12-01

    Practitioners support the use of thickened liquids for many patients with disordered swallowing. Although physical measures have highlighted differences among products there are questions about the ability of the measures to fully explain the sensory texture effects during swallowing of thickened liquids. This study used a trained sensory panel to describe the textural aspects of liquids during ingestion and swallowing. The lexicon was able to characterize differences in beverages, thickeners, and thickness levels with the most important attribute being viscosity, which loaded heavily in the almost one-dimensional space that resulted from the sensory analysis of these beverages. Other effects, such as slipperiness provided some minimal additional information on the products. Trained sensory panelists were shown to be useful in the measurement of differences in thickened liquid products prescribed for patients with dysphagia. They were able to differentiate products based on perceived differences related to flow speed, viscosity, and other parameters suggesting their use in further studies of swallowing behavior and for development of products for disordered swallowing should be considered. Understanding how these variables might relate to clinical decision making about product selection or modification to best meet the nutritional needs of a person with disordered swallowing could be helpful. This is especially true given the difficulties in measuring texture instrumentally in these products. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of nickel in food and drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    EFSA received a request from the Hellenic Food Authority (EFET) for a scientific opinion on the risk to human health from the presence of nickel (Ni) in food, particularly in vegetables. The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) decided to extend the risk assessment also...... to drinking water. The reproductive and developmental toxicity in experimental animals was selected as the critical effect for the assessment of chronic effects of Ni. A tolerable daily intake of 2.8 µg Ni/kg body weight (b.w.) per day was derived from a lower 95 % confidence limit for a benchmark dose at 10...... after oral exposure to Ni was selected as the critical effect suitable for the assessment of acute effects of Ni. A lowest BMDL10 of 1.1 µg Ni/kg b.w. was derived for the incidence of SCD following oral exposure to Ni of human volunteers. The CONTAM Panel applied a margin of exposure (MOE) approach...

  19. Simulation of shear thickening in attractive colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Sidhant; Chun, Jaehun; Morris, Jeffrey F

    2017-03-01

    The influence of attractive forces between particles under conditions of large particle volume fraction, ϕ, is addressed using numerical simulations which account for hydrodynamic, Brownian, conservative and frictional contact forces. The focus is on conditions for which a significant increase in the apparent viscosity at small shear rates, and possibly the development of a yield stress, is observed. The high shear rate behavior for Brownian suspensions has been shown in recent work [R. Mari, R. Seto, J. F. Morris and M. M. Denn PNAS, 2015, 112, 15326-15330] to be captured by the inclusion of pairwise forces of two forms, one a contact frictional interaction and the second a repulsive force often found in stabilized colloidal dispersions. Under such conditions, shear thickening is observed when shear stress is comparable to the sum of the Brownian stress, kT/a 3 , and a characteristic stress based on the combination of interparticle force, i.e. σ ∼ F 0 /a 2 with kT the thermal energy, F 0 the repulsive force scale and a the particle radius. At sufficiently large ϕ, this shear thickening can be very abrupt. Here it is shown that when attractive interactions are present with the noted forces, the shear thickening is obscured, as the viscosity shear thins with increasing shear rate, eventually descending from an infinite value (yield stress conditions) to a plateau at large stress; this plateau is at the same level as the large-shear rate viscosity found in the shear thickened state without attractive forces. It is shown that this behavior is consistent with prior observations in shear thickening suspensions modified to be attractive through depletion flocculation [V. Gopalakrishnan and C. F. Zukoski J. Rheol., 2004, 48, 1321-1344]. The contributions of the contact, attractive, and hydrodynamics forces to the bulk stress are presented, as are the contact networks found at different attractive strengths.

  20. Understanding the impact of European Regulation on the substantiation and use of claims on food and drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raats, Monique; Malcolm, R. N.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2015-01-01

    research activity into these claims and to present a scientific substantiation to satisfy the procedure for approval. Whether this legislation is driving product innovation and the development of healthy and nutritional food or whether it is a barrier to such developments is an area in need......The European Regulation on nutrition and health claims on foods (Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation: European Commission No. 1924/2006) establishes, for the first time, a common framework for the regulation of such claims across the European Union (EU). The opportunities for product innovation...... arising from this new legislation combined with protection of consumer interest in respect of controlling misleading advertising, while at the same time promoting public health, are noteworthy. But such opportunities need to be evaluated against the burden on industry of the need to undertake significant...

  1. Rheometry-PIV of shear-thickening wormlike micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Santibañez, Benjamín M; Pérez-Gonzalez, José; de Vargas, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Huelsz, Guadalupe

    2006-04-25

    The shear-thickening behavior of an equimolar semidilute aqueous solution of 40 mM/L cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate was studied in this work by using a combined method of rheometry and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Experiments were conducted at 27.5 degrees C with Couette, vane-bob, and capillary rheometers in order to explore a wide shear stress range as well as the effect of boundary conditions and time of flow on the creation and destruction of shear-induced structures (SIS). The use of the combined method of capillary rheometry with PIV allowed the detection of fast spatial and temporal variations in the flow kinematics, which are related to the shear-thickening behavior and the dynamics of the SIS but are not distinguished by pure rheometrical measurements. A rich-in-details flow curve was found for this solution, which includes five different regimes. Namely, at very low shear rates a Newtonian behavior was found, followed by a shear thinning one in the second regime. In the third, shear banding was observed, which served as a precursor of the SIS and shear-thickening. The fourth and fifth regimes in the flow curve were separated by a spurtlike behavior, and they clearly evidenced the existence of shear-thickening accompanied by stick-slip oscillations at the wall of the rheometer, which subsequently produced variations in the shear rate under shear stress controlled flow. Such a stick-slip phenomenon prevailed up to the highest shear stresses used in this work and was reflected in asymmetric velocity profiles with spatial and temporal variations linked to the dynamics of creation and breakage of the SIS. The presence of apparent slip at the wall of the rheometer provides an energy release mechanism which leads to breakage of the SIS, followed by their further reformation during the stick part of the cycles. In addition, PIV measurements allowed the detection of apparent slip at the wall, as well as mechanical failures in the bulk of the

  2. Discontinuous Shear Thickening and Dilatancy: Frictional Effects in Viscous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening in concentrated suspensions has been well-known for quite a long time, yet a firm consensus on the basis for very abrupt or ``discontinuous'' shear thickening (DST) seen in suspensions of large solid fraction, ϕ, has not been reached. This work addresses the DST phenomenon, and proposes a simulation method based in the Stokesian Dynamics algorithm to explore the role of various forces between the particles, including hydrodynamic, conservative potential, and frictional interactions. This work shows that allowance for friction between spherical particles suspended in a viscous liquid causes a significant reduction in the jamming solid fraction of the mixture, ϕmax, taken as the maximum fraction at which the suspension will flow. A consequence of this is a shifting of the singularity in the effective viscosity, η, to smaller ϕmax, and the frictional suspension has a larger viscosity than does the frictionless suspension of the same solid fraction, as is clear from the standard empirical modeling of η (ϕ) =(1 - ϕ /ϕmax) - α , α ~ 2 . When a counterbalancing repulsive force between the particles, representative for example of charge-induced repulsion, is incorporated in the dynamics, the mixture undergoes a transition from frictionless to frictional interactions, and from low to high effective viscosity, at a critical shear rate. Comparison with experimental data shows remarkable agreement in the features of DST captured by the method. The basic algorithm and results of both rate-controlled and stress-controlled simulations will be presented. Like the shear stress, the magnitude of the normal stress exerted by the suspended particles also increases abruptly at the critical shear rate, consistent with the long-standing notion that dilatancy and shear-thickening are synonymous. We will show that considering all shear thickening materials as dilatant is a misconception, but demonstrate the validity of the connection of dilatancy with DST in

  3. Autocrine role of vascular IL-15 in intimal thickening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercek, Miha; Matsumoto, Michiaki; Li, Hongyan; Chyu, K.-Y.; Peter, Ashok; Shah, Prediman K.; Dimayuga, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that modulates T cell recruitment and activation, independent of antigen. It has been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques and atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-/- mice. IL-15 regulates fractalkine (FKN)-CX3CR1 chemokine signaling which is involved in atherogenesis and promotes SMC proliferation. We investigated the role of IL-15 in intimal thickening after arterial injury. Treatment of serum-stimulated SMC with IL-15 in vitro attenuated proliferation and suppressed CX3CR1 and FKN mRNA expression. The role of endogenous IL-15 in vivo was investigated in injured carotid arteries of mice. Periadventitial arterial injury resulted in increased IL-15 expression in the media and neointima, paralleled by increased IL-15 receptor α expression. Blockade of endogenous IL-15 increased intimal thickening. FKN and CX3CR1 expression increased after injury and were further augmented after IL-15 blockade. These data suggest that endogenous IL-15 attenuated intimal thickening after arterial injury. The potential mechanism of action is suppression of CX3CR1 signaling

  4. Roughness-dependent tribology effects on discontinuous shear thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiao-Peng; Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Zanini, Michele; Spencer, Nicholas D; Isa, Lucio

    2018-05-15

    Surface roughness affects many properties of colloids, from depletion and capillary interactions to their dispersibility and use as emulsion stabilizers. It also impacts particle-particle frictional contacts, which have recently emerged as being responsible for the discontinuous shear thickening (DST) of dense suspensions. Tribological properties of these contacts have been rarely experimentally accessed, especially for nonspherical particles. Here, we systematically tackle the effect of nanoscale surface roughness by producing a library of all-silica, raspberry-like colloids and linking their rheology to their tribology. Rougher surfaces lead to a significant anticipation of DST onset, in terms of both shear rate and solid loading. Strikingly, they also eliminate continuous thickening. DST is here due to the interlocking of asperities, which we have identified as "stick-slip" frictional contacts by measuring the sliding of the same particles via lateral force microscopy (LFM). Direct measurements of particle-particle friction therefore highlight the value of an engineering-tribology approach to tuning the thickening of suspensions. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Analysis of abnormally thickened endometrial patterns on transvaginal sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Sook; Cho, Hyeun Cha

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether the transvaginal sonographic appearance of the thickened endometrium can help to predict the underlying endometrial pathologic process. The sonogram reports of fall 41 pre- and 21 postmenopausal women who underwent transvaginal sonogram were retrospectively analyzed. The women undergoing estrogen replacement therapy, tamoxifen therapy or having abnormal cervical cytology were excluded from this study. The analysis of sonographic and histologic results was performed in all patients. Three distinct sonographic patterns were encountered. Type I consisted of heterogeneous endometrial thickening with internal hypoechoic areas (normal [n=4], polyp [n=1] and cancer [n=4] in premenopausal women and cancer [n=4] in postmenopausal women). Type II consisted of echogenic endometrial thickening with or without tiny cysts (normal[n=5], and hyperplasia [n=7] in premenopausal women and normal [n=4], polyp [n=2], and hyperplasia [n=1] in postmenopausal women). Type III consisted of localized well defined endoluminal lesion (normal [n=1], polyp [n=14], hyperplasia [n=1], cancer [n=1], and submucosal mass [n=3] in premenopausal women and normal [n=4], polyp [n=2],submucosal mass [n=3], and hematoma [n=1] in postmenopausal women). The measurement of the endometrial thickness combined with analysis of sonographic echo patterns may be helpful in prediction and differentiation of endometrial disease in pre- and postmenopausal women. Also it can contribute to avoiding unnecessary D and C.

  6. A New Thickener for CO2 Anhydrous Fracturing Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 dry fracturing technology is well-known for its advantages. Little water is used in this technology, which is able to ease the pressure of consumption on water resources. Many abroad theoretical researches, laboratory experiments and field tests have been taken to explore the yield mechanism, the adaptability and the technology of pure liquid CO2 fracturing. These achievements have been applied to a variety of reservoirs transformation and improven the effectiveness of stimulation treatment in a degree. The researches and studies in the domestic didn’t get popular until recent years. Thus, this article firstly introduces the main development and application about pure CO2 anhydrous fracturing technology, and sums up the effect and evaluation of its fluid through application examples both in the domestic and abroad. However, although this technology has many excellent qualities, but systematic studies indicate that its proppant-carrying capacity is less competitive because of the low viscosity of pure CO2 liquid and other reasons. In a consequence, it is necessary to develop an appropriate thickener for CO2 anhydrous fracturing fluid to improve its carrying capacity. Then this article describes some studies of previous scholars about CO2 thickener. Then we put forward our own research ideas and transform it into actual experiments. Thanks to the valid performances of these tests, we successfully develop a thickener X and cosolvent B.

  7. [Analysis of thickening polysaccharides by the improved diethyldithioacetal derivatization method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takumi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    The identification test for thickening polysaccharides containing neutral saccharides and uronic acids was investigated by GC analysis of constituent monosaccharides. The reported method, in which monosaccharides were converted to diethyldithioacetal derivatives with ethanethiol followed by trimethylsilylation, was improved in terms of operability and reproducibility of GC/MS analysis. The suitability of the improved diethyldithioacetal derivatization method was determined for seven thickening polysaccharides, i.e., carob bean gum, guar gum, karaya gum, gum arabic, gum ghatti, tragacanth gum and peach gum. The samples were acid-hydrolyzed to form monosaccharides. The hydrolysates were derivatized and analyzed with GC/FID. Each sugar derivative was detected as a single peak and was well separated from others on the chromatograms. The amounts of constituent monosaccharides in thickening polysaccharides were successfully estimated. Seven polysaccharides were distinguished from each other on the basis of constituent monosaccharides. Further examination of the time period of hydrolysis of polysaccharides using peach gum showed that the optimal times were not the same for all monosaccharides. A longer time was needed to hydrolyze glucuronic acid than neutral saccharides. The findings suggest that hydrolysis time may sometimes affect the analytical results on composition of constituent monosaccharides in polysaccharides.

  8. A Study of Small Business Owners’ Personal Characteristics and the Use of Marketing Information in the Food and Drink Industry: A Resource-Based Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cacciolatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Market orientation (MO – which is the propensity of a firm to collect and utilise information from the market – is an important leverage of competitive advantage. This paper helps to better understand why some owner-managers engage with market intelligence why others simply do not. The relationship among the owner-manager’s personal characteristics, entrepreneurial orientation (EO and MO are explored, despite existing literature neglected testing these simple but important relationships. We adopt a resource-based view (RBV of the firm perspective. This study aims to establish whether the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur impact the use of marketing information. More specifically, this study tests entrepreneurial attitude orientation, marketing expertise and demographic variables for an effect on the use of different types and sources of marketing information as well as the frequency of information usage. Data were collected through a regional survey of 296 small business owners and senior managers in SMEs in the Scottish food and drink industry. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA and regression analysis was used to test hypothesised relationships. Personal characteristics such as age (p<.05, gender (p<.002, previous experience (p<.05, and marketing expertise (p<.05 are critical factors affecting information use other than EO (p>.05. Implications for policy makers and practitioners involving small business subsidies and entrepreneurs’ marketing training are discussed.

  9. STUDIES ON THE INHIBITION OF INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE STRONTIUM. 3. THE EFFECT OF ADMINISTRATION OF SODIUM ALGINATE IN FOOD AND IN DRINKING WATER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALDRON-EDWARD, D; SKORYNA, S C; PAUL, T M

    1964-11-07

    A method is reported which permits selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium from ingested food material, permitting calcium to be available to the body. Studies were carried out by measuring bone uptake of Sr(89) and Ca(45) when various amounts of sodium alginate were fed with the diet. Long-term studies were made in which two different levels of radioactivity were used, to determine the pattern of Sr(89) deposition with continuous intake of binding agent. It was found that administration of sodium alginate as a jelly overcomes the problem of constipation and effectively reduces Sr(89) uptake, up to 83%. This fact represents a significant finding with respect to the use of the compound in human subjects. Addition of sodium alginate to drinking water is effective with low levels of Sr(89) intake.This naturally occurring water-soluble macromolecular substance possesses several advantages in use for the suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium when compared with synthetic ion exchange resins: there is no disturbance of electrolyte balance; efficiency is not reduced by treatment over a prolonged period of time; and finally, the product is palatable.

  10. Effect of environmental conditions on the migration of DI (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate from PET bottles into yogurt drinks: Influence of time, temperature and food simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhoodi, M.; Emam-Djomeh, Z.; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Oromiehie, A.

    2008-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the materials that are widely used for packaging of beverages and edible oils. In this study, the migration of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from PET bottles into the Iranian yogurt drink was investigated. According to European Commission regulations, acetic acid (3% w/v) was chosen as stimulant. The acetic acid samples were stored at 4C, 25C and 45Cfor four months and analyzed periodically by gas chromatography. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate if contact with the food stimulant could affect the PET material. It was concluded that the storage temperature had a large effect on the migration of DEHP. Also, increasing storage time resulted in higher concentrations of migrating DEHP. The concentrations of migrating substance did not exceed its specific migration limit (Economic European Community (EEC) regulations). Determination of glass transition (Tg) and crystallinity percent of PET bottles using DSC method showed that the variations in the amount of migration at different storage condition did not induce any change in the PET material in contact with 3% acetic acid. (author)

  11. Effect of environmental conditions on the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from pet bottles into yogurt drinks: influence of time, temperature, and food simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhoodi, Mehdi; Djomeh, Zahra Emam; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Oromiehie, Abdolrasul

    2008-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the materials that are widely used for packaging of beverages and edible oils. In this study, the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from PET bottles into the Iranian yogurt drink was investigated. According to European Commission regulations, acetic acid (3% w/v) was chosen as simulant. The acetic acid samples were stored at 4 degree C, 25 degree C, and 45 degree C for four months and analyzed periodically by gas chromatography. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate if contact with the food simulant could affect the PET material. It was concluded that the storage temperature had a large effect on the migration of DEHP. Also, increasing storage time resulted in higher concentrations of migrating DEHP. The concentrations of migrating substance did not exceed its specific migration limit (Economic European Community (EEC) regulations). Determination of glass transition (Tg) and crystallinity percent of PET bottles using DSC method showed that the variations in the amount of migration at different storage condition did not induce any change in the PET material in contact with 3% acetic acid. (author)

  12. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  13. Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2000-02-02

    The objective of this study was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO{sub 2}. Hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, sulfated hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, semifluorinated trialkyltin fluorides and small hydrogen-bonding compounds were evaluated. Random copolymers of styrene and heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate were characterized by high solubility ion dense carbon dioxide and the most substantial increases in solution viscosity. Falling cylinder viscometry results indicated that the 29%styrene--71%fluoroacylate bulk-polymerized copolymer induced 2--250 fold increases in viscosity at copolymer concentrations of 0.2--5.0wt%.

  14. Diffuse interlobular septal thickening in a coal miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrumurthy, S.G.; Kearney, S.; Sissons, M.; Haider, Y. [Lancashire Teaching Hospital for NHS Funding Trust, Chorley (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Diffuse interlobular septal thickening (DIST) is an abnormality seen on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning of the thorax. While DIST may be present to variable extents in a number of lung conditions, it is uncommon as a predominant finding except in a few entities. This report features an ex-coal miner, thought to have coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), in whom the HRCT scan showed no evidence of CWP and instead showed DIST. The patient's condition progressed incessantly towards death from severe secondary pulmonary hypertension. The case links fatal pulmonary hypertension to DIST, a pattern not previously described in coal workers.

  15. Constitutional Syndrome, Ascites and Duodenal Thickening Presenting as Groove Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Maria Frutos Perez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Groove pancreatitis (GP is a very infrequent subtype of chronic pancreatitis affecting the pancreatic-duodenal junction. It usually manifests in middle-aged men with a history of chronic alcoholism, though it has also been described in women and in individuals who do not consume alcohol[1]. Even though the underlying etiology is unclear, chronic alcohol consumption is known to increase the viscosity of the pancreatic juice and exacerbate the inflammatory process[2]. We present a case of GP that posed diagnostic difficulties because it manifested as ascites and duodenal thickening, with pancreatic imaging findings initially normal.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of pneumonia associated with thin liquid vs. thickened liquid intake in patients who aspirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneoka, Asako; Pisegna, Jessica M; Saito, Hiroki; Lo, Melody; Felling, Katey; Haga, Nobuhiko; LaValley, Michael P; Langmore, Susan E

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether drinking thin liquids with safety strategies increases the risk for pneumonia as compared with thickened liquids in patients who have demonstrated aspiration of thin liquids. Seven electronic databases, one clinical register, and three conference archives were searched. No language or publication date restrictions were imposed. Reference lists were scanned and authors and experts in the field were contacted. A blind review was performed by two reviewers for published or unpublished randomized controlled trials and prospective non-randomized trials comparing the incidence of pneumonia with intake of thin liquids plus safety strategies vs. thickened liquids in adult patients who aspirated on thin liquids. The data were extracted from included studies. Odds ratios (OR) for pneumonia were calculated from the extracted data. Risk of bias was also assessed with the included published trials. Seven studies out of 2465 studies including 650 patients met the inclusion criteria. All of the seven studies excluded patients with more than one known risk factor for pneumonia. Six studies compared thin water protocols to thickened liquids for pneumonia prevention. A meta-analysis was done on the six studies, showing no significant difference for pneumonia risk (OR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.05-13.42; p = 0.89). There was no significant difference in the risk of pneumonia in aspirating patients who took thin liquids with safety strategies compared with those who took thickened liquids only. This result, however, is generalizable only for patients with low risk of pneumonia.

  17. Heat recovery with heat pumps in non-energy intensive industry: A detailed bottom-up model analysis in the French food and drink industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seck, Gondia Sokhna; Guerassimoff, Gilles; Maïzi, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First bottom-up energy model for NEI at 4-digit level of NACE for energy analysis. • Energy end-use modelling due to the unsuitability of end-product/process approach. • Analysis of heat recovery with HP on industrial processes up to 2020 in French F and D. • Energy consumption and emissions drop respectively by 10% compared to 2001 and 9% to 1990. • Results only achieved at heat temperature below 100 °C, concentrated in 1/3 of F and D sectors. - Abstract: Rising energy prices and environmental impacts inevitably encourage industrials to get involved in promoting energy efficiency and emissions reductions. To achieve this goal, we have developed the first detailed bottom-up energy model for Non-Energy Intensive industry (NEI) to study its global energy efficiency and the potential for CO 2 emissions reduction at a 4-digit level of NACE classification. The latter, which is generally neglected in energy analyses, is expected to play an important role in reducing industry energy intensity in the long term due to its economic and energy significance and relatively high growth rate. In this paper, the modelling of NEI is done by energy end-use owing to the unsuitability of the end-product/process approach used in the Energy Intensive industry modelling. As an example, we analysed the impact of heat recovery with heat pumps (HP) on industrial processes up to 2020 on energy savings and CO 2 emissions reductions in the French food and drink industry (F and D), the biggest NEI sector. The results showed HP could be an excellent and very promising energy recovery technology. For further detailed analysis, the depiction of HP investment cost payments is given per temperature range for each F and D subsector. This model constitutes a useful decision-making tool for assessing potential energy savings from investing in efficient technologies at the highest level of disaggregation, as well as a better subsectoral screening

  18. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  19. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  20. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  1. The experimental study of sinal wall thickening on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, Yasuhiro; Iinuma, Tositaka; Oyama, Kazuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    In our previous report, we investigated several factors which cause apparent thickening of the walls of maxillary sinus. We confirmed, however, that the major factor for the sinal wall thickening is the artifact of CT. In present study, we report the results obtained by phantom models of isolated maxillary bone and egg shell. As the substance corresponding to the soft tissue density, solutions of CaCl 2 in various concentrations were used. In the maxillary bone studies, the thickness of the anterior sinus wall by CT was larger than the actual value even though only the air was contained. When solutions of CaCl 2 were contained and in touch with the anterior wall, the thickness by CT was larger than that of containing air. In the egg shell studies, the increase in thickness by CT correlated to the increase in percentage of solutions. The above results indicate that the apparent increased thickness of the sinal walls by CT is largely the artifact by CT and is dependent upon the soft tissue density or CT value (X-ray attenuation coefficient) of substances in touch with the sinal walls. In CT images obtained by clinical cases, the increased thickness of the sinal walls, in sinuses filled with soft tissue density, is more apparent than real. (author)

  2. Integration of thickener underflow into thermal dryer circuit. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, A.W.; Breault, R.W.

    1998-12-31

    A large number of coal preparation plants in the United States are troubled with coal fines and associated plant operation problems. As part of their process, these plants use thermal dryers for producing product coal, cyclones for first-stage recovery of coal fines, and wet scrubbers for the second-stage removal of coal fines carry-over from the dryer exhaust gas. The first challenge for these plants is to recover the clean ultra-fine coal captured in the scrubbers rather than to dispose of it in settling ponds. The second challenge is to mitigate the over-dry fine coal dusting problems in the dryer product. Prior to the completion of this program, the difficulties of the first challenge involving the recovery and use of fine clean coal from the thermal dryer scrubber effluent had not been solved. The second challenge, controlling fine coal dusting, was previously met by applying a solution of surfactants and process water to the over-dry coal fraction. As a result of the demonstration provided by the performance of this program, the implementation of a simple process improvement, involving the use of a thickener in combination with a belt press, simultaneously solved both challenges: the de-dusting and the dryer scrubber effluent recovery issues. The objective of this project was to: (1) Use a clean coal thickener with a squeeze belt press to recover the ultra-fine coal in dryer scrubber effluent; (2) Demonstrate that the coal-water mixture (CWM) produced from scrubber sludge of a thermal dryer can be used as a dust suppressant. The thickener/belt press system has increased the production of JWRI Mine Number 4 by approximately 0.7%. This production increase was accomplished by recovering and re-using 3 metric tons/hr (3.3 tons/hr) of coal fines that were previously sent to holding ponds, returning this as a 50% CWM to de-dust the 430 metric tons/hr (470 tons/hr) of existing dryer production.

  3. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  4. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... period of uncontrolled overeating). Today the generally accepted definition of binge drinking in the United States is ...

  5. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  6. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organization Budget History NIH Almanac Public Involvement Outreach & Education Visitor Information RePORT ... Since Colonial times, drinking alcohol has been part of American culture and its use by young people has been accepted by many as part ...

  7. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  8. Retinal Thickening and Photoreceptor Loss in HIV Eyes without Retinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Arcinue

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of structural changes in HIV retinae (i.e., photoreceptor density and retinal thickness in the macula compared with age-matched HIV-negative controls.Cohort of patients with known HIV under CART (combination Antiretroviral Therapy treatment were examined with a flood-illuminated retinal AO camera to assess the cone photoreceptor mosaic and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT to assess retinal layers and retinal thickness.Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients (n = 6 HIV-positive and 6 HIV-negative were imaged with the adaptive optics camera. In each of the regions of interest studied (nasal, temporal, superior, inferior, the HIV group had significantly less mean cone photoreceptor density compared with age-matched controls (difference range, 4,308-6,872 cones/mm2. A different subset of forty eyes of 20 patients (n = 10 HIV-positive and 10 HIV-negative was included in the retinal thickness measurements and retinal layer segmentation with the SD-OCT. We observed significant thickening in HIV positive eyes in the total retinal thickness at the foveal center, and in each of the three horizontal B-scans (through the macular center, superior, and inferior to the fovea. We also noted that the inner retina (combined thickness from ILM through RNFL to GCL layer was also significantly thickened in all the different locations scanned compared with HIV-negative controls.Our present study shows that the cone photoreceptor density is significantly reduced in HIV retinae compared with age-matched controls. HIV retinae also have increased macular retinal thickness that may be caused by inner retinal edema secondary to retinovascular disease in HIV. The interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE, as well as possible low-grade ocular inflammation causing diffuse inner retinal edema, may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients without overt retinitis.

  9. Further European initiatives and regulations concerning radiation protection: drinking water guideline, maximum permissible contamination in food products and feeding stuff; Weitere europaeische Initiativen und Regelungen im Strahlenschutz. Trinkwasserrichtlinie, maximal zulaessige Kontaminationswerte in Nahrungs- und Futtermitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundigl, Stefan [Europaeische Kommission, Generaldirektion Energie, Luxemburg (Luxembourg). Abt. D3 - Strahlenschutz, EUFO 4150

    2013-07-01

    The radiation protection community has observed intensively the development of basic safety standards concerning protection against hazards of ionizing radiation. The new core part of the European radiation protection legislation is complemented by several specialized regulations relevant for radiation protection. Besides the existing regulations in the field of emergency protection the European Commission initiated a drinking water guideline that will be published in the near future. Furthermore the European commission approved a revised regulation concerning the maximum permissible contamination limits for food products and feeding stuff in case of a future nuclear accident. Together with the new radiation protection basic standards a new complete, coherent and modernized European regulation package will be accomplished.

  10. Integration of the sensory experience and post-ingestive measures for understanding food satisfaction. A case study on sucrose replacement by Stevia rebaudiana and addition of beta glucan in fruit drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Mielby, Line H.; Viemose, Ida

    2017-01-01

    apple-cherry fruit drinks with different levels of beta-glucans and different sweeteners, sucrose or Stevia rebaudiana. The aims were: 1) to study the hedonic sensory experience, 2) to study time and product effects on post-ingestive sensations and satisfaction, and 3) to study main drivers....... Satisfaction with sensory attributes was found to be the main driver of food satisfaction, while post-ingestive sensations drove satisfaction as well. While replacing sucrose with Stevia rebaudiana did not affect the hedonic and post-ingestive sensations, addition of beta glucan resulted in both positive...

  11. Diet-boosting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity - diet-boosting foods; Overweight - diet-boosting foods ... Low-fat and nonfat milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese are healthy sources of calcium, vitamin D , and potassium. Unlike sweetened drinks with extra calories, milk ...

  12. 21 CFR 1250.44 - Drinking utensils and toilet articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drinking utensils and toilet articles. 1250.44 Section 1250.44 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... toilet articles. (a) No cup, glass, or other drinking utensil which may be used by more than one person...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b) Specifications...

  14. Determination of 8 Synthetic Food Dyes by Solid Phase Extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Synthetic colors, Food, Fruit flavored drinks, Solid phase extraction, RP-HPLC. Tropical Journal of ..... food dyes by thin-layer chromatography-fast atom bombardment ... food dyes in soft drinks containing natural pigments by.

  15. Food and drink consumption at school lunchtime: the impact of lunch type and contribution to overall intake in British 9-10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Flo; Jennings, Amy; Jones, Andy; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther; Griffin, Simon; Cassidy, Aedín

    2013-06-01

    To examine the differences in dietary intakes of children consuming school meals and packed lunches, the contribution of lunchtime intake to overall dietary intake, and how lunchtime intake relates to current food-based recommendations for school meals. Cross-sectional analysis of overall intake of macronutrients and food choice from 4 d food diaries and school lunchtime intake from the two diary days completed while at school. Norfolk, UK. One thousand six hundred and twenty-six children (aged 9-10 years) attending ninety Norfolk primary schools. At school, lunchtime school meal eaters consumed more vegetables, sweet snacks, chips, starchy foods and milk, and less squash/cordial, fruit, bread, confectionery and savoury snacks than packed lunch eaters. These differences were also reflected in the overall diet. On average school meal eaters met the School Food Trust (SFT) food-based standards, while food choices among packed lunch eaters were less healthy. The contribution of food consumed at school lunchtime to overall diet varied by food and lunch type, ranging from 0.8 % (milk intake in packed lunches) to 74.4 % (savoury snack intake in packed lunches). There were significant differences in the foods consumed by school meal and packed lunch eaters, with food choices among school meal eaters generally in line with SFT standards. The food choices made at school lunchtime make a significant contribution to overall diet.

  16. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  17. Significance of appendiceal thickening in association with typhlitis in pediatric oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, M.B.; Thompson, J.; Adelman, C.S.; Lee, M.O.; Li, C.; Alsammarae, D.; Rao, B.N.; May, M.V.; Jones, S.C.; Sandlund, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The management of pediatric oncology patients with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening is complex because they are generally poor surgical candidates and often have confounding clinical findings. Objective: We sought to determine the significance of appendiceal thickening in pediatric oncology patients who also had typhlitis. Specifically, we evaluated the impact of this finding on the duration of typhlitis, its clinical management, and outcome. Materials and methods: From a previous review of the management of typhlitis in 90 children with cancer at our institution, we identified 4 with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening. We compared colonic wall measurements, duration of typhlitis symptoms, management, and outcome of patients with appendiceal thickening and typhlitis to patients with typhlitis alone. Results: There was no significant difference in duration of typhlitis symptoms between patients with typhlitis only (15.6 ± 1.2 days) and those with typhlitis and appendiceal thickening (14.5 ± 5.8 days; P = 0.9). Two patients with appendiceal thickening required surgical treatment for ischemic bowel, and two were treated medically. Only one patient in the typhlitis without appendiceal thickening group required surgical intervention. There were no deaths in children with appendiceal thickening; two patients died of complications of typhlitis alone. (orig.)

  18. Determination of Phthalates in Drinking Water Samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. ... esters are used in the manufacturing of polyvinyl chloride. (PVC). ... water, soil, air, food products and the human body. (Castillo et al.

  19. Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Related Links CDC Food Safety Adolescent and School Health BAM! Body and Mind Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake Recommend ...

  20. A mathematical model for batch and continuous thickening of flocculent suspensions in vessels with varying section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, R.; Damasceno, J.J.R.; Karlesen, K.H.

    2001-10-01

    The phenomenological theory of continuous thickening of flocculated suspensions in an ideal cylindrical thickener is extended to vessels having varying cross-section, including divergent or convergent conical vessels. The purpose of this contribution is to draw attention to the corresponding mathematical model, whose key ingredient is a strongly degenerate parabolic partial differential equation. For ideal (non-flocculated) suspensions, which do not form co compressible sediments, the mathematical model reduces to the kinematic approach by Anestis, who developed a method of construction of exact solution by the method of characteristics. The difficulty lies in the fact that characteristics and iso-concentration lines, unlike the conventional Kynch model for cylindrical vessels, do not coincide, and one has to resort to numerical methods to simulate the thickening process. A numerical algorithm is presented and employed for simulations of continuous thickening. Implications of the mathematical model are also demonstrated by steady-state calculations, which lead to new possibilities in thickener design. (author)

  1. A Novel Model for the Entire Settling-Thickening Process in a Secondary Settling Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhijiang; Zhang, Yuankai; Wang, Hongchen; Qi, Lu; Yin, Xunfei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wen, Yang

    2016-12-01

      Sludge settling and thickening occur simultaneously in secondary settling tanks (SSTs). The ability to accurately calculate the settling and thickening capacity of activated sludge was of great importance. Despite extensive studies on the development of settling velocity models for use with SSTs, these models have not been applied due to the difficulty in calibrating the related parameters. Additionally, there have been some studies of the thickening behavior of the activated sludge in SSTs. In this study, a novel settling and thickening model for activated sludge was developed, and the model was validated using experimental data (R2 = 0.830 to 0.963, p settling and thickening behavior of the activated sludge in an SST. The application of these models requires only one critical parameter, namely, the stirred sludge volume index SSVI3.5, which is readily available in a water resource recovery facility.

  2. Study of low-velocity impact response of sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu

    2018-06-01

    The low-velocity impact response of sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores was studied. The impact tests indicated that the sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores showed excellent properties of energy dissipation and stress distribution. In comparison to the similar sandwich panels with chloroprene rubber cores and ethylene-propylene-diene monomer cores, the shear-thickening gel cores led to the obviously smaller contact forces and the larger energy absorptions. Numerical modelling with finite element analysis was used to investigate the stress distribution of the sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores and the results agreed well with the experimental results. Because of the unique mechanical property of the shear-thickening gel, the concentrated stress on the front facesheets were distributed to larger areas on the back facesheets and the peak stresses were reduced greatly.

  3. Analysis for toxic elements in food and drinking water by means of neutron activation analysis. Final report for the period November 1986 - June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leelhaphunt, N [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangken, Bangkok (Thailand). Waste Disposal Div.

    1991-12-31

    Neutron activation technique, both instrumental and radiochemical, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry method have been used for the investigation of toxic elements in three hundred and eleven samples of foodstuffs and one hundred and thirty-two samples of drinking water throughout Thailand for human consumption so as to be guideline for establishing the maximum permissible concentration of dietary intake of Ag, As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn in such samples. The estimated daily intake of As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, Se, Pb, Br, Co, Fe, Mn in foodstuffs and As, Co,Cr, Mn, Sb, U, V, Zn in drinking water were reported. 14 refs, 1 fig., 49 tabs.

  4. Enzymatic Spectrophotometric Reaction Rate Determination of Glucose in Fruit Drinks and Carbonated Beverages. An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Food Science-Oriented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilarou, Argyro-Maria G.; Georgiou, Constantinos A.

    2000-10-01

    The glucose oxidase-horseradish peroxidase coupled reaction using phenol and 4-aminoantipyrine is used for the kinetic determination of glucose in drinks and beverages. This laboratory experiment demonstrates the implementation of reaction rate kinetic methods of analysis, the use of enzymes as selective analytical reagents for the determination of substrates, the kinetic masking of ascorbic acid interference, and the analysis of glucose in drinks and beverages. The method is optimized for student use in the temperature range of 18-28 °C and can be used in low-budget laboratories equipped with an inexpensive visible photometer. The mixed enzyme-chromogen solution that is used is stable for two months. Precision ranged from 5.1 to 12% RSD for analyses conducted during a period of two months by 48 students.

  5. Analysis for toxic elements in food and drinking water by means of neutron activation analysis. Final report for the period November 1986 - June 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leelhaphunt, N.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron activation technique, both instrumental and radiochemical, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry method have been used for the investigation of toxic elements in three hundred and eleven samples of foodstuffs and one hundred and thirty-two samples of drinking water throughout Thailand for human consumption so as to be guideline for establishing the maximum permissible concentration of dietary intake of Ag, As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn in such samples. The estimated daily intake of As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, Se, Pb, Br, Co, Fe, Mn in foodstuffs and As, Co,Cr, Mn, Sb, U, V, Zn in drinking water were reported. 14 refs, 1 fig., 49 tabs

  6. The relationship between hours of sleep, screen time and frequency of food and drink consumption in Spain in the 2011 and 2013 ALADINO: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleón Pérez-Farinós

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of intake of food and beverages depends on a number of ill-defined behaviour patterns. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of screen time and sleep duration on food consumption frequency, and to describe frequencies and types of food consumption according to BMI category and parents’ level of education. Methods We studied 6287 and 2806 children drawn from the 2011 and 2013 cross-sectional ALADINO studies respectively. Data were collected on number of hours of sleep, screen time, and weekly frequency of consumption of 17 food groups. Weight status was measured, and information was also collected on parents’ educational level. Average food consumption frequencies were calculated by reference to hours of sleep and hours of screen time, and were defined as ≥4 times or <4 times per week (once per week for soft drinks and diet soft drinks. Differences in frequency were evaluated for screen times of more and less than 2 h per day, and for sleep durations longer or shorter than the daily average. We fitted logistic regression models to evaluate the independent association between screen exposure and hours of sleep on the one hand, and food consumption frequency on the other. Results Consumption of fruit and vegetables was lower among children who had parents with no formal or only primary school education. High levels of screen time were associated with a greater frequency of consumption of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor products and a lower frequency of consumption of fruit and vegetables. Sleeping a sufficient number of hours was associated with a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. The results for 2011 were concordant with those for 2013. Conclusions If efforts to ensure healthier eating habits among children are to be at all successful, they should focus on promoting a sufficient amount of sleep for children, limiting the time they spend watching television and/or playing with

  7. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows: (1...

  8. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease.

  9. Autoshaping of ethanol drinking: an animal model of binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; di Poce, Jason; Derenzo, Christopher C; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Pavlovian autoshaping provides an animal learning model of drug abuse, two studies evaluated the induction of ethanol drinking by autoshaping procedures. In Experiment 1, the sipper tube conditioned stimulus (CS) contained saccharin/ethanol solution and was repeatedly paired with food as an unconditioned stimulus (US). The CS-US paired group consumed more of the 0.1% saccharin-6% ethanol solution than did the CS-US random group, revealing that autoshaping conditioned responses (CR) induce ethanol drinking not attributable to pseudo-conditioning. Experiment 2 employed saccharin-fading procedures and showed that the paired vs random group differences in ethanol drinking were maintained, even as the saccharin was eliminated from the solution. The results show that Pavlovian autoshaping procedures induce high volumes of ethanol drinking when the presentation of a sipper tube containing an ethanol solution precedes the response-independent delivery of food. The high volume of ethanol consumed in a brief period of time suggests that Pavlovian autoshaping may be a model of binge drinking.

  10. The receptor-like kinase AtVRLK1 regulates secondary cell wall thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Rui; Gui, Jinshan; Zhong, Yu; Li, Laigeng

    2018-04-20

    During the growth and development of land plants, some specialized cells, such as tracheary elements, undergo secondary cell wall thickening. Secondary cell walls contain additional lignin, compared with primary cell walls, thus providing mechanical strength and potentially improving defenses against pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms that initiate wall thickening are unknown. In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, encoded by AtVRLK1 (Vascular-Related RLK 1), that is specifically expressed in cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening. Suppression of AtVRLK1expression resulted in a range of phenotypes that included retarded early elongation of the inflorescence stem, shorter fibers, slower root growth, and shorter flower filaments. In contrast, upregulation of AtVRLK1 led to longer fiber cells, reduced secondary cell wall thickening in fiber and vessel cells, and defects in anther dehiscence. Molecular and cellular analyses showed that downregulation of AtVRLK1 promoted secondary cell wall thickening and upregulation of AtVRLK1 enhanced cell elongation and inhibited secondary cell wall thickening. We propose that AtVRLK1 functions as a signaling component in coordinating cell elongation and cell wall thickening during growth and development. {copyright, serif} 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Gallbladder wall thickening: MR imaging and pathologic correlation with emphasis on layered pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S.E.; Lee, J.M.; Hahn, S.T.; Lee, K.; Rha, S.E.; Choi, B.G.; Kim, E.K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening with pathologic findings on the basis of the layered pattern and to evaluate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in gallbladder disease. We retrospectively evaluated the source images of HASTE sequences for MR cholangiography in 144 patients with gallbladder wall thickening. The layered pattern of thickened wall was classified into four patterns. Type 1 shows two layers with a thin hypointense inner layer and thick hyperintense outer layer. Type 2 has two layers of ill-defined margin. Type 3 shows multiple hyperintense cystic spaces in the wall. Type 4 shows diffuse nodular thickening without layering. MR findings of a layered pattern of thickened gallbladder were well correlated with histopathology. Chronic cholecystitis matched to type 1, acute cholecystitis corresponded to type 2, adenomyomatosis showed type 3, and the gallbladder carcinomas showed type 4. All four layered patterns were associated with PPV of 73% or greater, sensitivity of 92% or greater and specificity of 95% or greater. Our results indicate that MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening are characteristic in each entity and correlate well with pathologic findings. The classification of the layered pattern may be valuable for interpreting thickened gallbladder wall. (orig.)

  12. A comparative ultrastructural study of pit membranes with plasmodesmata associated thickenings in four angiosperm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaey, David; Lens, Frederic; Huysmans, Suzy; Smets, Erik; Jansen, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Recent micromorphological observations of angiosperm pit membranes have extended the number and range of taxa with pseudo-tori in tracheary elements. This study investigates at ultrastructural level (TEM) the development of pseudo-tori in the unrelated Malus yunnanensis, Ligustrum vulgare, Pittosporum tenuifolium, and Vaccinium myrtillus in order to determine whether these plasmodesmata associated thickenings have a similar developmental pattern across flowering plants. At early ontogenetic stages, the formation of a primary thickening was observed, resulting from swelling of the pit membrane in fibre-tracheids and vessel elements. Since plasmodesmata appear to be frequently, but not always, associated with these primary pit membrane thickenings, it remains unclear which ultrastructural characteristics control the formation of pseudo-tori. At a very late stage during xylem differentiation, a secondary thickening is deposited on the primary pit membrane thickening. Plasmodesmata are always associated with pseudo-tori at these final developmental stages. After autolysis, the secondary thickening becomes electron-dense and persistent, while the primary thickening turns transparent and partially or entirely dissolves. The developmental patterns observed in the species studied are similar and agree with former ontogenetic studies in Rosaceae, suggesting that pseudo-tori might be homologous features across angiosperms.

  13. Chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt with the addition of taro and lesser yam flours as thickening agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Widowati, E.; Karunawati, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Cheese whey is a waste product from cheese processing. It has low solid contents thus required the addition of a thickening agent. Lactic acid bacteria could utilize it in the fermented drink. This research aims to study the effect of taro and lesser yam flour addition as a thickening agent on chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt. This research used Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor that is variation ratio of taro and lesser yam flour F1 (4: 0), F2 (3: 1), F3 (2: 2), F4 (1: 3), F5 (0: 4). The number of lactic acid bacteria cell determined by using hemocytometer. The lactic acid content determined by the titrimetric method by using 0.1 N NaOH and phenolphthalein as indicator. pH value measured with pH meter. Sensory characteristics evaluated using hedonic test. The result showed that the addition of taro and lesser yam flour have a significant effect on the number of lactic acid bacteria in frozen wheygurt. The higher lesser yam flour addition, the higher lactic acid bacteria count on frozen wheygurt, due to lesser yam higher glucose and fructo-oligosaccharide content than taro. The higher lesser yam addition, the higher the lactic acid produced. The higher the total bacteria and higher levels of lactic acid, the lower the pH obtained. The conclusion of this study is addition ratio of taro and lesser yam flour effect on the chemical characteristics of frozen wheygurt. There is no difference in the level of acceptance of the panelists in sensory evaluation.

  14. Pumping evaluations with paste tailings thickened close to the surface disposal area

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Thord; Sellgren, Anders

    2007-01-01

    An elevated location of a paste thickener on a ridge close to the disposal area is considered at a Swedish iron ore mine. About 0.7 Mtonnes of thickened tailings are planned to be layered as paste in the vicinity of the thickener over several years with pipeline lengths of up to 900 m after about 20 years. In order to clarify the pipeline pumping characteristics of the tailings product for volumetric solids concentration from 40 to 50%, experiments in loop systems with pipeline inner diameter...

  15. Thickening agent for flood water in secondary recovery of oil and for other aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, H H

    1966-04-14

    Alkenyl-aromatic polymer sulfonates are good thickeners for some aqueous solutions, but addition of salts to such solutions reduces the desirable viscosity. High-molecular, water-soluble alkenyl-aromatic polymers which carry sulfonic acid or sulfonate groups substituted at the aromatic nuclei yield thickened solutions (e.g., for waterflooding) which are not influenced by the presence of water-soluble salts. Such polymers are derivatives of polyvinyltoluene, alone or in combination with about 5% acrylonitrile. It was also found that such thickening agents are less adsorbed on the rock matrix in a waterflood formation. (1 claim)

  16. “If you drink alcohol, drink sensibly.” Is this guideline still appropriate?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for South Africa: “If you drink alcohol, drink sensibly.” - Is this guideline ... alcohol-consumption guideline to be adopted by the general public: “If .... Survey of 20038 and the Youth Risk Behaviour Study of 20029.

  17. The life of phi: the development of phi thickenings in roots of the orchids of the genus Miltoniopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nurul A; Collings, David A

    2015-02-01

    Phi thickenings, bands of secondary wall thickenings that reinforce the primary wall of root cortical cells in a wide range of species, are described for the first time in the epiphytic orchid Miltoniopsis. As with phi thickenings found in other plants, the phi thickenings in Miltoniopsis contain highly aligned cellulose running along the lengths of the thickenings, and are lignified but not suberized. Using a combination of histological and immunocytochemical techniques, thickening development can be categorized into three different stages. Microtubules align lengthwise along the thickening during early and intermediate stages of development, and callose is deposited within the thickening in a pattern similar to the microtubules. These developing thickenings also label with the fluorescently tagged lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). These associations with microtubules and callose, and the WGA labeling, all disappear when the phi thickenings are mature. This pattern of callose and WGA deposition show changes in the thickened cell wall composition and may shed light on the function of phi thickenings in plant roots, a role for which has yet to be established.

  18. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine....

  19. Crestal Sinus Augmentation in the Presence of Severe Sinus Mucosal Thickening: A Report of 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiqin; An, Xueyin; Jeong, Seung-Mi; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2018-06-01

    In the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening, the ostium can be blocked when the sinus membrane is lifted, causing drainage disturbances and sinusitis. Here, we present 3 cases in which maxillary sinus floor elevation was performed using a crestal approach in the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening (>10 mm). The effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation using the crestal approach technique on sinus mucosal thickening and bone formation in the sinus were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography. None of the patients exhibited an increase in sinus membrane thickness. No complications were encountered during the follow-up periods, and bone formation was observed around the implants at the sinus floor. All implants were functioning successfully. Maxillary sinus floor elevation using the crestal approach technique in the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening allows for minimally invasive sinus grafting and simultaneous implant placement and does not increase sinus membrane thickness.

  20. Shear Thickening Fluid (STF) – Enhanced Textiles for Impact Energy Dissipation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The rheological behavior of some liquids can lead to the creation of materials with very unique properties. Shear thickening fluids (STFs), also known as dilatants,...

  1. Tribological characteristic enhancement effects by polymer thickened oil in lubricated sliding contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratomo, Ariawan Wahyu; Muchammad, Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Jamari, Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    Polymer thickened oils are the most preferred materials for modern lubrication applications due to their high shear. The present paper explores a lubrication mechanism in sliding contact lubricated with polymer thickened oil considering cavitation. Investigations are carried out by using a numerical method based on commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamic) software ANSYS for fluid flow phenomenon (Fluent) to assess the tribological characteristic (i.e. hydrodynamic pressure distribution) of lubricated sliding contact. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri model for cavitation is adopted in this simulation to predict the extent of the full film region. The polymer thickened oil is characterized as non-Newtonian power-law fluid. The simulation results show that the cavitation lead lower pressure profile compared to that without cavitation. In addition, it is concluded that the characteristic of the lubrication performance with polymer thickened oil is strongly dependent on the Power-law index of lubricant.

  2. Stab Resistance of Shear Thickening Fluid (STF)-Kevlar Composites for Body Armor Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egres Jr., R. G; Decker, M. J; Halbach, C. J; Lee, Y. S; Kirkwood, J. E; Kirwood, K. M; Wagner, N. J; Wetzel, E. D

    2004-01-01

    The stab resistance of shear thickening fluid (STF)-Kevlar and STF-Nylon fabric composites are investigated and found to exhibit significant improvements over neat fabric targets of equivalent areal density...

  3. Thickened water-based hydraulic fluid with reduced dependence of viscosity on temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Improved hydraulic fluids or metalworking lubricants, utilizing mixtures of water, metal lubricants, metal corrosion inhibitors, and an associative polyether thickener, have reduced dependence of the viscosity on temperature achieved by the incorporation therein of an ethoxylated polyether surfactant.

  4. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized beverages. The study included labels of carbonated soft drinks n = 33 – sugar drinks (n = 21 or diet drinks (n = 12 – of five different flavors.All carbonated soft drinks evaluated have sodium in its composition. However, the sodium presence in carbonated sugar drinks was significantly lower when compared with carbonated diet drinks (69.05 ± 16.55 vs. 145.30 ± 47.36mg Na/l, respectively.Studies to identify children's eating habits related with increased consumption of foods and drinks manufactured are needed to identify, reduce and prevent high blood pressure.

  5. A Comparative Study Between Modified Starch and Xanthan Gum Thickeners in Post-Stroke Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardell, N; Rofes, L; Arreola, V; Speyer, R; Clavé, P

    2016-04-01

    Thickeners are used in post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) as a compensatory therapeutic strategy against aspirations. To compare the therapeutic effects of modified starch (MS) and xanthan gum (XG) thickeners on swallow safety and efficacy in chronic post-stroke OD patients using clinical and videofluoroscopic (VFS) assessment. Patients were studied by clinical assessment (volume-viscosity swallow test, V-VST) and VFS using 3 volumes (5, 10, 20 mL) and 3 viscosities (liquid, nectar and spoon thick), comparing MS and XG. We studied 122 patients (46MS, 76XG). (A) V-VST showed that both thickeners similarly improved safety of swallow. Prevalence of safe swallowing significantly increased with enhanced viscosity (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 47.83 % at liquid, 84.93 % at nectar and 92.96 % at spoon thick; XG: 55.31 % at liquid, 77.78 % at nectar and 97.84 % at spoon thick. Patients on MS reported higher prevalence of pharyngeal residue at spoon-thick viscosities. (B) VFS: increasing bolus viscosity with either thickener increased prevalence of safe swallows (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 30.25 % liquid, 61.07 % nectar and 92.64 % spoon thick; XG: 29.12 % liquid, 71.30 % nectar and 89.91 % spoon thick. Penetration-aspiration scale score was significantly reduced with increased viscosity with both thickeners. MS increased oral and pharyngeal residues at nectar and spoon-thick viscosities but XG did not. Timing of airway protection mechanisms and bolus velocity were not affected by either thickener. Increasing bolus viscosity with MS and XG thickeners strongly and similarly improved safety of swallow in chronic post-stroke OD by a compensatory mechanism; in contrast only MS thickeners increased oropharyngeal residue.

  6. Discrimination between pleural thickening and minimal pleural effusion using color Doppler chest ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali A.; Makhlouf, Hoda A.; Mohamed, Alaa R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The discrimination of pleural thickening from minimal pleural effusion may be difficult as both lesions appear as anechoic on grayscale ultrasound, hence, free of “echoes” does not confirm the presence of pleural fluid. Aim of this study: To evaluate the value of color Doppler ultrasound in differentiating minimal pleural effusion that could be aspirated from pleural thickening and to compare it with grayscale ultrasound. Patients and methods: This analytic cross-sectional s...

  7. Microstructural changes in thickened corpus callosum in children: contribution of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Kanavaki, Aikaterini; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Thickened corpus callosum is a rare finding and its pathophysiology is not well known. An anomalous supracallosal bundle has been depicted by fiber tracking in some cases but no diffusion tensor imaging metrics of thickened corpus callosum have been reported. To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in cases of thickened corpus callosum to help in understanding its clinical significance. During a 7-year period five children (ages 6 months to 15 years) with thickened corpus callosum were studied. We determined DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and axial (λ1) and radial (λ2, λ3) diffusivity and performed 3-D fiber tracking reconstruction of the thickened corpus callosum. We compared our results with data from the literature and 24 age-matched controls. Brain abnormalities were seen in all cases. All children had at least three measurements of corpus callosum thickness above the 97th percentile according to age. In all children 3-D fiber tracking showed an anomalous supracallosal bundle and statistically significant decrease in FA (P = 0.003) and λ1 (P = 0.001) of the corpus callosum compared with controls, but no significant difference in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Thickened corpus callosum was associated with abnormal bundles, suggesting underlying axonal guidance abnormality. DTI metrics suggested abnormal fiber compactness and density, which may be associated with alterations in cognition. (orig.)

  8. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  9. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  10. Drinking Water - National Drinking Water Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savings Septic Unsafe Disposable Wipe Woes FacebookLogo FOCUS AREAS Drinking Water Wastewater Training Security Conservation & Water Efficiency Water We Drink Source Water Protection SORA/COI EPA MOU CartIcon Links Listserv Educators Homeowners Operators Small Systems Drinking Water Read On Tap Latest

  11. Computer-aided detection of bladder wall thickening in CT urography (CTU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kenny H.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon Z.; Gordon, Marshall N.; Samala, Ravi K.

    2018-02-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer in CT urography (CTU). Bladder wall thickening is a manifestation of bladder cancer and its detection is more challenging than the detection of bladder masses. We first segmented the inner and outer bladder walls using our method that combined deep-learning convolutional neural network with level sets. The non-contrast-enhanced region was separated from the contrast-enhanced region with a maximum-intensity-projection-based method. The non-contrast region was smoothed and gray level threshold was applied to the contrast and non-contrast regions separately to extract the bladder wall and potential lesions. The bladder wall was transformed into a straightened thickness profile, which was analyzed to identify regions of wall thickening candidates. Volume-based features of the wall thickening candidates were analyzed with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to differentiate bladder wall thickenings from false positives. A data set of 112 patients, 87 with wall thickening and 25 with normal bladders, was collected retrospectively with IRB approval, and split into independent training and test sets. Of the 57 training cases, 44 had bladder wall thickening and 13 were normal. Of the 55 test cases, 43 had wall thickening and 12 were normal. The LDA classifier was trained with the training set and evaluated with the test set. FROC analysis showed that the system achieved sensitivities of 93.2% and 88.4% for the training and test sets, respectively, at 0.5 FPs/case.

  12. Synthesis and Evaluation of CO2 Thickeners Designed with Molecular Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Enick; Erick Beckman; J. Karl Johnson

    2009-08-31

    The objective of this research was to use molecular modeling techniques, coupled with our prior experimental results, to design, synthesize and evaluate inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. The first type of thickener that was considered was associating polymers. Typically, these thickeners are copolymers that contain a highly CO{sub 2}-philic monomer, and a small concentration of a CO{sub 2}-phobic associating monomer. Yale University was solely responsible for the synthesis of a second type of thickener; small, hydrogen bonding compounds. These molecules have a core that contains one or more hydrogen-bonding groups, such as urea or amide groups. Non-fluorous, CO{sub 2}-philic functional groups were attached to the hydrogen bonding core of the compound to impart CO{sub 2} stability and macromolecular stability to the linear 'stack' of these compounds. The third type of compound initially considered for this investigation was CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactants. These surfactants contain conventional ionic head groups and composed of CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers (short polymers) or small compounds (sugar acetates) previously identified by our research team. Mobility reduction could occur as these surfactant solutions contacted reservoir brine and formed mobility control foams in-situ. The vast majority of the work conducted in this study was devoted to the copolymeric thickeners and the small hydrogen-bonding thickeners; these thickeners were intended to dissolve completely in CO{sub 2} and increase the fluid viscosity. A small but important amount of work was done establishing the groundwork for CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactants that reduced mobility by generating foams in-situ as the CO{sub 2}+surfactant solution mixed with in-situ brine.

  13. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Migration measurement and modelling from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) into soft drinks and fruit juices in comparison with food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R; Welle, F

    2008-08-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are widely used for beverages. Knowledge about the migration of organic compounds from the PET bottle wall into contact media is of interest especially when post-consumer recyclates are introduced into new PET bottles. Using migration theory, the migration of a compound can be calculated if the concentration in the bottle wall is known. On the other hand, for any given specific migration limit or maximum target concentration for organic chemical compounds in the bottled foodstuffs, the maximum allowable concentrations in the polymer CP,0 can be calculated. Since a food simulant cannot exactly simulate the real migration into the foodstuff or beverages, a worse-case simulation behaviour is the intention. However, if the migration calculation should not be too overestimative, the polymer-specific kinetic parameter for migration modelling, the so-called AP value, should be established appropriately. One objective of the study was the kinetic determination of the specific migration behaviour of low molecular weight compounds such as solvents with relatively high diffusion rates and, therefore, with high migration potential from the PET bottle wall into food simulants in comparison with real beverages. For this purpose, model contaminants were introduced into the bottle wall during pre-form production. The volatile compounds toluene and chlorobenzene were established at concentrations from about 20-30 mg kg(-1) to 300-350 mg kg(-1). Phenyl cyclohexane was present at concentrations of 35, 262 and 782 mg kg(-1), respectively. The low volatile compounds benzophenone and methyl stearate have bottle wall concentrations of about 100 mg kg(-1) in the low spiking level up to about 1000 mg kg(-1) in the highly spiked test bottle. From these experimental data, the polymer specific parameters (AP values) from mathematical migration modelling were derived. The experimental determined diffusing coefficients were determined, calculated and

  15. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  16. Understanding standard drinks and drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Stockwell, Tim

    2012-03-01

    For consumers to follow drinking guidelines and limit their risk of negative consequences they need to track their ethanol consumption. This paper reviews published research on the ability of consumers to utilise information about the alcohol content of beverages when expressed in different forms, for example in standard drinks or units versus percentage alcohol content. A review of the literature on standard drink definitions and consumer understanding of these, actual drink pouring, use of standard drinks in guidelines and consumer understanding and use of these. Standard drink definitions vary across countries and typically contain less alcohol than actual drinks. Drinkers have difficulty defining and pouring standard drinks with over-pouring being the norm such that intake volume is typically underestimated. Drinkers have difficulty using percentage alcohol by volume and pour size information in calculating intake but can effectively utilise standard drink labelling to track intake. Standard drink labelling is an effective but little used strategy for enabling drinkers to track their alcohol intake and potentially conform to safe or low-risk drinking guidelines. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Nutrition and Healthy Eating: How Much Water Should You Drink Each Day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body to function properly, you must replenish its water supply by consuming beverages and foods that contain water. ... makes you sweat, you need to drink extra water to cover the fluid loss. It's important to drink water before, during and ...

  18. Drinking Game Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games.......The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games....

  19. Distinguishing benign from malignant gallbladder wall thickening using FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oe, Ai; Kawabe, Joji; Torii, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Because thickening of the gallbladder wall is observed not only in patients with gallbladder cancer but also in those with benign diseases such as chronic cholecystitis and gallbladder adenomyosis, it is difficult to distinguish between benign and malignant gallbladder wall thickening by conventional techniques of diagnostic imaging such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and abdominal ultrasonography (US). In the present study, we attempted to distinguish between benign and malignant gallbladder wall thickening by means of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron emission tomography (PET). FDG-PET was performed in 12 patients with gallbladder wall thickening detected by CT or US, to determine whether it was benign or malignant. Emission scans were taken, beginning 45 minutes after intravenous administration of FDG, and standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated as an indicator of glucose metabolism. Of the 12 patients, 4 showed positive uptake of FDG in the gallbladder wall. Of these 4 patients, 3 had gallbladder cancer. The remaining one, who had chronic cholecystitis, had false-positive findings. The other 8 patients had negative uptake of FDG in the gallbladder wall. Two of these 8 underwent surgical resection, which yielded a diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis. The other 6 patients exhibited no sign of gallbladder malignancy and have been followed without active treatment. FDG-PET appears able to distinguish between benign and malignant gallbladder wall thickening. (author)

  20. Breast disease with skin thickening: differential diagnosis with mammography and ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Rok; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Hye Seong; Kim, Ki Tae; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    Diffuse skin thickening of the breast is produced by lymphedema usually secondary to obstruction of the axillary lymphatics. On physical examination, the affected breast is, due to increased fluid content, larger, heavier, and of higher overall density. Mammography reveals an increased coarse reticular pattern. Thickening of the skin can have many causes. It may be a result of tumor invasion or a tumor in the dermal lymphatics ; or because of lymphatic congestion through obstruction of lymphatic drainage within the breast, in the axilla, or centrally in the mediastinum. Further causes may be congestive heart failure, benign inflammation, primary skin processes such as psoriasis, or systemic diseases which involve the skin. Mammographic appearance is known to be nonspecific. Ultrasound can demonstrate skin thickening directly, but despite some reports suggesting that the cause of skin thickening can be inferred from the results of ultrasound, this is not usually of practical importance. The purpose of this study is to review the causes of skin thickening of the breast and to use mammography and US to differentiate the causes.

  1. A Comparison of the Viscosities of Thickened Liquids for Pediatric Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ranjith; Clifton, Mekale; Tarlton, Morgan; Heinsohn, Erica; Ewing, Mary

    It has been reported that Speech Language Pathologists in different facilities across the nation use a variety of thickening agents and recipes as therapeutic measures for infants and children diagnosed with dysphagia. Limited research has been completed in this area. Viscosity was tested to determine the thickness of each thickening agent mixed with infant formula. The values were then compared to the National Dysphagia Diet liquid levels to determine which thickening agent resulted in the desired viscosity levels. The thickeners were mixed with common infant formulas and soy formulas to determine if the type of formula impacted the viscosity. The main goal was to determine if the assumed thickness level (viscosity) of prescribed thickened liquids was actually being met. This topic is of high concern because of its impact on the safety and well-being of clients with dysphagia. A viscometer was used to collect the viscosity levels. Commercially available formulas selected for this study. The final results of our investigation will be presented during the APS meeting. This work is supported by a Ball State University Immersive Learning Grant.

  2. Airway wall thickening and emphysema show independent familial aggregation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bipen D; Coxson, Harvey O; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: It is unclear whether airway wall thickening and emphysema make independent contributions to airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and whether these phenotypes cluster within families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether airway wall thickening and emphysema (1...... to airflow obstruction in COPD. These phenotypes show independent aggregation within families of individuals with COPD, suggesting that different genetic factors influence these disease processes....... the severity of airway wall thickening and emphysema. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 3,096 individuals were recruited to the study, of whom 1,159 (519 probands and 640 siblings) had technically adequate high-resolution computed tomography scans without significant non-COPD-related thoracic disease...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of thickened pituitary stalk proceeding to langerhans cell histiocytosis in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halefoglu, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has shown isolated pituitary stalk thickening in certain cases of idiopathic or secondary central diabetes insipidus (Dl) due to infiltrative processes. We present a 4-year-old boy who was initially diagnosed as having central Dl. The MRI showed isolated pituitary stalk thickening with prominent homogeneous contrast enhancement. The remaining findings on MRI were within normal limits. The patient's personal and family history and laboratory and clinical findings were unremarkable; therefore, he was initially diagnosed as having idiopathic Dl. Since central Dl and isolated pituitary stalk thickening may be considered to be the first manifestations of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, we decided to follow up the patient. After 5 months, following the initial diagnosis, on skeletal X-ray survey, the patient did indeed develop multiple lytic skull lesions which, on biopsy, were histologically typical bone lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufan; Phan, Hop V; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-06-01

    Recuperative thickening can intensify anaerobic digestion to produce more biogas and potentially reduce biosolids odour. This study elucidates the effects of sludge shearing during the thickening process on the microbial community structure and its effect on biogas production. Medium shearing resulted in approximately 15% increase in biogas production. By contrast, excessive or high shearing led to a marked decrease in biogas production, possibly due to sludge disintegration and cell lysis. Microbial analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that medium shearing increased the evenness and diversity of the microbial community in the anaerobic digester, which is consistent with the observed improved biogas production. By contrast, microbial diversity decreased under either excessive shearing or high shearing condition. In good agreement with the observed decrease in biogas production, the abundance of Bacteroidales and Syntrophobaterales (which are responsible for hydrolysis and acetogenesis) decreased due to high shearing during recuperative thickening. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Automatic airway-artery analysis on lung CT to quantify airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening are commonly assessed in computed tomography (CT) by comparing the airway size with the size of the accompanying artery. Thus, in order to automate the quantification of bronchiectasis and wall thickening following a similar principle......, and pairs airway branches with the accompanying artery, then quantifies airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis by measuring the wall-artery ratio (WAR) and lumen and outer wall airway-artery ratio (AAR). Measurements that do not use the artery size for normalization are also extracted, including wall...... area percentage (WAP), wall thickness ratio (WTR), and airway diameters. Results: The method was thoroughly evaluated using 8000 manual annotations of airway-artery pairs from 24 full-inspiration pediatric CT scans (12 diseased and 12 controls). Limits of agreement between the automatically...

  6. Potential effect of skull thickening on the associations between cognition and brain atrophy in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribisala, Benjamin Segun; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Murray, Catherine; Penke, Lars; Gow, Alan; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    intracranial volume (ICV) is commonly used as a marker of premorbid brain size in neuroimaging studies as it is thought to remain fixed throughout adulthood. However, inner skull table thickening would encroach on ICV and could mask actual brain atrophy. we investigated the effect that thickening might have on the associations between brain atrophy and cognition. the sample comprised 57 non-demented older adults who underwent structural brain MRI at mean age 72.7 ± 0.7 years and were assessed on cognitive ability at mean age 11 and 73 years. Principal component analysis was used to derive factors of general cognitive ability (g), information processing speed and memory from the recorded cognitive ability data. The total brain tissue volume and ICV with (estimated original ICV) and without (current ICV) adjusting for the effects of inner table skull thickening were measured. General linear modelling was used to test for associations. all cognitive ability variables were significantly (P skull thickening (g: η(2) = 0.177, speed: η(2) = 0.264 and memory: η(2) = 0.132). After accounting for skull thickening, only speed was significantly associated with percentage total brain volume in ICV (η(2) = 0.085, P = 0.034), not g or memory. not accounting for skull thickening when computing ICV can distort the association between brain atrophy and cognitive ability in old age. Larger samples are required to determine the true effect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Pelvis dilatation and mucosal thickening of transplanted kidney: comparative study of resistive index and ultrasonographic finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Yu Seun; Park, Ki Il

    1992-01-01

    Diagnostic ability of duplex Doppler ultrasonography relying on resistive index is limited when clinical symptoms and signs of rejection are subtle or renal dysfunction is caused by other conditions such as urinary tract infection. To investigate the significance in the changes of renal pelvis, a combined analysis of resistive index and ultrasonographic findings in cases of renal pelvis dilatation and mucosal thickening was undertaken. A mean resistive index was calculated from Doppler measurements of the main, segmental and interlobar arteries. The cause of mucosal thickening was retrospectively analysed using the clinical and laboratory findings. Twenty three cases of renal pelvis dilatation and 17 cases of mucosal thickening were found in a total of 159 renal transplantation cases. In 14 of the 23 cases with renal pelvis dilatation, renal function was normal and their mean resistive index was 0.64 ± 0.04. Pelvis and ureter dilatation caused by ureteral stenosis or compression was demonstrated in 6 cases and their mean resistive index (0.72 ± 0.05) was increased. Mucosal thickening of renal pelvis was found in 7 of 32 cases with acute injection and in 2 of 13 cases with chronic rejection, but their mean resistive index was not different from that of the cases without pelvic mucosal changes. Three cases of acute rejection associated with urinary tract infection and 2 cases of chronic rejection in whom resistive indices were indeterminate, but mucosal thickening of the renal pelvis was prominent at ultrasonography. In renal transplant patients having indeterminate resistive index and mucosal thickening of the renal pelvis, ultrasonographic features must be correlated with the clinical and laboratory findings for an accurate diagnosis and treatment of renal dysfunction

  8. New England's Drinking Water | Drinking Water in New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  9. Subclinical leaflet thickening and stent frame geometry in self-expanding transcatheter heart valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Andreas; De Backer, Ole; Brooks, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between subclinical leaflet thickening and stent frame geometry in patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with a self-expanding transcatheter heart valve (THV). METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with a self-expanding THV....... CONCLUSIONS: Regional THV stent frame underexpansion is associated with an increased risk of leaflet thickening. Post-dilatation of self-expanding THV as well as a supra-annular valve position seem to reduce the occurrence of this phenomenon....

  10. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  11. Feed thickener for infants up to six months of age with gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, T'ng Chang; Ojha, Shalini; Dorling, Jon

    2017-12-05

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is common in infants, and feed thickeners are often used to manage it in infants as they are simple to use and perceived to be harmless. However, conflicting evidence exists to support the use of feed thickeners. To evaluate the use of feed thickeners in infants up to six months of age with GOR in terms of reduction in a) signs and symptoms of GOR, b) reflux episodes on pH probe monitoring or intraluminal impedance or a combination of both, or c) histological evidence of oesophagitis. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 22 November 2016), Embase (1980 to 22 November 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 22 November 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials. We included randomised controlled trials if they examined the effects of feed thickeners as compared to unthickened feeds (no treatment or placebo) in treating GOR in term infants up to six months of age or six months of corrected gestational age for those born preterm. Two review authors independently identified eligible studies from the literature search. Two review authors independently performed data extraction and quality assessments of the eligible studies. Differences in opinion were resolved by discussion with a third review author, and consensus was reached among all three review authors. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence. Eight trials recruiting a total of 637 infants met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The infants included in the review were mainly formula-fed term infants. The trials were of variable methodological quality. Formula-fed term infants with GOR on feed thickeners had nearly two fewer episodes of regurgitation per day (mean difference -1.97 episodes per day

  12. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  13. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Studies on the determinants of energy drinks intake by students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Agnieszka; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Górnicka, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Energy drinks are among the most popular functional products. They contain bioactive substances which may produce beneficial effects on the body, but excessive consumption of energy drinks or use them in accordance with their intended use may be dangerous to health. The aim of the study was to assess determinants and circumstances of energy drinks consuming in selected group of students, their opinion and knowledge on energy drinks. The study was conducted in March 2011 in Warsaw and included 92 students from Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS) and from University of Physical Education (UPE). The data was collected using diagnostic survey. Energy drinks consumed 67% of the respondents. The most common reason for drinking energy drinks was to stay awake (45.2%). They most often drank them during the examination session (21.0%) and afterwards they experienced stimulation (72.9%), but also palpitations (32.2%) and insomnia (25.8%). Students who consumed energy drinks confirmed that they are effective (88.7%) and tasty (41.9%), but dangerous for health (43.5%). Majority of all users of energy drinks (80.7%) mixed them with alcohol. Every fourth respondent did not read the composition of the consumed beverages. Energy drinks have been a popular food product among students. After energy drinks consumption students often felt agitated but also experienced negative symptoms. Young people have to pay attention to the composition of energy drinks, what proves their consciousness.

  15. Ferrous ammonium phosphate (FeNH₄PO₄) as a new food fortificant: iron bioavailability compared to ferrous sulfate and ferric pyrophosphate from an instant milk drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; Kastenmayer, Peter; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Zeder, Christophe; Grathwohl, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish bioavailability data in humans for the new (Fe) fortification compound ferrous ammonium phosphate (FAP), which was specially developed for fortification of difficult-to-fortify foods where soluble Fe compounds cannot be used due to their negative impact on product stability. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial with cross-over design was conducted to obtain bioavailability data for FAP in humans. In this trial, Fe absorption from FAP-fortified full-cream milk powder was compared to that from ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) and ferrous sulfate. Fe absorption was determined in 38 young women using the erythrocyte incorporation dual stable isotope technique (⁵⁷Fe, ⁵⁸Fe). Geometric mean Fe absorption from ferrous sulfate, FAP and FPP was 10.4, 7.4 and 3.3 %, respectively. Fe from FAP was significantly better absorbed from milk than Fe from FPP (p soluble reference compound (p = 0.0002). Absorption ratios of FAP and FPP relative to ferrous sulfate as a measure of relative bioavailability were 0.71 and 0.32, respectively. The results of the present studies show that replacing FPP with FAP in full-cream milk could significantly improve iron bioavailability.

  16. Journal Article: Localized Pleural Thickening: Smoking and Exposure to Libby Vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited research on the combined effects of smoking and asbestos exposure on risk of localized pleural thickening (LPT). This analysis uses data from the Marysville cohort of workers occupationally exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA). Workers were interviewed to ...

  17. Inhibition of vein graft intimal and medial thickening by periadventitial application of a sulfated carbohydrate polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toes, GT; Barnathan, ES; Liu, HG; Raghunath, PN; Tomaszewski, JE; Caron, RJ; Weisz, PB; vanOeveren, W; Golden, MA

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the wall thickening observed in vein grafts after they were placed into the arterial circulation could be inhibited by periadventitial delivery of an insoluble sulfated polymer of beta-cyclodextrin (P-CDS) capable of tightly binding heparin

  18. Influence of thickening of the inner skull table on intracranial volume measurement in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, N A; Hernández, M C Valdés; Maniega, S Muñoz; Arabisala, B S; Bastin, M E; Deary, I J; Wardlaw, J M

    2013-07-01

    It is generally assumed that intracranial volume (ICV) remains constant after peaking in early adulthood. Thus ICV is used as a 'proxy' for original brain size when trying to estimate brain atrophy in older people in neuroimaging studies. However, physiological changes in the skull, such as thickening of the frontal inner table, are relatively common in older age and will reduce ICV. The potential influence that inner table skull thickening may have on ICV measurement in old age has yet to be investigated. We selected 60 (31 males, 29 females) representative older adults aged 71.1-74.3years from a community-dwelling ageing cohort, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. A semi-automatically derived current ICV measurement obtained from high resolution T1-weighted volume scans was compared to the estimated original ICV by excluding inner skull table thickening using expert manual image processing. Inner table skull thickening reduced ICV from an estimated original 1480.0ml to a current 1409.1ml, a median decrease of 7.3% (Z=-6.334; pestimated original ICV is required for research into brain ageing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The rheology of concentrated dispersions: structure changes and shear thickening in experiments and computer simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, W.H.; Laven, J.; Stein, H.N.; Moldenaers, P.; Keunings, R.

    1992-01-01

    The flow-induced changes in the microstructure and rheol. of very concd., shear thickening dispersions are studied. Results obtained for polystyrene sphere dispersions are compared with previous data and computer simulations to give better insight into the processes occurring in the dispersions. [on

  20. A simple empirical model for the clarification-thickening process in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y K; Wang, H C; Qi, L; Liu, G H; He, Z J; Fan, H T

    2015-01-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), activated sludge is thickened in secondary settling tanks and recycled into the biological reactor to maintain enough biomass for wastewater treatment. Accurately estimating the activated sludge concentration in the lower portion of the secondary clarifiers is of great importance for evaluating and controlling the sludge recycled ratio, ensuring smooth and efficient operation of the WWTP. By dividing the overall activated sludge-thickening curve into a hindered zone and a compression zone, an empirical model describing activated sludge thickening in the compression zone was obtained by empirical regression. This empirical model was developed through experiments conducted using sludge from five WWTPs, and validated by the measured data from a sixth WWTP, which fit the model well (R² = 0.98, p settling was also developed. Finally, the effects of denitrification and addition of a polymer were also analysed because of their effect on sludge thickening, which can be useful for WWTP operation, e.g., improving wastewater treatment or the proper use of the polymer.

  1. Connective tissue growth factor is necessary for retinal capillary basal lamina thickening in diabetic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Esther J.; van Zijderveld, Rogier; Roestenberg, Peggy; Lyons, Karen M.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental prevention of basal lamina (BL) thickening of retinal capillaries ameliorates early vascular changes caused by diabetes. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated early in diabetes in the human retina and is a potent inducer of expression of BL components. We hypothesize

  2. Tibetan garnet records early Eocene initiation of thickening in the Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Hacker, Bradley; Lee, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Himalayan orogeny depend on the age at which crustal thickening commenced. To investigate this age, we analyzed garnet from middle crustal rocks exposed in the north Himalayan Mabja and Kangmar gneiss domes of Tibet using Lu-Hf geochronology. Garnet yielded Lu-Hf a...

  3. Micromorphology and systematic distribution of pit membrane thickenings in Oleaceae: Tori and pseudo-tori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Huysmans, S.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on the functional significance of pit membranes in water conducting cells have renewed general interest in their micromorphology. At least two types of pit membrane thickenings have been described in angiosperm families, i.e. genuine tori and pseudo-tori. This study explores the

  4. Glomerular parietal epithelial cell activation induces collagen secretion and thickening of Bowman's capsule in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderied, Alexander; Romoli, Simone; Eberhard, Jonathan; Konrad, Lukas A; Devarapu, Satish K; Marschner, Julian A; Müller, Susanna; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2015-03-01

    The metabolic and hemodynamic alterations in diabetes activate podocytes to increase extracellular matrix (ECM) production, leading to thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We hypothesized that diabetes would activate parietal epithelial cells (PECs) in a similar manner and cause thickening of Bowman's capsules. Periodic acid Schiff staining of human kidney biopsies of 30 patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) revealed a significantly thicker Bowman's capsule as compared with 20 non-diabetic controls. The average thickness was 4.55±0.21 μm in the group of patients with DN compared with 2.92±0.21 μm in the group of non-diabetic controls (PBowman's capsule showed strong association with CD44-positive PECs. In summary, metabolic alterations in diabetes activate PECs to increase the expression and secretion of Bowman's capsule proteins. This process may contribute to the thickening of the Bowman's capsule, similar to the thickening of the GBM that is driven by activated podocytes. These data may also imply that activated PECs contribute to ECM production once they migrate to the glomerular tuft, a process resulting in glomerular scaring, for example, in diabetic glomerulosclerosis.

  5. Discrimination between pleural thickening and minimal pleural effusion using color Doppler chest ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Hasan

    2013-07-01

    Conclusions: Application of color Doppler examination increases the accuracy of real time chest ultrasound to discriminate pleural thickening from minimal pleural effusion and hence color Doppler examination proved to be a useful diagnostic tool to real-time gray-scale ultrasound for diagnosis of minimal pleural effusion.

  6. Drinking or Not Drinking in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating associations between prenatal exposure to low-moderate doses of alcohol and mental health development in childhood are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to compare women who drink and who do not drink alcohol in pregnancy on a number of potential confounding...

  7. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  8. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Not Have a Problem Because I Only Drink Wine and Beer Problem drinking is not about what ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  9. Meal pattern and soft drink consumption among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... soft drinks on a daily basis in the past one week preceding the survey. Conclusion: The study revealed that meal skipping, snacking and soft drink consumption were common among this adolescent population. Public enlightenment campaign and school food policies that promote healthy eating habits are recommended.

  10. Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks, concentrates, ... effect in human due to continual consumption of food contaminated with heavy metals gotten from raw materials, manufacturing and packaging processes.

  11. Water-bearing explosives thickened with a partially hydrolyzed acrylamide polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, W.M.

    1971-11-23

    Thickened water-bearing explosives are provided which do not segregate and are water-resistant over a wide range of viscosities. Preferred compositions have a unique combination of pourability and fluidity coupled with resistance to water and segregation which makes them particularly suitable in small diameter holes and in holes partially filled with water. Accordingly, water-bearing explosive compositions also are provided which consist of inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, and water, which improvement consists of thickening the compositions with the combination of polyacrylamide and cross-linked galactomannan. The weight ratio of the polyacrylamide to galactomanan is from about ratio 0.1:1 to 10:1, and preferably 1:1 to 5:1. (1 claim)

  12. A new local thickening reverse spiral origami thin-wall construction for improving of energy absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, C. H.; Zhao, X. L.; Hagiwara, I. R.

    2018-02-01

    As an effective and representative origami structure, reverse spiral origami structure can be capable to effectively take up energy in a crash test. The origami structure has origami creases thus this can guide the deformation of structure and avoid of Euler buckling. Even so the origami creases also weaken the support force and this may cut the absorption of crash energy. In order to increase the supporting capacity of the reverse spiral origami structure, we projected a new local thickening reverse spiral origami thin-wall construction. The reverse spiral origami thin-wall structure with thickening areas distributed along the longitudinal origami crease has a higher energy absorption capacity than the ordinary reverse spiral origami thin-wall structure.

  13. The Influence of Thickener Content on the Properties of Acryl Emulsion Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Sam; Choi, Sang Goo [Department of Chemical Technology, Ho-Won University, Kunsan (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    HW-100 (acryl oligomer), Aerosil 200 (fine silica), HEMC (hydroxyethyl methylcellulose) and HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) were each mixed with acryl emulsion resin. For each mixture, various physical properties were tested experimentally. HW-100 mixtures showed higher viscosity and thixotropy than the other mixtures. The viscosity increased rapidly with adding of thickener. Fabrication workability decreased substantially with increased thixotropy. Aerosil mixture represented good properties in workability, adhesive strength and water-resistance, however, it had large shrinkage. The shrinkage was typically influenced by content of water and void. HEMC mixture showed higher pH and adhesion than others, while HPMC mixture had long drying-time and excellent alkali-resistance characteristics. Water-resistance and alkali-resistance were mainly influenced by the molecular structure of thickener and the content of void. 26 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  15. Intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened wall of the gallbladder; CT features according to their primary causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jean Hwa; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Kim, Myung-Jin

    2001-01-01

    According to published reports, a common feature of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is the presence of intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened gallbladder wall. These nodules can, however, also be seen in pathological conditions such as acute cholecystitis, hyperplastic cholecystoses (cholesterolosis and adenomyomatosis), gallbladder cancer, and other inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis. Retrospective review of the abdominal CT findings in 622 patients who for various reasons underwent cholecystectomy during a one-year period showed that intramural nodules were present in 60. In this pictorial essay we illustrate the imaging features of the many different pathological conditions which give rise to intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened wall of the gallbladder, correlating these features with the histopathological findings

  16. Thickened boundary layer theory for air film drag reduction on a van body surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Cao, Lifeng; Huang, Heng

    2018-05-01

    To elucidate drag reduction mechanism on a van body surface under air film condition, a thickened boundary layer theory was proposed and a frictional resistance calculation model of the van body surface was established. The frictional resistance on the van body surface was calculated with different parameters of air film thickness. In addition, the frictional resistance of the van body surface under the air film condition was analyzed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and different air film states that influenced the friction resistance on the van body surface were discussed. As supported by the CFD simulation results, the thickened boundary layer theory may provide reference for practical application of air film drag reduction on a van body surface.

  17. Palliative care - fluid, food, and digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eat food that is soft and smooth, like soup, yogurt, applesauce, or pudding. Drink shakes or smoothies. If you have nausea, try dry, salty foods and clear liquids. Digestion: Write down the times when you ...

  18. Development of Flexible Extremities Protection utilizing Shear Thickening Fluid/Fabric Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    The influence of Interparticle Interactions and Hydrodynamic Forces on Shear Thickening in Concentrated Colloidal Dispersions and Slurries 10...Armor Using Fumed SiO2 Nanoparticles Dispersed into Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) through Sonic Cavitation , NSTI-Nanotech 2006. 2006/05/07 00:00:00...for a wide variety of suspensions such as clay–water [17], calcium carbonate–water [18], polystyrene spheres in silicon oil [19], iron particles in

  19. A Look Behind the Salt Curve: An Examination of Thickening Mechanisms in Shampoo Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic oscillatory rheological measurements are used to examine two mechanisms for thickening simple shampoo formulations. The salt curve, in which viscosity of a surfactant solution is maximized at intermediate levels of salt, is shown to be due to the variation in relaxation time; this is found to correlate with variation in the degree of entanglement per micelle. This is contrasted with the effect of PEG-150 distearate, which alters viscosity through a change in modulus.

  20. Production and properties of a thickener with ability of suspending sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, B.; Wang, D.; Li, Z.; Chen, J. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mineral and Safety Engineering

    2006-06-15

    To overcome the shortcomings of pouring sands, a thickener with the ability to suspend sands was developed. It is mixed with sands to form densified slurry, and can insure the sands against deposition, jamming pipelines and dehydration. The chemical structure of the thickener is introduced in this paper and the production process is studied. The main processes include immersion, decomposition, dilution and addition of additives. In order to produce a thickener with high viscosity to suspend sands, key factors must be controlled in each process: the immersion time is 2 h; the mass fraction of formaldehyde is 0.01% and mass of NaCO{sub 3} accounts for 15% of dry material; the water temperature is 65{sup o}C in summer and 72{sup o}C in winter and the decomposition time is 2 h in the reaction; the densified decomposition solution should be diluted to 1% mass fraction; the additives of calcium ions and pH indicators must be added to the diluted liquid; the mass fraction of CaCl{sub 2} is 0.048% and the pH value of the solution is 7.5. The thickener is a gel with three-dimensional network structure, a liquid with non-Newtonian behaviour and the characteristics of pseudo-plastic material, a solution with little resistance and the ability to revive its oral primary viscosity. It has been successfully applied in Shendong Mines and has great value and wide-spread prospective use. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Factors associated with high consumption of soft drinks among Australian secondary-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Niven, Philippa; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-09-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility. Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements. Australian secondary schools. Students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2012-13 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835). Overall, 14 % of students reported consuming four or more cups (≥1 litres) of soft drinks each week ('high soft drink consumers'). Demographic factors associated with high soft drink consumption were being male and having at least $AU 40 in weekly spending money. Behavioural factors associated with high soft drink consumption were low fruit intake, consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis, eating fast foods at least once weekly, eating snack foods ≥14 times/week, watching television for >2 h/d and sleeping for good value for money were more likely to be high soft drink consumers, as were students who reported usually buying these drinks when making a beverage purchase from the school canteen/vending machine. High soft drink consumption clusters with other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among Australian secondary-school students. Interventions focused on reducing the availability of soft drinks (e.g. increased taxes, restricting their sale in schools) as well as improved education on their harms are needed to lower adolescents' soft drink intake.

  2. Synthesis, processing and characterization of shear thickening fluid (STF) impregnated fabric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Tarig A.; Rangari, Vijay K.; Jeelani, Shaik

    2010-01-01

    Shear thickening is a non-Newtonian fluid behavior defined as the increase of viscosity with the increase in the applied shear rate. The shear thickening fluid (STF) is a combination of hard metal oxide particles suspended in a liquid polymer. This mixture of flowable and hard components at a particular composition, results in a material with remarkable properties. In this manuscript the shear thickening fluid (STF) was prepared by ultrasound irradiation of silica nanoparticles dispersed in liquid polyethylene glycol polymer. The as-prepared STFs have been tested for their rheological and thermal properties. Kevlar and Nylon fabrics were soaked in STF/ethanol solution to make STF/fabric composite. Knife threats and quasistatic penetration tests were performed on the neat fabrics and STF/fabric composite targets for both engineered spike and knife on areal density basis. The results showed that STF impregnated fabrics have better penetration resistance as compared to neat fabrics without affecting the fabric flexibility. This indicates that the addition of STF to the fabric have enhanced the fabric performance and can be used in liquid body armor applications.

  3. Axillary bud and pericycle involved in the thickening process of the rhizophore nodes in Smilax species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Appezzato-da-Glória

    Full Text Available AbstractThe species of the genus Smilax, popularly known as sarsaparilla, are widely used in folk medicine due to the antirheumatic properties of its underground structures. Smilax fluminensis and S. syphilitica occur in forested areas and form thickened stems called rhizophores from which adventitious roots grow. To provide information for more accurate identification of the commercialised product and for elucidating the process of stem thickening, a morphology and anatomy study of the underground organs of the two species was conducted. The adventitious roots differ in colour and diameter depending on the stage of development. They are white and have a larger diameter in the early stages of development, but as they grow, the adventitious roots become brown and have a smaller diameter due to the disintegration of the epidermis and virtually the entire cortex. In brown roots, the covering function is then performed by the lignified endodermis and the remaining walls of the cells from the last parenchyma cortical layer. These results are similar to those found in studies of other Smilax and suggest that the anatomy of the roots can be useful for identifying fraud in commercialised materials. The thickening process of the nodal regions of the rhizophores in both species involves the activity of axillary buds and pericyclic layers.

  4. The rheological properties of shear thickening fluid reinforced with SiC nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhao Ge

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of shear thickening fluid (STF reinforced with SiC nanowires were investigated in this paper. Pure STF consists of 56 vol% silica nano-particles and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400 solvent was fabricated; and a specific amount of SiC nanowires were dispersed into this pure STF, and then the volume fraction of PEG400 was adjusted to maintain the volume fraction of solid phase in the STF at a constant of 56%. The results showed there was almost 30% increase in the initial and shear thickening viscosity of the STF reinforced with SiC nanowires compared to the pure STF. Combining with the hydrodynamic cluster theory, the effect of the mechanism of SiC nanowire on the viscosity of STF was discussed, and based on the experimental results, an analytical model of viscosity was used to describe the rheological properties of STF, which agreed with the experimental results. Keywords: Shear thickening fluid (STF, Nanowire, Rheology, Viscosity, Analytical model

  5. Characteristic thickened cell walls of the bracts of the 'eternal flower' Helichrysum bracteatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kuniko; Ito, Hiroaki; Awano, Tatsuya; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Yazawa, Susumu

    2008-07-01

    Helichrysum bracteatum is called an 'eternal flower' and has large, coloured, scarious bracts. These maintain their aesthetic value without wilting or discoloration for many years. There have been no research studies of cell death or cell morphology of the scarious bract, and hence the aim of this work was to elucidate these characteristics for the bract of H. bracteatum. DAPI (4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindol dihydrochloride) staining and fluorescence microscopy were used for observation of cell nuclei. Light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and polarized light microscopy were used for observation of cells, including cell wall morphology. Cell death occurred at the bract tip during the early stage of flower development. The cell wall was the most prominent characteristic of H. bracteatum bract cells. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls on the inside of the primary cell walls were observed in both epidermal and inner cells. In addition, the walls of all cells exhibited birefringence. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls have orientated cellulose microfibrils as well as general secondary cell walls of the tracheary elements. For comparison, these characters were not observed in the petal and bract tissues of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Bracts at anthesis are composed of dead cells. Helichrysum bracteatum bracts have characteristic thickened secondary cell walls that have not been observed in the parenchyma of any other flowers or leaves. The cells of the H. bracteatum bract differ from other tissues with secondary cell walls, suggesting that they may be a new cell type.

  6. Disentangling the role of hydrodynamic and frictional forces in a shear-thickening suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Itai

    2015-03-01

    Who among us has not spent countless hours squeezing, rubbing, and smushing gooey substances like, tooth paste, silly putty, corn starch, and even bodily fluids between our fingers? If we could magnify our view and look deep within the substances we are handling what structures would we find? How, do these structures lead to the fascinating mechanical properties that we experience on the scale of our fingers. In this talk I will address the phenomenon of shear thickening in which the viscosity of a suspension increases with increasing shear rate. I will describe recent measurements we have made using a newly developed confocal rheoscope that, for the first time, experimentally visualize the hydrodynamically induced particle clusters. Such clusters have been implicated in continuous shear thickening. It remains controversial as to whether thickening in such suspensions also arises from frictional interactions between particles. The distinct contributions of frictional and hydrodynamic forces are typically difficult to measure independently using conventional techniques. Here, I will describe our approach for using both bulk rheometry techniques and our confocal rheoscope to disentangle their contributions to the total stress response.

  7. Energy drinks and adolescents: what's the harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R

    2015-04-01

    Concerns about potential dangers from energy drink consumption by youth have been raised by health experts, whereas energy drink manufacturers claim these products are safe and suitable for marketing to teens. This review summarizes the evidence used to support both sides of the debate. Unlike most beverage categories, sales of energy drinks and other highly caffeinated products continue to grow, and marketing is often targeted to youth under the age of 18 years. These products pose a risk of caffeine toxicity when consumed by some young people, and there is evidence of other troubling physiological and behavioral effects associated with their consumption by youth. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated it will reexamine the safety of caffeine in the food supply; however, more research is needed to better understand youth consumption of energy drinks and caffeine in general, as well as the long-term effects on health. Meanwhile, policymakers and physician groups have called on energy drink manufacturers to take voluntary action to reduce the potential harm of their products, including placing restrictions on marketing to youth under the age of 18 years. Additional regulatory and legislative options are also being discussed. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Detection, modeling and matching of pleural thickenings from CT data towards an early diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Pleural thickenings can be caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. While an early diagnosis plays the key role to an early treatment, and therefore helping to reduce morbidity, the growth rate of a pleural thickening can be in turn essential evidence to an early diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma. The detection of pleural thickenings is today done by a visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. Computer-assisted diagnosis systems to automatically assess pleural mesothelioma have been reported worldwide. But in this paper, an image analysis pipeline to automatically detect pleural thickenings and measure their volume is described. We first delineate automatically the pleural contour in the CT images. An adaptive surface-base smoothing technique is then applied to the pleural contours to identify all potential thickenings. A following tissue-specific topology-oriented detection based on a probabilistic Hounsfield Unit model of pleural plaques specify then the genuine pleural thickenings among them. The assessment of the detected pleural thickenings is based on the volumetry of the 3D model, created by mesh construction algorithm followed by Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunction expansion surface smoothing technique. Finally, the spatiotemporal matching of pleural thickenings from consecutive CT data is carried out based on the semi-automatic lung registration towards the assessment of its growth rate. With these methods, a new computer-assisted diagnosis system is presented in order to assure a precise and reproducible assessment of pleural thickenings towards the diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  9. Food Intolerance vs. Food Allergy: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent a reaction. For example, if you have lactose intolerance, you may be able to drink lactose-free ... an enzyme needed to fully digest a food. Lactose intolerance is a common example. Irritable bowel syndrome. This ...

  10. Inexpensive CO2 Thickening Agents for Improved Mobility Control of CO2 Floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Enick; Eric Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2005-08-31

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to design a CO{sub 2}-thickener based on these CO{sub 2}-philic polymers. Two types of thickeners were considered. The first was a copolymer in which the CO{sub 2}-philic monomer was combined with a small proportion of CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups that could cause viscosity-enhancing intermolecular interactions to occur. The second was a small hydrogen-bonding compound with urea groups in the core to promote intermolecular interactions that would cause the molecules to 'stack' in solution while the arms were composed of the CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers. Although we were not able to develop a viable thickener that exhibited high enough CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions to induce a viscosity increase, we made significant progress in our understanding of CO{sub 2}-soluble compounds that can be used in subsequent studies to design CO{sub 2}-soluble thickeners or CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactant-based foaming agents. These findings are detailed in this final report. In summary, we assessed many polymers and verified that the most CO{sub 2}-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon polymer is poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc. This is primarily due to the presence of both ether and carbonyl oxygens associated with acetate-rich compounds. In addition to polymers, we also made small acetate-rich molecules that were also capable of associating in solution via the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding groups in hopes of forming viscosity-enhancing macromolecules. Despite the presence of multiple acetate groups in these compounds, which can impart incredible CO{sub 2}-solubility to many

  11. Thickening the outer margins of the Tibetan Plateau: The role of crustal shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, R. O.; Burbank, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most direct consequences of the collision of two buoyant continents is large-scale crustal thickening that results in the upward and outward growth of high terrain. As the stronger Indian continent has collided with weaker Asia over at least the past 50 Myr, widespread crustal thickening has occurred over an area that is approximately 2.5 million km^2 at present. The resultant Tibetan crust is the thickest observed on Earth today with an average thickness of 65 km and a maximum that may reach 90 km in places. The mechanisms by which Tibetan crust has thickened, however, as well as the timing and distribution of these mechanisms across the plateau, remain debatable. Two of the most popular mechanisms for thickening the crust beneath the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are: 1) pure shear with faulting and folding in the upper crust and horizontal shortening below; and 2) flow and inflation of lower or middle crust without significant shortening of the upper crust. To help discriminate between the relative contributions of these two mechanisms, well-constrained estimates of upper crustal shortening are needed. Here we document the Cenozoic shortening budget across the northeastern Tibetan Plateau margin near 36°N 102.5°E with several 100- to 145-km-long balanced cross sections. Thermochronological and magnetostratigraphic data indicate that modest NNE-SSW shortening began in middle Eocene time, shortly after initial India-Asia collision. Accelerated east-west shortening, however, did not commence until ~35 Myr later. A five-fold acceleration in shortening rates in middle Miocene-to-Recent time accounts for more than half of the total Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening in this region. Overall, the balanced cross sections indicate 11 ± 2 % east-west shortening since middle Miocene time, and ~9 ± 2 % NNE-SSW shortening between middle Eocene and middle Miocene times. Given the present-day crustal thickness of 56 ± 4 km in northeastern Tibet, crustal

  12. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  13. Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the many foods that contain lactose, even in small amounts, including: Bread and other baked goods. Processed breakfast cereals. Instant potatoes, soups and breakfast drinks. Margarine. Lunch meats (other than kosher). Salad dressings. Candies and ...

  14. Perceived creaminess of semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A.de; Terpstra, M.E.J.; Janssen, A.M.; Prinz, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Results of sensory, physiological and physico-chemical studies from our laboratory on perceived creaminess of semi-solids foods are reviewed. Most results stem from studies using model vanilla custard desserts, allowing systematic variation of fat, flavor and thickener properties. The

  15. Food Allergies and Australian Combat Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    intestine, but passes into the colon where fermentation of the remaining lactose occurs. The symptoms that result include flatulence, bloating, diarrhoea...without dairy products, available calcium would be even more limited. Soy derivatives are commonly used in food processing as thickeners, protein

  16. 21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... culinary purposes. 1240.80 Section 1240.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes by any operator of a conveyance engaged in interstate traffic, except as...

  17. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  18. Commentary: if you drink alcohol, drink sensibly: is this guideline still appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Liezille; Steyn, Nelia

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse remains one of the most serious substance abuse disorders in South African society, resulting in inordinately large social, economic and health problems at all levels of society. Alcohol consumers in South Africa are estimated to drink 16.6L per annum with a per capita consumption of 7.1L. South Africa has one of the highest rates of death attributable to crime, violence, traffic accidents, and HIV/AIDS in the world. These rates have been directly related to the high prevalence of alcohol abuse and risky drinking patterns. A food-based dietary guideline that encourages alcohol consumption would appear to be not in the nation's best interest. We conducted a search of websites supported by the World Health Organization to find published literature on substance abuse in South Africa and also reviewed the website of the Medical Research Council of South Africa for studies on the social impact of alcohol abuse in humans. We used the search terms alcohol guidelines, alcohol abuse, non-communicable diseases, health benefits of alcohol, moderate drinking, alcohol, and intake patterns and reviewed studies that hade been published between 2002 and the current time. Based on evidence over the past two decades, messages that convey the positive health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption (eg, the increased levels of HDL cholesterol) should be raised and even encouraged for those who are very moderate drinkers (ie, one alcoholic drink/ day for women and a maximum of 2 drinks/day for men). For those who do not consume alcohol at all, even moderate drinking is not encouraged. Nutrition educators should emphasize the negative consequences of alcohol abuse. The current food-based dietary guideline, "If you drink alcohol, drink sensibly," from the South African Department of Health should not remain as is.

  19. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  20. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  1. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  2. The Drinking Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  3. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  4. Shear-thickening behavior of Fe-ZSM5 zeolite slurry and its removal with alumina/boehmites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-guang; Li, Yan; Xue, Wen-dong; Sun, Jia-lin; Tang, Qian

    2018-06-01

    A cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) technique was used to explore the shear-thickening behavior of Fe-ZSM5 zeolite pastes and to discover its underlying mechanism. Bare Fe-ZSM5 zeolite samples were found to contain agglomerations, which may break the flow of the pastes and cause shear-thickening behaviors. However, the shear-thickening behaviors can be eliminated by the addition of halloysite and various boehmites because of improved particle packing. Furthermore, compared with pure Fe-ZSM5 zeolite samples and its composite samples with halloysite, the samples with boehmite (Pural SB or Disperal) additions exhibited network structures in their cryo-SEM images; these structures could facilitate the storage and release of flow water, smooth paste flow, and avoid shear-thickening. By contrast, another boehmite (Versal 250) formed agglomerations rather than network structures after being added to the Fe-ZSM5 zeolite paste and resulted in shear-thickening behavior. Consequently, the results suggest that these network structures play key roles in eliminating the shear-thickening behavior.

  5. Optimal Water Recovery with Emphasis on Flocculant Consumption Rate in the Thickener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Hosseininasab

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Water plays a vital role in mineral processing as evidenced by the approximately 2 to 3 tons of water used for the treatment of one ton of ore. A major portion of this water may be recovered in thickeners. This study aimed to control the wet tailings output of the Hematite Gol-e-Gohar plant by changing  flocculant dosage and type and solid percentage in the feed in order to enhance effluent clarity and reduce water consumption. Materials and A series of settling experiments were performed using different combinations of the flocculants (A25, A26 Yazd, A26 Esfahan, A27, and A28, flocculant doses (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 gr/ton, and solid loads in the feed (5, 7, 9, 10, and 11% to the thickener. The L25 Taguchi design method was chosen to handle the five different levels of the three factors. Adopting a 95% confidence interval, the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that flocculant consumption rate had a high effect on settling velocity (p = 0.006 while flocculant type and solid percentage in the feed had no significant effects. Moreover, it was found that A26 (Akhtar-chemistry Company, Yazd used at a rate of 40 g/ton improved the settling performance to yield an optimal water clarity. Using the findings of this study in process planning at the plant led to a considerable reduction (from the original 0.86 to 0.49 m3 in average water consumption per ton of input material so that the solid content of the thickener underflow rose from 7 to 45%.

  6. Strain transformation between tectonic extrusion and crustal thickening in the growth of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Eurasian continental collision since 50 Ma has thickened the crust to raise the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau and driven lateral extrusion of Asian lithospheric blocks to affect Cenozoic tectonics in central and east Asia. The relative roles of crustal thickening and tectonic extrusion, and the strain partitioning between them over time and space, remain controversial. We have analyzed the strain rates using GPS velocities, and correlated the results with vertical motion derived from precise leveling. We found that tectonic extrusion largely transforms to crustal thickening near the margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Near the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the shear stain transforms to compressive strain, consistent with neotectonic studies that indicate crustal shortening and uplift. Around the SE margin, shear stain largely terminates in the southern Yunnan province of China. The present-day crustal motion in SE Tibetan Plateau can be well explained by gravitational spreading without invoking plate-edge push as envisioned in the tectonic extrusion model. Using data collected from local seismic arrays, we derived receiver functions to image the lithospheric structures across the Tibetan Plateau and the Alashan block to its north and the Ordos block to its east. Our results indicate that the mantle lithosphere of these bounding Asian blocks has not been reworked by Tibetan tectonics; instead they have acted as restrictive walls to the growing Tibetan Plateau. Our finite element modeling shows that crustal deformation along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are consistent with the notion that the east- and southeastward extrusion of the Tibetan lithosphere is largely confined to the Tibetan Plateau because of the restrictive bounding blocks of the Asian lithosphere. Thus the tectonic impact of the Indo-Eurasian collision on the Cenozoic Asian tectonics may not be as extensive as previously thought.

  7. Characteristic Thickened Cell Walls of the Bracts of the ‘Eternal Flower’ Helichrysum bracteatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kuniko; Ito, Hiroaki; Awano, Tatsuya; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Yazawa, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Helichrysum bracteatum is called an ‘eternal flower’ and has large, coloured, scarious bracts. These maintain their aesthetic value without wilting or discoloration for many years. There have been no research studies of cell death or cell morphology of the scarious bract, and hence the aim of this work was to elucidate these characteristics for the bract of H. bracteatum. Methods DAPI (4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindol dihydrochloride) staining and fluorescence microscopy were used for observation of cell nuclei. Light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and polarized light microscopy were used for observation of cells, including cell wall morphology. Key Results Cell death occurred at the bract tip during the early stage of flower development. The cell wall was the most prominent characteristic of H. bracteatum bract cells. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls on the inside of the primary cell walls were observed in both epidermal and inner cells. In addition, the walls of all cells exhibited birefringence. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls have orientated cellulose microfibrils as well as general secondary cell walls of the tracheary elements. For comparison, these characters were not observed in the petal and bract tissues of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Conclusions Bracts at anthesis are composed of dead cells. Helichrysum bracteatum bracts have characteristic thickened secondary cell walls that have not been observed in the parenchyma of any other flowers or leaves. The cells of the H. bracteatum bract differ from other tissues with secondary cell walls, suggesting that they may be a new cell type. PMID:18436550

  8. Finger Thickening during Extra-Heavy Oil Waterflooding: Simulation and Interpretation Using Pore-Scale Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Regaieg

    Full Text Available Although thermal methods have been popular and successfully applied in heavy oil recovery, they are often found to be uneconomic or impractical. Therefore, alternative production protocols are being actively pursued and interesting options include water injection and polymer flooding. Indeed, such techniques have been successfully tested in recent laboratory investigations, where X-ray scans performed on homogeneous rock slabs during water flooding experiments have shown evidence of an interesting new phenomenon-post-breakthrough, highly dendritic water fingers have been observed to thicken and coalesce, forming braided water channels that improve sweep efficiency. However, these experimental studies involve displacement mechanisms that are still poorly understood, and so the optimization of this process for eventual field application is still somewhat problematic. Ideally, a combination of two-phase flow experiments and simulations should be put in place to help understand this process more fully. To this end, a fully dynamic network model is described and used to investigate finger thickening during water flooding of extra-heavy oils. The displacement physics has been implemented at the pore scale and this is followed by a successful benchmarking exercise of the numerical simulations against the groundbreaking micromodel experiments reported by Lenormand and co-workers in the 1980s. A range of slab-scale simulations has also been carried out and compared with the corresponding experimental observations. We show that the model is able to replicate finger architectures similar to those observed in the experiments and go on to reproduce and interpret, for the first time to our knowledge, finger thickening following water breakthrough. We note that this phenomenon has been observed here in homogeneous (i.e. un-fractured media: the presence of fractures could be expected to exacerbate such fingering still further. Finally, we examine the impact of

  9. Orthophragminids with new axial thickening structures from the Bartonian of the Indian subcontinent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, E.; Kumar Saraswati, P.; Hanif, M.; Ali, N.

    2016-07-01

    The ‘axial thickening’, a morphological character of certain Eocene orthophragminids refers to the thickening of the equatorial and/or lateral layers in axial directions forming radial external structures, namely the ribs. The occurrence of ribs is considered to be a diagnostic specific character of the orthophragminids in the periMediterranean region and Europe (western Tethys). In the Bartonian orthophragminids of the Indian subcontinent we observe a new type of axial thickening that we name ‘bulges’. The bulges are semi-rounded to rounded, localized structures on the test surface formed solely by the greater development of lateral chamberlets. These specimens, with trybliolepidine to umbilicolepidine type embryon configuration, co-occur with ribbed discocyclinids having completely different internal features. We also record another type of axial thickening of the lateral layers in notably small omphaloid tests that are characterized by a thick umbo, deeply depressed at the center such that the periphery of it forms a thick circular structure. The reported omphaloid specimens possess a small, semiisolepidine to nephrolepidine type embryon configuration and characteristic early chambers, not comparable to any known species in the Tethys. These specimens occasionally may have incomplete and/or irregular septula, reminiscent of certain Caribbean orthophragminids. The specimens with bulges, identified in two geographically distant regions of the Indian subcontinent, possibly represent endemic foraminiferal fauna confined to the IndoPakistan region. We introduce two new species, Discocyclina kutchensis sp. nov. (characterized by bulges) and ‘D’. sulaimanensis sp. nov. (characterized by circular structures in omphaloid tests). The status of both taxa in the Tethys is discussed. (Author)

  10. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    or sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with an equivalent number of servings of „toothkind‟ juice drink. In the context of the claim, „reduction of tooth demineralisation‟ has a similar meaning to „maintenance of tooth mineralisation‟. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011....... consumption of a beverage is an appropriate measure of the potential of beverages for demineralisation of dental enamel. „Toothkind‟ drinks have little or no potential for enamel demineralisation by this process, while typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages do have the potential for demineralisation...... of dental enamel. However, the beneficial effect (reducing net tooth demineralisation) of replacing typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with „toothkind‟ juice drinks was only shown to occur at a frequency of consumption of typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages of 7 times daily...

  11. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...

  12. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  13. Two unusual causes of pituitary stalk thickening in children without clinical features of diabetes insipidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Furlan, Gisella; Fieggen, Anthony G.; Wilmshurst, Jo

    2003-01-01

    Pituitary stalk thickening has a wide differential diagnosis, but almost all infundibular diseases present with diabetes insipidus (DI). We present a child with metastatic involvement of the pituitary stalk from a primary pontine tumour and a child with tuberculous infiltration of the pituitary stalk and associated meningeal inflammation. Neither child presented with DI. Even though both metastatic disease and tuberculous infiltration of the stalk have been reported in adults, these are the first reports with accompanying cross-sectional images of pituitary stalk involvement by these diseases in children. (orig.)

  14. Two unusual causes of pituitary stalk thickening in children without clinical features of diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Furlan, Gisella; Fieggen, Anthony G.; Wilmshurst, Jo [Department of Paediatric Neuroradiology, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-07-01

    Pituitary stalk thickening has a wide differential diagnosis, but almost all infundibular diseases present with diabetes insipidus (DI). We present a child with metastatic involvement of the pituitary stalk from a primary pontine tumour and a child with tuberculous infiltration of the pituitary stalk and associated meningeal inflammation. Neither child presented with DI. Even though both metastatic disease and tuberculous infiltration of the stalk have been reported in adults, these are the first reports with accompanying cross-sectional images of pituitary stalk involvement by these diseases in children. (orig.)

  15. Ectopic eruption of maxillary central incisor through abnormally thickened labial frenum: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gugnani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic eruption is a deviation from the normal eruption pattern, making the tooth erupt out of its normal position, and possibly causing resorption of adjacent primary teeth. A wide range of etiological factors may be responsible for ectopic eruption of the teeth, so their management depends on the correction of the established etiological factor. The present case report describes an unusual case of ectopically erupted central incisor encased within an abnormally thickened labial frenum, which was treated by orthodontic repositioning of the ectopically erupting tooth after frenectomy.

  16. Nonlinear damping for vibration isolation of microsystems using shear thickening fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, S. S.; Vedad-Ghavami, R.; Lee, H.; Liger, M.; Kavehpour, H. P.; Candler, R. N.

    2013-06-01

    This work reports the measurement and analysis of nonlinear damping of micro-scale actuators immersed in shear thickening fluids (STFs). A power-law damping term is added to the linear second-order model to account for the shear-dependent viscosity of the fluid. This nonlinear model is substantiated by measurements of oscillatory motion of a torsional microactuator. At high actuation forces, the vibration velocity amplitude saturates. The model accurately predicts the nonlinear damping characteristics of the STF using a power-law index extracted from independent rheology experiments. This result reveals the potential to use STFs as adaptive, passive dampers for vibration isolation of microelectromechanical systems.

  17. Giant deviation of a relaxation time from generalized Newtonian theory in discontinuous shear thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Rijan; Brown, Eric

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the transient relaxation of a discontinuous shear thickening (DST) suspension of cornstarch in water. We performed two types of relaxation experiments starting from a steady shear in a parallel-plate rheometer, followed either by stopping the top plate rotation and measuring the transient torque relaxation or by removing the torque on the plate and measuring the transient rotation of the tool. We found that at low effective weight fraction ϕeffmodel. The regime where the relaxation was inconsistent with the generalized Newtonian model was the same where we found positive normal stress during relaxation, and in some cases we found an oscillatory response, suggestive of a solidlike structure consisting of a system-spanning contact network of particles. This regime also corresponds to the same packing fraction range where we consistently found discontinuous shear thickening in rate-controlled, steady-state measurements. The relaxation time in this range scales with the inverse of the critical shear rate at the onset of shear thickening, which may correspond to a contact relaxation time for nearby particles in the structure to flow away from each other. In this range, the relaxation time was the same in both stress- and rate-controlled relaxation experiments, indicating the relaxation time is more intrinsic than an effective viscosity in this range and is needed in addition to the steady-state viscosity function to describe transient flows. The discrepancy between the measured relaxation times and the generalized Newtonian prediction was found to be as large as four orders of magnitude, and extrapolations diverge in the limit as ϕeff→ϕc as the generalized Newtonian prediction approaches 0. This quantitative discrepancy indicates the relaxation is not controlled by the dissipative terms in the constitutive relation. At the highest weight fractions, the relaxation time scales were measured to be on the order of ˜1 s. The fact that this time scale is

  18. Thickening of the left atrial wall shortly after radiofrequency ablation predicts early recurrence of atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokawa, Miki; Koyama, Keiko; Ino, Toshihiko; Naito, Shigeto; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi; Tada, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory responses following atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation may aggravate arrhythmogenic activity and cause an early recurrence of AF (ERAF). In 56 patients who underwent circumferential pulmonary vein ablation (CPVA) for paroxysmal AF, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) was evaluated in 5 subdivided left atrial (LA) regions before the CPVA and at 1 day and 1 month after. At a mean of 7±10 days after the CPVA, 23 patients (41%) developed 1 or more episodes of AF (ERAF group), while 33 patients (59%) remained free from AF during the first month of follow up (no-ERAF group). LA wall thickness increased 1 day after the CPVA in both groups, as demonstrated by high T2-weighted signal. The LA roof thickness and its increase, however, were greater in the ERAF group than in the no-ERAF group (P<0.05). Regions of delayed enhancement (DE) were also frequently detected in both groups, but the total number of DE regions did not differ between the 2 groups. The thickening of the LA wall associated with a high T2-weighted signal resolved within 1 month. No significant difference between the 2 groups was found in any of the CMRI parameters before or 1 month after CPVA. Thickening of the LA roof shortly after CPVA may predict an ERAF. (author)

  19. Numerical study of shear thickening fluid with discrete particles embedded in a base fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Shear Thickening Fluid (STF is a dilatant material, which displays non-Newtonian characteristics in its unique ability to transit from a low viscosity fluid to a high viscosity fluid. The research performed investigates the STF behavior by modeling and simulation of the interaction between the base flow and embedded rigid particles when subjected to shear stress. The model considered the Lagrangian description of the rigid particles and the Eulerian description of fluid flow. The numerical analysis investigated key parameters such as applied flow acceleration, particle distribution and arrangement, volume concentration of particles, particle size, shape and their behavior in a Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid base. The fluid-particle interaction model showed that the arrangement, size, shape and volume concentration of the particles had a significant effect on the behavior of the STF. Although non-conclusive, the addition of particles in non-Newtonian fluids showed a promising trend of improved shear thickening effects at high shear strain rates.

  20. Shear thinning and shear thickening of a confined suspension of vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Ouhra, A.; Farutin, A.; Aouane, O.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Misbah, C.

    2018-01-01

    Widely regarded as an interesting model system for studying flow properties of blood, vesicles are closed membranes of phospholipids that mimic the cytoplasmic membranes of red blood cells. In this study we analyze the rheology of a suspension of vesicles in a confined geometry: the suspension, bound by two planar rigid walls on each side, is subject to a shear flow. Flow properties are then analyzed as a function of shear rate γ ˙, the concentration of the suspension ϕ , and the viscosity contrast λ =ηin/ηout , where ηin and ηout are the fluid viscosities of the inner and outer fluids, respectively. We find that the apparent (or effective viscosity) of the suspension exhibits both shear thinning (decreasing viscosity with shear rate) or shear thickening (increasing viscosity with shear rate) in the same concentration range. The shear thinning or thickening behaviors appear as subtle phenomena, dependant on viscosity contrast λ . We provide physical arguments on the origins of these behaviors.

  1. Comparison of clinical utility between diaphragm excursion and thickening change using ultrasonography to predict extubation success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jung-Wan; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Ho Cheol

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Both diaphragmatic excursion and change in muscle thickening are measured using ultrasonography (US) to assess diaphragm function and mechanical ventilation weaning outcomes. However, which parameter can better predict successful extubation remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical utility of these two diaphragmatic parameters to predict extubation success. Methods This study included patients subjected to extubation trial in the medical or surgical intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital from May 2015 through February 2016. Diaphragm excursion and percent of thickening change (Δtdi%) were measured using US within 24 hours before extubation. Results Sixty patients were included, and 78.3% (47/60) of these patients were successfully extubated, whereas 21.7% (13/60) were not. The median degree of excursion was greater in patients with extubation success than in those with extubation failure (1.65 cm vs. 0.8 cm, p success had a greater Δtdi% than those with extubation failure (42.1% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.03). The areas under the receiver operating curve for excursion and Δtdi% were 0.836 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.717 to 0.919) and 0.698 (95% CI, 0.566 to 0.810), respectively (p = 0.017). Conclusions Diaphragm excursion seems more accurate than a change in the diaphragm thickness to predict extubation success. PMID:29050461

  2. Origin of shear thickening in semidilute wormlike micellar solutions and evidence of elastic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marín-Santibáñez, Benjamín M.; Pérez-González, José; Rodríguez-González, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The origin of shear thickening in an equimolar semidilute wormlike micellar solution of cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate was investigated in this work by using Couette rheometry, flow visualization, and capillary Rheo-particle image velocimetry. The use of the combined methods allowed the discovery of gradient shear banding flow occurring from a critical shear stress and consisting of two main bands, one isotropic (transparent) of high viscosity and one structured (turbid) of low viscosity. Mechanical rheometry indicated macroscopic shear thinning behavior in the shear banding regime. However, local velocimetry showed that the turbid band increased its viscosity along with the shear stress, even though barely reached the value of the viscosity of the isotropic phase. This shear band is the precursor of shear induced structures that subsequently give rise to the average increase in viscosity or apparent shear thickening of the solution. Further increase in the shear stress promoted the growing of the turbid band across the flow region and led to destabilization of the shear banding flow independently of the type of rheometer used, as well as to vorticity banding in Couette flow. At last, vorticity banding disappeared and the flow developed elastic turbulence with chaotic dynamics

  3. Thickening of the cauda equina roots: a common finding in Krabbe disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Misun; Rodriguez, David [Department of Radiology of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok [Section of Neuroradiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poe, Michele D.; Escolar, Maria L. [Department of Pediatrics at Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Evaluation of Krabbe disease burden and eligibility for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are often based on neuroimaging findings using the modified Loes scoring system, which encompasses central but not peripheral nervous system changes. We show that quantitative evaluation of thickened cauda equina nerve roots may improve the evaluation of Krabbe disease and therapeutic guidance. Lumbar spine MRI scans of patients obtained between March 2013 and September 2013 were retrospectively evaluated and compared to those of controls. Quantitative evaluation of cauda equina roots was performed on the axial plane obtained approximately 5 mm below the conus medullaris. The largest nerves in the right and left anterior quadrants of the spinal canal were acquired. Fifteen symptomatic patients with Krabbe disease (5-44 months old) and eleven age-matched controls were evaluated. The average areas (mm{sup 2}) of anterior right and left nerves were 1.40 and 1.23, respectively, for patients and 0.61 and 0.60 for controls (differences: 0.79 and 0.63; p < 0.001). Cauda equina nerve root thickening is associated with Krabbe disease in both treated and untreated patients. Adding lumbar spine MRI to the current neurodiagnostic protocols, which fails to account for peripheral nerve abnormalities, will likely facilitate the diagnosis of Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  4. Reducing Sugary Drink Consumption: New York City’s Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Maura O.; Nonas, Cathy A.; Curtis, Christine J.; Van Wye, Gretchen; Goodman, Andrew; Farley, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have linked the consumption of sugary drinks to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Since 2006, New York City has taken several actions to reduce consumption. Nutrition standards limited sugary drinks served by city agencies. Mass media campaigns educated New Yorkers on the added sugars in sugary drinks and their health impact. Policy proposals included an excise tax, a restriction on use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and a cap on sugary drink portion sizes in food service establishments. These initiatives were accompanied by a 35% decrease in the number of New York City adults consuming one or more sugary drinks a day and a 27% decrease in public high school students doing so from 2007 to 2013. PMID:25713971

  5. Reducing sugary drink consumption: New York City's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Susan M; Kennelly, Maura O; Nonas, Cathy A; Curtis, Christine J; Van Wye, Gretchen; Goodman, Andrew; Farley, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Studies have linked the consumption of sugary drinks to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Since 2006, New York City has taken several actions to reduce consumption. Nutrition standards limited sugary drinks served by city agencies. Mass media campaigns educated New Yorkers on the added sugars in sugary drinks and their health impact. Policy proposals included an excise tax, a restriction on use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and a cap on sugary drink portion sizes in food service establishments. These initiatives were accompanied by a 35% decrease in the number of New York City adults consuming one or more sugary drinks a day and a 27% decrease in public high school students doing so from 2007 to 2013.

  6. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 90 different contaminants in public drinking water, including E.coli , Salmonella , and Cryptosporidium species. More information regarding the ... page. Water Quality Indicators: Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms / Escherichia coli (E. coli) pH Contaminants: Nitrate Volatile Organic Compounds ( ...

  7. Disinfection of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensenauer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection. (AJ) [de

  8. Disinfection of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensenauer, P

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection.

  9. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  10. Risks of underage drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Drinking during puberty can also change hormones in ... the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A. ...

  11. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  12. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  13. Descemet Membrane Thickening as a Sign for the Diagnosis of Corneal Graft Rejection: An Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenBerg, Ryan; Diakonis, Vasilios F; Bozung, Alison; Gameiro, Gustavo Rosa; Fischer, Oliver; El Dakkak, Ahmed; Ulloa-Padilla, Jan Paul; Anagnostopoulos, Apostolos; Dubovy, Sander; Abou Shousha, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    To disclose, using an ex vivo study, the histopathological mechanism behind in vivo thickening of the endothelium/Descemet membrane complex (En/DM) observed in rejected corneal grafts (RCGs). Descemet membrane (DM), endothelium, and retrocorneal membranes make up the total En/DM thickness. These layers are not differentiable by high-definition optical coherence tomography; therefore, the source of thickening is unclear from an in vivo perspective. A retrospective ex vivo study (from September 2015 to December 2015) was conducted to measure the thicknesses of DM, endothelium, and retrocorneal membrane in 54 corneal specimens (31 RCGs and 23 controls) using light microscopy. Controls were globes with posterior melanoma without corneal involvement. There were 54 corneas examined ex vivo with mean age 58.1 ± 12.2 in controls and 51.7 ± 27.9 years in RCGs. The ex vivo study uncovered the histopathological mechanism of En/DM thickening to be secondary to significant thickening (P < 0.001) of DM (6.5 ± 2.4 μm) in RCGs compared with controls (3.9 ± 1.5 μm). Our ex vivo study shows that DM is responsible for thickening of the En/DM in RCGs observed in vivo by high-definition optical coherence tomography and not the endothelium or retrocorneal membrane.

  14. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2000-01-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  15. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin [College of Medicine, Dong A University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III)) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  16. Soft drink "pouring rights": marketing empty calories to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of "pushing" soft drink consumption. "Pouring rights" contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets.

  17. Automated quantification of bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening and lumen tapering in chest CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens

    thickness and accompanying artery radius), and inter-branch Lumen-Ratio (LR, ratio between a branch's lumen and its parent branch lumen radius, a tapering measurement) were computed. Because CF-related structural abnormalities only affect a portion of branches, the 75th percentile was used as summarising......Purpose: To automatically quantify airway structural properties visualised on CT in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and controls, including: bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening, and lumen tapering. Methods and materials: The 3D surface of the airway lumen, outer wall, and bronchial arteries...... were obtained using a fully automatic, in-house developed, segmentation method. Subsequently, for each detected airway branch, the Airway-Artery Ratio (AAR, ratio between airway outer wall and accompanying artery radius, a bronchiectasis measurement), Wall-Artery Ratio (WAR, ratio between airway wall...

  18. Design and testing of a rotational brake with shear thickening fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tongfei; Nakano, Masami

    2017-03-01

    A rotational brake working with shear thickening fluid (STF) was designed and tested in this study. With the optimisation in design, most of the STF in the brake can receive the same shear rate when the brake rotates. The parts of this brake were fabricated with a 3D printer and then assembled manually. Three types of STFs with various carrier fluids and different particles were fabricated and tested with a rheometer. Then the brake with each STF was separately tested with the rheometer. The estimated and measured torques as a function of the angular velocity fit each other well. The stability of the rotational STF brake was investigated in repeated tests, which proved the function of the brake for a long time.

  19. Imaging the Microscopic Structure of Shear Thinning and Thickening Colloidal Suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.

    2011-09-01

    The viscosity of colloidal suspensions varies with shear rate, an important effect encountered in many natural and industrial processes. Although this non-Newtonian behavior is believed to arise from the arrangement of suspended particles and their mutual interactions, microscopic particle dynamics are difficult to measure. By combining fast confocal microscopy with simultaneous force measurements, we systematically investigate a suspension\\'s structure as it transitions through regimes of different flow signatures. Our measurements of the microscopic single-particle dynamics show that shear thinning results from the decreased relative contribution of entropic forces and that shear thickening arises from particle clustering induced by hydrodynamic lubrication forces. This combination of techniques illustrates an approach that complements current methods for determining the microscopic origins of non-Newtonian flow behavior in complex fluids.

  20. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic wall thickening using multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas S; Kofoed, Klaus F; Møller, Daniel V

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the heart provides both anatomical and functional information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of left ventricular contractile function in relation to two-dimensional transthoracic echocard......BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the heart provides both anatomical and functional information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of left ventricular contractile function in relation to two-dimensional transthoracic...... echocardiography (TTE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent ECG-gated 64-slice MDCT and TTE. Regional left ventricular contractile function was measured by percent systolic wall thickening (SWT) in 16 myocardial segments using MDCT, and compared...

  1. Laminar flow of a shear-thickening fluid in a 90∘ pipe bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marn, Jure; Ternik, Primož

    2006-05-01

    The non-Newtonian fluid flow in a sharp 90∘ curved pipe is studied numerically to obtain the pressure loss coefficient prompted by disagreement between the existing empirical correlations and results obtained by computer codes. This disagreement results from presumption of fully developed flow throughout the curvature (correlations) while the actual flow is partially developed for the Newtonian and sharp 90∘ curved bend non-Newtonian flows, and fully developed for slightly bent 90∘ curvature non-Newtonian flow. The Quadratic model is employed to accommodate the shear-thickening behavior of an electrostatic ash and water mixture. Numerical results are obtained for different values of Reynolds number. Finally, results for local pressure loss coefficient are compared with values obtained for the Power law rheological model.

  2. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Hiromasa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nomiyama, Takashi, E-mail: tnomiyama@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Watada, Hirotaka, E-mail: hwatada@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. {yields} Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  4. Angiotensin II-induced arterial thickening, fibrosis and stiffening involves elevated arginase function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Bhatta

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness (AS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Smooth muscle cell (SMC proliferation and increased collagen synthesis are key features in development of AS. Arginase (ARG, an enzyme implicated in many cardiovascular diseases, can compete with nitric oxide (NO synthase for their common substrate, L-arginine. Increased arginase can also provide ornithine for synthesis of polyamines via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC and proline/collagen via ornithine aminotransferase (OAT, leading to vascular cell proliferation and collagen formation, respectively. We hypothesized that elevated arginase activity is involved in Ang II-induced arterial thickening, fibrosis, and stiffness and that limiting its activity can prevent these changes.We tested this by studies in mice lacking one copy of the ARG1 gene that were treated with angiotensin II (Ang II, 4 weeks. Studies were also performed in rat aortic Ang II-treated SMC. In WT mice treated with Ang II, we observed aortic stiffening (pulse wave velocity and aortic and coronary fibrosis and thickening that were associated with increases in ARG1 and ODC expression/activity, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, hydroxyproline levels, and collagen 1 protein expression. ARG1 deletion prevented each of these alterations. Furthermore, exposure of SMC to Ang II (1 μM, 48 hrs increased ARG1 expression, ARG activity, ODC mRNA and activity, cell proliferation, collagen 1 protein expression and hydroxyproline content. Treatment with ABH prevented these changes.Arginase 1 is crucially involved in Ang II-induced SMC proliferation and arterial fibrosis and stiffness and represents a promising therapeutic target.

  5. On the effectiveness of incorporating shear thickening fluid with fumed silica particles in hip protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Goh, B. W. Y.; Tay, T. E.; Lee, H. P.; Rammohan, A. V.; Tan, V. B. C.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a smart hip protector by incorporating shear thickening fluid (STF) into conventional foam hip protectors. The shear thickening properties of fumed silica particles dispersed in liquid polyethylene glycol (PEG) were determined from rheological tests. Dynamic drop tests, using a 4 kg drop platen at 0.5 m drop height, were conducted to study how STF improves energy absorption as compared to unfilled foam and PEG filled foam. The results show that PEG filled foam reduces the mean peak force transmitted by a further 55% and mean peak displacement by 32.5% as compared to the unfilled foam; the STF filled foam further reduces mean peak force and displacement by 15% and 41% respectively when compared to the PEG filled foam. At a displacement of 22 mm, the STF filled foam absorbs 7.4 times more energy than the PEG filled foam. The results of varying the drop mass and drop height show that the energy absorbed per unit displacement for STF filled foam is always higher than that of PEG filled foam. Finally, the effectiveness of a prototype of hip protector made from 15 mm thick STF filled foam in preventing hip fractures was studied under two different loading conditions: distributed load (plate drop test) and concentrated load (ball drop test). The results of the plate and ball drop tests show that among all hip protectors tested in this study, only the prototype can reduce the mean peak impact force to be lower than the force required to fracture a hip bone (3.1 kN) regardless of the type of loading. Moreover, the peak force of the prototype is about half of this value, suggesting thinner prototype could have been used instead. These findings show that STF is effective in improving the performance of hip protectors.

  6. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiromasa; Nomiyama, Takashi; Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa; Watada, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. → Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. → Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. → Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  7. Identifying decreased diaphragmatic mobility and diaphragm thickening in interstitial lung disease: the utility of ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Pauliane Vieira; Prina, Elena; Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Caruso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the applicability of ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm in interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods: Using ultrasound, we compared ILD patients and healthy volunteers (controls) in terms of diaphragmatic mobility during quiet and deep breathing; diaphragm thickness at functional residual capacity (FRC) and at total lung capacity (TLC); and the thickening fraction (TF, proportional diaphragm thickening from FRC to TLC). We also evaluated correlations between diaphragmatic dysfunction and lung function variables. Results: Between the ILD patients (n = 40) and the controls (n = 16), mean diaphragmatic mobility was comparable during quiet breathing, although it was significantly lower in the patients during deep breathing (4.5 ± 1.7 cm vs. 7.6 ± 1.4 cm; p < 0.01). The patients showed greater diaphragm thickness at FRC (p = 0.05), although, due to lower diaphragm thickness at TLC, they also showed a lower TF (p < 0.01). The FVC as a percentage of the predicted value (FVC%) correlated with diaphragmatic mobility (r = 0.73; p < 0.01), and an FVC% cut-off value of < 60% presented high sensitivity (92%) and specificity (81%) for indentifying decreased diaphragmatic mobility. Conclusions: Using ultrasound, we were able to show that diaphragmatic mobility and the TF were lower in ILD patients than in healthy controls, despite the greater diaphragm thickness at FRC in the former. Diaphragmatic mobility correlated with ILD functional severity, and an FVC% cut-off value of < 60% was found to be highly accurate for indentifying diaphragmatic dysfunction on ultrasound. PMID:27167428

  8. INEXPENSIVE CO{sub 2} THICKENING AGENTS FOR IMPROVED MOBILITY CONTROL OF CO{sub 2} FLOODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Enick; Eric J. Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, nonfluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to be completed only when a CO{sub 2}-soluble polymer that was soluble in CO{sub 2} at pressures comparable to the MMP was identified. In the second step, viscosity-enhancing associating groups were to be incorporated into the polymer to make it a viable thickener that exhibited high CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions. This final report documents the CO{sub 2} solubility of a series of commercial and novel polymers composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and, in some cases, nitrogen.

  9. Social opportunity and ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Burger, Kelly M; Di Poce, Jason; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of pairings of ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) with social opportunity unconditioned stimulus (US) on ethanol sipper CS-directed drinking in rats. In both experiments, rats were deprived of neither food nor water, and initiation of drinking of unsweetened 3% ethanol was evaluated, as were the effects of increasing the concentration of unsweetened ethanol (3-10%) across sessions. In Experiment 1, Group Paired (n=8) received 35 trials per session wherein the ethanol sipper CS was presented for 10 s immediately prior to 15 s of social opportunity US. All rats initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol. Increasing the concentration of ethanol in the sipper CS [(3%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% (vol./vol.)] across sessions induced escalation of daily g/kg ethanol intake. To evaluate the hypothesis that the drinking in Group Paired was due to autoshaping, Experiment 2 included a pseudoconditioning control that received sipper CS and social opportunity US randomly with respect to one another. All rats in Group Paired (n=6) and in Group Random (n=6) initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol and daily mean g/kg ethanol intake in the two groups was comparable. Also comparable was daily g/kg ethanol intake, which increased for both groups with the availability of higher concentrations of ethanol in the sipper CS, up to a maximum of approximately 0.8 g/kg ethanol intake of 10% ethanol. Results indicate that random presentations of ethanol sipper CS and social opportunity US induced reliable initiation and escalation of ethanol intake, and close temporally contiguous presentations of CS and US did not induce still additional ethanol intake. This may indicate that autoshaping CR performance is not induced by these procedures, or that high levels of ethanol intake induced by factors related to pseudoconditioning produces a ceiling effect. Implications for ethanol drinking in humans are discussed.

  10. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea after Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The…

  11. Review of the Risks Posed to Drinking Water by Man-Made Nanoparticels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiede, K.; Westerhoff, P.; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    an estimate of the amount of exposure to a range of ENPs from drinking water as well as a relative qualitative risk of exposure to ENPs from drinking water compared to other routes. A range of metal, metal oxide and organic-based ENPs were identified that have the potential to contaminate drinking waters...... drinking waters. In order to address these concerns, the U.K. Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) has published a "Review of the risks posed to drinking water by man-made nanoparticles"(DWI 70/2/246). The study, which was funded by the Department for Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), was undertaken by the Food...... (such as ENPs that are produced in large quantities or are used in a free form) were identified and categorised. The classification was based on a categorisation framework to aid exposure assessment of nanomaterials in consumer products. A conservative approach was then used to estimate worst case...

  12. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  13. Drinking to the Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2014-01-01

    of economic, cultural and inherited capital are more responsive to alcohol-related health messages than respondents (and especially males) occupying positions low in the social space. This, however, does not mean that respondents from dominant groups have ‘safe’ drinking habits, as these are defined......The aim of this article is to analyse social status differences in alcohol norms and practices seen from the perspective of ‘health governance’. Survey data on 1442 employees in a middle-sized, Danish firm are used to construct a Bourdieu-inspired social space, tied to four forms of capital......: economic, cultural, inherited and organisational. A range of variables measuring alcohol norms, drinking practices and alcohol-related problems are then inserted into the space. This article identifies status differences in the employees’ drinking patterns indicating that respondents with large amounts...

  14. Food Packaging for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén

    2011-01-01

    Packaging has been on the environmental agenda for decades. It has been discussed and debated within the society mainly as an environmental problem. Production, distribution and consumption of food and drinks contribute significant to the environmental impact. However, consumers in the EU waste about 20% of the food they buy. The function of packaging in reducing the amount of food losses is an important but often neglected environmental issue. This thesis focuses on the functions of packagin...

  15. Mediterranean Way of Drinking and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Attilio; Barale, Roberto; Bavaresco, Luigi; Faliva, Milena Anna; Gerbi, Vincenzo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Pezzotti, Mario; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    The relation between alcohol consumption and mortality is a J-shaped curve in most of the many studies published on this topic. The Copenhagen Prospective Population Studies demonstrated in the year 2000 that wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. Wine contains various poliphenolic substances which may be beneficial for health and in particular flavonols (such as myricetin and quercetin), catechin and epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, various phenolic acids and the stilbene resveratrol. In particular, resveratrol seems to play a positive effect on longevity because it increases the expression level of Sirt1, besides its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. Moderate wine drinking is part of the Mediterranean diet, together with abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat and a low intake of (red) meat. This healthy diet pattern involves a "Mediterranean way of drinking," that is a regular, moderate wine consumption mainly with food (up to two glasses a day for men and one glass for women). Moderate wine drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer.

  16. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  17. Plugging the Patient Evidence Gap: What Patients with Swallowing Disorders Post-Stroke Say about Thickened Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurtin, Arlene; Healy, Chiara; Kelly, Linda; Murphy, Fiona; Ryan, Jean; Walsh, Joanne

    2018-01-01

    Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia post-stroke is well known, with its presence increasing the risk of poor outcomes in particular aspiration and aspiration pneumonia. Management to minimize the risk of aspiration and improve swallow safety post-stroke includes the treatment of thickened liquids (TL), an established bolus modification…

  18. Thickening of the celiac axis and/or superior mesenteric artery: a sign of pancreatic carcinoma on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megibow, A.J.; Bosniak, M.A.; Ambos, M.A.; Beranbaum, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    Of 53 patients with carcinoma of the pancreas studied by computed tomography, 20 (37.7%) had apparent thickening of either the celiac axis or superior mesenteric artery. In 6 of them, the pancreatic mass was poorly defined. The frequency of this sign, correlation with angiographic findings, and pathogenesis are discussed

  19. Viscoelastic behaviour of butyl acrylate/styrene/2-hydroxyethyl acrylate/acrylic acid latices thickened with associative thickneres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quadrat, Otakar; Mikešová, Jana; Horský, Jiří; Šňupárek, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, 11-12 (2003), s. 1411-1416 ISSN 1631-0748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/02/1360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : viscoelasticity * associative thickeners * latices Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.518, year: 2003

  20. Effect of thickening agent in the in vitro mouth, stomach and intestine release of tyrosol from enriched custards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, T.; Luyten, J.M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Custards prepared with four thickeners (two modified starches: waxy maize and tapioca, and two derives of cellulose: CMC and HPMC) and at two levels of consistency were enriched with a water-soluble functional ingredient (tyrosol) and its release evaluated after in vitro mouth, stomach and small

  1. LES of a laboratory-scale turbulent premixed bunsen flame using FSD, PCM-FPI and thickened flame models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Perez, F.E.; Yuen, F.T.C.; Groth, C.P.T.; Gülder, O.L.

    2011-01-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) of a turbulent premixed Bunsen flame were carried out with three subfilter-scale (SFS) modelling approaches for turbulent premixed combustion. One approach is based on the artificially thickened flame and power-law flame wrinkling models, the second approach is based on

  2. Stress-induced thickening of Ω phase in Al–Cu–Mg alloys containing various Ag additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Song [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Zhiyi, E-mail: liuzhiyi@mail.csu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhou, Xuanwei; Xia, Peng; Liu, Meng [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-01-01

    The thickening of Ω phase in Al–Cu–Mg alloys containing various bulk Ag contents during stress aging at 200 °C with a tensile stress of 240 MPa was investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). TEM characterization confirmed preferred orientation of Ω phase in all stress-aged samples. Corresponding quantitative TEM calculations revealed the thickening kinetics of Ω phase was significantly accelerated during stress aging as compared to that during stress-free aging at 200 °C. HRTEM analysis on the α/Ω interfacial structure confirmed that the applied tensile stress facilitated the rapid nucleation of the growth ledge on the broad face of Ω phase, thereby resulting in the accelerated plate thickening during stress aging at 200 °C. Meanwhile, quantitative TEM analysis highlighted the stress-induced thickening of Ω phase at 200 °C was affected by the bulk Ag content. This was consistent with the HRTEM observation as the ledge nucleation was found to be suppressed with increasing Ag addition. Our APT analysis on different stress-aged samples further suggested the progressive enrichment of Ag atoms in the segregation layer helped to stabilize the interfacial structure and was responsible for the lowest nucleation rate of the ledge in 1.77Ag alloy as compared to that in 0.46Ag alloy.

  3. Stress-induced thickening of Ω phase in Al–Cu–Mg alloys containing various Ag additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Song; Liu, Zhiyi; Zhou, Xuanwei; Xia, Peng; Liu, Meng

    2014-01-01

    The thickening of Ω phase in Al–Cu–Mg alloys containing various bulk Ag contents during stress aging at 200 °C with a tensile stress of 240 MPa was investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). TEM characterization confirmed preferred orientation of Ω phase in all stress-aged samples. Corresponding quantitative TEM calculations revealed the thickening kinetics of Ω phase was significantly accelerated during stress aging as compared to that during stress-free aging at 200 °C. HRTEM analysis on the α/Ω interfacial structure confirmed that the applied tensile stress facilitated the rapid nucleation of the growth ledge on the broad face of Ω phase, thereby resulting in the accelerated plate thickening during stress aging at 200 °C. Meanwhile, quantitative TEM analysis highlighted the stress-induced thickening of Ω phase at 200 °C was affected by the bulk Ag content. This was consistent with the HRTEM observation as the ledge nucleation was found to be suppressed with increasing Ag addition. Our APT analysis on different stress-aged samples further suggested the progressive enrichment of Ag atoms in the segregation layer helped to stabilize the interfacial structure and was responsible for the lowest nucleation rate of the ledge in 1.77Ag alloy as compared to that in 0.46Ag alloy

  4. Impacts of fast food and food retail environment on overweight and obesity in China: a multilevel latent class cluster approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Lans, van der, I.A.; Dagevos, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To simultaneously identify consumer segments based on individual-level consumption and community-level food retail environment data and to investigate whether the segments are associated with BMI and dietary knowledge in China. Design A multilevel latent class cluster model was applied to identify consumer segments based not only on their individual preferences for fast food, salty snack foods, and soft drinks and sugared fruit drinks, but also on the food retail environment at the ...

  5. Oil sands thickened froth treatment tailings exhibit acid rock drainage potential during evaporative drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-02-01

    Bitumen extraction from oil sands ores after surface mining produces different tailings waste streams: 'froth treatment tailings' are enriched in pyrite relative to other streams. Tailings treatment can include addition of organic polymers to produce thickened tailings (TT). TT may be further de-watered by deposition into geotechnical cells for evaporative drying to increase shear strength prior to reclamation. To examine the acid rock drainage (ARD) potential of TT, we performed predictive analyses and laboratory experiments on material from field trials of two types of thickened froth treatment tailings (TT1 and TT2). Acid-base accounting (ABA) of initial samples showed that both TT1 and TT2 initially had net acid-producing potential, with ABA values of -141 and -230 t CaCO₃ equiv. 1000 t(-1) of TT, respectively. In long-term kinetic experiments, duplicate ~2-kg samples of TT were incubated in shallow trays and intermittently irrigated under air flow for 459 days to simulate evaporative field drying. Leachates collected from both TT samples initially had pH~6.8 that began decreasing after ~50 days (TT2) or ~250 days (TT1), stabilizing at pH~2. Correspondingly, the redox potential of leachates increased from 100-200 mV to 500-580 mV and electrical conductivity increased from 2-5 dS m(-1) to 26 dS m(-1), indicating dissolution of minerals during ARD. The rapid onset and prolonged ARD observed with TT2 is attributed to its greater pyrite (13.4%) and lower carbonate (1.4%) contents versus the slower onset of ARD in TT1 (initially 6.0% pyrite and 2.5% carbonates). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis revealed rapid shift in microbial community when conditions became strongly acidic (pH~2) favoring the enrichment of Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus bacteria in TT. This is the first report showing ARD potential of TT and the results have significant implications for effective management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams/deposits. Copyright © 2014

  6. Shear thickening in suspensions: the lubricated-to-frictional contact scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of solid particles in viscous liquids can vary from low-viscosity liquids to wet granular materials or soft solids depending on the solids loading and the forces acting between particles. When the particles are very concentrated, these mixtures are ''dense suspensions.'' Dense suspensions often exhibit shear thickening, an increase in apparent viscosity as the shear rate is increased. In its most extreme form, order of magnitude increases in viscosity over such a narrow range in shear rate occur that the term discontinuous shear thickening (DST) is applied. DST is particularly striking as it occurs in the relatively simple case of nearly hard spheres in a Newtonian liquid, and is found to take place for submicron particles in colloidal dispersions to much larger particle corn starch dispersions. We focus on simulations of a recently developed ``lubricated-to-frictional'' rheology in which the interplay of viscous lubrication, repulsive surface forces, and contact friction between particle surfaces provides a scenario to explain DST. Our simulation method brings together elements of the discrete-element method from granular flow with a simplified Stokesian Dynamics, and can rationalize not only the abrupt change in properties with imposed shear rate (or shear stress), but also the magnitude of the change. The large change in properties is associated with the breakdown of lubricating films between particles, with activation of Coulomb friction between particles. The rate dependence is caused by the shearing forces driving particles to contact, overwhelming conservative repulsive forces between surfaces; the repulsive forces are representative of colloidal stabilization by surface charge or steric effects, e.g. due to adsorbed polymer. The results of simulation are compared to developments by other groups, including a number of experimental studies and a theory incorporating the same basic elements as the simulation. The comparison to experiments of the

  7. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  8. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  9. Drinking Water in your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people choose to filter or test the drinking water that comes out of their tap or from their private well for a variety of reasons. And whether at home, at work or while traveling, many Americans drink bottled water.

  10. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard drinks you're being served in a restaurant or bar that uses large glasses and generous ... drinking habits. For more information, see A Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk? Pace yourself: ...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G potassium in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. 520....1696b Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G potassium equivalent to 20,000, 25,000, 40,000, 50,000, 80,000, or 100,000 units of...

  12. The 'bite' in paediatric food allergy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Skin. Atopic eczema, urticaria. Precipitated by foods containing histamine, e.g. cheese, mangos, bananas, .... (fruit or artificial drinks) caused ... spread, peanut butter, polony), vegetables/mashed potato (margarine, butter, Aromat added?)

  13. Drink to get drunk or stay healthy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2014-01-01

    Although low calorie content is perceived as an important choice driver for light food and drink products, in the case of low-alcohol beverages the low alcohol content is equally important. Thus, low-alcohol beverages can be considered either as healthier alternatives, or as substitutes...... to alcoholic beverages and drinks. This paper investigates consumers’ perceptions, motives and preferences for low-alcohol beverages, using light beer as an exemplary case. The Best-Worst Scaling (BWS) is used to measure preferences, while complementary methods are used to measure perceptions and motives....... The study is conducted with an online sample of Icelandic beer consumers. The findings show that light beer is perceived as healthier than regular beer, while the most important motives behind purchase are taste, health and weight management. Light beer is further perceived as less tasteful, but at the same...

  14. The cation-controlled and hydrogen bond-mediated shear-thickening behaviour of a tree-fern isolated polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, May S M; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K T

    2015-10-05

    The shear-thickening rheological behaviour (between 5 and 20s(-1)) of a 5% (w/w) viscoelastic gum extracted from the fronds of the native New Zealand black tree fern or mamaku in Māori was further explored by manipulating the salt content. The freeze-dried mamaku gum contained a high mineral content and sugars which upon removal via dialysis, resulted in the loss of shear thickening. However, this loss was reversible by the addition of salts to the dialysed dispersion. The mechanism of shear-thickening behaviour was therefore hypothesised to be due to shear-induced transition of intra- to intermolecular hydrogen bonding, promoted by the screening effect of cations. Mono-, di- and trivalent salts, i.e. Na(+), K(+), N(CH3)4(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+) and La(3+) at concentrations between 0.001 and 1.0M were tested to support the hypothesis as well as to demonstrate the sensitivity of the biopolymer to cation valency and concentrations. The cation valency and concentration were crucial factors in determining: (i) zero-shear viscosity, (ii) critical shear rate, γ˙c (or shear rate at the onset of shear-thickening) and (iii) the extent of shear-thickening of the solution. For mono- and divalent cations these parameters were similar at equivalent ionic strengths and fairly independent of the cation type. Trivalent cations (La(3+)) however caused precipitation of the gum in the concentration range of 0.005-0.05 M but clear dispersions were obtained above 0.05 M. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Analysis of Mucosal Thickening in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Maxillary Sinuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Katherine; Hale, Lindsay N; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Tholpady, Sunil; Starbuck, John M

    2016-11-01

      To compare maxillary mucosal thickening and sinus volumes of unilateral cleft lip and palate subjects (UCLP) with noncleft (nonCLP) controls.   Randomized, retrospective study of cone-beam computed tomographs (CBCT).   University.   Fifteen UCLP subjects and 15 sex- and age-matched non-CLP controls, aged 8 to 14 years.   Following institutional review board approval and reliability tests, Dolphin three-dimensional imaging software was used to segment and slice maxillary sinuses on randomly selected CBCTs. The surface area (SA) of bony sinus and airspace on all sinus slices was determined using Dolphin and multiplied by slice thickness (0.4 mm) to calculate volume. Mucosal thickening was the difference between bony sinus and airspace volumes. The number of slices with bony sinus and airspace outlines was totaled. Right and left sinus values for each group were pooled (t tests, P > .05; n = 30 each group). All measures were compared (principal components analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of variance) by group and age (P ≤ .016 was considered significant).   Principal components analysis axis 1 and 2 explained 89.6% of sample variance. Principal components analysis showed complete separation based on the sample on axis 1 only. Age groups showed some separation on axis 2. Unilateral cleft lip and palate subjects had significantly smaller bony sinus and airspace volumes, fewer bony and airspace slices, and greater mucosal thickening and percentage mucosal thickening when compared with controls. Older subjects had significantly greater bony sinus and airspace volumes than younger subjects.   Children with UCLP have significantly more maxillary sinus mucosal thickening and smaller sinuses than controls.

  16. Who drinks where: youth selection of drinking contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Mair, Christina F; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J; Grube, Joel W

    2015-04-01

    Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, and demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts. We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol-using youths (ages 13 to 16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized California cities. Measures of drinking behaviors and drinking in 7 contexts were obtained at 3 annual time points. Other characteristics included gender, age, race, parental education, weekly disposable income, general deviance, and past-year cigarette smoking. Results of multilevel regression analyses show that more frequent past-year alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at parties and at someone else's home. Greater continued volumes of alcohol (i.e., heavier drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of drinking at parking lots or street corners. Deviance was positively associated with drinking in most contexts, and past-year cigarette smoking was positively associated with drinking at beaches or parks and someone else's home. Age and deviance were positively associated with drinking in a greater number of contexts. The likelihood of youth drinking at parties and someone else's home increased over time, whereas the likelihood of drinking at parking lots/street corners decreased. Also, deviant youths progress to drinking in their own home, beaches or parks, and restaurants/bars/nightclubs more rapidly. The contexts in which youths consume alcohol change over time. These changes vary by individual characteristics. The redistribution of drinking contexts over the early life course may contribute to specific risks associated with different drinking contexts. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Rethink Your Drink!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of drinking a lot of water.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  18. Energy Drink Consumption Practices of Young People in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaif, Maryam M; Alobed, Ghufran J J; Alaam, Noor A A; Alderrazi, Abdulla N; Awdhalla, Muyssar S; Vaithinathan, Asokan G

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink (ED) consumption is becoming increasingly popular among young Bahrainis, who may be unaware of the health risks associated with ED consumption. To date, there have been few publications on the consumption of ED in Bahrain, particularly among adolescents. This study seeks to fill a gap in the literature on energy drink consumption practices of Bahraini adolescents. Data were collected using a previously established European Food Safety Authority questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a convenience sample of 262 Bahraini students aged 10 to 18 years. Most participants consumed energy drinks 2 to 3 times per week and consumed two or more cans at a time. Eighty percent of partcipants preferred energy drinks with sugar. Participants in the older age group and higher educational level consumed more ED. The majority (57%) consumed ED at home with friends as part of socialization. Notably, 60% of the parents of the respondents have not consumed energy drinks. Prominent reasons for consumption of energy drinks included: taste (40%), energy (30%), stay awake (13%), augment concentration (4%), and enhance sports performance (6%). Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.

  19. Making Our Food Safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Full text: As civilization has progressed societies have strived to make food safer; from using fire to cook our food, and boiling our water to make it safe to drink, advances in technology have helped kill microorganisms that can make food unsafe. The FAO/IAEA Joint Division helps provide technical assistance to Member States that want to implement irradiation technology in making their food safer. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are estimated to kill roughly 2.2 million people annually, of which 1.9 million are children. Irradiating some of the foods we eat can save many of these lives by reducing the risk of food poisoning and killing the organisms that cause disease. Irradiation works by treating food with a small dose of ionizing radiation, this radiation disrupts the bacteria’s DNA and cell membranes structure stopping the organism from reproducing or functioning, but does not make the food radioactive. It can be applied to a variety of foods from spices and seasonings, to fruits and vegetables and is similar to pasteurization, but without the need for high temperatures that might impair food quality. (author)

  20. Subchondral Bone Plate Thickening Precedes Chondrocyte Apoptosis and Cartilage Degradation in Spontaneous Animal Models of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitunnatakhin Zamli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common joint disorder characterised by bone remodelling and cartilage degradation and associated with chondrocyte apoptosis. These processes were investigated at 10, 16, 24, and 30 weeks in Dunkin Hartley (DH and Bristol Strain 2 (BS2 guinea pigs that develop OA spontaneously. Both strains had a more pronounced chondrocyte apoptosis, cartilage degradation, and subchondral bone changes in the medial than the lateral side of the tibia, and between strains, the changes were always greater and faster in DH than BS2. In the medial side, a significant increase of chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage degradation was observed in DH between 24 and 30 weeks of age preceded by a progressive thickening and stiffening of subchondral bone plate (Sbp. The Sbp thickness consistently increased over the 30-week study period but the bone mineral density (BMD of the Sbp gradually decreased after 16 weeks. The absence of these changes in the medial side of BS2 may indicate that the Sbp of DH was undergoing remodelling. Chondrocyte apoptosis was largely confined to the deep zone of articular cartilage and correlated with thickness of the subchondral bone plate suggesting that cartilage degradation and chondrocyte apoptosis may be a consequence of continuous bone remodelling during the development of OA in these animal models of OA.

  1. Thymol reduces oxidative stress, aortic intimal thickening, and inflammation-related gene expression in hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Mei Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and is often associated with oxidative stress and local inflammation. Thymol, a major polyphenolic compound in thyme, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we measured the in vitro antioxidant activity of thymol, and investigated the effect of thymol on high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. New Zealand white rabbits were fed with regular chow, high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HC, T3, or T6 (HC with thymol supplementation at 3 mg/kg/d or 6 mg/kg/d, respectively for 8 weeks. Aortic intimal thickening, serum lipid parameters, multiple inflammatory markers, proinflammatory cytokines, and atherosclerosis-associated indicators were significantly increased in the HC group but decreased upon thymol supplementation. In summary, thymol exhibits antioxidant activity, and may suppress the progression of high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis by reducing aortic intimal lipid lesion, lowering serum lipids and oxidative stress, and alleviating inflammation-related responses.

  2. Modeling mechanical properties of a shear thickening fluid damper based on phase transition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Minghai; Lin, Kun; Guo, Qian

    2018-03-01

    Shear thickening fluids (STFs) are highly concentrated colloidal suspensions consisting of monodisperse nano-particles suspended in a carrying fluid, and have the capacity to display both flowable and rigid behaviors, when subjected to sudden stimuli. In that process, the external energy that acts on an STF can be dissipated quickly. The aim of this study is to present a dynamic model of a damper filled with STF that can be directly used in control engineering fields. To this end, shear stress during phase transition of the STF material is chosen as an internal variable. A non-convex function with bifurcation behavior is used to describe the phase transitioning of STF by determining the relationship between the behavioral characteristics of the microscopic phase and macroscopic damping force. This model is able to predict force-velocity and force-displacement relationships as functions of the loading frequency. Efficacy of the model is demonstrated via comparison with experimental results from previous studies. In addition, the results confirm the hypothesis regarding the occurrence of STF phase transitioning when subject to shear stress.

  3. Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Diffuse Skin Thickening as Kaposi Sarcoma Clinical Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Querido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old African patient received a kidney from a deceased donor with 4 HLA mismatches in April 2013. He received immunosuppression with basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Immediate diuresis and a good allograft function were soon observed. Six months later, the serum creatinine level increased to 2.6 mg/dL. A renal allograft biopsy revealed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy grade II. Toxicity of calcineurin inhibitor was assumed and, after a switch for everolimus, renal function improved. However, since March 2014, renal function progressively deteriorated. A second allograft biopsy showed no new lesions. Two months later, the patient was admitted due to anuria, haematochezia with anaemia, requiring 5 units of packed red blood cells, and diffuse skin thickening. Colonoscopy showed haemorrhagic patches in the colon and the rectum; histology diagnosis was Kaposi sarcoma (KS. A skin biopsy revealed cutaneous involvement of KS. Rapid clinical deterioration culminated in death in June 2014. This case is unusual as less than 20 cases of KS with gross gastrointestinal bleeding have been reported and only 6 cases had the referred bleeding originating in the lower gastrointestinal tract. So, KS should be considered in differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding in some kidney transplant patients.

  4. Comparison of semi-automated and manual measurements of carotid intima-media thickening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mac Ananey, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickening (CIMT) is a marker of both arteriosclerotic and atherosclerotic risks. Technological advances have semiautomated CIMT image acquisition and quantification. Studies comparing manual and automated methods have yielded conflicting results possibly due to plaque inclusion in measurements. Low atherosclerotic risk subjects (n = 126) were recruited to minimise the effect of focal atherosclerotic lesions on CIMT variability. CIMT was assessed by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound (Philips HDX7E, Phillips, UK) images of the common carotid artery using both manual and semiautomated methods (QLAB, Phillips, UK). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the mean differences of paired measurements (Bland-Altman method) were used to compare both methodologies. The ICC of manual (0.547 ± 0.095 mm) and automated (0.524 ± 0.068 mm) methods was R = 0.74 and an absolute mean bias ± SD of 0.023 ± 0.052 mm was observed. Interobserver and intraobserver ICC were greater for automated (R = 0.94 and 0.99) compared to manual (R = 0.72 and 0.88) methods. Although not considered to be clinically significant, manual measurements yielded higher values compared to automated measurements. Automated measurements were more reproducible and showed lower interobserver variation compared to manual measurements. These results offer important considerations for large epidemiological studies.

  5. Shear banding, discontinuous shear thickening, and rheological phase transitions in athermally sheared frictionless disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vâgberg, Daniel; Olsson, Peter; Teitel, S.

    2017-05-01

    We report on numerical simulations of simple models of athermal, bidisperse, soft-core, massive disks in two dimensions, as a function of packing fraction ϕ , inelasticity of collisions as measured by a parameter Q , and applied uniform shear strain rate γ ˙. Our particles have contact interactions consisting of normally directed elastic repulsion and viscous dissipation, as well as tangentially directed viscous dissipation, but no interparticle Coulombic friction. Mapping the phase diagram in the (ϕ ,Q ) plane for small γ ˙, we find a sharp first-order rheological phase transition from a region with Bagnoldian rheology to a region with Newtonian rheology, and show that the system is always Newtonian at jamming. We consider the rotational motion of particles and demonstrate the crucial importance that the coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom has on the phase structure at small Q (strongly inelastic collisions). At small Q , we show that, upon increasing γ ˙, the sharp Bagnoldian-to-Newtonian transition becomes a coexistence region of finite width in the (ϕ ,γ ˙) plane, with coexisting Bagnoldian and Newtonian shear bands. Crossing this coexistence region by increasing γ ˙ at fixed ϕ , we find that discontinuous shear thickening can result if γ ˙ is varied too rapidly for the system to relax to the shear-banded steady state corresponding to the instantaneous value of γ ˙.

  6. Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells during formation of neointimal thickenings following vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyberg, J

    1998-07-01

    Smooth muscle cells build up the media of mammalian arteries and constitute one of the principal cell types in atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. Accordingly, they show a high degree of plasticity and are able to shift from a differentiated, contractile phenotype to a less differentiated, synthetic phenotype, and then back again. This modulation occurs as a response to vascular injury and includes a prominent structural reorganization with loss of myofilaments and formation of an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and a large Golgi complex. At the same time, the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and other gene products is altered. As a result, the cells lose their contractility and become able to migrate from the media to the intima, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix components, thereby contributing to the formation of intimal thickenings. The mechanisms behind this change in morphology and function of the smooth muscle cells are still incompletely understood. A crucial role has been ascribed to basement membrane proteins such as laminin and collagen type IV and adhesive proteins such as fibronectin. A significant role is also played by mitogenic proteins such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). An improved knowledge of the regulation of smooth muscle differentiated properties represents an important part in the search for new methods of prevention and treatment of vascular disease.

  7. Drinking games and contextual factors of 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han

    2014-09-01

    21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.

  8. Reproducibility of an automatic quantitation of regional myocardial wall motion and systolic thickening on gated Tc-99m-MIBI myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the reproducibility of the quantitative assessment of segmental wall motion and systolic thickening provided by an automatic quantitation algorithm. Tc-99m-MIBI gated myocardial SPECT with dipyridamole stress was performed in 31 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (4 with single, 6 with two, 11 with triple vessel disease; ejection fraction 51±14%) twice consecutively in the same position. Myocardium was divided into 20 segments. Segmental wall motion and systolic thickening were calculated and expressed in mm and % increase respectively, using AutoQUANT TM software. The reproducibility of this quantitative measurement of wall motion and thickening was tested. Correlations between repeated measurements on consecutive gated SPECT were excellent for wall motion (r=0.95) and systolic thickening (r=0.88). On Bland-Altman analysis, two standard deviation was 2 mm for repeated measurement of segmental wall motion, and 20% for that of systolic thickening. The weighted kappa values of repeated measurements were 0.807 for wall motion and 0.708 for systolic thickening. Sex, perfusion, or segmental location had no influence on reproducibility. Segmental wall motion and systolic thickening quantified using AutoQUANT TM software on gated myocardial SPECT offers good reproducibility and is significantly different when the change is more than 2 mm for wall motion and more than 20% for systolic thickening

  9. Energy drink consumption is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours among college youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-11-01

    Energy drink consumption has been associated with a variety of health risk behaviours, yet little research has explored the relationship between energy drinks and dietary behaviours of emerging adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviours among energy drink users and non-users within a sample of college youth. College freshmen (n = 585, m age = 18.7 years; 47% non-Hispanic White, 20.9% Hispanic, 25.5% Asian, 2.7% non-Hispanic Black and 4.4% other; 56% female), at a large, southwest university self-reported their energy drink consumption in the past week and a variety of dietary behaviours, including past week soda, diet soda, pre-packaged salty snacks, pre-packaged sweet snacks, fast food, restaurant food, frozen food, fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast consumption. Linear regression analyses were run to determine associations between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviour among users and non-users of energy drinks. Analyses controlled for gender, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 17.5% of students had consumed energy drinks in the past week. Energy drink users were more likely to be male, White and have a greater BMI. Students also reported low past week intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast. Past week energy drink consumption was associated with increased soda and frozen meal consumption. Given a rapidly expanding energy drink market, future dietary interventions among college youth may want to consider the implications of energy drinks, as results of this study suggest consumption of these beverages is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours and a greater BMI. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  10. Soft Drink “Pouring Rights”: Marketing Empty Calories to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nestle, Marion

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies fo...

  11. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6?23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscui...

  12. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided.

  13. Bacteriology Quality of Zobo Drinks Consumed in Some Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABTRACT: The bacteriology of Zobo drink prepared and sold at nine market; Alamisi market, Ikirun ... sold in these markets are potential vehicles for transmitting food borne illness, thus the need to ..... Consequently education of the manufacturers and provision ... effective monitoring and enforcement of the existing punitive ...

  14. Did lax officials let Britons drink a deadly pinta?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the lack of active government action in Great Britain to prevent people from drinking milk after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster according to former Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE) director John Jeffers. Findings of ITE staff; Possible increase of risk of thyroid cancer; Statement from the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food

  15. Assessment of radionuclide contents in food in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Mao, S.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Baseline values of concentrations of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra/ 232 Th, 210 Pb) and artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 60 Co) in food and drinks (tap water, milk, and water-based drinks) were determined by gamma spectroscopy. All food and drinks were found to contain detectable 40 K contents: 0.1 to 160 Bq Kg -1 for food and 0.006 to 61 Bq L -1 for drinks. Most of the other natural radionuclides in solid food were found to have contents below the minimum detectable activities (MDA). More samples in the leafy vegetable, tomato, carrot and potato categories contained detectable amounts of 228 Ra than the meat, cereal, and fish categories, with concentrations up to 1.2 Bq kg -1 for the former categories and 0.35 Bq kg -1 for the latter categories. The 238 U and 226 Ra radionuclides were detectable in most of the water-based drink samples, and the 228 Ra and 210 Pb radionuclides were detectable in fewer water-based drink samples. The 137 Cs contents in solid food were detectable in most of the solid food samples (reaching 0.59 Bq kg -1 ), but in drinks the 137 Cs contents were very low and normally lower than the MDA values. Nearly all the 60 Co contents in food and drinks were below the MDA values and their contents were below those of 137 Cs

  16. Stochastic modelling of human exposure to food chemicals and nutrients within the "Montecarlo" project: an exploration of the influence of brand loyalty and market share on intake estimates of intense sweeteners from sugar-free soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Catherine; Arcella, Davide; Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora

    2003-04-11

    To get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in stochastic modelling as an alternative to deterministic approaches based on conservative assumptions. It allows to take into account all the available information in the concentration of the chemical present in foods and in food consumption patterns. Within the EC-funded "Montecarlo" project, a comprehensive set of mathematical algorithms was developed to take into account all the necessary components for stochastic modelling of a variety of food chemicals, nutrients and ingredients. An appropriate computer software is being developed. Since the concentration of food chemicals may vary among different brands of the same product, consumer behaviour with respect to brands may have an impact on exposure assessments. Numeric experiments were carried out on different ways of incorporating indicators of market share and brand loyalty in the mathematical algorithms developed within the stochastic model of exposure to intense sweeteners from sugar-free beverages. The 95th percentiles of intake were shown to vary according to the inclusion/exclusion of these indicators. The market share should be included in the model especially if the market is not equitably distributed between brands. If brand loyalty data are not available, the model may be run under theoretical scenarios.

  17. The relationship between hours of sleep, screen time and frequency of food and drink consumption in Spain in the 2011 and 2013 ALADINO: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Villar-Villalba, Carmen; López Sobaler, Ana María; Dal Re Saavedra, María Ángeles; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Santos Sanz, Sara; Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Castrodeza-Sanz, José Javier; Ortega Anta, Rosa María

    2017-01-06

    The frequency of intake of food and beverages depends on a number of ill-defined behaviour patterns. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of screen time and sleep duration on food consumption frequency, and to describe frequencies and types of food consumption according to BMI category and parents' level of education. We studied 6287 and 2806 children drawn from the 2011 and 2013 cross-sectional ALADINO studies respectively. Data were collected on number of hours of sleep, screen time, and weekly frequency of consumption of 17 food groups. Weight status was measured, and information was also collected on parents' educational level. Average food consumption frequencies were calculated by reference to hours of sleep and hours of screen time, and were defined as ≥4 times or education. High levels of screen time were associated with a greater frequency of consumption of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor products and a lower frequency of consumption of fruit and vegetables. Sleeping a sufficient number of hours was associated with a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. The results for 2011 were concordant with those for 2013. If efforts to ensure healthier eating habits among children are to be at all successful, they should focus on promoting a sufficient amount of sleep for children, limiting the time they spend watching television and/or playing with computers or video games, and educating parents accordingly.

  18. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    CERN’s drinking water is monitored on a regular basis. A certified independent laboratory takes and analyses samples to verify that the water complies with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the system that supplies our drinking water is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the system, the water may become cloudy or discoloured, due to traces of corrosion. For this reason, we recommend: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap and heat it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until it is clear before drinking or making your tea or coffee. If you have any questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  19. Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-05-17

    Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 μg As l(-1) was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 μg As l(-1). Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water.

  20. Buying less and wasting less food. Changes in household food energy purchases, energy intakes and energy density between 2007 and 2012 with and without adjustment for food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Stephen; Horgan, Graham W; Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2017-05-01

    Consumers in the UK responded to the rapid increases in food prices between 2007 and 2009 partly by reducing the amount of food energy bought. Household food and drink waste has also decreased since 2007. The present study explored the combined effects of reductions in food purchases and waste on estimated food energy intakes and dietary energy density. The amount of food energy purchased per adult equivalent was calculated from Kantar Worldpanel household food and drink purchase data for 2007 and 2012. Food energy intakes were estimated by adjusting purchase data for food and drink waste, using waste factors specific to the two years and scaled for household size. Scotland. Households in Scotland (n 2657 in 2007; n 2841 in 2012). The amount of food energy purchased decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 8·6 to 8·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d (Pfood waste, estimated food energy intake was not significantly different (7·3 and 7·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d for 2007 and 2012, respectively; P=0·186). Energy density of foods purchased increased slightly from 700 to 706 kJ/100 g (P=0·010). While consumers in Scotland reduced the amount of food energy that they purchased between 2007 and 2012, this was balanced by reductions in household food and drink waste over the same time, resulting in no significant change in net estimated energy intake of foods brought into the home.

  1. Discretionary food fortification: implications of consumer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalergis, Maria; MacDonald, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The interest in, intent to, and impact of consuming foods fortified with vitamins and minerals, particularly foods of poor nutritional quality, were evaluated among Canadians. A Canada-wide, online survey of 1200 adults and teens was used to assess the interest in, intent to, and impact of consuming or serving foods fortified under two fortification scenarios (10% and 20% of the Recommended Daily Value). Categories of foods tested were cereal bars, energy bars, flavoured bottled water, frozen desserts, fruit drinks, fruit juice, salty snacks, soda pop, sports drinks, sweet baked goods, and sweets. The majority of adults and teens were interested in consuming fortified foods and indicated that they would increase their current consumption of specific foods if they became fortified. These foods included soft drinks, salty snacks, fruit drinks, and fruit juice. A large proportion of adults also indicated that they would serve more of these fortified foods to their children. Our findings reveal that fortifying foods, particularly those of poor nutritional quality, could lead to increased consumption of these foods among children, teens, and adults. Potentially, this could have a negative impact on eating habits and, in turn, could exacerbate the current nutrition-related health issues that Canadians face.

  2. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  3. Boundary Effects and Shear Thickening of Colloidal Suspensions: A study based on measurement of Suspension Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. Tharanga D.

    Microstructure is key to understanding rheological behaviors of flowing particulate suspensions. During the past decade, Stokesian Dynamics simulations have been the dominant method of determining suspension microstructure. Structure results obtained numerically reveal that an anisotropic structure is formed under high Peclet (Pe) number conditions. Researchers have used various experimental techniques such as small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and light scattering methods to validate microstructure. This work outlines an experimental technique based on confocal microscopy to study microstructure of a colloidal suspension in an index-matched fluid flowing in a microchannel. High resolution scans determining individual particle locations in suspensions 30-50 vol % yield quantitative results of the local microstructure in the form of the pair distribution function, g(r). From these experimentally determined g(r), the effect of shear rate, quantified by the Peclet number as a ratio of shear and Brownian stress, on the suspension viscosity and normal stress follow that seen in macroscopic rheological measurements and simulations. It is generally believed that shear thickening behavior of colloidal suspensions is driven by the formation of hydroclusters. From measurements of particle locations, hydroclusters are identified. The number of hydroclusters grows exponentially with increasing Pe, and the onset of shear thickening is driven by the increase in formation of clusters having 5-8 particles. At higher Pe, we notice the emergence of 12 or more particle clusters. The internal structure of these hydroclusters has been investigated, and there is some evidence that particles internal to hydroclusters preferentially align along the 45° and 135° axis. Beyond observations of bulk suspension behavior, the influence of boundaries on suspension microstructure is also investigated. Experiments were performed for suspensions flowing over smooth walls, made of glass

  4. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  5. Gray Matter Hypertrophy and Thickening with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Middle-aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Brayet, Pauline; Montplaisir, Jacques; De Beaumont, Louis; Carrier, Julie; Lafond, Chantal; L'Heureux, Francis; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxemia, hemodynamic fluctuations, and sleep fragmentation, all of which could damage cerebral gray matter that can be indirectly assessed by neuroimaging. To investigate whether markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity are associated with gray matter changes among middle-aged and older individuals. Seventy-one subjects (ages, 55-76 yr; apnea-hypopnea index, 0.2-96.6 events/h) were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Two techniques were used: (1) voxel-based morphometry, which measures gray matter volume and concentration; and (2) FreeSurfer (an open source software suite) automated segmentation, which estimates the volume of predefined cortical/subcortical regions and cortical thickness. Regression analyses were performed between gray matter characteristics and markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity (hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation). Subjects had few symptoms, that is, sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and cognitive deficits. Although no association was found with voxel-based morphometry, FreeSurfer revealed increased gray matter with obstructive sleep apnea. Higher levels of hypoxemia correlated with increased volume and thickness of the left lateral prefrontal cortex as well as increased thickness of the right frontal pole, the right lateral parietal lobules, and the left posterior cingulate cortex. Respiratory disturbances positively correlated with right amygdala volume, and more severe sleep fragmentation was associated with increased thickness of the right inferior frontal gyrus. Gray matter hypertrophy and thickening were associated with hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation. These structural changes in a group of middle-aged and older individuals may represent adaptive/reactive brain mechanisms attributed to a presymptomatic stage of obstructive sleep apnea.

  6. MRI shows thickening and altered diffusion in the median and ulnar nerves in multifocal motor neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakma, Wieke [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aarhus University, Department of Forensic Medicine and Comparative Medicine Lab, Aarhus (Denmark); Jongbloed, Bas A.; Goedee, H.S.; Berg, Leonard H. van den; Pol, W.L. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Centre Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Froeling, Martijn; Bos, Clemens; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leemans, Alexander [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    To study disease mechanisms in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the median and ulnar nerves. We enrolled ten MMN patients, ten patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ten healthy controls (HCs). Patients underwent MRI (in a prone position) and nerve conduction studies. DTI and fat-suppressed T2-weighted scans of the forearms were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner. Fibre tractography of the median and ulnar nerves was performed to extract diffusion parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) were measured on T2-weighted scans. Forty-five out of 60 arms were included in the analysis. AD was significantly lower in MMN patients (2.20 ± 0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) compared to ALS patients (2.31 ± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05) and HCs (2.31± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05). Segmental analysis showed significant restriction of AD, RD and MD (p < 0.005) in the proximal third of the nerves. CSA was significantly larger in MMN patients compared to ALS patients and HCs (p < 0.01). Thickening of nerves is compatible with changes in the myelin sheath structure, whereas lowered AD values suggest axonal dysfunction. These findings suggest that myelin and axons are diffusely involved in MMN pathogenesis. (orig.)

  7. Trace metal mobilization from oil sands froth treatment thickened tailings exhibiting acid rock drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Alsu; Kuznetsov, Petr; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-11-15

    Froth treatment thickened tailings (TT) are a waste product of bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores. When incubated in a laboratory under simulated moist oxic environmental conditions for ~450d, two different types of TT (TT1 and TT2) exhibited the potential to generate acid rock drainage (ARD) by producing acid leachate after 250 and 50d, respectively. We report here the release of toxic metals from TT via ARD, which could pose an environmental threat if oil sands TT deposits are not properly managed. Trace metal concentrations in leachate samples collected periodically revealed that Mn and Sr were released immediately even before the onset of ARD. Spikes in Co and Ni concentrations were observed both pre-ARD and during active ARD, particularly in TT1. For most elements measured (Fe, Cr, V, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Se), leaching was associated with ARD production. Though equivalent acidification (pH2) was achieved in leachate from both TT types, greater metal release was observed from TT2 where concentrations reached 10,000ppb for Ni, 5000ppb for Co, 3000ppb for As, 2000ppb for V, and 1000ppb for Cr. Generally, metal concentrations decreased in leachate with time during ARD and became negligible by the end of incubation (~450d) despite appreciable metals remaining in the leached TT. These results suggest that using TT for land reclamation purposes or surface deposition for volume reduction may unfavorably impact the environment, and warrants application of appropriate strategies for management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cuticle thickening associated with pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coetzee M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in South Africa is primarily transmitted by Anopheles funestus Giles. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in An. funestus in northern Kwazulu/Natal, South Africa, and in neighbouring areas of southern Mozambique enabled populations of this species to increase their ranges into areas where pyrethroids were being exclusively used for malaria control. Pyrethroid resistance in southern African An. funestus is primarily conferred by monooxygenase enzyme metabolism. However, selection for this resistance mechanism is likely to have occurred in conjunction with other factors that improve production of the resistance phenotype. A strong candidate is cuticle thickening. This is because thicker cuticles lead to slower rates of insecticide absorption, which is likely to increase the efficiency of metabolic detoxification. Results Measures of mean cuticle thickness in laboratory samples of female An. funestus were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These females were drawn from a laboratory colony carrying the pyrethroid resistance phenotype at a stable rate, but not fixed. Prior to cuticle thickness measurements, these samples were characterised as either more or less tolerant to permethrin exposure in one experiment, and either permethrin resistant or susceptible in another experiment. There was a significant and positive correlation between mean cuticle thickness and time to knock down during exposure to permethrin. Mean cuticle thickness was significantly greater in those samples characterised either as more tolerant or resistant to permethrin exposure compared to those characterised as either less tolerant or permethrin susceptible. Further, insecticide susceptible female An. funestus have thicker cuticles than their male counterparts. Conclusion Pyrethroid tolerant or resistant An. funestus females are likely to have thicker cuticles than less tolerant or susceptible females, and females generally have

  9. Alterations of carotid arterial mechanics preceding the wall thickening in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ai; Park, Sun-Hee; Jo, Sang-Ho; Park, Kyoung-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Han, Sang-Jin; Park, Woo-Jung; Ha, Jong-Won

    2016-05-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an established surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. However, cIMT may not reflect the whole arterial changes occurring in various pathologic conditions, such as hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vascular properties of carotid artery (CA) in patients with hypertension differ from those of patients with diabetes and controls before the progression of cIMT. Vascular properties of CA were assessed in 402 consecutive asymptomatic subjects who have normal cIMT (131 with hypertension, 151 with diabetes mellitus, and 120 controls). Conventional carotid stiffness indices calculated from vessel diameter and blood pressure, and parameters from velocity-vector imaging (VVI), including vessel area, fractional area change (FAC), radial velocity, circumferential strain, and strain rate were measured to assess the differences between the groups. In univariate analysis, both patients with hypertension and diabetes showed higher elastic modulus, lower distensibility coefficients and FAC of VVI than those of controls. However, when adjusting for baseline covariates, only FAC (odds ratio [OR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-0.97, p = 0.025) and vessel area (OR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.64-4.91, p hypertension from those of controls. Also, patients with hypertension showed larger vessel area than diabetes (OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.75-3.80, p hypertensive patients was stiffer than those of controls and positive remodeling preceded the wall thickening independent of baseline covariates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of the terrestrial food chain model FOOD III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, Reto.

    1980-10-01

    As a first step in constructing a terrestrial food chain model suitable for long-term waste management situations, a numerical sensitivity analysis of FOOD III was carried out to identify important model parameters. The analysis involved 42 radionuclides, four pathways, 14 food types, 93 parameters and three percentages of parameter variation. We also investigated the importance of radionuclides, pathways and food types. The analysis involved a simple contamination model to render results from individual pathways comparable. The analysis showed that radionuclides vary greatly in their dose contribution to each of the four pathways, but relative contributions to each pathway are very similar. Man's and animals' drinking water pathways are much more important than the leaf and root pathways. However, this result depends on the contamination model used. All the pathways contain unimportant food types. Considering the number of parameters involved, FOOD III has too many different food types. Many of the parameters of the leaf and root pathway are important. However, this is true for only a few of the parameters of animals' drinking water pathway, and for neither of the two parameters of mans' drinking water pathway. The radiological decay constant increases the variability of these results. The dose factor is consistently the most important variable, and it explains most of the variability of radionuclide doses within pathways. Consideration of the variability of dose factors is important in contemporary as well as long-term waste management assessment models, if realistic estimates are to be made. (auth)

  12. Problematic Drinking Among Postgraduate Students: Binge Drinking, Prepartying, and Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F

    2016-07-02

    Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.

  13. Late-Life Drinking Problems: The Predictive Roles of Drinking Level vs. Drinking Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Holahan, Carole K; Hixon, J Gregory; Moos, Rudolf H

    2017-05-01

    Research on late-middle-aged and older adults has focused primarily on average level of alcohol consumption, overlooking variability in underlying drinking patterns. The purpose of the present study was to examine the independent contributions of an episodic heavy pattern of drinking versus a high average level of drinking as prospective predictors of drinking problems. The sample comprised 1,107 adults ages 55-65 years at baseline. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and drinking problems were indexed across 20 years. We used prospective negative binomial regression analyses controlling for baseline drinking problems, as well as for demographic and health factors, to predict the number of drinking problems at each of four follow-up waves (1, 4, 10, and 20 years). Across waves where the effects were significant, a high average level of drinking (coefficients of 1.56, 95% CI [1.24, 1.95]; 1.48, 95% CI [1.11, 1.98]; and 1.85, 95% CI [1.23, 2.79] at 1, 10, and 20 years) and an episodic heavy pattern of drinking (coefficients of 1.61, 95% CI [1.30, 1.99]; 1.61, 95% CI [1.28, 2.03]; and 1.43, 95% CI [1.08, 1.90] at 1, 4, and 10 years) each independently increased the number of drinking problems by more than 50%. Information based only on average consumption underestimates the risk of drinking problems among older adults. Both a high average level of drinking and an episodic heavy pattern of drinking pose prospective risks of later drinking problems among older adults.

  14. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behaviour among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviours such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviours among students of various ethnic groups.

  15. Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    van der Vorst, Jack G.A.J.; Peeters, Lotte; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE aims to deliver a number of tools and frameworks valuable for the agri-food sector to secure ...

  16. Role of the thickening agent concentration and surfactant additions in the system's soap-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchegolev, G.G.; Trapeznikov, A.A.; Taranenko, V.G.

    1973-03-01

    The effect of the thickening agent concentration, surfactant additions and mechanical treatment on the microstructure and structural-mechanical properties of the system's lithium stearate-oil has been studied. The rate of cooling of the soap-oil system has been shown also to be of importance. The surfactants are less effective when introduced into a finished pseudogel, than when added during crystallization.

  17. Consumer Preference for Genetically Modified Halal Yogurt Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hasnah Hassan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumers worldwide have reacted negatively to food products made from genetically modified (GM ingredients. This study strives to understand the importance placed by consumers on the features of a product when purchasing halal yogurt drinks with GM or non GM ingredient along with the level of antioxidants, price, flavor and Halal certification from JAKIM. In addition, their attitudes towards genetically modified foods, in general, and their purchase intention towards genetically modified yo- gurt drinks, in particular, were also determined. Experimental design using a convenience sampling was used; 120 eligible responses were received from the study using three types of yogurt drinks. The research findings showed that nutrition was deemed as being the most important product feature that influenced the decision in purchasing yogurt drinks, followed by freshness, price, flavor, variety, and origin. Furthermore, it was found that respondents presented a neutral attitude and purchase intention towards genetically modified yogurt drinks. The recommendations to market practitioners, research limitations, as well as suggestions for future studies are also discussed.

  18. Effect of addition of different nano-clays on the fumed silica-polyethylene glycol based shear-thickening fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mansi; Mehta, Rajeev; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Biswas, Ipsita

    2018-01-01

    A comparative study of the rheology of shear thickening suspensions of 20% fumed silica in polyethylene glycol (PEG200) with different nano clays as additives has been done. The nano-clays used are montmorillonite (MMT), Closite15A, Kaolin and Halloysite clay. The objective was to study the effect of relatively cost-effective clays as a partial substitute of silica. Specifically, the effect of type, concentration, temperature and frequency were considered. The results indicate that the shear thickening properties of Closite15A as additive in temperature ranges of 25 °C-45 °C performs the best and Halloysite performs best at higher (55 °C) and lower temperatures (5, 15 °C). The elasticity effects in dynamic experiments were markedly enhanced by Halloysite clay addition. Addition of MMT, however, led to insignificant enhancement in critical viscosity in steady-state as well as dynamic state-rheology. Interestingly, shear thickening fluid (STF) with all clay except MMT was stable after storing for more than a month. These findings indicate that the introduction of nano-clay as additives is a promising and cost effective method for enhancing the STF behavior which can be utilized in high impact resistant (about 3000% strain and 300 rad s-1 frequency) applications.

  19. Effect of benzyladenine (BA on auxin-induced stem elongation and thickening in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that stem elongation in tulip is induced by the auxin produced in the leaves and gynoecium. Excision of the flower bud and all the leaves in an early stage of tulip growth resulted in almost total inhibition of stem growth, but the inhibition was completely recovered by the exogenous application of auxin to the place from which the flower bud had been removed. Hormonal control of stem thickening in tulip is much less known. Additional application of benzyladenine (BA to the tulip stem by soaking a cotton wick wrapped around all the internodes only slightly inhibited stem growth induced by IAA at a concentration of 0.1 and 2.0%, but substantially stimulated the thickening of all the internodes. The treatment of the tulip stem with benzyladenine enabled direct contact of the cytokinin with the epidermis, which is an important factor in stem elongation. The experiment conducted in field conditions also showed that BA only slightly inhibited the elongation of the fourth internode induced by IAA, but stimulated the thickening of that internode. IAA applied at a concentration of 2.0% stimulated ethylene production to a much higher extent than IAA at a concentration of 0.1%, and BA affected the auxin-induced ethylene production only to a small extent. Metabolic significance of these findings is discussed.

  20. Drinking Water - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dialect)) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention French (français) Expand Section Keep Food and Water Safe After a Disaster or Emergency - English HTML Keep Food and Water Safe After a Disaster or Emergency - français (French) HTML Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Haitian ...

  1. Identification of soft drinks using MEMS-IDT microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Karjathkar, Sonal; Jacesko, Stefany; Varadan, Vijay K.; Gardner, Julian W.

    2005-05-01

    Development of a taste sensor with high sensitivity, stability and selectivity is highly desirable for the food and beverage industries. The main goal of a taste sensor is to reproduce five kinds of senses of humans, which is quite difficult. The importance of knowing quality of beverages and drinking water has been recognized as a result of increase in concern in environmental pollution issues. However, no accurate measuring system appropriate for quality evaluation of beverages is available. A highly sensitive microsensor using horizontally polarized Surface Acoustic Waves (SH-SAW) for the detection and identification of soft drinks is presented in this paper. Different soft drinks were tested using this sensor and the results which could distinguish between two popular soft drinks like Pepsi and Coca cola is presented in this paper. The SH-SAW microsensors are fabricated on 36°-rotated Y cut X propagating LiTaO3 (36YX.LT) substrate. This design consists of a dual delay line configuration in which one line is free and other one is metallized and shielded. Due to high electromechanical coupling of 36YX.LT, it could detect difference in electrical properties and hence to distinguish different soft drinks. Measured electrical characteristics of these soft drinks at X-band frequency using free space system show distinguishable results. It is clear from these results that the microsensor based on 36YX.LT is an effective liquid identification system for quantifying human sensory expressions.

  2. Radioactive food and environment contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Food and Environment Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality with the help of IAEA has established facilities for regular monitoring of food and environmental samples for radioactive contamination. The Centre is now capable of measuring gamma, beta as well as alpha activity in different types of samples. The main activities in the area of food monitoring are as follows: General monitoring of food gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Determination of specific gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Radiochemical determination of Sr-90 using liquid scintillation analyzer or by gas flow proportional counter; Measurement of gross alpha activity in drinking water

  3. View of food tray to be used in Skylab program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A close-up view of a food tray which is scheduled to be used in the Skylab program. Several packages of space food lie beside the tray. The food in the tray is ready to eat. Out of tray, starting from bottom left: grape drink, beef pot roast, chicken and rice, beef sandwiches and sugar cookie cubes, In tray, from back left: orange drink, strawberries, asparagus, prime rib, dinner roll and butterscotch pudding in the center.

  4. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed:   Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear.   If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  5. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear. If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  6. Topography of the Betics: crustal thickening, dynamic topography and relief inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, Marianne; Loget, Nicolas; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Husson, Laurent; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Meyer, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    The main mechanism that explains high orogenic topographies is the isostatic adjustment due to crustal thickening. However in the Betic Cordillera (South Spain), the present-day elevation and crustal thickness are not correlated. That is at odds with the general premise of isostasy and requires reappraising the question of the driving mechanisms leading to the current topography. The Betics are located at the western edge of the alpine Mediterranean belt. Its Cenozoic orogenic building was disrupted by a major crustal thinning event induced by a slab rollback in the internal zones (Alboran domain) during Neogene. Topography was largely levelled and flooded by the sea during Neogene extension, and then has been folded since the Late Tortonian inversion. The present-day topography shows flat summits still preserved from fluvial regression in the internal zones (central and eastern Betics). These low-relief surfaces may be inherited from the Neogene planation toward sea-level as rocks cooling histories inferred from low-temperature thermochronology seem to point it out. Post-Tortonian shortening estimated thanks to a crustal-scale N-S cross-section in the eastern Betics (at the Sierra Nevada longitude) does not exceed few kilometers which is much lower than the shortening required by isostatic equilibrium, and is thus insufficient to explain the post-Tortonian topography building. We tested the hypothesis that mantle dynamics could in fact be an important mechanism that explains the topography of the Betics. We first computed the residual topography (i.e. the non-isostatic component of the elevation) using the most recent published Moho mapping of the area. In the western Betics, our results show important negative residual topography (down to -3 km) possibly associated with the west-Alboran slab suction. In the eastern Betics however, positive residual topography is important (up to +3 km) and can be explained by the dynamic mantle support of the topography, possibly

  7. Uroepithelial thickening improves detection of vesicoureteral reflux in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Zachary N; McLeod, Daryl J; Ching, Christina B; Herz, Daniel B; Bates, D Gregory; Becknell, Brian; Alpert, Seth A

    2016-08-01

    Postnatal evaluation of prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) often includes a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for VUR assessment. Despite limited supporting data, VCUG is currently recommended if postnatal renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) reveals moderate/severe hydronephrosis (HN) or hydroureter (HU). Recent studies have shown VUR is more accurately diagnosed by using certain sonographic findings as criteria for obtaining VCUG. Uroepithelial thickening (UET) of the renal pelvis is a finding associated with high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (HGVUR); however, the clinical significance of UET with PNH has not been studied. We sought to determine if the presence of UET implies increased risk for VUR, and to investigate whether UET can improve the test characteristics of RBUS for VUR. We retrospectively analyzed postnatal RBUS and VCUG findings in infants ≤30 days undergoing evaluation for "prenatal hydronephrosis" over an 11-year period. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with VUR. Test characteristics of RBUS for HGVUR were compared based on the presence of UET and two criteria sets to define abnormal RBUS. Criteria set 1 consisted of HN SFU grade 3-4 and/or HU; criteria set 2 was defined by the presence of two of following: UET, HU, duplication, and/or renal dysmorphia. Of 135 patients, 39 (29%) had VUR, of whom 16 (41%) had HGVUR. UET was significantly associated with VUR (p < 0.001), and the sensitivity for HGVUR based on UET alone was 94%. On multivariable analysis, UET, HU, duplication, and renal dysmorphia remained significant independent predictors of HGVUR. Compared to criteria 1, using criteria 2 resulted in 43 fewer VCUGs, and significant improvement in sensitivity and specificity for HGVUR (Table). Consistent with previous studies, HN alone on postnatal RBUS has little value in predicting the presence or severity of VUR. This study is the largest known series to evaluate UET in the setting of PNH, and our results demonstrate that UET

  8. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSwane, D.Z.; Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons

  9. Talking to your teen about drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has been drinking. How Problems at Home Might Influence Children to Drink Risky drinking or alcohol use in the home can lead to the same habits in children. At an early age, children become aware of the drinking patterns of their parents. Children are more likely to drink if: Conflict ...

  10. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chee Ling; Zalifah, M.K.; Norrakiah, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted on the water samples collected before and after filtration treatment was given. Five types of filtered drinking water (A1, B1, C1, D1 and E2) were chosen randomly from houses in Klang Valley for analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of filtered drinking water by looking into microbiological aspect and several physicochemical analyses such as turbidity, pH and total suspended solid (TSS). The microbiological analyses were performed to trace the presence of indicator organisms and pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the water did not comply with the regulations of Food Act as consisted of more than 10 3 -10 4 cfu/ mL for total plate count. However, the total coliforms and E. coli were detected lower than 4 cfu/ mL and not exceeding the maximum limit of Food Act. While the presence of S. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were negative in all samples. The pH value was slightly acidic (pH -4 - 2.2 x 10 -3 mg/ L) and the turbidity for all the samples were recorded below 1 Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU) thus, complying with the regulations. All the water samples that undergo the filtration system were fit to be consumed. (author)

  11. The commercial food landscape: outdoor food advertising around primary schools in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Cretikos, Michelle; Rogers, Kris; King, Lesley

    2008-12-01

    Food marketing is linked to childhood obesity through its influence on children's food preferences, purchase requests and food consumption. We aimed to describe the volume and nature of outdoor food advertisements and factors associated with outdoor food advertising in the area surrounding Australian primary schools. Forty primary schools in Sydney and Wollongong were selected using random sampling within population density and socio-economic strata. The area within a 500 m radius of each school was scanned and advertisements coded according to pre-defined criteria, including: food or non-food product advertisement, distance from the school, size and location. Food advertisements were further categorised as core foods, non-core foods and miscellaneous drinks (tea and coffee). The number of advertisements identified was 9,151, of which 2,286 (25%) were for food. The number of non-core food advertisements was 1,834, this accounted for 80% of food advertisements. Soft drinks and alcoholic beverages were the food products most commonly advertised around primary schools (24% and 22% of food advertisements, respectively). Non-core food products were twice as likely to be advertised close to a primary school (95 non-core food advertisements per km(2) within 250 m vs. 46 advertisements per km(2) within 250-500 m). The density of non-core food advertisements within 500 m of primary schools, and the potential for repeated exposure of children to soft drink and alcoholic beverage advertisements in particular, highlights the need for outdoor food marketing policy intervention. Outdoor advertising is an important food marketing tool that should be considered in future debates on regulation of food marketing to children.

  12. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19-60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  13. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19¿60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  14. Rethink Your Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Phyllis; Patton-Ku, Dana; Fidler, Cheri; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are linked to obesity; hospitals are a priority setting to reduce intake. This article describes the development, implementation, and results of a focused intervention to reduce SSB sales within a hospital setting. After a formative research process, Rethink Your Drink was launched at a children's hospital in San Diego. The initiative consisted of an educational intervention using the stoplight system to categorize beverages as red, yellow, or green based on sugar content. Beverage sales data were collected for 3 months prior, during the 12-month intervention, and for 4 months after the intervention ended. Monthly red beverage sales decreased from an average of 56% during baseline to 32% at the end of the data collection period (p sales increased from an average of 12.2% during baseline to 38% at the end of the data collection period (p Sales revenue for all drinks remained constant. The intervention resulted in a decrease in SSB sales and an increase in sales of healthier beverage choices. Such interventions can play an important role in obesity prevention and may be more feasible for smaller hospitals with limited resources.

  15. From Tobacco to Food Production : Consolidation, Dissemination ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An earlier IDRC-supported project, 103435 From Tobacco to Food Production : Constraints and Transition Strategies (Bangladesh), provided a detailed understanding of the constraints tobacco farmers face and ... How are public health actors working with the food and drinks industry to prevent diet-related disease? A new ...

  16. The pulmonary pseudonodule: Characteristic features of a normal variant due to a bone thickening at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The normal thickening of bone at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine should not be confused with a patholigc process. Its appearance on the plain radiograph and computed tomography is pathognomonic. (orig.)

  17. Red colorants from filamentous fungi: Are they ready for the food industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Dufossé , Laurent

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Food components of microbial-origin have a long history in food science and the food industry. Thickening and gelling agents, flavour enhancers, polyunsaturated fatty acids, flavour compounds, vitamins, essential amino acids, and acidulants are some examples of such ingredients. This paper will provide an update on the current worldwide situation for four different fungal reds: (i) carotenoid lycopene (simple compound, complex current status); (ii) molecular biology on...

  18. Hostility, drinking pattern and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Stephen H; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality.......This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality....

  19. Biofilm in drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, Pietrangela

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial growth in drinking waters is today controlled adding small and non toxic quantities of sanitising products. An innovative electrochemical biofilm monitoring system, already successfully applied in industrial waters, could be confirmed as an effective diagnostic tool of water quality also for drinking distributions systems [it

  20. Identification of pleural effusion with low levels of adenosine deaminase but without signs of acute inflammation or pleural thickening to diagnose early malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Satoru; Tanahashi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Eriko

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical findings and diagnostic methods used in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in patients with pleural effusion with low levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA), but without signs of acute inflammation or pleural thickening. The hospital records of 40 patients with pleural effusion of unknown origin or pleural thickening were retrospectively investigated. In all of those studies, pleural effusion was exudative, lymphocyte-dominant, no mycobacteria or other bacteria, and low levels of ADA. There were 30 men and 10 women with an average age of 62.8 years old. The diagnosis of MPM was obtained by cytology of the pleural effusion in 3 patients and by core-needle biopsy of the thickened pleura in 3. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy under general anesthesia was performed for the other 34 patients. The pathologic diagnosis of pleural biopsy was MPM in 20 patients, inflammatory change in 12, and pleural dissemination of cancer in 2. All of the 7 patients with more than 100 μg/ml of hyaluronic acid in their pleural effusion received a diagnosis of MPM. A total of 20 of 23 patients with irregular or nodular pleural thickening on computed tomography findings were confirmed to have MPM. Moreover, 6 of 17 patients with smooth pleural thickening were confirmed to have MPM. In patients with nodular pleural thickening it was easy to make the diagnosis. However, in those with smooth thickening, careful observation was required to select the appropriate biopsy site and resection margins of full-thickness pleura. As the rate of MPM in the patients with pleural effusion with low levels of ADA, but without signs of acute inflammation or pleural thickening is high (65%), an early thoracoscopic pleural biopsy is strongly recommended. (author)